About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot

About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

22 Apr 2024 at 01:52
Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Symbiosis


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 Apr 2024 at 01:52 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: ( symbiosis[tiab] OR symbiotic[tiab] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-04-18

Ye Q, Gong X, Li A, et al (2024)

A typical acidic extracellular polysaccharide alludes to algae-bacteria-collaboration in microalgal-bacterial symbiosis.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02691-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Microalgal-bacterial symbioses are prevalent in aquatic ecosystems and play a pivotal role in carbon sequestration, significantly contributing to global carbon cycling. The understanding of the contribution of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), a crucial carbon-based component, to the structural integrity of microalgal-bacterial symbioses remains insufficiently elucidated. To address this gap, our study aims to enhance our comprehension of the composition and primary structure of EPSs within a specific type of granular microalgal-bacterial symbiosis named microalgal-bacterial granular sludge (MBGS). Our investigation reveals that the acidic EPSs characteristic of this symbiosis have molecular weights ranging from several hundred thousand to over one million Daltons, including components like glucopyranose, galactopyranose, mannose, and rhamnose. Our elucidation of the backbone linkage of a representative exopolysaccharide revealed a →3)-β-D-Galp-(1→4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→ glycosidic linkage. This linear structure closely resembles bacterial xanthan, while the branched chain structure bears similarities to algal EPSs. Our findings highlight the collaborative synthesis of acidic EPSs by both microalgae and bacteria, emphasizing their joint contribution in the production of macromolecules within microalgal-bacterial symbiosis. This collaborative synthesis underscores the intricate molecular interactions contributing to the stability and function of these symbiotic relationships.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Bian Q, Cheng K, Chen L, et al (2024)

Organic amendments increased Chinese milk vetch symbiotic nitrogen fixation by enriching Mesorhizobium in rhizosphere.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)00827-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and serve as an organic nitrogen source in agricultural ecosystems. Exogenous organic material application is a common practice of affecting symbiotic nitrogen fixation; however, the results of the regulation activities remain under discussion. Studies on the impact of organic amendments on symbiotic nitrogen fixation have focused on dissolved organic carbon content changes, whereas the impact on dissolved organic carbon composition and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In situ pot experiments were carried out using soils from a 40-year-old field experiment platform to investigate symbiotic nitrogen fixation rate trends, dissolved organic carbon concentration and component, and diazotroph community structure in roots and in rhizosphere soils following long-term application of different exogenous organic substrates, i.e., green manure, green manure and pig manure, and green manure and rice straw. Remarkable increases in rate were observed in and when compared with that in green manure treatment, with the greatest enhancement observed in the treatment. Moreover, organic amendments, particularly pig manure application, altered diazotroph community composition in rhizosphere soils, therefore increasing the abundance of the host-specific genus Mesorhizobium. Furthermore, organic amendments influence the diazotroph communities through two primary mechanisms. Firstly, the components of dissolved organic carbon promote an increase in available iron, facilitated by the presence of humus substrates. Secondly, the elevated content of dissolved organic carbon and available iron expands the niche breadth of Mesorhizobium within the rhizosphere. Consequently, these alterations result in a modified diazotroph community within the rhizosphere, which in turn influences Mesorhizobium nodulation in the root and symbiotic nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study enhance our understanding of the impact of organic amendments on symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the underlying mechanism, highlighting the key role of dissolved organic carbon composition on diazotroph community composition in the rhizosphere.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Wani AK, Khan Z, Sena S, et al (2024)

Carbon nanotubes in plant dynamics: Unravelling multifaceted roles and phytotoxic implications.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 210:108628 pii:S0981-9428(24)00296-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as a promising frontier in plant science owing to their unique physicochemical properties and versatile applications. CNTs enhance stress tolerance by improving water dynamics and nutrient uptake and activating defence mechanisms against abiotic and biotic stresses. They can be taken up by roots and translocated within the plant, impacting water retention, nutrient assimilation, and photosynthesis. CNTs have shown promise in modulating plant-microbe interactions, influencing symbiotic relationships and mitigating the detrimental effects of phytopathogens. CNTs have demonstrated the ability to modulate gene expression in plants, offering a powerful tool for targeted genetic modifications. The integration of CNTs as sensing elements in plants has opened new avenues for real-time monitoring of environmental conditions and early detection of stress-induced changes. In the realm of agrochemicals, CNTs have been explored for their potential as carriers for targeted delivery of nutrients, pesticides, and other bioactive compounds. CNTs have the potential to demonstrate phytotoxic effects, detrimentally influencing both the growth and developmental processes of plants. Phytotoxicity is characterized by induction of oxidative stress, impairment of cellular integrity, disruption of photosynthetic processes, perturbation of nutrient homeostasis, and alterations in gene expression. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the multifaceted roles of CNTs in plant physiology, emphasizing their potential applications and addressing the existing challenges in translating this knowledge into sustainable agricultural practices.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Richards TA, NA Moran (2024)

Symbiosis: In search of a deeper understanding.

PLoS biology, 22(4):e3002595.

How do distinct species cofunction in symbiosis, despite conflicting interests? A new collection of articles explores emerging themes as researchers exploit modern research tools and new models to unravel how symbiotic interactions function and evolve.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Ohdera AH, Mansbridge M, Wang M, et al (2024)

The microbiome of a Pacific moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea.

PloS one, 19(4):e0298002.

The impact of microbiome in animal physiology is well appreciated, but characterization of animal-microbe symbiosis in marine environments remains a growing need. This study characterizes the microbial communities associated with the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea, first isolated from the East Pacific Ocean and has since been utilized as an experimental system. We find that the microbiome of this Pacific Aurelia culture is dominated by two taxa, a Mollicutes and Rickettsiales. The microbiome is stable across life stages, although composition varies. Mining the host sequencing data, we assembled the bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). The bacterial MAGs are highly reduced, and predict a high metabolic dependence on the host. Analysis using multiple metrics suggest that both bacteria are likely new species. We therefore propose the names Ca. Mariplasma lunae (Mollicutes) and Ca. Marinirickettsia aquamalans (Rickettsiales). Finally, comparison with studies of Aurelia from other geographical populations suggests the association with Ca. Mariplasma lunae occurs in Aurelia from multiple geographical locations. The low-diversity microbiome of Aurelia provides a relatively simple system to study host-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Hu T, Wang X, He Q, et al (2024)

Coupling development of sports industry and tourism industry based on internet of things.

PloS one, 19(4):e0299080.

This study investigates the positive coupling between the sports industry and tourism, exploring the ways to promote their interconnection. Under state guidance, the integration of sports industry services is facilitated to attract sports culture and tourism fairs, leveraging regional economic development advantages to enhance the industrial market appeal. The emerging leisure consumption mode of sports tourism injects vitality into the economy, fostering the core sports service industry. The coupling of the education and tourism sectors is strategically aligned with long-term national policies. Using IoT technology, this paper employs a grey relational analysis to assess the coupling between the sports industry and tourism, revealing a significant correlation. Experimental results demonstrate a positive coupling trend, likened to conjoined twins with a natural material basis and technical support. This coupling not only aligns with industry trends but also resonates with the "environmental protection era," "green era," and "ecological era," marking a pivotal aspect of industrial development. The study contributes valuable insights into the symbiotic relationship between the sports and tourism industries, emphasizing their interconnectedness and the positive implications for economic and environmental sustainability.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Bordini FW, Fernandes JC, de Souza VLC, et al (2024)

Characterization of a symbiotic beverage based on water-soluble soybean extract fermented by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC 8014.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

The health benefits of functional foods are associated with consumer interest and have supported the growth of the market for these types of foods, with emphasis on the development of new formulations based on plant extracts. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterize a symbiotic preparation based on water-soluble soy extract, supplemented with inulin and xylitol and fermented by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. Regarding nutritional issues, the symbiotic formulation can be considered a source of fiber (2 g/100 mL) and proteins (2.6 g/100 mL), and it also has a low-fat content and low caloric value. This formulation, in terms of microbiological aspects, remained adequate to legal standards after storage for 60 days under refrigeration and also presented an adequate quantity of the aforementioned probiotic strain, corresponding to 9.11 Log CFU.mL[-1]. These viable L. plantarum cells proved to be resistant to simulated human gastrointestinal tract conditions, reaching the intestine at high cell concentrations of 7.95 Log CFU.mL[-1] after 60 days of refrigeration. Regarding sensory evaluation, the formulation showed good acceptance, presenting an average overall impression score of 6.98, 5.98, and 5.16, for control samples stored for 30 and 60 days under refrigeration, respectively. These results demonstrate that water-soluble soy extract is a suitable matrix for fermentation involving L. plantarum ATCC 8014, supporting and providing data on the first steps towards the development of a symbiotic functional food, targeting consumers who have restrictions regarding the consumption of products of animal origin, diabetics, and individuals under calorie restrictions.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Yin Y, Xie R, Sun Z, et al (2024)

Anti-Freezing and Ultrasensitive Zwitterionic Betaine Hydrogel-Based Strain Sensor for Motion Monitoring and Human-Machine Interaction.

Nano letters [Epub ahead of print].

Ultrasensitive and reliable conductive hydrogels are significant in the construction of human-machine twinning systems. However, in extremely cold environments, freezing severely limits the application of hydrogel-based sensors. Herein, building on biomimetics, a zwitterionic hydrogel was elaborated for human-machine interaction employing multichemical bonding synergies and experimental signal analyses. The covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic interactions construct a dense double network structure favorable for stress dispersion and hydrogen bond regeneration. In particular, zwitterions and ionic conductors maintained excellent strain response (99 ms) and electrical sensitivity (gauge factor = 14.52) in the dense hydrogel structure while immobilizing water molecules to enhance the weather resistance (-68 °C). Inspired by the high sensitivity, zwitterionic hydrogel-based strain sensors and remote-control gloves were designed by analyzing the experimental signals, demonstrating promising potential applications within specialized flexible materials and human-machine symbiotic systems.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Anonymous (2024)

Corrigendum: Fast Reaction Kinetics and Commendable Low-Temperature Adaptability of Zinc Batteries Enabled by Aprotic Water-Acetamide Symbiotic Solvation Sheath.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Bacha AA, Suhail M, Awwad FA, et al (2024)

Role of dietary fiber and lifestyle modification in gut health and sleep quality.

Frontiers in nutrition, 11:1324793.

Dietary fiber has an immense role in the gut microbiome by modulating juvenile growth, immune system maturation, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Lifestyle changes might disrupt gut microbiota symbiosis, leading to various chronic diseases with underlying inflammatory conditions, obesity, and its associated pathologies. An interventional study of 16 weeks examined the impact of psyllium husk fiber with and without lifestyle modification on gut health and sleep quality in people with central obesity (men = 60 and women = 60), those aged from 40 to 60 years, those having WC ≥ 90 cm (men) and WC ≥ 80 cm (women), and no history of any chronic disease or regular medication. The participants were subgrouped into three intervention groups, namely, the psyllium husk fiber (PSH) group, the lifestyle modification (LSM) group, and the LSM&PSH group and control group with equal gender bifurcation (men = 15 and women = 15). A 24-h dietary recall, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) symptoms, and sleep quality analysis data were collected on validated questionnaires. The analyses of variance and covariance were used for baseline and post-intervention, respectively. Student's t-test was applied for pre- and post-intervention changes on the variable of interest. The intervention effect on GIT health was highly significant (P < 0.001). The mean GIT scores of the LSM, PSH, and LSM&PSH groups were 2.99 ± 0.14, 2.49 ± 0.14, and 2.71 ± 0.14, respectively, compared to the mean GIT scores of the control group. No significant (P = 0.205) effect of either intervention was observed on sleep quality. The study concluded that psyllium husk fiber significantly improved the GIT symptoms, while no significant effect of the intervention was observed on sleep quality analysis.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Arai H, Legeai F, Kageyama D, et al (2024)

Genomic insights into Spiroplasma endosymbionts that induce male-killing and protective phenotypes in the pea aphid.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:7649363 [Epub ahead of print].

The endosymbiotic bacteria Spiroplasma (Mollicutes) infect diverse plants and arthropods, and some of which induce male killing, where male hosts are killed during development. Male-killing Spiroplasma strains belong to either the phylogenetically distant Citri-Poulsonii or Ixodetis groups. In Drosophila flies, Spiroplasma poulsonii induces male killing via the Spaid toxin. While Spiroplasma ixodetis infects a wide range of insects and arachnids, little is known about the genetic basis of S. ixodetis-induced male killing. Here, we analyzed the genome of S. ixodetis strains in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Aphididae, Hemiptera). Genome sequencing constructed a complete genome of a male-killing strain, sAp269, consisting of a 1.5 Mb circular chromosome and an 80 Kb plasmid. sAp269 encoded putative virulence factors containing either ankyrin repeat, ovarian tumor-like deubiquitinase, or ribosome inactivating protein domains, but lacked the Spaid toxin. Further comparative genomics of Spiroplasma strains in A. pisum biotypes adapted to different host plants revealed their phylogenetic associations and the diversity of putative virulence factors. Although the mechanisms of S. ixodetis-induced male killing in pea aphids remain elusive, this study underlines the dynamic genome evolution of S. ixodetis and proposes independent acquisition events of male-killing mechanisms in insects.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Wu H, Nie WB, Tan X, et al (2024)

Different oxygen affinities of methanotrophs and Comammox Nitrospira inform an electrically induced symbiosis for nitrogen loss.

Water research, 256:121606 pii:S0043-1354(24)00507-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Aerobic methanotrophs establish a symbiotic association with denitrifiers to facilitate the process of aerobic methane oxidation coupled with denitrification (AME-D). However, the symbiosis has been frequently observed in hypoxic conditions continuing to pose an enigma. The present study has firstly characterized an electrically induced symbiosis primarily governed by Methylosarcina and Hyphomicrobium for the AME-D process in a hypoxic niche caused by Comammox Nitrospira. The kinetic analysis revealed that Comammox Nitrospira exhibited a higher apparent oxygen affinity compared to Methylosarcina. While the coexistence of comammox and AME-D resulted in an increase in methane oxidation and nitrogen loss rates, from 0.82 ± 0.10 to 1.72 ± 0.09 mmol CH4 d[-1] and from 0.59 ± 0.04 to 1.30 ± 0.15 mmol N2 d[-1], respectively. Furthermore, the constructed microbial fuel cells demonstrated a pronounced dependence of the biocurrents on AME-D due to oxygen competition, suggesting the involvement of direct interspecies electron transfer in the AME-D process under hypoxic conditions. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that Methylosarcina efficiently oxidized methane to formaldehyde, subsequently generating abundant NAD(P)H for nitrate reduction by Hyphomicrobium through the dissimilatory RuMP pathway, leading to CO2 production. This study challenges the conventional understanding of survival mechanism employed by AME-D symbionts, thereby contributing to the characterization responsible for limiting methane emissions and promoting nitrogen removal in hypoxic regions.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Pilgrim J (2024)

Comparative genomics of a novel Erwinia species associated with the Highland midge (Culicoides impunctatus).

Microbial genomics, 10(4):.

Erwinia (Enterobacterales: Erwiniaceae) are a group of cosmopolitan bacteria best known as the causative agents of various plant diseases. However, other species in this genus have been found to play important roles as insect endosymbionts supplementing the diet of their hosts. Here, I describe Candidatus Erwinia impunctatus (Erwimp) associated with the Highland midge Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), an abundant biting pest in the Scottish Highlands. The genome of this new Erwinia species was assembled using hybrid long and short read techniques, and a comparative analysis was undertaken with other members of the genus to understand its potential ecological niche and impact. Genome composition analysis revealed that Erwimp is similar to other endophytic and ectophytic species in the genus and is unlikely to be restricted to its insect host. Evidence for an additional plant host includes the presence of a carotenoid synthesis operon implicated as a virulence factor in plant-associated members in the sister genus Pantoea. Unique features of Erwimp include several copies of intimin-like proteins which, along with signs of genome pseudogenization and a loss of certain metabolic pathways, suggests an element of host restriction seen elsewhere in the genus. Furthermore, a screening of individuals over two field seasons revealed the absence of the bacteria in Culicoides impunctatus during the second year indicating this microbe-insect interaction is likely to be transient. These data suggest that Culicoides impunctatus may have an important role to play beyond a biting nuisance, as an insect vector transmitting Erwimp alongside any conferred impacts to surrounding biota.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Bard NW, Cronk QCB, TJ Davies (2024)

Fungal endophytes can modulate plant invasion.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic organisms may contribute to a host plant's success or failure to grow, its ability to maintain viable populations, and potentially, its probability of establishment and spread outside its native range. Intercellular and intracellular microbial symbionts that are asymptomatic in their plant host during some or all of their life cycle - endophytes - can form mutualistic, commensal, or pathogenic relationships, and sometimes novel associations with alien plants. Fungal endophytes are likely the most common endosymbiont infecting plants, with life-history, morphological, physiological, and plant-symbiotic traits that are distinct from other endophytic guilds. Here, we review the community dynamics of fungal endophytes during the process of plant invasion, and how their functional role may shift during the different stages of invasion: transport, introduction (colonisation), establishment, and spread. Each invasion stage presents distinct ecological filters that an alien plant must overcome to advance to the subsequent stage of invasion. Endophytes can alternately aid the host in overcoming stage-specific filters, or contribute to the barriers imposed by filters (e.g. biotic resistance), thereby affecting invasion pathways. A few fungi can be transported as seed endophytes from their native range and be vertically transmitted to future generations in the non-native range, especially in graminoids. In other plant groups, alien plants mostly acquire endophytes via horizontal transmission from the invaded plant community, and the host endophyte community is shaped by host filtering and biogeographic factors (e.g. dispersal limitation, environmental filtering). Endophytes infecting alien plants (both those transported with their host and those accumulated in the non-native range) may influence invasion success by affecting plant growth, reproduction, environmental tolerance, and pathogen and herbivory defences; however, the direction and magnitude of these effects can be contingent upon the host identity, life stage, ecological conditions, and invasion stage. This context dependence may cause endophytic fungi to shift to a non-endophytic (e.g. pathogenic) functional life stage in the same or different hosts, which can modify alien-native plant community dynamics. We conclude by identifying paths in which alien hosts can exploit the context dependency of endophyte function in novel abiotic and biotic conditions and at the different stages of invasion.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Ullah A, Gao D, F Wu (2024)

Common mycorrhizal network: the predominant socialist and capitalist responses of possible plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions for sustainable agriculture.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1183024.

Plants engage in a variety of interactions, including sharing nutrients through common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs), which are facilitated by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These networks can promote the establishment, growth, and distribution of limited nutrients that are important for plant growth, which in turn benefits the entire network of plants. Interactions between plants and microbes in the rhizosphere are complex and can either be socialist or capitalist in nature, and the knowledge of these interactions is equally important for the progress of sustainable agricultural practice. In the socialist network, resources are distributed more evenly, providing benefits for all connected plants, such as symbiosis. For example, direct or indirect transfer of nutrients to plants, direct stimulation of growth through phytohormones, antagonism toward pathogenic microorganisms, and mitigation of stresses. For the capitalist network, AMF would be privately controlled for the profit of certain groups of plants, hence increasing competition between connected plants. Such plant interactions invading by microbes act as saprophytic and cause necrotrophy in the colonizing plants. In the first case, an excess of the nutritional resources may be donated to the receiver plants by direct transfer. In the second case, an unequal distribution of resources occurs, which certainly favor individual groups and increases competition between interactions. This largely depends on which of these responses is predominant ("socialist" or "capitalist") at the moment plants are connected. Therefore, some plant species might benefit from CMNs more than others, depending on the fungal species and plant species involved in the association. Nevertheless, benefits and disadvantages from the interactions between the connected plants are hard to distinguish in nature once most of the plants are colonized simultaneously by multiple fungal species, each with its own cost-benefits. Classifying plant-microbe interactions based on their habitat specificity, such as their presence on leaf surfaces (phyllospheric), within plant tissues (endophytic), on root surfaces (rhizospheric), or as surface-dwelling organisms (epiphytic), helps to highlight the dense and intricate connections between plants and microbes that occur both above and below ground. In these complex relationships, microbes often engage in mutualistic interactions where both parties derive mutual benefits, exemplifying the socialistic or capitalistic nature of these interactions. This review discusses the ubiquity, functioning, and management interventions of different types of plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions in CMNs, and how they promote plant growth and address environmental challenges for sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Preiner J, Steccari I, Oburger E, et al (2024)

Rhizobium symbiosis improves amino acid and secondary metabolite biosynthesis of tungsten-stressed soybean (Glycine max).

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1355136.

The industrially important transition metal tungsten (W) shares certain chemical properties with the essential plant micronutrient molybdenum and inhibits the activity of molybdoenzymes such as nitrate reductase, impacting plant growth. Furthermore, tungsten appears to interfere with metabolic processes on a much wider scale and to trigger common heavy metal stress response mechanisms. We have previously found evidence that the tungsten stress response of soybeans (Glycine max) grown with symbiotically associated N2-fixing rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium japonicum) differs from that observed in nitrogen-fertilized soy plants. This study aimed to investigate how association with symbiotic rhizobia affects the primary and secondary metabolite profiles of tungsten-stressed soybean and whether changes in metabolite composition enhance the plant's resilience to tungsten. This comprehensive metabolomic and proteomic study presents further evidence that the tungsten-stress response of soybean plants is shaped by associated rhizobia. Symbiotically grown plants (N fix) were able to significantly increase the synthesis of an array of protective compounds such as phenols, polyamines, gluconic acid, and amino acids such as proline. This resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity, reduced root-to-shoot translocation of tungsten, and, potentially, also enhanced resilience of N fix plants compared to non-symbiotic counterparts (N fed). Taken together, our study revealed a symbiosis-specific metabolic readjustment in tungsten-stressed soybean plants and contributed to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the rhizobium-induced systemic resistance in response to heavy metals.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Hung CM, Chu WC, Huang WY, et al (2024)

Safety assessment of a proprietary fermented soybean solution, Symbiota®, as an ingredient for use in foods and dietary supplements: Non-clinical studies and a randomized trial.

Food science & nutrition, 12(4):2346-2363.

A safety evaluation was performed of Symbiota®, which is made by a proprietary anaerobic fermentation process of soybean with multistrains of probiotics and a yeast. The battery of genotoxicity studies showed that Symbiota® has no genotoxic effects. Safety and tolerability were further assessed by acute or repeated dose 28- and 90-day rodent studies, and no alterations in clinical observations, ophthalmological examination, blood chemistry, urinalysis, or hematology were observed between the control group and the different dosing groups (1.5, 5, and 15 mL/kg/day). There were no adverse effects on specific tissues or organs in terms of weight and histopathology. Importantly, the Symbiota® treatment did not perturb hormones and other endocrine-related endpoints. Of note, the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level was determined to be 15 mL/kg/day in rats. Moreover, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was recently conducted with healthy volunteers who consumed 8 mL/day of placebo or Symbiota® for 8 weeks. Only mild adverse events were reported in both groups, and the blood chemistry and blood cell profiles were also similar between the two groups. In summary, this study concluded that the oral consumption of Symbiota® at 8 mL/day by the general population does not pose any human health concerns.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Comba P, Velmurugan G, P Baur (2024)

A Dicopper(II)-Based Carbonic Anhydrase Model - Quantum-Chemical Evaluation of the Mechanistic Pathway.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) [Epub ahead of print].

The cyanobacterium Prochloron didemni, an obligate symbiont of different species of colonial ascidians, occurring in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, produces a variety of cyclic peptides. These patellamide-type macrocycles lead to relatively stable dicopper(II) complexes that are extremely efficient carbonic anhydrase mimics, the most active model systems known so far. Importantly, it recently was shown that copper(II) is coordinated to patellamide derivatives in Prochloron cells. An interesting question therefore is, whether the biological function of patellamide-type macrocycles is related to the catalytic activity in CO2 hydration or its reverse. Here, we present a computational study to evaluate the energetics of the catalytic cycle in search of a possible answer to these questions and compare the computed energy barriers with the experimental kinetic data. It emerges that release of the bridging carbonate is a critical step and that the catalysis product inhibits catalysis at pH values above approx. 7. Therefore, carbonate transport rather than CO2 hydrolysis is proposed as the biological function of copper(II)-patellamide complexes in the Prochloron-Ascidian symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-04-18
CmpDate: 2024-04-18

Baiz MD, Wood AW, DPL Toews (2024)

Association between the gut microbiome and carotenoid plumage phenotype in an avian hybrid zone.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 291(2021):20240238.

Vertebrates host complex microbiomes that impact their physiology. In many taxa, including colourful wood-warblers, gut microbiome similarity decreases with evolutionary distance. This may suggest that as host populations diverge, so do their microbiomes, because of either tight coevolutionary dynamics, or differential environmental influences, or both. Hybridization is common in wood-warblers, but the effects of evolutionary divergence on the microbiome during secondary contact are unclear. Here, we analyse gut microbiomes in two geographically disjunct hybrid zones between blue-winged warblers (Vermivora cyanoptera) and golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera). We performed 16S faecal metabarcoding to identify species-specific bacteria and test the hypothesis that host admixture is associated with gut microbiome disruption. Species identity explained a small amount of variation between microbiomes in only one hybrid zone. Co-occurrence of species-specific bacteria was rare for admixed individuals, yet microbiome richness was similar among admixed and parental individuals. Unexpectedly, we found several bacteria that were more abundant among admixed individuals with a broader deposition of carotenoid-based plumage pigments. These bacteria are predicted to encode carotenoid biosynthesis genes, suggesting birds may take advantage of pigments produced by their gut microbiomes. Thus, host admixture may facilitate beneficial symbiotic interactions which contribute to plumage ornaments that function in sexual selection.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Alavi Foumani A, Jafari A, Tangestani Nejad A, et al (2023)

Effects of Probiotics on Clinical Manifestations of Bronchiectasis: A Randomized, Triple Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

Tanaffos, 22(2):221-229.

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a condition characterized by abnormal and permanent bronchial constriction that leads to sputum production and bronchial infection. The current study was done to evaluate the effects of symbiotic probiotics on the clinical manifestations and exacerbation of bronchiectasis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 26 patients in the placebo group (A) and 24 patients in the probiotic group (B) were allocated. In group A, patients took the placebo capsules two times daily for six months. In group B, patients took the LactoCare two times daily for six months.

RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 55.73±13.62 (group A) and 54.5±12.59 years (group B). Most of the patients had consumed azithromycin in both groups. The current study demonstrated there was no statistically significant difference between the decreased rate of pulmonary exacerbations in both groups. However, a decreasing trend was shown in the rate of pulmonary exacerbations without hospitalization (P=0.610). Also, there was a decreasing trend in the rate of pulmonary exacerbations leading to hospitalization (P=0.956). The most frequent etiologic pathogen was Pseudomonas sp. FEV1 and FVC/FEV1 ratios were higher in group B than in group A. However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups A and B (P=0.908 vs 0.403).

CONCLUSION: The symbiotic probiotics were not effective in the clinical improvement of bronchiectasis, consumption of antibiotics, the rate of pulmonary exacerbations with or without hospitalization, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, and microbiological pattern.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Rohner PT, AP Moczek (2024)

Vertically inherited microbiota and environment modifying behaviours conceal genetic variation in dung beetle life history.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 291(2021):20240122.

Diverse organisms actively manipulate their (sym)biotic and physical environment in ways that feed back on their own development. However, the degree to which these processes affect microevolution remains poorly understood. The gazelle dung beetle both physically modifies its ontogenetic environment and structures its biotic interactions through vertical symbiont transmission. By experimentally eliminating (i) physical environmental modifications and (ii) the vertical inheritance of microbes, we assess how environment modifying behaviour and microbiome transmission shape heritable variation and evolutionary potential. We found that depriving larvae of symbionts and environment modifying behaviours increased additive genetic variance and heritability for development time but not body size. This suggests that larvae's ability to manipulate their environment has the potential to modify heritable variation and to facilitate the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation. This cryptic variation may become released and selectable when organisms encounter environments that are less amenable to organismal manipulation or restructuring. Our findings also suggest that intact microbiomes, which are commonly thought to increase genetic variation of their hosts, may instead reduce and conceal heritable variation. More broadly, our findings highlight that the ability of organisms to actively manipulate their environment may affect the potential of populations to evolve when encountering novel, stressful conditions.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Nandety RS, Oh S, Lee HK, et al (2024)

Genome-wide methylation landscape during somatic embryogenesis in Medicago truncatula reveals correlation between Tnt1 retrotransposition and hyperactive methylation regions.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Medicago truncatula is a model legume for fundamental research on legume biology and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Tnt1, a retrotransposon from tobacco, was used to generate insertion mutants in M. truncatula R108. Approximately 21 000 insertion lines have been generated and publicly available. Tnt1 retro-transposition event occurs during somatic embryogenesis (SE), a pivotal process that triggers massive methylation changes. We studied the SE of M. truncatula R108 using leaf explants and explored the dynamic shifts in the methylation landscape from leaf explants to callus formation and finally embryogenesis. Higher cytosine methylation in all three contexts of CG, CHG, and CHH patterns was observed during SE compared to the controls. Higher methylation patterns were observed in assumed promoter regions (~2-kb upstream regions of transcription start site) of the genes, while lowest was recorded in the untranslated regions. Differentially methylated promoter region analysis showed a higher CHH methylation in embryogenesis tissue samples when compared to CG and CHG methylation. Strong correlation (89.71%) was identified between the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and the site of Tnt1 insertions in M. truncatula R108 and stronger hypermethylation of genes correlated with higher number of Tnt1 insertions in all contexts of CG, CHG, and CHH methylation. Gene ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis identified genes and pathways enriched in the signal peptide processing, ATP hydrolysis, RNA polymerase activity, transport, secondary metabolites, and nitrogen metabolism pathways. Combined gene expression analysis and methylation profiling showed an inverse relationship between methylation in the DMRs (regions spanning genes) and the expression of genes. Our results show that a dynamic shift in methylation happens during the SE process in the context of CG, CHH and CHG methylation, and the Tnt1 retrotransposition correlates with the hyperactive methylation regions.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Tisseyre P, Cartieaux F, Chabrillange N, et al (2024)

Setting up Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the tropical legume Aeschynomene evenia, a powerful tool for studying gene function in Nod Factor-independent symbiosis.

PloS one, 19(4):e0297547 pii:PONE-D-23-23441.

Most legumes are able to develop a root nodule symbiosis in association with proteobacteria collectively called rhizobia. Among them, the tropical species Aeschynomene evenia has the remarkable property of being nodulated by photosynthetic Rhizobia without the intervention of Nod Factors (NodF). Thereby, A. evenia has emerged as a working model for investigating the NodF-independent symbiosis. Despite the availability of numerous resources and tools to study the molecular basis of this atypical symbiosis, the lack of a transformation system based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens significantly limits the range of functional approaches. In this report, we present the development of a stable genetic transformation procedure for A. evenia. We first assessed its regeneration capability and found that a combination of two growth regulators, NAA (= Naphthalene Acetic Acid) and BAP (= 6-BenzylAminoPurine) allows the induction of budding calli from epicotyls, hypocotyls and cotyledons with a high efficiency in media containing 0,5 μM NAA (up to 100% of calli with continuous stem proliferation). To optimize the generation of transgenic lines, we employed A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector carrying the hygromycin resistance gene and the mCherry fluorescent marker. Epicotyls and hypocotyls were used as the starting material for this process. We have found that one growth medium containing a combination of NAA (0,5 μM) and BAP (2,2 μM) was sufficient to induce callogenesis and A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 was sufficiently virulent to yield a high number of transformed calli. This simple and efficient method constitutes a valuable tool that will greatly facilitate the functional studies in NodF-independent symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Zarei H, M Shahhosseini (2023)

Comparison effect of lasalocid, diclazuril, probiotic and symbiotic on histomorpholical changes of small intestine induced by E. tenella.

Veterinaria italiana, 59(2):.

This study aimed to investigate the comparison of effect of anticoccidal drugs including lasalocid and diclazuril with probiotic and synbiotic on the growth performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chicken. One hundred eighty chickens (Ross 308, 1 day old) were randomly divided into 6 equal groups (n=30) including the negative control (basal diet), the positive control (basal diet+oral inoculation of 3×104 sporulated oocytes of E. tenella, and four treatment groups. At days of 28 and 49 of age, 9 chickens were blindly chosen from each group were scarified by decapitation and their various segments of small intestine including ileum, jejunum, and duodenum were evaluated histomorphologically. We found that the economic losses resulted from coccidial infection in the poultry industry are caused by the decreased performance of broiler chicken induced by morphological changes in the any three segments specially jejunum. The anticoccidial drugs, synbiotic and probiotic can partially prevent morphological changes in any three segments of small intestine in broiler chicken with coccidiosis. Since morphological changes in the jejunum begin earlier than in other parts and surface area of jejunal villi is important for nutrition absorbance as well as growth performance, lasolacid was found to a be more efficient treatment in this regard.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Grassi A, Pagliarani I, Avio L, et al (2024)

Bioprospecting for plant resilience to climate change: mycorrhizal symbionts of European and American beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria and Ammophila breviligulata) from maritime sand dunes.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and global warming have contributed to increase terrestrial drought, causing negative impacts on agricultural production. Drought stress may be addressed using novel agronomic practices and beneficial soil microorganisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), able to enhance plant use efficiency of soil resources and water and increase plant antioxidant defence systems. Specific traits functional to plant resilience improvement in dry conditions could have developed in AMF growing in association with xerophytic plants in maritime sand dunes, a drought-stressed and low-fertility environment. The most studied of such plants are European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria Link), native to Europe and the Mediterranean basin, and American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern.), found in North America. Given the critical role of AMF for the survival of these beachgrasses, knowledge of the composition of AMF communities colonizing their roots and rhizospheres and their distribution worldwide is fundamental for the location and isolation of native AMF as potential candidates to be tested for promoting crop growth and resilience under climate change. This review provides quantitative and qualitative data on the occurrence of AMF communities of A. arenaria and A. breviligulata growing in European, Mediterranean basin and North American maritime sand dunes, as detected by morphological studies, trap culture isolation and molecular methods, and reports on their symbiotic performance. Moreover, the review indicates the dominant AMF species associated with the two Ammophila species and the common species to be further studied to assess possible specific traits increasing their host plants resilience toward drought stress under climate change.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Kastelli I, Mamica L, K Lee (2023)

New perspectives and issues in industrial policy for sustainable development: from developmental and entrepreneurial to environmental state.

Review of evolutionary political economy [Epub ahead of print].

The increasingly acute consequences of the climate crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the energy crisis have put industrial policy back. The papers in this issue examine how different countries implement industrial policy for sustainable development from a variety of perspectives. A successful transition to sustainable development seems to require not only the mix of carrots and sticks but also a right mix of creation versus destruction, as in the case of the creation of renewable businesses and the destruction of fossil-fuel businesses. Furthermore, because institutional diversity and the risk of capture can result in very distinct economic, social, and environmental effects, consideration of heterogeneity at the country and sector levels and coordination of vested interests are essential ingredients for sustainable industrial policies, as shown by the case of industrial policy in France and the two industry cases in India. By contrast, the Amazon Fund case is indicative of the three success elements: multi-stakeholder governance, pay-for-performance funding, and non-reimbursable project financing. These three elements can be summarized as local ownership and accountable governance, provided with both carrots and sticks. The problematic case of urban development driven by the oil industry in Ghana can be criticized in terms of the lack of local ownership of the oil industry, which has led to all rents being monopolized by the absentee class. By comparison, the mixed success of cases of industrial symbiosis in Uganda is attributed to the lack of effective carrots. In sum, industrial policy for sustainable development requires handling well all three types of failure, namely, market, system, and capability failures, because it necessitates building capabilities of involved actors and coordinating actions of agents, in addition to providing optimal incentives to reflect externalities of global public goods. Overall, the shifting focus of industrial policy is consistent with the shift of the role of the state, from developmental to entrepreneurial, and finally to environmental state.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Banerjee A, Kang C-Y, An M, et al (2024)

Fluoride export is required for the competitive fitness of pathogenic microorganisms in dental biofilm models.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Microorganisms resist fluoride toxicity using fluoride export proteins from one of several different molecular families. Cariogenic species Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans extrude intracellular fluoride using a CLC[F] F[-]/H[+] antiporter and FEX fluoride channel, respectively, whereas oral commensal eubacteria, such as Streptococcus gordonii, export fluoride using a Fluc fluoride channel. In this work, we examine how genetic knockout of fluoride export impacts pathogen fitness in single-species and three-species dental biofilm models. For biofilms generated using S. mutans with the genetic knockout of the CLC[F] transporter, exposure to low fluoride concentrations decreased S. mutans counts, synergistically reduced the populations of C. albicans, increased the relative proportion of oral commensal S. gordonii, and reduced properties associated with biofilm pathogenicity, including acid production and hydroxyapatite dissolution. Biofilms prepared with C. albicans with genetic knockout of the FEX channel also exhibited reduced fitness in the presence of fluoride but to a lesser degree. Imaging studies indicate that S. mutans is highly sensitive to fluoride, with the knockout strain undergoing complete lysis when exposed to low fluoride for a moderate amount of time. Biochemical purification of the S. mutans CLC[F] transporter and functional reconstitution establishes that the functional protein is a dimer encoded by a single gene. Together, these findings suggest that fluoride export by oral pathogens can be targeted by specific inhibitors to restore biofilm symbiosis in dental biofilms and that S. mutans is especially susceptible to fluoride toxicity.

IMPORTANCE: Dental caries is a globally prevalent condition that occurs when pathogenic species, including Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, outcompete beneficial species, such as Streptococcus gordonii, in the dental biofilm. Fluoride is routinely used in oral hygiene to prevent dental caries. Fluoride also has antimicrobial properties, although most microbes possess fluoride exporters to resist its toxicity. This work shows that sensitization of cariogenic species S. mutans and C. albicans to fluoride by genetic knockout of fluoride exporters alters the microbial composition and pathogenic properties of dental biofilms. These results suggest that the development of drugs that inhibit fluoride exporters could potentiate the anticaries effect of fluoride in over-the-counter products like toothpaste and mouth rinses. This is a novel strategy to treat dental caries.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Baghel K, Khan A, N Kango (2024)

Role of Synbiotics (Prebiotics and Probiotics) as Dietary Supplements in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Induced Health Complications.

Journal of dietary supplements [Epub ahead of print].

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder whose prevalence has become a worrying condition in recent decades. Chronic diabetes can result in serious health conditions such as impaired kidney function, stroke, blindness, and myocardial infarction. Despite a variety of currently available treatments, cases of diabetes and its complications are on the rise. This review article provides a comprehensive account of the ameliorative effect of prebiotics and probiotics individually or in combination i.e. synbiotics on health complications induced by Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Recent advances in the field underscore encouraging outcomes suggesting the consumption of synbiotics leads to favorable changes in the gut microbiota. These changes result in the production of bioactive metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (crucial for lowering blood sugar levels), reducing inflammation, preventing insulin resistance, and encouraging the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the host. Notably, novel strategies supplementing synbiotics to support gut microbiota are gaining attraction as pivotal interventions in mitigating T2DM-induced health complications. Thus, by nurturing a symbiotic relationship between prebiotics and probiotics i.e. synbiotics, these interventions hold promise in reshaping the microbial landscape of the gut thereby offering a multifaceted approach to managing T2DM and its associated morbidities. Supporting the potential of synbiotics underscores a paradigm shift toward holistic and targeted interventions in diabetes management, offering prospects for improved outcomes and enhanced quality of life for affected individuals. Nevertheless, more research needs to be done to better understand the single and multispecies pre/pro and synbiotics in the prevention and management of T2DM-induced health complications.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Han D, Park KT, Kim H, et al (2024)

Interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in Arctic fjords during glacial melting season as revealed by eDNA metabarcoding.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7646086 [Epub ahead of print].

The hydrographic variability in the fjords of Svalbard significantly influences water mass properties, causing distinct patterns of microbial diversity and community composition between surface and subsurface layers. However, surveys on the phytoplankton-associated bacterial communities, pivotal to ecosystem functioning in Arctic fjords, are limited. This study investigated the interactions between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial communities in Svalbard fjord waters through comprehensive eDNA metabarcoding with 16S and 18S rRNA genes. The 16S rRNA sequencing results revealed a homogenous community composition including a few dominant heterotrophic bacteria across fjord waters, whereas 18S rRNA results suggested a spatially diverse eukaryotic plankton distribution. The relative abundances of heterotrophic bacteria showed a depth-wise distribution. In contrast, the dominant phytoplankton populations exhibited variable distributions in surface waters. In the network model, the linkage of phytoplankton (Prasinophytae and Dinophyceae) to heterotrophic bacteria, particularly Actinobacteria, suggested the direct or indirect influence of bacterial contributions on the fate of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. Our prediction of the metabolic pathways for bacterial activity related to phytoplankton-derived organic matter suggested competitive advantages and symbiotic relationships between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria. Our findings provide valuable insights into the response of phytoplankton-bacterial interactions to environmental changes in Arctic fjords.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Chen X, Hu X, Jiang J, et al (2024)

Functions and Mechanisms of Brassinosteroids in Regulating Crop Agronomic Traits.

Plant & cell physiology pii:7645832 [Epub ahead of print].

Brassinosteroids (BRs) perform crucial functions controlling plant growth and developmental processes, encompassing many agronomic traits in crops. Studies of BR-related genes involved in agronomic traits have suggested that BRs could serve as a potential target for crop breeding. Given the pleiotropic effect of BRs, a systematic understanding of their functions and molecular mechanisms is conducive for application in crop improvement. Here, we summarize the functions and underlying mechanisms by which BRs regulate the several major crop agronomic traits, including plant architecture, grain size, as well as the specific trait of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume crops. For plant architecture, we discuss the roles of BRs in plant height, branching number, and leaf erectness and propose how progress in these fields may contribute to designing crops with optimal agronomic traits and improved grain yield by accurately modifying BR levels and signaling pathways.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Baglivo I, Malgieri G, Roop RM, et al (2024)

MucR protein: Three decades of studies have led to the identification of a new H-NS-like protein.

Molecular microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

MucR belongs to a large protein family whose members regulate the expression of virulence and symbiosis genes in α-proteobacteria species. This protein and its homologs were initially studied as classical transcriptional regulators mostly involved in repression of target genes by binding their promoters. Very recent studies have led to the classification of MucR as a new type of Histone-like Nucleoid Structuring (H-NS) protein. Thus this review is an effort to put together a complete and unifying story demonstrating how genetic and biochemical findings on MucR suggested that this protein is not a classical transcriptional regulator, but functions as a novel type of H-NS-like protein, which binds AT-rich regions of genomic DNA and regulates gene expression.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Yeganeh E, Vatankhah E, Toghranegar Z, et al (2022)

Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Alters Metal Uptake and the Physio-biochemical Responses of Glycyrrhiza glabra in a Lead Contaminated Soil.

Gesunde Pflanzen [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can affect the host's ability to cope with several environmental stresses, such as heavy metal stress. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to assess the effect of the Funneliformis mosseae inoculation on growth and physio-biochemical parameters and lead (Pb) accumulation in liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) under Pb stress. A factorial experiment was performed with the combination of two factors, fungi (inoculated and non-inoculated (NM)) and soil Pb levels (0, 150, 300, and 450 mg kg[-1] soil) with four replicates. In the presence of Pb, symbiosis with F. mosseae exert positive effect on growth parameters, which was more significant in shoots than roots. Mycorrhization improved fresh and dry weights and length in shoot by 147, 112.5 and 83%, respectively, compared to NM plants at Pb150 level. Moreover, F. mosseae significantly increased tolerance index and the concentrations of soluble sugars and flavonoids in shoots and proline, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, zinc and manganese in shoots and roots but decreased their malondialdehyde concentrations under Pb stress. The Pb concentrations, transfer and bioaccumulation factors of mycorrhizal plants were less than non-mycorrhizal ones. A positive correlation was also observed between glomalin secretion and colonization rate in Pb treated soils. These results indicate the importance of mycorrhizal colonization in alleviating the Pb-induced stress in liquorice, mainly through improving the nutrition, modifying reactive oxygen species detoxifying metabolites and reducing the translocation of Pb to shoots. Observations revealed that mycorrhization of liquorice would be an efficient strategy to use in the phytoremediation practices of Pb-contaminated soils.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Zeng T, Fu Q, Luo F, et al (2024)

Lactic acid bacteria modulate the CncC pathway to enhance resistance to β-cypermethrin in the oriental fruit fly.

The ISME journal pii:7645740 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota of insects has been shown to regulate host detoxification enzymes. However, the potential regulatory mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here, we report that gut bacteria increase insecticide resistance by activating the cap "n" collar isoform-C (CncC) pathway through enzymatically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Bactrocera dorsalis. We demonstrated that Enterococcus casseliflavus and Lactococcus lactis, two lactic acid (LA)-producing bacteria, increase the resistance of B. dorsalis to β-cypermethrin by regulating cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and α-glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. These gut symbionts also induced the expression of CncC and muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis (Maf). BdCncC knockdown led to a decrease in resistance caused by gut bacteria. Ingestion of the ROS scavenger vitamin C (VC) in resistant strain (RS) affected the expression of BdCncC/BdKeap1/BdMafK, resulting in reduced P450 and GST activity. Furthermore, feeding with E. casseliflavus or L. lactis showed that BdNOX5 increased ROS production, and BdNOX5 knockdown affected the expression of the BdCncC/BdMafK pathway and detoxification genes. Moreover, LA feeding activated the ROS-associated regulation of P450 and GST activity. Collectively, our findings indicate that symbiotic gut bacteria modulate intestinal detoxification pathways by affecting physiological biochemistry, thus providing new insights into the involvement of insect gut microbes in the development of insecticide resistance.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Tsai FT, Yang CC, Lin YC, et al (2024)

Temporal stability of tongue microbiota in older patients - A pilot study.

Journal of dental sciences, 19(2):1087-1095.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Healthy states of human microbiota depend on a stable community of symbiotic microbes irrespective of external challenges from the environment. Thus, long-term stability of the oral microbiota is of importance, particularly for older patient populations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to examine the tongue microbiota of 18 individuals receiving long-term care over a 10-month period.

RESULTS: Beta diversity analysis demonstrated temporal stability of the tongue microbiota, as microbial compositions from all time points were indistinguishable from each other (P = 0.0887). However, significant individual variation in microbial composition (P = 0.0001) was observed, underscoring the presence of a unique microbial profile for each patient.

CONCLUSION: The temporal dynamics of tongue microbiota exhibit long-term stability, providing diagnostic implications for oral diseases within older patient populations.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Machado I, D Gambino (2024)

Metallomics: An Essential Tool for the Study of Potential Antiparasitic Metallodrugs.

ACS omega, 9(14):15744-15752.

Metallomics is an emerging area of omics approaches that has grown enormously in the past few years. It integrates research related to metals in biological systems, in symbiosis with genomics and proteomics. These omics approaches can provide in-depth insights into the mechanisms of action of potential metallodrugs, including their physiological metabolism and their molecular targets. Herein, we review the most significant advances concerning cellular uptake and subcellular distribution assays of different potential metallodrugs with activity against Trypanosma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, a pressing health problem in high-poverty areas of Latin America. Furthermore, the first multiomics approaches including metallomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics for the comprehensive study of potential metallodrugs with anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity are described.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Mallikaarachchi KS, Huang JL, Madras S, et al (2024)

Sinorhizobium meliloti BR-bodies promote fitness during host colonization.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.04.05.588320.

UNLABELLED: Biomolecular condensates, such as the nucleoli or P-bodies, are non-membrane-bound assemblies of proteins and nucleic acids that facilitate specific cellular processes. Like eukaryotic P-bodies, the recently discovered bacterial ribonucleoprotein bodies (BR-bodies) organize the mRNA decay machinery, yet the similarities in molecular and cellular functions across species have been poorly explored. Here, we examine the functions of BR-bodies in the nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti , which colonizes the roots of compatible legume plants. Assembly of BR-bodies into visible foci in S. meliloti cells requires the C-terminal intrinsically disordered region (IDR) of RNase E, and foci fusion is readily observed in vivo , suggesting they are liquid-like condensates that form via mRNA sequestration. Using Rif-seq to measure mRNA lifetimes, we found a global slowdown in mRNA decay in a mutant deficient in BR-bodies, indicating that compartmentalization of the degradation machinery promotes efficient mRNA turnover. While BR-bodies are constitutively present during exponential growth, the abundance of BR-bodies increases upon cell stress, whereby they promote stress resistance. Finally, using Medicago truncatula as host, we show that BR-bodies enhance competitiveness during colonization and appear to be required for effective symbiosis, as mutants without BR-bodies failed to stimulate plant growth. These results suggest that BR-bodies provide a fitness advantage for bacteria during infection, perhaps by enabling better resistance against the host immune response.

SIGNIFICANCE: While eukaryotes often organize their biochemical pathways in membrane-bound organelles, bacteria generally lack such subcellular structures. Instead, membraneless compartments called biomolecular condensates have recently been found in bacteria to enhance biochemical activities. Bacterial ribonucleoprotein bodies (BR-bodies), as one of the most widespread biomolecular condensates identified to date, assemble the mRNA decay machinery via the intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins. However, the implications of such assemblies are unclear. Using a plant-associated symbiont, we show that the IDR of its mRNA degradation protein is necessary for condensate formation. Absence of BR-bodies results in slower mRNA decay and ineffective symbiosis, suggesting that BR-bodies play critical roles in regulating biochemical pathways and promoting fitness during host colonization.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Zhang W, Gundel PE, Jáuregui R, et al (2024)

The growth promotion in endophyte symbiotic plants does not penalise the resistance to herbivores and bacterial microbiota.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

A trade-off between growth and defence against biotic stresses is common in plants. Fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë may relieve this trade-off in their host grasses since they can simultaneously induce plant growth and produce antiherbivore alkaloids that circumvent the need for host defence. The Epichloë ability to decouple the growth-defence trade-off was evaluated by subjecting ryegrass with and without Epichloë endophytes to an exogenous treatment with gibberellin (GA) followed by a challenge with Rhopalosiphum padi aphids. In agreement with the endophyte-mediated trade-off decoupling hypothesis, the GA-derived promotion of plant growth increased the susceptibility to aphids in endophyte-free plants but did not affect the insect resistance in endophyte-symbiotic plants. In line with the unaltered insect resistance, the GA treatment did not reduce the concentration of Epichloë-derived alkaloids. The Epichloë mycelial biomass was transiently increased by the GA treatment but at the expense of hyphal integrity. The response of the phyllosphere bacterial microbiota to both GA treatment and Epichloë was also evaluated. Only Epichloë, and not the GA treatment, altered the composition of the phyllosphere microbiota and the abundance of certain bacterial taxa. Our findings clearly demonstrate that Epichloë does indeed relieve the plant growth-defence trade-off.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Li Y, Wang J, Sun T, et al (2024)

Community structure of endophytic bacteria of Sargassum thubergii in the intertidal zone of Qingdao in China.

AMB Express, 14(1):35.

Endophytic bacteria are one of the symbiotic microbial groups closely related to host algae. However, less research on the endophytic bacteria of marine algae. In this study, the endophytic bacterial community of Sargassum thunbergii was investigated using the culture method and high-throughput sequencing. Thirty-nine endophytic bacterial strains, belonging to two phyla, five genera and sixteen species, were isolated, and Firmicutes, Bacillus and Metabacillus indicus were the dominant taxa at the phylum, genus and species level, respectively. High-throughput sequencing revealed 39 phyla and 574 genera of endophytic bacteria, and the dominant phylum was Proteobacteria, while the dominant genus was Ralstonia. The results also indicated that the endophytic bacteria of S. thunbergii included various groups with nitrogen fixation, salt tolerance, pollutant degradation, and antibacterial properties but also contained some pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, the endophytic bacterial community shared a large number of groups with the epiphytic bacteria and bacteria in the surrounding seawater, but the three groups of samples could be clustered separately. In conclusion, there are a variety of functional endophytic bacteria living in S. thunbergii, and the internal condition of algae is a selective factor for the formation of endophytic bacterial communities. This study enriched the database of endophytic bacteria in marine macroalgae, paving the way for further understanding of the interrelationships between endophytic bacteria, macroalgae, and the environment.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Liu C, X Li (2024)

Identification of hub genes and establishment of a diagnostic model in tuberculosis infection.

AMB Express, 14(1):36.

