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29 Sep 2023 at 01:47
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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:47 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Bénard MV, Arretxe I, Wortelboer K, et al (2023)

Anaerobic Feces Processing for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Improves Viability of Obligate Anaerobes.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092238.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is under investigation for several indications, including ulcerative colitis (UC). The clinical success of FMT depends partly on the engraftment of viable bacteria. Because the vast majority of human gut microbiota consists of anaerobes, the currently used aerobic processing protocols of donor stool may diminish the bacterial viability of transplanted material. This study assessed the effect of four processing techniques for donor stool (i.e., anaerobic and aerobic, both direct processing and after temporary cool storage) on bacterial viability. By combining anaerobic culturing on customized media for anaerobes with 16S rRNA sequencing, we could successfully culture and identify the majority of the bacteria present in raw fecal suspensions. We show that direct anaerobic processing of donor stool is superior to aerobic processing conditions for preserving the bacterial viability of obligate anaerobes and butyrate-producing bacteria related to the clinical response to FMT in ulcerative colitis patients, including Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium hallii, and Blautia. The effect of oxygen exposure during stool processing decreased when the samples were stored long-term. Our results confirm the importance of sample conditioning to preserve the bacterial viability of oxygen-sensitive gut bacteria. Anaerobic processing of donor stool may lead to increased clinical success of FMT, which should further be investigated in clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Metafuni E, Di Marino L, Giammarco S, et al (2023)

The Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Setting.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092182.

Microbiota changes during allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has several known causes: conditioning chemotherapy and radiation, broad-spectrum antibiotic administration, modification in nutrition status and diet, and graft-versus-host disease. This article aims to review the current knowledge about the close link between microbiota and allogeneic stem cell transplantation setting. The PubMed search engine was used to perform this review. We analyzed data on microbiota dysbiosis related to the above-mentioned affecting factors. We also looked at treatments aimed at modifying gut dysbiosis and applications of fecal microbiota transplantation in the allogeneic stem cell transplant field, with particular interest in fecal microbiota transplantation for graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), multidrug-resistant and clostridium difficile infections, and microbiota restoration after chemotherapy and antibiotic therapy.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dicks LMT (2023)

Biofilm Formation of Clostridioides difficile, Toxin Production and Alternatives to Conventional Antibiotics in the Treatment of CDI.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092161.

Clostridioides difficile is considered a nosocomial pathogen that flares up in patients exposed to antibiotic treatment. However, four out of ten patients diagnosed with C. difficile infection (CDI) acquired the infection from non-hospitalized individuals, many of whom have not been treated with antibiotics. Treatment of recurrent CDI (rCDI) with antibiotics, especially vancomycin (VAN) and metronidazole (MNZ), increases the risk of experiencing a relapse by as much as 70%. Fidaxomicin, on the other hand, proved more effective than VAN and MNZ by preventing the initial transcription of RNA toxin genes. Alternative forms of treatment include quorum quenching (QQ) that blocks toxin synthesis, binding of small anion molecules such as tolevamer to toxins, monoclonal antibodies, such as bezlotoxumab and actoxumab, bacteriophage therapy, probiotics, and fecal microbial transplants (FMTs). This review summarizes factors that affect the colonization of C. difficile and the pathogenicity of toxins TcdA and TcdB. The different approaches experimented with in the destruction of C. difficile and treatment of CDI are evaluated.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Zabolotneva AA, Gaponov AM, Roumiantsev SA, et al (2023)

Alkylresorcinols as New Modulators of the Metabolic Activity of the Gut Microbiota.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814206.

Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are polyphenolic compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activities and are potentially involved in the regulation of host metabolism. The present study aims to establish whether ARs can be produced by the human gut microbiota and to evaluate alterations in content in stool samples as well as metabolic activity of the gut microbiota of C57BL, db/db, and LDLR (-/-) mice according to diet specifications and olivetol (5-n-pentylresorcinol) supplementation to estimate the regulatory potential of ARs. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was used to quantitatively analyse AR levels in mouse stool samples; faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from human donors to germ-free mice was performed to determine whether the intestinal microbiota could produce AR molecules; metagenome sequencing analysis of the mouse gut microbiota followed by reconstruction of its metabolic activity was performed to investigate olivetol's regulatory potential. A significant increase in the amounts of individual members of AR homologues in stool samples was revealed 14 days after FMT. Supplementation of 5-n-Pentylresorcinol to a regular diet influences the amounts of several ARs in the stool of C57BL/6 and LDLR (-/-) but not db/db mice, and caused a significant change in the predicted metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota of C57BL/6 and LDLR (-/-) but not db/db mice. For the first time, we have shown that several ARs can be produced by the intestinal microbiota. Taking into account the dependence of AR levels in the gut on olivetol supplementation and microbiota metabolic activity, AR can be assumed to be potential quorum-sensing molecules, which also influence gut microbiota composition and host metabolism.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Carapeto S, Cunha E, Serrano I, et al (2023)

Effect of the Administration of a Lyophilised Faecal Capsules on the Intestinal Microbiome of Dogs: A Pilot Study.

Genes, 14(9): pii:genes14091676.

Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy for modulating the gut microbiome. We aimed to assess the effect of the oral administration of capsules containing lyophilised faeces on dogs with diarrhoea for 2 months as well as evaluate their long-term influence on animals' faecal consistency and intestinal microbiome. This pilot study included five dogs: two used as controls and three with diarrhoea. Animals were evaluated for four months by performing a monthly faecal samples collection and physical examination, which included faecal consistency determination using the Bristol scale. The total number of viable bacteria present in the capsules was quantified and their bacterial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which was also applied to the faecal samples. During the assay, no side effects were reported. Animals' faecal consistency improved and, after ending capsules administration, Bristol scale values remained stable in two of the three animals. The animals' microbiome gradually changed toward a composition associated with a balanced microbiota. After FMT, a slight shift was observed in its composition, but the capsules' influence remained evident during the 4-month period. Capsules administration seems to have a positive effect on the microbiota modulation; however, studies with more animals should be performed to confirm our observations.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Stojic J, Kukla M, I Grgurevic (2023)

The Intestinal Microbiota in the Development of Chronic Liver Disease: Current Status.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(18): pii:diagnostics13182960.

Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a significant global health burden, leading to millions of deaths annually. The gut-liver axis plays a pivotal role in this context, allowing the transport of gut-derived products directly to the liver, as well as biological compounds from the liver to the intestine. The gut microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining the health of the digestive system. A change in gut microbiome composition as seen in dysbiosis is associated with immune dysregulation, altered energy and gut hormone regulation, and increased intestinal permeability, contributing to inflammatory mechanisms and damage to the liver, irrespective of the underlying etiology of CLD. The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge about the composition of the intestinal microbiome in healthy individuals and those with CLD, including the factors that affect this composition, the impact of the altered microbiome on the liver, and the mechanisms by which it occurs. Furthermore, this review analyzes the effects of gut microbiome modulation on the course of CLD, by using pharmacotherapy, nutrition, fecal microbiota transplantation, supplements, and probiotics. This review opens avenues for the translation of knowledge about gut-liver interplay into clinical practice as an additional tool to fight CLD and its complications.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wu L, Lin ZH, Lu XJ, et al (2023)

Washed Microbiota Transplantation Improves Patients with Overweight by the Gut Microbiota and Sphingolipid Metabolism.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092415.

BACKGROUND: Overweight (OW) and obesity have become increasingly serious public health problems worldwide. The clinical impact of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) from healthy donors in OW patients is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of WMT in OW patients.

METHODS: The changes in body mass index (BMI = weight (kg)/height (m)[2]), blood glucose, blood lipids and other indicators before and after WMT were compared. At the same time, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed on fecal samples of OW patients before and after transplantation. Finally, serum samples were tested for sphingolipids targeted by lipid metabolomics.

RESULTS: A total of 166 patients were included, including 52 in the OW group and 114 in the normal weight (NOW) group. For OW patients, WMT significantly improved the comprehensive efficacy of OW. In the short term (about 1 month) and medium term (about 2 months), a significant reduction in BMI was seen. At the same time, in the short term (about 1 month), liver fat attenuation (LFA), triglyceride (TG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were significantly reduced. In the long term (about 5 months), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL-c), etc. were significantly reduced. WMT improved the gut microbiota of OW patients, and also had an improvement effect on OW patients by regulating sphingolipid metabolism.

CONCLUSION: WMT had a significant improvement effect on OW patients. WMT could restore gut microbiota homeostasis and improve OW patients by regulating sphingolipid metabolism.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Zhou J, Hao J, Zhong Z, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in mice exerts a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity by regulating Nrf2-mediated cardiac mitochondrial fission and fusion.

Antioxidants & redox signaling [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: The relationship between gut microbiota and cardiovascular system has been increasingly clarified. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), used to improve gut microbiota, has been applied clinically for disease treatment and has great potential in combatting doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the application of FMT in the cardiovascular field and its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood.

RESULTS: During DOX-induced stress, FMT alters the gut microbiota and serum metabolites, leading to a reduction in cardiac injury. Correlation analysis indicated a close association between serum metabolite Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) and cardiac function. FMT and IPA achieves this by facilitating the translocation of Nfe2l2 (Nrf2) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, thereby activating the expression of antioxidant molecules, reducing ROS production, and inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission. Consequently, mitochondrial function is preserved, leading to the mitigation of cardiac injury under DOX-induced stress.

INNOVATION: FMT has the ability to modify the composition of the gut microbiota, providing not only protection to the intestinal mucosa but also influencing the generation of serum metabolites and regulating the Nrf2 gene to modulate the balance of cardiac mitochondrial fission and fusion. This study comprehensively demonstrates the efficacy of FMT in countering DOX-induced myocardial damage and elucidates the pathways linking the microbiota and the heart.

CONCLUSION: FMT alters the gut microbiota and serum metabolites of recipient mice, promoting nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and subsequent activation of downstream antioxidant molecule expression, while inhibiting excessive mitochondrial fission to preserve cardiac integrity. Correlation analysis highlights IPA as a key contributor among differentially regulated metabolites.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Stefansson M, Bladh O, Flink O, et al (2023)

Safety and tolerability of frozen, capsulized autologous faecal microbiota transplantation. A randomized double blinded phase I clinical trial.

PloS one, 18(9):e0292132.

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is recommended treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection and is studied as a potential modifier of other gastrointestinal and systemic disorders. Autologous FMT limits the potential risks of donor transplant material and enables prophylactic treatment. Capsulized FMT is convenient and accessible, but safety data are lacking.

AIMS: To describe safety and tolerability of capsules containing autologous FMT, compared to placebo, in healthy volunteers treated with antibiotics.

METHOD: Healthy volunteers without antibiotic exposure during the past three months, that had a negative Clostridioides difficile stool sample, were recruited. Study persons donated faeces for production of capsules containing autologous microbiota. They were then given Clindamycin for seven days to disrupt the intestinal microbiota, which was followed by a two-day washout. Study persons were then randomized (1:1) to unsupervised treatment with autologous faecal matter or placebo, with two capsules twice daily for five days. A standardized questionnaire about side effects and tolerability, daily until day 28, and on days 60 and 180, was completed.

RESULTS: Twenty-four study persons were included, all completed the treatment. One person from the placebo and FMT groups each, were lost to follow up from days 21 and 60, respectively. No study person experienced serious side effects, but severe fatigue was reported during the antibiotic period (n = 2). Reported side effects were mild to moderate and there were no significant differences between the groups. Reported general and intestinal health improved significantly and similarly in both groups after the antibiotic treatment. Time to normalized intestinal habits were 17 and 19 days from study start in the placebo group and the FMT group, respectively (p = 0.8).

CONCLUSION: Capsulized frozen autologous faecal microbiota transplantation was safe and well tolerated but did not affect time to normalized intestinal habits compared to placebo.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2017-002418-30.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Rojas CA, Entrolezo Z, Jarett JK, et al (2023)

Microbiome Responses to Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Cats with Chronic Digestive Issues.

Veterinary sciences, 10(9): pii:vetsci10090561.

There is growing interest in the application of fecal microbiota transplants (FMTs) in small animal medicine, but there are few published studies that have tested their effects in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Here we use 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine fecal microbiome changes in 46 domestic cats with chronic digestive issues that received FMTs using lyophilized stool that was delivered in oral capsules. Fecal samples were collected from FMT recipients before and two weeks after the end of the full course of 50 capsules, as well as from their stool donors (N = 10), and other healthy cats (N = 113). The fecal microbiomes of FMT recipients varied with host clinical signs and dry kibble consumption, and shifts in the relative abundances of Clostridium, Collinsella, Megamonas, Desulfovibrio and Escherichia were observed after FMT. Overall, donors shared 13% of their bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) with FMT recipients and the most commonly shared ASVs were classified as Prevotella 9, Peptoclostridium, Bacteroides, and Collinsella. Lastly, the fecal microbiomes of cats with diarrhea became more similar to the microbiomes of age-matched and diet-matched healthy cats compared to cats with constipation. Overall, our results suggest that microbiome responses to FMT may be modulated by the FMT recipient's initial presenting clinical signs, diet, and their donor's microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Liu X, Yang M, Liu R, et al (2023)

The impact of Parkinson's disease-associated gut microbiota on the transcriptome in Drosophila.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease in middle-aged and elderly people, and many studies have confirmed that the disorder of gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiological process of PD. However, the molecular mechanism of gut microbiota in regulating the pathogenesis of PD is still lacking. In this study, to investigate the impact of PD-associated gut microbiota on host transcriptome, we established various PD models with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the model organism Drosophila followed by integrative data analysis of microbiome and transcriptome. We first constructed rotenone-induced PD models in Drosophila followed by FMT in different groups. Microbial analysis by 16S rDNA sequencing showed that gut microbiota from PD Drosophila could affect bacterial structure of normal Drosophila, and gut microbiota from normal Drosophila could affect bacterial structure of PD Drosophila. Transcriptome analysis revealed that PD-associated gut microbiota influenced expression patterns of genes enriched in neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, lysosome, and diverse metabolic pathways. Importantly, to verify our findings, we transplanted Drosophila with fecal samples from clinical PD patients. Compared to the control, Drosophila transplanted with fecal samples from PD patients had reduced microbiota Acetobacter and Lactobacillus, and differentially expressed genes enriched in diverse metabolic pathways. In summary, our results reveal the influence of PD-associated gut microbiota on host gene expression, and this study can help better understand the link between gut microbiota and PD pathogenesis through gut-brain axis. IMPORTANCE Gut microbiota plays important roles in regulating host gene expression and physiology through complex mechanisms. Recently, it has been suggested that disorder of gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the molecular mechanism of gut microbiota in regulating the pathogenesis of PD is still lacking. In this study, to investigate the impact of PD-associated gut microbiota on host transcriptome, we established various PD models with fecal microbiota transplantation in the model organism Drosophila followed by integrative data analysis of microbiome and transcriptome. We also verified our findings by transplanting Drosophila with fecal samples from clinical PD patients. Our results demonstrated that PD-associated gut microbiota can induce differentially expressed genes enriched in diverse metabolic pathways. This study can help better understand the link between gut microbiota and PD pathogenesis through gut-brain axis.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Malnick SDH, S Ohayon Michael (2023)

The Intestinal Microbiome and the Metabolic Syndrome-How Its Manipulation May Affect Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD).

Current issues in molecular biology, 45(9):7197-7211 pii:cimb45090455.

Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is now the predominant liver disease worldwide consequent to the epidemic of obesity. The intestinal microbiome (IM), consisting of the bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses residing in the gastrointestinal tract, plays an important role in human metabolism and preserving the epithelial barrier function. Disturbances in the IM have been shown to influence the development and progression of MAFLD and play a role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). The main treatment for MAFLD involves lifestyle changes, which also influence the IM. Manipulation of the IM by fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has been approved for the treatment of recurrent Closteroides difficile infection. This may be administered by endoscopic administration from the lower or upper GI tract. Other methods of administration include nasogastric tube, enema, and oral capsules of stool from healthy donors. In this narrative review, we elaborate on the role of the IM in developing MS and MAFLD and on the current experience with IM modulation by FMT on MAFLD.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Liu Y, Zhang P, Sheng H, et al (2023)

16S rRNA gene sequencing and machine learning reveal correlation between drug abuse and human host gut microbiota.

Addiction biology, 28(10):e13311.

Over the past few years, there has been increasing evidence highlighting the strong connection between gut microbiota and overall well-being of the host. This has led to a renewed emphasis on studying and addressing substance use disorder from the perspective of brain-gut axis. Previous studies have suggested that alcohol, food, and cigarette addictions are strongly linked to gut microbiota and faecal microbiota transplantation or the use of probiotics achieved significant efficacy. Unfortunately, little is known about the relationship between drug abuse and gut microbiota. This paper aims to reveal the potential correlation between gut microbiota and drug abuse and to develop an accurate identification model for drug-related faeces samples by machine learning. Faecal samples were collected from 476 participants from three regions in China (Shanghai, Yunnan, and Shandong). Their gut microbiota information was obtained using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and a substance use disorder identification model was developed by machine learning. Analysis revealed a lower diversity and a more homogeneous gut microbiota community structure among participants with substance use disorder. Bacteroides, Prevotella_9, Faecalibacterium, and Blautia were identified as important biomarkers associated with substance use disorder. The function prediction analysis revealed that the citrate and reductive citrate cycles were significantly upregulated in the substance use disorder group, while the shikimate pathway was downregulated. In addition, the machine learning model could distinguish faecal samples between substance users and nonsubstance users with an AUC = 0.9, indicating its potential use in predicting and screening individuals with substance use disorder within the community in the future.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Ejtahed HS, Parsa M, B Larijani (2023)

Ethical challenges in conducting and the clinical application of human microbiome research.

Journal of medical ethics and history of medicine, 16:5.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Gulumbe BH, A Abdulrahim (2023)

Pushing the frontiers in the fight against antimicrobial resistance: the potential of fecal and maggot therapies.

Future science OA, 9(10):FSO899.

