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19 Apr 2021 at 01:35
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Bibliography on: Symbiosis


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 19 Apr 2021 at 01:35 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-04-17

Averkina IO, Harris M, Asare EO, et al (2021)

Pinpointing regulatory protein phosphatase 2A subunits involved in beneficial symbiosis between plants and microbes.

BMC plant biology, 21(1):183.

BACKGROUND: PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) expression is crucial for the symbiotic association between plants and various microbes, and knowledge on these symbiotic processes is important for sustainable agriculture. Here we tested the hypothesis that PP2A regulatory subunits, especially B'φ and B'θ, are involved in signalling between plants and mycorrhizal fungi or plant-growth promoting bacteria.

RESULTS: Treatment of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) with the plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas simiae indicated a role for the PP2A B'θ subunit in responses to PGPR. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influenced B'θ transcript levels in soil-grown plants with canonical arbuscular mycorrhizae. In plant roots, transcripts of B'φ were scarce under all conditions tested and at a lower level than all other PP2A subunit transcripts. In transformed tomato plants with 10-fold enhanced B'φ expression, mycorrhization frequency was decreased in vermiculite-grown plants. Furthermore, the high B'φ expression was related to abscisic acid and gibberellic acid responses known to be involved in plant growth and mycorrhization. B'φ overexpressor plants showed less vigorous growth, and although fruits were normal size, the number of seeds per fruit was reduced by 60% compared to the original cultivar.

CONCLUSIONS: Expression of the B'θ gene in tomato roots is strongly influenced by beneficial microbes. Analysis of B'φ overexpressor tomato plants and established tomato cultivars substantiated a function of B'φ in growth and development in addition to a role in mycorrhization.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Regvar M, Gogala N, P Zalar (1996)

Effects of jasmonic acid on mycorrhizal Allium sativum.

The New phytologist, 134(4):703-707.

In experiments on spruce we have shown that jasmonic acid (JA), a cyclopentanone fatty acid, influences the ectomycorrhizal formation: we therefore also applied it to an endomycorrhizal symbiosis. Garlic (Allium sativum (L.)) bulbs were potted into substrates inoculated or not with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), and one half of the plants was foliar-treated with 5 μm JA. A synergistic effect of JA treatment and AMF inoculation on shoot length was found. Root growth of inoculated plants was accelerated especially when JA was applied. Either JA or AMF inoculation significantly enhanced bulb development. Mycorrhizal colonization was promoted and the development of arbuscules and vesicles was enhanced upon JA application.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Cairney JWG, RM Burke (1996)

Physiological heterogeneity within fungal mycelia: an important concept for a functional understanding of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

The New phytologist, 134(4):685-695.

Individual mycelia of filamentous fungi display considerable heterogeneity at the physiological level. Important physiological processes such as nutrient absorption, extracellular enzyme secretion and solute translocation occur differentially within an individual mycelium, and vary according to spatio-temporal changes in patterns of gene expression as the mycelium develops and senesces. In ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, gene expression appears to be strongly influenced by interaction with the soil environment and the host root. The ECM mycelium is thus a complex and dynamic entity wherein discrete regions display particular physiological attributes. Physiological heterogeneity is important in the overall functioning of the symbiosis. In the particular case of movement of phosphorus from soil to host root in the ECM symbiosis, heterogeneity might provide the driving force for the integrated processes of absorption, translocation and transfer. It is suggested that it is only by considering the sum of the seemingly disparate physiological processes within the heterogeneous mycelium that mycorrhizal functioning can be fully understood.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Théberge MC, Prévost D, FP Chalifour (1996)

The effect of different temperatures on the fatty acid composition of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae in the faba bean symbiosis.

The New phytologist, 134(4):657-664.

Fatty acid composition was determined in cells of strains CBhS and CBp7 of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae grown at four temperatures (10, 15, 22 and 30°C), and in bacteroids and nodules formed with faba bean (Vicia faba L.) grown at two day/night temperature regimes (22/15 and 15/10°C). Growth temperature markedly affected the fatty acid composition of free-living bacteria in both strains studied, and both showed similar variations at each temperature. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increased significantly with lowering of temperature. The major fatty acid found in bacteria and bacteroids was cis-vaccenic (C18: 1Δ11), which comprised up to c. 78 (bacteria) and 56% (bacteroids) of total fatty acids. The presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic (C18:Δ,9,12) and linolenic (C18:3Δ9,12,15) acids) was noted only in bacteroids, indicating changes following the differentiation of bacteria into bacteroids in the nodules. The fatty acid composition of nodules was similar to that of bacteroids, although major differences were found in their proportions. The different day/night temperature regimes had contrasting effects in bacteroids and in nodules. In bacteroids of both strains, the proportions of stearic (C18:0) and linoleic (C18:Δ9,12) acids decreased at the lower temperature regime. In nodules, the proportion of stearic (C18:0) acid decreased, while that of linolenic (C18:3Δ9,12,15) acid increased at the lower temperature regime. However, those of cis-vaccenic (C18:1Δ11), linoleic (C18:Δ9,12,15) and palmitic (C16:0) acids increased or decreased depending on the rhizobial strain. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids increased with the lowering of temperatures in bacteroids of both strains, and varied in whole nodules depending on the strain. Strain CBp7 showed a greater symbiotic efficiency (dry matter yield) than strain CBh5 under both temperature regimes, but no relationship was found with the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of bacteria, bacteroids or nodules.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Hacin JI, Bohlool BB, PW Singleton (1997)

Partitioning of 14 C-labelled photosynthate to developing nodules and roots of soybean (Glycine max).

The New phytologist, 137(2):257-265.

A split-root growth system was used to study photosynthate partitioning to developing nodules and roots of soybean (Glycine max L., Merr). Opposite sides of the root systems were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum at 8 and 12 d after planting (early/delayed inoculation treatment) or, alternatively, only one side was inoculated 8 d after planting (early/uninoculated treatment). Plants were incubated with 14 CO2 at 24-h intervals from early inoculation until the onset of N2 fixation (acetylene reduction). After staining with Eriochrome black, root and nodule meristematic structures were excised under a dissecting microscope and their radioactivity determined by scintillation counting. The specific radioactivity of nodule structures increased with nodule development, and was as much as 4 times higher in early nodules than in roots and nodules on half-roots receiving delayed inoculation By the time that N2 fixation could be measured in the first mature nodules, the early inoculated half-root contained over 70% of the radioactivity recovered from the entire root systems of both early/delayed and early/uninotulated treatments. These results suggest that developing nodules create a strong sink for photosynthate, and that nodules and roots compete for current photosynthate. Early initiated nodules might develop at the expense of late initiated nodules, as well as at the expense of the roots themselves.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Hoffmann E, Wallenda T, Schaeffer C, et al (1997)

Cyclic AMP, a possible regulator of glycolysis in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria.

The New phytologist, 137(2):351-356.

The amounts of cyclic AMP (cAMP), fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP), trehalose and glycogen were determined in cell suspension cultures of the ectomycorrhiza-forming fungus Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Hooker. For the assay of cAMF a protocol was developed that enabled the detection of as little as 50 fmol of this secondary messenger by an enzyme-linked immuno assay (EIA). Values varied from < 1 and up to 5 pmol cAMP mg1 d. wt according to the age of the fungal culture. Typically, a transient increase in cAMP occurred after c. 4 d of culture of the fungus on glucose-containing medium. This increase (up to 100%) was followed by the start of the logarithmic growth phase, and by a more persistent increase in F26BP. In parallel, glucose in the medium started to decrease, whilst the amounts of fungal carbohydrates, especially the disaccharide trehalose, increased, From these data we assume that a high initial rate of glucose uptake caused an increase in the fungal pools of storage carbohydrates and, via activation of an adenylate cyclase, of cAMP. According to data reported for yeast cells this should enhance the formation of F26BP by phosphorylation of relevant enzymes. In animal and yeast cells an increase in the concentration of F26BP stimulates glycolysis by activation of the ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase (PFK). A. muscaria also possesses an F26BP activated PFK and, under conditions of symbiosis, host-derived carbohydrates are supplied mainly in the form of glucose. The implications of these findings to the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism of symbiotic plant root/fungus structures (ectomycorrhiza) are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Perotto S, Coisson JD, Perugini I, et al (1997)

Production of pectin-degrading enzymes by ericoid mycorrhizal fungi.

The New phytologist, 135(1):151-162.

Production of enzymes which degrade plant cell wall macromoleculea has been studied in relatively few ericoid fungal isolates, although these polymers arc a major component of the organic litter and an important source of nutrients for these fungi. Our aims were to investigate whether the ability to degrade the wall pectic component, only reported for one isolate, is a general feature of ericoid fungi. Of about 35 isolates from different geographic regions, all were capable of growing on pectin as the sole carbon source. Polygalacturonase (PG) activity was detected to a different degree in the culture filtrates and independently of the fungal growth rate. Solid and liquid isoelectric focusing allowed separation and identification of several polygalacturonase isoforms. Among the fungal isolates investigated, those from the northern hemisphere produced mostly acidic isoforms, whereas isolates from South Africa secreted more abundantly basic isoforms. However, purification and biochemical characterization of several PG isoforms from the different isolates revealed an optimal activity in the acidic pH range for all the PG enzymes tested. Polygalacturonase enzymes seem to be an important component of the enzymatic arsenal secreted by ericoid fungi during their saprotrophic life. In addition, they could also play a role during root colonization, since penetration across the plant cell wall is a prerequisite for the establishment of endomycorrhizal symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Sukarno N, Smith FA, Smith SE, et al (1996)

The effect of fungicides on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: II. The effects on area of interface and efficiency of P uptake and transfer to plant.

The New phytologist, 132(4):583-592.

Two experiments were conducted under controlled environmental conditions to determine the effects of the three fungicides, Benlate®. Aliette® and Ridomil®, on efficiency of P uptake from the soil and transfer across the living plant-fungal interface- of onion plants (Allium cepa L.) associated with Glomus sp. 'City Beach' (WUM 16), P applied to the soil did not apparently increase the rate of transfer (flux) of P to the plant via the fungal partner of the mytorrhiza. Benlate reduced P inflow and transfer across the interface in one of the experiments. The rate of P uptake per m living external hyphae was not affected but, as development of living external hyphae in the soil was reduced, the contribution of the fungus to P uptake was small. Aliette reduced growth of both shoots and roots, but apparently increased the accumulation of P in the tissues compared with controls. Ridomil reduced P inflow per m of root and P uptake per m living external hyphae, hut had no effect on the rate of P transfer across the interface. This led to a reduction in the overall contribution of the fungus to P nutrition.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Silvester WB, Parsons R, PW Watt (1996)

Direct measurement of release and assimilation of ammonia in the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiosis.

The New phytologist, 132(4):617-625.

In Gunnera, Nostoc cells invade secretory tissue forming well defined symbiotic areas within the stems and are termed internal nodules (Silvester, 1976). Excised, but intact, internal stem Nostoc nodules taken from Gunnera magellanica show light-stimulated nitrogenase activity and release a small, but measurable, proportion of their current N2 fixation as NH3 into the external solution. When nodules are disrupted and Nostoc extracted anaerobically, 90% or more of the estimated N2 fixation is released from the Nostoc cells as NH3 into the surrounding medium. Use of 15 N2 confirmed that only 12% of N2 fixed is retained within the cells of Nostoc. The remaining 88% was identified as NH3 released outside the cells. Within the intact nodule system, 15 N2 uptake showed that 2-5% of recently fixed N2 remains within the Nostoc cells and up to 30% of extracellular N is in asparagine after 1 h. Evidence is presented that stimulation of nitrogenase by light in the intact Gunnera/Nostoc system produces more NH3 than can be assimilated by the host cells, resulting in significant NH3 accumulation.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Balaguer L, Valladares F, Ascaso C, et al (1996)

Potential effects of rising tropospheric concentrations of CO2 and O3 on green-algal lichens.

The New phytologist, 132(4):641-652.

Pormelia sulcata Taylor was used as a model to examine the effects of elevated CO2 and/or O3 on green algal lichens. Thalli were exposed for 30 d in duplicate controlled-environment chambers to two atmospheric concentrations of CO2 ('ambient' [350μmol mol-1 ] and 'elevated' [700μmol mol-1 ] 24 h d-1) and two O3 regimes ('non-polluted' air [CF, < 5 nmol mol-1 ] and 'polluted' air [15 nmol mol-1 overnight rising to a midday maximum of 75 nmol mol-1 ]), in a factorial design. Elevated CO2 , or elevated O3 depressed the light saturated rate of CO2 , assimilation Asat) measured at ambient CO2 , by 30% and 18%, respectively. However, despite this effect ultrastructure) studies revealed increased lipid storage in cells of the photobiont in response to CO2 -enrichment. Simultaneous exposure to elevated O3 reduced CO2 -induced lipid accumulation and reduced Asat in an additive manner. Gold-antibody labelling revealed that the decline in photosynthetic capacity induced by elevated CO2 and/or O3 was accompanied by a parallel decrease in the concentration of Rubiscoa in the algal pyrenoid (r= 0.93). Interestingly, differences in the amount of Rubisco protein were not correlated with changes in pyrenoid volume. Measurements of in vivo chlorophyll-fluorescence induction kinetics showed that the decline in Asat induced by elevated CO2 , and/or O2 , was not associated with significant changes in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem (PS) II. Although the experimental conditions inevitably imposed some stress on the thalli, revealed as a significant decline in the efficiency of PS II photochemistry, and enhanced starch accumulation in the photobiont over the fornication period, the study shows that the green-algal lichen symbiosis might be influenced by future changes in atmospheric composition. Photosynthetic capacity, measured at ambient CO2 , was found to be reduced after a controlled 30 d exposure to elevated CO2 , and/or O3 and this effect was associated with a parallel decline in the amount of Rubisco in the pyrenoid of algal chloroplasts.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Andersen CP, PT Rygiewicz (1995)

Allocation of carbon in mycorrhizal Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ozone.

The New phytologist, 131(4):471-480.

The effect of ozone on tree growth and metabolism has been studied widely. Despite the research emphasis, relatively little is known about how the below-ground component responds when shoots are exposed to ozone, even though evidence suggests that ozone can affect roots more than shoots. Undemanding how ozone affects carbohydrate allocation throughout the plant is essential to understanding the mechanisms of response to ozone. The purpose of this study was to follow the allocation and metabolism of carbon in a Pinus Ponderosa Laws.-Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull.: St. Amans) Quel seedling system under ozone stress. The hypothesis that ozone affects carbon transport below ground and overall sink strength of roots. similarly in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings was tested. To test the hypothesis, a unique culturing system was used to quantify carbon movement to all components of the symbiosis and to construct an overall budget for carbon for both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Fluxes of CO2 and carbon allocation were followed by measuring instantaneous CO2 flux and by 14 C labelling. Two experiments were conducted that differed in their total ozone exposure (39.3 ppm h in expt 1, and 58.1 ppm h in expt 2). Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased CO., assimilation rates (A) and A/R (R = shoot respiration) ratios in both experiments compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Ozone exposure in expt 2 significantly decreased the A/R ratio (P < 0.003) in both mycorrhizal treatments. Below-ground respiration was significantly greater in mycorrhizal than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings in both experiments, and was not affected by ozone exposure, Intact, extramatrical hyphal respiration was lower by 33% in seedlings exposed to ozone, but differences were not statistically significant (P ≤ (0.167). Mycorrhizal seedling roots reached maximum respiratory 14 CO2 release rates c. 5 h and < 20 h earlier than non-mycorrhizal seedlings in expts 1 and 2, respectively, suggesting accelerated transport of 14 C below ground in mycorrhizal seedlings. Mycorrhizal seedlings also exhibited greater rates of 14 C release below ground than non-mycorrhizal controls. The maximum rate of respiratory release of 14 CO2 below ground was significantly reduced by exposure to ozone in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal treatments. Ozone significantly reduced 14 C activity in the fungus of mycorrhizal plants. This constitutes the first report of an ozone-induced reduction in carbon allocation to the fungal symbiont in a mycorrhizal association. The results suggest a substantial impact of ozone on the carbon balance of the mycorrhiza: however, there was no evidence to suggest that mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal ponderosa pine seedlings responded differently to ozone stress.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Smith FA, SE Smith (1997)

Structural diversity in (vesicular)-arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses.

The New phytologist, 137(3):373-388.

This review describes diversity in the structure of (vesicular)-arbuscutar (VA) mycorrhizas, i.e. endomycorrhizas formed by Glomalean fungi. In particular, we consider the extent in the plant kingdom of the two classes first described by Gallaud (1905). These are: (1) the Arum-type, defined on the basis of an extensive intercellular phase of hyphai growth in the root cortex and development of terminal arbuscules on intracellular hyphai branches; (2) the Paris-type, defined by the absence of the intercellular phase and presence of extensive intracellular hyphai coils. Arbuscules are intercalary structures on the coils. However, there have been many reports that in Paris-types arbuscules are relatively few in numbers, small, or absent altogether. A survey of the literature has revealed that Paris-types occur more frequently in the plant kingdom than Arum-types and predominate in ferns, gymnosperms and many wild angiosperms. The cultivated herbs that are the subject of much experimental work are mostly Arum-types. Although evidence is still limited, there are differences at the family level. In 41 angiosperm families there are records of only Poris-type VA mycorrhizas and in 30 families records of only Arum-types. Another 21 families have examples of both classes, or intermediates between them. Accordingly, we consider whether the original division into two classes is still useful. We conclude that it is when considering the physiology of the symbiosis and especially the issue of whether different fungus/host interfaces have specialized roles in transfer of inorganic nutrients and organic carbon between the partners, if there is no such specialization between hyphai coils and arbuscules, then the latter might not be necessary1 for the function of Paris-types. This would account for reports of the infrequency or absence of arbuscules in this class. The control exerted on structures by the genomes of host and fungus, and possible reasons (anatomical and physiological) for the existence of the VA mycorrhizal structures, are discussed. The presence or absence of extensive intercellular spaces and differences in the wall structure of cortical cells might be particularly important in determining which type of VA mycorrhiza is formed. CONTENTS Summary 373 I. Introduction: Arum-types and Pom-types 374 II. Possible functional implications 375 III. Extent of the two classes in the plant kingdom 377 IV. Is the distinction between classes useful? 383 V. The structural basis 383 VI. The role of the fungal genome 384 VII. Physiology revisited 384 VIII. Conclusions 385 Acknowledgements 386 References 386.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Anonymous (1997)


The New phytologist, 137(3):563-567.

Book reviewed in this article: Plant Biochemistry. Ed. by P. M. DEY and J. B. HARBORNE. In VitroHaploid Production in Higher Plants-Volume 4: Cereals. By S. MOHAN JAIN, S. K. SOPORY and R. E. VEILLEUX. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. By S. E. SMITH and D. J. READ. Principles and Practice of Managing Soilborne Plant Pathogens. Ed. by R. HALL. Turfgrass Diseases: Diagnosis and Management. By G. L. SCHUMANN and J. D. MacDONALD. Seaweed Ecology and Physiology. By C. S. LOBBAN and P. J. HARRISON.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Larsen J, Thingstrup I, Jakobsen I, et al (1996)

Benomyl inhibits phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in a Glomus-cucumber symbiosis.

The New phytologist, 132(1):127-133.

Short-term effects of benomyl on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus caledonium (Nicol. & Gerd.) Trappe and Gerdeman associated with Cucumis sativus L. were studied by measuring effects on fungal P transport and on fungal alkaline phosphatase activity. Mycorrhizal plants were grown in three compartment systems where nylon mesh was used to separate n root-free hyphal compartment (HC) and a root + hyphal compartment(RHC) from The main root compartment (RC). Non-mycorrhizal control plants were grown in similar growth units. After 6 wk benomyl was applied to the plants in three ways: as soil drenches to RHC or HC, or as u spray to the leaves. Benomyl was added in three concentrations. Equal amounts of 32 P and 33 P were added to the HC and to the RHC respectively, immediately after the application of benomyl. Plants were harvested 4-6 d later. Hyphal transport of 32 P from the HC was inhibited when benomyl was applied to the HC at 10 μg g-1 soil, whereas the uptake of 32 P from RHC I roots + hyphae) was reduced only at the highest dose of application to the RHC (100 μ g g-1 soil). In contrast to the marked reduction of benomyl on fungal P transport, the activity of fungal alkaline phosphatase inside the roots was unaffected by benomyl.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Smith FA (2000)

Measuring the influence of mycorrhizas.

The New phytologist, 148(1):4-6.

'The view that nutrient acquisition by most plants growing in natural ecosystems is mediated by mycorrhiza-forming symbiotic fungi is now largely accepted' (Read, 2000). Is this bold claim really true for the whole suite of mineral nutrients that plants require? The case is strongest for nutrients that are not very mobile in soil, especially when present in growth-limiting amounts, and phosphate (P) is the classic example. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are by far the most widespread mycorrhizal symbioses, and the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to take up soil nutrients such as P and transfer them to the host plant is an area of intense research. However, there is great variation in the extent to which AM plants benefit in measurable terms from the symbiosis under a given set of environmental conditions, and a paper in this issue, by Koide et al., addresses this problem (Koide et al., pp. 163-168). The variability is especially apparent in the field, thus obscuring the possible roles of mycorrhizas in community structure and succession (Fitter, 1985; McGonigle, 1988).

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Uetake Y, RL Peterson (1998)

Association between microtubules and symbiotic fungal hyphae in protocorm cells of the orchid species, Spiranthes sinensis.

The New phytologist, 140(4):715-722.

Seeds of the orchid species, Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames, were sterilized and germinated in vitro with the symbiotic fungus Ceratobasidium cornigerum (Bourdot) Rogers. Colonized embryos developed into protocorms and these were examined for changes in microtubule arrays, after initial invasion of fungal hyphae into embryos and during peloton formation and degradation. Methods utilized to detect microtubules included immunofluorescence combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy combined with morphometric analysis, and immunogold labelling. Microtubules were regularly found in close association with intracellular hyphae and degraded hyphal masses. Cortical microtubules disappear during peloton formation but reappear in cells that show fungal lysis. With conventional transmission electron microscopy and immunogold labelling the microtubules associated with fungal hyphae and degenerated hyphal masses were located close to the perifungal membrane that separates fungal hyphae from protocorm cytoplasm.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Genre A, P Bonfante (1998)

Actin versus tubulin configuration in arbuscule-containing cells from mycorrhizal tobacco roots.

The New phytologist, 140(4):745-752.

The involvement of the cytoskeleton in symbiotic interactions such as arbuscular mycorrhizas has received little attention. In this paper, we examine the organization of actin in tobacco mycorrhizal roots and compare actin and tubulin patterns within arbuscule-containing cells. Our results show drastic reorganization of microfilaments and microtubules upon fungal infection and how those new cytoskeletal patterns relate to the host cytoplasm rearrangement and the intracellular fungal structures. Whereas in uninfected cells a network of cortical and perinuclear actin filaments was observed, in infected cells actin filaments closely follow the fungal branches and envelop the whole arbuscule in a dense coating network. Microtubules are less closely connected with the fungus surface. They run across the whole arbuscule mass, linking branches to each other and to the host cell cortex and nucleus. These major differences between the two cytoskeletal components are used to advance some suggestions concerning their contribution to structural functions in the plant-fungus interactions during the mycorrhizal symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Karabaghli-Degron C, Sotta B, Bonnet M, et al (1998)

The auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibits the stimulation of in vitro lateral root formation and the colonization of the tap-root cortex of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor.

The New phytologist, 140(4):723-733.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor ((Marie) Orton), strain S238 N, in axenic conditions. The presence of the fungus slowed tap-root elongation by 26% during the first 15 d after inoculation and then stimulated it by 136%. In addition, it multiplied in vitro lateral root formation by 4.3, the epicotyl growth of the seedlings by 8.4 and the number of needles by 2. These effects were maintained when the fungus was separated from the roots by a cellophane membrane preventing symbiosis establishment, thus suggesting that the fungus acted by non-nutritional effects. We tested the hypothesis that IAA produced by L. bicolor S238 N would be responsible for the stimulation of fungal induced rhizogenesis. We showed in previous work that L. bicolor S238 N can synthesize IAA in pure culture. Exogenous IAA supplies (100 and 500 μm) reproduced the stimulating effect of the fungus on root branching but inhibited root elongation. The presence of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) in the culture medium significantly depressed lateral root formation of inoculated seedlings. As TIBA had no significant effect on IAA released in the medium by L. bicolor S238 N, but counteracted the stimulation of lateral rhizogenesis induced by an exogenous supply of IAA, we suggest that TIBA inhibited the transport of fungal IAA in the root. Furthermore TIBA blocked the colonization of the main root cortex by L. bicolor S238 N and the formation of the Hartig net. These results specified the role of fungal IAA in the stimulation of lateral rhizogenesis and in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Rai AN, Söderbäck E, B Bergman (2000)

Tansley Review No. 116: Cyanobacterium-plant symbioses.

The New phytologist, 147(3):449-481.

Cyanobacteria are an ancient, morphologically diverse group of prokaryotes with an oxygenic photosynthesis. Many cyanobacteria also possess the ability to fix N2 . Although well suited to an independent existence in nature, some cyanobacteria occur in symbiosis with a wide range of hosts (protists, animals and plants). Among plants, such symbioses have independently evolved in phylogenetically diverse genera belonging to the algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. These are N2 -fixing symbioses involving heterocystous cyanobacteria, particularly Nostoc, as cyanobionts (cyanobacterial partners). A given host species associates with only a particular cyanobiont genus but such specificity does not extend to the strain level. The cyanobiont is located under a microaerobic environment in a variety of host organs and tissues (bladder, thalli and cephalodia in fungi; cavities in gametophytes of hornworts and liverworts or fronds of the Azolla sporophyte; coralloid roots in cycads; stem glands in Gunnera). Except for fungi, the hosts form these structures ahead of the cyanobiont infection. The symbiosis lasts for one generation except in Azolla and diatoms, in which it is perpetuated from generation to generation. Within each generation, multiple fresh infections occur as new symbiotic tissues and organs develop. The symbioses are stable over a wide range of environmental conditions, and sensing-signalling between partners ensures their synchronized growth and development. The cyanobiont population is kept constant in relation to the host biomass through controlled initiation and infection, nutrient supply and cell division. In most cases, the partners have remained facultative, with the cyanobiont residing extracellularly in the host. However, in the water-fern Azolla and the freshwater diatom Rhopalodia the association is obligate. The cyanobionts occur intracellularly in diatoms, the fungus Geosiphon and the angiosperm Gunner a. Close cell-cell contact and the development of special structures ensure efficient nutrient exchange between the partners. The mobile nutrients are normal products of the donor cells, although their production is increased in symbiosis. Establishment of cyanobacterial-plant symbioses differs from chloroplast evolution. In these symbioses, the cyanobiont undergoes structural-functional changes suited to its role as provider of fixed N rather than fixed C, and the level of intimacy is far less than that of an organelle. This review provides an updated account of cyanobacterial-plant symbioses, particularly concerning developments during the past 10 yr. Various aspects of these symbioses such as initiation and development, symbiont diversity, recognition and signalling, structural-functional modifications, integration, and nutrient exchange are reviewed and discussed, as are evolutionary aspects and the potential uses of cyanobacterial-plant symbioses. Finally we outline areas that require special attention for future research. Not only will these provide information of academic interest but they will also help to improve the use of Azolla as green manure, to enable us to establish artificial N2 -fixing associations with cereals such as rice, and to allow the manipulation of free-living cyanobacteria for photobiological ammonia or hydrogen production or for use as biofertilizers. contents Summary 449 I. introduction 450 II. the partners 451 III. initiation and development of symbioses 458 IV. the symbioses 462 V. evolutionary aspects 472 VI. artificial symbioses 474 VII. future outlook and perspectives 475 Acknowledgements 477 References 477.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Valverde C, LG Wall (1999)

Time course of nodule development in the Discaria trinervis (Rhamnaceae) -Frankia symbiosis.

The New phytologist, 141(2):345-354.

The time course of initiation and development of root nodules was investigated in the South American actinorhizal shrub Discaria trinervis (Rhamnaceae). A local strain of Frankia (BCU110501) which was isolated from D. trinervis nodules, was used as inoculum. Inoculated seedlings were periodically studied under the light microscope after clearing with aqueous NaClO. In parallel, semithin and ultrathin sections were analysed by light and electron microscopy. Infection by Frankia BCU110501 involved intercellular penetration among epidermal and cortical root cells. Nodule primordia were detected from 6 d after inoculation, while bacteria were progressing through intercellular spaces of the outer layers of cortical cells. Invasion of host cells by the symbiont occurred 7-9 d after inoculation, and hypertrophy of the primordium cells was associated with Frankia penetration. Root hairs were not deformed during the early events of nodule formation. From 13 to 16 d after inoculation, the proximal cellular zone of the primordia behaved differently from the other tissues after NaClO treatment and remained darkly pigmented. At the same time, differentiation of Frankia vesicles started to occur inside already infected cells. By 16 d after inoculation, spherical vesicles of BCU110501 were homogeneously distributed in the host cells. These vesicles were septate and surrounded by void space. Frankia spores or sporangia were not observed in the nodule tissue. This study has clarified the mode of Frankia penetration in D. trinervis, one of the Rhamnaceae which also includes Ceanothus. The events involved in infection, nodule induction, host-cell infection and vesicle differentiation have been characterized and identified as time-segregated developmental processes in the ontogeny of D. trinervis root nodules.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Meijer G, A Leuchtmann (1999)

Multistrain infections of the grass Brachypodium sylvaticum by its fungal endophyte Epichloë sylvatica.

The New phytologist, 141(2):355-368.

Endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses. Their interactions with grass hosts may vary between mutualistic and pathogenic depending on the mode of endophyte reproduction. Sexual strains prevent flowering and seed set (choke disease) of the host and can be horizontally transmitted by ascospores, while asexual strains remain asymptomatic and are vertically transmitted through seeds. In Switzerland nearly all plants of Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P.B. are infected by Epichloë sylvatica Leuchtmann & Schardl, but choke symptoms are formed very rarely, and are restricted to particular locations and to a minority of plants at those locations. Earlier research has revealed that E. sylvatica is genetically differentiated into sexual and asexual subpopulations. Given the high level of infection and assuming horizontal transmission of sexual strains, multiple host infections have been predicted. In this study, 25 plants out of 63 examined by isozyme analysis were found to be infected by two or three different endophyte genotypes. In most cases endophyte genotypes appeared to be correlated with the symptom type of a particular tiller, suggesting that the fungal genome controls choke formation and that the sexual and asexual subpopulations are separated at the ramet (tiller) level rather than at the genet (plant) level. These conclusions were further supported by analyses with log-linear models of the population structure of E. sylvatica at four locations where choke symptoms were present. These analyses also revealed a geographic structure in the asexual subpopulation but not in the sexual subpopulation which could be caused by the different dispersal ranges of their propagules. The rare occurrence of sexually reproducing strains and the dominance of a single genotype in asymptomatic plant populations may be explained by the colonization history of B. sylvaticum and its endophyte in Switzerland.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

McKENDRICK SL, Leake JR, DJ Read (2000)

Symbiotic germination and development of myco-heterotrophic plants in nature: transfer of carbon from ectomycorrhizal Salix repens and Betula pendula to the orchid Corallorhiza trifida through shared hyphal connections.

The New phytologist, 145(3):539-548.

Seedlings of the myco-heterotrophic orchid Corallorhiza trifida which had been germinated in the field in mesh bags developed hyphal links and mycorrhizas with Betula pendula and Salix repens, but not with Pinus sylvestris, when transplanted into soil microcosms. The fungus connecting the myco-heterotroph to Betula and Salix formed endomycorrhiza in the orchid with typical pelotons, but formed ectomycorrhizas with the autotrophs. The orchid plants, when linked to Betula and Salix by fungal hyphae, gained 6-14% in weight over 25-28 wk. In microcosms supporting P. sylvestris, and in control microcosms which lacked autotrophs, the Corallorhiza plants lost 13% of their weight over the same period. In the course of the 28-wk experimental period new Corallorhiza seedlings, in addition to those added as part of the experiment, appeared in the microcosms containing Salix and Betula but not in the Pinus microcosms. Shoots of Betula and Salix plants grown in association with Corallorhiza were fed with 14 CO2 , and the movement of the isotope was subsequently traced by a combination of digital autoradiography and tissue oxidation. Direct transfer of C from both autotrophs to the myco-heterotroph occurred in all cases where the associates had become connected by a shared fungal symbiont. Orchid seedlings lacking these hyphal connections, introduced to the microcosms as controls immediately before isotope feeding, failed to assimilate significant amounts of C. The results provide the first experimental confirmation that growth of Corallorhiza trifida can be sustained by supply of C received directly from an autotrophic partner through linked fungal mycelia.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Kreuzwieser J, H Rennenberg (1998)

Sulphate uptake and xylem loading of mycorrhizal beech roots.

The New phytologist, 140(2):319-329.

Beech nuts (Fagus sylvatica L.) were germinated and grown in soil inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata or Paxillus involutus for 18-20 wk. The success of mycorrhizal infection was monitored by measuring the ergosterol contents of the mycorrhizas. Ergosterol levels ranged from 122±23 μg g-1 d. wt (Laccaria mycorrhizas) to 94±36 μg g-1 d. wt (Paxillus mycorrhizas), indicating that ectomycorrhizal symbiosis was established. In root incubation chambers, rates of sulphate uptake and the xylem loading of sulphate of excised mycorrhizas were investigated. Both types of mycorrhizas showed saturation kinetics in external sulphate concentrations from 2·5-1000 μmol l-1 . Linearization of these kinetics revealed two phases with low apparent Km (Laccaria mycorrhizas: 15±3 μmol l-1 ; Paxillus mycorrhizas: 13±3 μmol l-1) and Vmax (Laccaria mycorrhizas: 19±3 nmol h-1 g-1 f. wt; Paxillus mycorrhizas: 25±4 nmol h-1 g-1 f. wt) at low external sulphate concentrations and significantly higher kinetic constants at higher sulphate supplies. Relative xylem loading, i.e. the portion of sulphate loaded into the xylem that was taken up, remained constant over the entire concentration range investigated (c. 4-7% of the sulphate taken up). If trees were supplied for 72 h with different N and sulphur concentrations, both uptake of sulphate and relative xylem loading were unaffected by sulphur availability, but modulated by N supply. Nitrogen depletion diminished the rates of sulphate uptake in Laccaria and Paxillus mycorrhizas. In response to higher N availability combined with sulphur depletion, sulphate uptake of Laccaria mycorrhizas, but not of Paxillus mycorrhizas, increased. Organic compounds considered to be possible signals for the regulation of sulphate uptake were fed to excised mycorrhizas. l-Cysteine but not l-methionine and glutathione (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly) inhibited sulphate uptake of the two mycorrhizas and xylem loading of sulphate was stimulated rather than inhibited by l-Cys in both types. In Paxillus mycorrhizas glutathione had a similar effect. O-Acetyl-l-serine (OAS), a precursor of l-cysteine, stimulated sulphate uptake, but did not affect xylem loading. Apparently, OAS, generated in N metabolism, and l-cysteine, a product of assimilatory sulphate reduction, act as antagonists, together mediating regulation of sulphate uptake.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

Brandeis M (2021)

Were eukaryotes made by sex?: Sex might have been vital for merging endosymbiont and host genomes giving rise to eukaryotes.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

I hypothesize that the appearance of sex facilitated the merging of the endosymbiont and host genomes during early eukaryote evolution. Eukaryotes were formed by symbiosis between a bacterium that entered an archaeon, eventually giving rise to mitochondria. This entry was followed by the gradual transfer of most bacterial endosymbiont genes into the archaeal host genome. I argue that the merging of the mitochondrial genes into the host genome was vital for the evolution of genuine eukaryotes. At the time this process commenced it was unprecedented and required a novel mechanism. I suggest that this mechanism was meiotic sex, and that its appearance might have been THE crucial step that enabled the evolution of proper eukaryotes from early endosymbiont containing proto-eukaryotes. Sex might continue to be essential today for keeping genome insertions in check.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

Ryss AY, Polyanina KS, Álvarez-Ortega S, et al (2021)

Morphology, development stages, and phylogeny of the Rhabditolaimus ulmi (Nematoda: Diplogastridae), a phoront of the bark beetle Scolytus multistriatus from the elm Ulmus glabra Huds. in Northwest Russia.

Journal of nematology, 53: pii:e2021-25.

The nematode Rhabditolaimus ulmi was found in galleries, adults, and larvae of Scolytus multistriatus, the vector of the Dutch elm disease, in St. Petersburg parks. This nematode co-occurred with Bursaphelenchus ulmophilus, which is another phoretic partner of S. multistriatus. Nematodes were cultured on the fungus Botryotinia fuckeliana in potato sugar agar (PA) and used for morphological analyses of adults, juveniles, eggs, and dauers. Nematode females showed a didelphic female genital tract rather than a monoprodelphic gonad as reported in the original description. Male bursa peloderan, caudal papillae include three preanal pairs and one precloacal unpaired papillae; seven postanal papilla pairs, among which one is pore-like and possibly the phasmid homolog, one subdorsal, and a pair of three closely situated posteriorly at bursa alae. The juvenile stages differ in size and structure of their sexual primordia. Sex of juveniles may be identified from the third stage. The dauer juvenile is a phoretic third juvenile stage (DJ3), which enters and remains localized in the buccal cavity of beetle adults and last-instar larvae and also under the elytra and in the ovipositor's cavity of pupae and imagoes. The first molt J1-J2 occurred inside the eggshell. Adult females laid eggs in early stages of embryonic development or containing molted J2. The propagative non-phoretic J2 inside the egg and J3 have a long and well-developed median bulb. The phoretic dauer DJ3 has a small spherical bulb like the J1 juvenile within the egg. In a sterile fungal culture, the nematodes feed on both mycelium and their unidentified ecto-symbiotic bacteria, located on nematode surface coat and multiplying in PA. Diagnosis and tabular key to the Rhabditolaimus species are given. Phylogenetic analysis of the D2-D3 of 28S rRNA gene sequences resulted in the Bayesian consensus tree with the highly supported clade of the Rhabditolaimus species.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

Grimm M, Grube M, Schiefelbein U, et al (2021)

The Lichens' Microbiota, Still a Mystery?.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:623839.

Lichens represent self-supporting symbioses, which occur in a wide range of terrestrial habitats and which contribute significantly to mineral cycling and energy flow at a global scale. Lichens usually grow much slower than higher plants. Nevertheless, lichens can contribute substantially to biomass production. This review focuses on the lichen symbiosis in general and especially on the model species Lobaria pulmonaria L. Hoffm., which is a large foliose lichen that occurs worldwide on tree trunks in undisturbed forests with long ecological continuity. In comparison to many other lichens, L. pulmonaria is less tolerant to desiccation and highly sensitive to air pollution. The name-giving mycobiont (belonging to the Ascomycota), provides a protective layer covering a layer of the green-algal photobiont (Dictyochloropsis reticulata) and interspersed cyanobacterial cell clusters (Nostoc spec.). Recently performed metaproteome analyses confirm the partition of functions in lichen partnerships. The ample functional diversity of the mycobiont contrasts the predominant function of the photobiont in production (and secretion) of energy-rich carbohydrates, and the cyanobiont's contribution by nitrogen fixation. In addition, high throughput and state-of-the-art metagenomics and community fingerprinting, metatranscriptomics, and MS-based metaproteomics identify the bacterial community present on L. pulmonaria as a surprisingly abundant and structurally integrated element of the lichen symbiosis. Comparative metaproteome analyses of lichens from different sampling sites suggest the presence of a relatively stable core microbiome and a sampling site-specific portion of the microbiome. Moreover, these studies indicate how the microbiota may contribute to the symbiotic system, to improve its health, growth and fitness.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Nakajima T (2021)

Symbiogenesis is driven through hierarchical reorganization of an ecosystem under closed or semi-closed conditions.

Bio Systems pii:S0303-2647(21)00082-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Ecosystems generate selective environments and function as sources of various metabolic systems for symbiogenesis. In this study, we have explored how symbiogenesis occurs in the living world, from a holistic perspective, by observing a long-term experimental culture of an ecosystem model (CET microcosm) and using related findings in laboratory and field studies of endosymbiosis between auto- (photo-) and heterotrophic organisms. The results obtained suggest that symbiogenesis can occur in the mature stages of semi-closed ecosystems and lead to a new ecosystem-oriented perspective of symbiogenesis. Symbiogenesis is an aspect of ecosystem evolution in which whole ecosystem dynamics generate selective conditions operating on the component species, favoring symbiotic associations among some of them. The development of symbiotic associations then modifies the organization and material/energy flow structure of the ecosystem, which, in turn, modifies their selective environments.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Moore WM, Chan C, Ishikawa T, et al (2021)

Reprogramming sphingolipid glycosylation is required for endosymbiont persistence in Medicago truncatula.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(21)00440-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Plant endosymbiosis relies on the development of specialized membranes that encapsulate the endosymbiont and facilitate nutrient exchange. However, the identity and function of lipids within these membrane interfaces is largely unknown. Here, we identify GLUCOSAMINE INOSITOL PHOSPHORYLCERAMIDE TRANSFERASE1 (GINT1) as a sphingolipid glycosyltransferase highly expressed in Medicago truncatula root nodules and roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and further demonstrate that this enzyme functions in the synthesis of N-acetyl-glucosamine-decorated glycosyl inositol phosphoryl ceramides (GIPCs) in planta. MtGINT1 expression was developmentally regulated in symbiotic tissues associated with the development of symbiosome and periarbuscular membranes. RNAi silencing of MtGINT1 did not affect overall root growth but strongly impaired nodulation and AM symbiosis, resulting in the senescence of symbiosomes and arbuscules. Our results indicate that, although M. truncatula root sphingolipidome predominantly consists of hexose-decorated GIPCs, local reprogramming of GIPC glycosylation by MtGINT1 is required for the persistence of endosymbionts within the plant cell.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

U'Ren JM, NB Zimmerman (2021)

Oaks provide new perspective on seed microbiome assembly.

The New phytologist, 230(4):1293-1295.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Zhang C, He J, Dai H, et al (2021)

Discriminating symbiosis and immunity signals by receptor competition in rice.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(16):.

Plants encounter various microbes in nature and must respond appropriately to symbiotic or pathogenic ones. In rice, the receptor-like kinase OsCERK1 is involved in recognizing both symbiotic and immune signals. However, how these opposing signals are discerned via OsCERK1 remains unknown. Here, we found that receptor competition enables the discrimination of symbiosis and immunity signals in rice. On the one hand, the symbiotic receptor OsMYR1 and its short-length chitooligosaccharide ligand inhibit complex formation between OsCERK1 and OsCEBiP and suppress OsCERK1 phosphorylating the downstream substrate OsGEF1, which reduces the sensitivity of rice to microbe-associated molecular patterns. Indeed, OsMYR1 overexpression lines are more susceptible to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, whereas Osmyr1 mutants show higher resistance. On the other hand, OsCEBiP can bind OsCERK1 and thus block OsMYR1-OsCERK1 heteromer formation. Consistently, the Oscebip mutant displayed a higher rate of mycorrhizal colonization at early stages of infection. Our results indicate that OsMYR1 and OsCEBiP receptors compete for OsCERK1 to determine the outcome of symbiosis and immunity signals.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Carrier TJ, Leigh BA, Deaker DJ, et al (2021)

Microbiome reduction and endosymbiont gain from a switch in sea urchin life history.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(16):.

Animal gastrointestinal tracts harbor a microbiome that is integral to host function, yet species from diverse phyla have evolved a reduced digestive system or lost it completely. Whether such changes are associated with alterations in the diversity and/or abundance of the microbiome remains an untested hypothesis in evolutionary symbiosis. Here, using the life history transition from planktotrophy (feeding) to lecithotrophy (nonfeeding) in the sea urchin Heliocidaris, we demonstrate that the lack of a functional gut corresponds with a reduction in microbial community diversity and abundance as well as the association with a diet-specific microbiome. We also determine that the lecithotroph vertically transmits a Rickettsiales that may complement host nutrition through amino acid biosynthesis and influence host reproduction. Our results indicate that the evolutionary loss of a functional gut correlates with a reduction in the microbiome and the association with an endosymbiont. Symbiotic transitions can therefore accompany life history transitions in the evolution of developmental strategies.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Redman RS, Dunigan DD, RJ Rodriguez (2001)

Fungal symbiosis from mutualism to parasitism: who controls the outcome, host or invader?.

The New phytologist, 151(3):705-716.

• Plant symbiotic fungi are generally thought to express a single lifestyle that might increase (mutualism), decrease (parasitism), or have no influence (commensalism) on host fitness. However, data are presented here demonstrating that plant pathogenic Colletotrichum species are able to asymptomatically colonize plants and express nonpathogenic lifestyles. • Experiments were conducted in growth chambers and plant colonization was assessed by emergence of fungi from surface sterilized plant tissues. Expression of symbiotic lifestyles was assessed by monitoring the ability of fungi to confer disease resistance, drought tolerance and growth enhancement. • Several pathogenic Colletotrichum species expressed either mutualistic or commensal lifestyles in plants not known to be hosts. Mutualists conferred disease resistance, drought tolerance, and/or growth enhancement to host plants. Lifestyle-altered mutants expressing nonpathogenic lifestyles had greater host ranges than the parental wildtype isolate. Successive colonization studies indicated that the ability of a symbiont to colonize a plant was dependent on previous colonization events and the lifestyles expressed by the initial colonizing fungus. • The results indicate that the outcome of symbiosis is controlled by the plant's physiology.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Albus U, Baier R, Holst O, et al (2001)

Suppression of an elicitor-induced oxidative burst reaction in Medicago sativa cell cultures by Sinorhizobium meliloti lipopolysaccharides.

The New phytologist, 151(3):597-606.

• The biological activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti was analysed in cell cultures of the host plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and the nonhost plant Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). • LPS of S. meliloti were purified and chemically characterized. Alfalfa and tobacco suspension cell cultures responded to yeast elicitors with an alkalinization of the culture medium and the induction of an oxidative burst. This assay was used to study the biological activity of isolated LPS. • In alfalfa cell cultures the simultaneous addition of purified LPS of S. meliloti suppressed the elicitor induced alkalinization and oxidative burst reaction. Cell cultures of the nonhost tobacco reacted differently to the application of S. meliloti LPS. In these cell cultures, the S. meliloti LPS itself caused an alkalinization of the culture medium and an oxidative burst reaction. • S. meliloti LPS released from the bacterial surface might function as a specific signal molecule, promoting the symbiotic interaction and suppressing a pathogenic response in the host plant, alfalfa.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Tagu D, De Bellis R, Balestrini R, et al (2001)

Immunolocalization of hydrophobin HYDPt-1 from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Pisolithus tinctorius during colonization of Eucalyptus globulus roots.

The New phytologist, 149(1):127-135.

• The immunolocalization of one of the hydrophobins of Pisolithustinctorius (HYDPt-1) is reported. Hydrophobin proteins play key roles in adhesion and aggregation of fungal hyphae, and it is already known that formation of ectomycorrhizas on eucalypt roots enhances the accumulation of hydrophobin mRNAs in the mycelium of Pisolithus tinctorius. • Purification of SDS-insoluble proteins from the mycelium of P. tinctorius showed the presence of a 13 kDa polypeptide with properties of class I hydrophobin. • Polyconal antibodies were raised against a recombinant HYDPt-1 polypeptide, and these were used for immunofluorescence-coupled transmission electron microscopy. • HYDPt-1 is a cell wall protein located at the surface of the hyphae with no preferential accumulation in the fungal cells of the different tissues of the ectomycorrhiza (i.e. extraradical hyphae, mantle or Hartig net).

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Cavagnaro TR, Smith FA, Lorimer MF, et al (2001)

Quantitative development of Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizas formed between Asphodelus fistulosus and Glomus coronatum.

The New phytologist, 149(1):105-113.

• Arum- and Paris-type symbioses are the two main morphological types of arbuscular mycorrhiza. Here, the developmental time-course of the Paris-type association formed from colonization of Asphodelus fistulosus (onion weed) by Glomus coronatum is presented. • Development was monitored over 27 d. Root colonization was assessed using a modification of the magnified intersects technique (MIT), for investigating the interdependence (thus IMIT) of structures. • Hyphal and arbusculate coils were found predominantly in the outer and inner cortex of the root, respectively. The interdependence of external hyphae, hyphal coils and arbusculate coils was determined during the relatively slow development of the symbiosis. • The time required for development of Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizas is slower than for the Arum type, and both time and space influence the formation of hyphal coils. Use of IMIT for scoring colonization allows determination of the interdependence of different fungal structures, and thus the technique has potentially wide applications, such as in relating the presence of different structures to signals from molecular probes.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Bago B, Pfeffer P, Y Shachar-Hill (2001)

Could the urea cycle be translocating nitrogen in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis?.

The New phytologist, 149(1):4-8.

RevDate: 2021-04-14

Danneels B, Viruel J, Mcgrath K, et al (2021)

Patterns of transmission and horizontal gene transfer in the Dioscorea sansibarensis leaf symbiosis revealed by whole-genome sequencing.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(21)00422-X [Epub ahead of print].

Leaves of the wild yam species Dioscorea sansibarensis display prominent forerunner or "drip" tips filled with extracellular bacteria of the species Orrella dioscoreae.1 This species of yam is native to Madagascar and tropical Africa and reproduces mainly asexually through aerial bulbils and underground tubers, which also contain a small population of O. dioscoreae.2,3 Despite apparent vertical transmission, the genome of O. dioscoreae does not show any of the hallmarks of genome erosion often found in hereditary symbionts (e.g., small genome size and accumulation of pseudogenes).4-6 We investigated here the range and distribution of leaf symbiosis between D. sansibarensis and O. dioscoreae using preserved leaf samples from herbarium collections that were originally collected from various locations in Africa. We recovered DNA from the extracellular symbiont in all samples, showing that the symbiosis is widespread throughout continental Africa and Madagascar. Despite the degraded nature of this DNA, we constructed 17 symbiont genomes using de novo methods without relying on a reference. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses revealed that horizontal transmission of symbionts and horizontal gene transfer have shaped the evolution of the symbiont. These mechanisms could help explain lack of signs of reductive genome evolution despite an obligate host-associated lifestyle. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of D. sansibarensis based on plastid genomes revealed a strong geographical clustering of samples and provided evidence that the symbiosis originated at least 13 mya, earlier than previously estimated.3.

RevDate: 2021-04-14

Patil A, Banerji R, Kanojiya P, et al (2021)

Foodborne ESKAPE Biofilms and Antimicrobial Resistance: lessons Learned from Clinical Isolates.

Pathogens and global health [Epub ahead of print].

The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) are identified to be multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and pan drug-resistant (PDR); thereby, imposing severe challenges in the treatment of associated infections. ESKAPE pathogens colonize on various biotic and abiotic surfaces; biofilms formed by these pathogens are a potential source for food contamination. Moreover, biofilms play a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) strains. Hence, the frequent isolation of antimicrobial-resistant ESKAPE pathogens from food products across the globe imposes a threat to public health. A comprehensive understanding of the adhesion signaling involved in the polymicrobial and single-species biofilm will assist in developing alternative preservation techniques and novel therapeutic strategies to combat ESKAPE pathogens. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the signaling mechanisms that prevail in the ESKAPE pathogens for adhesion to abiotic and biotic surfaces and molecular mechanisms associated with poly-microbial biofilm-assisted AMR in ESKAPE.

RevDate: 2021-04-14

Cui WJ, Zhang B, Zhao R, et al (2021)

Lineage-Specific Rewiring of Core Pathways Predating Innovation of Legume Nodules Shapes Symbiotic Efficiency.

mSystems, 6(2):.

The interkingdom coevolution innovated the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The application of this nitrogen-fixing system in sustainable agriculture is usually impeded by incompatible interactions between partners. However, the progressive evolution of rhizobium-legume compatibility remains elusive. In this work, deletions of rhcV encoding a structural component of the type three secretion system allow related Sinorhizobium strains to nodulate a previously incompatible soybean cultivar (Glycine max). These rhcV mutants show low to medium to high symbiotic efficiency on the same cultivated soybean while being indistinguishable on wild soybean plants (Glycine soja). The dual pantranscriptomics reveals nodule-specific activation of core symbiosis genes of Sinorhizobium and Glycine genes associated with genome duplication events along the chronogram. Unexpectedly, symbiotic efficiency is in line with lineage-dependent transcriptional profiles of core pathways which predate the diversification of Fabaceae and Sinorhizobium. This is supported by further physiological and biochemical experiments. Particularly, low-efficiency nodules show disordered antioxidant activity and low-energy status, which restrict nitrogen fixation activity. Collectively, the ancient core pathways play a crucial role in optimizing the function of later-evolved mutualistic arsenals in the rhizobium-legume coevolution.IMPORTANCE Significant roles of complex extracellular microbiota in environmental adaptation of eukaryotes in ever-changing circumstances have been revealed. Given the intracellular infection ability, facultative endosymbionts can be considered pioneers within complex extracellular microbiota and are ideal organisms for understanding the early stage of interkingdom adaptation. This work reveals that the later innovation of key symbiotic arsenals and the lineage-specific network rewiring in ancient core pathways, predating the divergence of legumes and rhizobia, underline the progressive evolution of rhizobium-legume compatibility. This insight not only is significant for improving the application benefits of rhizobial inoculants in sustainable agriculture but also advances our general understanding of the interkingdom coevolution which is theoretically explored by all host-microbiota interactions.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

González-Pech RA, Stephens TG, Chen Y, et al (2021)

Comparison of 15 dinoflagellate genomes reveals extensive sequence and structural divergence in family Symbiodiniaceae and genus Symbiodinium.

BMC biology, 19(1):73.

BACKGROUND: Dinoflagellates in the family Symbiodiniaceae are important photosynthetic symbionts in cnidarians (such as corals) and other coral reef organisms. Breakdown of the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis due to environmental stress (i.e. coral bleaching) can lead to coral death and the potential collapse of reef ecosystems. However, evolution of Symbiodiniaceae genomes, and its implications for the coral, is little understood. Genome sequences of Symbiodiniaceae remain scarce due in part to their large genome sizes (1-5 Gbp) and idiosyncratic genome features.

RESULTS: Here, we present de novo genome assemblies of seven members of the genus Symbiodinium, of which two are free-living, one is an opportunistic symbiont, and the remainder are mutualistic symbionts. Integrating other available data, we compare 15 dinoflagellate genomes revealing high sequence and structural divergence. Divergence among some Symbiodinium isolates is comparable to that among distinct genera of Symbiodiniaceae. We also recovered hundreds of gene families specific to each lineage, many of which encode unknown functions. An in-depth comparison between the genomes of the symbiotic Symbiodinium tridacnidorum (isolated from a coral) and the free-living Symbiodinium natans reveals a greater prevalence of transposable elements, genetic duplication, structural rearrangements, and pseudogenisation in the symbiotic species.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results underscore the potential impact of lifestyle on lineage-specific gene-function innovation, genome divergence, and the diversification of Symbiodinium and Symbiodiniaceae. The divergent features we report, and their putative causes, may also apply to other microbial eukaryotes that have undergone symbiotic phases in their evolutionary history.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Nagy LG, GM Kovács (2021)

Mycology: Rediscovery of a lost model fungus highlights the origin of mycorrhizal symbioses.

Current biology : CB, 31(7):R342-R344.

Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most frequent symbioses of land plants. By reisolating a long-lost fungus from nature, a new study cracks the genomics of an enigmatic fungal-cyanobacterial partnership and reestablishes a valuable model for understanding the AM symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Malar C M, Krüger M, Krüger C, et al (2021)

The genome of Geosiphon pyriformis reveals ancestral traits linked to the emergence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Current biology : CB, 31(7):1578-1580.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Rossbach S, Hume BCC, Cárdenas A, et al (2021)

Flexibility in Red Sea Tridacna maxima-Symbiodiniaceae associations supports environmental niche adaptation.

Ecology and evolution, 11(7):3393-3406.

Giant clams (Tridacninae) are important members of Indo-Pacific coral reefs and among the few bivalve groups that live in symbiosis with unicellular algae (Symbiodiniaceae). Despite the importance of these endosymbiotic dinoflagellates for clam ecology, the diversity and specificity of these associations remain relatively poorly studied, especially in the Red Sea. Here, we used the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA gene region to investigate Symbiodiniaceae communities associated with Red Sea Tridacna maxima clams. We sampled five sites spanning 1,300 km (10° of latitude, from the Gulf of Aqaba, 29°N, to the Farasan Banks, 18°N) along the Red Sea's North-South environmental gradient. We detected a diverse and structured assembly of host-associated algae with communities demonstrating region and site-specificity. Specimens from the Gulf of Aqaba harbored three genera of Symbiodiniaceae, Cladocopium, Durusdinium, and Symbiodinium, while at all other sites clams associated exclusively with algae from the Symbiodinium genus. Of these exclusively Symbiodinium-associating sites, the more northern (27° and 22°) and more southern sites (20° and 18°) formed two separate groupings despite site-specific algal genotypes being resolved at each site. These groupings were congruent with the genetic break seen across multiple marine taxa in the Red Sea at approximately 19°, and along with our documented site-specificity of algal communities, contrasted the panmictic distribution of the T. maxima host. As such, our findings indicate flexibility in T. maxima-Symbiodiniaceae associations that may explain its relatively high environmental plasticity and offers a mechanism for environmental niche adaptation.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Bell CA, Magkourilou E, Urwin PE, et al (2021)

The influence of competing root symbionts on below-ground plant resource allocation.

Ecology and evolution, 11(7):2997-3003.

Plants typically interact with multiple above- and below-ground organisms simultaneously, with their symbiotic relationships spanning a continuum ranging from mutualism, such as with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to parasitism, including symbioses with plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN).Although research is revealing the patterns of plant resource allocation to mutualistic AMF partners under different host and environmental constraints, the root ecosystem, with multiple competing symbionts, is often ignored. Such competition is likely to heavily influence resource allocation to symbionts.Here, we outline and discuss the competition between AMF and PPN for the finite supply of host plant resources, highlighting the need for a more holistic understanding of the influence of below-ground interactions on plant resource allocation. Based on recent developments in our understanding of other symbiotic systems such as legume-rhizobia and AMF-aphid-plant, we propose hypotheses for the distribution of plant resources between contrasting below-ground symbionts and how such competition may affect the host.We identify relevant knowledge gaps at the physiological and molecular scales which, if resolved, will improve our understanding of the true ecological significance and potential future exploitation of AMF-PPN-plant interactions in order to optimize plant growth. To resolve these outstanding knowledge gaps, we propose the application of well-established methods in isotope tracing and nutrient budgeting to monitor the movement of nutrients between symbionts. By combining these approaches with novel time of arrival experiments and experimental systems involving multiple plant hosts interlinked by common mycelial networks, it may be possible to reveal the impact of multiple, simultaneous colonizations by competing symbionts on carbon and nutrient flows across ecologically important scales.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Decunta FA, Pérez LI, Malinowski DP, et al (2021)

A Systematic Review on the Effects of Epichloë Fungal Endophytes on Drought Tolerance in Cool-Season Grasses.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:644731.

Symptomless fungal endophytes in the genus Epichloë are repeatedly mentioned to increase tolerance of cool-season grasses to a wide range of environmental stress factors, mainly drought. However, the generality of this idea is challenged because (i) most studies have been conducted on two economically important forage grasses {tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)}, (ii) endophyte-mediated mechanisms and effects on plant responses to drought have shown to be highly variable across species, and that (iii) symbiosis incidence in plant populations occurring in extremely arid environments is usually low. We question this idea by reviewing the existing information about Epichloë fungal endophyte effects on drought tolerance in cool-season grasses. We combined standard review, vote counting, and calculation of effect sizes to synthesize the literature, identify information gaps, and guide future research. The total number of studies was higher for domesticated than for wild species, a ratio that was balanced when papers with data quality for effect size calculus were considered. After the drought, endophyte-infected plants accumulated more aboveground and belowground biomass than non-infected counterparts, while no effect on tillering was observed. However, these effects remained significant for wild (even on tillering) but not for domesticated species. Interestingly, despite the continuous effort in determining physiological mechanisms behind the endophyte effects, no studies evaluated plant fecundity as a measure of ecological fitness nor vital rates (such as survival) as to escalate individual-level variables to population. Together with the high variability in results, our work shows that generalizing a positive effect of fungal endophytes in plant tolerance to drought may be misleading. Future studies combining field surveys with manipulative experiments would allow us to unravel the role of fungal endophytes in plant adaptation by considering the evolutionary history of species and populations to the different ecological contexts.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Liu S, Feng X, Xue H, et al (2021)

Bioenergy generation and nitrogen removal in a novel ecological-microbial fuel cell.

Chemosphere, 278:130450 pii:S0045-6535(21)00920-6 [Epub ahead of print].

A novel ecological-microbial fuel cell (E-MFC) was constructed based on the mutualistic symbiosis relationship among wetland plants Ipomoea aquatic, benthic fauna Tubifex tubifex (T. tubifex) and microorganisms. The maximum power densities of sediment MFC (S-MFC), wetland plant MFC (WP-MFC) and E-MFC were 6.80 mW/m2, 10.60 mW/m2 and 15.59 mW/m2, respectively. Ipomoea aquatic roots secreted organic matter as electricigens' fuel for electricity generation, while T. tubifex decomposed decaying leaves and roots into soluble organic matter and plant nutrients, forming a co-dependent and mutually beneficial system, which was conducive to bioelectricity production. The E-MFC obtained the highest nitrogen removal, and the removal efficiencies of NH4+-N and NO3--N were 90.4% and 96.5%, respectively. Hydraulic retention time (HRT), cathodic aeration and T. tubifex abundance had significant effects on E-MFC power generation. The performeance boost of E-MFC was closely related to anodic microbial community change caused by the introduction of T. tubifex.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Dittmer J, RM Brucker (2021)

When your host shuts down: larval diapause impacts host-microbiome interactions in Nasonia vitripennis.

Microbiome, 9(1):85.

BACKGROUND: The life cycles of many insect species include an obligatory or facultative diapause stage with arrested development and low metabolic activity as an overwintering strategy. Diapause is characterised by profound physiological changes in endocrine activity, cell proliferation and nutrient metabolism. However, little is known regarding host-microbiome interactions during diapause, despite the importance of bacterial symbionts for host nutrition and development. In this work, we investigated (i) the role of the microbiome for host nutrient allocation during diapause and (ii) the impact of larval diapause on microbiome dynamics in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis, a model organism for host-microbiome interactions.

RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the microbiome is essential for host nutrient allocation during diapause in N. vitripennis, as axenic diapausing larvae had consistently lower glucose and glycerol levels than conventional diapausing larvae, especially when exposed to cold temperature. In turn, microbiome composition was altered in diapausing larvae, potentially due to changes in the surrounding temperature, host nutrient levels and a downregulation of host immune genes. Importantly, prolonged larval diapause had a transstadial effect on the adult microbiome, with unknown consequences for host fitness. Notably, the most dominant microbiome member, Providencia sp., was drastically reduced in adults after more than 4 months of larval diapause, while potential bacterial pathogens increased in abundance.

CONCLUSION: This work investigates host-microbiome interactions during a crucial developmental stage, which challenges both the insect host and its microbial associates. The impact of diapause on the microbiome is likely due to several factors, including altered host regulatory mechanisms and changes in the host environment. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Jia Z, Luo Y, Wang D, et al (2021)

Nondestructive multiplex detection of foodborne pathogens with background microflora and symbiosis using a paper chromogenic array and advanced neural network.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 183:113209 pii:S0956-5663(21)00246-3 [Epub ahead of print].

We have developed an inexpensive, standardized paper chromogenic array (PCA) integrated with a machine learning approach to accurately identify single pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, or Escherichia coli O157:H7) or multiple pathogens (either in multiple monocultures, or in a single cocktail culture), in the presence of background microflora on food. Cantaloupe, a commodity with significant volatile organic compound (VOC) emission and large diverse populations of background microflora, was used as the model food. The PCA was fabricated from a paper microarray via photolithography and paper microfluidics, into which 22 chromogenic dye spots were infused and to which three red/green/blue color-standard dots were taped. When exposed to VOCs emitted by pathogens of interest, dye spots exhibited distinguishable color changes and pattern shifts, which were automatically segmented and digitized into a ΔR/ΔG/ΔB database. We developed an advanced deep feedforward neural network with a learning rate scheduler, L2 regularization, and shortcut connections. After training on the ΔR/ΔG/ΔB database, the network demonstrated excellent performance in identifying pathogens in single monocultures, multiple monocultures, and in cocktail culture, and in distinguishing them from the background signal on cantaloupe, providing accuracy of up to 93% and 91% under ambient and refrigerated conditions, respectively. With its combination of speed, reliability, portability, and low cost, this nondestructive approach holds great potential to significantly advance culture-free pathogen detection and identification on food, and is readily extendable to other food commodities with complex microflora.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Lynn KMT, Wingfield MJ, Durán A, et al (2021)

Novel Fusarium mutualists of two Euwallacea species infesting Acacia crassicarpa in Indonesia.

Mycologia [Epub ahead of print].

Several species in the Euwallacea fornicatus complex have emerged as important pests of woody plants globally, particularly in habitats where they are invasive aliens. These beetles live in obligate symbioses with fungi in the genus Fusarium. In this study, we identified Euwallacea spp. and their fungal mutualists that have emerged as pests of planted Acacia crassicarpa in Riau, Indonesia. Morphological identification and phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene confirmed that E. similis and E. perbrevis are the most abundant beetles infesting these trees. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses of their fungal mutualists revealed their nonspecific association with six Fusarium species. These included F. rekanum and five novel Fusarium mutualists within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), four of which reside in the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC). These new species are described here as F. akasia, F. awan, F. mekan, F. variasi, and F. warna.

RevDate: 2021-04-11

Otero-Bravo A, ZL Sabree (2021)

Multiple concurrent and convergent stages of genome reduction in bacterial symbionts across a stink bug family.

Scientific reports, 11(1):7731.

Nutritional symbioses between bacteria and insects are prevalent and diverse, allowing insects to expand their feeding strategies and niches. A common consequence of long-term associations is a considerable reduction in symbiont genome size likely influenced by the radical shift in selective pressures as a result of the less variable environment within the host. While several of these cases can be found across distinct insect species, most examples provide a limited view of a single or few stages of the process of genome reduction. Stink bugs (Pentatomidae) contain inherited gamma-proteobacterial symbionts in a modified organ in their midgut and are an example of a long-term nutritional symbiosis, but multiple cases of new symbiont acquisition throughout the history of the family have been described. We sequenced the genomes of 11 symbionts of stink bugs with sizes that ranged from equal to those of their free-living relatives to less than 20%. Comparative genomics of these and previously sequenced symbionts revealed initial stages of genome reduction including an initial pseudogenization before genome reduction, followed by multiple stages of progressive degeneration of existing metabolic pathways likely to impact host interactions such as cell wall component biosynthesis. Amino acid biosynthesis pathways were retained in a similar manner as in other nutritional symbionts. Stink bug symbionts display convergent genome reduction events showing progressive changes from a free-living bacterium to a host-dependent symbiont. This system can therefore be used to study convergent genome evolution of symbiosis at a scale not previously available.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Sil A, Sil A, P Dhillon (2021)

Modelling Determinants of Deaths Attributable to External Causes Among Adults in India.

Omega [Epub ahead of print].

The study aimed at finding the risk factors associated with adult mortality (15-59 years) due to external causes (accidents, suicide, poisoning, homicide, and violence). Using National Family Health Survey data-4 consisting of 1,756,867 sample, we applied a Robust Poisson Regression Model to determine the potential risk factors. Findings suggest that the highest proportion of deaths due to external causes was in the age group 20-24 years. The prevalence of these deaths was higher among older adults (age 50 years and above). The risk was more among males (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR) for females is: 0.29, p < 0.001), rural residents (IRR: 1.16, p < 0.001), exposed to mass-media (IRR: 1.08, p < 0.05), residing in female-headed households, in households having a member with higher education. This risk decreased for large families (IRR: 0.89, p < .001). A need to strengthen awareness and mentorship programs for young-adults and middle-aged people to control such avoidable deaths is recommended.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Pers D, AK Hansen (2021)

The boom and bust of the aphid's essential amino acid metabolism across nymphal development.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:6217830 [Epub ahead of print].

Within long term symbioses animals integrate their physiology and development with their symbiont. In a model nutritional mutualism, aphids harbor the endosymbiont, Buchnera, within specialized bacteriocyte cells. Buchnera synthesizes essential amino acids (EAA) and vitamins for their host, which are lacking from the aphid's plant sap diet. It is unclear if the aphid host differentially expresses aphid EAA metabolism pathways and genes that collaborate with Buchnera for the production of EAA and vitamins throughout nymphal development when feeding on plants. It is also unclear if aphid bacteriocytes are differentially methylated throughout aphid development as DNA methylation may play a role in gene regulation. By analyzing aphid gene expression, we determined that the bacteriocyte is metabolically more active in metabolizing Buchnera's EAAs and vitamins early in nymphal development compared to intermediate or later immature and adult lifestages. The largest changes in aphid bacteriocyte gene expression, especially for aphid genes that collaborate with Buchnera, occurred during the 3rd to 4th instar transition. During this transition there is a huge shift in the bacteriocyte from a high energy 'nutrient-consuming state' to a 'recovery and growth state' where patterning and signaling genes and pathways are upregulated and differentially methylated, and de novo methylation is reduced as evidenced by homogenous DNA methylation profiles after the 2nd instar. Moreover, bacteriocyte number increased and Buchnera's titer decreased throughout aphid nymphal development. These data suggest in combination that bacteriocytes of older nymphal and adult lifestages depend less on the nutritional symbiosis compared to early nymphal lifestages.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Roger LM, Reich HG, Lawrence E, et al (2021)

Applying model approaches in non-model systems: A review and case study on coral cell culture.

PloS one, 16(4):e0248953.

Model systems approaches search for commonality in patterns underlying biological diversity and complexity led by common evolutionary paths. The success of the approach does not rest on the species chosen but on the scalability of the model and methods used to develop the model and engage research. Fine-tuning approaches to improve coral cell cultures will provide a robust platform for studying symbiosis breakdown, the calcification mechanism and its disruption, protein interactions, micronutrient transport/exchange, and the toxicity of nanoparticles, among other key biological aspects, with the added advantage of minimizing the ethical conundrum of repeated testing on ecologically threatened organisms. The work presented here aimed to lay the foundation towards development of effective methods to sort and culture reef-building coral cells with the ultimate goal of obtaining immortal cell lines for the study of bleaching, disease and toxicity at the cellular and polyp levels. To achieve this objective, the team conducted a thorough review and tested the available methods (i.e. cell dissociation, isolation, sorting, attachment and proliferation). The most effective and reproducible techniques were combined to consolidate culture methods and generate uncontaminated coral cell cultures for ~7 days (10 days maximum). The tests were conducted on scleractinian corals Pocillopora acuta of the same genotype to harmonize results and reduce variation linked to genetic diversity. The development of cell separation and identification methods in conjunction with further investigations into coral cell-type specific metabolic requirements will allow us to tailor growth media for optimized monocultures as a tool for studying essential reef-building coral traits such as symbiosis, wound healing and calcification at multiple scales.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Fields B, Moffat EK, Friman VP, et al (2021)

The impact of intra-specific diversity in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 167(4):.

Rhizobia - nitrogen-fixing, root-nodulating bacteria - play a critical role in both plant ecosystems and sustainable agriculture. Rhizobia form intracellular infections within legumes roots where they produce plant accessible nitrogen from atmospheric nitrogen and thus reduce the reliance on industrial inputs. The rhizobia-legume symbiosis is often treated as a pairwise relationship between single genotypes, both in research and in the production of rhizobial inoculants. However in nature individual plants are infected by a high diversity of rhizobia symbionts. How this diversity affects productivity within the symbiosis is unclear. Here, we use a powerful statistical approach to assess the impact of diversity within the Rhizobium leguminosarum - clover symbiosis using a biodiversity-ecosystem function framework. Statistically, we found no significant impact of rhizobium diversity. However this relationship was weakly positive - rather than negative - indicating that there is no significant cost to increasing inoculant diversity. Productivity was influenced by the identity of the strains within an inoculant; strains with the highest individual performance showed a significant positive contribution within mixed inoculants. Overall, inoculant effectiveness was best predicted by the individual performance of the best inoculant member, and only weakly predicted by the worst performing member. Collectively, our data suggest that the Rhizobium leguminosarum - clover symbiosis displays a weak diversity-function relationship, but that inoculant performance can be improved through the inclusion of high performing strains. Given the wide environmental dependence of rhizobial inoculant quality, multi-strain inoculants could be highly successful as they increase the likelihood of including a strain well adapted to local conditions across different environments.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Gkizi D, González Gil A, Pardal AJ, et al (2021)

The bacterial biocontrol agent Paenibacillus alvei K165 confers inherited resistance against Verticillium dahliae.

Journal of experimental botany pii:6215144 [Epub ahead of print].

The biocontrol agent Paenibacillus alvei K165 was previously shown to protect Arabidopsis thaliana plants against Verticillium dahliae. Here we show that K165 also confers inherited immune resistance against V. dahliae. By performing a histone acetyltransferases mutant screen, ChIP-assays and transcriptomic experiments we were able to show that histone acetylation significantly contributes to the K165 biocontrol activity and establishment of inheritable resistance against V. dahliae. K165 treatment primed the expression of immune-related marker genes and the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases CAD3 through the function of histone acetyltransferases. Our results reveal that offspring of plants treated with K165 have primed immunity and enhanced lignification both contributing towards the K165-mediated inherited immune resistance. Thus, our study paves that way for the use of biocontrol agents for the establishment of inheritable resistance against agronomically important pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Pozo MJ, Zabalgogeazcoa I, Vazquez de Aldana BR, et al (2021)

Untapping the potential of plant mycobiomes for applications in agriculture.

Current opinion in plant biology, 60:102034 pii:S1369-5266(21)00034-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Plant-fungal interactions are widespread in nature, and their multiple benefits for plant growth and health have been amply demonstrated. Endophytic and epiphytic fungi can significantly increase plant resilience, improving plant nutrition, stress tolerance and defence. Although some of these interactions have been known for decades, the relevance of the plant mycobiome within the plant microbiome has been largely underestimated. Our limited knowledge of fungal biology and their interactions with plants in the broader phytobiome context has hampered the development of optimal biotechnological applications in agrosystems and natural ecosystems. Exciting recent technical and knowledge advances in the context of molecular and systems biology open a plethora of opportunities for developing this field of research.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Teli P, Kale V, A Vaidya (2021)

Extracellular vesicles isolated from mesenchymal stromal cells primed with neurotrophic factors and signaling modifiers as potential therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases.

Current research in translational medicine, 69(2):103286 pii:S2452-3186(21)00012-X [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by a progressive and irreversible loss of neuronal cells leading to cognitive impairments and memory loss. Despite being a powerful tool for clinical applications, the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) imposes several challenges in terms of delivery, safety and variability. MSCs exert their regenerative effects through a paracrine mode of action, also known as the secretome that is composed of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteins and extracellular vesicles - namely the microvesicles and the exosomes. It has been reported that preconditioning of MSCs alters the molecular composition of their secretome, thereby improving their therapeutic potential. Based on our previous work and other reports, we propose a unique strategy, comprising of the following parameters, for harnessing the true potential of the extracellular vesicles isolated from the primed MSCs for promoting neuroregeneration: i) examining the signaling mechanisms prevailing in the MSCs, ii) assessing the age of the MSC donor, iii) priming MSCs with neurotrophic factors and examining the expression of neuronal and autophagy markers in them, and iv) examining the extracellular vesicles for autophagy-promoting-neurotrophic factors. We speculate that our strategy may provide an impetus for improving the efficacy of MSCs in reversing the process of neurodegeneration.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Nishida H, Nosaki S, Suzuki T, et al (2021)

Different DNA-binding specificities of NLP and NIN transcription factors underlie nitrate-induced control of root nodulation.

The Plant cell pii:6214494 [Epub ahead of print].

Leguminous plants produce nodules for nitrogen fixation; however, nodule production incurs an energy cost. Therefore, as an adaptive strategy, leguminous plants halt root nodule development when sufficient amounts of nitrogen nutrients, such as nitrate, are present in the environment. Although legume NODULE INCEPTION (NIN)-LIKE PROTEIN (NLP) transcription factors have recently been identified, understanding how nodulation is controlled by nitrate, a fundamental question for nitrate-mediated transcriptional regulation of symbiotic genes, remains elusive. Here, we show that two Lotus japonicus NLPs, NITRATE UNRESPONSIVE SYMBIOSIS 1 (NRSYM1)/LjNLP4 and NRSYM2/LjNLP1, have overlapping functions in the nitrate-induced control of nodulation and act as master regulators for nitrate-dependent gene expression. We further identify candidate target genes of LjNLP4 by combining transcriptome analysis with a DNA affinity purification (DAP)-seq approach. We then demonstrate that LjNLP4 and LjNIN, a key nodulation-specific regulator and paralogue of LjNLP4, have different DNA-binding specificities. Moreover, LjNLP4-LjNIN dimerization underlies LjNLP4-mediated bifunctional transcriptional regulation. These data provide a basic principle for how nitrate controls nodulation through positive and negative regulation of symbiotic genes.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Bennett GM, Heath-Heckman E, EM Sogin (2021)

Finding Needles in Haystacks and Inferring Their Function: Challenges and Successes in Beneficial Symbiosis Research.

mSystems, 6(2):.

Symbioses between hosts and beneficial microbes are key drivers of biological innovation and diversity. While a range of systems have emerged that provide foundational insights into how symbioses function and evolve, we still have a limited understanding of the vast diversity of organisms that engage in such interactions. Recent advances in molecular tools, theory, and interdisciplinary approaches now permit researchers to expand our knowledge and to press forward the frontiers of symbiosis research. As described in a recent issue of mSystems, Myers and colleagues (K. N. Myers, D. Conn, and A. M. V. Brown, mSystems, 6:e01048-20, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.01048-20) conducted a genome skimming approach to understand the role of obligate beneficial symbionts in plant-parasitic dagger nematodes. Nematodes are extraordinarily abundant and key players in ecosystem function and health. However, they are difficult to harness in the lab. The approach used by Myers et al. ameliorates these challenges to illustrate a relatively complete picture of a poorly understood beneficial symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-04-11

Vera-Ponce León A, Dominguez-Mirazo M, Bustamante-Brito R, et al (2021)

Functional genomics of a Spiroplasma associated with the carmine cochineals Dactylopius coccus and Dactylopius opuntiae.

BMC genomics, 22(1):240.

BACKGROUND: Spiroplasma is a widely distributed endosymbiont of insects, arthropods, and plants. In insects, Spiroplasma colonizes the gut, hemolymph, and reproductive organs of the host. Previous metagenomic surveys of the domesticated carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and the wild cochineal D. opuntiae reported sequences of Spiroplasma associated with these insects. However, there is no analysis of the genomic capabilities and the interaction of this Spiroplasma with Dactylopius.

RESULTS: Here we present three Spiroplasma genomes independently recovered from metagenomes of adult males and females of D. coccus, from two different populations, as well as from adult females of D. opuntiae. Single-copy gene analysis showed that these genomes were > 92% complete. Phylogenomic analyses classified these genomes as new members of Spiroplasma ixodetis. Comparative genome analysis indicated that they exhibit fewer genes involved in amino acid and carbon catabolism compared to other spiroplasmas. Moreover, virulence factor-encoding genes (i.e., glpO, spaid and rip2) were found incomplete in these S. ixodetis genomes. We also detected an enrichment of genes encoding the type IV secretion system (T4SS) in S. ixodetis genomes of Dactylopius. A metratranscriptomic analysis of D. coccus showed that some of these T4SS genes (i.e., traG, virB4 and virD4) in addition to the superoxide dismutase sodA of S. ixodetis were overexpressed in the ovaries.

CONCLUSION: The symbiont S. ixodetis is a new member of the bacterial community of D. coccus and D. opuntiae. The recovery of incomplete virulence factor-encoding genes in S. ixodetis of Dactylopius suggests that this bacterium is a non-pathogenic symbiont. A high number of genes encoding the T4SS, in the S. ixodetis genomes and the overexpression of these genes in the ovary and hemolymph of the host suggest that S. ixodetis use the T4SS to interact with the Dactylopius cells. Moreover, the transcriptional differences of S. ixodetis among the gut, hemolymph and ovary tissues of D. coccus indicate that this bacterium can respond and adapt to the different conditions (e.g., oxidative stress) present within the host. All this evidence proposes that there is a strong interaction and molecular signaling in the symbiosis between S. ixodetis and the carmine cochineal Dactylopius.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Chakraborty S, Driscoll H, Abrahante Lloréns J, et al (2021)

Salt stress enhances early symbiotic gene expression in Medicago truncatula and induces a stress-specific set of rhizobium-responsive genes.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Salt stress is a major agricultural concern inhibiting not only plant growth but also the symbiotic association between legume roots and the soil bacteria rhizobia. This symbiotic association is initiated by a molecular dialogue between the two partners, leading to the activation of a signaling cascade in the legume host and ultimately the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Here we show that a moderate salt stress increases the responsiveness of early symbiotic genes in Medicago truncatula to its symbiotic partner, Sinorhizobium meliloti, while conversely, inoculation with S. meliloti counteracts salt-regulated gene expression, restoring one-third to control levels. Our analysis of Early Nodulin 11 shows that salt-induced expression is dynamic, Nod-factor dependent, and requires the ionic, but not the osmotic, component of salt. We demonstrate that salt stimulation of rhizobium-induced gene expression requires NSP2, which functions as a node to integrate the abiotic and biotic signals. In addition, our work reveals that inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti succinoglycan mutants also hyperinduces ENOD11 expression in the presence or absence of salt, suggesting a possible link between rhizobial exopolysaccharide and the plant response to salt stress. Finally, we identify an accessory set of genes that are induced by rhizobium only under conditions of salt stress and have not been previously identified as being nodulation-related genes. Our data suggests that interplay of core nodulation genes with different accessory sets, specific for different abiotic conditions, function to establish the symbiosis. Together, our findings reveal a complex and dynamic interaction between plant, microbe, and environment.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Srivastava A, Jain S, Miranda R, et al (2021)

Deep learning based respiratory sound analysis for detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

PeerJ. Computer science, 7:e369.

In recent times, technologies such as machine learning and deep learning have played a vital role in providing assistive solutions to a medical domain's challenges. They also improve predictive accuracy for early and timely disease detection using medical imaging and audio analysis. Due to the scarcity of trained human resources, medical practitioners are welcoming such technology assistance as it provides a helping hand to them in coping with more patients. Apart from critical health diseases such as cancer and diabetes, the impact of respiratory diseases is also gradually on the rise and is becoming life-threatening for society. The early diagnosis and immediate treatment are crucial in respiratory diseases, and hence the audio of the respiratory sounds is proving very beneficial along with chest X-rays. The presented research work aims to apply Convolutional Neural Network based deep learning methodologies to assist medical experts by providing a detailed and rigorous analysis of the medical respiratory audio data for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary detection. In the conducted experiments, we have used a Librosa machine learning library features such as MFCC, Mel-Spectrogram, Chroma, Chroma (Constant-Q) and Chroma CENS. The presented system could also interpret the severity of the disease identified, such as mild, moderate, or acute. The investigation results validate the success of the proposed deep learning approach. The system classification accuracy has been enhanced to an ICBHI score of 93%. Furthermore, in the conducted experiments, we have applied K-fold Cross-Validation with ten splits to optimize the performance of the presented deep learning approach.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Bhandari N, Khare S, Walambe R, et al (2021)

Comparison of machine learning and deep learning techniques in promoter prediction across diverse species.

PeerJ. Computer science, 7:e365.

Gene promoters are the key DNA regulatory elements positioned around the transcription start sites and are responsible for regulating gene transcription process. Various alignment-based, signal-based and content-based approaches are reported for the prediction of promoters. However, since all promoter sequences do not show explicit features, the prediction performance of these techniques is poor. Therefore, many machine learning and deep learning models have been proposed for promoter prediction. In this work, we studied methods for vector encoding and promoter classification using genome sequences of three distinct higher eukaryotes viz. yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), A. thaliana (plant) and human (Homo sapiens). We compared one-hot vector encoding method with frequency-based tokenization (FBT) for data pre-processing on 1-D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model. We found that FBT gives a shorter input dimension reducing the training time without affecting the sensitivity and specificity of classification. We employed the deep learning techniques, mainly CNN and recurrent neural network with Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) and random forest (RF) classifier for promoter classification at k-mer sizes of 2, 4 and 8. We found CNN to be superior in classification of promoters from non-promoter sequences (binary classification) as well as species-specific classification of promoter sequences (multiclass classification). In summary, the contribution of this work lies in the use of synthetic shuffled negative dataset and frequency-based tokenization for pre-processing. This study provides a comprehensive and generic framework for classification tasks in genomic applications and can be extended to various classification problems.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Bhatt AR, Ganatra A, K Kotecha (2021)

Cervical cancer detection in pap smear whole slide images using convNet with transfer learning and progressive resizing.

PeerJ. Computer science, 7:e348.

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer are major health problems faced by women worldwide. The conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smear analysis is an effective method to diagnose cervical pre-malignant and malignant conditions by analyzing swab images. Various computer vision techniques can be explored to identify potential precancerous and cancerous lesions by analyzing the Pap smear image. The majority of existing work cover binary classification approaches using various classifiers and Convolution Neural Networks. However, they suffer from inherent challenges for minute feature extraction and precise classification. We propose a novel methodology to carry out the multiclass classification of cervical cells from Whole Slide Images (WSI) with optimum feature extraction. The actualization of Conv Net with Transfer Learning technique substantiates meaningful Metamorphic Diagnosis of neoplastic and pre-neoplastic lesions. As the Progressive Resizing technique (an advanced method for training ConvNet) incorporates prior knowledge of the feature hierarchy and can reuse old computations while learning new ones, the model can carry forward the extracted morphological cell features to subsequent Neural Network layers iteratively for elusive learning. The Progressive Resizing technique superimposition in consultation with the Transfer Learning technique while training the Conv Net models has shown a substantial performance increase. The proposed binary and multiclass classification methodology succored in achieving benchmark scores on the Herlev Dataset. We achieved singular multiclass classification scores for WSI images of the SIPaKMed dataset, that is, accuracy (99.70%), precision (99.70%), recall (99.72%), F-Beta (99.63%), and Kappa scores (99.31%), which supersede the scores obtained through principal methodologies. GradCam based feature interpretation extends enhanced assimilation of the generated results, highlighting the pre-malignant and malignant lesions by visual localization in the images.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Gite S, Khatavkar H, Kotecha K, et al (2021)

Explainable stock prices prediction from financial news articles using sentiment analysis.

PeerJ. Computer science, 7:e340.

The stock market is very complex and volatile. It is impacted by positive and negative sentiments which are based on media releases. The scope of the stock price analysis relies upon ability to recognise the stock movements. It is based on technical fundamentals and understanding the hidden trends which the market follows. Stock price prediction has consistently been an extremely dynamic field of exploration and research work. However, arriving at the ideal degree of precision is still an enticing challenge. In this paper, we are proposing a combined effort of using efficient machine learning techniques coupled with a deep learning technique-Long Short Term Memory (LSTM)-to use them to predict the stock prices with a high level of accuracy. Sentiments derived by users from news headlines have a tremendous effect on the buying and selling patterns of the traders as they easily get influenced by what they read. Hence, fusing one more dimension of sentiments along with technical analysis should improve the prediction accuracy. LSTM networks have proved to be a very useful tool to learn and predict temporal data having long term dependencies. In our work, the LSTM model uses historical stock data along with sentiments from news items to create a better predictive model.

RevDate: 2021-04-16
CmpDate: 2021-04-16

Banerjee D, KS Meena (2021)

COVID-19 as an "Infodemic" in Public Health: Critical Role of the Social Media.

Frontiers in public health, 9:610623.

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as a significant and global public health crisis. Besides the rising number of cases and fatalities, the outbreak has also affected economies, employment and policies alike. As billions are being isolated at their homes to contain the infection, the uncertainty gives rise to mass hysteria and panic. Amidst this, there has been a hidden epidemic of "information" that makes COVID-19 stand out as a "digital infodemic" from the earlier outbreaks. Repeated and detailed content about the virus, geographical statistics, and multiple sources of information can all lead to chronic stress and confusion at times of crisis. Added to this is the plethora of misinformation, rumor and conspiracy theories circulating every day. With increased digitalization, media penetration has increased with a more significant number of people aiding in the "information pollution." In this article, we glance at the unique evolution of COVID-19 as an "infodemic" in the hands of social media and the impact it had on its spread and public reaction. We then look at the ways forward in which the role of social media (as well as other digital platforms) can be integrated into social and public health, for a better symbiosis, "digital balance" and pandemic preparedness for the ongoing crisis and the future.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Pande A, Mun BG, Lee DS, et al (2021)

NO Network for Plant-Microbe Communication Underground: A Review.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:658679.

Mechanisms governing plant-microbe interaction in the rhizosphere attracted a lot of investigative attention in the last decade. The rhizosphere is not simply a source of nutrients and support for the plants; it is rather an ecosystem teeming with diverse flora and fauna including different groups of microbes that are useful as well as harmful for the plants. Plant-microbe interaction occurs via a highly complex communication network that involves sophisticated machinery for the recognition of friend and foe at both sides. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) is a key, signaling molecule involved in plant development and defense. Studies on legume-rhizobia symbiosis suggest the involvement of NO during recognition, root hair curling, development of infection threads, nodule development, and nodule senescence. A similar role of NO is also suggested in the case of plant interaction with the mycorrhizal fungi. Another, insight into the plant-microbe interaction in the rhizosphere comes from the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)/microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) by the host plant and thereby NO-mediated activation of the defense signaling cascade. Thus, NO plays a major role in mediating the communication between plants and microbes in the rhizosphere. Interestingly, reports suggesting the role of silicon in increasing the number of nodules, enhancing nitrogen fixation, and also the combined effect of silicon and NO may indicate a possibility of their interaction in mediating microbial communication underground. However, the exact role of NO in mediating plant-microbe interaction remains elusive. Therefore, understanding the role of NO in underground plant physiology is very important, especially in relation to the plant's interaction with the rhizospheric microbiome. This will help devise new strategies for protection against phytopathogens and enhancing plant productivity by promoting symbiotic interaction. This review focuses on the role of NO in plant-microbe communication underground.

RevDate: 2021-04-15

Daveu R, Laurence C, Bouju-Albert A, et al (2021)

Symbiont dynamics during the blood meal of Ixodes ricinus nymphs differ according to their sex.

Ticks and tick-borne diseases, 12(4):101707 pii:S1877-959X(21)00060-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Ticks harbour rich and diverse microbiota and, among the microorganisms associated with them, endosymbionts are the subject of a growing interest due to their crucial role in the biology of their arthropod host. Midichloria mitochondrii is the main endosymbiont of the European tick Ixodes ricinus and is found in abundance in all I. ricinus females, while at a much lower density in males, where it is even absent in 56 % of the individuals. This endosymbiont is also known to increase in numbers after the blood meal of larvae, nymphs or females. Because of this difference in the prevalence of M. mitochondrii between the two sexes, surveying the density of these bacteria in nymphs that will become either females or males could help to understand the behaviour of Midichloria in its arthropod host. To this aim, we have set up an experimental design by building 3 groups of unfed nymphs based on their scutum and hypostome lengths. After engorgement, weighing and moulting of a subset of the nymphs, a significant difference in sex-ratio among the 3 groups was observed. In parallel, Midichloria load in individual nymphs was quantified by qPCR both before and after engorgement. No difference in either body mass or Midichloria load was observed at the unfed stage, but following engorgement, both features were significantly different between each size group. Our results demonstrate that symbiont dynamics during nymphal engorgement is different between the two sexes, resulting in a significantly higher Midichloria load in nymphs that will become females. The consequences of those findings on our understanding of the interplay between the endosymbiont and its arthropod host are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-04-15
CmpDate: 2021-04-15

Igawa-Ueda K, Ikuta T, Tame A, et al (2021)

Symbiont Transmission onto the Cell Surface of Early Oocytes in the Deep-Sea Clam Phreagena okutanii.

Zoological science, 38(2):140-147.

Symbiotic associations with beneficial microorganisms endow a variety of host animals with adaptability to the environment. Stable transmission of symbionts across host generations is a key event in the maintenance of symbiotic associations through evolutionary time. However, our understanding of the mechanisms of symbiont transmission remains fragmentary. The deep-sea clam Phreagena okutanii harbors chemoautotrophic intracellular symbiotic bacteria in gill epithelial cells, and depends on these symbionts for nutrition. In this study, we focused on the association of these maternally transmitted symbionts with ovarian germ cells in juvenile female clams. First, we established a sex identification method for small P. okutanii individuals, and morphologically classified female germ cells observed in the ovary. Then, we investigated the association of the endosymbiotic bacteria with germ cells. We found that the symbionts were localized on the outer surface of the cell membrane of primary oocytes and not within the cluster of oogonia. Based on our findings, we discuss the processes and mechanisms of symbiont vertical transmission in P. okutanii.

RevDate: 2021-04-03

Zhang H, Gong W, Zeng W, et al (2021)

Bacterial-algae biofilm enhance MABR adapting a wider COD/N ratios wastewater: Performance and mechanism.

The Science of the total environment, 781:146663 pii:S0048-9697(21)01731-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Although membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) is promising in nitrogen removal due to its counter-diffusion biofilms structure, it still cannot adapt a wider COD/N ratios wastewater. In this condition, expanding the MABR applicability range in different COD/N ratio wastewater is necessary. In this study, a bacterial-algae biofilm, instead of bacteria biofilm, supporting membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABAR) was constructed, and the performance was compared to MABR. Results showed that the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was promoted significantly in MABAR regardless of the COD/N ratio. Compared to MABR, effluent TN concentration in COD/N ratio of 2, 5, and 8 declined by 14.34 mg/L, 0.50 mg/L, and 12.10 mg/L, respectively. Nitrification inhibition test suggested that algae assimilation made an obvious contribution (at least 18.18 mg/L) to the NH4+-N removal in MABAR. Besides, redundancy analysis (RDA) indicates that MABAR has a negative correlation with Nitrospirae but is positively correlated with NH4+-N removal load. These results are consistent with the kinetics result that algae assimilation, instead of nitrification-denitrification, is responsible for the nitrogen removal in MABAR. Therefore, the change of nitrogen removal route further gave MABAR excellent adaptability and impact resistance to address wastewater with different COD/N ratios, which is conducive to its wide application.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Wang S, Ji B, Zhang M, et al (2021)

Tetracycline-induced decoupling of symbiosis in microalgal-bacterial granular sludge.

Environmental research, 197:111095 pii:S0013-9351(21)00389-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Tetracycline has been frequently detected in municipal wastewater due to its extended use for various purposes. This study investigated the influence of tetracycline on non-aerated microalgal-bacterial granular sludge cultivated for municipal wastewater treatment. It was found that ammonia-N removal rate decreased at the tetracycline concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/L. A mass balance on nitrogen further revealed that the observed ammonia-N removal could be mainly attributed to microalgal assimilation which was inhibited by tetracycline at the concentrations studied. In fact, reduced production of chlorophyll in microalgae was observed in the presence of tetracycline, leading to decreased ammonia-N removal rate. Meanwhile, decreased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at high tetracycline concentration also indicated inhibition of microalgae. Furthermore, the relative abundances of microalgae containing green algae and cyanobacteria were inhibited by tetracycline. The results gathered in this study indicated the tetracycline-induced decoupling of symbiosis in microalgal-bacterial granular sludge. It is expected that this study can shed lights on the behaviors of non-aerated microalgal-bacterial granules in response to the presence of tetracycline during municipal wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Liu R, Kim W, Paguirigan JA, et al (2021)

Establishment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Cladonia macilenta, a Model Lichen-Forming Fungus.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 7(4): pii:jof7040252.

Despite the fascinating biology of lichens, such as the symbiotic association of lichen-forming fungi (mycobiont) with their photosynthetic partners and their ability to grow in harsh habitats, lack of genetic tools manipulating mycobiont has hindered studies on genetic mechanisms underpinning lichen biology. Thus, we established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for genetic transformation of a mycobiont isolated from Cladonia macilenta. A set of combinations of ATMT conditions, such as input biomass of mycobiont, co-cultivation period with Agrobacterium cells, and incubation temperature, were tested to identify an optimized ATMT condition for the C. macilenta mycobiont. As a result, more than 10 days of co-cultivation period and at least 2 mg of input biomass of the mycobiont were recommended for an efficient ATMT, owing to extremely slow growth rate of mycobionts in general. Moreover, we examined T-DNA copy number variation in a total of 180 transformants and found that 88% of the transformants had a single copy T-DNA insertion. To identify precise T-DNA insertion sites that interrupt gene function in C. macilenta, we performed TAIL-PCR analyses for selected transformants. A hypothetical gene encoding ankyrin repeats at its C-terminus was interrupted by T-DNA insertion in a transformant producing dark-brown colored pigment. Although the identification of the pigment awaits further investigation, this proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility of use of ATMT in construction of a random T-DNA insertion mutant library in mycobionts for studying genetic mechanisms behind the lichen symbiosis, stress tolerance, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Dixit AS, Kumar S, Urooj S, et al (2021)

A Highly Compact Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Array for 5G Millimeter Wave Applications.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(7):.

This paper presents a compact 1&nbsp;×&nbsp;4 antipodal Vivaldi antenna (AVA) array for 5G millimeter-wave applications. The designed antenna operates over 24.19 GHz-29.15 GHz and 30.28 GHz-40.47 GHz frequency ranges. The proposed antenna provides a high gain of 8 dBi to 13.2 dBi and the highest gain is obtained at 40.3 GHz. The proposed antenna operates on frequency range-2 (FR2) and covers n257, n258, n260, and n261 frequency bands of 5G communication. The corrugations and RT/Duroid 5880 substrate are used to reduce the antenna size to 24 mm × 28.8 mm × 0.254 mm, which makes the antenna highly compact. Furthermore, the corrugations play an important role in the front-to-back ratio improvement, which further enhances the gain of the antenna. The corporate feeding is optimized meticulously to obtain an enhanced bandwidth and narrow beamwidth. The radiation pattern does not vary over the desired operating frequency range. In addition, the experimental results of the fabricated antenna coincide with the simulated results. The presented antenna design shows a substantial improvement in size, gain, and bandwidth when compared to what has been reported for an AVA with nearly the same size, which makes the proposed antenna one of the best candidates for application in devices that operate in the millimeter frequency range.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Vitale P, Napolitano R, Colella F, et al (2021)

Cement-Matrix Composites Using CFRP Waste: A Circular Economy Perspective Using Industrial Symbiosis.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 14(6):.

This study aims to provide a mitigation strategy for reducing the economic and environmental impacts of carbon fiber wastes deriving from automotive industry. Recycling and reuse in the construction industry is proposed, according to an industrial symbiosis within a circular economy perspective. Specifically, the process consists of repurposing carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) scraps/waste into new cement-matrix composites, for which the resulting benefits, in terms of mechanical and environmental performance, are herein described. An experimental campaign, starting with a specific heat treatment of CFRP sheets and an accurate dimensional distribution analysis of the short carbon fibers, is presented. The influence of the fiber content and length on both the workability and the mechanical performance of cement-based carbon fiber reinforced mortars is also evaluated. A reduced amount of either sand or cement (up to 8% and 12.8% in volume, respectively) is also considered in the mix design of the fiber reinforced mortars and derives from the substitution of the sand or binder with an equivalent volume of CFRP fibers. The results show a satisfactory increase in compressive and flexural strength in the range 10-18% for the samples characterized by a volume fraction of fibers of approximately 4% and having a 2-5 mm length. Finally, a life cycle assessment (LCA, 14040/14044) was carried out to quantify the environmental burden reductions associated with the implementation of the proposed symbiotic scheme.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Cuffaro B, Assohoun ALW, Boutillier D, et al (2021)

Identification of New Potential Biotherapeutics from Human Gut Microbiota-Derived Bacteria.

Microorganisms, 9(3):.

The role of the gut microbiota in health and disease is well recognized and the microbiota dysbiosis observed in many chronic diseases became a new therapeutic target. The challenge is to get a better insight into the functionality of commensal bacteria and to use this knowledge to select live biotherapeutics as new preventive or therapeutic products. In this study, we set up a screening approach to evaluate the functional capacities of a set of 21 strains isolated from the gut microbiota of neonates and adults. For this purpose, we selected key biological processes involved in the microbiome-host symbiosis and known to impact the host physiology i.e., the production of short-chain fatty acids and the ability to strengthen an epithelial barrier (Caco-2), to induce the release of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine after co-culture with human immune cells (PBMC) or to increase GLP-1 production from STC-1 endocrine cell line. This strategy highlighted fifteen strains exhibiting beneficial activities among which seven strains combined several of them. Interestingly, this work revealed for the first time a high prevalence of potential health-promoting functions among intestinal commensal strains and identified several appealing novel candidates for the management of chronic diseases, notably obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Wang J, Alvarez L, Bulgheresi S, et al (2021)

PBP4 Is Likely Involved in Cell Division of the Longitudinally Dividing Bacterium Candidatus Thiosymbion Oneisti.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(3):.

Peptidoglycan (PG) is essential for bacterial survival and maintaining cell shape. The rod-shaped model bacterium Escherichia coli has a set of seven endopeptidases that remodel the PG during cell growth. The gamma proteobacterium Candidatus Thiosymbion oneisti is also rod-shaped and attaches to the cuticle of its nematode host by one pole. It widens and divides by longitudinal fission using the canonical proteins MreB and FtsZ. The PG layer of Ca. T. oneisti has an unusually high peptide cross-linkage of 67% but relatively short glycan chains with an average length of 12 disaccharides. Curiously, it has only two predicted endopeptidases, MepA and PBP4. Cellular localization of symbiont PBP4 by fluorescently labeled antibodies reveals its polar localization and its accumulation at the constriction sites, suggesting that PBP4 is involved in PG biosynthesis during septum formation. Isolated symbiont PBP4 protein shows a different selectivity for β-lactams compared to its homologue from E. coli. Bocillin-FL binding by PBP4 is activated by some β-lactams, suggesting the presence of an allosteric binding site. Overall, our data point to a role of PBP4 in PG cleavage during the longitudinal cell division and to a PG that might have been adapted to the symbiotic lifestyle.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Baluška F, Miller WB, AS Reber (2021)

Biomolecular Basis of Cellular Consciousness via Subcellular Nanobrains.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(5):.

Cells emerged at the very beginning of life on Earth and, in fact, are coterminous with life. They are enclosed within an excitable plasma membrane, which defines the outside and inside domains via their specific biophysical properties. Unicellular organisms, such as diverse protists and algae, still live a cellular life. However, fungi, plants, and animals evolved a multicellular existence. Recently, we have developed the cellular basis of consciousness (CBC) model, which proposes that all biological awareness, sentience and consciousness are grounded in general cell biology. Here we discuss the biomolecular structures and processes that allow for and maintain this cellular consciousness from an evolutionary perspective.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Narkhede P, Poddar S, Walambe R, et al (2021)

Cascaded Complementary Filter Architecture for Sensor Fusion in Attitude Estimation.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(6):.

Attitude estimation is the process of computing the orientation angles of an object with respect to a fixed frame of reference. Gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer are some of the fundamental sensors used in attitude estimation. The orientation angles computed from these sensors are combined using the sensor fusion methodologies to obtain accurate estimates. The complementary filter is one of the widely adopted techniques whose performance is highly dependent on the appropriate selection of its gain parameters. This paper presents a novel cascaded architecture of the complementary filter that employs a nonlinear and linear version of the complementary filter within one framework. The nonlinear version is used to correct the gyroscope bias, while the linear version estimates the attitude angle. The significant advantage of the proposed architecture is its independence of the filter parameters, thereby avoiding tuning the filter's gain parameters. The proposed architecture does not require any mathematical modeling of the system and is computationally inexpensive. The proposed methodology is applied to the real-world datasets, and the estimation results were found to be promising compared to the other state-of-the-art algorithms.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Yamaguchi T, Costabel U, McDowell A, et al (2021)

Immunohistochemical Detection of Potential Microbial Antigens in Granulomas in the Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(5):.

Sarcoidosis may have more than a single causative agent, including infectious and non-infectious agents. Among the potential infectious causes of sarcoidosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Propionibacterium acnes are the most likely microorganisms. Potential latent infection by both microorganisms complicates the findings of molecular and immunologic studies. Immune responses to potential infectious agents of sarcoidosis should be considered together with the microorganisms detected in sarcoid granulomas, because immunologic reactivities to infectious agents reflect current and past infection, including latent infection unrelated to the cause of the granuloma formation. Histopathologic data more readily support P. acnes as a cause of sarcoidosis compared with M. tuberculosis, suggesting that normally symbiotic P. acnes leads to granuloma formation in some predisposed individuals with Th1 hypersensitivity against intracellular proliferation of latent P. acnes, which may be triggered by certain host or drug-induced conditions. Detection of bacterial nucleic acids in granulomas does not necessarily indicate co-localization of the bacterial proteins in the granulomas. In the histopathologic diagnosis of sarcoidosis, M. tuberculosis-associated and P. acnes-associated sarcoidosis will possibly be differentiated in some patients by immunohistochemistry with appropriate antibodies that specifically react with mycobacterial and propionibacterial antigens, respectively, for each etiology-based diagnosis and potential antimicrobial intervention against sarcoidosis.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Horvatić D, T Lipic (2021)

Human-Centric AI: The Symbiosis of Human and Artificial Intelligence.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(3):.

Well-evidenced advances of data-driven complex machine learning approaches emerging within the so-called second wave of artificial intelligence (AI) fostered the exploration of possible AI applications in various domains and aspects of human life, practices, and society [...].

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Takeuchi R, Jimbo M, Tanimoto F, et al (2021)

N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine-Binding Lectin in Acropora tenuis Attracts Specific Symbiodiniaceae Cell Culture Strains.

Marine drugs, 19(3):.

Many corals establish symbiosis with Symbiodiniaceae cells from surrounding environments, but very few Symbiodiniaceae cells exist in the water column. Given that the N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-binding lectin ActL attracts Symbiodiniaceae cells, we hypothesized that corals must attract Symbiodiniaceae cells using ActL to acquire them. Anti-ActL antibody inhibited acquisition of Symbiodiniaceae cells, and rearing seawater for juvenile Acropora tenuis contained ActL, suggesting that juvenile A. tenuis discharge ActL to attract these cells. Among eight Symbiodiniaceae cultured strains, ActL attracted NBRC102920 (Symbiodinium tridacnidorum) most strongly followed by CS-161 (Symbiodinium tridacnidorum), CCMP2556 (Durusdinium trenchii), and CCMP1633 (Breviolum sp.); however, it did not attract GTP-A6-Sy (Symbiodinium natans), CCMP421 (Effrenium voratum), FKM0207 (Fugacium sp.), and CS-156 (Fugacium sp.). Juvenile polyps of A. tenuis acquired limited Symbiodiniaceae cell strains, and the number of acquired Symbiodiniaceae cells in a polyp also differed from each other. The number of Symbiodiniaceae cells acquired by juvenile polyps of A. tenuis was correlated with the ActL chemotactic activity. Thus, ActL could be used to attract select Symbiodiniaceae cells and help Symbiodiniaceae cell acquisition in juvenile polyps of A. tenuis, facilitating establishment of symbiosis between A. tenuis and Symbiodiniaceae cells.

RevDate: 2021-04-14

Ennis CC, Haeffner NN, Keyser CD, et al (2021)

Comparative mitochondrial genomics of sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps in the genus Synalpheus: Exploring differences between eusocial and non-eusocial species and insights into phylogenetic relationships in caridean shrimps.

Gene, 786:145624 pii:S0378-1119(21)00218-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Synalpheus is a cosmopolitan clade of marine shrimps found in most tropical regions. Species in this genus exhibit a range of social organizations, including pair-forming, communal breeding, and eusociality, the latter only known to have evolved within this genus in the marine realm. This study examines the complete mitochondrial genomes of seven species of Synalpheus and explores differences between eusocial and non-eusocial species considering that eusociality has been shown before to affect the strength of purifying selection in mitochondrial protein coding genes. The AT-rich mitochondrial genomes of Synalpheus range from 15,421 bp to 15,782 bp in length and comprise, invariably, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. A 648 bp to 994 bp long intergenic space is assumed to be the D-loop. Mitochondrial gene synteny is identical among the studied shrimps. No major differences occur between eusocial and non-eusocial species in nucleotide composition and codon usage profiles of PCGs and in the secondary structure of tRNA genes. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the complete concatenated PCG complement of 90 species supports the monophyly of the genus Synalpheus and its family Alpheidae. Moreover, the monophyletic status of the caridean families Alvinocaridae, Atyidae, Thoridae, Lysmatidae, Palaemonidae, and Pandalidae within caridean shrimps are fully or highly supported by the analysis. We therefore conclude that mitochondrial genomes contain sufficient phylogenetic information to resolve relationships at high taxonomic levels within the Caridea. Our analysis of mitochondrial genomes in the genus Synalpheus contributes to the understanding of the coevolution between genomic architecture and sociality in caridean shrimps and other marine organisms.

RevDate: 2021-04-16

Corning PA (2021)

"How" vs. "Why" questions in symbiogenesis, and the causal role of synergy.

Bio Systems, 205:104417 pii:S0303-2647(21)00072-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Mutualistic symbiosis, we now know, is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the natural world. And, in every case, there was an initial "genesis" - a "how" process that may have been at once unique to each situation and perhaps also shared a common set of facilitators. However, a full explanation of symbiogenesis also requires an answer to the "why" question, for natural selection is a stringent economizer. Something as contrarian as mutualistic cooperation between "differently named" organisms must also provide functional advantages for the participants that will be favored by natural selection (differential survival and reproduction). Enter the "Synergism Hypothesis" - the thesis that synergistic functional effects of various kinds are a common cause of cooperative relationships of all kinds in nature, including symbioses. When different organisms have complementary capabilities that are mutually beneficial and cannot otherwise be attained, the benefits derived from symbiotic cooperation will outweigh the costs. Among the many documented cases of symbiogenesis over time, lichens provide perhaps the most familiar, well-studied example, while the eukaryotes are often cited as a game-changer. The answer to the "why" question was, in each case, determinative for symbiogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-04-02

Castro-Rodríguez R, Escudero V, Reguera M, et al (2021)

Medicago truncatula Yellow Stripe-Like7 encodes a peptide transporter participating in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Yellow Stripe-Like (YSL) proteins are a family of plant transporters that are typically involved in transition metal homeostasis. Three of the four YSL clades (I, II, and IV) transport metals complexed with the non-proteinogenic amino acid nicotianamine or its derivatives. No such capability has been shown for any member of clade III but the link between these YSLs and metal homeostasis could be masked by functional redundancy. We studied the role of the clade III YSL protein MtSYL7 in Medicago truncatula nodules. MtYSL7, which encodes a plasma membrane-bound protein, is mainly expressed the pericycle and cortex cells of the root nodules. Yeast complementation assays revealed that MtSYL7 is able to transport short peptides. Medicago truncatula transposon insertion mutants with decreased expression of MtYSL7 had lower nitrogen fixation rates and showed reduced plant growth whether grown in symbiosis with rhizobia or not. YSL7 mutants accumulated more copper and iron in the nodules, which is likely to result from the increased expression of iron uptake and delivery genes in roots. Taken together, these data suggest that MtYSL7 plays an important role in the transition metal homeostasis of nodules and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-04-02

R Cope K, B Irving T, Chakraborty S, et al (2021)

Perception of lipo-chitooligosaccharides by the bioenergy crop Populus.

Plant signaling & behavior [Epub ahead of print].

Populus sp. is a developing feedstock for second-generation biofuel production. To ensure its success as a sustainable biofuel source, it is essential to capitalize on the ability of Populus sp. to associate with beneficial plant-associated microbes (e.g., mycorrhizal fungi) and engineer Populus sp. to associate with non-native symbionts (e.g., rhizobia). Here, we review recent research into the molecular mechanisms that control ectomycorrhizal associations in Populus sp. with particular emphasis on the discovery that ectomycorrhizal fungi produce lipochitooligosaccharides capable of activating the common symbiosis pathway. We also present new evidence that lipo-chitooligosaccharides produced by both ectomycorrhizal fungi and various species of rhizobia that do not associate with Populus sp. can induce nuclear calcium spiking in the roots of Populus sp. Thus, we argue Populus sp. already possesses the molecular machinery necessary for perceiving rhizobia, and the next step in engineering symbiosis with rhizobia should be focused on inducing bacterial accommodation and nodule organogenesis. The gene Nodule INception is central to these processes, and several putative orthologs are present in Populus sp. Manipulating the promoters of these genes to match that of plants in the nitrogen-fixing clade may be sufficient to introduce nodulation in Populus sp.

RevDate: 2021-04-12

McIlroy D, Dufour SC, Taylor R, et al (2021)

The role of symbiosis in the first colonization of the seafloor by macrobiota: Insights from the oldest Ediacaran biota (Newfoundland, Canada).

Bio Systems, 205:104413 pii:S0303-2647(21)00068-X [Epub ahead of print].

The earliest record of animal life comes from the Ediacaran of Newfoundland, including dm scale fossil organisms, most of which are inferred to have been epibenthic immotile eumetazoans. This work introduces the palaeobiology of the major fossil groups in the Newfoundland assemblages including strange fractal-like taxa and addresses some of biogeochemical challenges such as sulfide buildup that could most easily have been overcome by symbiogenesis. Specifically, the epibenthic reclining nature of some of the Ediacaran biota-with their fractal-like high surface area lower surfaces-are considered to have been well designed for gaining nutriment from chemosynthetic, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This view constitutes a shift away from the view that most of the biota were anomalously large osmotrophs.

RevDate: 2021-04-01

Lin P, Zhang M, Chen Y, et al (2021)

Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus modulates defense-related genes expression in banana seedlings susceptible to wilt disease.

Plant signaling & behavior [Epub ahead of print].

Banana as an important economic crop worldwide, often suffers from serious damage caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been considered as one of the promising plant biocontrol agents in preventing from root pathogens. This study examined the effect of AM fungal inoculation on plant growth and differential expressions of growth- and defense-related genes in banana seedlings. Tissue-cultured seedlings of Brazilian banana (Musa acuminate Cavendish cv. Brail) were inoculated with AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis, Ri), and developed good mycorrhizal symbiosis from 4 to 11 weeks after inoculation with an infection rate up to 71.7% of the roots system. Microbial abundance revealed that Ri abundance in banana roots was 1.85×106 copies/ml at 11 weeks after inoculaiton. Inoculation improved plant dry weights by 47.5, 124, and 129% for stem, leaf, and the whole plant, respectively, during phosphate depletion. Among a total of 1411 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) obtained from the transcriptome data analysis, genes related to plant resistance (e.g. POD, PAL, PYR, and HBP-1b) and those related to plant growth (e.g. IAA, GH3, SAUR, and ARR8) were up-regulated in AM plants. This study demonstrates that AM fungus effectively promoted the growth of banana plants and induced defense-related genes which could help suppress wilt disease. The outcomes of this study form a basis for further study on the mechanism of banana disease resistance induced by AM fungi.

RevDate: 2021-04-01

Huang D, Wang Q, Zhang Z, et al (2021)

Silencing MdGH3-2/12 in apple reduces drought resistance by regulating AM colonization.

Horticulture research, 8(1):84.

Drought leads to reductions in plant growth and crop yields. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which form symbioses with the roots of the most important crop species, alleviate drought stress in plants. In the present work, we identified 14 GH3 genes in apple (Malus domestica) and provided evidence that MdGH3-2 and MdGH3-12 play important roles during AM symbiosis. The expression of both MdGH3-2 and MdGH3-12 was upregulated during mycorrhization, and the silencing of MdGH3-2/12 had a negative impact on AM colonization. MdGH3-2/12 silencing resulted in the downregulation of five genes involved in strigolactone synthesis, and there was a corresponding change in root strigolactone content. Furthermore, we observed lower root dry weights in RNAi lines under AM inoculation conditions. Mycorrhizal transgenic plants showed greater sensitivity to drought stress than WT, as indicated by their higher relative electrolytic leakage and lower relative water contents, osmotic adjustment ability, ROS scavenging ability, photosynthetic capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence values, and abscisic acid contents. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MdGH3-2/12 plays an important role in AM symbiosis and drought stress tolerance in apple.

RevDate: 2021-03-31

Mohr JF, Baldeweg F, Deicke M, et al (2021)

Frankobactin Metallophores Produced by Nitrogen-Fixing Frankia Actinobacteria Function in Toxic Metal Sequestration.

Journal of natural products [Epub ahead of print].

A series of new metallophores, referred to as frankobactins, were extracted from cultures of the symbiotic and nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia sp. CH37. Structure elucidation revealed a 2-hydroxyphenyl-substituted oxazoline core and a chain composed of five proteinogenic and nonproteinogenic amino acids, suggesting nonribosomal peptide synthesis as the biosynthetic origin. By whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatic analysis, and comparison with other Frankia strains, the genetic locus responsible for the biosynthesis was detected. Spectrophotometric titration of frankobactin with Fe(III) and Cu(II) and mass spectrometry established the 1:1 (metal:frankobactin) coordination. Uptake experiments suggested that frankobactin A1 (1) did not serve to recruit iron, but to detoxify Cu(II). As frankobactin A1 prevents the cellular entry of Cu(II), it could play a crucial role in the symbiosis of Frankia sp. and its host in the reclamation of copper-contaminated soil.

RevDate: 2021-04-02
CmpDate: 2021-04-02

Khan W, Das SN, Ullah H, et al (2021)

Distribution of commensal rodents in some shops of three districts in Malakand region, Pakistan.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 82:e238735 pii:S1519-69842022000100306.

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.

RevDate: 2021-04-02
CmpDate: 2021-04-02

Pu CJ, Li PY, Luo YZ, et al (2021)

[Effect of different fungicides on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis on Salvia miltiorrhiza].

Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica, 46(6):1368-1373.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.

RevDate: 2021-04-07
CmpDate: 2021-04-07

Bueno CG, Hiiesalu I, K Koorem (2021)

How and where do disturbances promote the establishment of nonnative mycorrhizal plants at high elevations?.

The New phytologist, 230(3):883-885.

RevDate: 2021-04-09

Ledermann R, Emmenegger B, Couzigou JM, et al (2021)

Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens Requires Chemical Chaperones To Cope with Osmotic Stress during Soybean Infection.

mBio, 12(2):.

When engaging in symbiosis with legume hosts, rhizobia are confronted with environmental changes, including nutrient availability and stress exposure. Genetic circuits allow responding to these environmental stimuli to optimize physiological adaptations during the switch from the free-living to the symbiotic life style. A pivotal regulatory system of the nitrogen-fixing soybean endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens for efficient symbiosis is the general stress response (GSR), which relies on the alternative sigma factor σEcfG However, the GSR-controlled process required for symbiosis has not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that biosynthesis of trehalose is under GSR control, and mutants lacking the respective biosynthetic genes otsA and/or otsB phenocopy GSR-deficient mutants under symbiotic and selected free-living stress conditions. The role of trehalose as a cytoplasmic chemical chaperone and stress protectant can be functionally replaced in an otsA or otsB mutant by introducing heterologous genetic pathways for biosynthesis of the chemically unrelated compatible solutes glycine betaine and (hydroxy)ectoine. Alternatively, uptake of exogenously provided trehalose also restores efficient symbiosis and tolerance to hyperosmotic and hyperionic stress of otsA mutants. Hence, elevated cytoplasmic trehalose levels resulting from GSR-controlled biosynthesis are crucial for B. diazoefficiens cells to overcome adverse conditions during early stages of host infection and ensure synchronization with root nodule development.IMPORTANCE The Bradyrhizobium-soybean symbiosis is of great agricultural significance and serves as a model system for fundamental research in bacterium-plant interactions. While detailed molecular insight is available about mutual recognition and early nodule organogenesis, our understanding of the host-imposed conditions and the physiology of infecting rhizobia during the transition from a free-living state in the rhizosphere to endosymbiotic bacteroids is currently limited. In this study, we show that the requirement of the rhizobial general stress response (GSR) during host infection is attributable to GSR-controlled biosynthesis of trehalose. Specifically, trehalose is crucial for an efficient symbiosis by acting as a chemical chaperone to protect rhizobia from osmostress during host infection.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Innis T, Allen-Waller L, Brown KT, et al (2021)

Marine heatwaves depress metabolic activity and impair cellular acid-base homeostasis in reef-building corals regardless of bleaching susceptibility.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Ocean warming is causing global coral bleaching events to increase in frequency, resulting in widespread coral mortality and disrupting the function of coral reef ecosystems. However, even during mass bleaching events, many corals resist bleaching despite exposure to abnormally high temperatures. While the physiological effects of bleaching have been well documented, the consequences of heat stress for bleaching-resistant individuals are not well understood. In addition, much remains to be learned about how heat stress affects cellular-level processes that may be overlooked at the organismal level, yet are crucial for coral performance in the short term and ecological success over the long term. Here we compared the physiological and cellular responses of bleaching-resistant and bleaching-susceptible corals throughout the 2019 marine heatwave in Hawai'i, a repeat bleaching event that occurred four years after the previous regional event. Relative bleaching susceptibility within species was consistent between the two bleaching events, yet corals of both resistant and susceptible phenotypes exhibited pronounced metabolic depression during the heatwave. At the cellular level, bleaching-susceptible corals had lower intracellular pH than bleaching-resistant corals at the peak of bleaching for both symbiont-hosting and symbiont-free cells, indicating greater disruption of acid-base homeostasis in bleaching-susceptible individuals. Notably, cells from both phenotypes were unable to compensate for experimentally induced cellular acidosis, indicating that acid-base regulation was significantly impaired at the cellular level even in bleaching-resistant corals and in cells containing symbionts. Thermal disturbances may thus have substantial ecological consequences, as even small reallocations in energy budgets to maintain homeostasis during stress can negatively affect fitness. These results suggest concern is warranted for corals coping with ocean acidification alongside ocean warming, as the feedback between temperature stress and acid-base regulation may further exacerbate the physiological effects of climate change.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Banerji R, SD Saroj (2021)

Early growth response 1 (EGR1) activation in initial stages of host-pathogen interactions.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

The factors that determine the outcomes of host-pathogen interactions, such as host specificity, tissue specificity, and transition from asymptomatic to symptomatic behavior of a pathogen, are yet to be deciphered. The initial interaction of a pathogen with host and host-associated factors play a crucial role in deciding such outcomes. One of the several host-factors that contribute to bacterial adhesion and the outcome of an infection is the activation of early growth response 1 (EGR1). EGR1 is an initial response transcriptional regulator that plays a vital role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival. EGR1 expression is seen in most of the mammalian tissues. Multiple post-translational modifications occur, which modulate the EGR1 transcriptional activity. Upon activation, EGR1 can transactivate several genes with diverse cellular functions, including transcriptional regulatory proteins and cell proliferation. EGR1 has also been identified as a potential mediator of inflammatory gene expression. Recent studies have highlighted the role of EGR1 as a potent signaling molecule that facilitates bacterial adhesion to host epithelial cells, thus modulating colonization pathways. The pathways for the regulation of EGR1 during host-pathogen interaction remain yet unidentified. The review focuses on the role and regulation of EGR1 during host-pathogen interaction.

RevDate: 2021-04-10

Wahdan SFM, Reitz T, Heintz-Buschart A, et al (2021)

Organic agricultural practice enhances arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in correspondence to soil warming and altered precipitation patterns.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate and agricultural practice interact to influence both crop production and soil microbes in agroecosystems. Here, we carried out a unique experiment in Central Germany to simultaneously investigate the effects of climates (ambient climate vs. future climate expected in 50-70 years), agricultural practices (conventional vs. organic farming), and their interaction on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inside wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots. AMF communities were characterized using Illumina sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons. We showed that climatic conditions and agricultural practices significantly altered total AMF community composition. Conventional farming significantly affected the AMF community and caused a decline in AMF richness. Factors shaping AMF community composition and richness at family level differed greatly among Glomeraceae, Gigasporaceae and Diversisporaceae. An interactive impact of climate and agricultural practices was detected in the community composition of Diversisporaceae. Organic farming mitigated the negative effect of future climate and promoted total AMF and Gigasporaceae richness. AMF richness was significantly linked with nutrient content of wheat grains under both agricultural practices.

RevDate: 2021-03-29

Roy S, Breakspear A, Cousins D, et al (2021)

Three common symbiotic ABC-B transporters in Medicago truncatula are regulated by a NIN-independent branch of the symbiosis signalling pathway.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Several ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters involved in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and nodulation have been identified. We describe three previously-unreported ABC subfamily-B transporters, named ABCB for Mycorrhization and Nodulation (AMN1, AMN2, and AMN3), that are expressed early during infection by rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. These ABCB transporters are strongly expressed in symbiotically infected tissues, including in root hair cells with rhizobial infection threads and arbusculated cells. During nodulation, the expression of these genes is highly induced by rhizobia and purified Nod factors, and was dependent on DMI3, but is not dependent on other known major regulators of infection such as NIN, NSP1, or NSP2. During mycorrhization their expression is dependent on DMI3 and RAM1, but not on NSP1 and NSP2. Therefore, they may be commonly regulated through a distinct branch of the common symbiotic pathway. Mutants with exonic Tnt1-transposon insertions were isolated for all three genes. None of the single or double mutants showed any differences in colonization by either rhizobia or mycorrhizal fungi, but the triple amn1 amn2 amn3 mutant showed an increase in nodule number. Further studies are needed to identify potential substrates of these transporters and understand their roles in these beneficial symbioses.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Gazzaniga FS, Camacho DM, Wu M, et al (2021)

Harnessing Colon Chip Technology to Identify Commensal Bacteria That Promote Host Tolerance to Infection.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:638014.

Commensal bacteria within the gut microbiome contribute to development of host tolerance to infection, however, identifying specific microbes responsible for this response is difficult. Here we describe methods for developing microfluidic organ-on-a-chip models of small and large intestine lined with epithelial cells isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, or colon organoids derived from wild type or transgenic mice. To focus on host-microbiome interactions, we carried out studies with the mouse Colon Chip and demonstrated that it can support co-culture with living gut microbiome and enable assessment of effects on epithelial adhesion, tight junctions, barrier function, mucus production, and cytokine release. Moreover, infection of the Colon Chips with the pathogenic bacterium, Salmonella typhimurium, resulted in epithelial detachment, decreased tight junction staining, and increased release of chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CCL20) that closely mimicked changes previously seen in mice. Symbiosis between microbiome bacteria and the intestinal epithelium was also recapitulated by populating Colon Chips with complex living mouse or human microbiome. By taking advantage of differences in the composition between complex microbiome samples cultured on each chip using 16s sequencing, we were able to identify Enterococcus faecium as a positive contributor to host tolerance, confirming past findings obtained in mouse experiments. Thus, mouse Intestine Chips may represent new experimental in vitro platforms for identifying particular bacterial strains that modulate host response to pathogens, as well as for investigating the cellular and molecular basis of host-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Frankowiak K, Roniewicz E, J Stolarski (2021)

Photosymbiosis in Late Triassic scleractinian corals from the Italian Dolomites.

PeerJ, 9:e11062.

During the Carnian, oligotrophic shallow-water regions of the western Tethys were occupied by small, coral-rich patch reefs. Scleractinian corals, which already contributed to the formation of the reef structure, owed their position most probably to the symbiosis with dinoflagellate algae (zooxanthellae). Using microstructural (regularity of growth increments) and geochemical (oxygen and carbon stable isotopes) criteria of zooxanthellae symbiosis, we investigated whether this partnership was widespread among Carnian scleractinians from the Italian Dolomites (locality Alpe di Specie). Although corals from this locality are renowned from excellent mineralogical preservation (aragonite), their skeletons were rigorously tested against traces of diagenesis Irrespective of their growth forms, well preserved skeletons of corals from the Dolomites, most frequently revealed regular growth bands (low values of coefficient of variation) typical of modern zooxanthellate corals. Paradoxically, some Carnian taxa (Thamnasteriomorpha frechi and Thamnasteriomorphasp.)with highly integrated thamnasterioid colonies which today are formed exclusively by zooxanthellate corals, showed irregular fine-scale growth bands (coefficient of variation of 40% and 41% respectively) that could suggest their asymbiotic status. However, similar irregular skeletal banding is known also in some modern agariciids (Leptoseris fragilis) which are symbiotic with zooxanthellae. This may point to a similar ecological adaptation of Triassic taxa with thamnasterioid colonies. Contrary to occasionally ambiguous interpretation of growth banding, all examined Carnian corals exhibited lack of distinct correlation between carbon (δ13C range between 0.81‰ and 5.81‰) and oxygen (δ18O values range between -4.21‰ and -1.06‰) isotope composition of the skeleton which is consistent with similar pattern in modern zooxanthellates. It is therefore highly likely, that Carnian scleractinian corals exhibited analogous ecological adaptations as modern symbiotic corals and that coral-algal symbiosis that spread across various clades of Scleractinia preceded the reef bloom at the end of the Triassic.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Gupta S, Thokchom SD, R Kapoor (2021)

Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Improves Photosynthesis and Restores Alteration in Sugar Metabolism in Triticum aestivum L. Grown in Arsenic Contaminated Soil.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:640379.

Contamination of agricultural soil by arsenic (As) is a serious menace to environmental safety and global food security. Symbiotic plant-microbe interaction, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), is a promising approach to minimize hazards of As contamination in agricultural soil. Even though the potential of AM fungi (AMF) in redeeming As tolerance and improving growth is well recognized, the detailed metabolic and physiological mechanisms behind such beneficial effects are far from being completely unraveled. The present study investigated the ability of an AM fungus, Rhizophagus intraradices, in mitigating As-mediated negative effects on photosynthesis and sugar metabolism in wheat (Triticum aestivum) subjected to three levels of As, viz., 0, 25, and 50 mg As kg-1 of soil, supplied as sodium arsenate. As exposure caused significant decrease in photosynthetic pigments, Hill reaction activity, and gas exchange parameters such as net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and intercellular CO2 concentration. In addition, As exposure also altered the activities of starch-hydrolyzing, sucrose-synthesizing, and sucrose-degrading enzymes in leaves. Colonization by R. intraradices not only promoted plant growth but also restored As-mediated impairments in plant physiology. The symbiosis augmented the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, enhanced Hill reaction activity, and improved leaf gas exchange parameters and water use efficiency of T. aestivum even at high dose of 50 mg As kg-1 of soil. Furthermore, inoculation with R. intraradices also restored As-mediated alteration in sugar metabolism by modulating the activities of starch phosphorylase, α-amylase, β-amylase, acid invertase, sucrose synthase, and sucrose-phosphate synthase in leaves. This ensured improved sugar and starch levels in mycorrhizal plants. Overall, the study advocates the potential of R. intraradices in bio-amelioration of As-induced physiological disturbances in wheat plant.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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