Tuberculosis (TB) poses significant challenges due to its high transmissibility within populations and intrinsic resistance to treatment, rendering it a formidable respiratory disease with a substantial susceptibility burden. This study was designed to identify new potential therapeutic targets for TB and establish a diagnostic model. mRNA expression data for TB were from GEO database, followed by conducting differential expression analysis. The top 50 genes with differential expression were subjected to GO and KEGG enrichment analyses. To establish a PPI network, the STRING database was utilized, and hub genes were identified utilizing five algorithms (EPC, MCC, MNC, Radiality, and Stress) within the cytoHubba plugin of Cytoscape software. Furthermore, a hub gene co-expression network was constructed using the GeneMANIA database. Consistency clustering was performed on hub genes, and ssGSEA was utilized to analyze the extent of immune infiltration in different subgroups. LASSO analysis was employed to construct a diagnostic model, and ROC curves were used for validation. Through the analysis of GEO data, a total of 159 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Further, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses revealed that these genes were mainly enriched in viral defense, symbiotic defense, and innate immune response-related pathways. Hub genes, including DDX58, IFIT2, IFIH1, RSAD2, IFI44L, OAS2, OAS1, OASL, IFIT1, IFIT3, MX1, STAT1, and ISG15, were identified using cytoHubba analysis of the PPI network. The GeneMANIA analysis unmasked that the co-expression rate of hub genes was 81.55%, and the physical interaction rate was 12.27%. Consistency clustering divided TB patients into two subgroups, and ssGSEA revealed different degrees of immune infiltration in different subgroups. LASSO analysis identified IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFIH1, RSAD2, OAS1, OAS2, and STAT1 as eight immune-related key genes, and a diagnostic model was constructed. The ROC curve demonstrated that the model exhibited excellent diagnostic performance. DDX58, IFIT2, IFIH1, RSAD2, IFI44L, OAS2, OAS1, OASL, IFIT1, IFIT3, MX1, STAT1, and ISG15 were hub genes in TB, and the diagnostic model based on eight immune-related key genes exhibited good diagnostic performance.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Fricke LC, ARI Lindsey (2024)

Identification of Parthenogenesis-Inducing Effector Proteins in Wolbachia.

Genome biology and evolution, 16(4):.

Bacteria in the genus Wolbachia have evolved numerous strategies to manipulate arthropod sex, including the conversion of would-be male offspring to asexually reproducing females. This so-called "parthenogenesis induction" phenotype can be found in a number of Wolbachia strains that infect arthropods with haplodiploid sex determination systems, including parasitoid wasps. Despite the discovery of microbe-mediated parthenogenesis more than 30 yr ago, the underlying genetic mechanisms have remained elusive. We used a suite of genomic, computational, and molecular tools to identify and characterize two proteins that are uniquely found in parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia and have strong signatures of host-associated bacterial effector proteins. These putative parthenogenesis-inducing proteins have structural homology to eukaryotic protein domains including nucleoporins, the key insect sex determining factor Transformer, and a eukaryotic-like serine-threonine kinase with leucine-rich repeats. Furthermore, these proteins significantly impact eukaryotic cell biology in the model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We suggest that these proteins are parthenogenesis-inducing factors and our results indicate that this would be made possible by a novel mechanism of bacterial-host interaction.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Li Q, Xu Y, Chen S, et al (2024)

Inorganic carbon limitation decreases ammonium removal and N2O production in the algae-nitrifying bacteria symbiosis system.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02586-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Ammonium removal by a symbiosis system of algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and nitrifying bacteria was evaluated in a long-term photo-sequencing batch reactor under varying influent inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations (15, 10, 5 and 2.5 mmol L[-1]) and different nitrogen loading rate (NLR) conditions (270 and 540 mg-N L[-1] d[-1]). The IC/N ratios provided were 2.33, 1.56, 0.78 and 0.39, respectively, for an influent NH+ 4-N concentration of 90 mg-N L[-1] (6.43 mmol L[-1]). The results confirmed that both ammonium removal and N2O production were positively related with IC concentration. Satisfactory ammonium removal efficiencies (>98 %) and rates (29-34 mg-N gVSS[-1] h[-1]) were achieved regardless of NLR levels under sufficient IC of 10 and 15 mmol L[-1], while insufficient IC at 2.5 mmol L[-1] led to the lowest ammonium removal rates of 0 mg-N gVSS[-1] h[-1]. The ammonia oxidation process by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) played a predominant role over the algae assimilation process in ammonium removal. Long-time IC deficiency also resulted in the decrease in biomass and pigments of algae and nitrifying bacteria. IC limitation led to the decreasing N2O production, probably due to its negative effect on ammonia oxidation by AOB. The optimal IC concentration was determined to be 10 mmol L[-1] (i.e., IC/N of 1.56, alkalinity of 500 mg CaCO3 L[-1]) in the algae-bacteria symbiosis reactor, corresponding to higher ammonia oxidation rate of ~41 mg-N gVSS[-1] h[-1] and lower N2O emission factor of 0.13 %. This suggests regulating IC concentrations to achieve high ammonium removal and low carbon emission simultaneously in the algae-bacteria symbiosis wastewater treatment process.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Pereira QC, Fortunato IM, Oliveira FS, et al (2024)

Polyphenolic Compounds: Orchestrating Intestinal Microbiota Harmony during Aging.

Nutrients, 16(7):.

In the aging process, physiological decline occurs, posing a substantial threat to the physical and mental well-being of the elderly and contributing to the onset of age-related diseases. While traditional perspectives considered the maintenance of life as influenced by a myriad of factors, including environmental, genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle elements such as exercise and diet, the pivotal role of symbiotic microorganisms had been understated. Presently, it is acknowledged that the intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in overall health by signaling to both the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as other distant organs. Disruption in this bidirectional communication between bacteria and the host results in dysbiosis, fostering the development of various diseases, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This review aims to delve into the intricate biological mechanisms underpinning dysbiosis associated with aging and the clinical ramifications of such dysregulation. Furthermore, we aspire to explore bioactive compounds endowed with functional properties capable of modulating and restoring balance in this aging-related dysbiotic process through epigenetics alterations.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Sochacka K, Kotowska A, S Lachowicz-Wiśniewska (2024)

The Role of Gut Microbiota, Nutrition, and Physical Activity in Depression and Obesity-Interdependent Mechanisms/Co-Occurrence.

Nutrients, 16(7):.

Obesity and depression are interdependent pathological disorders with strong inflammatory effects commonly found worldwide. They determine the health status of the population and cause key problems in terms of morbidity and mortality. The role of gut microbiota and its composition in the treatment of obesity and psychological factors is increasingly emphasized. Published research suggests that prebiotic, probiotic, or symbiotic preparations can effectively intervene in obesity treatment and mood-dysregulation alleviation. Thus, this literature review aims to highlight the role of intestinal microbiota in treating depression and obesity. An additional purpose is to indicate probiotics, including psychobiotics and prebiotics, potentially beneficial in supporting the treatment of these two diseases.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Sun X, Zhang H, Yang Z, et al (2024)

Overexpression of GmPAP4 Enhances Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation and Seed Yield in Soybean under Phosphorus-Deficient Condition.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(7):.

Legume crops establish symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), a process that provides a prominent natural nitrogen source in agroecosystems; and efficient nodulation and nitrogen fixation processes require a large amount of phosphorus (P). Here, a role of GmPAP4, a nodule-localized purple acid phosphatase, in BNF and seed yield was functionally characterized in whole transgenic soybean (Glycine max) plants under a P-limited condition. GmPAP4 was specifically expressed in the infection zones of soybean nodules and its expression was greatly induced in low P stress. Altered expression of GmPAP4 significantly affected soybean nodulation, BNF, and yield under the P-deficient condition. Nodule number, nodule fresh weight, nodule nitrogenase, APase activities, and nodule total P content were significantly increased in GmPAP4 overexpression (OE) lines. Structural characteristics revealed by toluidine blue staining showed that overexpression of GmPAP4 resulted in a larger infection area than wild-type (WT) control. Moreover, the plant biomass and N and P content of shoot and root in GmPAP4 OE lines were also greatly improved, resulting in increased soybean yield in the P-deficient condition. Taken together, our results demonstrated that GmPAP4, a purple acid phosphatase, increased P utilization efficiency in nodules under a P-deficient condition and, subsequently, enhanced symbiotic BNF and seed yield of soybean.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Pasaribu B, Purba NP, Dewanti LP, et al (2024)

Lipid Droplets in Endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae spp. Associated with Corals.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(7):.

Symbiodiniaceae species is a dinoflagellate that plays a crucial role in maintaining the symbiotic mutualism of reef-building corals in the ocean. Reef-building corals, as hosts, provide the nutrition and habitat to endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae species and Symbiodiniaceae species transfer the fixed carbon to the corals for growth. Environmental stress is one of the factors impacting the physiology and metabolism of the corals-dinoflagellate association. The environmental stress triggers the metabolic changes in Symbiodiniaceae species resulting in an increase in the production of survival organelles related to storage components such as lipid droplets (LD). LDs are found as unique organelles, mainly composed of triacylglycerols surrounded by phospholipids embedded with some proteins. To date, it has been reported that investigation of lipid droplets significantly present in animals and plants led to the understanding that lipid droplets play a key role in lipid storage and transport. The major challenge of investigating endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae species lies in overcoming the strategies in isolating lesser lipid droplets present in its intercellular cells. Here, we review the most recent highlights of LD research in endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae species particularly focusing on LD biogenesis, mechanism, and major lipid droplet proteins. Moreover, to comprehend potential novel ways of energy storage in the symbiotic interaction between endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae species and its host, we also emphasize recent emerging environmental factors such as temperature, ocean acidification, and nutrient impacting the accumulation of lipid droplets in endosymbiotic Symbiodiniaceae species.

RevDate: 2024-04-14

Huang L, Fu Y, Liu Y, et al (2024)

Global insights into endophytic bacterial communities of terrestrial plants: Exploring the potential applications of endophytic microbiota in sustainable agriculture.

The Science of the total environment, 927:172231 pii:S0048-9697(24)02374-X [Epub ahead of print].

Endophytic microorganisms are indispensable symbionts during plant growth and development and often serve functions such as growth promotion and stress resistance in plants. Therefore, an increasing number of researchers have applied endophytes for multifaceted phytoremediation (e.g., organic pollutants and heavy metals) in recent years. With the availability of next-generation sequencing technologies, an increasing number of studies have shifted the focus from culturable bacteria to total communities. However, information on the composition, structure, and function of bacterial endophytic communities is still not widely synthesized. To explore the general patterns of variation in bacterial communities between plant niches, we reanalyzed data from 1499 samples in 30 individual studies from different continents and provided comprehensive insights. A group of bacterial genera were commonly found in most plant roots and shoots. Our analysis revealed distinct variations in the diversity, composition, structure, and function of endophytic bacterial communities between plant roots and shoots. These variations underscore the sophisticated mechanisms by which plants engage with their endophytic microbiota, optimizing these interactions to bolster growth, health, and resilience against stress. Highlighting the strategic role of endophytic bacteria in promoting sustainable agricultural practices and environmental stewardship, our study not only offers global insights into the endophytic bacterial communities of terrestrial plants but also underscores the untapped potential of these communities as invaluable resources for future research.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Chu WC, Gao YY, Wu YX, et al (2024)

Biofilm of petroleum-based and bio-based microplastics in seawater in response to Zn(II): Biofilm formation, community structure, and microbial function.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02543-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastic biofilms are novel vectors for the transport and spread of pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria. With the increasing use of bio-based plastics, there is an urgent need to investigate the microbial colonization characteristics of these materials in seawater, particularly in comparison with conventional petroleum-based plastics. Furthermore, the effect of co-occurring contaminants, such as heavy metals, on the formation of microplastic biofilms and bacterial communities remains unclear. In this study, we compared the biofilm bacterial community structure of petroleum-based polyethylene (PE) and bio-based polylactic acid (PLA) in seawater under the influence of zinc ions (Zn[2+]). Our findings indicate that the biofilm on PLA microplastics in the late stage was impeded by the formation of a mildly acidic microenvironment resulting from the hydrolysis of the ester group on PLA. The PE surface had higher bacterial abundance and diversity, with a more intricate symbiotic pattern. The bacterial structures on the two types of microplastics were different; PE was more conducive to the colonization of anaerobic bacteria, whereas PLA was more favorable for the colonization of aerobic and acid-tolerant species. Furthermore, Zn increased the proportion of the dominant genera that could utilize microplastics as a carbon source, such as Alcanivorax and Nitratireductor. PLA had a greater propensity to harbor and disseminate pathogenic and drug-resistant bacteria, and Zn promoted the enrichment and spread of harmful bacteria such as, Pseudomonas and Clostridioides. Therefore, further research is essential to fully understand the potential environmental effects of bio-based microplastics and the role of heavy metals in the dynamics of bacterial colonization.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Fotovvat M, Najafi F, Khavari-Nejad RA, et al (2024)

Investigating the simultaneous effect of chitosan and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, phenolic compounds, PAL enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in Salvia nemorosa L.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 210:108617 pii:S0981-9428(24)00285-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Considering the importance of Salvia nemorosa L. in the pharmaceutical and food industries, and also beneficial approaches of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbiosis and the use of bioelicitors such as chitosan to improve secondary metabolites, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of chitosan on the symbiosis of AMF and the effect of both on the biochemical and phytochemical performance of this plant and finally introduced the best treatment. Two factors were considered for the factorial experiment: AMF with four levels (non-inoculated plants, Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus intraradices and the combination of both), and chitosan with six levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 mg L[-1] and 1% acetic acid). Four months after treatments, the aerial part and root length, the levels of lipid peroxidation, H2O2, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, total phenol and flavonoid contents and the main secondary metabolites (rosmarinic acid and quercetin) in the leaves and roots were determined. The flowering stage was observed in R. intraradices treatments and the highest percentage of colonization (78.87%) was observed in the treatment of F. mosseae × 400 mg L[-1] chitosan. Furthermore, simultaneous application of chitosan and AMF were more effective than their separate application to induce phenolic compounds accumulation, PAL activity and reduce oxidative compounds. The cluster and principal component analysis based on the measured variables indicated that the treatments could be classified into three clusters. It seems that different treatments in different tissues have different effects. However, in an overview, it can be concluded that 400 mg L[-1] chitosan and F. mosseae × R. intraradices showed better results in single and simultaneous applications. The results of this research can be considered in the optimization of this medicinal plant under normal conditions and experiments related to abiotic stresses in the future.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Valente EEL, Klotz JL, Markmann RC, et al (2024)

5-hydroxytryphophan mitigates ergot alkaloid-induced suppression of serotonin and feed intake in cattle.

Journal of animal science, 102:.

The impact of ergot toxicosis on livestock industries is detrimental and treatments are needed in many countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) supplementation on feed intake, serotonin metabolism, and blood metabolites in cattle. Eight Holstein steers (538 ± 18 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment structure. The treatments were the combination of 0 (E-) or 15 µg ergovaline/kg BW (E+) and 0 (5HTP-) or 0.5 mg of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan/kg BW (5HTP+) administered daily for 6 d. Toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue seed was used to supply the daily dose of ergovaline. Endophyte-free seed was used to equalize seed intake between treatments. Ground seed was placed into the rumen immediately before feeding. The 5-HTP was dissolved in water and infused into the abomasum via the reticulo-omasal orifice. Blood was collected from a jugular vein catheter at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h after treatment administration. Ergovaline without 5-HTP (E+/5HTP-) decreased dry matter intake (DMI) in comparison to steers without ergovaline and 5-HTP (E-/5HTP-). However, 5-HTP infusion in association with ergovaline (E+/5HTP+) normalized the DMI. Although E + did not affect (P > 0.05) the area under the curve (AUC) of serum 5-HTP, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, tryptophan, and kynurenine, serum and plasma serotonin concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05). The infusion of 5-HTP increased (P < 0.05) the AUC of serum 5-HTP, serum and plasma serotonin, and serum 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. In conclusion, acute exposure to ergot alkaloids reduced DMI and circulating serotonin in cattle but 5-HTP administration showed potential to normalize both circulating serotonin and feed intake.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Brockhurst MA, Cameron DD, AP Beckerman (2024)

Fitness trade-offs and the origins of endosymbiosis.

PLoS biology, 22(4):e3002580 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-23-03118.

Endosymbiosis drives evolutionary innovation and underpins the function of diverse ecosystems. The mechanistic origins of symbioses, however, remain unclear, in part because early evolutionary events are obscured by subsequent evolution and genetic drift. This Essay highlights how experimental studies of facultative, host-switched, and synthetic symbioses are revealing the important role of fitness trade-offs between within-host and free-living niches during the early-stage evolution of new symbiotic associations. The mutational targets underpinning such trade-offs are commonly regulatory genes, such that single mutations have major phenotypic effects on multiple traits, thus enabling and reinforcing the transition to a symbiotic lifestyle.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Cardoso PM, Hill LJ, Villela HDM, et al (2024)

Localization and symbiotic status of probiotics in the coral holobiont.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Corals establish symbiotic relationships with microorganisms, especially endosymbiotic photosynthetic algae. Although other microbes have been commonly detected in coral tissues, their identity and beneficial functions for their host are unclear. Here, we confirm the beneficial outcomes of the inoculation of bacteria selected as probiotics and use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to define their localization in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Our results show the first evidence of the inherent presence of Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp. in native coral tissues, even before their inoculation. Furthermore, the relative enrichment of these coral tissue-associated bacteria through their inoculation in corals correlates with health improvements, such as increases in photosynthetic potential, and productivity. Our study suggests the symbiotic status of Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp. in corals by indicating their localization within coral gastrodermis and epidermis and correlating their increased relative abundance through active inoculation with beneficial outcomes for the holobiont. This knowledge is crucial to facilitate the screening and application of probiotics that may not be transient members of the coral microbiome.

IMPORTANCE: Despite the promising results indicating the beneficial outcomes associated with the application of probiotics in corals and some scarce knowledge regarding the identity of bacterial cells found within the coral tissue, the correlation between these two aspects is still missing. This gap limits our understanding of the actual diversity of coral-associated bacteria and whether these symbionts are beneficial. Some researchers, for example, have been suggesting that probiotic screening should only focus on the very few known tissue-associated bacteria, such as Endozoicomonas sp., assuming that the currently tested probiotics are not tissue-associated. Here, we provide specific FISH probes for Halomonas sp. and Cobetia sp., expand our knowledge of the identity of coral-associated bacteria and confirm the probiotic status of the tested probiotics. The presence of these beneficial microorganisms for corals (BMCs) inside host tissues and gastric cavities also supports the notion that direct interactions with the host may underpin their probiotic role. This is a new breakthrough; these results argue against the possibility that the positive effects of BMCs are due to factors that are not related to a direct symbiotic interaction, for example, that the host simply feeds on inoculated bacteria or that the bacteria change the water quality.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Lin Z (2024)

Progress and challenges in the symbiosis of AI with science and medicine.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Su C, Xie T, Jiang L, et al (2024)

Host genetics and larval host plant modulate microbiome structure and evolution underlying the intimate insect-microbe-plant interactions in Parnassius species on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Ecology and evolution, 14(4):e11218.

Insects harbor a remarkable diversity of gut microbiomes critical for host survival, health, and fitness, but the mechanism of this structured symbiotic community remains poorly known, especially for the insect group consisting of many closely related species that inhabit the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Here, we firstly analyzed population-level 16S rRNA microbial dataset, comprising 11 Parnassius species covering 5 subgenera, from 14 populations mostly sampled in mountainous regions across northwestern-to-southeastern China, and meanwhile clarified the relative importance of multiple factors on gut microbial community structure and evolution. Our findings indicated that both host genetics and larval host plant modulated gut microbial diversity and community structure. Moreover, the effect analysis of host genetics and larval diet on gut microbiomes showed that host genetics played a critical role in governing the gut microbial beta diversity and the symbiotic community structure, while larval host plant remarkably influenced the functional evolution of gut microbiomes. These findings of the intimate insect-microbe-plant interactions jointly provide some new insights into the correlation among the host genetic background, larval host plant, the structure and evolution of gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms of high-altitude adaptation in closely related species of this alpine butterfly group.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Jin P, Wang L, Chen D, et al (2024)

Unveiling the complexity of early childhood caries: Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans cooperative strategies in carbohydrate metabolism and virulence.

Journal of oral microbiology, 16(1):2339161.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms underlying the virulence changes in early childhood caries (ECC) caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), with a focus on carbohydrate metabolism and environmental acidification.

METHODS: A review of literature was conducted to understand the symbiotic relationship between C. albicans and S. mutans, and their role in the pathogenesis of ECC. The review also examined how their interactions influence carbohydrate metabolism and environmental acidification in the oral cavity.

RESULTS: C. albicans and S. mutans play crucial roles in the onset and progression of ECC. C. albicans promotes the adhesion and accumulation of S. mutans, while S. mutans creates an environment favorable for the growth of C. albicans. Their interactions, especially through carbohydrate metabolism, strengthen their pathogenic potential. The review highlights the importance of understanding these mechanisms for the development of effective management and treatment protocols for ECC.

CONCLUSION: The symbiotic relationship between C. albicans and S. mutans, and their interactions through carbohydrate metabolism and environmental acidification, are key factors in the pathogenesis of ECC. A comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for developing effective strategies to manage and treat ECC.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Sandeep F, Kiran N, Rahaman Z, et al (2024)

Pathology in the Age of Artificial Intelligence (AI): Redefining Roles and Responsibilities for Tomorrow's Practitioners.

Cureus, 16(3):e56040.

The evolution of pathology from its rudimentary beginnings around 1700 BC to the present day has been marked by profound advancement in understanding and diagnosing diseases. This journey, from the earliest dissections to the modern era of histochemical analysis, sets the stage for the next transformative leap to the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) in pathology. Recent research highlights AI's significant potential to revolutionize healthcare within the next decade, with a particular impact on diagnostic processes. A majority of pathologists foresee AI becoming a cornerstone in diagnostic workflow, driven by the advent of image-based algorithms and computational pathology. These innovations promise to enhance the precision of disease diagnosis, particularly in complex cases, such as cancers, by offering detailed insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms. Moreover, AI-assisted tools are improving the efficiency and accuracy of histological analysis by automating the evaluation of immunohistochemical biomarkers and tissue architecture. This shift not only accelerates diagnostic processes but also facilitates early disease management, crucial for improving patient outcomes. Furthermore, AI is reshaping educational paradigms in pathology, offering interactive learning environments that promise to enrich the training of future pathologists. Despite these advancements, the integration of AI in pathology raises ethical considerations regarding patient consent and data privacy. As pathology embarks on this AI-augmented era, it is imperative to navigate these challenges thoughtfully, ensuring that AI enhances rather than replaces the pathologist's role. This editorial discussed the historical progression of pathology, the current impact of AI on diagnostic practices, and the ethical implications of its adoption, underscoring the need for a symbiotic relationship between pathologists and AI to unlock the full potential of healthcare.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Belahmadi MSO, A Abdessemed (2024)

Enhancement of benzo[a]pyrene mineralization: symbiotic biodegradation by Acinetobacter sp. strain HAP1 in Association with Cyanobacteriota sp. S66.

Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes [Epub ahead of print].

The ability of Acinetobacter sp. strain HAP1, isolated from petroleum refinery effluent, to eliminate different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L) of Benzo[a]Pyrene degradation (BaP) was studied. A test to improve this degradation capacity was carried out by culturing the bacterial strain in association with a cyanobacteria. The results show a highly significant effect of the concentration of (BaP) and a very highly significant effect of the symbiosis between the bacterial strain and the cyanobacteria. This combination was able to significantly improve the (BaP) degradation rate by up to 18%. This degradation and especially in association leads to a complete mineralization of (BaP) and there is a difference in yield that can go up to 15%. Through molecular identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains HAP1 and S66 were recognized as Acinetobacter sp. strain HAP1 and Cyanobacteriota sp. S66, respectively. Comparison of the retrieved sequences with the NCBI GenBank database was done, and the closest matches were found to be Acinetobacter pittii strain JD-10 for bacteria and Pseudochroococcus couteii strain PMC 885.14 for cyanobacteria.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Song G, Shin D, JS Kim (2024)

Microbiome changes in Akanthomyces attenuatus JEF-147-infected two-spotted spider mites.

Journal of invertebrate pathology, 204:108102 pii:S0022-2011(24)00045-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) is an agriculturally serious polyphagous pest that has acquired strong resistance against acaricides because of its short life cycle and continuous exposure to acaricides. As an alternative, mite-pathogenic fungi with different modes of action could be used to control the mites. The spider mite has symbiotic microorganisms that could be involved in the physiological and ecological adaptations to biotic stresses. In this study, mite-pathogenic fungi were used to control female adults, and the microbiomes changes in the fungus-infected mites were analyzed. The acaricidal activity of 77 fungal isolates was tested, and Akanthomyces attenuatus JEF-147 exhibited the highest acaricidal activity. Subsequently a dose-response assay and morphological characterization was undertaken For microbiome analysis in female adults infected with A. attenuatus JEF-147, 16S rDNA and ITS1 were sequenced using Illumina Miseq. Infected mite showed a higher Shannon index in bacterial diversity but lower index in fungal diversity. In beta diversity using principal component analysis, JEF-147-treated mites were significantly different from non-treated controls in both bacteria and fungi. Particularly in bacterial abundance, arthropod defense-related Rickettsia increased, but arthropod reproduction-associated Wolbachia decreased. The change in major bacterial abundance in the infected mites could be explained by a trade-off between reproduction and immunity against the early stage of fungal attack. In fungal abundance, Akanthomyces showed up as expected. Foremost, this work reports microbiome changes in a fungus-infected mite and suggests a possible trade-off in mites against fungal pathogens. Future studies will focus on gene-based investigations related to this topic.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Yin L, Zhou A, Wei Y, et al (2024)

Deep insights into the roles and microbial ecological mechanisms behind waste activated sludge digestion triggered by persulfate oxidation activated through multiple modes.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)00809-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Persulfate oxidation (PS) is widely employed as a promising alternative for waste activated sludge pretreatment due to the capability of generating free radicals. The product differences and microbiological mechanisms by which PS activation triggers WAS digestion through multiple modes need to be further investigated. This study comprehensively investigated the effects of persulfate oxidation activated through multiple modes, i.e., ferrous, zero-valent iron (ZVI), ultraviolet (UV) and heat, on the performance of sludge digestion. Results showed that PS_ZVI significantly accelerated the methane production rate to 12.02 mL/g VSS. By contrast, PS_Heat promoted the sludge acidification and gained the maximum short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) yield (277.11 ± 7.81 mg COD/g VSS), which was 3.41-fold compared to that in PS_ZVI. Moreover, ferrous and ZVI activated PS achieved the oriented conversion of acetate, the proportions of which took 73% and 78%, respectively. MiSeq sequencing results revealed that PS_Heat and PS_UV evidently enriched anaerobic fermentation bacteria (AFB) (i.e., Macellibacteroides and Clostridium XlVa). However, PS_Ferrous and PS_ZVI facilitated the enrichment of Woesearchaeota and methanogens. Furthermore, molecular ecological network and mantel test revealed the intrinsic interactions among the multiple functional microbes and environmental variables. The homo-acetogens and sulfate-reducing bacterial had potential cooperative and symbiotic relationships with AFB, while the nitrate-reducing bacteria displayed distinguishing ecological niches. Suitable activation modes for PS pretreatments resulted in an upregulation of genes expression responsible for digestion. This study established a scientific foundation for the application of sulfate radical-based oxidation on energy or high value-added chemicals recovery from waste residues.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Yin Z, Liang J, Zhang M, et al (2024)

Pan-genome insights into adaptive evolution of bacterial symbionts in mixed host-microbe symbioses represented by human gut microbiota Bacteroides cellulosilyticus.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02394-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Animal hosts harbor diverse assemblages of microbial symbionts that play crucial roles in the host's lifestyle. The link between microbial symbiosis and host development remains poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the adaptive evolution of gut bacteria in host-microbe symbioses. Recently, symbiotic relationships have been categorized as open, closed, or mixed, reflecting their modes of inter-host transmission and resulting in distinct genomic features. Members of the genus Bacteroides are the most abundant human gut microbiota and possess both probiotic and pathogenic potential, providing an excellent model for studying pan-genome evolution in symbiotic systems. Here, we determined the complete genome of an novel clinical strain PL2022, which was isolated from a blood sample and performed pan-genome analyses on a representative set of Bacteroides cellulosilyticus strains to quantify the influence of the symbiotic relationship on the evolutionary dynamics. B. cellulosilyticus exhibited correlated genomic features with both open and closed symbioses, suggesting a mixed symbiosis. An open pan-genome is characterized by abundant accessory gene families, potential horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and diverse mobile genetic elements (MGEs), indicating an innovative gene pool, mainly associated with genomic islands and plasmids. However, massive parallel gene loss, weak purifying selection, and accumulation of positively selected mutations were the main drivers of genome reduction in B. cellulosilyticus. Metagenomic read recruitment analyses showed that B. cellulosilyticus members are globally distributed and active in human gut habitats, in line with predominant vertical transmission in the human gut. However, existence and/or high abundance were also detected in non-intestinal tissues, other animal hosts, and non-host environments, indicating occasional horizontal transmission to new niches, thereby creating arenas for the acquisition of novel genes. This case study of adaptive evolution under a mixed host-microbe symbiosis advances our understanding of symbiotic pan-genome evolution. Our results highlight the complexity of genetic evolution in this unusual intestinal symbiont.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Tang CC, Hu YR, Zhang M, et al (2024)

Role of phosphate in microalgal-bacterial symbiosis system treating wastewater containing heavy metals.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(24)00665-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Phosphorus is one of the important factors to successfully establish the microalgal-bacterial symbiosis (MABS) system. The migration and transformation of phosphorus can occur in various ways, and the effects of phosphate on the MABS system facing environmental impacts like heavy metal stress are often ignored. This study investigated the roles of phosphate on the response of the MABS system to Zn[2+]. The results showed that the pollutant removal effect in the MABS system was significantly reduced, and microbial growth and activity were inhibited with the presence of zinc ion (Zn[2+]). When phosphate and Zn[2+] coexisted, the inhibition effects of pollutants removal and microbial growth rate were mitigated compared to that of only with the presence of Zn[2+], with the increasing rates of 28.3% for total nitrogen removal, 37% for chemical oxygen demand removal, 78.3% for chlorophyll a concentration, and 13.3% for volatile suspended solids concentration. When phosphate was subsequently supplemented in the MABS system after adding Zn[2+], both pollutants removal efficiency and microbial growth and activity were not recovered. Thus, the inhibition effect of Zn[2+] on the MABS system was irreversible. Further analysis showed that Zn[2+] preferentially combined with phosphate could form chemical precipitate, which reduced the fixation of MABS system for Zn[2+] through extracellular adsorption and intracellular uptake. Under Zn[2+] stress, the succession of microbial communities occurred, and Parachlorella was more tolerant to Zn[2+]. This study revealed the comprehensive response mechanism of the co-effects of phosphate and Zn[2+] on the MABS system, and provided some insights for the MABS system treating wastewater containing heavy metals, as well as migration and transformation of heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Dingemanse NJ, A Guse (2024)

Linking cell biology and ecology to understand coral symbiosis evolution.

PLoS biology, 22(4):e3002593 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-24-00342.

Understanding the evolution of coral endosymbiosis requires a predictive framework that integrates life-history theory and ecology with cell biology. The time has come to bridge disciplines and use a model systems approach to achieve this aim.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Coale TH, Loconte V, Turk-Kubo KA, et al (2024)

Nitrogen-fixing organelle in a marine alga.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 384(6692):217-222.

Symbiotic interactions were key to the evolution of chloroplast and mitochondria organelles, which mediate carbon and energy metabolism in eukaryotes. Biological nitrogen fixation, the reduction of abundant atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) to biologically available ammonia, is a key metabolic process performed exclusively by prokaryotes. Candidatus Atelocyanobacterium thalassa, or UCYN-A, is a metabolically streamlined N2-fixing cyanobacterium previously reported to be an endosymbiont of a marine unicellular alga. Here we show that UCYN-A has been tightly integrated into algal cell architecture and organellar division and that it imports proteins encoded by the algal genome. These are characteristics of organelles and show that UCYN-A has evolved beyond endosymbiosis and functions as an early evolutionary stage N2-fixing organelle, or "nitroplast."

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Han Q, Shi X, Kang K, et al (2024)

Silver Nanoparticles In Situ Enhanced Electrochemiluminescence of the Porphyrin Organic Matrix for Highly Sensitive and Rapid Monitoring of Tetracycline Residues.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Accurate monitoring of tetracycline (TC) residues in the environment is crucial for avoiding contaminant risk. Herein, a novel TC biosensor was facilely designed by integrating silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) into the porphyrin metal-organic matrix (Ag@AgPOM) as a bifunctional electrochemiluminescence (ECL) probe. Different from the step-by-step synthesis of the co-reaction accelerator and ECL emitter, the co-reaction accelerators Ag NPs were in situ-grown on the surface of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) via a simple one-pot approach. Symbiotic Ag NPs on Ag@AgPOM formed an intimate interface and increased the collision efficiency of the ECL reaction, achieving the ECL enhancement of TCPP. Under the optimized conditions, the ternary ECL biosensor showed a wide linear detection range toward TC with a low detection limit of 0.14 fmol L[-1]. Compared with the traditional HPLC and ELISA methods, satisfied analytical adaptability made this sensing strategy feasible to monitor TC in complex environmental samples.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Massoud R, Jafari R, K Khosravi-Darani (2024)

Kombucha as a Health-Beneficial Drink for Human Health.

Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) [Epub ahead of print].

Kombucha is a unique fermented beverage made from a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria. Kombucha is normally based on black tea added to water, then sugar is added as a substrate for fermentation in this beverage. This unique beverage is composed of amino acids, flavonoids, vitamins, and some active enzymes. Several beneficial health effects such as antioxidant, antimicrobial effects have been reported as a result of probiotics and prebiotics presence. These health effects of kombucha are attributed to its bioactive chemical and biological agents of probiotics bacteria e.g., Gluconobacter, Acetobacter and yeasts like Saccharomyces sps., along with glucuronic acid as the main sources of the health protection. This review focuses on the beneficial effects of Kombucha including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cancer antidiabetic properties, as well as liver protection, treat of gastrointestinal problems, AIDS, gastric ulcers, obesity (and energy production), detoxification, and skin health.

RevDate: 2024-04-12
CmpDate: 2024-04-12

Li T, Ye ZX, Feng KH, et al (2024)

Molecular and biological characterization of a bunyavirus infecting the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens).

The Journal of general virology, 105(4):.

A negative-strand symbiotic RNA virus, tentatively named Nilaparvata lugens Bunyavirus (NLBV), was identified in the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that NLBV is a member of the genus Mobuvirus (family Phenuiviridae, order Bunyavirales). Analysis of virus-derived small interfering RNA suggested that antiviral immunity of BPH was successfully activated by NLBV infection. Tissue-specific investigation showed that NLBV was mainly accumulated in the fat-body of BPH adults. Moreover, NLBV was detected in eggs of viruliferous female BPHs, suggesting the possibility of vertical transmission of NLBV in BPH. Additionally, no significant differences were observed for the biological properties between NLBV-infected and NLBV-free BPHs. Finally, analysis of geographic distribution indicated that NLBV may be prevalent in Southeast Asia. This study provided a comprehensive characterization on the molecular and biological properties of a symbiotic virus in BPH, which will contribute to our understanding of the increasingly discovered RNA viruses in insects.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Pang F, Li Q, Solanki MK, et al (2024)

Soil phosphorus transformation and plant uptake driven by phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1383813.

Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for plants, and a lack of available P greatly limits plant growth and development. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs) significantly enhance the ability of plants to absorb and utilize P, which is important for improving plant nutrient turnover and yield. This article summarizes and analyzes how PSMs promote the absorption and utilization of P nutrients by plants from four perspectives: the types and functions of PSMs, phosphate-solubilizing mechanisms, main functional genes, and the impact of complex inoculation of PSMs on plant P acquisition. This article reviews the physiological and molecular mechanisms of phosphorus solubilization and growth promotion by PSMs, with a focus on analyzing the impact of PSMs on soil microbial communities and its interaction with root exudates. In order to better understand the ability of PSMs and their role in soil P transformation and to provide prospects for research on PSMs promoting plant P absorption. PSMs mainly activate insoluble P through the secretion of organic acids, phosphatase production, and mycorrhizal symbiosis, mycorrhizal symbiosis indirectly activates P via carbon exchange. PSMs can secrete organic acids and produce phosphatase, which plays a crucial role in soil P cycling, and related genes are involved in regulating the P-solubilization ability. This article reviews the mechanisms by which microorganisms promote plant uptake of soil P, which is of great significance for a deeper understanding of PSM-mediated soil P cycling, plant P uptake and utilization, and for improving the efficiency of P utilization in agriculture.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Guo H, Liu W, Xie Y, et al (2024)

Soil microbiome of shiro reveals the symbiotic relationship between Tricholoma bakamatsutake and Quercus mongolica.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1361117.

Tricholoma bakamatsutake is a delicious and nutritious ectomycorrhizal fungus. However, its cultivation is hindered owing to limited studies on its symbiotic relationships. The symbiotic relationship between T. bakamatsutake and its host is closely related to the shiro, a complex network composed of mycelium, mycorrhizal roots, and surrounding soil. To explore the symbiotic relationship between T. bakamatsutake and its host, soil samples were collected from T. bakamatsutake shiro (Tb) and corresponding Q. mongolica rhizosphere (CK) in four cities in Liaoning Province, China. The physicochemical properties of all the soil samples were then analyzed, along with the composition and function of the fungal and bacterial communities. The results revealed a significant increase in total potassium, available nitrogen, and sand in Tb soil compared to those in CK soil, while there was a significant decrease in pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, and silt. The fungal community diversity in shiro was diminished, and T. bakamatsutake altered the community structure of its shiro by suppressing other fungi, such as Russula (ectomycorrhizal fungus) and Penicillium (phytopathogenic fungus). The bacterial community diversity in shiro increased, with the aggregation of mycorrhizal-helper bacteria, such as Paenibacillus and Bacillus, and plant growth-promoting bacteria, such as Solirubrobacter and Streptomyces, facilitated by T. bakamatsutake. Microbial functional predictions revealed a significant increase in pathways associated with sugar and fat catabolism within the fungal and bacterial communities of shiro. The relative genetic abundance of carboxylesterase and gibberellin 2-beta-dioxygenase in the fungal community was significantly increased, which suggested a potential symbiotic relationship between T. bakamatsutake and Q. mongolica. These findings elucidate the microbial community and relevant symbiotic environment to better understand the relationship between T. bakamatsutake and Q. mongolica.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Jansen CA, Zanzarin DM, Março PH, et al (2024)

Metabolomic kinetics investigation of Camellia sinensis kombucha using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches.

Heliyon, 10(7):e28937.

Kombucha is created through the fermentation of Camellia sinensis tea leaves, along with sucrose, utilizing a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeast cultures. Nonetheless, there exists a dearth of comprehensive information regarding the spectrum of metabolites that constitute this beverage. To explore this intricate system, metabolomics was used to investigate fermentation kinetics of Kombucha. For that, an experimental framework was devised to assess the impact of varying sucrose concentrations and fermentation temperatures over a ten-day period of kombucha fermentation. Following fermentation, samples were analyzed using an LC-QTOF-MS system and a distinctive metabolomic profile was observed. Principal component analysis was used to discriminate between metabolite profiles. Moreover, the identified compounds were subjected to classification using the GNPS platform. The findings underscore notable differences in compound class concentrations attributable to distinct fermentation conditions. Furthermore, distinct metabolic pathways were identified, specially some related to the biotransformation of flavonoids. This comprehensive investigation offers valuable insights into the pivotal role of SCOBY in driving metabolite production and underscores the potential bioactivity harbored within Kombucha.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Zabalgogeazcoa I, Arellano JB, Mellado-Ortega E, et al (2024)

Symbiotic fungi from a wild grass (Celtica gigantea) increase the growth, grain yield and quality of tritordeum under field conditions.

AoB PLANTS, 16(2):plae013.

Plants function in symbiosis with numerous microorganisms, which might contribute to their adaptation and performance. In this study, we tested whether fungal strains in symbiotic interaction with roots of Celtica gigantea, a wild grass adapted to nutrient-poor soils in semiarid habitats, could improve the field performance of the agricultural cereal tritordeum (Triticum durum × Hordeum chilense). Seedlings of tritordeum were inoculated with 12 different fungal strains isolated from roots of Celtica gigantea that were first proved to promote the growth of tritordeum plants under greenhouse conditions. The inoculated seedlings were transplanted to field plots at two locations belonging to different climatic zones in terms of mean temperatures and precipitation in the Iberian Peninsula. Only one strain, Diaporthe iberica T6, had a significant effect on plant height, number of tillers and grain yield in one location. This result showed a substantial divergence between the results of greenhouse and field tests. In terms of grain nutritional quality, several parameters were differentially affected at both locations: Diaporthe T6, Pleosporales T7, Zygomycota T29 and Zygomycota T80 increased the content of total carotenoids, mainly lutein, in the colder location; whereas gluten proteins increased with several treatments in the warmer location. In conclusion, early inoculation of tritordeum plants with fungal symbionts had substantial beneficial effects on subsequent plant growth and development in the field. Regarding grain nutritional quality, the effect of inoculation was affected by the agroclimatic differences between both field locations.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Güngör E, Savary J, Adema K, et al (2024)

The crane fly glycosylated triketide δ-lactone cornicinine elicits akinete differentiation of the cyanobiont in aquatic Azolla fern symbioses.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

The restriction of plant-symbiont dinitrogen fixation by an insect semiochemical had not been previously described. Here we report on a glycosylated triketide δ-lactone from Nephrotoma cornicina crane flies, cornicinine, that causes chlorosis in the floating-fern symbioses from the genus Azolla. Only the glycosylated trans-A form of chemically synthesized cornicinine was active: 500 nM cornicinine in the growth medium turned all cyanobacterial filaments from Nostoc azollae inside the host leaf-cavities into akinetes typically secreting CTB-bacteriocins. Cornicinine further inhibited akinete germination in Azolla sporelings, precluding re-establishment of the symbiosis during sexual reproduction. It did not impact development of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana or several free-living cyanobacteria from the genera Anabaena or Nostoc but affected the fern host without cyanobiont. Fern-host mRNA sequencing from isolated leaf cavities confirmed high NH4-assimilation and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in this trichome-rich tissue. After cornicinine treatment, it revealed activation of Cullin-RING ubiquitin-ligase-pathways, known to mediate metabolite signaling and plant elicitation consistent with the chlorosis phenotype, and increased JA-oxidase, sulfate transport and exosome formation. The work begins to uncover molecular mechanisms of cyanobiont differentiation in a seed-free plant symbiosis important for wetland ecology or circular crop-production today, that once caused massive CO2 draw-down during the Eocene geological past.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Yue C, Du C, Wang X, et al (2024)

Powdery mildew-induced changes in phyllosphere microbial community dynamics of cucumber.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7643848 [Epub ahead of print].

As an important habitat for microorganisms, the phyllosphere has a great impact on plant growth and health, and changes in phyllosphere microorganisms are closely related to the occurrence of leaf diseases. However, there remains a limited understanding regarding alterations to the microbial community in the phyllosphere resulting from pathogen infections. Here, we analyzed and compared the differences in phyllosphere microorganisms of powdery mildew cucumber from three disease severity levels (0% < L1 < 30%, 30% ≤ L2 < 50%, L3 ≥ 50%, the number represents the lesion coverage rate of powdery mildew on leaves). There were significant differences in α diversity and community structure of phyllosphere communities under different disease levels. Disease severity altered the community structure of phyllosphere microorganisms, Rosenbergiella, Rickettsia, and Cladosporium accounted for the largest proportion in the L1 disease grade, while Bacillus, Pantoea, Kocuria, and Podosphaera had the highest relative abundance in the L3 disease grade. The co-occurrence network analysis of the phyllosphere microbial community indicated that the phyllosphere bacterial community was most affected by the severity of disease. Our results suggested that with the development of cucumber powdery mildew, the symbiotic relationship between species was broken, and the entire bacterial community tended to compete.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

de Carvalho Neta SJ, Araújo VLVP, Fracetto FJC, et al (2024)

Growth-promoting bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhance maize tolerance to saline stress.

Microbiological research, 284:127708 pii:S0944-5013(24)00109-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change intensifies soil salinization and jeopardizes the development of crops worldwide. The accumulation of salts in plant tissue activates the defense system and triggers ethylene production thus restricting cell division. We hypothesize that the inoculation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) producing ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase favors the development of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), promoting the growth of maize plants under saline stress. We investigated the efficacy of individual inoculation of PGPB, which produce ACC deaminase, as well as the co-inoculation of PGPB with Rhizophagus clarus on maize plant growth subjected to saline stress. The isolates were acquired from the bulk and rhizospheric soil of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze in a temporary pond located in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In the first greenhouse experiment, 10 halophilic PGPB were inoculated into maize at 0, 40 and 80 mM of NaCl, and in the second experiment, the PGPB that showed the best performance were co-inoculated with R. clarus in maize under the same conditions as in the first experiment. Individual PGPB inoculation benefited the number of leaves, stem diameter, root and shoot dry mass, and the photosynthetic pigments. Inoculation with PGPB 28-10 Pseudarthrobacter enclensis, 24-1 P. enclensis and 52 P. chlorophenolicus increased the chlorophyll a content by 138%, 171%, and 324% at 0, 40 and 80 mM NaCl, respectively, comparing to the non-inoculated control. We also highlight that the inoculation of PGPB 28-10, 28-7 Arthrobacter sp. and 52 increased the content of chlorophyll b by 72%, 98%, and 280% and carotenoids by 82%, 98%, and 290% at 0, 40 and 80 mM of NaCl, respectively. Co-inoculation with PGPB 28-7, 46-1 Leclercia tamurae, 70 Artrobacter sp., and 79-1 Micrococcus endophyticus significantly increased the rate of mycorrhizal colonization by roughly 50%. Furthermore, co-inoculation promoted a decrease in the accumulation of Na and K extracted from plant tissue, with an increase in salt concentration, from 40 mM to 80 mM, also favoring the establishment and development of R. clarus. In addition, co-inoculation of these PGPB with R. clarus promoted maize growth and increased plant biomass through osmoregulation and protection of the photosynthetic apparatus. The tripartite symbiosis (plant-fungus-bacterium) is likely to reprogram metabolic pathways that improve maize growth and crop yield, suggesting that the AMF-PGPB consortium can minimize damages caused by saline stress.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Vandana V, Dong S, Sheth T, et al (2024)

Wolbachia infection-responsive immune genes suppress Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles stephensi.

PLoS pathogens, 20(4):e1012145 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-24-00022 [Epub ahead of print].

Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted symbiotic bacterium of insects, can suppress a variety of human pathogens in mosquitoes, including malaria-causing Plasmodium in the Anopheles vector. However, the mechanistic basis of Wolbachia-mediated Plasmodium suppression in mosquitoes is not well understood. In this study, we compared the midgut and carcass transcriptomes of stably infected Anopheles stephensi with Wolbachia wAlbB to uninfected mosquitoes in order to discover Wolbachia infection-responsive immune genes that may play a role in Wolbachia-mediated anti-Plasmodium activity. We show that wAlbB infection upregulates 10 putative immune genes and downregulates 14 in midguts, while it upregulates 31 putative immune genes and downregulates 15 in carcasses at 24 h after blood-fed feeding, the time at which the Plasmodium ookinetes are traversing the midgut tissue. Only a few of these regulated immune genes were also significantly differentially expressed between Wolbachia-infected and non-infected midguts and carcasses of sugar-fed mosquitoes. Silencing of the Wolbachia infection-responsive immune genes TEP 4, TEP 15, lysozyme C2, CLIPB2, CLIPB4, PGRP-LD and two novel genes (a peritrophin-44-like gene and a macro domain-encoding gene) resulted in a significantly greater permissiveness to P. falciparum infection. These results indicate that Wolbachia infection modulates mosquito immunity and other processes that are likely to decrease Anopheles permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Yang L, Lawhorn S, Bongrand C, et al (2024)

Bacterial growth dynamics in a rhythmic symbiosis.

Molecular biology of the cell [Epub ahead of print].

The symbiotic relationship between the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes serves as a valuable system to investigate bacterial growth and peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis within animal tissues. To better understand the growth dynamics of V. fischeri in the crypts of the light-emitting organ of its juvenile host, we showed that, after the daily dawn-triggered expulsion of most of the population, the remaining symbionts rapidly proliferate for about 6 h. At that point the population enters a period of extremely slow growth that continues throughout the night until the next dawn. Further, we found that PG synthesis by the symbionts decreases as they enter the slow-growing stage. Surprisingly, in contrast to the most mature crypts (i.e., Crypt 1) of juvenile animals, most of the symbiont cells in the least mature crypts (i.e., Crypt 3) were not expelled and, instead, remained in the slow-growing state throughout the day, with almost no cell division. Consistent with this observation, the expression of the gene encoding the PG-remodeling enzyme, L,D-transpeptidase (LdtA), was greatest during the slowly growing stage of Crypt 1 but, in contrast, remained continuously high in Crypt 3. Finally, deletion of the ldtA gene resulted in a symbiont that grew and survived normally in culture, but was increasingly defective in competing against its parent strain in the crypts. This result suggests that remodeling of the PG to generate additional 3-3 linkages contributes to the bacterium's fitness in the symbiosis, possibly in response to stresses encountered during the very slow-growing stage. [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text].

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Wang YW, Bai DS, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

The role of afforestation with diverse woody species in enhancing and restructuring the soil microenvironment in polymetallic coal gangue dumps.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

To elucidate the effects of long-term (20 years) afforestation with different woody plant species on the soil microenvironment in coal gangue polymetallic contaminated areas. This study analyzed the soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities, soil ionophore, bacterial community structure, soil metabolite, and their interaction relationships at different vertical depths. Urease, sucrase, and acid phosphatase activities in the shallow soil layers increased by 4.70-7.45, 3.83-7.64, and 3.27-4.85 times, respectively, after the restoration by the four arboreal plant species compared to the plant-free control soil. Additionally, it reduced the content of available elements in the soil and alleviated the toxicity stress for Cd, Ni, Co, Cr, As, Fe, Cu, U, and Pb. After the long-term restoration of arboreal plants, the richness and Shannon indices of soil bacteria significantly increased by 4.77-23.81% and 2.93-7.93%, respectively, broadening the bacterial ecological niche. The bacterial community structure shaped by different arboreal plants exhibited high similarity, but the community similarity decreased with increasing vertical depth. Soils Zn, U, Sr, S, P, Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Ca, Ba, and pH were identified as important influencing factors for the community structure of Sphingomonas, Pseudarthrobacter, Nocardioides, and Thiobacillus. The metabolites such as sucrose, raffinose, L-valine, D-fructose 2, 6-bisphosphate, and oxoglutaric acid were found to have the greatest effect on the bacterial community in the rhizosphere soils for arboreal plants. The results of the study demonstrated that long-term planting for woody plants in gangue dumps could regulate microbial abundance and symbiotic patterns through the accumulation of rhizosphere metabolites in the soil, increase soil enzyme activity, reduce heavy metal levels, and improve the soil environment in coal gangue dumps.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Li D, Wang X, Chen K, et al (2024)

IFI35 regulates non-canonical NF-κB signaling to maintain glioblastoma stem cells and recruit tumor-associated macrophages.

Cell death and differentiation [Epub ahead of print].

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor characterized by a highly heterogeneous and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). The symbiotic interactions between glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) in the TME are critical for tumor progression. Here, we identified that IFI35, a transcriptional regulatory factor, plays both cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic roles in maintaining GSCs and the immunosuppressive TME. IFI35 induced non-canonical NF-kB signaling through proteasomal processing of p105 to the DNA-binding transcription factor p50, which heterodimerizes with RELB (RELB/p50), and activated cell chemotaxis in a cell-autonomous manner. Further, IFI35 induced recruitment and maintenance of M2-like TAMs in TME in a paracrine manner. Targeting IFI35 effectively suppressed in vivo tumor growth and prolonged survival of orthotopic xenograft-bearing mice. Collectively, these findings reveal the tumor-promoting functions of IFI35 and suggest that targeting IFI35 or its downstream effectors may provide effective approaches to improve GBM treatment.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Mujica MI, Silva-Flores P, Bueno CG, et al (2024)

Integrating perspectives in developing mycorrhizal trait databases: a call for inclusive and collaborative continental efforts.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Global assessments of mycorrhizal symbiosis present large sampling gaps in rich biodiversity regions. Filling these gaps is necessary to build large-scale, unbiased mycorrhizal databases to obtain reliable analyses and prevent misleading generalizations. Underrepresented regions in mycorrhizal research are mainly in Africa, Asia, and South America. Despite the high biodiversity and endemism in these regions, many groups of organisms remain understudied, especially mycorrhizal fungi. In this Viewpoint, we emphasize the importance of inclusive and collaborative continental efforts in integrating perspectives for comprehensive trait database development and propose a conceptual framework that can help build large mycorrhizal databases in underrepresented regions. Based on the four Vs of big data (volume, variety, veracity, and velocity), we identify the main challenges of constructing a large mycorrhizal dataset and propose solutions for each challenge. We share our collaborative methodology, which involves employing open calls and working groups to engage all mycorrhizal researchers in the region to build a South American Mycorrhizal Database. By fostering interdisciplinary collaborations and embracing a continental-scale approach, we can create robust mycorrhizal trait databases that provide valuable insights into the evolution, ecology, and functioning of mycorrhizal associations, reducing the geographical biases that are so common in large-scale ecological studies.

RevDate: 2024-04-11
CmpDate: 2024-04-11

Archibald JM (2024)

Symbiotic revolutions at the interface of genomics and microbiology.

PLoS biology, 22(4):e3002581.

Symbiosis is an old idea with a contentious history. New genomic technologies and research paradigms are fueling a shift in some of its central tenets; we need to be humble and open-minded about what the data are telling us.

RevDate: 2024-04-11
CmpDate: 2024-04-11

Zhong Q, Liao B, Liu J, et al (2024)

Episymbiotic Saccharibacteria TM7x modulates the susceptibility of its host bacteria to phage infection and promotes their coexistence.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(16):e2319790121.

Bacteriophages (phages) play critical roles in modulating microbial ecology. Within the human microbiome, the factors influencing the long-term coexistence of phages and bacteria remain poorly investigated. Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7) are ubiquitous members of the human oral microbiome. These ultrasmall bacteria form episymbiotic relationships with their host bacteria and impact their physiology. Here, we showed that during surface-associated growth, a human oral Saccharibacteria isolate (named TM7x) protects its host bacterium, a Schaalia odontolytica strain (named XH001) against lytic phage LC001 predation. RNA-Sequencing analysis identified in XH001 a gene cluster with predicted functions involved in the biogenesis of cell wall polysaccharides (CWP), whose expression is significantly down-regulated when forming a symbiosis with TM7x. Through genetic work, we experimentally demonstrated the impact of the expression of this CWP gene cluster on bacterial-phage interaction by affecting phage binding. In vitro coevolution experiments further showed that the heterogeneous populations of TM7x-associated and TM7x-free XH001, which display differential susceptibility to LC001 predation, promote bacteria and phage coexistence. Our study highlights the tripartite interaction between the bacterium, episymbiont, and phage. More importantly, we present a mechanism, i.e., episymbiont-mediated modulation of gene expression in host bacteria, which impacts their susceptibility to phage predation and contributes to the formation of "source-sink" dynamics between phage and bacteria in biofilm, promoting their long-term coexistence within the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Azri R, Lamine M, Bensalem-Fnayou A, et al (2024)

Genotype-Dependent Response of Root Microbiota and Leaf Metabolism in Olive Seedlings Subjected to Drought Stress.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(6):.

Under stress or in optimum conditions, plants foster a specific guild of symbiotic microbes to strengthen pivotal functions including metabolic regulation. Despite that the role of the plant genotype in microbial selection is well documented, the potential of this genotype-specific microbial assembly in maintaining the host homeostasis remains insufficiently investigated. In this study, we aimed to assess the specificity of the foliar metabolic response of contrasting olive genotypes to microbial inoculation with wet-adapted consortia of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), to see if previously inoculated plants with indigenous or exogenous microbes would display any change in their leaf metabolome once being subjected to drought stress. Two Tunisian elite varieties, Chetoui (drought-sensitive) and Chemleli (drought-tolerant), were tested under controlled and stressed conditions. Leaf samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) to identify untargeted metabolites. Root and soil samples were used to extract microbial genomic DNA destined for bacterial community profiling using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Respectively, the score plot analysis, cluster analysis, heat map, Venn diagrams, and Krona charts were applied to metabolic and microbial data. Results demonstrated dynamic changes in the leaf metabolome of the Chetoui variety in both stress and inoculation conditions. Under the optimum state, the PGPR consortia induced noteworthy alterations in metabolic patterns of the sensitive variety, aligning with the phytochemistry observed in drought-tolerant cultivars. These variations involved fatty acids, tocopherols, phenols, methoxyphenols, stilbenoids, triterpenes, and sugars. On the other hand, the Chemleli variety displaying comparable metabolic profiles appeared unaffected by stress and inoculation probably owing to its tolerance capacity. The distribution of microbial species among treatments was distinctly uneven. The tested seedlings followed variety-specific strategies in selecting beneficial soil bacteria to alleviate stress. A highly abundant species of the wet-adapted inoculum was detected only under optimum conditions for both cultivars, which makes the moisture history of the plant genotype a selective driver shaping microbial community and thereby a useful tool to predict microbial activity in large ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Slimani A, Ait-El-Mokhtar M, Ben-Laouane R, et al (2024)

Signals and Machinery for Mycorrhizae and Cereal and Oilseed Interactions towards Improved Tolerance to Environmental Stresses.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(6):.

In the quest for sustainable agricultural practices, there arises an urgent need for alternative solutions to mineral fertilizers and pesticides, aiming to diminish the environmental footprint of farming. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) emerge as a promising avenue, bestowing plants with heightened nutrient absorption capabilities while alleviating plant stress. Cereal and oilseed crops benefit from this association in a number of ways, including improved growth fitness, nutrient uptake, and tolerance to environmental stresses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms shaping the impact of AMF on these crops offers encouraging prospects for a more efficient use of these beneficial microorganisms to mitigate climate change-related stressors on plant functioning and productivity. An increased number of studies highlighted the boosting effect of AMF on grain and oil crops' tolerance to (a)biotic stresses while limited ones investigated the molecular aspects orchestrating the different involved mechanisms. This review gives an extensive overview of the different strategies initiated by mycorrhizal cereal and oilseed plants to manage the deleterious effects of environmental stress. We also discuss the molecular drivers and mechanistic concepts to unveil the molecular machinery triggered by AMF to alleviate the tolerance of these crops to stressors.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Guo L, Liu S, Zhang P, et al (2024)

Effects of Different Mulching Practices on Soil Environment and Fruit Quality in Peach Orchards.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(6):.

Mulching practices have been used to improve peach growth and production across the globe. However, the impact of mulching on the physiochemical properties and soil characteristics of orchards remains largely unknown. This study aimed to decipher the impacts of various mulching patterns on the soil environment and the quality of Prunus persica fruit in "Zijinhuangcui". Three treatments were set up, which included black ground fabric mulch (BF) and two living grass mulch treatments (HV: hairy vetch and RG: ryegrass). The results showed that different mulching treatments have different effects on soil, plant growth, and fruit quality. Living grass mulch treatments, especially the HV treatment, significantly improved soil nutrients by enhancing nitrogen-related indicators. Of note, the BF treatment had higher total phosphorus and available phosphorus contents than the HV and RG treatments. The HV treatment had the highest relative abundance of Proteobacteria (33.49%), which is associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation, followed by RG (25.62%), and BF (22.38%) at the young fruit stage. Similarly, the abundance of Terrimonas, which has a unique nitrogen fixation system at the genus level, was significantly higher in the living grass mulch (HV, 1.30-3.13% and RG, 2.27-4.24%) than in the BF treatment. Living grass mulch also promoted tree growth, increased fruit sugar content, sugar-related components, and sugar-acid ratio, and reduced the acid content. Collectively, the findings of this study show that living grass mulch can promote tree growth and improve fruit quality by improving soil fertility, bacterial diversity, and richness.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Zhang DJ, Tong CL, Wang QS, et al (2024)

Mycorrhizas Affect Physiological Performance, Antioxidant System, Photosynthesis, Endogenous Hormones, and Water Content in Cotton under Salt Stress.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(6):.

Saline-alkali stress seriously endangers the normal growth of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could enhance salt tolerance by establishing symbiotic relationships with plants. Based on it, a pot experiment was conducted to simulate a salt environment in which cotton was inoculated with Paraglomus occultum to explore its effects on the saline-alkali tolerance of cotton. Our results showed that salt stress noticeably decreased cotton seedling growth parameters (such as plant height, number of leaves, dry weight, root system architecture, etc.), while AMF exhibited a remarkable effect on promoting growth. It was noteworthy that AMF significantly mitigated the inhibitory effect of salt on cotton seedlings. However, AMF colonization in root and soil hyphal length were collectively descended via salt stress. With regard to osmotic regulating substances, Pro and MDA values in roots were significantly increased when seedlings were exposed to salt stress, while AMF only partially mitigated these reactions. Salt stress increased ROS levels in the roots of cotton seedlings and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD, POD, and CAT), while AMF mitigated the increases in ROS levels but further strengthened antioxidant enzyme activity. AMF inoculation increased the photosynthesis parameters of cotton seedling leaves to varying degrees, while salt stress decreased them dramatically. When inoculated with AMF under a salt stress environment, only partial mitigation of these photosynthesis values was observed. Under saline-alkali stress, AMF improved the leaf fluorescence parameters (φPSII, Fv'/Fm', and qP) of cotton seedlings, leaf chlorophyll levels, and root endogenous hormones (IAA and BR); promoted the absorption of water; and maintained nitrogen balance, thus alleviating the damage from salt stress on the growth of cotton plants to some extent. In summary, mycorrhizal cotton seedlings may exhibit mechanisms involving root system architecture, the antioxidant system, photosynthesis, leaf fluorescence, endogenous hormones, water content, and nitrogen balance that increase their resistance to saline-alkali environments. This study provide a theoretical basis for further exploring the application of AMF to enhance the salt tolerance of cotton.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Gong M, Bai N, Su J, et al (2024)

Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium reveals the molecular mechanisms of Ca[2+] signaling pathway on arsenic tolerance induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1362296.

INTRODUCTION: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been demonstrated their ability to enhance the arsenic (As) tolerance of host plants, and making the utilization of mycorrhizal plants a promising and practical approach for remediating As-contaminated soils. However, comprehensive transcriptome analysis to reveal the molecular mechanism of As tolerance in the symbiotic process between AMF and host plants is still limited.

METHODS: In this study, transcriptomic analysis of Gossypium seedlings was conducted with four treatments: non-inoculated Gossypium under non-As stress (CK0), non-inoculated Gossypium under As stress (CK100), F. mosseae-inoculated Gossypium under non-As stress (FM0), and F. mosseae-inoculated Gossypium under As stress (FM100).

RESULTS: Our results showed that inoculation with F. mosseae led to a reduction in net fluxes of Ca[2+], while increasing Ca[2+] contents in the roots and leaves of Gossypium under the same As level in soil. Notably, 199 and 3129 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were specially regulated by F. mosseae inoculation under As stress and non-As stress, respectively. Through Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation and enrichment analyses, we found that under As stress, F. mosseae inoculation up-regulated a significant number of genes related to the Ca[2+] signaling pathway genes, involved in cellular process, membrane part, and signal transduction. This suggests a potential role in mitigating As tolerance in Gossypium seedlings. Furthermore, our analysis identified specific DEGs in transcription factor families, including ERF, MYB, NAC, and WRKY, that were upregulated by F. mosseae inoculation. Conversely, MYB and HB-other were down-regulated. The ERF and MYB families exhibited the highest number of up- and down-regulated DEGs, respectively, which were speculated to play an important role in alleviating the As toxicity of Gossypium.

DISCUSSION: Our findings provided valuable insights into the molecular theoretical basis of the Ca[2+] signaling pathway in improving As tolerance of mycorrhizal plants in the future.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Wang X, Chi Y, S Song (2024)

Important soil microbiota's effects on plants and soils: a comprehensive 30-year systematic literature review.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1347745.

Clarifying the relationship between soil microorganisms and the plant-soil system is crucial for encouraging the sustainable development of ecosystems, as soil microorganisms serve a variety of functional roles in the plant-soil system. In this work, the influence mechanisms of significant soil microbial groups on the plant-soil system and their applications in environmental remediation over the previous 30 years were reviewed using a systematic literature review (SLR) methodology. The findings demonstrated that: (1) There has been a general upward trend in the number of publications on significant microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and archaea. (2) Bacteria and fungi influence soil development and plant growth through organic matter decomposition, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium element dissolution, symbiotic relationships, plant growth hormone production, pathogen inhibition, and plant resistance induction. Archaea aid in the growth of plants by breaking down low-molecular-weight organic matter, participating in element cycles, producing plant growth hormones, and suppressing infections. (3) Microorganism principles are utilized in soil remediation, biofertilizer production, denitrification, and phosphorus removal, effectively reducing environmental pollution, preventing soil pathogen invasion, protecting vegetation health, and promoting plant growth. The three important microbial groups collectively regulate the plant-soil ecosystem and help maintain its relative stability. This work systematically summarizes the principles of important microbial groups influence plant-soil systems, providing a theoretical reference for how to control soil microbes in order to restore damaged ecosystems and enhance ecosystem resilience in the future.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Huang J, Wang X, Li Q, et al (2024)

Effect of Mixed Probiotics on Ovalbumin-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Juvenile Mice.

International journal of microbiology, 2024:7172386.

Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common dermatologic problems, especially in children. Given the ability of symbiotic microorganisms in modulating the immune system, probiotics administration has been studied in previous research in the management of atopic dermatitis. However, there are conflicting results between studies. In this study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of mixed probiotics as a treatment option for atopic dermatitis induced by ovalbumin. BALB/c juvenile mice were classified and divided into the ovalbumin group, mixed probiotic group (ovalbumin + LK), and control group. Except for the control group, all mice were sensitized with ovalbumin to establish a model of atopic dermatitis. The mixed probiotics were given by gavage for 14 days. Mice body weight, skin lesions, skin inflammation, ovalbumin-specific Ig, the number of Treg and CD103[+]DC, and the expression level of PD-1/PD-L1 were examined. The results showed that mixed probiotics can improve body weight and alleviate skin symptoms. Mixed probiotics reduced serum Th2 inflammatory factors, eosinophils, mast cell degranulation, mast cell count, and the expression of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E/G1 and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, Treg cells, CD103[+]DC cells, and the expression level of PD-1/PD-L1. These findings suggest that mixed probiotics could be a viable treatment option for atopic dermatitis and provide insight into the underlying mechanisms involved.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Ye A, Shen JN, Li Y, et al (2024)

Reconstruction of the genome-scale metabolic network model of Sinorhizobium fredii CCBAU45436 for free-living and symbiotic states.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 12:1377334.

Sinorhizobium fredii CCBAU45436 is an excellent rhizobium that plays an important role in agricultural production. However, there still needs more comprehensive understanding of the metabolic system of S. fredii CCBAU45436, which hinders its application in agriculture. Therefore, based on the first-generation metabolic model iCC541 we developed a new genome-scale metabolic model iAQY970, which contains 970 genes, 1,052 reactions, 942 metabolites and is scored 89% in the MEMOTE test. Cell growth phenotype predicted by iAQY970 is 81.7% consistent with the experimental data. The results of mapping the proteome data under free-living and symbiosis conditions to the model showed that the biomass production rate in the logarithmic phase was faster than that in the stable phase, and the nitrogen fixation efficiency of rhizobia parasitized in cultivated soybean was higher than that in wild-type soybean, which was consistent with the actual situation. In the symbiotic condition, there are 184 genes that would affect growth, of which 94 are essential; In the free-living condition, there are 143 genes that influence growth, of which 78 are essential. Among them, 86 of the 94 essential genes in the symbiotic condition were consistent with the prediction of iCC541, and 44 essential genes were confirmed by literature information; meanwhile, 30 genes were identified by DEG and 33 genes were identified by Geptop. In addition, we extracted four key nitrogen fixation modules from the model and predicted that sulfite reductase (EC and nitrogenase (EC as the target enzymes to enhance nitrogen fixation by MOMA, which provided a potential focus for strain optimization. Through the comprehensive metabolic model, we can better understand the metabolic capabilities of S. fredii CCBAU45436 and make full use of it in the future.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Liu F, Ryu T, Ravasi T, et al (2024)

Niche-dependent sponge hologenome expression profiles and the host-microbes interplay: a case of the hawaiian demosponge Mycale Grandis.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):22.

BACKGROUND: Most researches on sponge holobionts focus primarily on symbiotic microbes, yet data at the level of the sponge hologenome are still relatively scarce. Understanding of the sponge host and its microbial gene expression profiles and the host-microbes interplay in different niches represents a key aspect of sponge hologenome. Using the Hawaiian demosponge Mycale grandis in different niches as a model, i.e. on rocks, on the surface of coral Porites compressa, under alga Gracilaria salicornia, we compared the bacterial and fungal community structure, functional gene diversity, expression pattern and the host transcriptome by integrating open-format (deep sequencing) and closed-format (GeoChip microarray) high-throughput techniques.

RESULTS: Little inter-niche variation in bacterial and fungal phylogenetic diversity was detected for M. grandis in different niches, but a clear niche-dependent variability in the functional gene diversity and expression pattern of M. grandis host and its symbiotic microbiota was uncovered by GeoChip microarray and transcriptome analyses. Particularly, sponge host genes related to innate immunity and microbial recognition showed a strong correlation with the microbial symbionts' functional gene diversity and transcriptional richness in different niches. The cross-niche variability with respect to the symbiont functional gene diversity and the transcriptional richness of M. grandis holobiont putatively reflects the interplay of niche-specific selective pressure and the symbiont functional diversity.

CONCLUSIONS: Niche-dependent gene expression profiles of M. grandis hologenome and the host-microbes interplay were suggested though little inter-niche variation in bacterial and fungal diversity was detected, particularly the sponge innate immunity was found to be closely related to the symbiotic microbes. Altogether, these findings provide novel insights into the black box of one sponge holobiont in different niches at the hologenome level.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Serrano K, Bezrutczyk M, Goudeau D, et al (2024)

Spatial co-transcriptomics reveals discrete stages of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Nature plants [Epub ahead of print].

The symbiotic interaction of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is ancient and widespread. Plants provide AM fungi with carbon in exchange for nutrients and water, making this interaction a prime target for crop improvement. However, plant-fungal interactions are restricted to a small subset of root cells, precluding the application of most conventional functional genomic techniques to study the molecular bases of these interactions. Here we used single-nucleus and spatial RNA sequencing to explore both Medicago truncatula and Rhizophagus irregularis transcriptomes in AM symbiosis at cellular and spatial resolution. Integrated, spatially registered single-cell maps revealed infected and uninfected plant root cell types. We observed that cortex cells exhibit distinct transcriptome profiles during different stages of colonization by AM fungi, indicating dynamic interplay between both organisms during establishment of the cellular interface enabling successful symbiosis. Our study provides insight into a symbiotic relationship of major agricultural and environmental importance and demonstrates a paradigm combining single-cell and spatial transcriptomics for the analysis of complex organismal interactions.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Nascimento da Silva J, Conceição CC, Ramos de Brito GC, et al (2024)

Immunometabolic crosstalk in Aedes fluviatilis Wolbachia pipientis symbiosis.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(24)01773-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Wolbachia pipientis is a maternally transmitted symbiotic bacterium that mainly colonizes arthropods, potentially affecting different aspects of the host's physiology, e.g. reproduction, immunity, and metabolism. It has been shown that Wolbachia modulates glycogen metabolism in mosquito Aedes fluviatilis (Ae. fluviatilis). Glycogen synthesis is controlled by the enzyme GSK3, which is also involved in immune responses in both vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. Here we investigated the mechanisms behind immune changes mediated by GSK3β in the symbiosis between Ae. fluviatilis and Wolbachia pipientis using a GSK3β inhibitor or RNAi-mediated gene silencing. GSK3β inhibition or knockdown increased glycogen content and Wolbachia population, together with a reduction in Relish2 (REL2) and gambicin transcripts. Furthermore, knockdown of REL2 or Caspar revealed that the Imd pathway acts to control Wolbachia numbers in the host. In conclusion, we describe for the first time the involvement of GSK3β in Ae. fluviatillis immune response, acting to control the Wolbachia endosymbiotic population.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Dolatabad HK, VAJ Mahjenabadi (2024)

Geographical and climatic distribution of lentil-nodulating rhizobia in Iran.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7642260 [Epub ahead of print].

Lentil is one of the most important legumes cultivated in various provinces of Iran. However, there is limited information about the symbiotic rhizobia of lentils in this country. In this study, molecular identification of lentil-nodulating rhizobia was performed based on 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and recA, atpD, glnII, and nodC gene sequencing. Using PCR-RFLP analysis of 16S-23S rRNA IGS, a total of 116 rhizobia isolates were classified into 20 groups, leaving seven strains unclustered. Phylogenetic analysis of representative isolates revealed that the rhizobia strains belonged to Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium laguerreae, and the distribution of the species is partially related to geographical location. R. leguminosarum was the dominant species in North Khorasan and Zanjan, while R. laguerreae prevailed in Ardabil and East Azarbaijan. The distribution of the species was also influenced by agroecological climates; R. leguminosarum thrived in cold semi-arid climates, whereas R. laguerreae adapted to humid continental climates. Both species exhibited equal dominance in the Mediterranean climate, characterized by warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters, in Lorestan and Kohgiluyeh-Boyer Ahmad provinces.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Adams TL (2024)

Politics, ecologies and professional regulation: The case of British Columbia's Professional Governance Act.

The British journal of sociology [Epub ahead of print].

A variety of theories have been proposed to explain why states pass legislation to regulate professional groups, and why, more recently, they have acted to curtail professional privileges. While these theories have drawn attention to the importance of power dynamics and public protection, among other factors, the role of political interests has been downplayed. This article builds on ecological theory to argue that, with some modifications, the theory illuminates the centrality of state-profession relations and politics to regulatory change. The theory is applied to a case study of regulatory change in British Columbia, Canada impacting resources-sector professions, with particular attention to the controversies and political considerations that shaped reform. The case study suggests that when the political and professions ecologies are overlapping and symbiotic, as they were in BC, a challenge in the political ecology can implicate professions, prompting a solution that brings change within both ecologies.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Chen H, Liu H, Sun Y, et al (2024)

Analysis of fecal microbiota and related clinical indicators in ICU patients with sepsis.

Heliyon, 10(7):e28480.

BACKGROUND: To analyze the characteristics of fecal microbiota disturbance in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis and the correlation with related clinical indicators.

METHODS: This study included 31 patients with sepsis admitted to the emergency ICU ward between September 2019 and December 2021. They were divided into Group without septic shock (ND_NS group, 7 cases) and Group with septic shock (ND_S group, 24 cases) according to the presence or absence of septic shock. Furthermore, we divided these 31 sepsis patients into Clinical Improvement group (21 cases) and Death or DAMA group (10 cases) based on clinical outcome, 15 cases of Physical Examiner recruited in the same period were included as control group: ND_HC group (15 cases). The fecal samples of the patients with sepsis within 24 h of admission and random fecal samples of the control group were collected and analyzed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing used for the analysis of fecal microbiota. At the same time, the relevant clinical data of these patients with sepsis were also collected for analysis.

RESULTS: There were 15 cases with drug-resistant bacteria in the ND_S group and only 2 cases in the ND_NS group (P = 0.015). There were significant differences in APACHE II score, length of ICU stay, lactate level, and oxygenation index of patients between the Death or DAMA group and Clinical Improvement group (all P < 0.05). For phylum level, the abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes decreased in the ND group compared with the ND_HC group, while the abundance of Proteobacteria increased (P < 0.05). For genus level, the relative abundance of Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella were significantly increased in the ND group compared with the ND_HC group (P < 0.05). The top six genera in relative abundance in the ND_S group were Escherichia-Shigella, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Akkermansia, and Klebsiella. Compared with the Clinical Improvement group, the relative abundance of Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella in the Death or DAMA group showed an increasing trend with no significant significance, while the relative abundance of Enterococcus and Faecalibacterium decreased in the Death or DAMA group (P < 0.05). Alpha diversity analysis showed that compared with the ND_HC group, the alpha diversity of the fecal microbiota in the ND group decreased. There were significant differences in the Observed_species index, Chao1 index, and ACE index of patients between the ND_HC group and ND group (all P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with the ND_NS group, the Alpha diversity of the ND_S group was more abundant. PCoA analysis showed significant differences in microbial community structure between the ND group and ND_HC group (P = 0.001). There also were significant differences in microbial community structure between the ND_S group and ND_NS group (P = 0.008). LEfSe analysis showed that compared with the ND_HC group, there were significant differences in the species of the ND group, including Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia-Shigella, Enterococcus, Elizabethkingia, and Family_XIII_AD3011_group.

CONCLUSIONS: ICU patients with sepsis suffered intestinal microecological disturbances with significantly decreased abundance of fecal microbiota, diversity, and beneficial symbiotic bacteria. For these patients, the ratio of pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella increased and became the main bacterial genus in some samples. Moreover, the increasing trend of these two pathogenic bacteria may be correlated with the development of septic shock and the risk of death in patients with sepsis.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Zhu H, Zhu J, Wang Y, et al (2024)

Osteomyelitis of the femur caused by Metamycoplasma orale in an immunocompromised patient using metagenomic next-generation sequencing: A case report.

Heliyon, 10(7):e28730.

BACKGROUND: Metamycoplasma orale (M.orale), a symbiotic bacterium observed in the human oral cavity, is generally regarded as non-pathogenic to humans. Although infrequent, symptomatic infections caused by M.orale may occur in individuals with compromised humoral immunity. Accurate identification and early diagnosis of M.orale still present significant challenges due the limitations associated with conventional detection methods. Although metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is currently widely utilized in clinical practices and exhibits a remarkable specificity and sensitivity for detecting various pathogens, its application in the diagnosis of M.orale-induced osteomyelitis remains largely unexplored.

CASE DESCRIPTION: In this report, we present a case study of osteonecrosis caused by M.orale in a 20-year-old female patient with nephrotic syndrome and other comorbidities. She was administered long-term hormone therapy and immunosuppressants, leading to her admission to the hospital due to recurrent fever, hip abscess and left thigh pain. Imaging examination revealed bilateral mid-femoral lesions, with the extensive nature of the left femoral lesion suggesting a potential secondary infection. Although no pathogen was detected in pus culture, mNGS analysis identified M.orale in the sample. Following treatment with doxycycline and levofloxacin, the patient's symotoms improved and she was discharged with favorable outcomes.

CONCLUSION: mNGS enables rapid identification of etiology in patients with osteomyelitis caused by the rare pathogen M.orale. This case accentuate the strength of mNGS for early detection and targeted clinical treatment of infectious diseases caused by uncommon pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Nishino T, Mukai H, Moriyama M, et al (2024)

Defensive fungal symbiosis on insect hindlegs.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.25.586038.

Tympanal organs as "insect ears" have evolved repeatedly. Dinidorid stinkbugs were reported to possess a conspicuous tympanal organ on female's hindlegs. Here we report an unexpected discovery that the stinkbug's "tympanal organ" is actually a novel symbiotic organ. The stinkbug's "tympanum" is not membranous but a porous cuticle, where each pore connects to glandular secretory cells. In reproductive females, the hindleg organ is covered with fungal hyphae growing out of the pores. Upon oviposition, the females skillfully transfer the fungi from the organ to the eggs. The eggs are quickly covered with hyphae and physically protected against wasp parasitism. The fungi are mostly benign Cordycipitaceae entomopathogens and show considerable diversity among insect individuals and populations, indicating environmental acquisition of specific fungal associates. These results uncover a novel external fungal symbiosis in which host's elaborate morphological, physiological and behavioral specializations underpin the selective recruitment of benign entomopathogens for a defensive purpose.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Gasser MT, Liu A, Altamia M, et al (2024)

Outer membrane vesicles can contribute to cellulose degradation in Teredinibacter turnerae, a cultivable intracellular endosymbiont of shipworms.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.27.587001.

Teredinibacter turnerae is a cultivable cellulolytic Gammaproeteobacterium (Cellvibrionaceae) that commonly occurs as an intracellular endosymbiont in the gills of wood-eating bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms). The genome of T. turnerae encodes a broad range of enzymes that deconstruct cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin and contribute to lignocellulose digestion in the shipworm gut. However, the mechanism by which symbiont-made enzymes are secreted by T. turnerae and subsequently transported to the site of lignocellulose digestion in the shipworm gut is incompletely understood. Here, we show that T. turnerae cultures grown on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that contain a variety of proteins identified by LC-MS/MS as carbohydrate-active enzymes with predicted activities against cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Reducing sugar assays and zymography confirm that these OMVs retain cellulolytic activity, as evidenced by hydrolysis of CMC. Additionally, these OMVs were enriched with TonB -dependent receptors, which are essential to carbohydrate and iron acquisition by free-living bacteria. These observations suggest potential roles for OMVs in lignocellulose utilization by T. turnerae in the free-living state, in enzyme transport and host interaction during symbiotic association, and in commercial applications such as lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Hill LJ, Messias CSMA, Vilela CLS, et al (2024)

Bacteria associated with the in hospite Symbiodiniaceae's phycosphere.

iScience, 27(4):109531.

Symbiotic interactions between Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria are still poorly explored, especially those in hospite. Here, we adapted a technique that allows for the enrichment of intact and metabolically active in hospite Symbiodiniaceae cells (ihSC) and their associated bacteria from the tissue of the model coral Pocillopora damicornis, using a discontinuous gradient of solution of isotonic Percoll (SIP). The ihSC were concentrated in the 50% SIP fraction, as determined by microscopy. The presence of bacteria associated with ihSC was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, while microbiome analysis indicated that bacteria of the families Halieaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, and Alcanivoraceae are significantly associated with ihSC. Extracellular vesicles that could be exuding molecules were detected on the symbiosome membranes. Our technique and data contribute to elucidate ihSC-bacteria interactions.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Valente EEL, Klotz JL, Markmann RC, et al (2024)

Levodopa attenuates the feed intake reduction caused by ergot alkaloids in cattle.

Journal of animal science, 102:.

Consumption of ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue results in losses to the livestock industry in many countries and a means to mitigate these losses is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate intra-abomasal infusion of the dopamine precursor, levodopa (L-DOPA), on dopamine metabolism, feed intake, and serum metabolites of steers exposed to ergot alkaloids. Twelve Holstein steers (344.9 ± 9.48 kg) fitted with ruminal cannula were housed with a cycle of heat challenge during the daytime (32 °C) and thermoneutral at night (25 °C). The steers received a basal diet of alfalfa cubes containing equal amounts of tall fescue seed composed of a mixture of endophyte-free (E-) or endophyte-infected tall fescue seeds (E+) equivalent to 15 µg ergovaline/kg body weight (BW) for 9 d followed by intra-abomasal infusion of water (L-DOPA-) or levodopa (L-DOPA+; 2 mg/kg BW) for an additional 9 d. Afterward, the steers were pair-fed for 5 d to conduct a glucose tolerance test. The E+ treatment decreased (P = 0.005) prolactin by approximately 50%. However, prolactin increased (P = 0.050) with L-DOPA+. Steers receiving E+ decreased (P < 0.001) dry matter intake (DMI); however, when supplemented with L-DOPA+ the decrease in DMI was less severe (L-DOPA × E, P = 0.003). Also, L-DOPA+ infusion increased eating duration (L-DOPA × E, P = 0.012) when steers were receiving E+. The number of meals, meal duration, and intake rate were not affected (P > 0.05) by E+ or L-DOPA+. The L-DOPA+ infusion increased (P < 0.05) free L-DOPA, free dopamine, total L-DOPA, and total dopamine. Conversely, free epinephrine and free norepinephrine decreased (P < 0.05) with L-DOPA+. Total epinephrine and total norepinephrine were not affected (P > 0.05) by L-DOPA+. Ergot alkaloids did not affect (P > 0.05) circulating free or total L-DOPA, dopamine, or epinephrine. However, free and total norepinephrine decreased (P = 0.046) with E+. Glucose clearance rates at 15 to 30 min after glucose infusion increased with L-DOPA+ (P < 0.001), but not with E+ (P = 0.280). Administration of L-DOPA as an agonist therapy to treat fescue toxicosis provided a moderate increase in DMI and eating time and increased plasma glucose clearance for cattle dosed with E+ seed.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Asomadu RO, Ezeorba TPC, Ezike TC, et al (2024)

Exploring the antioxidant potential of endophytic fungi: a review on methods for extraction and quantification of total antioxidant capacity (TAC).

3 Biotech, 14(5):127.

Endophytic fungi have emerged as a significant source of natural products with remarkable bioactivities. Recent research has identified numerous antioxidant molecules among the secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi. These organisms, whether unicellular or micro-multicellular, offer the potential for genetic manipulation to enhance the production of these valuable antioxidant compounds, which hold promise for promoting health, vitality, and various biotechnological applications. In this study, we provide a critical review of methods for extracting, purifying, characterizing, and estimating the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of endophytic fungi metabolites. While many endophytes produce metabolites similar to those found in plants with established symbiotic associations, we also highlight the existence of novel metabolites with potential scientific interest. Additionally, we discuss how advancements in nanotechnology have opened new avenues for exploring nanoformulations of endophytic metabolites in future studies, offering opportunities for diverse biological and industrial applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Marzonie MR, Nitschke MR, Bay LK, et al (2024)

Symbiodiniaceae diversity varies by host and environment across thermally distinct reefs.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodiniaceae) influence coral thermal tolerance at both local and regional scales. In isolation, the effects of host genetics, environment, and thermal disturbances on symbiont communities are well understood, yet their combined effects remain poorly resolved. Here, we investigate Symbiodiniaceae across 1300 km in Australia's Coral Sea Marine Park to disentangle these interactive effects. We identified Symbiodiniaceae to species-level resolution for three coral species (Acropora cf humilis, Pocillopora verrucosa, and Pocillopora meandrina) by sequencing two genetic markers of the symbiont (ITS2 and psbA[ncr]), paired with genotype-by-sequencing of the coral host (DArT-seq). Our samples predominantly returned sequences from the genus Cladocopium, where Acropora cf humilis affiliated with C3k, Pocillopora verrucosa with C. pacificum, and Pocillopora meandrina with C. latusorum. Multivariate analyses revealed that Acropora symbionts were driven strongly by local environment and thermal disturbances. In contrast, Pocillopora symbiont communities were both partitioned 2.5-fold more by host genetic structure than by environmental structure. Among the two Pocillopora species, the effects of environment and host genetics explained four times more variation in symbionts for P. meandrina than P. verrucosa. The concurrent bleaching event in 2020 had variable impacts on symbiont communities, consistent with patterns in P. verrucosa and A. cf humilis, but not P. meandrina. Our findings demonstrate how symbiont macroscale community structure responses to environmental gradients depend on host species and their respective population structure. Integrating host, symbiont, and environmental data will help forecast the adaptive potential of corals and their symbionts amidst a rapidly changing environment.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

Support this website:
Order from Amazon
We will earn a commission.

In this comprehensive history of symbiosis theory--the first to be written--Jan Sapp masterfully traces its development from modest beginnings in the late nineteenth century to its current status as one of the key conceptual frameworks for the life sciences. The symbiotic perspective on evolution, which argues that "higher species" have evolved from a merger of two or more different kinds of organisms living together, is now clearly established with definitive molecular evidence demonstrating that mitochondria and chloroplasts have evolved from symbiotic bacteria. In telling the exciting story of an evolutionary biology tradition that has effectively challenged many key tenets of classical neo-Darwinism, Sapp sheds light on the phenomena, movements, doctrines, and controversies that have shaped attitudes about the scope and significance of symbiosis. Engaging and insightful, Evolution by Association will be avidly read by students and researchers across the life sciences.

963 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226


E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )