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Bibliography on: Topologically Associating Domains

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 16 Oct 2018 at 01:43 Created: 

Topologically Associating Domains

"Recent studies have shown that chromosomes in a range of organisms are compartmentalized in different types of chromatin domains. In mammals, chromosomes form compartments that are composed of smaller Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). TADs are thought to represent functional domains of gene regulation but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of their formation and how they exert their regulatory effect on embedded genes. Further, similar domains have been detected in other organisms, including flies, worms, fungi and bacteria. Although in all these cases these domains appear similar as detected by 3C-based methods, their biology appears to be quite distinct with differences in the protein complexes involved in their formation and differences in their internal organization." QUOTE FROM: Dekker Job and Heard Edith (2015), Structural and functional diversity of Topologically Associating Domains, FEBS Letters, 589, doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.044

Created with PubMed® Query: "Topologically Associating Domains" OR "Topologically Associating Domain" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2018-10-13

Schuetzmann D, Walter C, van Riel B, et al (2018)

Temporal auto-regulation during human PU.1 locus SubTAD formation.

Blood pii:blood-2018-02-834721 [Epub ahead of print].

Epigenetic control of gene expression occurs within discrete spatial chromosomal units called topologically associating domains (TADs), but the exact spatial requirements of most genes are unknown; this is of particular interest for genes involved in cancer. We therefore applied high-resolution chromosomal conformation capture-sequencing to map the three-dimensional (3D) organization of the human locus encoding the key myeloid transcription factor PU.1 in healthy monocytes and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. We identified a dynamic ~75kb unit (SubTAD) as the genomic region in which spatial interactions between PU.1 gene regulatory elements occur during myeloid differentiation and are interrupted in AML. Within this SubTAD, proper initiation of the spatial chromosomal interactions requires PU.1 auto-regulation and recruitment of the chromatin-adaptor protein LDB1 (LIM domain-binding protein 1). However, once these spatial interactions have occurred, LDB1 stabilizes them independently of PU.1 auto-regulation. Thus, our data support that PU.1 auto-regulates its expression in a 'hit-and-run' manner by initiating stable chromosomal loops that result in a transcriptionally active chromatin architecture.

RevDate: 2018-10-09

Jorgenson E, Matharu N, Palmer MR, et al (2018)

Genetic variation in the SIM1 locus is associated with erectile dysfunction.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1809872115 [Epub ahead of print].

Erectile dysfunction affects millions of men worldwide. Twin studies support the role of genetic risk factors underlying erectile dysfunction, but no specific genetic variants have been identified. We conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of erectile dysfunction in 36,649 men in the multiethnic Kaiser Permanente Northern California Genetic Epidemiology Research in Adult Health and Aging cohort. We also undertook replication analyses in 222,358 men from the UK Biobank. In the discovery cohort, we identified a single locus (rs17185536-T) on chromosome 6 near the single-minded family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (SIM1) gene that was significantly associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction (odds ratio = 1.26, P = 3.4 × 10-25). The association replicated in the UK Biobank sample (odds ratio = 1.25, P = 6.8 × 10-14), and the effect is independent of known erectile dysfunction risk factors, including body mass index (BMI). The risk locus resides on the same topologically associating domain as SIM1 and interacts with the SIM1 promoter, and the rs17185536-T risk allele showed differential enhancer activity. SIM1 is part of the leptin-melanocortin system, which has an established role in body weight homeostasis and sexual function. Because the variants associated with erectile dysfunction are not associated with differences in BMI, our findings suggest a mechanism that is specific to sexual function.

RevDate: 2018-10-02

Voutsadakis IA (2018)

Molecular Lesions of Insulator CTCF and Its Paralogue CTCFL (BORIS) in Cancer: An Analysis from Published Genomic Studies.

High-throughput, 7(4): pii:ht7040030.

CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is a transcription regulator with hundreds of binding sites in the human genome. It has a main function as an insulator protein, defining together with cohesins the boundaries of areas of the genome called topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs contain regulatory elements such as enhancers which function as regulators of the transcription of genes inside the boundaries of the TAD while they are restricted from regulating genes outside these boundaries. This paper will examine the most common genetic lesions of CTCF as well as its related protein CTCFL (CTCF-like also called BORIS) in cancer using publicly available data from published genomic studies. Cancer types where abnormalities in the two genes are more common will be examined for possible associations with underlying repair defects or other prevalent genetic lesions. The putative functional effects in CTCF and CTCFL lesions will also be explored.

RevDate: 2018-09-28

He M, Li Y, Tang Q, et al (2018)

Genome-Wide Chromatin Structure Changes During Adipogenesis and Myogenesis.

International journal of biological sciences, 14(11):1571-1585 pii:ijbsv14p1571.

The recently developed high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) technology enables us to explore the spatial architecture of genomes, which is increasingly considered an important regulator of gene expression. To investigate the changes in three-dimensional (3D) chromatin structure and its mediated gene expression during adipogenesis and myogenesis, we comprehensively mapped 3D chromatin organization for four cell types (3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, 3T3-L1-D adipocytes, C2C12 myoblasts, and C2C12-D myotubes). We demonstrate that the dynamic spatial genome architecture affected gene expression during cell differentiation. A considerable proportion (~22%) of the mouse genome underwent compartment A/B rearrangement during adipogenic and myogenic differentiation, and most (~80%) upregulated marker genes exhibited an active chromatin state with B to A switch or stable A compartment. More than half (65.4%-73.2%) of the topologically associating domains (TADs) are dynamic. The newly formed TAD and intensified local interactions in the Fabp gene cluster indicated more precise structural regulation of the expression of pro-differentiation genes during adipogenesis. About half (32.39%-59.04%) of the differential chromatin interactions (DCIs) during differentiation are promoter interactions, although these DCIs only account for a small proportion of genome-wide interactions (~9.67% in adipogenesis and ~4.24% in myogenesis). These differential promoter interactions were enriched with promoter-enhancer interactions (PEIs), which were mediated by typical adipogenic and myogenic transcription factors. Differential promoter interactions also included more differentially expressed genes than nonpromoter interactions. Our results provide a global view of dynamic chromatin interactions during adipogenesis and myogenesis and are a resource for studying long-range chromatin interactions mediating the expression of pro-differentiation genes.

RevDate: 2018-09-27

Luzhin AV, Flyamer IM, Khrameeva EE, et al (2018)

Quantitative differences in TAD border strength underly the TAD hierarchy in Drosophila chromosomes.

Journal of cellular biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Chromosomes in many organisms, including Drosophila and mammals, are folded into topologically associating domains (TADs). Increasing evidence suggests that TAD folding is hierarchical, wherein subdomains combine to form larger superdomains, instead of a sequence of nonoverlapping domains. Here, we studied the hierarchical structure of TADs in Drosophila. We show that the boundaries of TADs of different hierarchical levels are characterized by the presence of different portions of active chromatin, but do not vary in the binding of architectural proteins, such as CCCTC binding factor or cohesin. The apparent hierarchy of TADs in Drosophila chromosomes is not likely to have functional importance but rather reflects various options of long-range chromatin folding directed by the distribution of active and inactive chromatin segments and may represent population average.

RevDate: 2018-09-24

Shrestha S, Oh DH, McKowen JK, et al (2018)

4C-seq characterization of Drosophila BEAF binding regions provides evidence for highly variable long-distance interactions between active chromatin.

PloS one, 13(9):e0203843 pii:PONE-D-18-14342.

Chromatin organization is crucial for nuclear functions such as gene regulation, DNA replication and DNA repair. Insulator binding proteins, such as the Drosophila Boundary Element-Associated Factor (BEAF), are involved in chromatin organization. To further understand the role of BEAF, we detected cis- and trans-interaction partners of four BEAF binding regions (viewpoints) using 4C (circular chromosome conformation capture) and analyzed their association with different genomic features. Previous genome-wide mapping found that BEAF usually binds near transcription start sites, often of housekeeping genes, so our viewpoints were selected to reflect this. Our 4C data show the interaction partners of our viewpoints are highly variable and generally enriched for active chromatin marks. The most consistent association was with housekeeping genes, a feature in common with our viewpoints. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the long-distance interactions occur even in the absence of BEAF. These data are most consistent with a model in which BEAF is redundant with other factors found at active promoters. Our results point to principles of long-distance interactions made by active chromatin, supporting a previously proposed model in which condensed chromatin is sticky and associates into topologically associating domains (TADs) separated by active chromatin. We propose that the highly variable long-distance interactions we detect are driven by redundant factors that open chromatin to promote transcription, combined with active chromatin filling spaces between TADs while packing of TADs relative to each other varies from cell to cell.

RevDate: 2018-09-21

Cook PR, D Marenduzzo (2018)

Transcription-driven genome organization: a model for chromosome structure and the regulation of gene expression tested through simulations.

Nucleic acids research pii:5099447 [Epub ahead of print].

Current models for the folding of the human genome see a hierarchy stretching down from chromosome territories, through A/B compartments and topologically-associating domains (TADs), to contact domains stabilized by cohesin and CTCF. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this folding, and the way folding affects transcriptional activity, remain obscure. Here we review physical principles driving proteins bound to long polymers into clusters surrounded by loops, and present a parsimonious yet comprehensive model for the way the organization determines function. We argue that clusters of active RNA polymerases and their transcription factors are major architectural features; then, contact domains, TADs and compartments just reflect one or more loops and clusters. We suggest tethering a gene close to a cluster containing appropriate factors-a transcription factory-increases the firing frequency, and offer solutions to many current puzzles concerning the actions of enhancers, super-enhancers, boundaries and eQTLs (expression quantitative trait loci). As a result, the activity of any gene is directly influenced by the activity of other transcription units around it in 3D space, and this is supported by Brownian-dynamics simulations of transcription factors binding to cognate sites on long polymers.

RevDate: 2018-09-15

Miura H, Poonperm R, Takahashi S, et al (2018)

Practical Analysis of Hi-C Data: Generating A/B Compartment Profiles.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1861:221-245.

Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and chromosome conformation capture (3C) analysis have led to the development of Hi-C, a genome-wide version of the 3C method. Hi-C has identified new levels of chromosome organization such as A/B compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs) as well as large megadomains on the inactive X chromosome, while allowing the identification of chromatin loops at the genome scale. Despite its powerfulness, Hi-C data analysis is much more involved compared to conventional NGS applications such as RNA-seq or ChIP-seq and requires many more steps. This presents a significant hurdle for those who wish to implement Hi-C technology into their laboratory. On the other hand, genomics data repository sites sometimes contain processed Hi-C data sets, allowing researchers to perform further analysis without the need for high-spec workstations and servers. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description on how to calculate A/B compartment profiles from processed Hi-C data on the autosomes and the active/inactive X chromosomes.

RevDate: 2018-09-03

Sun JH, Zhou L, Emerson DJ, et al (2018)

Disease-Associated Short Tandem Repeats Co-localize with Chromatin Domain Boundaries.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(18)31021-3 [Epub ahead of print].

More than 25 inherited human disorders are caused by the unstable expansion of repetitive DNA sequences termed short tandem repeats (STRs). A fundamental unresolved question is why some STRs are susceptible to pathologic expansion, whereas thousands of repeat tracts across the human genome are relatively stable. Here, we discover that nearly all disease-associated STRs (daSTRs) are located at boundaries demarcating 3D chromatin domains. We identify a subset of boundaries with markedly higher CpG island density compared to the rest of the genome. daSTRs specifically localize to ultra-high-density CpG island boundaries, suggesting they might be hotspots for epigenetic misregulation or topological disruption linked to STR expansion. Fragile X syndrome patients exhibit severe boundary disruption in a manner that correlates with local loss of CTCF occupancy and the degree of FMR1 silencing. Our data uncover higher-order chromatin architecture as a new dimension in understanding repeat expansion disorders.

RevDate: 2018-08-29

Karki S, Kennedy DE, Mclean K, et al (2018)

Regulated Capture of Vκ Gene Topologically Associating Domains by Transcription Factories.

Cell reports, 24(9):2443-2456.

Expression of vast repertoires of antigen receptors by lymphocytes, with each cell expressing a single receptor, requires stochastic activation of individual variable (V) genes for transcription and recombination. How this occurs remains unknown. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and allelic variation, we show that individual pre-B cells monoallelically transcribe divergent arrays of Vκ genes, thereby opening stochastic repertoires for subsequent Vκ-Jκ recombination. Transcription occurs upon translocation of Vκ genes to RNA polymerase II arrayed on the nuclear matrix in transcription factories. Transcription is anchored by CTCF-bound sites or E2A-loaded Vκ promotors and continues over large genomic distances delimited only by topological associating domains (TADs). Prior to their monoallelic activation, Vκ loci are transcriptionally repressed by cyclin D3, which prevents capture of Vκ gene containing TADs by transcription factories. Cyclin D3 also represses protocadherin, olfactory, and other monoallelically expressed genes, suggesting a widely deployed mechanism for coupling monoallelic gene activation with cell cycle exit.

RevDate: 2018-08-25

Pascual-Reguant L, Blanco E, Galan S, et al (2018)

Lamin B1 mapping reveals the existence of dynamic and functional euchromatin lamin B1 domains.

Nature communications, 9(1):3420 pii:10.1038/s41467-018-05912-z.

Lamins (A/C and B) are major constituents of the nuclear lamina (NL). Structurally conserved lamina-associated domains (LADs) are formed by genomic regions that contact the NL. Lamins are also found in the nucleoplasm, with a yet unknown function. Here we map the genome-wide localization of lamin B1 in an euchromatin-enriched fraction of the mouse genome and follow its dynamics during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Lamin B1 associates with actively expressed and open euchromatin regions, forming dynamic euchromatin lamin B1-associated domains (eLADs) of about 0.3 Mb. Hi-C data link eLADs to the 3D organization of the mouse genome during EMT and correlate lamin B1 enrichment at topologically associating domain (TAD) borders with increased border strength. Having reduced levels of lamin B1 alters the EMT transcriptional signature and compromises the acquisition of mesenchymal traits. Thus, during EMT, the process of genome reorganization in mouse involves dynamic changes in eLADs.

RevDate: 2018-08-17

Petryk N, Dalby M, Wenger A, et al (2018)

MCM2 promotes symmetric inheritance of modified histones during DNA replication.

Science (New York, N.Y.) pii:science.aau0294 [Epub ahead of print].

During genome replication, parental histones are recycled to newly replicated DNA with their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). It remains unknown whether sister chromatids inherit modified histones evenly. Here, we measured histone PTM partition to sister chromatids in embryonic stem cells. We found that parental histones H3-H4 segregate to both daughter DNA strands with a weak leading strand bias, skewing partition at topologically associating domain (TAD) borders and enhancers proximal to replication initiation zones. Segregation of parental histones to the leading strand increased markedly in cells with histone-binding mutations in MCM2, part of the replicative helicase, exacerbating histone PTM sister chromatid asymmetry. This work reveals how histones are inherited to sister chromatids and identifies a mechanism for how symmetric cell division is ensured by the replication machinery.

RevDate: 2018-08-16

Li A, Yin X, Xu B, et al (2018)

Decoding topologically associating domains with ultra-low resolution Hi-C data by graph structural entropy.

Nature communications, 9(1):3265 pii:10.1038/s41467-018-05691-7.

Submegabase-size topologically associating domains (TAD) have been observed in high-throughput chromatin interaction data (Hi-C). However, accurate detection of TADs depends on ultra-deep sequencing and sophisticated normalization procedures. Here we propose a fast and normalization-free method to decode the domains of chromosomes (deDoc) that utilizes structural information theory. By treating Hi-C contact matrix as a representation of a graph, deDoc partitions the graph into segments with minimal structural entropy. We show that structural entropy can also be used to determine the proper bin size of the Hi-C data. By applying deDoc to pooled Hi-C data from 10 single cells, we detect megabase-size TAD-like domains. This result implies that the modular structure of the genome spatial organization may be fundamental to even a small cohort of single cells. Our algorithms may facilitate systematic investigations of chromosomal domains on a larger scale than hitherto have been possible.

RevDate: 2018-08-16

Majumder K, Wang J, Boftsi M, et al (2018)

Parvovirus minute virus of mice interacts with sites of cellular DNA damage to establish and amplify its lytic infection.

eLife, 7: pii:37750.

We have developed a generally adaptable, novel high-throughput Viral Chromosome Conformation Capture assay (V3C-seq) for use in trans that allows genome-wide identification of the direct interactions of a lytic virus genome with distinct regions of the cellular chromosome. Upon infection, we found that the parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) genome initially associated with sites of cellular DNA damage that in mock-infected cells also exhibited DNA damage as cells progressed through S-phase. As infection proceeded, new DNA damage sites were induced, and virus subsequently also associated with these. Sites of association identified biochemically were confirmed microscopically and MVM could be targeted specifically to artificially induced sites of DNA damage. Thus, MVM established replication at cellular DNA damage sites, which provide replication and expression machinery, and as cellular DNA damage accrued, virus spread additionally to newly damaged sites to amplify infection. MVM-associated sites overlap significantly with previously identified topologically-associated domains (TADs).

RevDate: 2018-08-15

Crémazy FG, Rashid FM, Haycocks JR, et al (2018)

Determination of the 3D Genome Organization of Bacteria Using Hi-C.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1837:3-18.

The spatial organization of genomes is based on their hierarchical compartmentalization in topological domains. There is growing evidence that bacterial genomes are organized into insulated domains similar to the Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) detected in eukaryotic cells. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technologies are used to analyze in vivo DNA proximity based on ligation of distal DNA segments crossed-linked by bridging proteins. By combining 3C and high-throughput sequencing, the Hi-C method reveals genome-wide interactions within topological domains and global genome structure as a whole. This chapter provides detailed guidelines for the preparation of Hi-C sequencing libraries for bacteria.

RevDate: 2018-08-09

Shi G, Liu L, Hyeon C, et al (2018)

Interphase human chromosome exhibits out of equilibrium glassy dynamics.

Nature communications, 9(1):3161 pii:10.1038/s41467-018-05606-6.

Fingerprints of the three-dimensional organization of genomes have emerged using advances in Hi-C and imaging techniques. However, genome dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we create the chromosome copolymer model (CCM) by representing chromosomes as a copolymer with two epigenetic loci types corresponding to euchromatin and heterochromatin. Using novel clustering techniques, we establish quantitatively that the simulated contact maps and topologically associating domains (TADs) for chromosomes 5 and 10 and those inferred from Hi-C experiments are in good agreement. Chromatin exhibits glassy dynamics with coherent motion on micron scale. The broad distribution of the diffusion exponents of the individual loci, which quantitatively agrees with experiments, is suggestive of highly heterogeneous dynamics. This is reflected in the cell-to-cell variations in the contact maps. Chromosome organization is hierarchical, involving the formation of chromosome droplets (CDs) on genomic scale, coinciding with the TAD size, followed by coalescence of the CDs, reminiscent of Ostwald ripening.

RevDate: 2018-08-08

Krefting J, Andrade-Navarro MA, J Ibn-Salem (2018)

Evolutionary stability of topologically associating domains is associated with conserved gene regulation.

BMC biology, 16(1):87 pii:10.1186/s12915-018-0556-x.

BACKGROUND: The human genome is highly organized in the three-dimensional nucleus. Chromosomes fold locally into topologically associating domains (TADs) defined by increased intra-domain chromatin contacts. TADs contribute to gene regulation by restricting chromatin interactions of regulatory sequences, such as enhancers, with their target genes. Disruption of TADs can result in altered gene expression and is associated to genetic diseases and cancers. However, it is not clear to which extent TAD regions are conserved in evolution and whether disruption of TADs by evolutionary rearrangements can alter gene expression.

RESULTS: Here, we hypothesize that TADs represent essential functional units of genomes, which are stable against rearrangements during evolution. We investigate this using whole-genome alignments to identify evolutionary rearrangement breakpoints of different vertebrate species. Rearrangement breakpoints are strongly enriched at TAD boundaries and depleted within TADs across species. Furthermore, using gene expression data across many tissues in mouse and human, we show that genes within TADs have more conserved expression patterns. Disruption of TADs by evolutionary rearrangements is associated with changes in gene expression profiles, consistent with a functional role of TADs in gene expression regulation.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results indicate that TADs are conserved building blocks of genomes with regulatory functions that are often reshuffled as a whole instead of being disrupted by rearrangements.

RevDate: 2018-07-27

Lecellier CH, Wasserman WW, A Mathelier (2018)

Human Enhancers Harboring Specific Sequence Composition, Activity, and Genome Organization Are Linked to the Immune Response.

Genetics, 209(4):1055-1071.

The FANTOM5 consortium recently characterized 65,423 human enhancers from 1829 cell and tissue samples using the Cap Analysis of Gene Expression technology. We showed that the guanine and cytosine content at enhancer regions distinguishes two classes of enhancers harboring distinct DNA structural properties at flanking regions. A functional analysis of their predicted gene targets highlighted one class of enhancers as significantly enriched for associations with immune response genes. Moreover, these enhancers were specifically enriched for regulatory motifs recognized by transcription factors involved in immune response. We observed that enhancers enriched for links to immune response genes were more cell-type specific, preferentially activated upon bacterial infection, and with specific response activity. Looking at chromatin capture data, we found that the two classes of enhancers were lying in distinct topologically associating domains and chromatin loops. Our results suggest that specific nucleotide compositions encode for classes of enhancers that are functionally distinct and specifically organized in the human genome.

RevDate: 2018-07-18

Menghi F, Barthel FP, Yadav V, et al (2018)

The Tandem Duplicator Phenotype Is a Prevalent Genome-Wide Cancer Configuration Driven by Distinct Gene Mutations.

Cancer cell pii:S1535-6108(18)30265-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The tandem duplicator phenotype (TDP) is a genome-wide instability configuration primarily observed in breast, ovarian, and endometrial carcinomas. Here, we stratify TDP tumors by classifying their tandem duplications (TDs) into three span intervals, with modal values of 11 kb, 231 kb, and 1.7 Mb, respectively. TDPs with ∼11 kb TDs feature loss of TP53 and BRCA1. TDPs with ∼231 kb and ∼1.7 Mb TDs associate with CCNE1 pathway activation and CDK12 disruptions, respectively. We demonstrate that p53 and BRCA1 conjoint abrogation drives TDP induction by generating short-span TDP mammary tumors in genetically modified mice lacking them. Lastly, we show how TDs in TDP tumors disrupt heterogeneous combinations of tumor suppressors and chromatin topologically associating domains while duplicating oncogenes and super-enhancers.

RevDate: 2018-07-16

Ogiyama Y, Schuettengruber B, Papadopoulos GL, et al (2018)

Polycomb-Dependent Chromatin Looping Contributes to Gene Silencing during Drosophila Development.

Molecular cell, 71(1):73-88.e5.

Interphase chromatin is organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). Within TADs, chromatin looping interactions are formed between DNA regulatory elements, but their functional importance for the establishment of the 3D genome organization and gene regulation during development is unclear. Using high-resolution Hi-C experiments, we analyze higher order 3D chromatin organization during Drosophila embryogenesis and identify active and repressive chromatin loops that are established with different kinetics and depend on distinct factors: Zelda-dependent active loops are formed before the midblastula transition between transcribed genes over long distances. Repressive loops within polycomb domains are formed after the midblastula transition between polycomb response elements by the action of GAGA factor and polycomb proteins. Perturbation of PRE function by CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering affects polycomb domain formation and destabilizes polycomb-mediated silencing. Preventing loop formation without removal of polycomb components also decreases silencing efficiency, suggesting that chromatin architecture can play instructive roles in gene regulation during development. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

RevDate: 2018-07-20

Franke M, JL Gómez-Skarmeta (2018)

An evolutionary perspective of regulatory landscape dynamics in development and disease.

Current opinion in cell biology, 55:24-29 pii:S0955-0674(18)30021-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The organization of animal genomes into topologically associating domains (TADs) provides a structural scaffold in which cis-regulatory elements (CREs) operate on their target genes. Determining the position of CREs and genes relative to TADs has become instrumental to trace gene expression changes during evolution and in diseases. Here we will review recent studies and discuss TADs as structural units with respect to their conservation and stability during genome reorganization. Furthermore, we describe how TAD restructuring contributed to morphological novelties during evolution but also their deleterious effects associated with disease. Despite considering TADs as structural units, the nested and dynamic scaffold within TADs contributes to tissue-specific gene expression, implying that such changes can also account for gene expression differences during evolution.

RevDate: 2018-07-13

Hou J, X Wang (2018)

The Polycomb group proteins functions in epithelial to mesenchymal transition in lung cancer.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology pii:S1084-9521(17)30595-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Polycomb group proteins (PcG) play important roles in the maintenance of DNA sequencing and multi-dimensional organization of genome. The main PcG complexes are consisted of Polycomb repressive complex1 and 2, of which the diversity is dependent upon target gene sequences and functions. The present review initially explores the mechanism-based relationship and functional roles of PcG proteins in the interplay between epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chromatin dynamics in lung cancer. PcG proteins regulate the target genes by modifying histone and chromosome conformation and influencing chromatin looping and long-range interactions between topologically associating domains (TADs). PcG proteins regulate target genes expression and long-distance interactions between TADs in nucleus in the development of EMT and lung cancer. PcG plays decisive regulatory roles in epithelial differentiation and transition or signaling and activation of oncogenes, by promoting the isoforms at the transcriptional levels, to drive EMT to greater invasive ability and carcinogenesis. With the development of single cell systems biology and gene editing, PcG roles in 3D genome organization, heterogeneity, and EMT will be furthermore understood at single cell levels.

RevDate: 2018-07-11

Malik L, R Patro (2018)

Rich Chromatin Structure Prediction from Hi-C Data.

IEEE/ACM transactions on computational biology and bioinformatics [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies involving the 3-dimensional conformation of chromatin have revealed the important role it has to play in different processes within the cell. These studies have also led to the discovery of densely interacting segments of the chromosome, called topologically associating domains. The accurate identification of these domains from Hi-C interaction data is an interesting and important computational problem for which numerous methods have been proposed. Unfortunately, most existing algorithms designed to identify these domains assume that they are non-overlapping whereas there is substantial evidence to believe a nested structure exists. We present a methodology to predict hierarchical chromatin domains using chromatin conformation capture data. Our method predicts domains at different resolutions, calculated using intrinsic properties of the chromatin data, and effectively clusters these to construct the hierarchy. At each individual level, the domains are non-overlapping in such a way that the intra-domain interaction frequencies are maximized. We show that our predicted structure is highly enriched for actively transcribing housekeeping genes and various chromatin markers, including CTCF, around the domain boundaries. We also show that large-scale domains, at multiple resolutions within our hierarchy, are conserved across cell types and species. We also provide comparisons against existing tools for extracting hierarchical domains. Our software, Matryoshka, is written in and licensed under GPL v3; it is available at https://github.com/COMBINE-lab/matryoshka.

RevDate: 2018-07-07

Zhang L, Song D, Zhu B, et al (2018)

The role of nuclear matrix protein HNRNPU in maintaining the architecture of 3D genome.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology pii:S1084-9521(18)30050-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The complexity of higher eukaryote genomes is far from being explained by linear information. There is a need to understand roles of genome regulation at the organism level through defining a comprehensive profile of chromosomal organization. Chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based studies reveal that higher-order of chromatin include not only long-range chromatin loops, but also compartments and topologically associating domains as the basis of genome structure and functions. However, the molecular machinery how the genome is spatially organized is still inadequate. Exciting progress has been made with the development of today's technology, we find that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, initially identified as a structural nuclear protein, plays important role in three-dimensional (3D) genome organization by high-throughput assays. The disruption of this protein not only results in compartment switching on of the genome, it also reduces of TAD boundary strengths at borders between two types of compartments, and regulates chromatin loop by decrease its intensities. In addition, HNRNPU mainly binds to active chromatin. Most of HNRNPU peaks is consistent with CTCF or RAD21.It also plays an irreplaceable role in the processes of mitosis. This review aims to discuss the role of HNRNPU in maintaining the 3D chromatin architecture, as well as the recent development and human diseases involved in this nuclear matrix (NM)-associated protein.

RevDate: 2018-07-20

Kaaij LJT, van der Weide RH, Ketting RF, et al (2018)

Systemic Loss and Gain of Chromatin Architecture throughout Zebrafish Development.

Cell reports, 24(1):1-10.e4.

The spatial organization of chromosomes is critical in establishing gene expression programs. We generated in situ Hi-C maps throughout zebrafish development to gain insight into higher-order chromatin organization and dynamics. Zebrafish chromosomes segregate in active and inactive chromatin (A/B compartments), which are further organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). Zebrafish A/B compartments and TADs have genomic features similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, including evolutionary conservation and enrichment of CTCF binding sites at TAD borders. At the earliest time point, when there is no zygotic transcription, the genome is highly structured. After zygotic genome activation (ZGA), the genome loses structural features, which are re-established throughout early development. Despite the absence of structural features, we see clustering of super-enhancers in the 3D genome. Our results provide insight into vertebrate genome organization and demonstrate that the developing zebrafish embryo is a powerful model system to study the dynamics of nuclear organization.

RevDate: 2018-07-18

Nuebler J, Fudenberg G, Imakaev M, et al (2018)

Chromatin organization by an interplay of loop extrusion and compartmental segregation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(29):E6697-E6706.

Mammalian chromatin is spatially organized at many scales showing two prominent features in interphase: (i) alternating regions (1-10 Mb) of active and inactive chromatin that spatially segregate into different compartments, and (ii) domains (<1 Mb), that is, regions that preferentially interact internally [topologically associating domains (TADs)] and are central to gene regulation. There is growing evidence that TADs are formed by active extrusion of chromatin loops by cohesin, whereas compartmentalization is established according to local chromatin states. Here, we use polymer simulations to examine how loop extrusion and compartmental segregation work collectively and potentially interfere in shaping global chromosome organization. A model with differential attraction between euchromatin and heterochromatin leads to phase separation and reproduces compartmentalization as observed in Hi-C. Loop extrusion, essential for TAD formation, in turn, interferes with compartmentalization. Our integrated model faithfully reproduces Hi-C data from puzzling experimental observations where altering loop extrusion also led to changes in compartmentalization. Specifically, depletion of chromatin-associated cohesin reduced TADs and revealed finer compartments, while increased processivity of cohesin strengthened large TADs and reduced compartmentalization; and depletion of the TAD boundary protein CTCF weakened TADs while leaving compartments unaffected. We reveal that these experimental perturbations are special cases of a general polymer phenomenon of active mixing by loop extrusion. Our results suggest that chromatin organization on the megabase scale emerges from competition of nonequilibrium active loop extrusion and epigenetically defined compartment structure.

RevDate: 2018-07-12

Sauerwald N, C Kingsford (2018)

Quantifying the similarity of topological domains across normal and cancer human cell types.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 34(13):i475-i483.

Motivation: Three-dimensional chromosome structure has been increasingly shown to influence various levels of cellular and genomic functions. Through Hi-C data, which maps contact frequency on chromosomes, it has been found that structural elements termed topologically associating domains (TADs) are involved in many regulatory mechanisms. However, we have little understanding of the level of similarity or variability of chromosome structure across cell types and disease states. In this study, we present a method to quantify resemblance and identify structurally similar regions between any two sets of TADs.

Results: We present an analysis of 23 human Hi-C samples representing various tissue types in normal and cancer cell lines. We quantify global and chromosome-level structural similarity, and compare the relative similarity between cancer and non-cancer cells. We find that cancer cells show higher structural variability around commonly mutated pan-cancer genes than normal cells at these same locations.

Software for the methods and analysis can be found at https://github.com/Kingsford-Group/localtadsim.

RevDate: 2018-06-29

Lumley T, Brody J, Peloso G, et al (2018)

FastSKAT: Sequence kernel association tests for very large sets of markers.

Genetic epidemiology [Epub ahead of print].

The sequence kernel association test (SKAT) is widely used to test for associations between a phenotype and a set of genetic variants that are usually rare. Evaluating tail probabilities or quantiles of the null distribution for SKAT requires computing the eigenvalues of a matrix related to the genotype covariance between markers. Extracting the full set of eigenvalues of this matrix (an n×n matrix, for n subjects) has computational complexity proportional to n3 . As SKAT is often used when n>104, this step becomes a major bottleneck in its use in practice. We therefore propose fastSKAT, a new computationally inexpensive but accurate approximations to the tail probabilities, in which the k largest eigenvalues of a weighted genotype covariance matrix or the largest singular values of a weighted genotype matrix are extracted, and a single term based on the Satterthwaite approximation is used for the remaining eigenvalues. While the method is not particularly sensitive to the choice of k, we also describe how to choose its value, and show how fastSKAT can automatically alert users to the rare cases where the choice may affect results. As well as providing faster implementation of SKAT, the new method also enables entirely new applications of SKAT that were not possible before; we give examples grouping variants by topologically associating domains, and comparing chromosome-wide association by class of histone marker.

RevDate: 2018-07-20

Lazar NH, Nevonen KA, O'Connell B, et al (2018)

Epigenetic maintenance of topological domains in the highly rearranged gibbon genome.

Genome research, 28(7):983-997.

The relationship between evolutionary genome remodeling and the three-dimensional structure of the genome remain largely unexplored. Here, we use the heavily rearranged gibbon genome to examine how evolutionary chromosomal rearrangements impact genome-wide chromatin interactions, topologically associating domains (TADs), and their epigenetic landscape. We use high-resolution maps of gibbon-human breaks of synteny (BOS), apply Hi-C in gibbon, measure an array of epigenetic features, and perform cross-species comparisons. We find that gibbon rearrangements occur at TAD boundaries, independent of the parameters used to identify TADs. This overlap is supported by a remarkable genetic and epigenetic similarity between BOS and TAD boundaries, namely presence of CpG islands and SINE elements, and enrichment in CTCF and H3K4me3 binding. Cross-species comparisons reveal that regions orthologous to BOS also correspond with boundaries of large (400-600 kb) TADs in human and other mammalian species. The colocalization of rearrangement breakpoints and TAD boundaries may be due to higher chromatin fragility at these locations and/or increased selective pressure against rearrangements that disrupt TAD integrity. We also examine the small portion of BOS that did not overlap with TAD boundaries and gave rise to novel TADs in the gibbon genome. We postulate that these new TADs generally lack deleterious consequences. Last, we show that limited epigenetic homogenization occurs across breakpoints, irrespective of their time of occurrence in the gibbon lineage. Overall, our findings demonstrate remarkable conservation of chromatin interactions and epigenetic landscape in gibbons, in spite of extensive genomic shuffling.

RevDate: 2018-07-15

Wang CY, Jégu T, Chu HP, et al (2018)

SMCHD1 Merges Chromosome Compartments and Assists Formation of Super-Structures on the Inactive X.

Cell, 174(2):406-421.e25.

Mammalian chromosomes are partitioned into A/B compartments and topologically associated domains (TADs). The inactive X (Xi) chromosome, however, adopts a distinct conformation without evident compartments or TADs. Here, through exploration of an architectural protein, structural-maintenance-of-chromosomes hinge domain containing 1 (SMCHD1), we probe how the Xi is reconfigured during X chromosome inactivation. A/B compartments are first fused into "S1" and "S2" compartments, coinciding with Xist spreading into gene-rich domains. SMCHD1 then binds S1/S2 compartments and merges them to create a compartment-less architecture. Contrary to current views, TADs remain on the Xi but in an attenuated state. Ablating SMCHD1 results in a persistent S1/S2 organization and strengthening of TADs. Furthermore, loss of SMCHD1 causes regional defects in Xist spreading and erosion of heterochromatic silencing. We present a stepwise model for Xi folding, where SMCHD1 attenuates a hidden layer of Xi architecture to facilitate Xist spreading.

RevDate: 2018-06-10

daSilva LF, Beckedorff FC, Ayupe AC, et al (2018)

Chromatin Landscape Distinguishes the Genomic Loci of Hundreds of Androgen-Receptor-Associated LincRNAs From the Loci of Non-associated LincRNAs.

Frontiers in genetics, 9:132.

Cell signaling events triggered by androgen hormone in prostate cells is dependent on activation of the androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor. Androgen hormone binding to AR promotes its displacement from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AR binding to DNA motifs, thus inducing activatory and inhibitory transcriptional programs through a complex regulatory mechanism not yet fully understood. In this work, we performed RNA-seq deep-sequencing of LNCaP prostate cancer cells and found over 7000 expressed long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs), of which ∼4000 are novel lincRNAs, and 258 lincRNAs have their expression activated by androgen. Immunoprecipitation of AR, followed by large-scale sequencing of co-immunoprecipitated RNAs (RIP-Seq) has identified in the LNCaP cell line a total of 619 lincRNAs that were significantly enriched (FDR < 10%, DESeq2) in the anti-Androgen Receptor (antiAR) fraction in relation to the control fraction (non-specific IgG), and we named them Androgen-Receptor-Associated lincRNAs (ARA-lincRNAs). A genome-wide analysis showed that protein-coding gene neighbors to ARA-lincRNAs had a significantly higher androgen-induced change in expression than protein-coding genes neighboring lincRNAs not associated to AR. To find relevant epigenetic signatures enriched at the ARA-lincRNAs' transcription start sites (TSSs) we used a machine learning approach and identified that the ARA-lincRNA genomic loci in LNCaP cells are significantly enriched with epigenetic marks that are characteristic of in cis enhancer RNA regulators, and that the H3K27ac mark of active enhancers is conspicuously enriched at the TSS of ARA-lincRNAs adjacent to androgen-activated protein-coding genes. In addition, LNCaP topologically associating domains (TADs) that comprise chromatin regions with ARA-lincRNAs exhibit transcription factor contents, epigenetic marks and gene transcriptional activities that are significantly different from TADs not containing ARA-lincRNAs. This work highlights the possible involvement of hundreds of lincRNAs working in synergy with the AR on the genome-wide androgen-induced gene regulatory program in prostate cells.

RevDate: 2018-06-06

Kojic A, Cuadrado A, De Koninck M, et al (2018)

Distinct roles of cohesin-SA1 and cohesin-SA2 in 3D chromosome organization.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 25(6):496-504.

Two variant cohesin complexes containing SMC1, SMC3, RAD21 and either SA1 (also known as STAG1) or SA2 (also known as STAG2) are present in all cell types. We report here their genomic distribution and specific contributions to genome organization in human cells. Although both variants are found at CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) sites, a distinct population of the SA2-containing cohesin complexes (hereafter referred to as cohesin-SA2) localize to enhancers lacking CTCF, are linked to tissue-specific transcription and cannot be replaced by the SA1-containing cohesin complex (cohesin-SA1) when SA2 is absent, a condition that has been observed in several tumors. Downregulation of each of these variants has different consequences for gene expression and genome architecture. Our results suggest that cohesin-SA1 preferentially contributes to the stabilization of topologically associating domain boundaries together with CTCF, whereas cohesin-SA2 promotes cell-type-specific contacts between enhancers and promoters independently of CTCF. Loss of cohesin-SA2 rewires local chromatin contacts and alters gene expression. These findings provide insights into how cohesin mediates chromosome folding and establish a novel framework to address the consequences of mutations in cohesin genes in cancer.

RevDate: 2018-06-02

Rada-Iglesias A, Grosveld FG, A Papantonis (2018)

Forces driving the three-dimensional folding of eukaryotic genomes.

Molecular systems biology, 14(6):e8214.

The last decade has radically renewed our understanding of higher order chromatin folding in the eukaryotic nucleus. As a result, most current models are in support of a mostly hierarchical and relatively stable folding of chromosomes dividing chromosomal territories into A- (active) and B- (inactive) compartments, which are then further partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs), each of which is made up from multiple loops stabilized mainly by the CTCF and cohesin chromatin-binding complexes. Nonetheless, the structure-to-function relationship of eukaryotic genomes is still not well understood. Here, we focus on recent work highlighting the biophysical and regulatory forces that contribute to the spatial organization of genomes, and we propose that the various conformations that chromatin assumes are not so much the result of a linear hierarchy, but rather of both converging and conflicting dynamic forces that act on it.

RevDate: 2018-06-04

Chyr J, Guo D, X Zhou (2018)

LSCC SNP variant regulates SOX2 modulation of VDAC3.

Oncotarget, 9(32):22340-22352 pii:24918.

Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a genomically complex malignancy with no effective treatments. Recent studies have found a large number of DNA alterations such as SOX2 amplification in LSCC patients. As a stem cell transcription factor, SOX2 is important for the maintenance of pluripotent cells and may play a role in cancer. To study the downstream mechanisms of SOX2, we employed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) technology to investigate how the presence of SOX2 affects the expression of target genes. We discovered unique eQTLs, such as rs798827-VDAC3 (FDR p-value = 0.0034), that are only found in SOX2-active patients but not in SOX2-inactive patients. SNP rs798827 is within strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 1) to rs58163073, where rs58163073 [T] allele increases the binding affinity of SOX2 and allele [TA] decreases it. In our analysis, SOX2 silencing downregulates VDAC3 in two LSCC cell lines. Chromatin conformation capturing data indicates that this SNP is located within the same Topologically Associating Domain (TAD) of VDAC3, further suggesting SOX2's role in the regulation of VDAC3 through the binding of rs58163073. By first subgrouping patients based on SOX2 activity, we made more relevant eQTL discoveries and our analysis can be applied to other diseases.

RevDate: 2018-05-28

Gassler J, Flyamer IM, K Tachibana (2018)

Single-nucleus Hi-C of mammalian oocytes and zygotes.

Methods in cell biology, 144:389-407.

The 3D folding of the genome is linked to essential nuclear processes including gene expression, DNA repair, and replication. Chromatin conformation capture assays such as Hi-C are providing unprecedented insights into higher-order chromatin structure. Bulk Hi-C of millions of cells enables detection of average chromatin features at high resolution but is challenging to apply to rare cell types. This chapter describes our recently developed single-nucleus Hi-C (snHi-C) approach for detection of chromatin contacts in single nuclei of murine oocytes and one-cell embryos (zygotes). The step-by-step protocol includes isolation of these cells, extraction of nuclei, fixation, restriction digestion, ligation, and whole genome amplification. Contacts obtained by snHi-C allow detection of chromatin features including loops, topologically associating domains, and compartments when averaged over the genome. The combination of snHi-C with other single-cell techniques in these and other rare cell types will likely provide a comprehensive picture of how chromatin architecture shapes cell identity.

RevDate: 2018-06-13

Manduchi E, Williams SM, Chesi A, et al (2018)

Leveraging epigenomics and contactomics data to investigate SNP pairs in GWAS.

Human genetics, 137(5):413-425.

Although Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have led to many valuable insights into the genetic bases of common diseases over the past decade, the issue of missing heritability has surfaced, as the discovered main effect genetic variants found to date do not account for much of a trait's predicted genetic component. We present a workflow, integrating epigenomics and topologically associating domain data, aimed at discovering trait-associated SNP pairs from GWAS where neither SNP achieved independent genome-wide significance. Each analyzed SNP pair consists of one SNP in a putative active enhancer and another SNP in a putative physically interacting gene promoter in a trait-relevant tissue. As a proof-of-principle case study, we used this approach to identify focused collections of SNP pairs that we analyzed in three independent Type 2 diabetes (T2D) GWAS. This approach led us to discover 35 significant SNP pairs, encompassing both novel signals and signals for which we have found orthogonal support from other sources. Nine of these pairs are consistent with eQTL results, two are consistent with our own capture C experiments, and seven involve signals supported by recent T2D literature.

RevDate: 2018-05-23

Cheng Y, Li Z, Manupipatpong S, et al (2018)

5-hydroxymethylcytosine alterations in the human postmortem brains of autism spectrum disorder.

Human molecular genetics pii:5001457 [Epub ahead of print].

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include a group of syndromes characterized by impaired language, social, and communication skills, in addition to restrictive behaviors or stereotypes. However, with a prevalence of 1.5% in developed countries and high comorbidity rates, no clear underlying mechanism that unifies the heterogeneous phenotypes of ASD exists. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is highly enriched in the brain and recognized as an essential epigenetic mark in developmental and brain disorders. To explore the role of 5hmC in ASD, we used the genomic DNA isolated from the postmortem cerebellum of both ASD patients and age-matched controls to profile genome-wide distribution of 5hmC. We identified 797 age-dependent differentially hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs) in the young group (age ≤ 18), while no significant DhMR was identified in the groups over 18 years of age. Pathway and disease association analyses demonstrated that the intragenic DhMRs were in the genes involved in cell-cell communication and neurological disorders. Also, we saw significant 5hmC changes in the larger group of psychiatric genes. Interestingly, we found that the predicted cis functions of non-coding intergenic DhMRs strikingly associate with ASD and intellectual disorders. A significant fraction of intergenic DhMRs overlapped with topologically associating domains (TAD). These results together suggest that 5hmC alteration is associated with ASD, particularly in the early development stage, and could contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD.

RevDate: 2018-06-12

Kim JH, Titus KR, Gong W, et al (2018)

5C-ID: Increased resolution Chromosome-Conformation-Capture-Carbon-Copy with in situ 3C and double alternating primer design.

Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 142:39-46.

Mammalian genomes are folded in a hierarchy of compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), subTADs, and looping interactions. Currently, there is a great need to evaluate the link between chromatin topology and genome function across many biological conditions and genetic perturbations. Hi-C can generate genome-wide maps of looping interactions but is intractable for high-throughput comparison of loops across multiple conditions due to the enormous number of reads (>6 Billion) required per library. Here, we describe 5C-ID, a new version of Chromosome-Conformation-Capture-Carbon-Copy (5C) with restriction digest and ligation performed in the nucleus (in situ Chromosome-Conformation-Capture (3C)) and ligation-mediated amplification performed with a double alternating primer design. We demonstrate that 5C-ID produces higher-resolution 3D genome folding maps with reduced spatial noise using markedly lower cell numbers than canonical 5C. 5C-ID enables the creation of high-resolution, high-coverage maps of chromatin loops in up to a 30 Megabase subset of the genome at a fraction of the cost of Hi-C.

RevDate: 2018-06-26
CmpDate: 2018-06-26

Huang AY, Yang X, Wang S, et al (2018)

Distinctive types of postzygotic single-nucleotide mosaicisms in healthy individuals revealed by genome-wide profiling of multiple organs.

PLoS genetics, 14(5):e1007395 pii:PGENETICS-D-18-00143.

Postzygotic single-nucleotide mosaicisms (pSNMs) have been extensively studied in tumors and are known to play critical roles in tumorigenesis. However, the patterns and origin of pSNMs in normal organs of healthy humans remain largely unknown. Using whole-genome sequencing and ultra-deep amplicon re-sequencing, we identified and validated 164 pSNMs from 27 postmortem organ samples obtained from five healthy donors. The mutant allele fractions ranged from 1.0% to 29.7%. Inter- and intra-organ comparison revealed two distinctive types of pSNMs, with about half originating during early embryogenesis (embryonic pSNMs) and the remaining more likely to result from clonal expansion events that had occurred more recently (clonal expansion pSNMs). Compared to clonal expansion pSNMs, embryonic pSNMs had higher proportion of C>T mutations with elevated mutation rate at CpG sites. We observed differences in replication timing between these two types of pSNMs, with embryonic and clonal expansion pSNMs enriched in early- and late-replicating regions, respectively. An increased number of embryonic pSNMs were located in open chromatin states and topologically associating domains that transcribed embryonically. Our findings provide new insights into the origin and spatial distribution of postzygotic mosaicism during normal human development.

RevDate: 2018-06-08

Matthews BJ, DJ Waxman (2018)

Computational prediction of CTCF/cohesin-based intra-TAD loops that insulate chromatin contacts and gene expression in mouse liver.

eLife, 7: pii:34077.

CTCF and cohesin are key drivers of 3D-nuclear organization, anchoring the megabase-scale Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) that segment the genome. Here, we present and validate a computational method to predict cohesin-and-CTCF binding sites that form intra-TAD DNA loops. The intra-TAD loop anchors identified are structurally indistinguishable from TAD anchors regarding binding partners, sequence conservation, and resistance to cohesin knockdown; further, the intra-TAD loops retain key functional features of TADs, including chromatin contact insulation, blockage of repressive histone mark spread, and ubiquity across tissues. We propose that intra-TAD loops form by the same loop extrusion mechanism as the larger TAD loops, and that their shorter length enables finer regulatory control in restricting enhancer-promoter interactions, which enables selective, high-level expression of gene targets of super-enhancers and genes located within repressive nuclear compartments. These findings elucidate the role of intra-TAD cohesin-and-CTCF binding in nuclear organization associated with widespread insulation of distal enhancer activity.

RevDate: 2018-05-23

Zinchenko A, Berezhnoy NV, Chen Q, et al (2018)

Compaction of Single-Molecule Megabase-Long Chromatin under the Influence of Macromolecular Crowding.

Biophysical journal, 114(10):2326-2335.

The megabase-sized length of chromatin is highly relevant to the state of chromatin in vivo, where it is subject to a highly crowded environment and is organized in topologically associating domains of similar dimension. We developed an in vitro experimental chromatin model system reconstituted from T4 DNA (approximately 166 kbp) and histone octamers and studied the monomolecular compaction of this megabase-sized chromatin fiber under the influence of macromolecular crowding. We used single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and observed compaction in aqueous solutions containing poly(ethylene glycol) in the presence of monovalent (Na+ and K+) and divalent (Mg2+) cations. Both DNA and chromatin demonstrated compaction under comparable conditions in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) and Na+ or Mg2+ salt. However, the mechanism of the compaction changed from a first-order phase transition for DNA to a continuous folding for megabase-sized chromatin fibers. A more efficient and pronounced chromatin compaction was observed in the presence of Na+ compared to K+. A flow-stretching technique to unfold DNA and chromatin coils was used to gain further insight into the morphology of partially folded chromatin fibers. The results revealed a distribution of partially folded chromatin fibers. This variability is likely the result of the heterogeneous distribution of nucleosomes on the DNA chain. The packaging of DNA in the form of chromatin in the crowded nuclear environment appears essential to ensure gradual conformational changes of DNA.

RevDate: 2018-05-04

Liu T, Z Wang (2018)

SOV_refine: A further refined definition of segment overlap score and its significance for protein structure similarity.

Source code for biology and medicine, 13:1 pii:68.

Background: The segment overlap score (SOV) has been used to evaluate the predicted protein secondary structures, a sequence composed of helix (H), strand (E), and coil (C), by comparing it with the native or reference secondary structures, another sequence of H, E, and C. SOV's advantage is that it can consider the size of continuous overlapping segments and assign extra allowance to longer continuous overlapping segments instead of only judging from the percentage of overlapping individual positions as Q3 score does. However, we have found a drawback from its previous definition, that is, it cannot ensure increasing allowance assignment when more residues in a segment are further predicted accurately.

Results: A new way of assigning allowance has been designed, which keeps all the advantages of the previous SOV score definitions and ensures that the amount of allowance assigned is incremental when more elements in a segment are predicted accurately. Furthermore, our improved SOV has achieved a higher correlation with the quality of protein models measured by GDT-TS score and TM-score, indicating its better abilities to evaluate tertiary structure quality at the secondary structure level. We analyzed the statistical significance of SOV scores and found the threshold values for distinguishing two protein structures (SOV_refine > 0.19) and indicating whether two proteins are under the same CATH fold (SOV_refine > 0.94 and > 0.90 for three- and eight-state secondary structures respectively). We provided another two example applications, which are when used as a machine learning feature for protein model quality assessment and comparing different definitions of topologically associating domains. We proved that our newly defined SOV score resulted in better performance.

Conclusions: The SOV score can be widely used in bioinformatics research and other fields that need to compare two sequences of letters in which continuous segments have important meanings. We also generalized the previous SOV definitions so that it can work for sequences composed of more than three states (e.g., it can work for the eight-state definition of protein secondary structures). A standalone software package has been implemented in Perl with source code released. The software can be downloaded from http://dna.cs.miami.edu/SOV/.

RevDate: 2018-06-15

Spielmann M, Lupiáñez DG, S Mundlos (2018)

Structural variation in the 3D genome.

Nature reviews. Genetics, 19(7):453-467.

Structural and quantitative chromosomal rearrangements, collectively referred to as structural variation (SV), contribute to a large extent to the genetic diversity of the human genome and thus are of high relevance for cancer genetics, rare diseases and evolutionary genetics. Recent studies have shown that SVs can not only affect gene dosage but also modulate basic mechanisms of gene regulation. SVs can alter the copy number of regulatory elements or modify the 3D genome by disrupting higher-order chromatin organization such as topologically associating domains. As a result of these position effects, SVs can influence the expression of genes distant from the SV breakpoints, thereby causing disease. The impact of SVs on the 3D genome and on gene expression regulation has to be considered when interpreting the pathogenic potential of these variant types.

RevDate: 2018-07-11

Galupa R, E Heard (2017)

Topologically Associating Domains in Chromosome Architecture and Gene Regulatory Landscapes during Development, Disease, and Evolution.

Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology, 82:267-278.

The packaging of genetic material into chromatin and chromosomes has been recognized for more than a century, thanks to microscopy and biochemical approaches. This was followed by the progressive realization that chromatin organization is critical for genome functions such as transcription and DNA replication and repair. The recent discovery that chromosomes are partitioned at the submegabase scale into topologically associating domains (TADs) has implications for our understanding of gene regulation during developmental processes such as X-chromosome inactivation, as well as for evolution and for the search for disease-associated loci. Here we discuss our current knowledge about this recently recognized level of mammalian chromosome organization, with a special emphasis on the potential role of TADs as a structural basis for the function and evolution of mammalian regulatory landscapes.

RevDate: 2018-07-05

Eagen KP (2018)

Principles of Chromosome Architecture Revealed by Hi-C.

Trends in biochemical sciences, 43(6):469-478.

Chromosomes are folded and compacted in interphase nuclei, but the molecular basis of this folding is poorly understood. Chromosome conformation capture methods, such as Hi-C, combine chemical crosslinking of chromatin with fragmentation, DNA ligation, and high-throughput DNA sequencing to detect neighboring loci genome-wide. Hi-C has revealed the segregation of chromatin into active and inactive compartments and the folding of DNA into self-associating domains and loops. Depletion of CTCF, cohesin, or cohesin-associated proteins was recently shown to affect the majority of domains and loops in a manner that is consistent with a model of DNA folding through extrusion of chromatin loops. Compartmentation was not dependent on CTCF or cohesin. Hi-C contact maps represent the superimposition of CTCF/cohesin-dependent and -independent folding states.

RevDate: 2018-05-03

Bianco S, Lupiáñez DG, Chiariello AM, et al (2018)

Polymer physics predicts the effects of structural variants on chromatin architecture.

Nature genetics, 50(5):662-667.

Structural variants (SVs) can result in changes in gene expression due to abnormal chromatin folding and cause disease. However, the prediction of such effects remains a challenge. Here we present a polymer-physics-based approach (PRISMR) to model 3D chromatin folding and to predict enhancer-promoter contacts. PRISMR predicts higher-order chromatin structure from genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data. Using the EPHA4 locus as a model, the effects of pathogenic SVs are predicted in silico and compared to Hi-C data generated from mouse limb buds and patient-derived fibroblasts. PRISMR deconvolves the folding complexity of the EPHA4 locus and identifies SV-induced ectopic contacts and alterations of 3D genome organization in homozygous or heterozygous states. We show that SVs can reconfigure topologically associating domains, thereby producing extensive rewiring of regulatory interactions and causing disease by gene misexpression. PRISMR can be used to predict interactions in silico, thereby providing a tool for analyzing the disease-causing potential of SVs.

RevDate: 2018-06-05

Serizay J, J Ahringer (2018)

Genome organization at different scales: nature, formation and function.

Current opinion in cell biology, 52:145-153.

Since the discovery of chromosome territories, it has been clear that DNA within the nucleus is spatially organized. During the last decade, a tremendous body of work has described architectural features of chromatin at different spatial scales, such as A/B compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), and chromatin loops. These features correlate with domains of chromatin marking and gene expression, supporting their relevance for gene regulation. Recent work has highlighted the dynamic nature of spatial folding and investigated mechanisms of their formation. Here we discuss current understanding and highlight key open questions in chromosome organization in animals.

RevDate: 2018-06-13
CmpDate: 2018-06-13

Cremer T, Cremer M, C Cremer (2018)

The 4D Nucleome: Genome Compartmentalization in an Evolutionary Context.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 83(4):313-325.

4D nucleome research aims to understand the impact of nuclear organization in space and time on nuclear functions, such as gene expression patterns, chromatin replication, and the maintenance of genome integrity. In this review we describe evidence that the origin of 4D genome compartmentalization can be traced back to the prokaryotic world. In cell nuclei of animals and plants chromosomes occupy distinct territories, built up from ~1 Mb chromatin domains, which in turn are composed of smaller chromatin subdomains and also form larger chromatin domain clusters. Microscopic evidence for this higher order chromatin landscape was strengthened by chromosome conformation capture studies, in particular Hi-C. This approach demonstrated ~1 Mb sized, topologically associating domains in mammalian cell nuclei separated by boundaries. Mutations, which destroy boundaries, can result in developmental disorders and cancer. Nucleosomes appeared first as tetramers in the Archaea kingdom and later evolved to octamers built up each from two H2A, two H2B, two H3, and two H4 proteins. Notably, nucleosomes were lost during the evolution of the Dinoflagellata phylum. Dinoflagellate chromosomes remain condensed during the entire cell cycle, but their chromosome architecture differs radically from the architecture of other eukaryotes. In summary, the conservation of fundamental features of higher order chromatin arrangements throughout the evolution of metazoan animals suggests the existence of conserved, but still unknown mechanism(s) controlling this architecture. Notwithstanding this conservation, a comparison of metazoans and protists also demonstrates species-specific structural and functional features of nuclear organization.

RevDate: 2018-07-06

Lodato NJ, Rampersaud A, DJ Waxman (2018)

Impact of CAR Agonist Ligand TCPOBOP on Mouse Liver Chromatin Accessibility.

Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 164(1):115-128.

Activation of the nuclear receptor and transcription factor CAR (Nr1i3) by its specific agonist ligand TCPOBOP (1, 4-bis[2-(3, 5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene) dysregulates hundreds of genes in mouse liver and is linked to male-biased hepatocarcinogenesis. To elucidate the genomic organization of CAR-induced gene responses, we investigated the distribution of TCPOBOP-responsive RefSeq coding and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes across the megabase-scale topologically associating domains (TADs) that segment the genome, and which provide a structural framework that functionally constrains enhancer-promoter interactions. We show that a subset of TCPOBOP-responsive genes cluster within TADs, and that TCPOBOP-induced genes and TCPOBOP-repressed genes are often found in different TADs. Further, using DNase-seq and DNase hypersensitivity site (DHS) analysis, we identified several thousand genomic regions (ΔDHS) where short-term exposure to TCPOBOP induces localized changes (increases or decreases) in mouse liver chromatin accessibility, many of which cluster in TADs together with TCPOBOP-responsive genes. Sites of chromatin opening were highly enriched nearby genes induced by TCPOBOP and chromatin closing was highly enriched nearby genes repressed by TCPOBOP, consistent with TCPOBOP-responsive ΔDHS serving as enhancers and promoters that positively regulate CAR-responsive genes. Gene expression changes lagged behind chromatin opening or closing for a subset of TCPOBOP-responsive ΔDHS. ΔDHS that were specifically responsive to TCPOBOP in male liver were significantly enriched for genomic regions with a basal male bias in chromatin accessibility; however, the male-biased response of hepatocellular carcinoma-related genes to TCPOBOP was not associated with a correspondingly male-biased ΔDHS response. These studies elucidate the genome-wide organization of CAR-responsive genes and of the thousands of associated genomic sites where TCPOBOP exposure induces both rapid and persistent changes in chromatin accessibility.

RevDate: 2018-06-08

Al Bkhetan Z, D Plewczynski (2018)

Three-dimensional Epigenome Statistical Model: Genome-wide Chromatin Looping Prediction.

Scientific reports, 8(1):5217 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-23276-8.

This study aims to understand through statistical learning the basic biophysical mechanisms behind three-dimensional folding of epigenomes. The 3DEpiLoop algorithm predicts three-dimensional chromatin looping interactions within topologically associating domains (TADs) from one-dimensional epigenomics and transcription factor profiles using the statistical learning. The predictions obtained by 3DEpiLoop are highly consistent with the reported experimental interactions. The complex signatures of epigenomic and transcription factors within the physically interacting chromatin regions (anchors) are similar across all genomic scales: genomic domains, chromosomal territories, cell types, and different individuals. We report the most important epigenetic and transcription factor features used for interaction identification either shared, or unique for each of sixteen (16) cell lines. The analysis shows that CTCF interaction anchors are enriched by transcription factors yet deficient in histone modifications, while the opposite is true in the case of RNAP II mediated interactions. The code is available at the repository https://bitbucket.org/4dnucleome/3depiloop .

RevDate: 2018-06-09

Xiang W, Roberti MJ, Hériché JK, et al (2018)

Correlative live and super-resolution imaging reveals the dynamic structure of replication domains.

The Journal of cell biology, 217(6):1973-1984.

Chromosome organization in higher eukaryotes controls gene expression, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Genome mapping has revealed the functional units of chromatin at the submegabase scale as self-interacting regions called topologically associating domains (TADs) and showed they correspond to replication domains (RDs). A quantitative structural and dynamic description of RD behavior in the nucleus is, however, missing because visualization of dynamic subdiffraction-sized RDs remains challenging. Using fluorescence labeling of RDs combined with correlative live and super-resolution microscopy in situ, we determined biophysical parameters to characterize the internal organization, spacing, and mechanical coupling of RDs. We found that RDs are typically 150 nm in size and contain four co-replicating regions spaced 60 nm apart. Spatially neighboring RDs are spaced 300 nm apart and connected by highly flexible linker regions that couple their motion only <550 nm. Our pipeline allows a robust quantitative characterization of chromosome structure in situ and provides important biophysical parameters to understand general principles of chromatin organization.

RevDate: 2018-03-18

Han J, Zhang Z, K Wang (2018)

3C and 3C-based techniques: the powerful tools for spatial genome organization deciphering.

Molecular cytogenetics, 11:21 pii:368.

It is well known that the chromosomes are organized in the nucleus and this spatial arrangement of genome play a crucial role in gene regulation and genome stability. Different techniques have been developed and applied to uncover the intrinsic mechanism of genome architecture, especially the chromosome conformation capture (3C) and 3C-derived methods. 3C and 3C-derived techniques provide us approaches to perform high-throughput chromatin architecture assays at the genome scale. However, the advantage and disadvantage of current methodologies of C-technologies have not been discussed extensively. In this review, we described and compared the methodologies of C-technologies used in genome organization studies with an emphasis on Hi-C method. We also discussed the crucial challenges facing current genome architecture studies based on 3C and 3C-derived technologies and the direction of future technologies to address currently outstanding questions in the field. These latest news contribute to our current understanding of genome structure, and provide a comprehensive reference for researchers to choose the appropriate method in future application. We consider that these constantly improving technologies will offer a finer and more accurate contact profiles of entire genome and ultimately reveal specific molecular machines govern its shape and function.

RevDate: 2018-06-04

Amaral PP, Leonardi T, Han N, et al (2018)

Genomic positional conservation identifies topological anchor point RNAs linked to developmental loci.

Genome biology, 19(1):32 pii:10.1186/s13059-018-1405-5.

BACKGROUND: The mammalian genome is transcribed into large numbers of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), but the definition of functional lncRNA groups has proven difficult, partly due to their low sequence conservation and lack of identified shared properties. Here we consider promoter conservation and positional conservation as indicators of functional commonality.

RESULTS: We identify 665 conserved lncRNA promoters in mouse and human that are preserved in genomic position relative to orthologous coding genes. These positionally conserved lncRNA genes are primarily associated with developmental transcription factor loci with which they are coexpressed in a tissue-specific manner. Over half of positionally conserved RNAs in this set are linked to chromatin organization structures, overlapping binding sites for the CTCF chromatin organiser and located at chromatin loop anchor points and borders of topologically associating domains (TADs). We define these RNAs as topological anchor point RNAs (tapRNAs). Characterization of these noncoding RNAs and their associated coding genes shows that they are functionally connected: they regulate each other's expression and influence the metastatic phenotype of cancer cells in vitro in a similar fashion. Furthermore, we find that tapRNAs contain conserved sequence domains that are enriched in motifs for zinc finger domain-containing RNA-binding proteins and transcription factors, whose binding sites are found mutated in cancers.

CONCLUSIONS: This work leverages positional conservation to identify lncRNAs with potential importance in genome organization, development and disease. The evidence that many developmental transcription factors are physically and functionally connected to lncRNAs represents an exciting stepping-stone to further our understanding of genome regulation.

RevDate: 2018-06-27

Yan Y, Ding Y, Leng F, et al (2018)

Protein-mediated loops in supercoiled DNA create large topological domains.

Nucleic acids research, 46(9):4417-4424.

Supercoiling can alter the form and base pairing of the double helix and directly impact protein binding. More indirectly, changes in protein binding and the stress of supercoiling also influence the thermodynamic stability of regulatory, protein-mediated loops and shift the equilibria of fundamental DNA/chromatin transactions. For example, supercoiling affects the hierarchical organization and function of chromatin in topologically associating domains (TADs) in both eukaryotes and bacteria. On the other hand, a protein-mediated loop in DNA can constrain supercoiling within a plectonemic structure. To characterize the extent of constrained supercoiling, 400 bp, lac repressor-secured loops were formed in extensively over- or under-wound DNA under gentle tension in a magnetic tweezer. The protein-mediated loops constrained variable amounts of supercoiling that often exceeded the maximum writhe expected for a 400 bp plectoneme. Loops with such high levels of supercoiling appear to be entangled with flanking domains. Thus, loop-mediating proteins operating on supercoiled substrates can establish topological domains that may coordinate gene regulation and other DNA transactions across spans in the genome that are larger than the separation between the binding sites.

RevDate: 2018-03-07

Szabo Q, Jost D, Chang JM, et al (2018)

TADs are 3D structural units of higher-order chromosome organization in Drosophila.

Science advances, 4(2):eaar8082 pii:aar8082.

Deciphering the rules of genome folding in the cell nucleus is essential to understand its functions. Recent chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) studies have revealed that the genome is partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs), which demarcate functional epigenetic domains defined by combinations of specific chromatin marks. However, whether TADs are true physical units in each cell nucleus or whether they reflect statistical frequencies of measured interactions within cell populations is unclear. Using a combination of Hi-C, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent in situ hybridization, super-resolution microscopy, and polymer modeling, we provide an integrative view of chromatin folding in Drosophila. We observed that repressed TADs form a succession of discrete nanocompartments, interspersed by less condensed active regions. Single-cell analysis revealed a consistent TAD-based physical compartmentalization of the chromatin fiber, with some degree of heterogeneity in intra-TAD conformations and in cis and trans inter-TAD contact events. These results indicate that TADs are fundamental 3D genome units that engage in dynamic higher-order inter-TAD connections. This domain-based architecture is likely to play a major role in regulatory transactions during DNA-dependent processes.

RevDate: 2018-04-25

Hu G, Cui K, Fang D, et al (2018)

Transformation of Accessible Chromatin and 3D Nucleome Underlies Lineage Commitment of Early T Cells.

Immunity, 48(2):227-242.e8.

How chromatin reorganization coordinates differentiation and lineage commitment from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to mature immune cells has not been well understood. Here, we carried out an integrative analysis of chromatin accessibility, topologically associating domains, AB compartments, and gene expression from HSPCs to CD4+CD8+ T cells. We found that abrupt genome-wide changes at all three levels of chromatin organization occur during the transition from double-negative stage 2 (DN2) to DN3, accompanying the T lineage commitment. The transcription factor BCL11B, a critical regulator of T cell commitment, is associated with increased chromatin interaction, and Bcl11b deletion compromised chromatin interaction at its target genes. We propose that these large-scale and concerted changes in chromatin organization present an energy barrier to prevent the cell from reversing its fate to earlier stages or redirecting to alternatives and thus lock the cell fate into the T lineages.

RevDate: 2018-03-22

Comoglio F, Park HJ, Schoenfelder S, et al (2018)

Thrombopoietin signaling to chromatin elicits rapid and pervasive epigenome remodeling within poised chromatin architectures.

Genome research pii:gr.227272.117 [Epub ahead of print].

Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a critical cytokine regulating hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and differentiation into the megakaryocytic lineage. However, the transcriptional and chromatin dynamics elicited by TPO signaling are poorly understood. Here, we study the immediate early transcriptional and cis-regulatory responses to TPO in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and use this paradigm of cytokine signaling to chromatin to dissect the relation between cis- regulatory activity and chromatin architecture. We show that TPO profoundly alters the transcriptome of HSPCs, with key hematopoietic regulators being transcriptionally repressed within 30 minutes of TPO. By examining cis-regulatory dynamics and chromatin architectures, we demonstrate that these changes are accompanied by rapid and extensive epigenome remodeling of cis-regulatory landscapes that is spatially coordinated within topologically associating domains (TADs). Moreover, TPO-responsive enhancers are spatially clustered and engage in preferential homotypic intra- and inter-TAD interactions that are largely refractory to TPO signaling. By further examining the link between cis-regulatory dynamics and chromatin looping, we show that rapid modulation of cis-regulatory activity is largely independent of chromatin looping dynamics. Finally, we show that, although activated and repressed cis-regulatory elements share remarkably similar DNA sequence compositions, transcription factor binding patterns accurately predict rapid cis-regulatory responses to TPO.

RevDate: 2018-02-11

Kolovos P, Brouwer RWW, Kockx CEM, et al (2018)

Investigation of the spatial structure and interactions of the genome at sub-kilobase-pair resolution using T2C.

Nature protocols, 13(3):459-477.

Chromosome conformation capture (3C) and its derivatives (e.g., 4C, 5C and Hi-C) are used to analyze the 3D organization of genomes. We recently developed targeted chromatin capture (T2C), an inexpensive method for studying the 3D organization of genomes, interactomes and structural changes associated with gene regulation, the cell cycle, and cell survival and development. Here, we present the protocol for T2C based on capture, describing all experimental steps and bio-informatic tools in full detail. T2C offers high resolution, a large dynamic interaction frequency range and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Its resolution is determined by the resulting fragment size of the chosen restriction enzyme, which can lead to sub-kilobase-pair resolution. T2C's high coverage allows the identification of the interactome of each individual DNA fragment, which makes binning of reads (often used in other methods) basically unnecessary. Notably, T2C requires low sequencing efforts. T2C also allows multiplexing of samples for the direct comparison of multiple samples. It can be used to study topologically associating domains (TADs), determining their position, shape, boundaries, and intra- and inter-domain interactions, as well as the composition of aggregated loops, interactions between nucleosomes, individual transcription factor binding sites, and promoters and enhancers. T2C can be performed by any investigator with basic skills in molecular biology techniques in ∼7-8 d. Data analysis requires basic expertise in bioinformatics and in Linux and Python environments.

RevDate: 2018-04-14
CmpDate: 2018-03-13

Gong Y, Lazaris C, Sakellaropoulos T, et al (2018)

Stratification of TAD boundaries reveals preferential insulation of super-enhancers by strong boundaries.

Nature communications, 9(1):542 pii:10.1038/s41467-018-03017-1.

The metazoan genome is compartmentalized in areas of highly interacting chromatin known as topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs are demarcated by boundaries mostly conserved across cell types and even across species. However, a genome-wide characterization of TAD boundary strength in mammals is still lacking. In this study, we first use fused two-dimensional lasso as a machine learning method to improve Hi-C contact matrix reproducibility, and, subsequently, we categorize TAD boundaries based on their insulation score. We demonstrate that higher TAD boundary insulation scores are associated with elevated CTCF levels and that they may differ across cell types. Intriguingly, we observe that super-enhancers are preferentially insulated by strong boundaries. Furthermore, we demonstrate that strong TAD boundaries and super-enhancer elements are frequently co-duplicated in cancer patients. Taken together, our findings suggest that super-enhancers insulated by strong TAD boundaries may be exploited, as a functional unit, by cancer cells to promote oncogenesis.

RevDate: 2018-03-29

Kurtas N, Arrigoni F, Errichiello E, et al (2018)

Chromothripsis and ring chromosome 22: a paradigm of genomic complexity in the Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13 deletion syndrome).

Journal of medical genetics, 55(4):269-277.

INTRODUCTION: Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is caused by SHANK3 haploinsufficiency. Its wide phenotypic variation is attributed partly to the type and size of 22q13 genomic lesion (deletion, unbalanced translocation, ring chromosome), partly to additional undefined factors. We investigated a child with severe global neurodevelopmental delay (NDD) compatible with her distal 22q13 deletion, complicated by bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP) and urticarial rashes, unreported in PMS.

METHODS: Following the cytogenetic and array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) detection of a r(22) with SHANK3 deletion and two upstream duplications, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in blood and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in blood and saliva were performed to highlight potential chromothripsis/chromoanagenesis events and any possible BPP-associated variants, even in low-level mosaicism.

RESULTS: WGS confirmed the deletion and highlighted inversion and displaced order of eight fragments, three of them duplicated. The microhomology-mediated insertion of partial Alu-elements at one breakpoint junction disrupted the topological associating domain joining NFAM1 to the transcriptional coregulator TCF20. WES failed to detect BPP-associated variants.

CONCLUSIONS: Although we were unable to highlight the molecular basis of BPP, our data suggest that SHANK3 haploinsufficiency and TCF20 misregulation, both associated with intellectual disability, contributed to the patient's NDD, while NFAM1 interruption likely caused her skin rashes, as previously reported. We provide the first example of chromoanasynthesis in a constitutional ring chromosome and reinforce the growing evidence that chromosomal rearrangements may be more complex than estimated by conventional diagnostic approaches and affect the phenotype by global alteration of the topological chromatin organisation rather than simply by deletion or duplication of dosage-sensitive genes.

RevDate: 2018-03-29

Jost D, C Vaillant (2018)

Epigenomics in 3D: importance of long-range spreading and specific interactions in epigenomic maintenance.

Nucleic acids research, 46(5):2252-2264.

Recent progresses of genome-wide chromatin conformation capture techniques have shown that the genome is segmented into hierarchically organized spatial compartments. However, whether this non-random 3D organization only reflects or indeed contributes-and how-to the regulation of genome function remain to be elucidated. The observation in many species that 3D domains correlate strongly with the 1D epigenomic information along the genome suggests a dynamic coupling between chromatin organization and epigenetic regulation. Here, we posit that chromosome folding may contribute to the maintenance of a robust epigenomic identity via the formation of spatial compartments like topologically-associating domains. Using a novel theoretical framework, the living chromatin model, we show that 3D compartmentalization leads to the spatial colocalization of epigenome regulators, thus increasing their local concentration and enhancing their ability to spread an epigenomic signal at long-range. Interestingly, we find that the presence of 1D insulator elements, like CTCF, may contribute greatly to the stable maintenance of adjacent antagonistic epigenomic domains. We discuss the generic implications of our findings in the light of various biological contexts from yeast to human. Our approach provides a modular framework to improve our understanding and to investigate in details the coupling between the structure and function of chromatin.

RevDate: 2018-07-10
CmpDate: 2018-07-10

Zhao PA, Rivera-Mulia JC, DM Gilbert (2017)

Replication Domains: Genome Compartmentalization into Functional Replication Units.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1042:229-257.

DNA replication occurs in a defined temporal order during S phase, known as the replication timing programme, which is regulated not only during the cell cycle but also during the process of development and differentiation. The units of replication timing regulation, known as replication domains (RDs), frequently comprise several nearly synchronously firing replication origins. Replication domains correspond to topologically associating domains (TADs) mapped by chromatin conformation capture methods and are likely to be the molecular equivalents of replication foci observed using cytogenetic methods. Both TAD and replication foci are considered to be stable structural units of chromosomes, conserved through the cell cycle and development, and accordingly, the boundaries of RDs also appear to be stable in different cell types. During both normal development and progression of disease, distinct cell states are characterized by unique replication timing signatures, with approximately half of genomic RDs switching replication timing between these cell states. Advances in functional genomics provide hope that we can soon gain an understanding of the cause and consequence of the replication timing programme and its myriad correlations with chromatin context and gene regulation.

RevDate: 2018-03-23

Glinsky GV (2018)

Contribution of transposable elements and distal enhancers to evolution of human-specific features of interphase chromatin architecture in embryonic stem cells.

Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology, 26(1-2):61-84.

Transposable elements have made major evolutionary impacts on creation of primate-specific and human-specific genomic regulatory loci and species-specific genomic regulatory networks (GRNs). Molecular and genetic definitions of human-specific changes to GRNs contributing to development of unique to human phenotypes remain a highly significant challenge. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of diverse families of human-specific genomic regulatory loci (HSGRL) identified topologically associating domains (TADs) that are significantly enriched for HSGRL and designated rapidly evolving in human TADs. Here, the analysis of HSGRL, hESC-enriched enhancers, super-enhancers (SEs), and specific sub-TAD structures termed super-enhancer domains (SEDs) has been performed. In the hESC genome, 331 of 504 (66%) of SED-harboring TADs contain HSGRL and 68% of SEDs co-localize with HSGRL, suggesting that emergence of HSGRL may have rewired SED-associated GRNs within specific TADs by inserting novel and/or erasing existing non-coding regulatory sequences. Consequently, markedly distinct features of the principal regulatory structures of interphase chromatin evolved in the hESC genome compared to mouse: the SED quantity is 3-fold higher and the median SED size is significantly larger. Concomitantly, the overall TAD quantity is increased by 42% while the median TAD size is significantly decreased (p = 9.11E-37) in the hESC genome. Present analyses illustrate a putative global role for transposable elements and HSGRL in shaping the human-specific features of the interphase chromatin organization and functions, which are facilitated by accelerated creation of novel transcription factor binding sites and new enhancers driven by targeted placement of HSGRL at defined genomic coordinates. A trend toward the convergence of TAD and SED architectures of interphase chromatin in the hESC genome may reflect changes of 3D-folding patterns of linear chromatin fibers designed to enhance both regulatory complexity and functional precision of GRNs by creating predominantly a single gene (or a set of functionally linked genes) per regulatory domain structures. Collectively, present analyses reveal critical evolutionary contributions of transposable elements and distal enhancers to creation of thousands primate- and human-specific elements of a chromatin folding code, which defines the 3D context of interphase chromatin both restricting and facilitating biological functions of GRNs.

RevDate: 2018-02-22
CmpDate: 2018-02-22

Ramírez F, Bhardwaj V, Arrigoni L, et al (2018)

High-resolution TADs reveal DNA sequences underlying genome organization in flies.

Nature communications, 9(1):189 pii:10.1038/s41467-017-02525-w.

Despite an abundance of new studies about topologically associating domains (TADs), the role of genetic information in TAD formation is still not fully understood. Here we use our software, HiCExplorer (hicexplorer.readthedocs.io) to annotate >2800 high-resolution (570 bp) TAD boundaries in Drosophila melanogaster. We identify eight DNA motifs enriched at boundaries, including a motif bound by the M1BP protein, and two new boundary motifs. In contrast to mammals, the CTCF motif is only enriched on a small fraction of boundaries flanking inactive chromatin while most active boundaries contain the motifs bound by the M1BP or Beaf-32 proteins. We demonstrate that boundaries can be accurately predicted using only the motif sequences at open chromatin sites. We propose that DNA sequence guides the genome architecture by allocation of boundary proteins in the genome. Finally, we present an interactive online database to access and explore the spatial organization of fly, mouse and human genomes, available at http://chorogenome.ie-freiburg.mpg.de .

RevDate: 2018-02-22
CmpDate: 2018-02-22

Wang Q, Sun Q, Czajkowsky DM, et al (2018)

Sub-kb Hi-C in D. melanogaster reveals conserved characteristics of TADs between insect and mammalian cells.

Nature communications, 9(1):188 pii:10.1038/s41467-017-02526-9.

Topologically associating domains (TADs) are fundamental elements of the eukaryotic genomic structure. However, recent studies suggest that the insulating complexes, CTCF/cohesin, present at TAD borders in mammals are absent from those in Drosophila melanogaster, raising the possibility that border elements are not conserved among metazoans. Using in situ Hi-C with sub-kb resolution, here we show that the D. melanogaster genome is almost completely partitioned into >4000 TADs, nearly sevenfold more than previously identified. The overwhelming majority of these TADs are demarcated by the insulator complexes, BEAF-32/CP190, or BEAF-32/Chromator, indicating that these proteins may play an analogous role in flies as that of CTCF/cohesin in mammals. Moreover, extended regions previously thought to be unstructured are shown to consist of small contiguous TADs, a property also observed in mammals upon re-examination. Altogether, our work demonstrates that fundamental features associated with the higher-order folding of the genome are conserved from insects to mammals.

RevDate: 2018-07-05

Norton HK, Emerson DJ, Huang H, et al (2018)

Detecting hierarchical genome folding with network modularity.

Nature methods, 15(2):119-122.

Mammalian genomes are folded in a hierarchy of compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), subTADs and looping interactions. Here, we describe 3DNetMod, a graph theory-based method for sensitive and accurate detection of chromatin domains across length scales in Hi-C data. We identify nested, partially overlapping TADs and subTADs genome wide by optimizing network modularity and varying a single resolution parameter. 3DNetMod can be applied broadly to understand genome reconfiguration in development and disease.

RevDate: 2018-06-21

Mehrjouy MM, Fonseca ACS, Ehmke N, et al (2018)

Regulatory variants of FOXG1 in the context of its topological domain organisation.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 26(2):186-196.

FOXG1 syndrome is caused by FOXG1 intragenic point mutations, or by long-range position effects (LRPE) of intergenic structural variants. However, the size of the FOXG1 regulatory landscape is uncertain, because the associated topologically associating domain (TAD) in fibroblasts is split into two domains in embryonic stem cells (hESC). Indeed, it has been suggested that the pathogenetic mechanism of deletions that remove the stem-cell-specific TAD boundary may be enhancer adoption due to ectopic activity of enhancer(s) located in the distal hESC-TAD. Herein we map three de novo translocation breakpoints to the proximal regulatory domain of FOXG1. The classical FOXG1 syndrome in these and in other translocation patients, and in a patient with an intergenic deletion that removes the hESC-specific TAD boundary, do not support the hypothesised enhancer adoption as a main contributor to the FOXG1 syndrome. Also, virtual 4 C and HiC-interaction data suggest that the hESC-specific TAD boundary may not be critical for FOXG1 regulation in a majority of human cells and tissues, including brain tissues and a neuronal progenitor cell line. Our data support the importance of a critical regulatory region (SRO) proximal to the hESC-specific TAD boundary. We further narrow this critical region by a deletion distal to the hESC-specific boundary, associated with a milder clinical phenotype. The distance from FOXG1 to the SRO (> 500 kb) highlight a limitation of ENCODE DNase hypersensitivity data for functional prediction of LRPE. Moreover, the SRO has little overlap with a cluster of frequently associating regions (FIREs) located in the proximal hESC-TAD.

RevDate: 2018-03-18

Zimmerman MW, Liu Y, He S, et al (2018)

MYC Drives a Subset of High-Risk Pediatric Neuroblastomas and Is Activated through Mechanisms Including Enhancer Hijacking and Focal Enhancer Amplification.

Cancer discovery, 8(3):320-335.

The amplified MYCN gene serves as an oncogenic driver in approximately 20% of high-risk pediatric neuroblastomas. Here, we show that the family member MYC is a potent transforming gene in a separate subset of high-risk neuroblastoma cases (∼10%), based on (i) its upregulation by focal enhancer amplification or genomic rearrangements leading to enhancer hijacking, and (ii) its ability to transform neuroblastoma precursor cells in a transgenic animal model. The aberrant regulatory elements associated with oncogenic MYC activation include focally amplified distal enhancers and translocation of highly active enhancers from other genes to within topologically associating domains containing the MYC gene locus. The clinical outcome for patients with high levels of MYC expression is virtually identical to that of patients with amplification of the MYCN gene, a known high-risk feature of this disease. Together, these findings establish MYC as a bona fide oncogene in a clinically significant group of high-risk childhood neuroblastomas.Significance: Amplification of the MYCN oncogene is a recognized hallmark of high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that MYC is also activated as a potent oncogene in a distinct subset of neuroblastoma cases through either focal amplification of distal enhancers or enhancer hijacking mediated by chromosomal translocation. Cancer Discov; 8(3); 320-35. ©2017 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 253.

RevDate: 2018-04-20
CmpDate: 2018-02-02

Rodríguez-Carballo E, Lopez-Delisle L, Zhan Y, et al (2017)

The HoxD cluster is a dynamic and resilient TAD boundary controlling the segregation of antagonistic regulatory landscapes.

Genes & development, 31(22):2264-2281.

The mammalian HoxD cluster lies between two topologically associating domains (TADs) matching distinct enhancer-rich regulatory landscapes. During limb development, the telomeric TAD controls the early transcription of Hoxd genes in forearm cells, whereas the centromeric TAD subsequently regulates more posterior Hoxd genes in digit cells. Therefore, the TAD boundary prevents the terminal Hoxd13 gene from responding to forearm enhancers, thereby allowing proper limb patterning. To assess the nature and function of this CTCF-rich DNA region in embryos, we compared chromatin interaction profiles between proximal and distal limb bud cells isolated from mutant stocks where various parts of this boundary region were removed. The resulting progressive release in boundary effect triggered inter-TAD contacts, favored by the activity of the newly accessed enhancers. However, the boundary was highly resilient, and only a 400-kb deletion, including the whole-gene cluster, was eventually able to merge the neighboring TADs into a single structure. In this unified TAD, both proximal and distal limb enhancers nevertheless continued to work independently over a targeted transgenic reporter construct. We propose that the whole HoxD cluster is a dynamic TAD border and that the exact boundary position varies depending on both the transcriptional status and the developmental context.

RevDate: 2018-06-07

Fan H, Lv P, Huo X, et al (2018)

The nuclear matrix protein HNRNPU maintains 3D genome architecture globally in mouse hepatocytes.

Genome research, 28(2):192-202.

Eukaryotic chromosomes are folded into higher-order conformations to coordinate genome functions. In addition to long-range chromatin loops, recent chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based studies have indicated higher levels of chromatin structures including compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), which may serve as units of genome organization and functions. However, the molecular machinery underlying these hierarchically three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architectures remains poorly understood. Via high-throughput assays, including in situ Hi-C, DamID, ChIP-seq, and RNA-seq, we investigated roles of the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U (HNRNPU), a nuclear matrix (NM)-associated protein, in 3D genome organization. Upon the depletion of HNRNPU in mouse hepatocytes, the coverage of lamina-associated domains (LADs) in the genome increases from 53.1% to 68.6%, and a global condensation of chromatin was observed. Furthermore, disruption of HNRNPU leads to compartment switching on 7.5% of the genome, decreases TAD boundary strengths at borders between A (active) and B (inactive) compartments, and reduces chromatin loop intensities. Long-range chromatin interactions between and within compartments or TADs are also significantly remodeled upon HNRNPU depletion. Intriguingly, HNRNPU mainly associates with active chromatin, and 80% of HNRNPU peaks coincide with the binding of CTCF or RAD21. Collectively, we demonstrated that HNRNPU functions as a major factor maintaining 3D chromatin architecture, suggesting important roles of NM-associated proteins in genome organization.

RevDate: 2018-03-29

Mourad R, O Cuvier (2018)

TAD-free analysis of architectural proteins and insulators.

Nucleic acids research, 46(5):e27.

The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome is intimately related to numerous key biological functions including gene expression and DNA replication regulations. The mechanisms by which molecular drivers functionally organize the 3D genome, such as topologically associating domains (TADs), remain to be explored. Current approaches consist in assessing the enrichments or influences of proteins at TAD borders. Here, we propose a TAD-free model to directly estimate the blocking effects of architectural proteins, insulators and DNA motifs on long-range contacts, making the model intuitive and biologically meaningful. In addition, the model allows analyzing the whole Hi-C information content (2D information) instead of only focusing on TAD borders (1D information). The model outperforms multiple logistic regression at TAD borders in terms of parameter estimation accuracy and is validated by enhancer-blocking assays. In Drosophila, the results support the insulating role of simple sequence repeats and suggest that the blocking effects depend on the number of repeats. Motif analysis uncovered the roles of the transcriptional factors pannier and tramtrack in blocking long-range contacts. In human, the results suggest that the blocking effects of the well-known architectural proteins CTCF, cohesin and ZNF143 depend on the distance between loci, where each protein may participate at different scales of the 3D chromatin organization.

RevDate: 2017-12-27

Ron G, Globerson Y, Moran D, et al (2017)

Promoter-enhancer interactions identified from Hi-C data using probabilistic models and hierarchical topological domains.

Nature communications, 8(1):2237 pii:10.1038/s41467-017-02386-3.

Proximity-ligation methods such as Hi-C allow us to map physical DNA-DNA interactions along the genome, and reveal its organization into topologically associating domains (TADs). As the Hi-C data accumulate, computational methods were developed for identifying domain borders in multiple cell types and organisms. Here, we present PSYCHIC, a computational approach for analyzing Hi-C data and identifying promoter-enhancer interactions. We use a unified probabilistic model to segment the genome into domains, which we then merge hierarchically and fit using a local background model, allowing us to identify over-represented DNA-DNA interactions across the genome. By analyzing the published Hi-C data sets in human and mouse, we identify hundreds of thousands of putative enhancers and their target genes, and compile an extensive genome-wide catalog of gene regulation in human and mouse. As we show, our predictions are highly enriched for ChIP-seq and DNA accessibility data, evolutionary conservation, eQTLs and other DNA-DNA interaction data.

RevDate: 2018-04-18

Tang B, Li F, Li J, et al (2018)

Delta: a new web-based 3D genome visualization and analysis platform.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 34(8):1409-1410.

Summary: Delta is an integrative visualization and analysis platform to facilitate visually annotating and exploring the 3D physical architecture of genomes. Delta takes Hi-C or ChIA-PET contact matrix as input and predicts the topologically associating domains and chromatin loops in the genome. It then generates a physical 3D model which represents the plausible consensus 3D structure of the genome. Delta features a highly interactive visualization tool which enhances the integration of genome topology/physical structure with extensive genome annotation by juxtaposing the 3D model with diverse genomic assay outputs. Finally, by visually comparing the 3D model of the β-globin gene locus and its annotation, we speculated a plausible transitory interaction pattern in the locus. Experimental evidence was found to support this speculation by literature survey. This served as an example of intuitive hypothesis testing with the help of Delta.

Delta is freely accessible from http://delta.big.ac.cn, and the source code is available at https://github.com/zhangzhwlab/delta.

Contact: zhangzhihua@big.ac.cn.

Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2018-01-06
CmpDate: 2017-12-28

Wutz G, Várnai C, Nagasaka K, et al (2017)

Topologically associating domains and chromatin loops depend on cohesin and are regulated by CTCF, WAPL, and PDS5 proteins.

The EMBO journal, 36(24):3573-3599.

Mammalian genomes are spatially organized into compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), and loops to facilitate gene regulation and other chromosomal functions. How compartments, TADs, and loops are generated is unknown. It has been proposed that cohesin forms TADs and loops by extruding chromatin loops until it encounters CTCF, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is missing. Here, we show that cohesin suppresses compartments but is required for TADs and loops, that CTCF defines their boundaries, and that the cohesin unloading factor WAPL and its PDS5 binding partners control the length of loops. In the absence of WAPL and PDS5 proteins, cohesin forms extended loops, presumably by passing CTCF sites, accumulates in axial chromosomal positions (vermicelli), and condenses chromosomes. Unexpectedly, PDS5 proteins are also required for boundary function. These results show that cohesin has an essential genome-wide function in mediating long-range chromatin interactions and support the hypothesis that cohesin creates these by loop extrusion, until it is delayed by CTCF in a manner dependent on PDS5 proteins, or until it is released from DNA by WAPL.

RevDate: 2017-12-20

Wu P, Li T, Li R, et al (2017)

3D genome of multiple myeloma reveals spatial genome disorganization associated with copy number variations.

Nature communications, 8(1):1937 pii:10.1038/s41467-017-01793-w.

The Hi-C method is widely used to study the functional roles of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of genomes. Here, we integrate Hi-C, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA-seq to study the 3D genome architecture of multiple myeloma (MM) and how it associates with genomic variation and gene expression. Our results show that Hi-C interaction matrices are biased by copy number variations (CNVs) and can be used to detect CNVs. Also, combining Hi-C and WGS data can improve the detection of translocations. We find that CNV breakpoints significantly overlap with topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries. Compared to normal B cells, the numbers of TADs increases by 25% in MM, the average size of TADs is smaller, and about 20% of genomic regions switch their chromatin A/B compartment types. In summary, we report a 3D genome interaction map of aneuploid MM cells and reveal the relationship among CNVs, translocations, 3D genome reorganization, and gene expression regulation.

RevDate: 2018-05-02

DeMaere MZ, AE Darling (2018)

Sim3C: simulation of Hi-C and Meta3C proximity ligation sequencing technologies.

GigaScience, 7(2):.

Background: Chromosome conformation capture (3C) and Hi-C DNA sequencing methods have rapidly advanced our understanding of the spatial organization of genomes and metagenomes. Many variants of these protocols have been developed, each with their own strengths. Currently there is no systematic means for simulating sequence data from this family of sequencing protocols, potentially hindering the advancement of algorithms to exploit this new datatype.

Findings: We describe a computational simulator that, given simple parameters and reference genome sequences, will simulate Hi-C sequencing on those sequences. The simulator models the basic spatial structure in genomes that is commonly observed in Hi-C and 3C datasets, including the distance-decay relationship in proximity ligation, differences in the frequency of interaction within and across chromosomes, and the structure imposed by cells. A means to model the 3D structure of randomly generated topologically associating domains is provided. The simulator considers several sources of error common to 3C and Hi-C library preparation and sequencing methods, including spurious proximity ligation events and sequencing error.

Conclusions: We have introduced the first comprehensive simulator for 3C and Hi-C sequencing protocols. We expect the simulator to have use in testing of Hi-C data analysis algorithms, as well as more general value for experimental design, where questions such as the required depth of sequencing, enzyme choice, and other decisions can be made in advance in order to ensure adequate statistical power with respect to experimental hypothesis testing.

RevDate: 2018-03-07

Racko D, Benedetti F, Dorier J, et al (2018)

Transcription-induced supercoiling as the driving force of chromatin loop extrusion during formation of TADs in interphase chromosomes.

Nucleic acids research, 46(4):1648-1660.

Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show here that growing plectonemes resulting from transcription-induced supercoiling have the ability to actively push cohesin rings along chromatin fibres. The pushing direction is such that within each topologically associating domain (TAD) cohesin rings forming handcuffs move from the source of supercoiling, constituted by RNA polymerase with associated DNA topoisomerase TOP1, towards borders of TADs, where supercoiling is released by topoisomerase TOPIIB. Cohesin handcuffs are pushed by continuous flux of supercoiling that is generated by transcription and is then progressively released by action of TOPIIB located at TADs borders. Our model explains what can be the driving force of chromatin loop extrusion and how it can be ensured that loops grow quickly and in a good direction. In addition, the supercoiling-driven loop extrusion mechanism is consistent with earlier explanations proposing why TADs flanked by convergent CTCF binding sites form more stable chromatin loops than TADs flanked by divergent CTCF binding sites. We discuss the role of supercoiling in stimulating enhancer promoter contacts and propose that transcription of eRNA sends the first wave of supercoiling that can activate mRNA transcription in a given TAD.

RevDate: 2018-06-25
CmpDate: 2018-06-25

Ronquist S, Patterson G, Muir LA, et al (2017)

Algorithm for cellular reprogramming.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(45):11832-11837.

The day we understand the time evolution of subcellular events at a level of detail comparable to physical systems governed by Newton's laws of motion seems far away. Even so, quantitative approaches to cellular dynamics add to our understanding of cell biology. With data-guided frameworks we can develop better predictions about, and methods for, control over specific biological processes and system-wide cell behavior. Here we describe an approach for optimizing the use of transcription factors (TFs) in cellular reprogramming, based on a device commonly used in optimal control. We construct an approximate model for the natural evolution of a cell-cycle-synchronized population of human fibroblasts, based on data obtained by sampling the expression of 22,083 genes at several time points during the cell cycle. To arrive at a model of moderate complexity, we cluster gene expression based on division of the genome into topologically associating domains (TADs) and then model the dynamics of TAD expression levels. Based on this dynamical model and additional data, such as known TF binding sites and activity, we develop a methodology for identifying the top TF candidates for a specific cellular reprogramming task. Our data-guided methodology identifies a number of TFs previously validated for reprogramming and/or natural differentiation and predicts some potentially useful combinations of TFs. Our findings highlight the immense potential of dynamical models, mathematics, and data-guided methodologies for improving strategies for control over biological processes.

RevDate: 2018-06-21

Hansen AS, Cattoglio C, Darzacq X, et al (2018)

Recent evidence that TADs and chromatin loops are dynamic structures.

Nucleus (Austin, Tex.), 9(1):20-32.

Mammalian genomes are folded into spatial domains, which regulate gene expression by modulating enhancer-promoter contacts. Here, we review recent studies on the structure and function of Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) and chromatin loops. We discuss how loop extrusion models can explain TAD formation and evidence that TADs are formed by the ring-shaped protein complex, cohesin, and that TAD boundaries are established by the DNA-binding protein, CTCF. We discuss our recent genomic, biochemical and single-molecule imaging studies on CTCF and cohesin, which suggest that TADs and chromatin loops are dynamic structures. We highlight complementary polymer simulation studies and Hi-C studies employing acute depletion of CTCF and cohesin, which also support such a dynamic model. We discuss the limitations of each approach and conclude that in aggregate the available evidence argues against stable loops and supports a model where TADs are dynamic structures that continually form and break throughout the cell cycle.

RevDate: 2017-12-13
CmpDate: 2017-11-13

Tanizawa H, Kim KD, Iwasaki O, et al (2017)

Architectural alterations of the fission yeast genome during the cell cycle.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 24(11):965-976.

Eukaryotic genomes are highly ordered through various mechanisms, including topologically associating domain (TAD) organization. We employed an in situ Hi-C approach to follow the 3D organization of the fission yeast genome during the cell cycle. We demonstrate that during mitosis, large domains of 300 kb-1 Mb are formed by condensin. This mitotic domain organization does not suddenly dissolve, but gradually diminishes until the next mitosis. By contrast, small domains of 30-40 kb that are formed by cohesin are relatively stable across the cell cycle. Condensin and cohesin mediate long- and short-range contacts, respectively, by bridging their binding sites, thereby forming the large and small domains. These domains are inversely regulated during the cell cycle but assemble independently. Our study describes the chromosomal oscillation between the formation and decay phases of the large and small domains, and we predict that the condensin-mediated domains serve as chromosomal compaction units.

RevDate: 2018-01-05
CmpDate: 2017-12-01

Wang XT, Cui W, C Peng (2017)

HiTAD: detecting the structural and functional hierarchies of topologically associating domains from chromatin interactions.

Nucleic acids research, 45(19):e163.

A current question in the high-order organization of chromatin is whether topologically associating domains (TADs) are distinct from other hierarchical chromatin domains. However, due to the unclear TAD definition in tradition, the structural and functional uniqueness of TAD is not well studied. In this work, we refined TAD definition by further constraining TADs to the optimal separation on global intra-chromosomal interactions. Inspired by this constraint, we developed a novel method, called HiTAD, to detect hierarchical TADs from Hi-C chromatin interactions. HiTAD performs well in domain sensitivity, replicate reproducibility and inter cell-type conservation. With a novel domain-based alignment proposed by us, we defined several types of hierarchical TAD changes which were not systematically studied previously, and subsequently used them to reveal that TADs and sub-TADs differed statistically in correlating chromosomal compartment, replication timing and gene transcription. Finally, our work also has the implication that the refinement of TAD definition could be achieved by only utilizing chromatin interactions, at least in part. HiTAD is freely available online.

RevDate: 2018-01-05
CmpDate: 2017-12-01

Boya R, Yadavalli AD, Nikhat S, et al (2017)

Developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin interactions orchestrate B cell fate commitment.

Nucleic acids research, 45(19):11070-11087.

Genome organization in 3D nuclear-space is important for regulation of gene expression. However, the alterations of chromatin architecture that impinge on the B cell-fate choice of multi-potent progenitors are still unclear. By integrating in situ Hi-C analyses with epigenetic landscapes and genome-wide expression profiles, we tracked the changes in genome architecture as the cells transit from a progenitor to a committed state. We identified the genomic loci that undergo developmental switch between A and B compartments during B-cell fate determination. Furthermore, although, topologically associating domains (TADs) are stable, a significant number of TADs display structural alterations that are associated with changes in cis-regulatory interaction landscape. Finally, we demonstrate the potential roles for Ebf1 and its downstream factor, Pax5, in chromatin reorganization and transcription regulation. Collectively, our studies provide a general paradigm of the dynamic relationship between chromatin reorganization and lineage-specific gene expression pattern that dictates cell-fate determination.

RevDate: 2018-03-08

Seaman L, I Rajapakse (2018)

4D nucleome Analysis Toolbox: analysis of Hi-C data with abnormal karyotype and time series capabilities.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 34(1):104-106.

Motivation: The availability of powerful analysis tools will further understanding of genome organization and its relationship to phenotype in dynamical settings.

Results: The 4D Nucleome Analysis Toolbox (NAT) is a user-friendly and powerful MATLAB toolbox for time series analysis of genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data and gene expression (RNA-seq). NAT can load and normalize data, define topologically associating domains, analyse translocations, produce visualization, and study time course data. We provide examples that include time series data sets and karyotypically abnormal cell lines demonstrating the flexibility of NAT.

https://github.com/laseaman/4D_Nucleome_Analysis_Toolbox.

Contact: indikar@umich.edu.

RevDate: 2018-06-28
CmpDate: 2018-05-23

Van Bortle K, Phanstiel DH, MP Snyder (2017)

Topological organization and dynamic regulation of human tRNA genes during macrophage differentiation.

Genome biology, 18(1):180 pii:10.1186/s13059-017-1310-3.

BACKGROUND: The human genome is hierarchically organized into local and long-range structures that help shape cell-type-specific transcription patterns. Transfer RNA (tRNA) genes (tDNAs), which are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) and encode RNA molecules responsible for translation, are dispersed throughout the genome and, in many cases, linearly organized into genomic clusters with other tDNAs. Whether the location and three-dimensional organization of tDNAs contribute to the activity of these genes has remained difficult to address, due in part to unique challenges related to tRNA sequencing. We therefore devised integrated tDNA expression profiling, a method that combines RNAPIII mapping with biotin-capture of nascent tRNAs. We apply this method to the study of dynamic tRNA gene regulation during macrophage development and further integrate these data with high-resolution maps of 3D chromatin structure.

RESULTS: Integrated tDNA expression profiling reveals domain-level and loop-based organization of tRNA gene transcription during cellular differentiation. tRNA genes connected by DNA loops, which are proximal to CTCF binding sites and expressed at elevated levels compared to non-loop tDNAs, change coordinately with tDNAs and protein-coding genes at distal ends of interactions mapped by in situ Hi-C. We find that downregulated tRNA genes are specifically marked by enhanced promoter-proximal binding of MAF1, a transcriptional repressor of RNAPIII activity, altogether revealing multiple levels of tDNA regulation during cellular differentiation.

CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of both local and coordinated long-range regulation of human tDNA expression, suggesting the location and organization of tRNA genes contribute to dynamic tDNA activity during macrophage development.

RevDate: 2018-01-29
CmpDate: 2018-01-29

Yu W, He B, K Tan (2017)

Identifying topologically associating domains and subdomains by Gaussian Mixture model And Proportion test.

Nature communications, 8(1):535 pii:10.1038/s41467-017-00478-8.

The spatial organization of the genome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression. Recent chromatin interaction mapping studies have revealed that topologically associating domains and subdomains are fundamental building blocks of the three-dimensional genome. Identifying such hierarchical structures is a critical step toward understanding the three-dimensional structure-function relationship of the genome. Existing computational algorithms lack statistical assessment of domain predictions and are computationally inefficient for high-resolution Hi-C data. We introduce the Gaussian Mixture model And Proportion test (GMAP) algorithm to address the above-mentioned challenges. Using simulated and experimental Hi-C data, we show that domains identified by GMAP are more consistent with multiple lines of supporting evidence than three state-of-the-art methods. Application of GMAP to normal and cancer cells reveals several unique features of subdomain boundary as compared to domain boundary, including its higher dynamics across cell types and enrichment for somatic mutations in cancer.Spatial organization of the genome plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression. Here the authors introduce GMAP, the Gaussian Mixture model And Proportion test, to identify topologically associating domains and subdomains in Hi-C data.

RevDate: 2018-06-01

Shah FR, Bhat YA, AH Wani (2018)

Subnuclear distribution of proteins: Links with genome architecture.

Nucleus (Austin, Tex.), 9(1):42-55.

Metazoan genomes have a hierarchal 3-dimensional (3D) organization scaling from nucleosomes, loops, topologically associating domains (TADs), compartments, to chromosome territories. The 3D organization of genome has been linked with development, differentiation and disease. However, the principles governing the 3D chromatin architecture are just beginning to get unraveled. The nucleus has very high concentration of proteins and these proteins are either diffusely distributed throughout the nucleus, or aggregated in the form of foci/bodies/clusters/speckles or in combination of both. Several evidences suggest that the distribution of proteins within the nuclear space is linked to the organization and function of genome. Here, we describe advances made in understanding the relationship between subnuclear distribution of proteins and genome architecture.

RevDate: 2017-10-10
CmpDate: 2017-10-10

Soler-Oliva ME, Guerrero-Martínez JA, Bachetti V, et al (2017)

Analysis of the relationship between coexpression domains and chromatin 3D organization.

PLoS computational biology, 13(9):e1005708 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-17-00242.

Gene order is not random in eukaryotic chromosomes, and co-regulated genes tend to be clustered. The mechanisms that determine co-regulation of large regions of the genome and its connection with chromatin three-dimensional (3D) organization are still unclear however. Here we have adapted a recently described method for identifying chromatin topologically associating domains (TADs) to identify coexpression domains (which we term "CODs"). Using human normal breast and breast cancer RNA-seq data, we have identified approximately 500 CODs. CODs in the normal and breast cancer genomes share similar characteristics but differ in their gene composition. COD genes have a greater tendency to be coexpressed with genes that reside in other CODs than with non-COD genes. Such inter-COD coexpression is maintained over large chromosomal distances in the normal genome but is partially lost in the cancer genome. Analyzing the relationship between CODs and chromatin 3D organization using Hi-C contact data, we find that CODs do not correspond to TADs. In fact, intra-TAD gene coexpression is the same as random for most chromosomes. However, the contact profile is similar between gene pairs that reside either in the same COD or in coexpressed CODs. These data indicate that co-regulated genes in the genome present similar patterns of contacts irrespective of the frequency of physical chromatin contacts between them.

RevDate: 2018-05-04
CmpDate: 2018-01-08

Harmston N, Ing-Simmons E, Tan G, et al (2017)

Topologically associating domains are ancient features that coincide with Metazoan clusters of extreme noncoding conservation.

Nature communications, 8(1):441 pii:10.1038/s41467-017-00524-5.

Developmental genes in metazoan genomes are surrounded by dense clusters of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs). CNEs exhibit unexplained extreme levels of sequence conservation, with many acting as developmental long-range enhancers. Clusters of CNEs define the span of regulatory inputs for many important developmental regulators and have been described previously as genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs). Their function and distribution around important regulatory genes raises the question of how they relate to 3D conformation of these loci. Here, we show that clusters of CNEs strongly coincide with topological organisation, predicting the boundaries of hundreds of topologically associating domains (TADs) in human and Drosophila. The set of TADs that are associated with high levels of noncoding conservation exhibit distinct properties compared to TADs devoid of extreme noncoding conservation. The close correspondence between extreme noncoding conservation and TADs suggests that these TADs are ancient, revealing a regulatory architecture conserved over hundreds of millions of years.Metazoan genomes contain many clusters of conserved noncoding elements. Here, the authors provide evidence that these clusters coincide with distinct topologically associating domains in humans and Drosophila, revealing a conserved regulatory genomic architecture.

RevDate: 2017-11-11
CmpDate: 2017-10-10

Brejc K, Bian Q, Uzawa S, et al (2017)

Dynamic Control of X Chromosome Conformation and Repression by a Histone H4K20 Demethylase.

Cell, 171(1):85-102.e23.

Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals. Selective inactivation of demethylase activity eliminates H4K20me1 enrichment in somatic cells, elevates X-linked gene expression, reduces X chromosome compaction, and disrupts X chromosome conformation by diminishing the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Unexpectedly, DPY-21 also associates with autosomes of germ cells in a DCC-independent manner to enrich H4K20me1 and trigger chromosome compaction. Our findings demonstrate the direct link between chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure in long-range regulation of gene expression.

RevDate: 2018-07-08
CmpDate: 2017-10-09

Poterlowicz K, Yarker JL, Malashchuk I, et al (2017)

5C analysis of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex locus reveals distinct chromatin interaction networks between gene-rich and gene-poor TADs in skin epithelial cells.

PLoS genetics, 13(9):e1006966 pii:PGENETICS-D-17-00741.

Mammalian genomes contain several dozens of large (>0.5 Mbp) lineage-specific gene loci harbouring functionally related genes. However, spatial chromatin folding, organization of the enhancer-promoter networks and their relevance to Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) in these loci remain poorly understood. TADs are principle units of the genome folding and represents the DNA regions within which DNA interacts more frequently and less frequently across the TAD boundary. Here, we used Chromatin Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C) technology to characterize spatial chromatin interaction network in the 3.1 Mb Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) locus harbouring 61 functionally related genes that show lineage-specific activation during terminal keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis. 5C data validated by 3D-FISH demonstrate that the EDC locus is organized into several TADs showing distinct lineage-specific chromatin interaction networks based on their transcription activity and the gene-rich or gene-poor status. Correlation of the 5C results with genome-wide studies for enhancer-specific histone modifications (H3K4me1 and H3K27ac) revealed that the majority of spatial chromatin interactions that involves the gene-rich TADs at the EDC locus in keratinocytes include both intra- and inter-TAD interaction networks, connecting gene promoters and enhancers. Compared to thymocytes in which the EDC locus is mostly transcriptionally inactive, these interactions were found to be keratinocyte-specific. In keratinocytes, the promoter-enhancer anchoring regions in the gene-rich transcriptionally active TADs are enriched for the binding of chromatin architectural proteins CTCF, Rad21 and chromatin remodeler Brg1. In contrast to gene-rich TADs, gene-poor TADs show preferential spatial contacts with each other, do not contain active enhancers and show decreased binding of CTCF, Rad21 and Brg1 in keratinocytes. Thus, spatial interactions between gene promoters and enhancers at the multi-TAD EDC locus in skin epithelial cells are cell type-specific and involve extensive contacts within TADs as well as between different gene-rich TADs, forming the framework for lineage-specific transcription.

RevDate: 2018-04-10
CmpDate: 2017-09-25

Rowley MJ, Nichols MH, Lyu X, et al (2017)

Evolutionarily Conserved Principles Predict 3D Chromatin Organization.

Molecular cell, 67(5):837-852.e7.

Topologically associating domains (TADs), CTCF loop domains, and A/B compartments have been identified as important structural and functional components of 3D chromatin organization, yet the relationship between these features is not well understood. Using high-resolution Hi-C and HiChIP, we show that Drosophila chromatin is organized into domains we term compartmental domains that correspond precisely with A/B compartments at high resolution. We find that transcriptional state is a major predictor of Hi-C contact maps in several eukaryotes tested, including C. elegans and A. thaliana. Architectural proteins insulate compartmental domains by reducing interaction frequencies between neighboring regions in Drosophila, but CTCF loops do not play a distinct role in this organism. In mammals, compartmental domains exist alongside CTCF loop domains to form topological domains. The results suggest that compartmental domains are responsible for domain structure in all eukaryotes, with CTCF playing an important role in domain formation in mammals.

RevDate: 2018-06-10
CmpDate: 2017-10-27

Rosa-Garrido M, Chapski DJ, Schmitt AD, et al (2017)

High-Resolution Mapping of Chromatin Conformation in Cardiac Myocytes Reveals Structural Remodeling of the Epigenome in Heart Failure.

Circulation, 136(17):1613-1625.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is associated with epigenomic changes in the heart; however, the endogenous structure of cardiac myocyte chromatin has never been determined.

METHODS: To investigate the mechanisms of epigenomic function in the heart, genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) and DNA sequencing were performed in adult cardiac myocytes following development of pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. Mice with cardiac-specific deletion of CTCF (a ubiquitous chromatin structural protein) were generated to explore the role of this protein in chromatin structure and cardiac phenotype. Transcriptome analyses by RNA-seq were conducted as a functional readout of the epigenomic structural changes.

RESULTS: Depletion of CTCF was sufficient to induce heart failure in mice, and human patients with heart failure receiving mechanical unloading via left ventricular assist devices show increased CTCF abundance. Chromatin structural analyses revealed interactions within the cardiac myocyte genome at 5-kb resolution, enabling examination of intra- and interchromosomal events, and providing a resource for future cardiac epigenomic investigations. Pressure overload or CTCF depletion selectively altered boundary strength between topologically associating domains and A/B compartmentalization, measurements of genome accessibility. Heart failure involved decreased stability of chromatin interactions around disease-causing genes. In addition, pressure overload or CTCF depletion remodeled long-range interactions of cardiac enhancers, resulting in a significant decrease in local chromatin interactions around these functional elements.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a high-resolution chromatin architecture resource for cardiac epigenomic investigations and demonstrate that global structural remodeling of chromatin underpins heart failure. The newly identified principles of endogenous chromatin structure have key implications for epigenetic therapy.

RevDate: 2018-05-21
CmpDate: 2018-05-21

Ulianov SV, Tachibana-Konwalski K, SV Razin (2017)

Single-cell Hi-C bridges microscopy and genome-wide sequencing approaches to study 3D chromatin organization.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 39(10):.

Recent years have witnessed an explosion of the single-cell biochemical toolbox including chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based methods that provide novel insights into chromatin spatial organization in individual cells. The observations made with these techniques revealed that topologically associating domains emerge from cell population averages and do not exist as static structures in individual cells. Stochastic nature of the genome folding is likely to be biologically relevant and may reflect the ability of chromatin fibers to adopt a number of alternative configurations, some of which could be transiently stabilized and serve regulatory purposes. Single-cell Hi-C approaches provide an opportunity to analyze chromatin folding in rare cell types such as stem cells, tumor progenitors, oocytes, and totipotent cells, contributing to a deeper understanding of basic mechanisms in development and disease. Here, we review key findings of single-cell Hi-C and discuss possible biological reasons and consequences of the inferred dynamic chromatin spatial organization.

RevDate: 2018-04-26
CmpDate: 2018-02-01

Way GP, Youngstrom DW, Hankenson KD, et al (2017)

Implicating candidate genes at GWAS signals by leveraging topologically associating domains.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 25(11):1286-1289.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have contributed significantly to the understanding of complex disease genetics. However, GWAS only report association signals and do not necessarily identify culprit genes. As most signals occur in non-coding regions of the genome, it is often challenging to assign genomic variants to the underlying causal mechanism(s). Topologically associating domains (TADs) are primarily cell-type-independent genomic regions that define interactome boundaries and can aid in the designation of limits within which an association most likely impacts gene function. We describe and validate a computational method that uses the genic content of TADs to prioritize candidate genes. Our method, called 'TAD_Pathways', performs a Gene Ontology (GO) analysis over genes that reside within TAD boundaries corresponding to GWAS signals for a given trait or disease. Applying our pipeline to the bone mineral density (BMD) GWAS catalog, we identify 'Skeletal System Development' (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted P=1.02x10-5) as the top-ranked pathway. In many cases, our method implicated a gene other than the nearest gene. Our molecular experiments describe a novel example: ACP2, implicated near the canonical 'ARHGAP1' locus. We found ACP2 to be an important regulator of osteoblast metabolism, whereas ARHGAP1 was not supported. Our results via BMD, for example, demonstrate how basic principles of three-dimensional genome organization can define biologically informed association windows.

RevDate: 2018-06-28
CmpDate: 2018-04-30

Fabre PJ, Leleu M, Mormann BH, et al (2017)

Large scale genomic reorganization of topological domains at the HoxD locus.

Genome biology, 18(1):149 pii:10.1186/s13059-017-1278-z.

BACKGROUND: The transcriptional activation of HoxD genes during mammalian limb development involves dynamic interactions with two topologically associating domains (TADs) flanking the HoxD cluster. In particular, the activation of the most posterior HoxD genes in developing digits is controlled by regulatory elements located in the centromeric TAD (C-DOM) through long-range contacts.

RESULTS: To assess the structure-function relationships underlying such interactions, we measured compaction levels and TAD discreteness using a combination of chromosome conformation capture (4C-seq) and DNA FISH. We assessed the robustness of the TAD architecture by using a series of genomic deletions and inversions that impact the integrity of this chromatin domain and that remodel long-range contacts. We report multi-partite associations between HoxD genes and up to three enhancers. We find that the loss of native chromatin topology leads to the remodeling of TAD structure following distinct parameters.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that the recomposition of TAD architectures after large genomic re-arrangements is dependent on a boundary-selection mechanism in which CTCF mediates the gating of long-range contacts in combination with genomic distance and sequence specificity. Accordingly, the building of a recomposed TAD at this locus depends on distinct functional and constitutive parameters.

RevDate: 2018-06-20
CmpDate: 2018-05-28

Yu M, B Ren (2017)

The Three-Dimensional Organization of Mammalian Genomes.

Annual review of cell and developmental biology, 33:265-289.

Animal development depends on not only the linear genome sequence that embeds millions of cis-regulatory elements, but also the three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architecture that orchestrates the interplay between cis-regulatory elements and their target genes. Compared to our knowledge of the cis-regulatory sequences, the understanding of the 3D genome organization in human and other eukaryotes is still limited. Recent advances in technologies to map the 3D genome architecture have greatly accelerated the pace of discovery. Here, we review emerging concepts of chromatin organization in mammalian cells, discuss the dynamics of chromatin conformation during development, and highlight important roles for chromatin organization in cancer and other human diseases.

RevDate: 2017-11-29
CmpDate: 2017-08-18

Yan KK, Lou S, M Gerstein (2017)

MrTADFinder: A network modularity based approach to identify topologically associating domains in multiple resolutions.

PLoS computational biology, 13(7):e1005647 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-16-02110.

Genome-wide proximity ligation based assays such as Hi-C have revealed that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structural units called topologically associating domains (TADs). From a visual examination of the chromosomal contact map, however, it is clear that the organization of the domains is not simple or obvious. Instead, TADs exhibit various length scales and, in many cases, a nested arrangement. Here, by exploiting the resemblance between TADs in a chromosomal contact map and densely connected modules in a network, we formulate TAD identification as a network optimization problem and propose an algorithm, MrTADFinder, to identify TADs from intra-chromosomal contact maps. MrTADFinder is based on the network-science concept of modularity. A key component of it is deriving an appropriate background model for contacts in a random chain, by numerically solving a set of matrix equations. The background model preserves the observed coverage of each genomic bin as well as the distance dependence of the contact frequency for any pair of bins exhibited by the empirical map. Also, by introducing a tunable resolution parameter, MrTADFinder provides a self-consistent approach for identifying TADs at different length scales, hence the acronym "Mr" standing for Multiple Resolutions. We then apply MrTADFinder to various Hi-C datasets. The identified domain boundaries are marked by characteristic signatures in chromatin marks and transcription factors (TF) that are consistent with earlier work. Moreover, by calling TADs at different length scales, we observe that boundary signatures change with resolution, with different chromatin features having different characteristic length scales. Furthermore, we report an enrichment of HOT (high-occupancy target) regions near TAD boundaries and investigate the role of different TFs in determining boundaries at various resolutions. To further explore the interplay between TADs and epigenetic marks, as tumor mutational burden is known to be coupled to chromatin structure, we examine how somatic mutations are distributed across boundaries and find a clear stepwise pattern. Overall, MrTADFinder provides a novel computational framework to explore the multi-scale structures in Hi-C contact maps.

RevDate: 2017-11-28
CmpDate: 2017-11-23

Du Z, Zheng H, Huang B, et al (2017)

Allelic reprogramming of 3D chromatin architecture during early mammalian development.

Nature, 547(7662):232-235.

In mammals, chromatin organization undergoes drastic reprogramming after fertilization. However, the three-dimensional structure of chromatin and its reprogramming in preimplantation development remain poorly understood. Here, by developing a low-input Hi-C (genome-wide chromosome conformation capture) approach, we examined the reprogramming of chromatin organization during early development in mice. We found that oocytes in metaphase II show homogeneous chromatin folding that lacks detectable topologically associating domains (TADs) and chromatin compartments. Strikingly, chromatin shows greatly diminished higher-order structure after fertilization. Unexpectedly, the subsequent establishment of chromatin organization is a prolonged process that extends through preimplantation development, as characterized by slow consolidation of TADs and segregation of chromatin compartments. The two sets of parental chromosomes are spatially separated from each other and display distinct compartmentalization in zygotes. Such allele separation and allelic compartmentalization can be found as late as the 8-cell stage. Finally, we show that chromatin compaction in preimplantation embryos can partially proceed in the absence of zygotic transcription and is a multi-level hierarchical process. Taken together, our data suggest that chromatin may exist in a markedly relaxed state after fertilization, followed by progressive maturation of higher-order chromatin architecture during early development.

RevDate: 2018-03-10
CmpDate: 2018-01-12

Ulianov SV, Galitsyna AA, Flyamer IM, et al (2017)

Activation of the alpha-globin gene expression correlates with dramatic upregulation of nearby non-globin genes and changes in local and large-scale chromatin spatial structure.

Epigenetics & chromatin, 10(1):35 pii:142.

BACKGROUND: In homeotherms, the alpha-globin gene clusters are located within permanently open genome regions enriched in housekeeping genes. Terminal erythroid differentiation results in dramatic upregulation of alpha-globin genes making their expression comparable to the rRNA transcriptional output. Little is known about the influence of the erythroid-specific alpha-globin gene transcription outburst on adjacent, widely expressed genes and large-scale chromatin organization. Here, we have analyzed the total transcription output, the overall chromatin contact profile, and CTCF binding within the 2.7 Mb segment of chicken chromosome 14 harboring the alpha-globin gene cluster in cultured lymphoid cells and cultured erythroid cells before and after induction of terminal erythroid differentiation.

RESULTS: We found that, similarly to mammalian genome, the chicken genomes is organized in TADs and compartments. Full activation of the alpha-globin gene transcription in differentiated erythroid cells is correlated with upregulation of several adjacent housekeeping genes and the emergence of abundant intergenic transcription. An extended chromosome region encompassing the alpha-globin cluster becomes significantly decompacted in differentiated erythroid cells, and depleted in CTCF binding and CTCF-anchored chromatin loops, while the sub-TAD harboring alpha-globin gene cluster and the upstream major regulatory element (MRE) becomes highly enriched with chromatin interactions as compared to lymphoid and proliferating erythroid cells. The alpha-globin gene domain and the neighboring loci reside within the A-like chromatin compartment in both lymphoid and erythroid cells and become further segregated from the upstream gene desert upon terminal erythroid differentiation.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that the effects of tissue-specific transcription activation are not restricted to the host genomic locus but affect the overall chromatin structure and transcriptional output of the encompassing topologically associating domain.

RevDate: 2018-04-07
CmpDate: 2018-03-15

Vicente-García C, Villarejo-Balcells B, Irastorza-Azcárate I, et al (2017)

Regulatory landscape fusion in rhabdomyosarcoma through interactions between the PAX3 promoter and FOXO1 regulatory elements.

Genome biology, 18(1):106 pii:10.1186/s13059-017-1225-z.

BACKGROUND: The organisation of vertebrate genomes into topologically associating domains (TADs) is believed to facilitate the regulation of the genes located within them. A remaining question is whether TAD organisation is achieved through the interactions of the regulatory elements within them or if these interactions are favoured by the pre-existence of TADs. If the latter is true, the fusion of two independent TADs should result in the rewiring of the transcriptional landscape and the generation of ectopic contacts.

RESULTS: We show that interactions within the PAX3 and FOXO1 domains are restricted to their respective TADs in normal conditions, while in a patient-derived alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell line, harbouring the diagnostic t(2;13)(q35;q14) translocation that brings together the PAX3 and FOXO1 genes, the PAX3 promoter interacts ectopically with FOXO1 sequences. Using a combination of 4C-seq datasets, we have modelled the three-dimensional organisation of the fused landscape in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

CONCLUSIONS: The chromosomal translocation that leads to alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma development generates a novel TAD that is likely to favour ectopic PAX3:FOXO1 oncogene activation in non-PAX3 territories. Rhabdomyosarcomas may therefore arise from cells which do not normally express PAX3. The borders of this novel TAD correspond to the original 5'- and 3'- borders of the PAX3 and FOXO1 TADs, respectively, suggesting that TAD organisation precedes the formation of regulatory long-range interactions. Our results demonstrate that, upon translocation, novel regulatory landscapes are formed allowing new intra-TAD interactions between the original loci involved.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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