The escalating crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) warrants innovative therapeutic strategies. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and maggot debridement therapy (MDT) represent paradigm-shifting approaches, leveraging biological systems to mitigate AMR. FMT restores a healthy gut microbiome, providing a biotherapeutic counter to pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing reliance on traditional antibiotics. Conversely, MDT, a form of bio-debridement, utilizes the antimicrobial secretions of maggots to cleanse wounds and eliminate resistant bacteria. Despite the promise these therapies hold, their broader clinical adoption faces multifaceted challenges including the need for rigorous scientific substantiation, standardized protocols, deepened understanding of mechanisms of action, and surmounting regulatory and public acceptance barriers. However, their potential integration with precision medicine could revolutionize disease management, particularly with antibiotic-resistant infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Jin Z, Yang Y, Cao Y, et al (2023)

The gut metabolite 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid rejuvenates spermatogenic dysfunction in aged mice through GPX4-mediated ferroptosis.

Microbiome, 11(1):212.

BACKGROUND: Aging-related fertility decline is a prevalent concern globally. Male reproductive system aging is mainly characterized by a decrease in sperm quality and fertility. While it is known that intestinal physiology changes with age and that microbiota is shaped by physiology, the underlying mechanism of how the microbiota affects male reproductive aging is still largely unexplored.

RESULTS: Here, we utilized fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to exchange the fecal microbiota between young and old mice. Cecal shotgun metagenomics and metabolomics were used to identify differences in gut microbiota composition and metabolic regulation during aging. Our results demonstrated that FMT from young to old mice alleviated aging-associated spermatogenic dysfunction through an unexpected mechanism mediated by a gut bacteria-derived metabolite, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA). 3-HPAA treatment resulted in an improvement of spermatogenesis in old mice. RNA sequencing analysis, qRT-PCR and Western blot revealed that 3-HPAA induced an upregulation of GPX4, thereby restraining ferroptosis and restoring spermatogenesis. These findings were further confirmed by in vitro induction of ferroptosis and inhibition of GPX4 expression.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that the microbiome-derived metabolite, 3-HPAA, facilitates spermatogenesis of old mice through a ferroptosis-mediated mechanism. Overall, these findings provide a novel mechanism of dysregulated spermatogenesis of old mice, and suggest that 3-HPAA could be a potential therapy for fertility decline of aging males in clinical practice. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Lapauw L, Dupont J, Amini N, et al (2023)

Trial in Elderly with Musculoskeletal Problems due to Underlying Sarcopenia-Faeces to Unravel the Gut and Inflammation Translationally (TEMPUS-FUGIT): protocol of a cross-sequential study to explore the gut-muscle axis in the development and treatment of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults.

BMC geriatrics, 23(1):599.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota (GM) might play a role in muscle metabolism and physiological processes through a hypothesized gut-muscle axis, influencing muscle mass and function and thus, sarcopenia. The Trial in Elderly with Musculoskeletal Problems due to Underlying Sarcopenia-Faeces to Unravel the Gut and Inflammation Translationally (TEMPUS-FUGIT) aims to explore the gut-muscle axis in sarcopenia.

METHODS: First, in a cross-sectional case-control phase, 100 community-dwelling adults without sarcopenia will be compared to 100 community-dwelling adults (≥ 65 years) with sarcopenia of similar age-, gender and BMI-ratio, participating in the ongoing 'Exercise and Nutrition for Healthy AgeiNg' (ENHANce; NCT03649698) study. Sarcopenia is diagnosed according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) criteria. GM composition and intestinal inflammatory markers (fecal calprotectin, lactoferrin and S100A12) will be determined in fecal samples. Systemic inflammatory markers (hs-CRP, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-1β and creatine kinase) will be determined in fasted blood samples. Both groups will be compared using appropriate statistical testing, whereas linear regression will be used for cross-sectional associations between gut, inflammatory and sarcopenia parameters. Second, in the longitudinal phase, sarcopenic older adults will be requested to deliver five fecal samples during the 12-week intervention to assess the effects of protein, omega-3 and a physical exercise program on the GM.

DISCUSSION: TEMPUS-FUGIT aims to explore the gut-muscle axis by comparing GM composition between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic older adults and to determine the association of GM with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers and sarcopenia-defining parameters (muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance). Furthermore, effects of single or combined, optimized and individualized anabolic interventions (exercise, protein and omega-3 supplementation), on GM will be explored in persons with sarcopenia. TEMPUS-FUGIT aims to impact clinical practice by clarifying the relationship between the gut-muscle axis and sarcopenia. TEMPUS-FUGIT is expected to contribute to the discovery of clinical and microbial biomarkers for sarcopenia and insights in its pathophysiology, opening possible future perspectives for novel sarcopenia treatment strategies targeting GM.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrails.gov NCT05008770, registered on August 17, 2021; first participant enrolled on September 21 2021.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Luo Y, Liu C, Luo Y, et al (2023)

Thiostrepton alleviates experimental colitis by promoting RORγt ubiquitination and modulating dysbiosis.

Cellular & molecular immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Thiostrepton (TST) is a natural antibiotic with pleiotropic properties. This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic effect of TST on experimental colitis and identify its targets. The effect of TST on colon inflammation was evaluated in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model and a T-cell transfer colitis model. The therapeutic targets of TST were investigated by cytokine profiling, immunophenotyping and biochemical approaches. The effect of TST on the gut microbiota and its contribution to colitis were evaluated in mice with DSS-induced colitis that were subjected to gut microbiota depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Alterations in the gut microbiota caused by TST were determined by 16S rDNA and metagenomic sequencing. Here, we showed that TST treatment significantly ameliorated colitis in the DSS-induced and T-cell transfer models. Specifically, TST targeted the retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor RORγt to reduce the production of IL-17A by γδ T cells, type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and Th17 cells in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Similarly, TST selectively prevented the development of Th17 cells in the T-cell transfer colitis model and the differentiation of naïve CD4[+] T cells into Th17 cells in vitro. Mechanistically, TST induced the ubiquitination and degradation of RORγt by promoting the binding of Itch to RORγt. Moreover, TST also reversed dysbiosis to control colonic inflammation. Taken together, these results from our study describe the previously unexplored role of TST in alleviating colonic inflammation by reducing IL-17A production and modulating dysbiosis, suggesting that TST is a promising candidate drug for the treatment of IBD.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Gryschek RCB, Corral MA, Sitta RB, et al (2023)

Strongyloides infection screening in transplant candidates: What is the best strategy?.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The potential that Strongyloides stercoralis infection has to cause major morbidity and high mortality when the disseminated form occurs in transplant patients is of particular concern.

METHODS: In this study, the objective was to observe S. stercoralis infection in patients who are candidates for transplantation by using parasitological, serological, and molecular techniques and to propose an algorithm for the detection of that infection in transplant candidates.

RESULTS: By parasitological techniques, 10% of fecal samples were positive. Anti-Strongyloides antibodies immunoglobulin G were detected in 19.3% and 20.7% of patients by immunofluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was observed in 17.3% of samples by conventional polymerase chain reaction and 32.7% of samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).

CONCLUSION: The set of results allows us to reinforce that a positive result by parasitological techniques and/or qPCR indicates that the specific treatment should be applied. However, the improvement of diagnostic techniques may suggest changes in the screening for strongyloidiasis in these patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Liu A, Liang X, Wang W, et al (2023)

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate colon inflammation via modulation of gut microbiota-SCFAs-immune axis.

Stem cell research & therapy, 14(1):271.

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a global health problem in which gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a pivotal pathogenic role. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy has emerged as a prospective novel tool for managing IBD, and which can also regulate the composition of gut microbiota. However, the functional significance of MSCs-induced changes in gut microbiome is poorly understood.

METHODS: Here, we investigated for the first time the role of gut microbiota in mediating the protective effect of human umbilical cord MSCs (HUMSCs) on DSS-induced colitis. Gut microbiota alteration and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production were analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing and targeted metabolomics. Spectrum antibiotic cocktail (ABX), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and sterile fecal filtrate (SFF) were employed to evaluate the protective effect of intestinal flora and its metabolites. Cytokine microarray, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and flow cytometry were conducted to assess the effect on CD4[+]T homeostasis.

RESULTS: Here, we investigated for the first time the role of gut microbiota in mediating the protective effect of MSCs on DSS-induced colitis. By performing gut microbiota depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments, we revealed that MSCs derived from human umbilical cord ameliorated colon inflammation and reshaped T-cells immune homeostasis via remodeling the composition and diversity of gut flora, especially up-regulated SCFAs-producing bacterial abundance, such as Akkermansia, Faecalibaculum, and Clostridia_UCG_014. Consistently, targeted metabolomics manifested the increased SCFAs production with MSCs administration, and there was also a significant positive correlation between differential bacteria and SCFAs. Meanwhile, combined with sterile fecal filtrate (SFF) gavage experiments, the underlying protective mechanism was further associated with the improved Treg/Th2/Th17 balance in intestinal mucosa mediated via the increased microbiota-derived SCFAs production.

CONCLUSION: The present study advances understanding of MSCs in the protective effects on colitis, providing evidence for the new role of the microbiome-metabolite-immune axis in the recovery of colitis by MSCs.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Verhoef J, Klont E, van Overveld FJ, et al (2023)

The long and winding road of fecal microbiota transplants to targeted intervention for improvement of immune checkpoint inhibition therapy.

Expert review of anticancer therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of cancer. The principle of this treatment is that inhibitory molecules, either on the tumor or on cells of the immune system, are blocked by antibodies. The immune system of the patient subsequently should be able to attack and eradicate the tumor. Not all patients respond to ICI therapy, and response or non-response has been associated with composition of gut microbiota.

AREA COVERED: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used as adjunctive therapy in order to improve the outcome of ICI. Clinical Trials.gov, Clinical Trials in the European Union, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization were searched (October 2022) for studies dealing with gut microbiota modification and the outcome of ICI.

EXPERT OPINION: There is ample evidence for the beneficial effect of FMT on the outcome of ICI therapy for cancer, especially melanoma. The optimal treatment schedule, as well as donor selection criteria, still must be worked out. Progress is being made in the unraveling of the mechanisms by which microbiota and their metabolites (butyrate and the tryptophan metabolite indole-3-aldehyde) interact with the mucosal immune system of the host. A better understanding of these mechanisms contributes to improving FMT outcomes and developing novel therapeutic approaches. It will allow the identification of key bacterial species which mediate the effect of FMT. Promising species are Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Eubacterium rectale, and three Bifidobacterium species (B. adolescentis, B.bifidum, and B. longum), because they are important direct and indirect butyrate producers, which could form the basis of targeted microbiota therapy.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Hu X, Jin H, Yuan S, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation inhibited neuroinflammation of traumatic brain injury in mice via regulating the gut-brain axis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1254610.

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have highlighted the vital role of gut microbiota in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective means of regulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis, while the beneficial effect and potential mechanisms of FMT against TBI remain unclear. Here, we elucidated the anti-neuroinflammatory effect and possible mechanism of FMT against TBI in mice via regulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

METHODS: The TBI mouse model was established by heavy object falling impact and then treated with FMT. The neurological deficits, neuropathological change, synaptic damage, microglia activation, and neuroinflammatory cytokine production were assessed, and the intestinal pathological change and gut microbiota composition were also evaluated. Moreover, the population of Treg cells in the spleen was measured.

RESULTS: Our results showed that FMT treatment significantly alleviated neurological deficits and neuropathological changes and improved synaptic damage by increasing the levels of the synaptic plasticity-related protein such as postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and synapsin I in the TBI mice model. Moreover, FMT could inhibit the activation of microglia and reduce the production of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, alleviating the inflammatory response of TBI mice. Meanwhile, FMT treatment could attenuate intestinal histopathologic changes and gut microbiota dysbiosis and increase the Treg cell population in TBI mice.

CONCLUSION: These findings elucidated that FMT treatment effectively suppressed the TBI-induced neuroinflammation via regulating the gut microbiota-gut-brain axis, and its mechanism was involved in the regulation of peripheral immune cells, which implied a novel strategy against TBI.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Ciernikova S, Sevcikova A, Drgona L, et al (2023)

Modulating the gut microbiota by probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation: An emerging trend in cancer patient care.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Reviews on cancer pii:S0304-419X(23)00139-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Treatment resistance, together with acute and late adverse effects, represents critical issues in the management of cancer patients. Promising results from preclinical and clinical research underline the emerging trend of a microbiome-based approach in oncology. Favorable bacterial species and higher gut diversity are associated with increased treatment efficacy, mainly in chemo- and immunotherapy. On the other hand, alterations in the composition and activity of gut microbial communities are linked to intestinal dysbiosis and contribute to high treatment-induced toxicity. In this Review, we provide an overview of studies concerning gut microbiota modulation in patients with solid and hematologic malignancies with a focus on probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Targeting the gut microbiome might bring clinical benefits and improve patient outcomes. However, a deeper understanding of mechanisms and large clinical trials concerning microbiome and immunological profiling is warranted to identify safe and effective ways to incorporate microbiota-based interventions in routine clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Liu Z, Sun M, Jin C, et al (2023)

Naringenin confers protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through modulating the gut-brain axis: A multi-omics analysis.

The Journal of nutritional biochemistry pii:S0955-2863(23)00181-X [Epub ahead of print].

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that involves the immune system attacking the protective covering of nerve fibers. This disease can be influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Evidence has highlighted the critical role of the intestinal microbiota in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The composition of gut microflora is mainly determined by dietary components, which, in turn, modulate host homeostasis. A diet rich in naringenin at 0.5% can effectively mitigate the severity of EAE in mice. However, there is little direct data on the impact of naringenin at optimal doses on EAE development, as well as its intestinal microbiota and metabolites. Our study revealed that 2.0% naringenin resulted in the lowest clinical score and pathological changes in EAE mice, and altered the gene expression profiles associated with inflammation and immunity in spinal cord tissue. We then used untargeted metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequence to identify metabolites and intestinal microbiota, respectively. Naringenin supplementation enriched gut microbiota in EAE mice, including increasing the abundance of Paraprevotellaceae and Comamonadaceae, while decreasing the abundance of Deltaproteobacteria, RF39, and Desulfovibrionaceae. Furthermore, the changes in gut microbiota affected the production of metabolites in the feces and brain, suggesting a role in regulating the gut-brain axis. Finally, we conducted a fecal transplantation experiment to validate that gut microbiota partly mediates the effect of naringenin on EAE alleviation. In conclusion, naringenin has potential immunomodulatory effects that are influenced to some extent by the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Yue C, Luan W, Gu H, et al (2023)

The role of the gut-microbiota-brain axis via the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve in chronic inflammatory pain and comorbid spatial working memory impairment in complete Freund's adjuvant mice.

Journal of psychiatric research, 166:61-73 pii:S0022-3956(23)00413-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic inflammatory pain (CIP) is a common public medical problem, often accompanied by memory impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying CIP and comorbid memory impairment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the role of the gut-microbiota-brain axis in CIP and comorbid memory impairment in mice treated with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). 16S rRNA analysis showed the altered diversity of gut microbiota from day 1 to day 14 after CFA injection. Interestingly, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy naive mice ameliorated comorbidities, such as mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, spatial working memory impairment, neuroinflammation, and abnormal composition of gut microbiota in the CFA mice. Additionally, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) blocked the onset of these comorbidities. Interestingly, the relative abundance of the bacterial genus or species was also correlated with these comorbidities after FMT or SDV. Therefore, our results suggest that the gut-microbiota-brain axis via the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve is crucial for the development of CIP and comorbid spatial working memory impairment in CFA mice.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Kragsnaes MS, Miguens Blanco J, Mullish BH, et al (2023)

Small Intestinal Permeability and Metabolomic Profiles in Feces and Plasma Associate With Clinical Response in Patients With Active Psoriatic Arthritis Participating in a Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Trial: Exploratory Findings From the FLORA Trial.

ACR open rheumatology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: We investigated intestinal permeability and fecal, plasma, and urine metabolomic profiles in methotrexate-treated active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and how this related to clinical response following one sham or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

METHODS: This exploratory study is based on the FLORA trial cohort, in which 31 patients with moderate-to-high peripheral PsA disease activity, despite at least 3 months of methotrexate-treatment, were included in a 26-week, double-blind, 1:1 randomized, sham-controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either one healthy donor FMT (n = 15) or sham (n = 16) via gastroscopy. The primary trial end point was the proportion of treatment failures through 26 weeks. We performed a lactulose-to-mannitol ratio (LMR) test at baseline (n = 31) and at week 26 (n = 26) to assess small intestinal permeability. Metabolomic profiles in fecal, plasma, and urine samples collected at baseline, weeks 4, 12, and 26 were measured using [1] H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

RESULTS: Trial failures (n = 7) had significantly higher LMR compared with responders (n = 19) at week 26 (0.027 [0.017-0.33]) vs. 0.012 [0-0.064], P = 0.013), indicating increased intestinal permeability. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant model for responders (n = 19) versus failures (n = 12) at all time points based on their fecal (P < 0.0001) and plasma (P = 0.005) metabolomic profiles, whereas urine metabolomic profiles did not differ between groups (P = 1). Fecal N-acetyl glycoprotein GlycA correlated with Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (coefficient = 0.50; P = 0.03) and fecal propionate correlated with American College of Rheumatology 20 response at week 26 (coefficient = 27, P = 0.02).

CONCLUSION: Intestinal permeability and fecal and plasma metabolomic profiles of patients with PsA were associated with the primary clinical trial end point, failure versus responder.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Yau YK, Lau LHS, Lui RNS, et al (2023)

Long-term Safety Outcomes of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Real-World Data over Eight Years from the Hong Kong FMT Registry.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(23)00712-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prospective long-term real-world safety data after fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) remain limited. We reported long-term outcomes of FMT from a population-based FMT registry in Hong Kong.

METHODS: We recruited patients undergoing FMT for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and non-CDI indications from clinical trials, from June 2013 to April 2022 in Hong Kong. We captured data on demographics, FMT indications and procedures, clinical outcomes and short-to-long-term safety. New medical diagnoses were obtained from electronic medical records and independently adjudicated by clinicians. Long-term safety in patients with recurrent CDI was compared with a control group treated with antibiotics.

RESULTS: Overall, 123 subjects (median age 53 years; range 13-90; 52.0% male) underwent 510 FMTs and were prospectively followed up for a median of 30.3 months (range, 1-57.9). The most common indication for FMT was type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The most common short-term adverse events within one month of FMT included diarrhea and abdominal pain. At long-term follow-up beyond 12 months, 16 patients reported 21 new onset medical conditions confirmed by electronic medical records. All were adjudicated to be unlikely to be related to FMT. There was no new case of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, allergy, DM or psychiatric disorder. In a subgroup of patients with recurrent CDI, FMT was associated with a significantly higher cumulative survival probability compared with matched controls.

CONCLUSION: This prospective real-world data from Asia's first FMT registry demonstrated that FMT has an excellent long-term safety profile. The risk of developing new medical conditions beyond 12 months after FMT is low.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Kashyap Y, ZJ Wang (2023)

Gut microbiota dysbiosis alters chronic pain behaviors in a humanized transgenic mouse model of sickle cell disease.

Pain pii:00006396-990000000-00407 [Epub ahead of print].

Pain is the most common symptom experienced by patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) throughout their lives and is the main cause of hospitalization. Despite the progress that has been made towards understanding the disease pathophysiology, major gaps remain in the knowledge of SCD pain, the transition to chronic pain, and effective pain management. Recent evidence has demonstrated a vital role of gut microbiota in pathophysiological features of SCD. However, the role of gut microbiota in SCD pain is yet to be explored. We sought to evaluate the compositional differences in the gut microbiota of transgenic mice with SCD and nonsickle control mice and investigate the role of gut microbiota in SCD pain by using antibiotic-mediated gut microbiota depletion and fecal material transplantation (FMT). The antibiotic-mediated gut microbiota depletion did not affect evoked pain but significantly attenuated ongoing spontaneous pain in mice with SCD. Fecal material transplantation from mice with SCD to wild-type mice resulted in tactile allodynia (0.95 ± 0.17 g vs 0.08 ± 0.02 g, von Frey test, P < 0.001), heat hyperalgesia (15.10 ± 0.79 seconds vs 8.68 ± 1.17 seconds, radiant heat, P < 0.01), cold allodynia (2.75 ± 0.26 seconds vs 1.68 ± 0.08 seconds, dry ice test, P < 0.01), and anxiety-like behaviors (Elevated Plus Maze Test, Open Field Test). On the contrary, reshaping gut microbiota of mice with SCD with FMT from WT mice resulted in reduced tactile allodynia (0.05 ± 0.01 g vs 0.25 ± 0.03 g, P < 0.001), heat hyperalgesia (5.89 ± 0.67 seconds vs 12.25 ± 0.76 seconds, P < 0.001), and anxiety-like behaviors. These findings provide insights into the relationship between gut microbiota dysbiosis and pain in SCD, highlighting the importance of gut microbial communities that may serve as potential targets for novel pain interventions.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Zyoud SH, Shakhshir M, Abushanab AS, et al (2023)

Unveiling the hidden world of gut health: Exploring cutting-edge research through visualizing randomized controlled trials on the gut microbiota.

World journal of clinical cases, 11(26):6132-6146.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal and overall health. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) play a crucial role in advancing our knowledge and evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions targeting the gut microbiota.

AIM: To conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the literature on RCTs involving the gut microbiota.

METHODS: Using bibliometric tools, a descriptive cross-sectional investigation was conducted on scholarly publications concentrated on RCTs related to gut microbiota, spanning the years 2003 to 2022. The study used VOSviewer version 1.6.9 to examine collaboration networks between different countries and evaluate the frequently employed terms in the titles and abstracts of the retrieved publications. The primary objective of this analysis was to identify key research areas and focal points associated with RCTs involving the gut microbiota.

RESULTS: A total of 1061 relevant articles were identified from the 24758 research articles published between 2003 and 2022. The number of publications showed a notable increase over time, with a positive correlation (R[2] = 0.978, P < 0.001). China (n = 276, 26.01%), the United States (n = 254, 23.94%), and the United Kingdom (n = 97, 9.14%) were the leading contributing countries. Københavns Universitet (n = 38, 3.58%) and Dankook University (n = 35, 3.30%) were the top active institutions. The co-occurrence analysis shows current gut microbiota research trends and important topics, such as obesity interventions targeting the gut microbiota, the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation, and the effects of dietary interventions on humans.

CONCLUSION: The study highlights the rapid growth and importance of research on RCTs that involve the gut microbiota. This study provides valuable insight into research trends, identifies key players, and outlines potential future directions in this field. Additionally, the co-occurrence analysis identified important topics that play a critical role in the advancement of science and provided insights into future research directions in this field.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Wang H, Liu S, Xie L, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota signature in children with autism spectrum disorder who suffered from chronic gastrointestinal symptoms.

BMC pediatrics, 23(1):476.

BACKGROUND: Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently suffer from persistent gastrointestinal symptoms, such as constipation and diarrhea. Various studies have highlighted differences in gut microbiota composition between individuals with ASD and healthy controls of similar ages. However, it's essential to recognize that these disparities may be influenced by cultural practices, dietary habits, and environmental factors.

METHODS: In this study, we collected fecal samples from both children diagnosed with ASD (n = 42) and healthy individuals (n = 41) residing in the southeastern coastal region of China. Subsequently, 16 S rRNA gene sequencing and advanced bioinformatics analyses were conducted to investigate the distinctive features of gut microbial communities within each group.

RESULTS: The ASD group consisted of 28 males and 14 females, with a median age of 5.8 years, while the control group included 25 males and 16 females, with a median age of 6.8 years. Among the 83 sequenced fecal samples, a total of 1031 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. These included 122 unique OTUs specific to the control group and 285 unique OTUs specific to the ASD group. Analyses of α-diversity and β-diversity unveiled significant differences in the abundance and composition of gut microbiota between the two groups. It was found that the dominant bacterial taxa in healthy individuals were UBA1819, Flavonifractor, and Bradyrhizobium. In contrast, the ASD group exhibited a prevalence of Streptococcus, Ruminococcus, and Ruminiclostridium. Further analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) showed significant differences in the metabolic functionalities of the gut microbiota between the two groups. Notably, the metabolic pathway related to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in the gut microbiota of the ASD group was notably diminished compared to the control group. Conversely, the ASD group demonstrated significantly elevated levels of metabolic pathways involving uncharacterized conserved proteins, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, and inorganic pyrophosphatase compared to the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results confirm that there are significant differences in the gut microbiota structure between children with ASD and healthy controls in the southeast coastal region of China. This underscores the critical significance of delving into clinical interventions capable of mitigating the gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms encountered by children with ASD. A particularly encouraging path for such interventions lies in the realm of fecal microbiota transplantation, a prospect that merits deeper inquiry.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Wood N, Propst K, Yao M, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transfer for Clostridium difficile Infection and Its Effects on Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

Urogynecology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 29(10):814-826.

IMPORTANCE: Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) poses a significant management challenge, and fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) has been shown in a limited manner to positively effect rUTI.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare UTI rates after FMT for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with previously diagnosed rUTI and patients without a previous diagnosis of rUTI.

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of female patients who underwent FMT between 2015 and 2020 and were identified from a database at a tertiary care referral center. The electronic medical record was queried for demographic and UTI characteristics in the 3 years before and 5 years after FMT, which were compared between patients with or without a preexisting history of rUTI.

RESULTS: One hundred thirty-five patients were included, 17 of whom had a preexisting history of rUTI. The median number of culture-proven UTIs was 1 in the rUTI group versus 0 in the non-rUTI group both in the 1 year (P = 0.003) and 3 years (P < 0.001) before FMT. Most UTIs before and after FMT were Escherichia coli UTIs (53.8%) and carried some antibiotic resistance (54.6%). Comparatively, in the year after FMT, there were no differences between groups in UTI frequency or antibiotic administration (0 [0-1] vs 0.5 [0-1], P = 0.28). A trend toward decreased frequency of UTI in the 1 year after FMT was seen in the rUTI group. On survival analysis, there was a nonsignificant decrease in the 3-year UTI-free rate for the rUTI group compared with the non-rUTI group (76.5% vs 90.1%, P = 0.07).

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with recurrent UTI undergoing FMT for recurrent CDI experienced a trend toward a decrease in frequency of UTI after FMT.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Del Giglio A, FC Atui (2023)

Fecal transplantation in patient with metastatic melanoma refractory to immunotherapy: A case report.

World journal of clinical cases, 11(24):5830-5834.

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma, but a significant proportion of patients still experience treatment resistance. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a potential strategy to overcome immunotherapy resistance by modulating the gut microbiome.

CASE SUMMARY: We present a case report of a 57-year-old male with metastatic melanoma refractory to immunotherapy who received FMT in combination with anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunotherapy (pembrolizumab). After failing multiple lines of treatment, the patient underwent a single FMT procedure by colonoscopy using fecal material from a female metastatic melanoma donor who successfully responded to immunotherapy. Following FMT, the patient demonstrated a response with decreased subcutaneous disease and subsequently underwent surgery to remove the residual disease. Despite a subsequent recurrence in the small bowel that was resected, the patient remained on pembrolizumab without evidence of melanoma recurrence at the time of writing.

CONCLUSION: The favorable clinical and long-lasting effect we saw in our patient without significant toxicity suggests that this procedure should be considered in similar patients with immunotherapy refractory melanomas.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Li Y, Li X, Nie C, et al (2023)

Effects of two strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the feces of calves after fecal microbiota transplantation on growth performance, immune capacity, and intestinal barrier function of weaned calves.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1249628.

INTRODUCTION: Weaning stress seriously affects the welfare of calves and causes huge economic losses to the cattle breeding industry. Probiotics play an important role in improving animal growth performance, enhancing immune function, and improving gut microbiota. The newly isolated strains of Lactobacillus reuteri L81 and Lactobacillus johnsonii L29 have shown potential as probiotics. Here, we studied the probiotic properties of these two strains on weaned calves.

METHODS: Forty calves were randomly assigned to four groups before weaning, with 10 calves in each group, control group (Ctrl group), L. reuteri L81 supplementation group (2 g per day per calf), L. johnsonii L29 supplementation group (2 g per day per calf), L. reuteri L81 and L. johnsonii L29 composite group (2 g per day per calf), and the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri L81 and Lactobacillus johnsonii L29 supplementation on growth performance, immune status, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal barrier function of weaned calves were evaluated.

RESULTS: The results showed that probiotics supplementation increased the average daily weight gain of calves after weaning, reduced weaning diarrhea index (p < 0.05), and increased serum IgA, IgM, and IgG levels (p < 0.05). L. reuteri L81 supplementation significantly decreased IL-6, increased IL-10 and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels at 21 d after weaning (p < 0.05). Moreover, probiotics supplementation significantly decreased serum endotoxin (ET), diamine oxidase (DAO), and D-lactic acid (D-LA) levels at different time points (p < 0.05). In addition, supplementation with L. reuteri L81 significantly reduced the crypt depth and increased the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (p < 0.05) in the ileum, increased gene expression of tight junction protein ZO-1, Claudin-1 and Occludin in jejunum and ileum mucosa, reduced the gene expression of INF- γ in ileum mucosa and IL-8 in jejunum mucosa, and increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Oscillospira, etc.

DISCUSSION: verall, these results showed that the two strains isolated from cattle feces after low concentration fecal microbiota transplantation improved the growth performance, immune performance, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal barrier function of weaned calves, indicating their potential as supplements to alleviate weaning diarrhea in calves.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Shang S, Zhu J, Liu X, et al (2023)

The Impacts of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation from Same Sex on the Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis Patients.

Polish journal of microbiology, 72(3):247-268.

We aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from the same sex on ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. A total of 272 UC patients were selected in the prospective clinical study, which incorporated four distinct groups, each comprising male and female patients, who were either receiving FMT or placebo, respectively. FMT was performed by sending the gut microbiota of healthy female or male adolescents to the same gender patients via gastroscope three times (one time/three weeks), and a placebo was used with an equal volume of saline. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, thick bloody stool, intestinal mucosal lesion, and Mayo scores were measured. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were evaluated. The changes of intestinal flora were detected by the 16S rRNA sequencing. FMT reduced the scores of diarrhea, abdominal pain, mucosal lesion, and Mayo, SAS, and SDS in UC patients compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Clostridiales and Desulfovibrionaceae were dominant in gut microbiota from male patients and were reduced after FMT. Meanwhile, the abundance of Prevotella, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium was increased in the male group. Female patients had a higher abundance of Escherichia-Shigella, Desulfovibrionaceae, and Staphylococcaceae before FMT, and it was reduced after FMT. Meanwhile, the abundance of Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotella, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium was increased in the female group. There were no significant changes for the species in the corresponding placebo groups. FMT improved the UC symptoms of male and female patients, which may be associated with different gut microbiota changes.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Cui Y, Liu J, Lei X, et al (2024)

Dual-directional regulation of spinal cord injury and the gut microbiota.

Neural regeneration research, 19(3):548-556.

There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota affects the incidence and progression of central nervous system diseases via the brain-gut axis. The spinal cord is a vital important part of the central nervous system; however, the underlying association between spinal cord injury and gut interactions remains unknown. Recent studies suggest that patients with spinal cord injury frequently experience intestinal dysfunction and gut dysbiosis. Alterations in the gut microbiota can cause disruption in the intestinal barrier and trigger neurogenic inflammatory responses which may impede recovery after spinal cord injury. This review summarizes existing clinical and basic research on the relationship between the gut microbiota and spinal cord injury. Our research identified three key points. First, the gut microbiota in patients with spinal cord injury presents a key characteristic and gut dysbiosis may profoundly influence multiple organs and systems in patients with spinal cord injury. Second, following spinal cord injury, weakened intestinal peristalsis, prolonged intestinal transport time, and immune dysfunction of the intestine caused by abnormal autonomic nerve function, as well as frequent antibiotic treatment, may induce gut dysbiosis. Third, the gut microbiota and associated metabolites may act on central neurons and affect recovery after spinal cord injury; cytokines and the Toll-like receptor ligand pathways have been identified as crucial mechanisms in the communication between the gut microbiota and central nervous system. Fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary interventions, and other therapies have been shown to serve a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury by modulating the gut microbiota. Therapies targeting the gut microbiota or associated metabolites are a promising approach to promote functional recovery and improve the complications of spinal cord injury.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Liu D, Gao X, Huang X, et al (2023)

Moderate altitude exposure impacts host fasting blood glucose and serum metabolome by regulation of the intestinal flora.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05641-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Moderate altitude exposure has shown beneficial effects on diabetes incidence but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Our study aimed to investigate how the human gut microbiome impacted the serum metabolome and associated with glucose homeostasis in healthy Chinese individuals upon moderate-altitude exposure. Faecal microbiome composition was assessed using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Serum metabolome was acquired by untargeted metabolomics technology, and amino acids (AAs) and propionic acid in serum were quantified by targeted metabolomics technology. The results indicated that the moderate-altitude exposed individuals presented lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG) and propionic acid, increased circulating l-Glutamine but decreased L-Glutamate and L-Valine, which correlated with enriched Bacteroidetes and decreased Proteobacteria. Additionally, the silico causality associations among gut microbiota, serum metabolome and host FBG were analyzed by mediation analysis. It showed that increased Bacteroides ovatus (B. ovatus) and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) were identified as the main antagonistic species driving the association between L-Glutamate and FBG in silico causality. Furthermore, the high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice subjected to faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) were applied to validate the cause-in-fact effects of gut microbiota on the beneficial glucose response. We found that microbiome in the moderate-altitude exposed donor could predict the extent of the FBG response in recipient mice, which showed lowered FBG, L-Glutamate and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Our findings suggest that moderate-altitude exposure targeting gut microbiota and circulating metabolome, may pave novel avenues to counter dysglycemia.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Cheng CK, Y Huang (2021)

The gut-cardiovascular connection: new era for cardiovascular therapy.

Medical review (Berlin, Germany), 1(1):23-46.

Our gut microbiome is constituted by trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea and eukaryotic microbes. Nowadays, gut microbiome has been gradually recognized as a new organ system that systemically and biochemically interact with the host. Accumulating evidence suggests that the imbalanced gut microbiome contributes to the dysregulation of immune system and the disruption of cardiovascular homeostasis. Specific microbiome profiles and altered intestinal permeability are often observed in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Gut-derived metabolites, toxins, peptides and immune cell-derived cytokines play pivotal roles in the induction of inflammation and the pathogenesis of dysfunction of heart and vasculature. Impaired crosstalk between gut microbiome and multiple organ systems, such as gut-vascular, heart-gut, gut-liver and brain-gut axes, are associated with higher cardiovascular risks. Medications and strategies that restore healthy gut microbiome might therefore represent novel therapeutic options to lower the incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Mahroum N, Seida R, Y Shoenfeld (2023)

Triggers and regulation: the gut microbiome in rheumatoid arthritis.

Expert review of clinical immunology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease marked by systemic symptoms and joint degeneration. Interestingly, the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis have been linked to the microbiome, notably the gut microbiome. Dysbiosis, an alteration in the gut microbiome, has been connected to the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. For instance, dysbiosis increases intestinal permeability and promotes the movement of bacteria and its products, which in turn triggers and aggravates systemic inflammation.

AREAS COVERED: The correlation between the gut microbiome and RA. Triggers of RA including dysbiosis. The therapeutic potential of the gut microbiome in RA due to its critical function in influencing the immune response. The fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a therapeutic strategy that involves the transfer of healthy fecal microbiota from a donor to a recipient, has produced encouraging results in the treatment of several autoimmune illnesses, including rheumatoid arthritis.

EXPERT OPINION: The role of the gut microbiome in RA is critical, and serves as a basis for the etiology, pathogenesis, as well as having therapeutic implications. In our opinion, FMT is an excellent example for this correlation. Still, more investigations and well-designed studied are needed in order to make firm conclusions and recommendations.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Sfanos KS (2023)

Intratumoral Bacteria as Mediators of Cancer Immunotherapy Response.

Cancer research, 83(18):2985-2986.

Multiple lines of evidence spanning from animal models to human clinical trials indicate that the microbiome influences cancer immunotherapy response. Whereas initial studies focused exclusively on the gastrointestinal (gut) microbiota-tumor axis, more recent studies have examined the possibility that bacteria located within tumor cells or within the tumor microenvironment mediate cancer treatment response. Strikingly, this phenomenon has been demonstrated in cancers that arise in anatomic locations that are traditionally thought to be devoid of resident microbiota. In this issue of Cancer Research, Wu and colleagues examine the effects of intratumoral bacterial signatures on treatment response in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (NACI) in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The study reports that intratumoral Streptococcus, presumably due to bacterial translocation from the gut, predicts the treatment efficacy of NACI in murine models as well as individuals with ESCC. These new findings further highlight the possibility that the presence of intratumoral microbes as well as their associated metabolites influence both the tumor immune microenvironment and immunotherapy efficacy. These findings also raise the intriguing possibility of cross-reactivity between tumor and bacterial antigens. Given that the gut microbiome is potentially a modifiable factor via diet, prebiotics/probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, among other strategies, further exploration into the mechanisms by which gut and/or intratumoral bacteria influence antitumor immunity is certainly warranted. See related article by Wu et al., p. 3131.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Liao Y, Peng Z, Xu S, et al (2023)

Deoxynivalenol Exposure Induced Colon Damage in Mice Independent of the Gut Microbiota.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: To investigate whether deoxynivalenol (DON) can induce intestinal damage through gut microbiota in mice.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice are orally administered DON (1 mg kg[-1] bw day[-1]) for 4 weeks, and then recipient mice receive fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from DON-exposed mice after antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the mice are orally treated with DON (1 mg kg[-1] bw day[-1]) for 4 weeks after antibiotic treatment. Histological damage, disruption of tight junction protein expression, and increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the colon as well as higher serum lipopolysaccharides are observed after DON exposure. Moreover, DON exposure changes the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota as well as the contents of fecal metabolites (mainly bile acids). Differential metabolic pathways may be related to mitochondrial metabolism, apoptosis, and inflammation following DON exposure. However, only a decrease in mRNA levels of occludin and claudin-3 is observed in the colon of recipient mice after FMT. After depleting the gut microbiota in mice, DON exposure can also cause histological damage, disorders of tight junction protein expression, and increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the colon.

CONCLUSIONS: DON exposure can induce colon damage in mice independent of the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Fenneman AC, Rampanelli E, van der Spek AH, et al (2023)

Protocol for a double-blinded randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of faecal microbiota transplantations on thyroid reserve in patients with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism in the Netherlands: the IMITHOT trial.

BMJ open, 13(9):e073971.

BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a common endocrine autoimmune disease affecting roughly 5% of the general population and involves life-long treatment with levothyroxine, as no curative treatment yet exists. Over the past decade, the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host immune system has been well-recognised, identifying the gut microbiome as an important factor in host health and disease, including susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Previous observational studies yielded a link between disruption of the gut microbiome composition and HT. This is the first study that investigates the potential of restoring a disrupted gut microbiome with faecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) to halt disease progression and dampen autoimmunity.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The IMITHOT trial is a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study evaluating either autologous or allogenic FMTs in medication-naïve patients with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. In total, 34 patients will be enrolled to receive either three allogenic or autologous FMTs. FMT will be made of fresh stool and directly administered into the duodenum. Patients will be evaluated at baseline before the first FMT is administered and at 6, 12 and 24 months post-intervention to assess efficacy and adverse events. The primary outcome measure will be the net incremental increase (incremental area under the curve) on thyrotropin-stimulated free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine release at 6 and 12 months compared with baseline. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and international conferences. The recruitment of the first patient and donor occurred on 18 December 2019.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the hospital Ethics Committee (Medical Ethics Committee) at Amsterdam University Medical Center. The trial's outcomes offer high-quality evidence that aids in unveiling distinct patterns within the gut microbiota potentially associated with improved thyroid function. Consequently, this may open avenues for the future clinical applications of microbial-targeted therapy in individuals at risk of developing overt HT.


RevDate: 2023-09-14

Watanabe Y, Fujisaka S, Morinaga Y, et al (2023)

Isoxanthohumol improves obesity and glucose metabolism via inhibiting intestinal lipid absorption with a bloom of Akkermansia muciniphila in mice.

Molecular metabolism pii:S2212-8778(23)00131-X [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Polyphenols have health-promoting effects, such as improving insulin resistance. Isoxanthohumol (IX), a prenylated flavonoid found in beer hops, has been suggested to reduce obesity and insulin resistance; however, the mechanism remains unknown.

METHODS: High-fat diet-fed mice were administered IX. We analyzed glucose metabolism, gene expression profiles and histology of liver, epididymal adipose tissue and colon. Lipase activity, fecal lipid profiles and plasma metabolomic analysis were assessed. Fecal 16s rRNA sequencing was obtained and selected bacterial species were used for in vitro studies. Fecal microbiota transplantation and monocolonization were conducted to antibiotic-treated or germ-free (GF) mice.

RESULTS: The administration of IX lowered weight gain, decreased steatohepatitis and improved glucose metabolism. Mechanistically, IX inhibited pancreatic lipase activity and lipid absorption by decreasing the expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36 in the small intestine, which was confirmed by increased lipid excretion in feces. IX administration increased markers of intestinal barrier function, including thickening the mucin layer and increasing caludin-1, a tight-junction related protein in the colon. In contrast, the effects of IX were nullified by antibiotics. As revealed using 16S rRNA sequencing, the microbial community structure changed with a significant increase in the abundance of A. muciniphila in the IX-treated group. An anaerobic chamber study showed that IX selectively promoted the growth of A. muciniphila while exhibiting antimicrobial activity against some Bacteroides and Clostridium species. To further explore the direct effect of A. muciniphila on lipid and glucose metabolism, we monocolonized either A. muciniphila or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron to GF mice. A. muciniphila monocolonization decreased CD36 expression in the jejunum and improved glucose metabolism, with decreased levels of multiple classes of fatty acids determined using plasma metabolomic analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that IX prevents obesity and enhances glucose metabolism by inhibiting dietary fat absorption. This mechanism is linked to suppressing pancreatic lipase activity and shifts in microbial composition, notably an increase in A. muciniphila. These highlight new treatment strategies for preventing metabolic syndrome by boosting the gut microbiota with food components.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Gawey BJ, S Khanna (2023)

Clostridioides difficile Infection: Landscape and Microbiome Therapeutics.

Gastroenterology & hepatology, 19(6):319-328.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and is common in the community. Both younger individuals who may be healthy otherwise and older individuals with comorbid conditions are at risk for developing CDI, with the predominant risk factor being antibiotic use. Unlike other gastrointestinal infections, CDI is not self-limited, requires antimicrobial therapy, and tends to recur at high rates even without additional risk factor exposure. The goals of CDI management include controlling active symptoms and using a recurrence prevention strategy such as a narrow-spectrum antibiotic, tapered and pulsed regimens, antibody- based therapies (directed against toxin B), or microbiome restoration. In recent years, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been the most used modality to prevent recurrent CDI with high cure rates. Heterogeneity, lack of scalability, and serious adverse events from FMT have led to development of standardized microbiota restoration therapies (MRTs). The US Food and Drug Administration has approved 2 stool-derived MRTs for prevention of recurrent CDI: fecal microbiota, live-jslm, an enema-based therapy; and fecal microbiota spores, live-brpk, an oral therapy. A phase 3 trial for a synthetic oral MRT is underway. This article outlines the pathophysiology and treatment of CDI, focusing primarily on the gut microbiome and standardized MRTs.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Guillot N, Roméo B, Manesh SS, et al (2023)

Manipulating the gut and tumor microbiota for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy: from dream to reality.

Trends in molecular medicine pii:S1471-4914(23)00189-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The past decade has witnessed a revolution in cancer treatment by shifting from conventional therapies to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). These immunotherapies unleash the host immune system against the tumor and have achieved unprecedented durable remission. However, 80% of patients do not respond. This review discusses how bacteria are unexpected drivers that reprogram tumor immunity. Manipulating the microbiota impacts on tumor development and reprograms the tumor microenvironment (TME) of mice on immunotherapy. We anticipate that harnessing commensals and the tumor microbiome holds promise to identify patients who will benefit from immunotherapy and guide the choice of new ICI combinations to advance treatment efficacy.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Gou H, Su H, Liu D, et al (2023)

Traditional Medicine Pien Tze Huang Suppresses Colorectal Tumorigenesis through Restoring Gut Microbiota and Metabolites.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(23)04982-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pien-Tze-Huang (PZH) is a well-established Traditional Medicine with beneficial effects against inflammation and cancer. We aim to explore the chemopreventive effect of PZH in colorectal cancer (CRC) through modulating gut microbiota.

METHODS: CRC mouse models were established by azoxymethane plus dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) treatment or in Apc[min/+] mice, treated with or without PZH (270 and 540mg/kg). Gut barrier function was determined by intestinal permeability assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fecal microbiota and metabolites were respectively analyzed by metagenomic sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Germ-free mice or antibiotic-treated mice were used as models of microbiota depletion.

RESULTS: PZH inhibited colorectal tumorigenesis in AOM/DSS treated mice and in Apc[min/+] mice in a dose-dependent manner. PZH treatment altered the gut microbiota profile, with an increased abundance of probiotics Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans and Eubacterium limosum, while pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas veronii, Campylobacter jejuni, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Peptoniphilus harei were depleted. Additionally, PZH increased beneficial metabolites taurine and hypotaurine, bile acids, and unsaturated fatty acids and significantly restored gut barrier function. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that PZH inhibited PI3K-Akt, IL-17, TNF, and Cytokine-Chemokine signaling. Notably, the chemopreventive effect of PZH involved both microbiota-dependent and independent mechanisms. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from PZH-treated mice to germ-free mice partly recapitulated the chemopreventive effects of PZH. PZH components Ginsenoside-F2 and Ginsenoside-Re demonstrated inhibitory effects on CRC cells and primary organoids, and PZH also inhibited tumorigenesis in AOM/DSS-treated germ-free mice.

CONCLUSION: PZH manipulated gut microbiota and metabolites toward a more favorable profile, improves gut barrier function, and suppresses oncogenic and pro-inflammatory pathways, thereby suppressing colorectal carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Subramaniam S, Fares-Gusmao R, Sato S, et al (2023)

Distinct disease features of acute and persistent genotype 3 hepatitis E virus infection in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed Mongolian gerbils.

PLoS pathogens, 19(9):e1011664 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-23-00588 [Epub ahead of print].

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes self-limited acute hepatitis in immunocompetent individuals and can establish chronic infection in solid organ transplant recipients taking immunosuppressive drugs. A well characterized small animal model is needed to understand HEV pathogenesis. In this study, we established a robust model to study acute and persistent HEV infection using Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with or without immunosuppression. Gerbils were implanted subcutaneously with continuous release tacrolimus pellet to induce immunosuppression. Gerbils with or without tacrolimus treatment were inoculated with HEV intraperitoneally. Viremia, fecal virus shedding, serum antibody and ALT levels, liver histopathological lesions, hepatocyte apoptosis, and liver macrophage distribution were assessed. Mild to moderate self-limited hepatitis and IgM and IgG antibody responses against HEV ORF2 were observed in immunocompetent gerbils. Levels of HEV-specific IgM responses were higher and lasted longer in immunocompetent gerbils with higher peak viremia. Persistent viremia and fecal virus shedding with either weak, or absent HEV antibody levels were seen in immunosuppressed gerbils. Following HEV infection, serum ALT levels were increased, with lower and delayed peaks observed in immunosuppressed compared to immunocompetent gerbils. In immunocompetent gerbils, foci of apoptotic hepatocytes were detected that were distributed with inflammatory infiltrates containing CD68+ macrophages. However, these foci were absent in immunosuppressed gerbils. The immunosuppressed gerbils showed no inflammation with no increase in CD68+ macrophages despite high virus replication in liver. Our findings suggest adaptive immune responses are necessary for inducing hepatocyte apoptosis, CD68+ macrophage recruitment, and inflammatory cell infiltration in response to HEV infection. Our studies show that Mongolian gerbils provide a promising model to study pathogenesis during acute and persistent HEV infection.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Sepordeh S, Jafari AM, Bazzaz S, et al (2023)

Postbiotic as Novel Alternative Agent or Adjuvant for the Common Antibiotic Utilized in the Food Industry.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology pii:CPB-EPUB-134454 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a serious public health problem as it causes previously manageable diseases to become deadly infections that can cause serious disability or even death. Scientists are creating novel approaches and procedures that are essential for the treatment of infections and limiting the improper use of antibiotics in an effort to counter this rising risk.

OBJECTIVE: With a focus on the numerous postbiotic metabolites formed from the beneficial gut microorganisms, their potential antimicrobial actions, and recent associated advancements in the food and medical areas, this review presents an overview of the emerging ways to prevent antibiotic resistance.

RESULTS: Presently, scientific literature confirms that plant-derived antimicrobials, RNA therapy, fecal microbiota transplantation, vaccines, nanoantibiotics, haemofiltration, predatory bacteria, immunotherapeutics, quorum-sensing inhibitors, phage therapies, and probiotics can be considered natural and efficient antibiotic alternative candidates. The investigations on appropriate probiotic strains have led to the characterization of specific metabolic byproducts of probiotics named postbiotics. Based on preclinical and clinical studies, postbiotics with their unique characteristics in terms of clinical (safe origin, without the potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes, unique and multiple antimicrobial action mechanisms), technological (stability and feasibility of large-scale production), and economic (low production costs) aspects can be used as a novel alternative agent or adjuvant for the common antibiotics utilized in the production of animal-based foods.

CONCLUSION: Postbiotic constituents may be a new approach for utilization in the pharmaceutical and food sectors for developing therapeutic treatments. Further metabolomics investigations are required to describe novel postbiotics and clinical trials are also required to define the sufficient dose and optimum administration frequency of postbiotics.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Yuan Q, Sun L, Ma G, et al (2023)

Alterations of the gut microbial community structure modulates the Th17 cells response in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest.

Biochemistry and biophysics reports, 35:101543.

Th17 cells triggered inflammation is a critical element in cerebral ischemic injury, and the gut microbiota intricately impacts T lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the gut microbiota involves in cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) induced-brain injury through Th17 cells. The present study investigated the interaction between gut microbiota and Th17 cells in a rat model. We observed that CA/CPR induced the alterations of the gut microbial community structure, and elevated the level of IL-17 in the serum, and a slight infiltration of Th17 cells into the brain. The Th17 cells were increased significantly in the peripheral blood, 28.33 ± 6.18% of these Th17 cells were derived from the Peyer's patches of small intestine. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from rats with CA/CPR induced Th17 cell response, promoting hippocampal cell apoptosis and declining learning ability and memory in recipient rats. Taken together, CA/CPR-induced alterations of the gut microbial community structure stimulated Th17 cell response which aggravated brain injury.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Wortelboer K, de Jonge PA, Scheithauer TPM, et al (2023)

Phage-microbe dynamics after sterile faecal filtrate transplantation in individuals with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessing efficacy and safety.

Nature communications, 14(1):5600.

Bacteriophages (phages) are bacterial viruses that have been shown to shape microbial communities. Previous studies have shown that faecal virome transplantation can decrease weight gain and normalize blood glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Therefore, we performed a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study in which 24 individuals with metabolic syndrome were randomised to a faecal filtrate transplantation (FFT) from a lean healthy donor (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12). The primary outcome, change in glucose metabolism, and secondary outcomes, safety and longitudinal changes within the intestinal bacteriome and phageome, were assessed from baseline up to 28 days. All 24 included subjects completed the study and are included in the analyses. While the overall changes in glucose metabolism are not significantly different between both groups, the FFT is well-tolerated and without any serious adverse events. The phage virion composition is significantly altered two days after FFT as compared to placebo, which coincides with more virulent phage-microbe interactions. In conclusion, we provide evidence that gut phages can be safely administered to transiently alter the gut microbiota of recipients.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Zuo T, Liang G, Huang Z, et al (2023)

Baseline gut microbiome features prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with host symptoms in and post COVID-19.

Journal of medical virology, 95(9):e29083.

The human gut microbiome varies substantially across individuals and populations and differentially tames our immunity at steady-state. Hence, we hypothesize that the large heterogeneity of gut microbiomes at steady-state may shape our baseline immunity differentially, and then mediate discrepant immune responses and symptoms when one encounters a viral infection, such as SARS-CoV-2 infection. To validate this hypothesis, we conducted an exploratory, longitudinal microbiome-COVID-19 study involving homogenous young participants from two geographically different regions in China. Subjects were recruited and sampled of fecal specimens before the 3-week surge window of COVID-19 (between December 11 and December 31, 2022) in China, and then were followed up for assessment of COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 manifestations. Our data showed that the baseline gut microbiome composition was intricately associated with different COVID-19 manifestations, particularly gastrointestinal involvement and post-COVID-19 lingering symptoms, in both an individual- and population-dependent manner. Our study intriguingly for the first time highlight that the gut microbiome at steady-state may prepare us differentially for weathering a respiratory viral infection.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Ramos Maia DR, Otsuki DA, Rodrigues CE, et al (2023)


Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 60(3):469-477.

Background: Approximately 50% of patients with sepsis develop acute kidney injury (AKI), which is predictive of poor outcomes, with mortality rates of up to 70%. The endothelium is a major target for treatments aimed at preventing the complications of sepsis. We hypothesized that human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) could attenuate tubular and endothelial injury in a porcine model of sepsis-induced AKI. Methods: Anesthetized pigs were induced to fecal peritonitis, resulting in septic shock, and were randomized to treatment with fluids, vasopressors, and antibiotics (sepsis group; n = 11) or to that same treatment plus infusion of 1 × 10 6 cells/kg of hUC-MSCs (sepsis+MSC group; n = 11). Results: At 24 h after sepsis induction, changes in serum creatinine and mean arterial pressure were comparable between the two groups, as was mortality. However, the sepsis+MSC group showed some significant differences in comparison with the sepsis group: lower fractional excretions of sodium and potassium; greater epithelial sodium channel protein expression; and lower protein expression of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter and aquaporin 2 in the renal medulla. Expression of P-selectin, thrombomodulin, and vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly lower in the sepsis+MSC group than in the sepsis group, whereas that of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was lower in the former. Conclusion: Treatment with hUC-MSCs seems to protect endothelial and tubular cells in sepsis-induced AKI, possibly via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, it might be an effective treatment for sepsis-induced AKI.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Zeng X, Li J, Shan W, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota of old mice worsens neurological outcome after brain ischemia via increased valeric acid and IL-17 in the blood.

Microbiome, 11(1):204.

BACKGROUND: Aging is a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke and worsens its outcome. However, the mechanisms for this worsened neurological outcome with aging are not clearly defined.

RESULTS: Old C57BL/6J male mice (18 to 20 months old) had a poorer neurological outcome and more severe inflammation after transient focal brain ischemia than 8-week-old C57BL/6J male mice (young mice). Young mice with transplantation of old mouse gut microbiota had a worse neurological outcome, poorer survival curve, and more severe inflammation than young mice receiving young mouse gut microbiota transplantation. Old mice and young mice transplanted with old mouse gut microbiota had an increased level of blood valeric acid. Valeric acid worsened neurological outcome and heightened inflammatory response including blood interleukin-17 levels after brain ischemia. The increase of interleukin-17 caused by valeric acid was inhibited by a free fatty acid receptor 2 antagonist. Neutralizing interleukin-17 in the blood by its antibody improved neurological outcome and attenuated inflammatory response in mice with brain ischemia and receiving valeric acid. Old mice transplanted with young mouse feces had less body weight loss and better survival curve after brain ischemia than old mice transplanted with old mouse feces or old mice without fecal transplantation.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the gut microbiota-valeric acid-interleukin-17 pathway contributes to the aging-related changes in the outcome after focal brain ischemia and response to stimulus. Valeric acid may activate free fatty acid receptor 2 to increase interleukin-17.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Del Chierico F, Cardile S, Baldelli V, et al (2023)

Characterization of the Gut Microbiota and Mycobiota in Italian Pediatric Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:7269133 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, fibroinflammatory, cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiopathogenesis, often associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. Recent evidence ascribes, together with immunologic and environmental components, a significant role to the intestinal microbiota or its molecules in the PSC pathogenesis.

METHODS: By metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS2 loci, we describe the fecal microbiota and mycobiota of 26 pediatric patients affected by PSC and concomitant ulcerative colitis (PSC-UC), 27 patients without PSC but with UC (UC), and 26 healthy subjects (CTRLs).

RESULTS: Compared with CTRL, the bacterial and fungal gut dysbiosis was evident for both PSC-UC and UC groups; in particular, Streptococcus, Saccharomyces, Sporobolomyces, Tilletiopsis, and Debaryomyces appeared increased in PSC-UC, whereas Klebsiella, Haemophilus, Enterococcus Collinsella, Piptoporus, Candida, and Hyphodontia in UC. In both patient groups, Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Meyerozyma and Malassezia were decreased. Co-occurrence analysis evidenced the lowest number of nodes and edges for fungi networks compared with bacteria. Finally, we identified a specific patient profile, based on liver function tests, bacterial and fungal signatures, that is able to distinguish PSC-UC from UC patients.

CONCLUSIONS: We describe the gut microbiota and mycobiota dysbiosis associated to PSC-UC disease. Our results evidenced a gut imbalance, with the reduction of gut commensal microorganisms with stated anti-inflammatory properties (ie, Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Meyerozyma, and Malassezia) and the increase of pathobionts (ie, Streptococcus, Saccharomyces, and Debaryomyces) that could be involved in PSC progression. Altogether, these events may concur in the pathophysiology of PSC in the framework of UC.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Gao T, Zhang H, Li Q, et al (2023)

Fuzi decoction treats chronic heart failure by regulating the gut microbiota, increasing the short-chain fatty acid levels and improving metabolic disorders.

Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 236:115693 pii:S0731-7085(23)00462-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Fuzi decoction (FZD) is clinically used to treat chronic heart failure (CHF) in China, but the mechanism underlying FZD treatment in CHF remains unclear. Here, we investigated the potential mechanism underlying FZD treatment of CHF in rats. First, the compounds in FZD-containing serum of rats were identified, and 16 S rRNA sequencing and GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics analysis were then performed. The levels of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were determined and compared, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to verify the role of the gut microbiota. Our results identified 27 in FD-containing serum. FZD increased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and the Lactobacillus abundance and affected the β diversity of the gut microbiota in rats with CHF. Differential species analysis showed that Lactobacillus and Prevotella were biomarkers of FZD treatment of CHF. Untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that FZD affected valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis; galactose metabolism; and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis in rats with CHF. Furthermore, FZD significantly increased the acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and isopentanoic acid levels in the feces of rats with CHF. Correlation analysis showed that the butyric acid and Lactobacillus levels had the strongest correlation in the control, sham and high-dose FZD (HFZD) groups, and many microbiota components were closely related to differentially abundant metabolites. FMT revealed that the fecal microbiota obtained from the HFZD group changed the heart rate; the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and metabolite levels; and the gut microbiota in rats with CHF. In summary, our study revealed that the mechanism of action of FZD in CHF treatment may be related to improvements in the gut microbiota, elevations in the SCFA content and the regulation of valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis; galactose metabolism; and other metabolic pathways.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Bubeck AM, Urbain P, Horn C, et al (2023)

High-fat diet impact on intestinal cholesterol conversion by the microbiota and serum cholesterol levels.

iScience, 26(9):107697 pii:S2589-0042(23)01774-1.

Cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion by the intestinal microbiota has been suggested to reduce intestinal and serum cholesterol availability, but the relationship between intestinal cholesterol conversion and the gut microbiota, dietary habits, and serum lipids has not been characterized in detail. We measured conserved proportions of cholesterol high and low-converter types in individuals with and without obesity from two distinct, independent low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) dietary intervention studies. Across both cohorts, cholesterol conversion increased in previous low-converters after LCHF diet and was positively correlated with the fecal relative abundance of Eubacterium coprostanoligenes. Lean cholesterol high-converters had increased serum triacylglycerides and decreased HDL-C levels before LCHF diet and responded to the intervention with increased LDL-C, independently of fat, cholesterol, and saturated fatty acid intake. Our findings identify the cholesterol high-converter type as a microbiome marker, which in metabolically healthy lean individuals is associated with increased LDL-C in response to LCHF.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Negi S, S Pahari (2023)

Editorial: Gut microbiota as a weapon against infections.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1277517.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Wang B, Hu W, Zhang X, et al (2023)

Sarcopenia and gut microbiota alterations in patients with hematological diseases before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Chinese journal of cancer research = Chung-kuo yen cheng yen chiu, 35(4):386-398.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia (SP) and its relationship with gut microbiota alterations in patients with hematological diseases before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

METHODS: A total of 108 patients with various hematological disorders were selected from Peking University People's Hospital. SP was screened and diagnosed based on the 2019 Asian Sarcopenia Diagnosis Strategy. Physical measurements and fecal samples were collected, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted. Alpha and beta diversity analyses were performed to evaluate gut microbiota composition and diversity.

RESULTS: After HSCT, significant decreases in calf circumference and body mass index (BMI) were observed, accompanied by a decline in physical function. Gut microbiota analyses revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Blautia and Dorea species before and after HSCT (P<0.05). Before HSCT, sarcopenic patients had lower Dorea levels and higher Phascolarctobacterium levels than non-sarcopenia patients (P<0.01). After HSCT, no significant differences in species abundance were observed. Alpha diversity analysis showed significant differences in species diversity among the groups, with the highest diversity in the post-HSCT 90-day group and the lowest in the post-HSCT 30-day group. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences in species composition between pre- and post-HSCT time points but not between SP groups. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) identified Alistipes, Rikenellaceae, Alistipes putredinis, Prevotellaceae defectiva and Blautia coccoides as biomarkers for the pre-HSCT sarcopenia group. Functional predictions showed significant differences in anaerobic, biofilm-forming and oxidative stress-tolerant functions among the groups (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a significant decline in physical function after HSCT and identified potential gut microbiota biomarkers and functional alterations associated with SP in patients with hematological disorders. Further research is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Malik A, MI Malik (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Gastroenterology research, 16(4):209-216.

BACKGROUND: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection suffer from alterations in gut microbiota due to recurrent gastrointestinal infections and systemic inflammation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be a potential therapy; however, there are concerns about its safety. Likewise, no previous meta-analysis evaluated FMT efficacy in HIV-infected patients.

METHODS: We conducted a thorough electronic search on PubMed, Scopus, OVID, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL for clinical studies assessing the safety and efficacy of FMT in patients with HIV and gastrointestinal dysbiosis, where FMT was indicated to restore the disrupted microbiota.

RESULTS: FMT significantly restored the typical microbiome in patients with Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and non-C. difficile and reduced the risk of gastrointestinal infections in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (odds ratio (OR) = 0.774, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.62, 0.966)). Furthermore, adverse events, such as distention and bloating, associated with FMT were comparable between HIV and health controls (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: (0.07, 4.6)), with no statistical difference.

CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence demonstrated that FMT is safe and effective in HIV patients suffering from alterations in gut microbiota. We recommend further multi-centric clinical studies to address the optimal transplant amount and source for FMT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of FMT in patients with HIV.

RevDate: 2023-09-10

Liu X, Liu M, Zhao M, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for the management of autoimmune diseases: Potential mechanisms and challenges.

Journal of autoimmunity pii:S0896-8411(23)00118-X [Epub ahead of print].

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are a series of immune-mediated lethal diseases featured by over-activated immune cells attacking healthy self-tissues and organs due to the loss of immune tolerance, which always causes severe irreversible systematical organ damage and threatens human health heavily. To date, there are still no definitive cures for the treatment of AIDs due to their pathogenesis has not been clearly understood. Besides, the current clinical treatments of AIDs majorly rely on glucocorticoids and immune suppressors, which can lead to serious side effects. In the past years, there are increasing studies demonstrating that an imbalance of gut microbiota is intimately related to the pathogenesis of various AIDs, shedding light on the development of therapeutics by targeting the gut microbiota for the management of AIDs. Among all the approaches targeting the gut microbiota, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has attracted increasing interest, and it has been proposed as a possible strategy to intervene in the homeostasis of gut microbiota for the treatment of various diseases. However, despite the reported good curative effects and clinical studies conducted on FMT, the detailed mechanisms of FMT for the effective treatment of those diseases have not been figured out. To fully understand the mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of FMT on AIDs and improve the therapeutic efficacy of FMT treatment, a systematic review of this topic is necessary. Hence, in this review paper, the potential mechanisms of FMT for the treatment of various AIDs were summarized, including promotion, shaping, activation, or inhibition of the host immune system via the interactions between the microorganisms and the gut immune system, gut-brain, gut-liver, gut-kidney axis, and so on. Then, applications of FMT for the treatment of various AIDs were detailed presented. Finally, the current challenges and potential solutions for the development of FMT formulations and FMT therapeutics were comprehensively discussed.

RevDate: 2023-09-10

Borrego-Ruiz A, JJ Borrego (2023)

An updated overview on the relationship between human gut microbiome dysbiosis and psychiatric and psychological disorders.

Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry pii:S0278-5846(23)00147-1 [Epub ahead of print].

There is a lot of evidence establishing that nervous system development is related to the composition and functions of the gut microbiome. In addition, the central nervous system (CNS) controls the imbalance of the intestinal microbiota, constituting a bidirectional communication system. At present, various gut-brain crosstalk routes have been described, including immune, endocrine and neural circuits via the vagal pathway. Several empirical data have associated gut microbiota alterations (dysbiosis) with neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, autism and Parkinson's disease, and with other psychological disorders like anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunctions. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) therapy has shown that the gut microbiota can transfer behavioral features to recipient animals, which provides strong evidence to establish a causal-effect relationship. Interventions, based on prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, have demonstrated an important influence of microbiota on neurological disorders by both the synthesis of neuroactive compounds that interact with the nervous system and by the regulation of inflammatory and endocrine processes. Further research is needed to demonstrate the influence of gut microbiota dysbiosis on psychiatric and psychological disorders, and how microbiota-based interventions may be used as potential therapeutic tools.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Liu J, Peng F, Cheng H, et al (2023)

Chronic cold environment regulates rheumatoid arthritis through modulation of gut microbiota-derived bile acids.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05462-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The pathologies of many diseases are influenced by environmental temperature. As early as the classical Roman age, people believed that exposure to cold weather was bad for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there is no direct evidence supporting this notion, and the molecular mechanisms of the effects of chronic cold exposure on RA remain unknown. Here, in a temperature-conditioned environment, we found that chronic cold exposure aggravates collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by increasing ankle swelling, bone erosion, and cytokine levels in rats. Furthermore, in chronic cold-exposed CIA rats, gut microbiota dysbiosis was identified, including a decrease in the differential relative abundance of the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. We also found that an antibiotic cocktail suppressed arthritis severity under cold conditions. Notably, the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) results showed that transplantation of cold-adapted microbiota partly recapitulated the microbiota signature in the respective donor rats and phenocopied the cold-induced effects on CIA rats. In addition, cold exposure disturbed bile acid profiles, in particular decreasing gut microbiota-derived taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) levels. The perturbation of bile acids was also associated with activation of the TGR5-cAMP-PKA axis and NLRP3 inflammasome. Oral THDCA supplementation mitigated the arthritis exacerbation induced by chronic cold exposure. Our findings identify an important role of aberrant gut microbiota-derived bile acids in cold exposure-related RA, highlighting potential opportunities to treat cold-related RA by manipulating the gut microbiota and/or supplementing with THDCA.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Chen J, Deng LL, Xiao XL, et al (2023)

An Association between Decreased Small Intestinal RNA Modification and Disturbed Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Secretion under High-Fat Diet Stress.

Nutrients, 15(17): pii:nu15173707.

Unhealthy diets rich in fats and/or sugar are considered as the major external cause of the obesity epidemic, which is often accompanied by a significant decrease in gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) levels. Numerous studies have demonstrated notable contributions of the gut microbiota in this process. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism still needs further investigation. The role of epigenetic modifications in gene expression and metabolism has been well demonstrated, with m6A methylation on RNAs being the most prevalent modification throughout their metabolism. In the present study, we found that the expressions of small intestinal Gcg and Pc3, two key genes regulating GLP1 expression, were significantly downregulated in obese mice, associated with reduced GLP1 level. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that a high-fat diet slightly increased the density of enteroendocrine L cells in the small intestine, implying that decreased GLP1 levels were not caused by the changes in L cell intensity. Instead, the small intestinal m6A level as well as the expression of known "writers", mettl3/14 and wtap, were found to be positively correlated with the expression of Gcg and Pc3. Fecal microbiota transplantation with feces from normal and obese mice daily to antibiotic-treated mice revealed that dysbiosis in diet-induced obesity was sufficient to reduce serum GLP1, small intestinal m6A level, and intestinal expressions of Gcg, Pc3, and writer genes (mettl3/14, wtap). However, as the most direct and universal methyl donor, the production of fecal S-adenosylmethionine was neither affected by the different dietary patterns nor their shaped microbiota. These results suggested that microbial modulation of the epitranscriptome may be involved in regulating GLP1 expression, and highlighted epitranscriptomic modifications as an additional level of interaction between diet and individual health.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Campagnoli LIM, Varesi A, Barbieri A, et al (2023)

Targeting the Gut-Eye Axis: An Emerging Strategy to Face Ocular Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(17): pii:ijms241713338.

The human microbiota refers to a large variety of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) that live in different human body sites, including the gut, oral cavity, skin, and eyes. In particular, the presence of an ocular surface microbiota with a crucial role in maintaining ocular surface homeostasis by preventing colonization from pathogen species has been recently demonstrated. Moreover, recent studies underline a potential association between gut microbiota (GM) and ocular health. In this respect, some evidence supports the existence of a gut-eye axis involved in the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, dry eye, and glaucoma. Therefore, understanding the link between the GM and these ocular disorders might be useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches, such as probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, or faecal microbiota transplantation through which the GM could be modulated, thus allowing better management of these diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Uceda S, Echeverry-Alzate V, Reiriz-Rojas M, et al (2023)

Gut Microbial Metabolome and Dysbiosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Psychobiotics and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation as a Therapeutic Approach-A Comprehensive Narrative Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(17): pii:ijms241713294.

The comprehensive narrative review conducted in this study delves into the mechanisms of communication and action at the molecular level in the human organism. The review addresses the complex mechanism involved in the microbiota-gut-brain axis as well as the implications of alterations in the microbial composition of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases with neuronal loss or death is analyzed, as well as the mechanisms of action of the main metabolites involved in the bidirectional communication through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In addition, interventions targeting gut microbiota restructuring through fecal microbiota transplantation and the use of psychobiotics-pre- and pro-biotics-are evaluated as an opportunity to reduce the symptomatology associated with neurodegeneration in these pathologies. This review provides valuable information and facilitates a better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms to be addressed in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-08

Wu X, Ai R, Xu J, et al (2023)

Washed microbiota transplantation for Clostridioides difficile infection: a national multi-center real-world study.

Journal of digestive diseases [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIM: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been recommended for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT), a new method of FMT, for CDI across various medical settings.

METHODS: This real-world cohort study included CDI patients from multiple centers who underwent WMT. The primary outcome was the clinical cure rate of CDI within 8-week post-WMT. Secondary outcomes included the reduction in total abdominal symptom score (TASS), CDI recurrence rate, and safety during follow-up period.

RESULTS: Overall, 90.7% (49/54) of patients achieved clinical cure within 8-week post-WMT. The cure rate for severe and complicated CDI (ScCDI) (n = 30) was 83.3%, and it reached 100% for non-ScCDI (n = 24, p = 0.059). No difference was observed in the clinical cure rate between patients with primary CDI and recurrent CDI (91.89% vs. 88.23%, p = 0.645). One-week post-WMT, the TASS showed a remarkable decrease compared to that before WMT (p < 0.001). 8.16% of patients (4/49) suffered CDI recurrence during follow-up. A WHO performance score of 4, age ≥ 65, higher TASS score, and higher Charlson comorbidity index score (p = 0.018, 0.03, 0.01, 0.034, respectively) were potential risk factors for efficacy. Four transient adverse events related to WMT (3.8%, 4/105) were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the attractive value of WMT for CDI. Early WMT might be a recommendation for CDI, especially for those in serious condition or with complex comorbidities for decreasing deterioration, medical costs, and pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Zhang Z, Ye J, Liu X, et al (2023)

Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction alleviates oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy via the gut-peripheral nerve axis.

Chinese medicine, 18(1):114.

BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN) limits the dose of chemotherapy and seriously affects the quality of life. Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Decoction (HGWD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula for the prevention of OIPN. However, its specific pharmacological mechanism of action remains unknown. Our study found that HGWD can effectively alleviate chronic OIPN and regulate intestinal flora. Therefore, we explored the mechanism of action of HGWD in alleviating chronic OIPN from the perspective of intestinal flora.

METHODS: In this study, we established an OIPN model in C57BL/6 mice treated with different concentrations of HGWD. Mechanical pain and cold pain were assessed at certain time points, and samples of mice colon, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), serum, and feces were collected. Associated inflammation levels in the colon and DRG were detected using immunohistochemical techniques; the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and associated inflammation were assessed using the appropriate kits; and 16S rRNA sequencing was used to examine the dynamic changes in gut microorganisms. Finally, established fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and antibiotic (ABX) pretreatment models were used to validate flora's role in HGWD for chronic OIPN by pain scoring and related pathological analysis.

RESULTS: HGWD treatment significantly alleviated pain sensitivity in chronic OIPN mice. Pathological results showed that HGWD treatment improved intestinal ZO-1 expression and reduced serum LPS levels and associated inflammatory factors in the colon, serum, and DRG. The 16S rRNA results showed that HGWD restored the composition of the intestinal flora in a time-dependent manner to alleviate OIPN. FMT and ABX experiments demonstrated that HGWD can alleviate chronic OIPN by regulating intestinal flora homeostasis.

CONCLUSIONS: HGWD prevents chronic OIPN by dynamically regulating intestinal flora homeostasis, thereby ameliorating intestinal barrier damage and reducing serum LPS and relevant inflammatory factor levels in the colon, serum, and DRG.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Zhou Z, Zhang Y, Liu M, et al (2023)

[Influence of different fecal microbiota transplantation cycles on the recovery of intestinal microbiota in the antibiotic cocktail-pretreated mice].

Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research, 52(4):585-590.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of different transplantation frequencies and time of fecal microbiota transplantation on mice.

METHODS: Twenty-four C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, fecal microbiota transplantation group 1(FMT1), fecal microbiota transplantation group 2(FMT2), and fecal microbiota transplantation group 3(FMT3). The control group was used as the donor of fecal microbiota transplantation, and the FMT1, FMT2, and FMT3 groups were intervened with mixed antibiotics(200 μL/d) for 2 weeks, and received fecal bacterial suspension(200 μL/d). The transplantation time of the FMT1 group frequency was 1 time/d for 1 weeks, the FMT2 group was 1 time/d for 2 weeks, and the FMT3 group was 3 times/week for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the feces of the mice were collected to analyze the gut microbiota.

RESULTS: Compared with the control group, there were more independent Amplicon Sequence Variants in the intestinal microbiota of mice in FMT1 group, FMT2 group and FMT3 group, and the ACE index and Chao1 index were significantly reduced(P<0.05). Beta diversity showed differences between fecal microbiota transplantation and control groups, with FMT2 and control groups being the closest. At the phylum level, there were two species in FMT1 group and one species in FMT3 group showed statistically significant differences compared with control group(P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the FMT2 group and the control group. At the genus level, there were 6 species in the FMT1 with statistically significant differences from the control group(P<0.05), and 2 species in the FMT2, 5 species in the FMT3 respectively. Among which FMT2 group has the least number of species that differed from the control group, suggesting that the compitsition of its intestinal microbiota is closet to that of the control group.

CONCLUSION: Fecal bacteria transplantation helps to restore the intestinal microbiota structure of mice cleaned by antibiotics, and different transplantation frequencies and transplantation times have different recovery effects on the intestinal microbiota of mice pretreated with antibiotics, and the fecal bacteria transplantation effect is better with 1 time/d lasting 2 weeks.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Meng Y, Sun J, G Zhang (2023)

Pick fecal microbiota transplantation to enhance therapy for major depressive disorder.

Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry pii:S0278-5846(23)00146-X [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a promising therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of the operation is to restore a healthy gut microbiota by introducing feces from a healthy donor into the recipient's digestive system. The brain-gut axis is thought to have a significant role in regulating mood, behavior, and cognition, which supports the use of FMT in the treatment of MDD. Numerous studies have shown a correlation between abnormalities of the gut microbiota and MDD, whereas FMT has demonstrated the potential to restore microbial equilibrium. While FMT has shown encouraging results, it is crucial to highlight the potential hazards and limits inherent to this therapeutic approach. Stool donor-to-recipient disease transfer is a concern of FMT. Furthermore, it still needs to be determined what effect FMT has on the gut microbiota and the brain in the long run. This literature review provides an overview of the possible efficacy of FMT as a therapeutic modality for MDD. There is hope for patients who have not reacted well to typical antidepressant therapy since FMT may become an invaluable tool in the treatment of MDD as researchers continue to examine the relationship between gut microbiota and MDD.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Baker KA, C Poole (2023)

Current and Emerging Applications of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

The American journal of nursing, Published Ahead of Print: pii:00000446-990000000-00028 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a life-changing treatment for people with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). Frequently acquired in the hospital, CDI can cause serious gastrointestinal symptoms, including persistent watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and severe dehydration. Antibiotics, the primary treatment, can unfortunately disrupt the gut microbiome and lead to antimicrobial resistance. FMT involves introducing stool from a healthy donor into the affected recipient to strengthen their compromised microbiome. Individuals receiving this treatment have reported remarkable improvement in clinical outcomes and quality of life. In addition to a discussion of rCDI within the context of the gastrointestinal microbiome, this article provides an overview of the FMT procedure, discusses nursing management of individuals undergoing FMT, and highlights emerging applications beyond rCDI. A case scenario is also provided to illustrate a typical trajectory for a patient undergoing FMT.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Gao T, Li Y, Wang X, et al (2023)

Bifidobacterium longum 68S mediated gut-skin axis homeostasis improved skin barrier damage in aging mice.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 120:155051 pii:S0944-7113(23)00412-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium as probiotics, play important roles in skin status, while the potential mechanisms interaction remains unknown. The study further explored the potential mechanism of B. longum 68S in ameliorating skin barrier damage from the perspective of the gut-skin axis in aging mice.

METHODS: B. longum 68S supplied natural aging mouse model and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment proves the key role of intestinal microbiota in B. longum 68S up-regulating the production of ceramide synthesis key enzyme (SPT1) and ceramide level and improving skin barrier damage. Moreover, B. longum 68S supplied SPT1 gene deletion mouse model to investigate the mechanism of B. longum 68S on improving skin barrier damage.

RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis and 16S rRNA high-throughput pyrosequencing demonstrated that aging mice exhibited skin barrier dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis. Meanwhile, aging mice exhibited an up-regulation in the trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and a down-regulation in the level of SPT1, ceramide and skin barrier-related proteins (Loricrin, Keratin 10 and Desmoglein 1). Similarity, the FMT from aging mice to normal mice and SPT1 gene deletion mice could rebuild skin barrier damage and B. longum 68S supplementation exerted a positive effect on it. Further, B. longum 68S-mediated SPT1-derived ceramide production prevented impaired ceramide synthesis-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic response, ultimately improving skin barrier damage in vitro.

CONCLUSION: Emerging anti-aging therapies are necessary given the poor safety profiles of current pharmaceutical drugs. B. longum 68S may be better alternatives, considering the association between the gut microbiota and healthy aging. The findings suggested that B. longum 68S-mediated gut-skin axis homeostasis, thereby exhibiting an anti-aging effect and facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the various beneficial effects of B. longum 68S.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Wang J, Guo X, Zou Z, et al (2023)

Ootheca mantidis mitigates renal fibrosis in mice by the suppression of apoptosis via increasing the gut microbe Akkermansia muciniphila and modulating glutamine metabolism.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 166:115434 pii:S0753-3322(23)01232-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF), a progressive process affecting the kidneys in chronic kidney disease (CKD), currently lacks an effective therapeutic intervention. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown promise in reducing RIF and slowing CKD progression. In this study, we demonstrated the dose-dependent attenuation of RIF by Ootheca mantidis (SPX), a commonly prescribed TCM for CKD, in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). RNA-sequencing analysis suggested that SPX treatment prominently downregulated apoptosis and inflammation-associated pathways, thereby inhibiting the fibrogenic signaling in the kidney. We further found that transplantation of fecal microbiota from SPX-treated mice conferred protection against renal injury and fibrosis through suppressing apoptosis in UUO mice, indicating that SPX ameliorated RIF via remodeling the gut microbiota and reducing apoptosis in the kidneys. Further functional exploration of the gut microbiota combined with fecal metabolomics revealed increased levels of some probiotics, including Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila), and modulations in glutamine-related amino acid metabolism in UUO mice treated with SPX. Subsequent colonization of A. muciniphila and supplementation with glutamine effectively mitigated cell apoptosis and RIF in UUO mice. Collectively, these findings unveil a functionally A. muciniphila- and glutamine-involved gut-renal axis that contributes to the action of SPX, and provide important clue for the therapeutic potential of SPX, A. muciniphila, and glutamine in combatting RIF.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Wang G, Jiang Z, Song Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota contribution to selenium deficiency-induced gut-liver inflammation.

BioFactors (Oxford, England) [Epub ahead of print].

There is limited knowledge about the factors that drive gut-liver axis changes after selenium (Se) deficiency-induced gut or liver injuries. Thus, we tested Se deficiency in mice to determine its effects on intestinal bacterial balance and whether it induced liver injury. Serum Se concentration, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, and liver injury biomarkers were tested using a biochemical method, while pathological changes in the liver and jejunum were observed via hematoxylin and eosin stain, and a fluorescence spectrophotometer was used to evaluate intestinal permeability. Tight junction (TJ)-related and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling-related pathway genes and proteins were tested using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene-targeted sequencing of jejunum microorganisms. Se deficiency significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and disrupted the intestinal flora, with the most significant effect being a decrease in Lactobacillus reuteri. The expression of TJ-related genes and proteins decreased significantly with increased treatment time, whereas supplementation with Se, fecal microbiota transplantation, or L. reuteri reversed these decreases. Signs of liver injury and LPS content were significantly increased after intestinal flora imbalance or jejunum injury, and the levels of TLR signaling-related genes were significantly increased. The results indicated that Se deficiency disrupted the microbiota balance, decreased the expression of intestinal TJ factors, and increased intestinal permeability. By contrast, LPS increased due to a bacterial imbalance, which may induce inflammatory liver injury via the TLR4 signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Wei J, Chen J, Fang X, et al (2023)

Protocol for the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation liquid in children with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled study.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1236904.

BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, repetitive behavior and language impairment, and its worldwide prevalence has been found to be increasing annually in recent years. Till now, ASD is uncurable as its pathogenesis remains unknown. However, studies on both animals and humans have demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may ameliorate the symptoms of ASD, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms. Nonetheless, there is still no agreement regarding the optimal dosage or duration of FMT treatment for individuals with ASD.

METHODS: This clinical study is a double-blind, randomized, interventional trial conducted at a single center. The aim is to investigate the safety and efficacy of a pediatric formulation of FMT for ASD. A total of 42 children between the ages of 3-9 with ASD will be randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to either an FMT treatment group (n = 28) or a placebo group (n = 14), forming cohort 1. Additionally, 30 healthy children of similar age and gender will be recruited as the control group (cohort 2). Cohort 1 will be assessed using a variety of scales, including the Autism Behavior Checklist, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Social Responsiveness Scale, Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Psychoeducational Profile (Third Edition). These assessments will evaluate the effectiveness of FMT in reducing core symptoms and comorbidities (such as gastrointestinal symptoms and sleep disturbances) in children with ASD. The study will use metagenomic and metabolomic sequencing to assess changes in the composition and structure of the intestinal flora and its metabolites in blood, urine, and feces following treatment. Furthermore, the study will evaluate the acceptability of the FMT formulation by participants' legal guardians and investigate differences in the intestinal flora and metabolism in the FMT group before and after treatment compared to 30 healthy children.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.chictr.org.cn/, identifier ChiCTR2200058459.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Shan H, Wei C, Zhang J, et al (2023)

Case Report: Severe Diarrhea Caused by Cryptosporidium Diagnosed by Metagenome Next-Generation Sequencing in Blood.

Infection and drug resistance, 16:5777-5782.

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is one of the major pathogens causing diarrhea worldwide. At present, cryptosporidiosis is difficult to prevent and control, especially in immunocompromised hosts. It may cause life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption among children and immunocompromised patients. Therefore, it is very important to explore rapid diagnostic tools and treatment methods for Cryptosporidium infection.

CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a case of severe diarrhea caused by cryptosporidiosis in a liver transplant recipient, whose condition was finally confirmed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and fecal microscopy. His illness was resolved with immunosuppression regulation, nitazoxanide administration, and infection control.

CONCLUSION: So far, nitazoxanide is still the first choice for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. Our institutional experience suggested that nitazoxanide alone may be effective on the basis of adjusting immunosuppressant. In addition, even though diagnosis of Cryptosporidium infection is a challenge, mNGS can serve as a rapid screening tool in low-prevalence setting.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Ma XZ, Chen LL, Qu L, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota-induced CXCL1 elevation triggers early neuroinflammation in the substantia nigra of Parkinsonian mice.

Acta pharmacologica Sinica [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota disturbance and systemic inflammation have been implicated in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). How the alteration of gut microbiota results in neuropathological events in PD remains elusive. In this study, we explored whether and how environmental insults caused early neuropathological events in the substantia nigra (SN) of a PD mouse model. Aged (12-month-old) mice were orally administered rotenone (6.25 mg·kg[-1]·d[-1]) 5 days per week for 2 months. We demonstrated that oral administration of rotenone to ageing mice was sufficient to establish a PD mouse model and that microglial activation and iron deposition selectively appeared in the SN of the mice prior to loss of motor coordination and dopaminergic neurons, and these events could be fully blocked by microglial elimination with a PLX5622-formulated diet. 16 S rDNA sequencing analysis showed that the gut microbiota in rotenone-treated mice was altered, and mice receiving faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) from ageing mice treated with rotenone for 2 months exhibited the same pathology in the SN. We demonstrated that C-X-C motif chemokine ligand-1 (CXCL1) was an essential molecule, as intravenous injection of CXCL1 mimicked almost all the pathology in serum and SN induced by oral rotenone and FMT. Using metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses, we identified the PPAR pathway as a key pathway involved in rotenone-induced neuronal damage. Inhibition of the PPARγ pathway was consistent in the above models, whereas its activation by linoleic acid (60 mg·kg[-1]·d[-1], i.g. for 1 week) could block these pathological events in mice intravenously injected with CXCL1. Altogether, these results reveal that the altered gut microbiota resulted in neuroinflammation and iron deposition occurring early in the SN of ageing mice with oral administration of rotenone, much earlier than motor symptoms and dopaminergic neuron loss. We found that CXCL1 plays a crucial role in this process, possibly via PPARγ signalling inhibition. This study may pave the way for understanding the "brain-gut-microbiota" molecular regulatory networks in PD pathogenesis. The aged C57BL/6 male mice with rotenone intragastric administration showed altered gut microbiota, which caused systemic inflammation, PPARγ signalling inhibition and neuroinflammation, brain iron deposition and ferroptosis, and eventually dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Xia Y, Xiao Y, Wang ZH, et al (2023)

Bacteroides Fragilis in the gut microbiomes of Alzheimer's disease activates microglia and triggers pathogenesis in neuronal C/EBPβ transgenic mice.

Nature communications, 14(1):5471.

Gut dysbiosis contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and Bacteroides strains are selectively elevated in AD gut microbiota. However, it remains unknown which Bacteroides species and how their metabolites trigger AD pathologies. Here we show that Bacteroides fragilis and their metabolites 12-hydroxy-heptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHTrE) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activate microglia and induce AD pathogenesis in neuronal C/EBPβ transgenic mice. Recolonization of antibiotics cocktail-pretreated Thy1-C/EBPβ transgenic mice with AD patient fecal samples elicits AD pathologies, associated with C/EBPβ/Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) pathway upregulation, microglia activation, and cognitive disorders compared to mice receiving healthy donors' fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Microbial 16S rRNA sequencing analysis shows higher abundance of proinflammatory Bacteroides fragilis in AD-FMT mice. Active components characterization from the sera and brains of the transplanted mice revealed that both 12-HHTrE and PGE2 activate primary microglia, fitting with poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites enrichment identified by metabolomics. Strikingly, recolonization with live but not dead Bacteroides fragilis elicited AD pathologies in Thy1-C/EBPβ transgenic mice, so did 12-HHTrE or PGE2 treatment alone. Collectively, our findings support a causal role for Bacteroides fragilis and the PUFA metabolites in activating microglia and inducing AD pathologies in Thy1- C/EBPβ transgenic mice.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Ni Y, Qian L, Siliceo SL, et al (2023)

Resistant starch decreases intrahepatic triglycerides in patients with NAFLD via gut microbiome alterations.

Cell metabolism, 35(9):1530-1547.e8.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic dysfunction for which effective interventions are lacking. To investigate the effects of resistant starch (RS) as a microbiota-directed dietary supplement for NAFLD treatment, we coupled a 4-month randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial in individuals with NAFLD (ChiCTR-IOR-15007519) with metagenomics and metabolomics analysis. Relative to the control (n = 97), the RS intervention (n = 99) resulted in a 9.08% absolute reduction of intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTC), which was 5.89% after adjusting for weight loss. Serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and gut microbial species, in particular Bacteroides stercoris, significantly correlated with IHTC and liver enzymes and were reduced by RS. Multi-omics integrative analyses revealed the interplay among gut microbiota changes, BCAA availability, and hepatic steatosis, with causality supported by fecal microbiota transplantation and monocolonization in mice. Thus, RS dietary supplementation might be a strategy for managing NAFLD by altering gut microbiota composition and functionality.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Xia X, Zhang Y, Zhu L, et al (2023)

Liquiritin apioside alleviates colonic inflammation and accompanying depression-like symptoms in colitis by gut metabolites and the balance of Th17/Treg.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 120:155039 pii:S0944-7113(23)00400-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant global health concern that can lead to depression in affected patients. Liquiritin apioside (LA) possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its anti-inflammatory mechanism in IBD has not been extensively studied.

PURPOSE: This study elucidates the pivotal role of LA in alleviating inflammation by regulating gut metabiota-derived metabolites and evaluating its regulative effects on promoting a balance of Th17/Treg cells in colitis mice.

METHODS: To evaluate the effect of LA on IBD,16S rRNA gene sequencing and UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis were used to identify the changes of intestinal bacteria and their metabolites. Cytokines levels were determined by ELISA and qPCR, while immune cell ratios were evaluated via flow cytometry.

RESULTS: Our findings revealed that LA treatment ameliorated general states of DSS-induced colitis mice and their accompanying depressive behaviors. Moreover, LA restricted the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and revised the imbalanced Treg/Th17 differentiation, while promoting SCFAs production in inflamed colon tissues. Fecal microbiota transplantation from LA-fed mice also corrected the imbalanced Treg/Th17 differentiation, indicating that LA-mediated restoration of the colonic Treg/Th17 balance mainly depends on the changes in gut metabolites.

CONCLUSION: These results provide scientific evidence explaining the apparent paradox of low bioavailability and high bioactivity in polyphenols, and suggesting that LA could be used as a potential dietary supplement for the prevention and improvement of IBD.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Xia K, Gao R, Li L, et al (2023)

Transformation of colitis and colorectal cancer: a tale of gut microbiota.

Critical reviews in microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Intestinal inflammation modifies host physiology to promote the occurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC), as seen in colitis-associated CRC. Gut microbiota is crucial in cancer progression, primarily by inducing intestinal chronic inflammatory microenvironment, leading to DNA damage, chromosomal mutation, and alterations in specific metabolite production. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in microbiota-based prevention and treatment strategies, such as probiotics, prebiotics, microbiota-derived metabolites, and fecal microbiota transplantation. This review aims to provide valuable insights into the potential correlations between gut microbiota and colitis-associated CRC, as well as the promising microbiota-based strategies for colitis-associated CRC.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Li N, Tan S, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Akkermansia muciniphila supplementation prevents cognitive impairment in sleep-deprived mice by modulating microglial engulfment of synapses.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2252764.

The microbiome-gut-brain axis plays a crucial role in many neurological diseases, including mild cognitive impairment. Sleep deprivation (SD) induces cognitive decline accompanied by alterations in the gut microbiota. However, the role of gut microbiota alterations in SD-induced cognitive dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following pretreatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics worsens SD-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation from SD mice to healthy mice induced cognitive impairment. Additionally, the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) in the mouse gut microbiota was significantly reduced after 7 days of SD. A. muciniphila pretreatment alleviated cognitive dysfunction and prevented synaptic reduction in the hippocampus in SD mice. A. muciniphila pretreatment inhibited extensive microglial activation and synaptic engulfment in the hippocampus of SD mice. Metabolomics analysis revealed that A. muciniphila pretreatment increased the serum acetate and butanoic acid levels in SD mice. Finally, pretreatment with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) inhibited microglial synaptic engulfment and prevented neuronal synaptic loss in SD mice and primary microglia-neuron co-culture following LPS stimulation. Together, our findings illustrate that gut dysbiosis plays an essential role in SD-induced cognitive impairment by activating microglial engulfment at synapses. A. muciniphila supplementation may be a novel preventative strategy for SD-induced cognitive dysfunction, by increasing SCFAs production and maintaining microglial homeostasis.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Zhang Y, Liu J, Liu X, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation-Mediated Ghrelin Restoration Improves Neurological Functions After Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence from 16S rRNA Sequencing and In Vivo Studies.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to investigate how gut microbiota dysbiosis impacts the repair of the blood-brain barrier and neurological deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, we compared the gut microbiota of TBI rats and normal controls, discovering significant differences in abundance, species composition, and ecological function, potentially linked to Ghrelin-mediated brain-gut axis functionality. Further, in vivo experiments showed that fecal microbiota transplantation or Ghrelin injection could block the intracerebral TNF signaling pathway, enhance GLP-1 expression, significantly reduce brain edema post-TBI, promote the repair of the blood-brain barrier, and improve neurological deficits. However, the TNF signaling pathway activation could reverse these beneficial effects. In summary, our research suggests that by restoring the balance of gut microbiota, the levels of Ghrelin can be elevated, leading to the blockade of intracerebral TNF signaling pathway and enhanced GLP-1 expression, thereby mitigating post-TBI blood-brain barrier disruption and neurological injuries.

RevDate: 2023-09-06
CmpDate: 2023-09-06

Mendes de Almeida V, Engel DF, Ricci MF, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota from patients with COVID-19 cause alterations in mice that resemble post-COVID symptoms.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2249146.

Long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 are frequent and of major concern. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection affects the host gut microbiota, which is linked to disease severity in patients with COVID-19. Here, we report that the gut microbiota of post-COVID subjects had a remarkable predominance of Enterobacteriaceae strains with an antibiotic-resistant phenotype compared to healthy controls. Additionally, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were reduced in feces. Fecal transplantation from post-COVID subjects to germ-free mice led to lung inflammation and worse outcomes during pulmonary infection by multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. transplanted mice also exhibited poor cognitive performance. Overall, we show prolonged impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gut microbiota that persist after subjects have cleared the virus. Together, these data demonstrate that the gut microbiota can directly contribute to post-COVID sequelae, suggesting that it may be a potential therapeutic target.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Yau YK, Su Q, Xu Z, et al (2023)

Randomised clinical trial: Faecal microbiota transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to improve symptoms in a proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

AIM: We performed a randomised trial to assess the efficacy of FMT in patients with IBS.

METHODS: We randomised 56 patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS 1:1 to FMT or placebo via the duodenal route at baseline and week 4. The primary outcome was > 50 points decrease in IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) score at week 12. Secondary outcomes were improvement in bloating and change in gut microbiota at week 12. After 12-week follow-up, those in the placebo group were assigned to receive open-label FMT.

RESULTS: At week 12, 57.1% in the FMT group and 46.4% in the placebo group achieved the primary endpoint (p = 0.42). More patients receiving FMT than placebo had improvement in bloating (72% vs 30%; p = 0.005). In an open-label extension, 65.2% and 82.4% of patients achieved, respectively, the primary endpoint and improvement in bloating. Faecal microbiome of patients in the FMT group showed a reduction in bacteria like Ruminococcus gnavus and enrichment of bacteria such as Lawsonibacter at week 12, while no change in the placebo group. Functional analyses showed that the hydrogen sulphide-producing pathway decreased in patients who had FMT (p < 0.05) accompanied by a reduction in contributing bacteria. There were no serious adverse events related to FMT.

CONCLUSION: FMT performed twice at an interval of four weeks did not significantly reduce IBS-SSS score. However, more patients had improvement in abdominal bloating, which was associated with a reduction in hydrogen sulphide-producing bacteria. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03125564).

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Feuerstadt P, Oneto C, Tillotson G, et al (2023)

Patient Perception of Route of Rectal Administration of Live Biotherapeutic Product for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Patient preference and adherence, 17:2153-2159.

INTRODUCTION: CDI is a recurrent disease that is treated with antibiotics, but patients commonly experience repeat infections with significant impacts on hospital budgets and patient health quality. Standard of care management includes the antibiotics, vancomycin and fidaxomicin, which frequently provide clinical response, but do not avoid recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). These recurrent infections occur due to dysbiosis of the colonic microbiota. One adjunctive therapeutic approach is to restore the deficient gastrointestinal flora using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or live biotherapeutic products (LBP) when given after standard of care antimicrobials, which have been successful in reducing repeat infections with success rates up to 88%. FMT or LBP can be given by various routes.

METHODS: Two groups of subjects aged ≥18 years with at least one previous CDI episode within the previous 36 months completed self-administered online surveys to assess the acceptability of an LBP administered rectally. Group 1 consisted of LBP-recipients who had received RBL (REBYOTA) rectally as part of the Phase III PUNCH CD3 clinical trial. Group 2 consisted of LBP-naïve subjects who volunteered to participate and had experienced CDI within the prior 36 months but had no history of receiving FMT or LBP therapy.

RESULTS: LBP-recipients considered rectal administration easy (96%) and quick (94%), while 98% of respondents considered the lack of need for bowel preparation appealing. Most LBP-recipients (96%) wished they had earlier access to RBL. Most LBP-naïve subjects (87%) were likely or somewhat likely to consider a rectally administered treatment and 80% preferred a treatment option that does not require bowel preparation. Many of these subjects (76%) expressed interest in finding out about new treatment options for rCDI.

DISCUSSION: LBP-recipients and LBP-naïve subjects alike felt that rectal delivery of microbiome therapy is not only acceptable but highly interesting as a treatment avenue.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Hotta R, Rahman A, Bhave S, et al (2023)

Transplanted ENSCs form functional connections with intestinal smooth muscle and restore colonic motility in nNOS-deficient mice.

Stem cell research & therapy, 14(1):232.

BACKGROUND: Enteric neuropathies, which result from abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, are associated with significant morbidity and high health-care costs, but current treatments are unsatisfactory. Cell-based therapy offers an innovative approach to replace the absent or abnormal enteric neurons and thereby restore gut function.

METHODS: Enteric neuronal stem cells (ENSCs) were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Wnt1-Cre;R26tdTomato mice and generated neurospheres (NS). NS transplants were performed via injection into the mid-colon mesenchyme of nNOS[-/-] mouse, a model of colonic dysmotility, using either 1 (n = 12) or 3 (n = 12) injections (30 NS per injection) targeted longitudinally 1-2 mm apart. Functional outcomes were assessed up to 6 weeks later using electromyography (EMG), electrical field stimulation (EFS), optogenetics, and by measuring colorectal motility.

RESULTS: Transplanted ENSCs formed nitrergic neurons in the nNOS[-/-] recipient colon. Multiple injections of ENSCs resulted in a significantly larger area of coverage compared to single injection alone and were associated with a marked improvement in colonic function, demonstrated by (1) increased colonic muscle activity by EMG recording, (2) faster rectal bead expulsion, and (3) increased fecal pellet output in vivo. Organ bath studies revealed direct neuromuscular communication by optogenetic stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing ENSCs and restoration of smooth muscle relaxation in response to EFS.

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that transplanted ENSCs can form effective neuromuscular connections and improve colonic motor function in a model of colonic dysmotility, and additionally reveal that multiple sites of cell delivery led to an improved response, paving the way for optimized clinical trial design.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Anonymous (2023)

Retraction statement: Role of the immune system in vascular function and blood pressure control induced by faecal microbiota transplantation in rats.

Toral, M, Robles-Vera, I, de la Visitación, N, et al. Role of the immune system in vascular function and blood pressure control induced by faecal microbiota transplantation in rats. Acta Physiol. 2019; 227:e13285. https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.13285. The above article, published online on April 20, 2019 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Pontus B. Persson, the Scandinavian Physiological Society, and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the similarity of a figure and inconsistencies regarding underlying data between this article and the following article published in Front Physiol, "Critical Role of the Interaction Gut Microbiota-Sympathetic Nervous System in the Regulation of Blood Pressure" by Toral M, Robles-Vera I, de la Visitación N, et al., 2019; 10:231. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00231.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Yang J, Shi X, Gao R, et al (2023)

Polydatin alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and alters the gut microbiota in a mouse model.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine [Epub ahead of print].

To investigate the effect and mechanism of polydatin on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model. The lung fibrosis model was induced by BLM. The contents of TNF-α, LPS, IL-6 and IL-1β in lung tissue, intestine and serum were detected by ELISA. Gut microbiota diversity was detected by 16S rDNA sequencing; R language was used to analyse species composition, α-diversity, β-diversity, species differences and marker species. Mice were fed drinking water mixed with four antibiotics (ampicillin, neomycin, metronidazole, vancomycin; antibiotics, ABx) to build a mouse model of ABx-induced bacterial depletion; and faecal microbiota from different groups were transplanted into BLM-treated or untreated ABx mice. The histopathological changes and collagen I and α-SMA expression were determined. Polydatin effectively reduced the degree of fibrosis in a BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model; BLM and/or polydatin affected the abundance of the dominant gut microbiota in mice. Moreover, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from polydatin-treated BLM mice effectively alleviated lung fibrosis in BLM-treated ABx mice compared with FMT from BLM mice. Polydatin can reduce fibrosis and inflammation in a BLM-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis model. The alteration of gut microbiota by polydatin may be involved in the therapeutic effect.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Hu C, He T, Zou B, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with severe ASD comorbidities of gastrointestinal dysfunctions-a case report.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 14:1219104.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by social communication impairments and restricted, repetitive behaviors. In addition to behavioral interventions and psychotherapies, and pharmacological interventions, in-depth studies of intestinal microbiota in ASD has obvious abnormalities which may effectively influenced in ASD. Several attempts have been made to indicate that microbiota can reduce the occurrence of ASD effectively. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a type of biological therapy that involves the transplant of intestinal microbiota from healthy donors into the patient's gastrointestinal tract to improve the gut microenvironment. In this case report, we describe a case of child ASD treated by FMT. The patient have poor response to long-term behavioral interventions. After five rounds of FMT, clinical core symptoms of ASD and gastrointestinal(GI) symptoms were significantly altered. Moreover, the multiple levels of functional development of child were also significantly ameliorated. We found that FMT changed the composition of the intestinal microbiota as well as the metabolites, intestinal inflammatory manifestations, and these changes were consistent with the patient's symptoms. This report suggests further FMT studies in ASD could be worth pursuing, and more studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of FMT in ASD and its mechanisms.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Hsieh JC, Chuang ST, Hsu YT, et al (2023)

In vitro ruminal fermentation and cow-to-mouse fecal transplantations verify the inter-relationship of microbiome and metabolome biomarkers: potential to promote health in dairy cows.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1228086.

INTRODUCTION: There are differences in the gut microbiome and metabolome when the host undergoes different physical or pathological conditions. However, the inter-relationship of microbiome and metabolome biomarkers to potentially promote the health of dairy cows needs to be studied. Further, the development of next-generation probiotics for dairy cattle health promotion has not been demonstrated.

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we identified the microbiome and metabolome biomarkers associated with healthy cows.

METHODS: We analyzed the relationships of the ruminal microorganism profile and metabolites between healthy and mastitis lactating dairy cows. The roles of bacterial biomarker were further verified by in vitro fermentation and cow-to-mouse fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

RESULTS: Two species, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, and six rumen metabolites were positively correlated with healthy cows by Spearman's correlation analysis. Through in vitro ruminal fermentation, inoculating R. flavefaciens and B. longum subsp. longum showed the upregulation of the levels of putrescine, xanthurenic acid, and pyridoxal in the mastitis ruminal fluid, which confirmed the inter-relationships between these microbiota and metabolites associated with healthy cows. Further, we verified the role of R. flavefaciens and B. longum subsp. longum in promoting health by FMT. The administration of R. flavefaciens and B. longum subsp. longum reduced the death rate and recovered the bodyweight loss of germ-free mice caused by FMT mastitis feces.

DISCUSSION: We provided evidence that the bacterial biomarkers alter downstream metabolites. This could indirectly indicate that the two bacterial biomarkers have the potential to be used as next-generation probiotics for dairy cattle, although it needs more evidence to support our hypothesis. Two species, R. flavefaciens and B. longum subsp. longum, with three metabolites, putrescine, xanthurenic acid, and pyridoxal, identified in the ruminal fluid, may point to a new health-promoting and disease-preventing approach for dairy cattle.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Wen X, Xie R, Wang HG, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation alleviates experimental colitis through the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

World journal of gastroenterology, 29(30):4657-4670.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown promising therapeutic effects on mice with experimental colitis and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). FMT modulates the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway to treat some other diseases. However, it remains unknown whether this modulation is also involved in the treatment of UC.

AIM: To clarify the necessity of TLR4 signaling pathway in FMT on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced mice and explain the mechanism of FMT on UC, through association analysis of gut microbiota with colon transcriptome in mice.

METHODS: A mouse colitis model was constructed with wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (KO) mice. Fecal microbiota was transplanted by gavage. Colon inflammation severity was measured by disease activity index (DAI) scoring and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Gut microbiota structure was analyzed through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Gene expression in the mouse colon was obtained by transcriptome sequencing.

RESULTS: The KO (DSS + Water) and KO (DSS + FMT) groups displayed indistinguishable body weight loss, colon length, DAI score, and histology score, which showed that FMT could not inhibit the disease in KO mice. In mice treated with FMT, the relative abundance of Akkermansia decreased, and Lactobacillus became dominant. In particular, compared with those in WT mice, the scores of DAI and colon histology were clearly decreased in the KO-DSS group. Microbiota structure showed a significant difference between KO and WT mice. Akkermansia were the dominant genus in healthy KO mice. The ineffectiveness of FMT in KO mice was related to the decreased abundance of Akkermansia. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes between each group were mainly involved in cytoplasmic translation and cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. The top nine genes correlating with Akkermansia included Aqp4, Clca4a, Dpm[3], Fau, Mcrip1, Meis3, Nupr1 L, Pank3, and Rps13 (|R| > 0.9, P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: FMT may ameliorate DSS-induced colitis by regulating the TLR4 signaling pathway. TLR4 modulates the composition of gut microbiota and the expression of related genes to ameliorate colitis and maintain the stability of the intestinal environment. Akkermansia bear great therapeutic potential for colitis.

RevDate: 2023-09-03

Feng J, Chen Y, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14494.

To explore the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a treatment approach for ulcerative colitis (UC), a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. To collect and evaluate randomized controlled trials of high quality on FMT for UC, we searched a number of databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase, and Medline, for studies published between the establishment of the databases and March 2023. We conducted a meta-analysis of the studies using Review Manager software (version 5.4.1) to determine the differences in rates of remission and adverse reactions between the FMT group and the control group, utilizing the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to combine our findings. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of FMT in patients with UC were included in the study, in which 580 patients participated, including 293 patients treated with FMT and 287 control subjects. Meta-analysis revealed that clinical remission was significantly better in the FMT group than in the control group [RR = 1.73; 95% CI = (1.41, 2.12); P < 0.00001]; endoscopic remission was significantly better in the FMT group than in the control group [RR = 1.74; 95% CI = (1.24, 2.44); P = 0.001]. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups [RR = 1.00; 95% CI = (0.86, 1.15); P = 0.96]. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown potential as a therapeutic intervention for inducing clinical remission in ulcerative colitis UC; nevertheless, the attainment of endoscopic remission and the maintenance of long-term remission continue to present challenges. Safety concerns persist throughout the treatment process, necessitating the implementation of measures to augment both safety and success rates.

RevDate: 2023-09-03

McGuinness AJ, Loughman A, Foster JA, et al (2023)

Mood disorders: the gut bacteriome and beyond.

Biological psychiatry pii:S0006-3223(23)01532-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Knowledge of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has revolutionized the field of psychiatry. It is now well recognized that the gut bacteriome is associated with, and likely influences, the pathogenesis of mental disorders, including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. However, whilst substantial advances in the field of microbiome science have been made, we have likely only scratched the surface in our understanding of how these ecosystems might contribute to mental disorder pathophysiology. Beyond the gut bacteriome, research into lesser explored components of the gut microbiome, including the gut virome, mycobiome, archaeome, and parasitome, is increasingly suggesting relevance in psychiatry. The contribution of microbiomes beyond the gut, including the oral, lung, and small intestinal microbiomes, to human health and pathology should not be overlooked. Increasing both our awareness and understanding of these less traversed fields of research is critical to improving the therapeutic benefits of treatments targeting the gut microbiome, including fecal microbiome transplantation, postbiotics and biogenics, and dietary intervention. Interdisciplinary collaborations integrating systems biology approaches are required to fully elucidate how these different microbial components and distinct microbial niches interact with each other and their human hosts. Excitingly, we may be at the start of the next microbiome revolution, and thus one step closer to informing the field of precision psychiatry to improve outcomes for those living with mental illness.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Zhang Q, Zhou J, Zhang X, et al (2023)

Mendelian randomization supports causality between gut microbiota and chronic hepatitis B.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1243811.

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have provided evidence of a close association between gut microbiota and the progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, establishing a causal relationship between gut microbiota and CHB remains a subject of investigation.

METHODS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of gut microbiota came from the MiBioGen consortium, while the GWAS summary data of CHB came from the Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) Open GWAS project. Based on the maximum likelihood (ML), Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger regression, inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier (MR-PRESSO), and weighted-mode and weighted-median methods, we conducted a bidirectional, two-sample, MR analysis to explore the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and CHB. Additionally, we evaluated the genetic associations between individual gut microbes and CHB using the Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) program.

RESULTS: According to the IVW method estimates, genetically predicted class Alphaproteobacteria (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.96; false discovery rate [FDR] = 0.046), genus Family XIII AD3011 group (OR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39-0.91; FDR = 0.026), genus Prevotella 7 (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.94; FDR = 0.022) exhibited a protective effect against CHB. On the other hand, family Family XIII (OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.12; FDR = 0.061), genus Eggerthella group (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04-1.74; FDR = 0.043), genus Eubacterium ventriosum group (OR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.01-2.51; FDR = 0.056), genus Holdemania (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00-1.82; FDR = 0.049), and genus Ruminococcus gauvreauii group (OR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.10-2.61; FDR = 0.076) were associated with an increased risk of CHB. The results from LDSC also indicated a significant genetic correlation between most of the aforementioned gut microbiota and CHB. Our reverse MR analysis demonstrated no causal relationship between genetically predicted CHB and gut microbiota, and we observed no significant horizontal pleiotropy or heterogeneity of instrumental variables (IVs).

CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified three types of gut microbiota with a protective effect on CHB and five types with an adverse impact on CHB. We postulate that this information will facilitate the clinical prevention and treatment of CHB through fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Jiang Y, Cui W, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

FG-4592 relieves diabetic kidney disease severity by influencing metabolic profiles via gut microbiota reconstruction in both human and mouse models.

Frontiers in physiology, 14:1195441.

Objective: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most prevalent complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is highly associated with devastating outcomes. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), the main transcription factor that regulates cellular responses to hypoxia, plays an important role in regulating erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis. FG-4592 is the HIF stabilizer that is widely used in patients with renal anemia. We investigated the effect of FG-4592 on DKD phenotypes and the pharmacologic mechanism from the perspective of gut microbiota and systemic metabolism. Design: We collected the clinical data of 73 participants, including 40 DKD patients with combined renal anemia treated with FG-4592, and 33 clinical index-matched DKD patients without FG-4592 treatment from The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University at the beginning and after a 3-6-month follow-up period. We established DKD mouse models treated by FG-4592 and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from FG-4592-treated DKD mice to investigate the effects of FG-4592 on DKD and to understand this mechanism from a microbial perspective. Untargeted metabolome-microbiome combined analysis was implemented to globally delineate the mechanism of FG-4592 from both microbial and metabolomic aspects. Result: DKD phenotypes significantly improved after 3-6 months of FG-4592 treatment in DKD patients combined with renal anemia, including a decreased level of systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, and increased estimated glomerular infiltration rate. Such effects were also achieved in the DKD mouse model treated with FG-4592 and can be also induced by FG-4592-influenced gut microbiota. Untargeted plasma metabolomics-gut microbiota analysis showed that FG-4592 dramatically altered both the microbial and metabolic profiles of DKD mice and relieved DKD phenotypes via upregulating beneficial gut microbiota-associated metabolites. Conclusion: FG-4592 can globally relieve the symptoms of DKD patients combined with renal anemia. In the animal experiment, FG-4592 can reconstruct the intestinal microbial profiles of DKD to further upregulate the production of gut-associated beneficial metabolites, subsequently improving DKD phenotypes.

RevDate: 2023-09-01

Malard F, Loschi M, Huynh A, et al (2023)

Pooled allogeneic faecal microbiota MaaT013 for steroid-resistant gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease: a single-arm, multicentre phase 2 trial.

EClinicalMedicine, 62:102111.

BACKGROUND: Failure of gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (GI-aGvHD) to respond to steroid therapy is associated with limited further therapeutic options. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the first-in-human use of the pooled allogeneic faecal microbiota, MaaT013, for the treatment of steroid-refractory GI-aGvHD.

METHODS: This prospective, international, single-arm, phase 2a study reports clinical outcomes from a 24-patient cohort with grade III-IV, steroid refractory GI-aGvHD treated with the pooled allogeneic faecal microbiota MaaT013. MaaT013 involved pooling faecal matter from 3 to 8 screened donors then transplanting the pooled batches into patients to treat GI-aGVHD. The 24 patients were treated in the HERACLES study (Aug 2018 to Nov 2020) at 26 sites in Europe and an additional 52 patients were treated in a compassionate use/expanded access program (EAP) in France (July 2018 to April 2021). The primary endpoint was GI response at day 28, defined as the proportion of patients with GI-aGvHD who had a complete response (CR) or very good partial response (VGPR). GvHD grading and staging were assessed according to the revised Glucksberg criteria. Adverse events and severe adverse events were monitored for 6 months and 12 months, respectively. The HERACLES study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03359980).

FINDINGS: Compared with single donors, MaaT013 is characterised by higher microbial richness and reduced variability across batches. At day 28 (D28), the GI-overall response rate (ORR) was 38% in the prospective population, including 5 complete responses (CR), 2 very good partial responses (VGPR) and 2 partial responses (PR). In the EAP, the GI-ORR was 58% (17 CR, 9 VGPR and 4 PR). The 12-month overall survival (OS) was 25% in the prospective study and 38% in the EAP. Regarding safety, five infectious complications, including 3 sepsis, could not be excluded from being related to the study procedure in HERACLES. Shotgun sequencing analyses of the identified strains suggest that none were found in MaaT013. In the EAP, 18 pharmacovigilance cases were reported among 52 treated patients, including 11 bacteraemia/sepsis. In HERACLES, we observed in stools from responding patients at D28 a higher microbiota richness and increased levels of beneficial bacteria, in particular butyrate producers, along with increased levels of short-chain fatty acid and bile acids. In contrast, stools from non-responding (NR) patients displayed increased levels of pathogenic pro-inflammatory bacteria along with increased systemic inflammatory parameters.

INTERPRETATION: Overall, MaaT013 was safe in this population of highly immunocompromised patients and was associated with responses in some patients with GI-aGvHD and deserves further investigation.

FUNDING: MaaT Pharma.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Wu J, Li C, Gao P, et al (2023)

Intestinal microbiota links to allograft stability after lung transplantation: a prospective cohort study.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 8(1):326.

Whether the alternated microbiota in the gut contribute to the risk of allograft rejection (AR) and pulmonary infection (PI) in the setting of lung transplant recipients (LTRs) remains unexplored. A prospective multicenter cohort of LTRs was identified in the four lung transplant centers. Paired fecal and serum specimens were collected and divided into AR, PI, and event-free (EF) groups according to the diagnosis at sampling. Fecal samples were determined by metagenomic sequencing. And metabolites and cytokines were detected in the paired serum to analyze the potential effect of the altered microbiota community. In total, we analyzed 146 paired samples (AR = 25, PI = 43, and EF = 78). Notably, we found that the gut microbiome of AR followed a major depletion pattern with decreased 487 species and compositional diversity. Further multi-omics analysis showed depleted serum metabolites and increased inflammatory cytokines in AR and PI. Bacteroides uniformis, which declined in AR (2.4% vs 0.6%) and was negatively associated with serum IL-1β and IL-12, was identified as a driven specie in the network of gut microbiome of EF. Functionally, the EF specimens were abundant in probiotics related to mannose and cationic antimicrobial peptide metabolism. Furthermore, a support-vector machine classifier based on microbiome, metabolome, and clinical parameters highly predicted AR (AUPRC = 0.801) and PI (AUPRC = 0.855), whereby the microbiome dataset showed a particularly high diagnostic power. In conclusion, a disruptive gut microbiota showed a significant association with allograft rejection and infection and with systemic cytokines and metabolites in LTRs.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Li X, Fu B, Zhao C, et al (2023)

Early-life noise exposure causes cognitive impairment in a sex-dependent manner by disrupting homeostasis of the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(23)00250-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Epidemiological investigations show that noise exposure in early life is associated with health and cognitive impairment. The gut microbiome established in early life plays a crucial role in modulating developmental processes that subsequently affect brain function and behavior. Here, we examined the impact of early-life exposure to noise on cognitive function in adolescent rats by analyzing the gut microbiome and metabolome to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Chronic noise exposure during early life led to cognitive deficits, hippocampal injury, and neuroinflammation. Early-life noise exposure showed significant difference on the composition and function of the gut microbiome throughout adolescence, subsequently causing axis-series changes in fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism and serum metabolome profiles, as well as dysregulation of endothelial tight junction proteins, in both intestine and brain. We also observed sex-dependent effects of microbiota depletion on SCFA-related beneficial bacteria in adolescence. Experiments on microbiota transplantation and SCFA supplementation further confirmed the role of intestinal bacteria and related SCFAs in early-life noise-exposure-induced impairments in cognition, epithelial integrity, and neuroinflammation. Overall, these results highlight the homeostatic imbalance of microbiota-gut-brain axis as an important physiological response toward environmental noise during early life and reveals subtle differences in molecular signaling processes between male and female rats.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Reasoner SA, MR Nicholson (2023)

Clostridioides difficile Infection in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Current gastroenterology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of C. difficile infection (CDI) and experience worse outcomes associated with an infection. In this article, we review recent research on the incidence, diagnosis, complications, and treatment options for CDI in children with IBD.

RECENT FINDINGS: Children with IBD have an elevated incidence of CDI, but their CDI risk does not associate with established risk factors in adults with IBD. Existing testing methodologies are inadequate at differentiating CDI from C. difficile colonization in children with IBD. Fecal microbiota transplantation offers a durable cure for recurrent CDI. CDI remains a frequent occurrence in children with IBD. Careful clinical monitoring should be used to diagnose CDI and patients with co-occurring IBD and CDI require careful surveillance for worse outcomes. Future research should explore the optimal diagnosis and treatment modalities in this unique patient population.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Koo H, CD Morrow (2023)

Identification of donor Bacteroides vulgatus genes encoding proteins that correlate with early colonization following fecal transplant of patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14112.

Due to suppressive antibiotics, patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile have gut microbial communities that are devoid of most commensal microbes. Studies have shown that most of the failures using fecal microbe transplantation (FMT) for recurrent C. difficile occur during the first 4 weeks following transplantation. To identify features of donor Bacteroides vulgatus that lead to early colonization, we used two data sets that collected fecal samples from recipients at early times points post FMT. The first analysis used the shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing data set from Aggarwala et al. consisting of 7 FMT donors and 13 patients with recurrent C. difficile with fecal samples taken as early as 24 h post FMT. We identified 2 FMT donors in which colonization of recipients by donor B. vulgatus was detected as early as 24 h post FMT. We examined a second data set from Hourigan et al. that collected fecal samples from C. difficile infected children and identified 1 of 3 FMT that also had early colonization of the donor B. vulgatus. We found 19 genes out of 4911 encoding proteins were unique to the 3 donors that had early colonization. A gene encoding a putative chitobiase was identified that was in a gene complex that had been previously identified to enhance colonization in mice. A gene encoding a unique fimbrillin (i.e., pili) family protein and 17 genes encoding hypothetical proteins were also specific for early colonizing donors. Most of the genes encoding hypothetical proteins had neighboring genes that encoded proteins involved in mobilization or transposition. Finally, analysis of 42 paired fecal samples from the human microbiome project (HMP) found no individuals had all 19 genes while 2 individuals had none of the 19 genes. Based on the results from our study, consideration should be given to the screening of FMT donors for these B. vulgatus genes found to enhance early colonization that would be of benefit to promote colonization following FMT.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Zhang D, Liu Z, F Bai (2023)

Roles of Gut Microbiota in Alcoholic Liver Disease.

International journal of general medicine, 16:3735-3746.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD)-one of the most common liver diseases - involves a wide range of disorders, including asymptomatic hepatic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption induces a weakened gut barrier and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota. The presence of CYP2E1 and its elevated levels in the gastrointestinal tract after alcohol exposure lead to elevated levels of ROS and acetaldehyde, inducing inflammation and oxidative damage in the gut. At the same time, the influx of harmful molecules such as the bacterial endotoxin LPS and peptidogly from gut dysbiosis can induce intestinal inflammation and oxidative damage, further compromising the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this process, various oxidative stress-mediated post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in the integrity of the barrier, eg, the presence of acetaldehyde will result in the sustained phosphorylation of several paracellular proteins (occludin and zona occludens-1), which can lead to intestinal leakage. Eventually, persistent oxidative stress, LPS infiltration and hepatocyte damage through the enterohepatic circulation will lead to hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatic fibrosis. In addition, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), bioengineered bacteria, gut-restricted FXR agonists and others are promising therapeutic approaches that can alter gut microbiota composition to improve ALD. In the future, there will be new challenges to study the interactions between the genetics of individuals with ALD and their gut microbiome, to provide personalized interventions targeting the gut-liver axis, and to develop better techniques to measure microbial communities and metabolites in the body.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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A practical handbook on fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for physicians, nurses, physician assistants, students, residents, and fellows, The 6 Ds of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: A Primer from Decision to Discharge and Beyond provides a clinical framework to understand and administer this treatment. FMT has emerged as a promising treatment for C. difficile infection (CDI), and there is a major need for educational resources on the topic. Drs. Jessica Allegretti, Zain Kassam, and their expert contributors are leaders in the field and have collectively cared for thousands of patients suffering from recurrent CDI who have benefitted from FMT. This guide provides practical tools, clinical pearls, and answers to frequently asked questions. Beginning with introductory information on the microbiome and exploring the history of FMT, The 6 Ds of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation outlines a step-by-step checklist for administering FMT: Decision: Who is the right CDI patient to receive FMT? What clinical questions should you ask patients in your FMT clinical assessment?; Donor: How do you select and screen a donor for FMT?; Discussion: What are the risks, benefits, and alternatives that need to be discussed with patients?; Delivery: What is the best delivery method for FMT-colonoscopy, nasogastric tube, enema, or capsules?; Discharge and follow-up: What is the ideal post-FMT care? How should you council patients following FMT?; and Discovery: What are the most promising emerging clinical applications for FMT? What is the evidence for FMT in obesity, autism, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and liver disease? Arming healthcare professionals with the ability to answer questions from patients regarding FMT and the microbiome, The 6 Ds of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation provides a pragmatic guide for this exciting treatment.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )