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19 Apr 2019 at 01:46
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Bibliography on: Symbiosis


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 19 Apr 2019 at 01:46 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: symbiosis NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-04-18

Bharti A, N Garg (2019)

SA and AM symbiosis modulate antioxidant defense mechanisms and asada pathway in chickpea genotypes under salt stress.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 178:66-78 pii:S0147-6513(19)30438-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Salt stress disturbs redox homeostasis by perturbing equilibrium between generation and removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which alters the normal metabolism of plants through membrane damage, lipid peroxidation and denaturation of proteins. Salicylic acid (SA) seed priming and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi impart salt tolerance in legumes by maintaining redox balance. The present investigation focused on the relative and combined applications of SA and Rhizoglomus intraradices in scavenging ROS in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes (salt tolerant-PBG 5, relatively sensitive-BG 256) subjected to salt stress. Despite the enhanced antioxidant mechanisms under salt stress, ROS (superoxide, O2- and hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) accumulation increased significantly and induced lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, which disrupted membrane stability, more in BG 256 than PBG 5. Salt stress also caused redox imbalance by lowering ascorbate/dehydroascorbate (ASA/DHA) and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratios, indicating that redox-homeostasis was crucial for salt-tolerance. Exogenous SA was more promising in reducing ROS-generation and lipid-peroxidation, which provided higher membrane stability as compared to AM inoculation. Although, the enzymatic antioxidants were more active in SA treated plants, yet, AM inoculation outperformed in increasing reformative enzyme activities of Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle, which resulted in higher plant biomass in a genotype-dependent manner. SA increased AM root colonization and provided functional complementarity to R. intraradices and thereby strengthening antioxidant defense mechanisms through their cumulative contribution. The study suggested the use of +SA+AM as an eco-friendly tool in imparting salt tolerance in chickpea genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

RevDate: 2019-04-18
CmpDate: 2019-04-18

Liu P, Hou J, Zou Y, et al (2019)

Developmental features and associated symbiont bacterial diversity in essential life cycle stages of Heterostelium colligatum.

European journal of protistology, 68:99-107.

Dictyostelium discoideum is a specialized amoebozoan protist that can feed on, carry and disperse bacteria. However, the symbiont bacterial diversity in other species of dictyostelids and the diversity associated with essential life cycle stages are still unknown until now. Here, another species of dictyostelids, Heterostelium colligatum, a new record for tropical China, was isolated from the soil collected in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan Province, China. We describe the complete life cycle of this species and illustrate details of spore-to-spore development. The symbiont bacterial diversity and relative abundance associated with life cycle stages of H. colligatum, including the aggregation, pseudoplasmodium, and sorocarp stages, were investigated by high throughput metagenomic techniques. H. colligatum appears to be capable of carrying different types of bacteria during its life history in addition to those used as a food resource. The dominant groups of those three stages in its life cycle were the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of the dominant phyla and shared OTUs were different for the aggregation, pseudoplasmodium, and sorocarp stages. A comparison of the symbiont bacterial assemblages associated with D. discoideum and H. colligatum indicated that different dictyostelid species carried different species of symbiont associated bacteria.

RevDate: 2019-04-18
CmpDate: 2019-04-18

Liu JF, Zhang ZQ, JR Beggs (2019)

Tri-partite complexity: odour from a psyllid's mutualist ant increased predation by a predatory mite on the psyllid.

Pest management science, 75(5):1317-1327.

BACKGROUND: Predator-prey interactions consist of direct consumption of prey by predators and indirect non-consumptive effects on prey. Predator cues can induce predation stress in prey that negatively influences the survival, development, reproduction, and feeding behaviour of the prey. This study evaluated the effects of hemipteran-tending ant (Technomyrmex albipes) odour on the development, survival, reproduction, and predation rates of the predatory mite Amblydromalus limonicus when feeding on an invasive pest of solanaceous crops, Bactericera cockerelli. The age-stage, two-sex life table theory was used to compare the demographic characteristics and predation rates of A. limonicus in the presence and absence of ant odour.

RESULTS: We show that exposure to ant odour did not alter the development, survival rate, and fecundity of A. limonicus, but induced a sexually dimorphic response in its longevity; consumption rates also showed that dimorphic response-predation rates increased in female A. limonicus, but not in males.

CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating increased consumption rates by natural enemies exposed to odour from a mutualist of pest (ant). This finding may provide new insights into understanding tri-partite interaction involving a pest, its predator, and a mutulist of the pest. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Leinonen PH, Helander M, Vázquez-de-Aldana BR, et al (2019)

Local adaptation in natural European host grass populations with asymmetric symbiosis.

PloS one, 14(4):e0215510 pii:PONE-D-19-02624.

Recent work on microbiomes is revealing the wealth and importance of plant-microbe interactions. Microbial symbionts are proposed to have profound effects on fitness of their host plants and vice versa, especially when their fitness is tightly linked. Here we studied local adaptation of host plants and possible fitness contribution of such symbiosis in the context of abiotic environmental factors. We conducted a four-way multi-year reciprocal transplant experiment with natural populations of the perennial grass Festuca rubra s.l. from northern and southern Finland, Faroe Islands and Spain. We included F. rubra with and without transmitted symbiotic fungus Epichloë that is vertically transmitted via host seed. We found local adaptation across the European range, as evidenced by higher host fitness of the local geographic origin compared with nonlocals at three of the four studied sites, suggesting that selection pressures are driving evolution in different directions. Abiotic factors did not result in strong fitness effects related to Epichloë symbiosis, indicating that other factors such as herbivory are more likely to contribute to fitness differences between plants naturally occurring with or without Epichloë. Nevertheless, in the case of asymmetric symbiosis that is obligatory for the symbiont, abiotic conditions that affect performance of the host, may also cause selective pressure for the symbiont.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Singh AN, N Sharma (2019)

Epigenetic Modulators as Potential Multi-targeted Drugs Against Hedgehog Pathway for Treatment of Cancer.

The protein journal pii:10.1007/s10930-019-09832-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The Sonic hedgehog signalling is known to play a crucial role in regulating embryonic development, cancer stem cell maintenance and tissue patterning. Dysregulated hedgehog signalling has been reported to affect tumorigenesis and drug response in various human malignancies. Epigenetic therapy relying on DNA methyltransferase and Histone deacetylase inhibitors are being proposed as potential drug candidates considering their efficiency in preventing development of cancer progenitor cells, killing drug resistant cells and also dictating "on/off" switch of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. In this docking approach, epigenetic modulators were virtually screened for their efficiency in inhibiting key regulators of SHH pathway viz., sonic hedgehog, Smoothened and Gli using polypharmacological approach. The control drugs and epigenetic modulators were docked with PDB protein structures using AutoDock vina and further checked for their drug-likeness properties. Further molecular dynamics simulation using VMD and NAMD, and MMP/GBSA energy calculation were employed for verifying the stability and entropy of the ligand-receptor complex. EPZ-6438 and GSK 343 (EZH2 inhibitors), CHR 3996 and Mocetinostat (HDAC inhibitors), GSK 126 (HKMT inhibitor) and UNC 1215 (L3MBTL3 antagonist) exhibited multiple-targeted approach in modulating HH signalling. This is the first study to report these epigenetic drugs as potential multi-targeted hedgehog pathway inhibitors. Thus, epigenetic polypharmacology approach can be explored as a better alternative to challenges of acute long term toxicity and drug resistance occurring due to traditional single targeted chemotherapy in the future.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Dixon GB, CD Kenkel (2019)

Molecular convergence and positive selection associated with the evolution of symbiont transmission mode in stony corals.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1901):20190111.

Heritable symbioses have been critical for the evolution of life. The genetic consequences of evolving a heritable symbiosis from the perspective of the symbiont are well established, but concomitant changes in the host remain unresolved. In stony corals, heritable, vertical transmission has evolved repeatedly, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the genomic basis of this complex trait. We conducted a comparative analysis of 25 coral transcriptomes to identify orthologous genes exhibiting signatures of positive selection and convergent amino acid substitutions in vertically transmitting lineages. The frequency of convergence events tends to be higher among vertically transmitting lineages, consistent with the proposed role of selection in driving the evolution of convergent transmission mode phenotypes. Of 10 774 orthologous genes, 403 exhibited at least one molecular convergence event and evidence of positive selection in at least one vertically transmitting lineage. Functional enrichments among these top candidate genes include processes previously implicated in symbiosis including endocytosis, immune response, cytoskeletal protein binding and cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicles. Finally, several novel candidates were identified among 100 genes showing evidence of positive selection at the particular convergence event, highlighting the value of our approach for generating new insight into host mechanisms associated with the evolution of heritable symbioses.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Ezra H (2019)

On the relationship between road safety research and the practice of road design and operation.

Accident; analysis and prevention, 128:114-131 pii:S0001-4575(18)31171-0 [Epub ahead of print].

How do the findings of road safety research affect the practice by which the road infrastructure is built and operated? The question is seldom asked. I discuss the complexities of the research-practice symbiosis in the light of two historical anecdotes. These allow me to point out several issues of concern. My general conclusion is that the relationship, as it evolved over time, is unpremeditated and occasionally dysfunctional. Issues of concern are the lightness with which decisions affecting road-user safety can be based on opinion that is unsupported by evidence, that such opinions can trump inconvenient evidence, that research findings can be willfully distorted or disregarded, that questionable results can be given a ring of consensual truth, and that the questions which research asks and what findings get published are at times influenced by external interest. In sum, the concern is that practice is not sufficiently evidence-based. Road users have a right to expect that decisions substantially affecting their safety take into account fact-based expectation of safety consequences. It is therefore time to endow the research-practice relationship with a premeditated and purposeful structure.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Hugo MH, Kaech H, Ganesanandamoorthy P, et al (2019)

Evolutionary costs and benefits of infection with diverse strains of Spiroplasma in pea aphids.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution [Epub ahead of print].

The heritable endosymbiont Spiroplasma infects many insects and has repeatedly evolved the ability to protect its hosts against different parasites. Defenses do not come for free to the host, and theory predicts that more costly symbionts need to provide stronger benefits to persist in host populations. We investigated the costs and benefits of Spiroplasma infections in pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), testing 12 bacterial strains from three different clades. Virtually all strains decreased aphid lifespan and reproduction, but only two had a (weak) protective effect against the parasitoid Aphidius ervi, an important natural enemy of pea aphids. Spiroplasma induced fitness costs were variable, with strains from the most slowly evolving clade reaching higher titers and curtailing aphid lifespan more strongly than other strains. Some Spiroplasma strains shared their host with a second endosymbiont, Regiella insecticola. Although the result of an unfortunate handling error, these co-infections proved instructive, because they showed that the cost of infection with Spiroplasma may be attenuated in the presence of Regiella. These results suggest that mechanisms other than protection against A. ervi maintain pea aphid infections with diverse strains of Spiroplasma, and that studying them in isolation will not provide a complete picture of their effects on host fitness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Zhou YL, Ślipiński A, Ren D, et al (2019)

A Mesozoic clown beetle myrmecophile (Coleoptera: Histeridae).

eLife, 8: pii:44985.

Complex interspecies relationships are widespread among metazoans, but the evolutionary history of these lifestyles is poorly understood. We describe a fossil beetle in 99-million-year-old Burmese amber that we infer to have been a social impostor of the earliest-known ant colonies. Promyrmister kistneri gen. et sp. nov. belongs to the haeteriine clown beetles (Coleoptera: Histeridae), a major clade of 'myrmecophiles'-specialized nest intruders with dramatic anatomical, chemical and behavioral adaptations for colony infiltration. Promyrmister reveals that myrmecophiles evolved close to the emergence of ant eusociality, in colonies of stem-group ants that predominate Burmese amber, or with cryptic crown-group ants that remain largely unknown at this time. The clown beetle-ant relationship has been maintained ever since by the beetles host-switching to numerous modern ant genera, ultimately diversifying into one of the largest radiations of symbiotic animals. We infer that obligate behavioral symbioses can evolve relatively rapidly, and be sustained over deep time.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Shah S, Thapa BB, Chand K, et al (2019)

Piriformospora indica promotes the growth of the in-vitro-raised Cymbidium aloifolium plantlet and their acclimatization.

Plant signaling & behavior [Epub ahead of print].

Cymbidium aloifolium is known for its ornamental and medicinal values. It has been listed as threatened orchid species. In this study, in vitro propagated C. aloifolium plantlets were interacted with the Piriformospora indica. The growth assay was performed for 45 days; the plant growth pattern such as number and length of roots and shoots were measured. Microscopic study of the root section stained by trypan blue was done to detect the peloton formation. The methanol extracts of the fungal colonized plant as well as uncolonized (control) plant were prepared and various metabolites were identified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. Acclimatization was done in a substrate composition of coco peat: gravel: charcoal in ratio 2:2:1. P. indica-colonized plantlet showed the highest growth with the formation of clamdospore in the root section. The growth regulator such as auxin, ascorbic acid, andrographolide, hexadecanoic acid, and DL-proline were identified. After three months of field transfer, plantlet colonized by P. indica survived and remained healthy as compared to uncolonized control plantlet.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Mediavilla O, Geml J, Olaizola J, et al (2019)

Effect of forest fire prevention treatments on bacterial communities associated with productive Boletus edulis sites.

Microbial biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Cistus ladanifer scrublands, traditionally considered as unproductive, have nonetheless been observed to produce large quantities of king bolete (Boletus edulis) fruitbodies. These pyrophytic scrublands are prone to wildfires, which severely affect fungi, hence the need for fire prevention in producing C. ladanifer scrublands. In addition, B. edulis productions have severely decreased in the last years. A deeper understanding of the B. edulis life cycle and of biotic and abiotic factors influencing sporocarp formation is needed to implement management practices that facilitate B. edulis production. For example, some bacteria likely are involved in sporocarp production, representing a key part in the triple symbiosis (plant-fungus-bacteria). In this study, we used soil DNA metabarcoding in C. ladanifer scrublands to (i) assess the effect of site history and fire prevention treatment on bacterial richness and community composition; (ii) test if there was any correlation between various taxonomic groups of bacteria and mycelial biomass and sporocarp production of B. edulis; and to (iii) identify indicator bacteria associated with the most productive B. edulis sites. Our results show that site history drives bacterial richness and community composition, while fire prevention treatments have a weaker, but still detectable effect, particularly in the senescent plots. Sporocarp production correlated positively with genera in Verrucomicrobia. Several genera, e.g. Azospirillum and Gemmatimonas, were identified as indicators of the most productive sites, suggesting a potential biological role in B. edulis fructification. This study provides a better understanding of the triple symbiosis (plant-fungus-bacteria) involved in C. ladanifer-B. edulis systems.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Zhang Z, Ke D, Hu M, et al (2019)

Quantitative phosphoproteomic analyses provide evidence for extensive phosphorylation of regulatory proteins in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis.

Plant molecular biology pii:10.1007/s11103-019-00857-3 [Epub ahead of print].

KEY MESSAGE: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules of grain legumes is essential for high yielding. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation plays important role in root nodule development. Differences in the phosphoproteomes may either be developmental specific and related to nitrogen fixation activity. An iTRAQ-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analyses during nodule development enables identification of specific phosphorylation signaling in the Lotus-rhizobia symbiosis. During evolution, legumes (Fabaceae) have evolved a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia, which fix atmospheric nitrogen and produce ammonia that host plants can then absorb. Root nodule development depends on the activation of protein phosphorylation-mediated signal transduction cascades. To investigate possible molecular mechanisms of protein modulation during nodule development, we used iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analyses to identify root phosphoproteins during rhizobial colonization and infection of Lotus japonicus. 1154 phosphoproteins with 2957 high-confidence phosphorylation sites were identified. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of functional groups of these genes revealed that the biological processes mediated by these proteins included cellular processes, signal transduction, and transporter activity. Quantitative data highlighted the dynamics of protein phosphorylation during nodule development and, based on regulatory trends, seven groups were identified. RNA splicing and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathways were extensively affected by phosphorylation, and most Ser/Arg-rich (SR) proteins were multiply phosphorylated. In addition, many proposed kinase-substrate pairs were predicted, and in these MAPK6 substrates were found to be highly enriched. This study offers insights into the regulatory processes underlying nodule development, provides an accessible resource cataloging the phosphorylation status of thousands of Lotus proteins during nodule development, and develops our understanding of post-translational regulatory mechanisms in the Lotus-rhizobia symbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Deveau A, Clowez P, Petit F, et al (2019)

New insights into black truffle biology: discovery of the potential connecting structure between a Tuber aestivum ascocarp and its host root.

Mycorrhiza pii:10.1007/s00572-019-00892-4 [Epub ahead of print].

According to isotopic labeling experiments, most of the carbon used by truffle (Tuber sp.) fruiting bodies to develop underground is provided by host trees, suggesting that trees and truffles are physically connected. However, such physical link between trees and truffle fruiting bodies has never been observed. We discovered fruiting bodies of Tuber aestivum adhering to the walls of a belowground quarry and we took advantage of this unique situation to analyze the physical structure that supported these fruiting bodies in the open air. Observation of transversal sections of the attachment structure indicated that it was organized in ducts made of gleba-like tissue and connected to a network of hyphae traveling across soil particles. Only one mating type was detected by PCR in the gleba and in the attachment structure, suggesting that these two organs are from maternal origin, leaving open the question of the location of the opposite paternal mating type.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Chong RA, Park H, NA Moran (2019)

Genome evolution of the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:5466460 [Epub ahead of print].

An evolutionary consequence of uniparentally transmitted symbiosis is degradation of symbiont genomes. We use the system of aphids and their maternally inherited obligate endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, to explore the evolutionary process of genome degradation. We compared complete genome sequences for 39 Buchnera strains, including 23 newly sequenced symbiont genomes from diverse aphid hosts. We reconstructed the genome of the most recent shared Buchnera ancestor, which contained 616 protein-coding genes, and 39 RNA genes. The extent of subsequent gene loss varied across lineages, resulting in modern genomes ranging from 412 to 646 kilobases and containing 354 to 587 protein-coding genes. Loss events were highly non-random across loci. Genes involved in replication, transcription, translation, and amino acid biosynthesis are largely retained, whereas genes underlying ornithine biosynthesis, stress responses and transcriptional regulation were lost repeatedly. Aside from losses, gene order is almost completely stable. The main exceptions involve movement between plasmid and chromosome locations of genes underlying tryptophan and leucine biosynthesis and supporting nutrition of aphid hosts. This set of complete genomes enabled tests for signatures of positive diversifying selection. Of 371 Buchnera genes tested, 29 genes show strong support for ongoing positive selection. These include genes encoding outer membrane porins that are expected to be involved in direct interactions with hosts. Collectively, these results indicate that extensive genome reduction occurred in the ancestral Buchnera prior to aphid diversification and that reduction has continued since, with losses greater in some lineages and for some loci.

RevDate: 2019-04-16

Morris LA, Voolstra CR, Quigley KM, et al (2019)

Nutrient Availability and Metabolism Affect the Stability of Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Symbioses.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(19)30068-X [Epub ahead of print].

Coral reefs rely upon the highly optimized coral-Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis, making them sensitive to environmental change and susceptible to anthropogenic stress. Coral bleaching is predominantly attributed to photo-oxidative stress, yet nutrient availability and metabolism underpin the stability of symbioses. Recent studies link symbiont proliferation under nutrient enrichment to bleaching; however, the interactions between nutrients and symbiotic stability are nuanced. Here, we demonstrate how bleaching is regulated by the forms and ratios of available nutrients and their impacts on autotrophic carbon metabolism, rather than algal symbiont growth. By extension, historical nutrient conditions mediate host-symbiont compatibility and bleaching tolerance over proximate and evolutionary timescales. Renewed investigations into the coral nutrient metabolism will be required to truly elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to coral bleaching.

RevDate: 2019-04-15

Si Z, Yang Q, Liang R, et al (2019)

Digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase gene MtDGD1 plays an essential role in nodule development and nitrogen fixation.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Little is known about the genes participating in digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) synthesis during nodule symbiosis. Here, we identified full-length MtDGD1, a synthase of DGDG, and characterized its effect on symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Medicago truncatula. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that MtDGD1 was located on the symbiosome membranes in the infected cells. GUS histochemical staining revealed that MtDGD1 was highly expressed in the infection zone of young nodules as well as in the whole mature nodules. Compared with the control, MtDGD1-RNAi transgenic plants exhibited significant decreases in nodule number, symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity and DGDG abundance in the nodules, as well as abnormal nodule and symbiosome development. Overexpression of MtDGD1 resulted in enhancement of nodule number and nitrogen fixation activity. In response to phosphorus starvation, the MtDGD1 expression level was substantially up-regulated and the abundance of non-phospholipid DGDG was significantly increased in the roots and nodules, accompanied by corresponding decreases in the abundance of phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol. Overall, our results indicate that DGD1 contributes to effective nodule organogenesis and nitrogen fixation by affecting the synthesis and content of DGDG during symbiosis. Keywords: DGDG; Medicago truncatula; MtDGD1; phospholipids; RNAi; symbiotic phenotype.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Deja-Sikora E, Mercy L, Baum C, et al (2019)

The Contribution of Endomycorrhiza to the Performance of Potato Virus Y-Infected Solanaceous Plants: Disease Alleviation or Exacerbation?.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:516.

Solanaceae, comprising meaningful crops (as potato, tomato, pepper, eggplant, and tobacco), can benefit from a symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which improve plant fitness and support plant defense against pathogens. Currently, those crops are likely the most impacted by Potato virus Y (PVY). Unfortunately, the effects of AM symbiosis on the severity of disease induced by PVY in solanaceous crops remain uncertain, partly because the interplay between AMF and PVY is poorly characterized. To shed some light on this issue, available studies on interactions in tripartite association between the host plant, its fungal colonizer, and viral pathogen were analyzed and discussed. Although the best-documented PVY transmission pathway is aphid-dependent, PVY infections are also observed in the absence of insect vector. We hypothesize the existence of an additional pathway for virus transmission involving AMF, in which the common mycorrhizal network (CMN) may act as a potential bridge. Therefore, we reviewed (1) the significance of AM colonization for the course of disease, (2) the potential of AMF networks to act as vectors for PVY, and (3) the consequences for crop breeding and production of AM biofertilizers.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Ek-Ramos MJ, Gomez-Flores R, Orozco-Flores AA, et al (2019)

Bioactive Products From Plant-Endophytic Gram-Positive Bacteria.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:463.

Endophytes constitute plant-colonizing microorganisms in a mutualistic symbiosis relationship. They are found in most ecosystems reducing plant crops' biotic and abiotic stressors by stimulating immune responses, excluding plant pathogens by niche competition, and participating in antioxidant activities and phenylpropanoid metabolism, whose activation produces plant defense, structural support, and survival molecules. In fact, metabolomic studies have demonstrated that endophyte genes associated to specific metabolites are involved in plant growth promotion (PGP) by stimulating plant hormones production such as auxins and gibberellins or as plant protective agents against microbial pathogens, cancer, and insect pests, but eco-friendly and eco-safe. A number of metabolites of Gram-positive endophytes isolated from agriculture, forest, mangrove, and medicinal plants, mainly related to the Firmicutes phyla, possess distinctive biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activities. In general, Actinobacteria and Bacillus endophytes produce aromatic compounds, lipopeptides, plant hormones, polysaccharides, and several enzymes linked to phenylpropanoid metabolism, thus representing high potential for PGP and crop management strategies. Furthermore, Actinobacteria have been shown to produce metabolites with antimicrobial and antitumor activities, useful in agriculture, medicine, and veterinary areas. The great endophytes diversity, their metabolites production, and their adaptation to stress conditions make them a suitable and unlimited source of novel metabolites, whose application could reduce agrochemicals usage in food and drugs production.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Munzi S, Cruz C, A Corrêa (2019)

When the exception becomes the rule: An integrative approach to symbiosis.

The Science of the total environment, 672:855-861 pii:S0048-9697(19)31551-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiosis, mainly due to the advances in -omics technology and to the microbiome revolution, is being increasingly acknowledged as fundamental to explain any aspect of life existence. Previously considered an exception, a peculiar characteristic of few systems like lichens, corals and mycorrhizas, symbiosis is nowadays recognized as the rule, with the microbiome being part of all living entities and systems. However, our knowledge of the ecological meaning and functioning of many symbiotic systems is still limited. Here, we discuss a new, integrative approach based on current findings that looks at commonalities among symbiotic systems to produce theoretical models and conceptual knowledge that would allow a more efficient exploitation of symbiosis-based biotechnologies. The microbiome recruitment and assemblage processes are indicated as one of the potential targets where a holistic approach could bring advantages. Finally, we reflect on the potential socio-economic and environmental consequences of a symbiotic view of the world, where co-dependence is the matrix of life.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

Salinero-Lanzarote A, Pacheco-Moreno A, Domingo-Serrano L, et al (2019)

The type VI secretion system of Rhizobium etli Mim1 has a positive effect in symbiosis.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:5449006 [Epub ahead of print].

The type six secretion systems (T6SSs) allow bacteria to translocate effector proteins to other bacteria or to eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about the role of T6SS in endosymbiotic bacteria. In this work we describe the T6SS of Rhizobium etli Mim1, a bacteria able to effectively nodulate common beans. Structural genes and those encoding possible effectors have been identified in a 28-gene DNA region of R. etli Mim1 pRetMIM1f plasmid. Immunodetection of Hcp protein, a conserved key structural component of T6SS systems, indicates that this secretion system is active at high cell densities, in the presence of root exudates, and in bean nodules. R. etli mutants affected in T6SS structural genes produced plants with lower dry weight and smaller nodules than the wild-type strain, indicating for the first time that the T6SS plays a positive role in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

Wu Z, Wang M, Yang S, et al (2019)

A global coexpression network of soybean genes gives insight into the evolution of nodulation in non-legumes and legumes.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

A coexpression network is a powerful tool for revealing genes' relationship with many biological processes. Mass transcriptomic and genomic data from different plant species provide the foundation for understanding the evolution of nodulation across the Viridiplantae at a systematic level. We used weighted coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to mine a nodule-related module (NRM) in Glycine max. Comparative genomic analysis of 78 green plant species revealed that NRM genes are recruited from different evolutionary nodes along with gene duplication events. A set of core coexpressed genes within legumes that may play vital roles in regulating nodule environments essential for nitrogen fixation, including oxygen concentrations, sulfur transport, and iron homeostasis (such as GmCHY). The regulation of these genes occurred mainly at the transcription level, although some of them, such as sulfate transporters, may also undergo positive selection at protein level. We revealed that ancient orthologs and duplication events prior to the origin of legumes were preadapted for symbiosis. Conserved coregulated genes found within legumes paved the way for nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. These findings provide significant insights into the evolution of nodulation and indicate promising candidates for identifying other key components of legume nodulation and nitrogen fixation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Kim GB, Son SU, Yu HJ, et al (2019)

MtGA2ox10 encoding C20-GA2-oxidase regulates rhizobial infection and nodule development in Medicago truncatula.

Scientific reports, 9(1):5952 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-42407-3.

Gibberellin (GA) plays a controversial role in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis. Recent studies have shown that the GA level in legumes must be precisely controlled for successful rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis. However, regulation of the GA level via catabolism in legume roots has not been reported to date. Here, we investigate a novel GA inactivating C20-GA2-oxidase gene MtGA2ox10 in Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that MtGA2ox10 was induced as early as 6 h post-inoculation (hpi) of rhizobia and reached peak transcript abundance at 12 hpi. Promoter::β-glucuronidase fusion showed that the promoter activity was localized in the root infection/differentiation zone during the early stage of rhizobial infection and in the vascular bundle of the mature nodule. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion mutation of MtGA2ox10 suppressed infection thread formation, which resulted in reduced development and retarded growth of nodules on the Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed roots. Over-expression of MtGA2ox10 in the stable transgenic plants caused dwarfism, which was rescued by GA3 application, and increased infection thread formation but inhibition of nodule development. We conclude that MtGA2ox10 plays an important role in the rhizobial infection and the development of root nodules through fine catabolic tuning of GA in M. truncatula.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Lefoulon E, Vaisman N, Frydman HM, et al (2019)

Large Enriched Fragment Targeted Sequencing (LEFT-SEQ) Applied to Capture of Wolbachia Genomes.

Scientific reports, 9(1):5939 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-42454-w.

Symbiosis is a major force of evolutionary change, influencing virtually all aspects of biology, from population ecology and evolution to genomics and molecular/biochemical mechanisms of development and reproduction. A remarkable example is Wolbachia endobacteria, present in some parasitic nematodes and many arthropod species. Acquisition of genomic data from diverse Wolbachia clades will aid in the elucidation of the different symbiotic mechanisms(s). However, challenges of de novo assembly of Wolbachia genomes include the presence in the sample of host DNA: nematode/vertebrate or insect. We designed biotinylated probes to capture large fragments of Wolbachia DNA for sequencing using PacBio technology (LEFT-SEQ: Large Enriched Fragment Targeted Sequencing). LEFT-SEQ was used to capture and sequence four Wolbachia genomes: the filarial nematode Brugia malayi, wBm, (21-fold enrichment), Drosophila mauritiana flies (2 isolates), wMau (11-fold enrichment), and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, wAlbB (200-fold enrichment). LEFT-SEQ resulted in complete genomes for wBm and for wMau. For wBm, 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), relative to the wBm reference, were identified and confirmed by PCR. A limit of LEFT-SEQ is illustrated by the wAlbB genome, characterized by a very high level of insertion sequences elements (ISs) and DNA repeats, for which only a 20-contig draft assembly was achieved.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

Gogoleva NE, Nikolaichik YA, Ismailov TT, et al (2019)

Complete Genome Sequence of Abscisic Acid-Metabolizing Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus sp. Strain P1Y.

Microbiology resource announcements, 8(15): pii:8/15/e01591-18.

Mechanisms of microbial catabolism of phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) are still unknown. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of ABA-utilizing Rhodococcus sp. strain P1Y, isolated from the rice (Oryza sativa L.) rhizosphere. The sequence was obtained using an approach combining Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION and Illumina MiSeq sequence data.

RevDate: 2019-04-14

Choudhary E, Sharma R, Kumar Y, et al (2019)

Conditional Silencing by CRISPRi Reveals the Role of DNA Gyrase in Formation of Drug-Tolerant Persister Population in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:70.

Drug tolerance in mycobacterial pathogens is a global concern. Fluoroquinolone (FQ) treatment is widely used for induction of persisters in bacteria. Although FQs that target DNA gyrase are currently used as second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs, little is known about their impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) persister formation. Here we explored the CRISPRi-based genetic repression for better understanding the effect of DNA gyrase depletion on Mtb physiology and response to anti-TB drugs. We find that suppression of DNA gyrase drastically affects intra- and extracellular growth of Mtb. Interestingly, gyrase depletion in Mtb leads to activation of RecA/LexA-mediated SOS response and drug tolerance via induction of persister subpopulation. Chemical inhibition of RecA in gyrase-depleted bacteria results in reversion of persister phenotype and better killing by antibiotics. This study provides evidence that inhibition of SOS response can be advantageous in improving the efficacy of anti-TB drugs and shortening the duration of current TB treatment.

RevDate: 2019-04-14

Mills JG, Brookes JD, Gellie NJC, et al (2019)

Relating Urban Biodiversity to Human Health With the 'Holobiont' Concept.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:550.

A relatively unaccounted ecosystem service from biodiversity is the benefit to human health via symbiotic microbiota from our environment. This benefit occurs because humans evolved alongside microbes and have been constantly exposed to diverse microbiota. Plants and animals, including humans, are organised as a host with symbiotic microbiota, whose collective genome and life history form a single holobiont. As such, there are interdependencies between biodiversity, holobionts, and public health which lead us to argue that human health outcomes could be improved by increasing contact with biodiversity in an urban context. We propose that humans, like all holobionts, likely require a diverse microbial habitat to appropriate resources for living healthy, long lives. We discuss how industrial urbanisation likely disrupts the symbiosis between microbiota and their hosts, leading to negative health outcomes. The industrialised urban habitat is low in macro and microbial biodiversity and discourages contact with beneficial environmental microbiota. These habitat factors, alongside diet, antibiotics, and others, are associated with the epidemic of non-communicable diseases in these societies. We suggest that restoration of urban microbial biodiversity and micro-ecological processes through microbiome rewilding can benefit holobiont health and aid in treating the urban non-communicable disease epidemic. Further, we identify research gaps and some solutions to economic and strategic hurdles in applying microbiome rewilding into daily urban life.

RevDate: 2019-04-11

Malinich EA, Wang K, Mukherjee PK, et al (2019)

Differential expression analysis of Trichoderma virens RNA reveals a dynamic transcriptome during colonization of Zea mays roots.

BMC genomics, 20(1):280 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5651-z.

BACKGROUND: Trichoderma spp. are majorly composed of plant-beneficial symbionts widely used in agriculture as bio-control agents. Studying the mechanisms behind Trichoderma-derived plant benefits has yielded tangible bio-industrial products. To better take advantage of this fungal-plant symbiosis it is necessary to obtain detailed knowledge of which genes Trichoderma utilizes during interaction with its plant host. In this study, we explored the transcriptional activity undergone by T. virens during two phases of symbiosis with maize; recognition of roots and after ingress into the root cortex.

RESULTS: We present a model of T. virens - maize interaction wherein T. virens experiences global repression of transcription upon recognition of maize roots and then induces expression of a broad spectrum of genes during colonization of maize roots. The genes expressed indicate that, during colonization of maize roots, T. virens modulates biosynthesis of phytohormone-like compounds, secretes a plant-environment specific array of cell wall degrading enzymes and secondary metabolites, remodels both actin-based and cell membrane structures, and shifts metabolic activity. We also highlight transcription factors and signal transduction genes important in future research seeking to unravel the molecular mechanisms of T. virens activity in maize roots.

CONCLUSIONS: T. virens displays distinctly different transcriptional profiles between recognizing the presence of maize roots and active colonization of these roots. A though understanding of these processes will allow development of T. virens as a bio-control agent. Further, the publication of these datasets will target future research endeavors specifically to genes of interest when considering T. virens - maize symbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-04-10

Berger A, Boscari A, Frendo P, et al (2019)

Nitric oxide signaling, metabolism and toxicity in nitrogen-fixing symbiosis.

Journal of experimental botany pii:5436347 [Epub ahead of print].

The interactions between legumes and Rhizobia lead to the establishment of a symbiotic relationship characterized by the formation of a new organ, the nodule, which facilitates the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) by nitrogenase through the creation of a hypoxic environment. Significant amounts of nitric oxide (NO) accumulate at different stages of nodule development, suggesting that NO performs specific signaling and/or metabolic functions during symbiosis. NO, which regulates nodule gene expression, accumulates to high levels in hypoxic nodules. NO accumulation is considered to assist energy metabolism within the hypoxic environment of the nodule via a phytoglobin/NO-mediated respiration process. NO is a potent inhibitor of the activity of nitrogenase and other plant/bacterial enzymes, acting as a developmental signal in the induction of nodule senescence. Hence, key questions concern the relative importance of the signaling/metabolic functions of NO versus its toxic action and how NO levels are regulated to be compatible with nitrogen fixation functions. This review analyses these paradoxical roles of NO at various stages of symbiosis, and highlights the role of plant phytoglobins and bacterial hemoproteins in the control of NO accumulation.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

Kang L (2019)

Overview: biotic signalling for smart pest management.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 374(1767):20180306.

Biotic signalling refers to species or phylogenetic-clade-specific signals that elicit adaptive and acceptable responses within and among organisms. It is not only the molecular basis of the ecological relationships among different species, such as parasitism, symbiosis and predation, but also serves as ideal targets that can be used to manipulate these ecological relationships. This concept was proposed by a group of scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and actively pursued in a five-year research project in 2014 funded by the CAS ($40 million), entitled 'Decoding biotic interactions and mechanism for target management of agricultural pests'. The multi-disciplinary project aimed at a systematic investigation of the intra-species and inter-species and interactions via biotic signalling, with the ultimate goal being the development of novel methods to manage the pest insects and diseases. We hereby propose a topic 'Biotic signalling sheds light on smart pest control' as a theme issue for the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. It contains a total of 18 reviews and research articles under the topic of signalling manipulation for pest management. Unravelling these complex interactions among plants, microbial pathogens and insects holds promise for developing novel strategies to protect crop plants without compromising agricultural productivity and environmental health. This article is part of the theme issue 'Biotic signalling sheds light on smart pest management'.

RevDate: 2019-04-11

Uchiumi Y, Ohtsuki H, A Sasaki (2019)

Evolution of self-limited cell division of symbionts.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1895):20182238.

In mutualism between unicellular hosts and their endosymbionts, symbiont's cell division is often synchronized with its host's, ensuring the permanent relationship between endosymbionts and their hosts. The evolution of synchronized cell division thus has been considered to be an essential step in the evolutionary transition from symbionts to organelles. However, if symbionts would accelerate their cell division without regard for the synchronization with the host, they would proliferate more efficiently. Thus, it is paradoxical that symbionts evolve to limit their own division for synchronized cell division. Here, we theoretically explore the condition for the evolution of self-limited cell division of symbionts, by assuming that symbionts control their division rate and that hosts control symbionts' death rate by intracellular digestion and nutrient supply. Our analysis shows that symbionts can evolve to limit their own cell division. Such evolution occurs if not only symbiont's but also host's benefit through symbiosis is large. Moreover, the coevolution of hosts and symbionts leads to either permanent symbiosis where symbionts proliferate to keep pace with their host, or the arms race between symbionts that behave as lytic parasites and hosts that resist them by rapid digestion.

RevDate: 2019-04-11

Skelton J, Johnson AJ, Jusino MA, et al (2019)

A selective fungal transport organ (mycangium) maintains coarse phylogenetic congruence between fungus-farming ambrosia beetles and their symbionts.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1894):20182127.

Thousands of species of ambrosia beetles excavate tunnels in wood to farm fungi. They maintain associations with particular lineages of fungi, but the phylogenetic extent and mechanisms of fidelity are unknown. We test the hypothesis that selectivity of their mycangium enforces fidelity at coarse phylogenetic scales, while permitting promiscuity among closely related fungal mutualists. We confirm a single evolutionary origin of the Xylosandrus complex-a group of several xyleborine genera that farm fungi in the genus Ambrosiella. Multi-level co-phylogenetic analysis revealed frequent symbiont switching within major Ambrosiella clades, but not between clades. The loss of the mycangium in Diuncus, a genus of evolutionary cheaters, was commensurate with the loss of fidelity to fungal clades, supporting the hypothesis that the mycangium reinforces fidelity. Finally, in vivo experiments tracked symbiotic compatibility throughout the symbiotic life cycle of Xylosandrus compactus and demonstrated that closely related Ambrosiella symbionts are interchangeable, but the probability of fungal uptake in the mycangium was significantly lower in more phylogenetically distant species of symbionts. Symbiont loads in experimental subjects were similar to wild-caught beetles. We conclude that partner choice in ambrosia beetles is achieved in the mycangium, and co-phylogenetic inferences can be used to predict the likelihood of specific symbiont switches.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Jäckle O, Seah BKB, Tietjen M, et al (2019)

Chemosynthetic symbiont with a drastically reduced genome serves as primary energy storage in the marine flatworm Paracatenula.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1818995116 [Epub ahead of print].

Hosts of chemoautotrophic bacteria typically have much higher biomass than their symbionts and consume symbiont cells for nutrition. In contrast to this, chemoautotrophic Candidatus Riegeria symbionts in mouthless Paracatenula flatworms comprise up to half of the biomass of the consortium. Each species of Paracatenula harbors a specific Ca Riegeria, and the endosymbionts have been vertically transmitted for at least 500 million years. Such prolonged strict vertical transmission leads to streamlining of symbiont genomes, and the retained physiological capacities reveal the functions the symbionts provide to their hosts. Here, we studied a species of Paracatenula from Sant'Andrea, Elba, Italy, using genomics, gene expression, imaging analyses, as well as targeted and untargeted MS. We show that its symbiont, Ca R. santandreae has a drastically smaller genome (1.34 Mb) than the symbiont´s free-living relatives (4.29-4.97 Mb) but retains a versatile and energy-efficient metabolism. It encodes and expresses a complete intermediary carbon metabolism and enhanced carbon fixation through anaplerosis and accumulates massive intracellular inclusions such as sulfur, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and carbohydrates. Compared with symbiotic and free-living chemoautotrophs, Ca R. santandreae's versatility in energy storage is unparalleled in chemoautotrophs with such compact genomes. Transmission EM as well as host and symbiont expression data suggest that Ca R. santandreae largely provisions its host via outer-membrane vesicle secretion. With its high share of biomass in the symbiosis and large standing stocks of carbon and energy reserves, it has a unique role for bacterial symbionts-serving as the primary energy storage for its animal host.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Jin Y, Kim HU, Hong S, et al (2019)

Effect of Copper Foil Crystal Orientation on Graphene Quality Synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, 19(9):5942-5948.

Line defects such as wrinkles are believed to change the electrical properties of graphene. However, they are often observed in graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition; hence, it is important to study the impact of the substrate condition on graphene quality. In this work, graphene was synthesized on various copper domains with different crystal orientations and surface morphologies. During the synthesis process, three typical crystal orientations were obtained Cu(001), Cu(101), and Cu(111) showing different surface morphologies with various densities of wrinkles. Graphene wrinkles along with copper wrinkles were studied using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. The quality of graphene on different crystal orientations and morphologies was evaluated as well. It was found that different crystallographic orientations lead to different degrees of wrinkle and roughness. In addition, these wrinkle defects exhibited characteristic surface potential variations and the density of substrate wrinkles was closely associated with the uniformity of graphene and led to a disordered structure and low crystallinity.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Zlatogursky VV, Gerasimova EA, Drachko D, et al (2019)

Pinjata ruminata gen. et sp. n. - a New Member of Centrohelid Family Yogsothothidae (Haptista: Centroplasthelida) from the Brackish River.

The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

A new genus and species of centrohelid heliozoan Pinjata ruminata from the Tuzlukkol' River (Orenburg Region of Russia) and Gor'koe Lake (Chelyabinsk Region of Russia) is studied with light- and electron microscopy. P. ruminata has two types of plate scales, partially running up the sides of the axopodia. Inner plate scales (3.2-4.9 × 1.5-2.6 μm) are flat, ovate-oblong and have a broad axial thickening and a thin electron-dense border. Outer plate scales (4.2-6.7 ×1.5-3.0 μm) are concave, elongated, of irregular shape, often curved and broadened towards one end. Roundish depressions are forming two rows on both sides of the narrow axial thickening. The cells are attached to the substratum. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the SSU rDNA robustly placed P. ruminata in the family Yogsothothidae. This position is confirmed with presence of 5 panacanthocystid increase regions. The morphology of the new genus is in a good accordance with diagnosis of the family. The status of a genus "Heteroraphidiophrys" is discussed. Other potential findings of Pinjata from literature are analyzed. Pinjata represents the third lineage of centrohelids, characterized with the presence of only tangentially-oriented plate scales. The halophilic nature of Yogsothothidae is suggested. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Wu QS, He JD, Srivastava AK, et al (2019)

Mycorrhiza enhances drought tolerance of citrus by altering root fatty acid compositions and their saturation levels.

Tree physiology pii:5428673 [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) have the ability to enhance drought tolerance of citrus, while the underlying mechanisms are not clearly elucidated. Considering the strong association of cell membrane fatty acid (FA) unsaturation with plant drought tolerance, the present study hypothesized that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) modulated the composition and unsaturation of FAs to enhance drought tolerance of host plants. A drought-sensitive citrus rootstock, trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings, were inoculated with AMF (Funneliformis mosseae) for 3 months, and were subsequently exposed to drought stress (DS) for 8 weeks. Mycorrhizal seedlings exhibited better plant growth performance, higher leaf water potential, and lower root abscisic acid concentrations under both well-watered (WW) and DS, respectively. AMF inoculation considerably increased root methyl oleate (C18:1), methyl linoleate (C18:2) and methyl linolenate (C18:3 N3) concentrations under both WW and DS and root methyl palmitoleate (C16:1) concentrations under WW, while decreased root methyl stearate (C18:0) levels under both WW and DS. These changes in the composition of FAs of mycorrhized roots resulted in higher unsaturation index of root FAs (UIFA), which later aided in reducing the oxidative damage on account of lower concentration of malondialdehyde and superoxide radicals. The changes of these FAs were a result of AMF-up-regulating root fatty acid desaturase 2 (PtFAD2), fatty acid desaturase 6 (PtFAD6) and Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (PtΔ9) genes under WW and PtFAD2, PtFAD6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturase (PtΔ15) genes under DS. Our results confirmed that mycorrhization brought significant changes in root FA compositions, in addition to regulation of gene expression responsible for increasing the unsaturation level of FAs, a pre-disposing physiological event for better drought tolerance of citrus.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

McCauley M, TL Goulet (2019)

Caribbean gorgonian octocorals cope with nutrient enrichment.

Marine pollution bulletin, 141:621-628.

Corals inhabit oligotrophic waters, thriving amidst limited nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous. When nutrient levels increase, usually due to human activity, the symbiosis of dinoflagellates (family Symbiodiniaceae) with scleractinian corals can break down. Although gorgonian corals dominate many Caribbean reefs, the impact of enrichment on them and their algae is understudied. We exposed two gorgonian species, Pseudoplexaura porosa and Eunicea tourneforti, to elevated concentrations of either ammonium (10 μM or 50 μM) or phosphate (4 μM). Enrichment with 10 μM ammonium increased chlorophyll content and algal density in both species, whereas the host biochemical composition was unaffected. Exposure to 50 μM ammonium only reduced the quantum yield in P. porosa and mitotic indices in both species. Conversely, algal carbon and nitrogen content within E. tourneforti increased with 4 μM phosphate exposure. These gorgonian species coped with short-term nutrient enrichment, furthering our understanding of the success of Caribbean gorgonians.

RevDate: 2019-04-10

Arimoto A, Hikosaka-Katayama T, Hikosaka A, et al (2019)

A draft nuclear-genome assembly of the acoel flatworm Praesagittifera naikaiensis.

GigaScience, 8(4):.

BACKGROUND: Acoels are primitive bilaterians with very simple soft bodies, in which many organs, including the gut, are not developed. They provide platforms for studying molecular and developmental mechanisms involved in the formation of the basic bilaterian body plan, whole-body regeneration, and symbiosis with photosynthetic microalgae. Because genomic information is essential for future research on acoel biology, we sequenced and assembled the nuclear genome of an acoel, Praesagittifera naikaiensis.

FINDINGS: To avoid sequence contamination derived from symbiotic microalgae, DNA was extracted from embryos that were free of algae. More than 290x sequencing coverage was achieved using a combination of Illumina (paired-end and mate-pair libraries) and PacBio sequencing. RNA sequencing and Iso-Seq data from embryos, larvae, and adults were also obtained. First, a preliminary ∼17-kilobase pair (kb) mitochondrial genome was assembled, which was deleted from the nuclear sequence assembly. As a result, a draft nuclear genome assembly was ∼656 Mb in length, with a scaffold N50 of 117 kb and a contig N50 of 57 kb. Although ∼70% of the assembled sequences were likely composed of repetitive sequences that include DNA transposons and retrotransposons, the draft genome was estimated to contain 22,143 protein-coding genes, ∼99% of which were substantiated by corresponding transcripts. We could not find horizontally transferred microalgal genes in the acoel genome. Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs analyses indicated that 77% of the conserved single-copy genes were complete. Pfam domain analyses provided a basic set of gene families for transcription factors and signaling molecules.

CONCLUSIONS: Our present sequencing and assembly of the P. naikaiensis nuclear genome are comparable to those of other metazoan genomes, providing basic information for future studies of genic and genomic attributes of this animal group. Such studies may shed light on the origins and evolution of simple bilaterians.

RevDate: 2019-04-06

Mohammed M, Jaiswal SK, FD Dakora (2019)

Insights into the phylogeny, nodule functioning and biogeographic distribution of microsymbionts nodulating the orphan Kersting's groundnut [Macrotyloma geocarpum (Harms) Marechal & Baudet] in African soils.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.00342-19 [Epub ahead of print].

Kersting's groundnut [Macrotyloma geocarpum (Harms) Marechal & Baudet] is a neglected indigenous African legume adapted to growth in N-deficient soils due to its ability to fix atmospheric N2 via symbiosis with rhizobia. Despite its nutritional and medicinal uses, to date, there is little information on the phylogeny and functional traits of its microsymbionts, an aspect much needed for its conservation and improvement. This study explored the morpho-genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and N2-fixing efficiency of Kersting's groundnut rhizobial isolates from contrasting environments in Ghana, South Africa and Mozambique. Box-PCR fingerprinting revealed high diversity among rhizobial populations which was influenced by geographic origin. Of the 164 isolates evaluated, 130 Box-PCR types were identified at 70% similarity coefficient, indicating that they were not clones. Soil pH and mineral concentrations were found to influence the distribution of bradyrhizobial populations in African soils. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequence analysis of protein-coding genes (atpD, glnII, gyrB and rpoB) and symbiotic genes (nifH and nodC) showed that, Kersting's groundnut is primarily nodulated by members of genus Bradyrhizobium, which are closely related to B. vignae 7-2T, B. kavangense 14-3T, B. subterraneum 58-2-1T, B. pachyrhizi PAC48T, B. elkaniiT and novel groups of Bradyrhizobium species. The bradyrhizobial populations identified exhibited high N2 fixation, and induced greater nodulation, leaf chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic rates on their homologous host when compared to the 5 mM KNO3-fed plants and/or the commercial Bradyrhizobium strain CB756, suggesting that they could be good candidates for inoculant formulations upon field testing.IMPORTANCE Rhizobia play important roles in agroecosystems where they contribute to improving overall soil health through their symbiotic relationship with legumes. This study explored the microsymbionts nodulating Kersting's groundnut, a neglected orphan legume. The results revealed the presence of different bradyrhizobial populations with high N2-fixing efficiencies as the dominant symbionts of this legume across diverse agroecologies in Africa. Our findings represent a useful contribution to the literature in terms of the community of microsymbionts nodulating a neglected cultivated legume, and its potential for elevation as a major food crop. The presence of potentially novel bradyrhizobial symbionts of Kersting's groundnut found in this study offers an opportunity for future studies to properly describe, characterize and delineate these isolates functionally and phylogenetically for use in inoculant production to enhance food/nutritional security.

RevDate: 2019-04-06

Camacho M, Medina C, Rodríguez-Navarro DN, et al (2019)

Biodiversity of rhizobia present in plant nodules of Biserrula pelecinus across Southwest Spain.

Systematic and applied microbiology pii:S0723-2020(18)30522-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Biodiversity studies of native Mesorhizobium spp. strains able to nodulate the annual herbaceous legume Biserrula pelecinus L. in soils from Southwest Spain have been carried out. One or two isolates per plant, 30 in total, were randomly selected for further characterization. There was no association between the presence of mesorhizobia nodulating-B. pelecinus and the chemical or textural properties of the soils. The isolates were tested for their symbiotic effectiveness on this forage legume under greenhouse conditions and characterized on the basis of physiological parameters: carbon source utilisation (API 50CH), 16S rRNA sequencing and ERIC-PCR, lipopolysaccharide, protein and plasmid profiles. Our results show that in spite of the great diversity found among the native isolates, most of them belong to the genus Mesorhizobium, the exception being strain B24 which sequence matches 97.52% with Neorhizobium huautlense; this is the first description of a Neorhizobium strain effectively nodulating-biserrula plants. Results of a field trial indicated that some of these isolates could be recommended as inoculants for this legume. B24=DSM 28743=CECT 8815; ENA (HF955513) 16S rRNA sequences of isolates B13, B18, B26, B30 and B1 are deposited at ENA under numbers LS999402 to LS999406, respectively.

RevDate: 2019-04-05

Benavent-González A, Raggio J, Villagra J, et al (2019)

High nitrogen contribution by Gunnera magellanica and nitrogen transfer by mycorrhizas drive an extraordinarily fast primary succession in Sub-Antarctic Chile.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Chronosequences at the forefront of retreating glaciers provide information about colonization rates of bare surfaces. In the northern hemisphere, forest development can take centuries, with rates often limited by low nutrient availability. In contrast, in front of the retreating Pia Glacier (Tierra del Fuego, Chile), a Nothofagus forest is in place after only 34 years of development, while total soil nitrogen (N) increased from near zero to 1.5%, suggesting a strong input of this nutrient. We measured N-fixation rates, carbon fluxes, leaf N and phosphorus contents and leaf δ15 N in the dominant plants, including the herb Gunnera magellanica, which is endosymbiotically associated with a cyanobacterium, in order to investigate the role of N-fixing and mycorrhizal symbionts in N-budget during successional transition. Gunnera magellanica presented some of the highest nitrogenase activities yet reported (potential maximal contribution of 300 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Foliar δ15 N results support the framework of a highly efficient N-uptake and transfer system based on mycorrhizas, with about 80% of N taken up by the mycorrhizas potentially transferred to the host plant. Our results suggest the symbiosis of G. magellanica with cyanobacteria, and trees and shrubs with mycorrhizas, to be the key processes driving this rapid succession. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-04-05

Tiwari R, Negandhi H, S Zodpey (2019)

Forecasting the future need and gaps in requirements for public health professionals in India up to 2026.

WHO South-East Asia journal of public health, 8(1):56-65.

Current ambitious reforms in India mean that public health professionals (PHPs) will become an increasingly vital component of the health workforce. Despite a rapid growth in schools of public health in India, uptake of places by students without a medical background is low. This paper reports the results of an exercise to estimate the baseline supply of, and need for, PHPs in India in 2017 and to forecast possible supply-need scenarios up to 2026. Supply was estimated using the stock and flow approach and the service-target approach was used to estimate need. The additional need resulting from development of a new public health cadre, as stated in the National Health Policy 2017, was also included. Supply-need gaps were forecast according to three scenarios, which varied according to the future intensity of policy intervention to increase occupancy of training places for PHPs from a non-medical background: "best guess" (no intervention), "optimistic" (feasible intervention), and "aspirational" (significant intervention) scenarios. In the best guess scenario in 2017, i.e. with a low non-medical place occupancy of 60%, there is a supply-need gap of around 28 000 PHPs. In the absence of any intervention to increase place occupancy, this shortfall is forecast to increase to 45 000 PHPs by the year 2026. By contrast, in the aspirational scenario, i.e. with a high place occupancy of 75% for non-medical places, the baseline gap for 2017 of almost 26 000 PHPs reduces by 2026 to around 21 000 PHPs. By 2026, most new PHPs will be produced by public health training programmes offered by institutions other than medical colleges. Without significant interventions, India is likely to have a significant shortfall in PHPs in 2026. Policy-makers will have to carefully examine issues surrounding the current low uptake of non-medical public health seats and review the current framework regulating training of PHPs, in order to respond adequately to future requirements.

RevDate: 2019-04-05

Ingavle G, Vaidya A, V Kale (2019)

Constructing 3D microenvironments using engineered biomaterials for HSC expansion.

Tissue engineering. Part B, Reviews [Epub ahead of print].

In a native bone marrow tissue-microenvironment, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) form an important constituent of the stem cell niche, which is composed of extra-cellular matrix (ECM), niche cells, biophysical cues and growth factors. These micro-environmental elements play a major role in guiding stem cell behaviour, such as growth, stemness, maintenance and lineage differentiation. The rapid progress in biomaterials advancement and stem cell biology has opened new directions in stem cell therapy. Ideally, biomaterials intended for tissue regenerative medicine applications should perform the structural and biochemical functions of the native ECM, which provides cells with physical (structural/morphological), chemical and mechanical cues via its three-dimensional architecture, until the cells' own ECM takes over. Advanced techniques related to materials synthesis are significantly important for designing temporary tissue engineering scaffolds, which not only support cell growth but also facilitates three-dimensional tissue formation. This review concisely describes the types of natural and synthetic polymeric biomaterials and the different approaches of designing and developing of porous scaffolds for the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). It also illustrates the relationship between material science and tissue engineering and reviews the most frequently used materials and some exciting recent advancements in scaffold manufacture technologies. Further, this review focuses on an introduction to existing HSC niche concepts and summarizes approaches to mimic them in vitro.

RevDate: 2019-04-05

Rajan A, Valla JM, Alappatt JA, et al (2019)

Wired for musical rhythm? A diffusion MRI-based study of individual differences in music perception.

Brain structure & function pii:10.1007/s00429-019-01868-y [Epub ahead of print].

Music perceptual abilities are subjective and exhibit high inter-individual variability. Twenty-nine participants with varying degrees of musical training were tested for musical perception ability with the Profile of Music Perception Skills (PROMS) and brain structural measures obtained via diffusion tensor imaging. Controlling for the period of training, TBSS results showed that individuals with better musical perception abilities showed increased deviations from linear anisotropy in the corpus callosum. Specifically, mode of anisotropy in the genu and body of the corpus callosum was negatively correlated with music perception score suggesting the presence of crossing fibers. A multi-compartment model of crossing fibers revealed a significant positive relation for partial volumes of secondary fiber populations with timing aspects of music perception. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric connectivity differences in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum may reflect innate differences in the processing of the rhythmic aspects of music.

RevDate: 2019-04-05

Hughey MC, Sokol ER, Walke JB, et al (2019)

Ecological Correlates of Large-Scale Turnover in the Dominant Members of Pseudacris crucifer Skin Bacterial Communities.

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-019-01372-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Animals host a wide diversity of symbiotic microorganisms that contribute important functions to host health, and our knowledge of what drives variation in the composition of these complex communities continues to grow. Microbiome studies at larger spatial scales present opportunities to evaluate the contribution of large-scale factors to variation in the microbiome. We conducted a large-scale field study to assess variation in the bacterial symbiont communities on adult frog skin (Pseudacris crucifer), characterized using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found that skin bacterial communities on frogs were less diverse than, and structurally distinct from, the surrounding habitat. Frog skin was typically dominated by one of two bacterial OTUs: at western sites, a Proteobacteria dominated the community, whereas eastern sites were dominated by an Actinobacteria. Using a metacommunity framework, we then sought to identify factors explaining small- and large-scale variation in community structure-that is, among hosts within a pond, and among ponds spanning the study transect. We focused on the presence of a fungal skin pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) as one potential driver of variation. We found no direct link between skin bacterial community structure and Bd infection status of individual frog hosts. Differences in pond-level community structure, however, were explained by Bd infection prevalence. Importantly, Bd infection prevalence itself was correlated with numerous other environmental factors; thus, skin bacterial diversity may be influenced by a complex suite of extrinsic factors. Our findings indicate that large-scale factors and processes merit consideration when seeking to understand microbiome diversity.

RevDate: 2019-04-07

Vannier N, Mony C, Bittebiere AK, et al (2019)

Clonal Plants as Meta-Holobionts.

mSystems, 4(2): pii:mSystems00213-18.

The holobiont concept defines a given organism and its associated symbionts as a potential level of selection over evolutionary time. In clonal plants, recent experiments demonstrated vertical transmission of part of the microbiota from one ramet (i.e., potentially autonomous individual) to another within the clonal network (i.e., connections by modified stems present in ∼35% of all plants). Because of this heritability, and potentially reciprocal exchange of microbes between generations of ramets, we propose to extend the existing holobiont framework to the concept of meta-holobiont. A meta-holobiont is a network of holobionts that can exchange biomolecules and microbiota across generations, thus impacting the fitness of both biological scales: holobionts and meta-holobionts. Specifically, meta-holobiont dynamics can result in sharing, specialization, and division of labor across plant clonal generations. This paper, which coins the meta-holobiont concept, is expected to stimulate discussion and to be applied beyond the context of networked clonal plants (e.g., to social insects).

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Richards TA, JP McCutcheon (2019)

Coral symbiosis is a three-player game.

Nature, 568(7750):41-42.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Parihar M, Meena VS, Mishra PK, et al (2019)

Arbuscular mycorrhiza: a viable strategy for soil nutrient loss reduction.

Archives of microbiology pii:10.1007/s00203-019-01653-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi's (AMF) role in plant nutrition and stress management is well known, but very few researches and studies have been conducted so far on the fungal ability to reduce different nutrient losses (runoff, leaching and volatilization) from the soil system. This important ecosystem service of AMF had been neglected largely. From the recent findings, it has been confirmed that mycorrhizal symbiosis has potential to check the losses of applied nutrients. The role of soil biota in nutrient cycling is indispensable and determines the nutrient availability to plants. Among these biota, AMF's association with plants is the most prevalent, but the exact mechanisms followed by AMF in nutrient cycling, transformation and reducing nutrient loss ability are still inconclusive. In this review, we will try to unlock this particular aspect of AMF which is important to achieve global food demand in a sustainable way.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Matthews AC, Mikonranta L, B Raymond (2019)

Shifts along the parasite-mutualist continuum are opposed by fundamental trade-offs.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1900):20190236.

Theory suggests that symbionts can readily evolve more parasitic or mutualistic strategies with respect to hosts. However, many symbionts have stable interactions with hosts that improve nutrient assimilation or confer protection from pathogens. We explored the potential for evolution of increased parasitism or decreased parasitism and mutualism in a natural gut symbiosis between larvae of Plutella xylostella and the microbe Enterobacter cloacae. We focused on interactions with the pathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis: selecting for parasitism in terms of facilitating pathogen infection, or increased mutualism in terms of host protection. Selection for parasitism led to symbionts increasing pathogen-induced mortality but reduced their competitive ability with pathogens and their in vitro growth rates. Symbionts did not evolve to confer protection from pathogens. However, several lineages evolved reduced parasitism, primarily in terms of moderating impacts on host growth, potentially because prudence pays dividends through increased host size. Overall, the evolution of increased parasitism was achievable but was opposed by trade-offs likely to reduce fitness. The evolution of protection may not have occurred because suppressing growth of B. thuringiensis in the gut might provide only weak protection or because evolution towards protective interactions was opposed by the loss of competitive fitness in symbionts.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Kirienko AN, Vishnevskaya NA, Kitaeva AB, et al (2019)

Structural Variations in LysM Domains of LysM-RLK PsK1 May Result in a Different Effect on Pea⁻Rhizobial Symbiosis Development.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(7): pii:ijms20071624.

Lysin-motif receptor-like kinase PsK1 is involved in symbiosis initiation and the maintenance of infection thread (IT) growth and bacterial release in pea. We verified PsK1 specificity in relation to the Nod factor structure using k1 and rhizobial mutants. Inoculation with nodO and nodE nodO mutants significantly reduced root hair deformations, curling, and the number of ITs in k1-1 and k1-2 mutants. These results indicated that PsK1 function may depend on Nod factor structures. PsK1 with replacement in kinase domain and PsSYM10 co-production in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves did not induce a hypersensitive response (HR) because of the impossibility of signal transduction into the cell. Replacement of P169S in LysM3 domain of PsK1 disturbed the extracellular domain (ECD) interaction with PsSYM10's ECD in Y2H system and reduced HR during the co-production of full-length PsK1 and PsSYM0 in N. benthamiana. Lastly, we explored the role of PsK1 in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi; no significant differences between wild-type plants and k1 mutants were found, suggesting a specific role of PsK1 in legume⁻rhizobial symbiosis. However, increased sensitivity to a highly aggressive Fusarium culmorum strain was found in k1 mutants compared with the wild type, which requires the further study of the role of PsK1 in immune response regulation.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

Pereda-Goikoetxea B, Marín-Fernández B, Liceaga-Otazu NE, et al (2019)

A qualitative study of hospital birth perceptions: The helix of priority needs.

Midwifery, 74:91-98 pii:S0266-6138(19)30076-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To understand which needs are considered priorities in the hospital birth experience from the perspectives of postpartum women.

DESIGN: This qualitative prospective study used a phenomenological approach. Data were collected through participant observations and semi-structured interviews recorded at eight weeks and eight months after childbirth. The data were analysed using a thematic approach.

PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort consisted of 43 participants at eight weeks after childbirth and 33 participants eight months after childbirth.

SETTING: Donostia University Hospital, San Sebastián, Spain, in 2016-2017.

FINDINGS: Through the analysis, the following four main themes emerged, each in different categories: (a) Professional care: symbiosis between the woman and the professional: (a.1) professional treatment and its characteristics, (a.2) professional competence, and (a.3) professional information and listening: pillars in the support relationship. (b) Control and hospital safety: (b.1) hospital environment: external control. (c) Presence of the partner: (c.1) support, guidance, and participation. (d) Perception of observed feelings: (d.1) fear of complications or separation from the child, (d.2) fear of internal lack of control, and (d.3) fear of an instrumental delivery and/or caesarean section.

The core of the hospital birth experience is constituted by the need to establish a supportive relationship based on mutual trust, exchange information that offers internal and external control and the security necessary to overcome feelings of fear, and obtain support and guidance from an involved partner.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Hernandez-Agreda A, Leggat W, TD Ainsworth (2019)

A place for taxonomic profiling in the study of the coral prokaryotic microbiome.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:5426210 [Epub ahead of print].

The enormous variability in richness, abundance, and diversity of unknown bacterial organisms inhabiting the coral microbiome have challenged our understanding of their functional contribution to coral health. Identifying the attributes of the healthy meta-organism is paramount for contemporary approaches aiming to manipulate dysbiotic stages of the coral microbiome. This review evaluates the current knowledge on the structure and mechanisms driving bacterial communities in the coral microbiome and discusses two topics requiring further research to define the healthy coral microbiome. 1) We examine the necessity to establish microbial baselines to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of the healthy coral microbiome and summarize conceptual and logistic challenges to consider in the design of these baselines. 2) We propose potential mechanical, physical and chemical mechanisms driving bacterial distribution within coral compartments and suggest experiments to test them. Finally, we highlight aspects of the use of 16S amplicon sequencing requiring standardization and discuss its contribution to other multi-omics approaches.

RevDate: 2019-04-06

Baruah MM, N Sharma (2019)

In silico identification of key genes and signaling pathways targeted by a panel of signature microRNAs in prostate cancer.

Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England), 36(5):43 pii:10.1007/s12032-019-1268-y.

Accumulating evidence have suggested that some microRNAs are aberrantly expressed in prostate cancer. In our previous work, we had identified a panel of four differentially expressed microRNAs in prostate cancer. In the present study, we have investigated common molecular targets of this panel of miRNAs (DEMs) and key hub genes that can serve as potential candidate biomarkers in the pathogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. A joint bioinformatics approach was employed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in prostate cancer. Gene enrichment analysis followed by the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction and selection of hub genes was further performed using String and Cytoscape, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the identified hub genes was conducted using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) tool. In total, 496 genes were identified to be common targets of DEMs in prostate cancer and 13 key hub genes were identified from three modules of the PPI network of the DEGs. Further top five genes viz Rhoa, PI3KCA, CDC42, MAPK3, TP53 were used for Enrichment analysis which revealed their association with vital cellular and functional pathways in prostate cancer indicating their potential as candidate biomarkers in prostate cancer.

RevDate: 2019-04-04

Mewalal R, Yin H, Hu R, et al (2019)

Identification of Populus Small RNAs Responsive to Mutualistic Interactions With Mycorrhizal Fungi, Laccaria bicolor and Rhizophagus irregularis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:515.

Ecto- and endo-mycorrhizal colonization of Populus roots have a positive impact on the overall tree health and growth. A complete molecular understanding of these interactions will have important implications for increasing agricultural or forestry sustainability using plant:microbe-based strategies. These beneficial associations entail extensive morphological changes orchestrated by the genetic reprogramming in both organisms. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of two Populus species (Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa) that were colonized by either an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AmF), Rhizophagus irregularis or an ectomycorrhizal fungus (EmF), Laccaria bicolor, to describe the small RNA (sRNA) landscape including small open reading frames (sORFs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs) involved in these mutualistic interactions. We identified differential expression of sRNAs that were, to a large extent, (1) within the genomic regions lacking annotated genes in the Populus genome and (2) distinct for each fungal interaction. These sRNAs may be a source of novel sORFs within a genome, and in this regard, we identified potential sORFs encoded by the sRNAs. We predicted a higher number of differentially-expressed miRNAs in P. trichocarpa (4 times more) than in P. deltoides (conserved and novel). In addition, 44 miRNAs were common in P. trichocarpa between the EmF and AmF treatments, and only 4 miRNAs were common in P. deltoides between the treatments. Root colonization by either fungus was more effective in P. trichocarpa than in P. deltoides, thus the relatively few differentially-expressed miRNAs predicted in P. deltoides might reflect the extent of the symbiosis. Finally, we predicted several genes targets for the plant miRNAs identified here, including potential fungal gene targets. Our findings shed light on additional molecular tiers with a role in Populus-fungal mutualistic associations and provides a set of potential molecular targets for future enhancement.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Tianero MD, Balaich JN, MS Donia (2019)

Localized production of defence chemicals by intracellular symbionts of Haliclona sponges.

Nature microbiology pii:10.1038/s41564-019-0415-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Marine sponges often house small-molecule-producing symbionts extracellularly in their mesohyl, providing the host with a means of chemical defence against predation and microbial infection. Here, we report an intriguing case of chemically mediated symbiosis between the renieramycin-containing sponge Haliclona sp. and its herein discovered renieramycin-producing symbiont Candidatus Endohaliclona renieramycinifaciens. Remarkably, Ca. E. renieramycinifaciens has undergone extreme genome reduction where it has lost almost all necessary elements for free living while maintaining a complex, multi-copy plasmid-encoded biosynthetic gene cluster for renieramycin biosynthesis. In return, the sponge houses Ca. E. renieramycinifaciens in previously uncharacterized cellular reservoirs (chemobacteriocytes), where it can acquire nutrients from the host and avoid bacterial competition. This relationship is highly specific to a single clade of Haliclona sponges. Our study reveals intracellular symbionts as an understudied source for defence chemicals in the oldest-living metazoans and paves the way towards discovering similar systems in other marine sponges.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Ippolito L, Morandi A, Taddei ML, et al (2019)

Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote prostate cancer malignancy via metabolic rewiring and mitochondrial transfer.

Oncogene pii:10.1038/s41388-019-0805-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the major cellular stromal component of many solid tumors. In prostate cancer (PCa), CAFs establish a metabolic symbiosis with PCa cells, contributing to cancer aggressiveness through lactate shuttle. In this study, we report that lactate uptake alters the NAD+/NADH ratio in the cancer cells, which culminates with SIRT1-dependent PGC-1α activation and subsequent enhancement of mitochondrial mass and activity. The high exploitation of mitochondria results in tricarboxylic acid cycle deregulation, accumulation of oncometabolites and in the altered expression of mitochondrial complexes, responsible for superoxide generation. Additionally, cancer cells hijack CAF-derived functional mitochondria through the formation of cellular bridges, a phenomenon that we observed in both in vitro and in vivo PCa models. Our work reveals a crucial function of tumor mitochondria as the energy sensors and transducers of CAF-dependent metabolic reprogramming and underscores the reliance of PCa cells on CAF catabolic activity and mitochondria trading.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Shibasaki S (2019)

The evolutionary game of interspecific mutualism in the multi-species model.

Journal of theoretical biology, 471:51-58 pii:S0022-5193(19)30133-X [Epub ahead of print].

Mutualistic interspecific interactions, including Müllerian mimicry and division of labor, are common in nature. In contrast to antagonistic interactions, where faster evolution is favored, mutualism can favor slower evolution under certain conditions. This is called the Red King effect. Since Bergstrom and Lachmann (2003) proposed the Red King effect, it has been investigated only in two-species models. However, biological examples suggest that mutualism can include three or more species. Here, I modeled the evolutionary dynamics of mutualism in communities where involving two or more species, and in which all species mutually interact. Regardless of the number of species in the community, it is possible to derive conditions for stable equilibria. Although nonlinear relationships exist between the evolutionary rates and the evolutionary fate of each species in the multi-species communities, the model suggests that it is possible to predict whether faster evolution is favored or disfavored for the relatively rapidly evolving species; however, it is difficult to predict the evolutionary fate of species that evolve relatively slowly because their evolutionary dynamics are affected by the evolutionary fate of species evolving rapidly.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Ali A, Ghani MI, Ding H, et al (2019)

Co-Amended Synergistic Interactions between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and the Organic Substrate-Induced Cucumber Yield and Fruit Quality Associated with the Regulation of the AM-Fungal Community Structure under Anthropogenic Cultivated Soil.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(7): pii:ijms20071539.

Monotonous cucumber double-cropping systems under plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation (PGVC) previously intensified by long-term anthropogenic activities and manipulative treatments leads to a crop productivity reduction and soil biota disturbances. In this study, the role of the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal strain (AM: Glomus versiforme L.) and organic substrate (GS: Garlic stalk) application were assessed for plant microbe interaction and crop productivity feedback in a greenhouse (2016⁻2018) under a cultivated Anthrosol characterized as a replanted degraded soil. We found that repetitively adding AM inocula with organic substrates (GS) improved the cucumber growth and physiology. The useful trait of AM symbiosis with C-amended organic substrates preferentially manifested as increased root colonization, hyphal density proliferation, AM sporulation, root activity, and suppressed Fusarium incidence. The post AM development further prevailed the synergistic interaction, and the co-inoculation effect resulted in an increase in fruit nutrition uptake, seasonal cucumber yield and fruit quality attributes. Illumina MiSeq analysis of the 18S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that the dominant AM genera that are particularly enriched with the Glomus taxon may be important ecological drivers associated with plant productivity and fruit quality characteristics. These results suggest that the AM-organic substrate association might be a pragmatic option for use as an economic and efficient biological resource and as a newly-sustainable plant microbe mediator to enhance the regional ecosystem services and plant productivity of the anthropogenic PGVC of this region.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Shan H, Yang J, G Wei (2019)

Industrial Symbiosis Systems: Promoting Carbon Emission Reduction Activities.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(7): pii:ijerph16071093.

The carbon emission problem in China needs to be solved urgently. Industrial symbiosis, as an effective means to improve resource efficiency, can better alleviate the carbon emission problem. Under such a circumstance, this paper regards an industrial symbiosis system as a collection of producers, consumers and decomposers, and analyzes the strategic selections and behavioral characteristics of their carbon emission reduction activities through a tripartite evolutionary game model, and then the effects of related parameters on the evolutionary stable strategies of stakeholders are discussed. The results demonstrate that: (1) the regular return and the rate of return determine the ability of stakeholders to undertake carbon reduction activities; (2) the initial willingness of stakeholders to participate will affect the evolutionary speed of the strategies; (3) a high opportunity cost reduces the inertia of stakeholders to carry out carbon emission reductions; (4) producers, consumers and decomposers can avoid "free rides" by signing agreements or adopting punitive measures.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Serova TA, Tsyganova AV, Tikhonovich IA, et al (2019)

Gibberellins Inhibit Nodule Senescence and Stimulate Nodule Meristem Bifurcation in Pea (Pisum sativum L.).

Frontiers in plant science, 10:285.

The development of nitrogen-fixing nodules formed during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis is strongly controlled by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of gibberellins (GAs) on senescence of pea (Pisum sativum) symbiotic nodules. Pea wild-type line SGE, as well as corresponding mutant lines SGEFix--1 (sym40), SGEFix--2 (sym33), SGEFix--3 (sym26), and SGEFix--7 (sym27), blocked at different stages of nodule development, were used in the study. An increase in expression of the GA2ox1 gene, encoding an enzyme involved in GA deactivation (GA 2-oxidase), and a decrease in the transcript abundance of the GA20ox1 gene, encoding one of the enzymes involved in GA biosynthesis (GA 20-oxidase), were observed in analyzed genotypes during nodule aging. A reduction in the amount of bioactive GA3 was demonstrated by immunolocalization in the early senescent mutant and wild-type lines during aging of symbiotic nodules. Down-regulated expression of senescence-associated genes encoding cysteine proteases 1 and 15a, thiol protease, bZIP transcription factor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, ACC oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase was observed in the nodules of wild-type plants treated with exogenous GA3 relative to the untreated plants. GA3-treated plants also showed increases in nodule size and the nitrogen fixation zone, and decreases in the number of nodules and the senescence zone. Immunogold localization revealed higher levels of GA3 in the peribacteroid spaces in symbiosomes than in the matrix of infection threads. Furthermore, a decrease in GA3 label in mature and senescent symbiosomes in comparison with juvenile symbiosomes was observed. These results suggest a negative effect of GAs on the senescence of the pea symbiotic nodule and possible involvement of GAs in functioning of the mature nodule. Simultaneously, GA3 treatment led to nodule meristem bifurcation, indicating a possible role of GAs in nodule meristem functioning.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Ho-Plágaro T, Molinero-Rosales N, Fariña Flores D, et al (2019)

Identification and Expression Analysis of GRAS Transcription Factor Genes Involved in the Control of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Development in Tomato.

Frontiers in plant science, 10:268.

The formation and functioning of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis are complex and tightly regulated processes. Transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been reported to mediate gene expression changes closely associated with arbuscule formation, where nutrients move between the plant and fungus. Numerous genes encoding transcription factors (TFs), with those belonging to the GRAS family being of particular importance, are induced upon mycorrhization. In this study, a screening for candidate transcription factor genes differentially regulated in AM tomato roots showed that more than 30% of known GRAS tomato genes are upregulated upon mycorrhization. Some AM-upregulated GRAS genes were identified as encoding for transcription factors which are putative orthologs of previously identified regulators of mycorrhization in other plant species. The symbiotic role played by other newly identified AM-upregulated GRAS genes remains unknown. Preliminary results on the involvement of tomato SlGRAS18, SlGRAS38, and SlGRAS43 from the SCL3, SCL32, and SCR clades, respectively, in mycorrhization are presented. All three showed high transcript levels in the late stages of mycorrhization, and the analysis of promoter activity demonstrated that SlGRAS18 and SlGRAS43 are significantly induced in cells containing arbuscules. When SlGRAS18 and SlGRAS38 genes were silenced using RNA interference in hairy root composite tomato plants, a delay in mycorrhizal infection was observed, while an increase in mycorrhizal colonization was observed in SlGRAS43 RNAi roots. The possible mode of action of these TFs during mycorrhization is discussed, with a particular emphasis on the potential involvement of the SHR/SCR/SCL3 module of GRAS TFs in the regulation of gibberellin signaling during mycorrhization, which is analogous to other plant developmental processes.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Safronova V, Belimov A, Sazanova A, et al (2019)

Two Broad Host Range Rhizobial Strains Isolated From Relict Legumes Have Various Complementary Effects on Symbiotic Parameters of Co-inoculated Plants.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:514.

Two bacterial strains Ach-343 and Opo-235 were isolated, respectively from nodules of Miocene-Pliocene relict legumes Astragalus chorinensis Bunge and Oxytropis popoviana Peschkova originated from Buryatia (Baikal Lake region, Russia). For identification of these strains the sequencing of 16S rRNA (rrs) gene was used. Strain Opo-235 belonged to the species Mesorhizobium japonicum, while the strain Ach-343 was identified as M. kowhaii (100 and 99.9% rrs similarity with the type strains MAFF 303099T and ICMP 19512T, respectively). Symbiotic genes of these strains as well as some genes that promote plant growth (acdS, gibberellin- and auxin-synthesis related genes) were searched throughout the whole genome sequences. The sets of plant growth-promoting genes found were almost identical in both strains, whereas the sets of symbiotic genes were different and complemented each other with several nod, nif, and fix genes. Effects of mono- and co-inoculation of Astragalus sericeocanus, Oxytropis caespitosa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Medicago sativa, and Trifolium pratense plants with the strains M. kowhaii Ach-343 and M. japonicum Opo-235 expressing fluorescent proteins mCherry (red) and EGFP (green) were studied in the gnotobiotic plant nodulation assay. It was shown that both strains had a wide range of host specificity, including species of different legume genera from two tribes (Galegeae and Trifolieae). The effects of co-microsymbionts on plants depended on the plant species and varied from decrease, no effect, to increase in the number of nodules, nitrogen-fixing activity and plant biomass. One of the reasons for this phenomenon may be the discovered complementarity in co-microsymbionts of symbiotic genes responsible for the specific modification of Nod-factors and nitrogenase activity. Localization and co-localization of the strains in nodules was confirmed by the confocal microscopy. Analysis of histological and ultrastructural organization of A. chorinensis and O. popoviana root nodules was performed. It can be concluded that the strains M. kowhaii Ach-343 and M. japonicum Opo-235 demonstrate lack of high symbiotic specificity that is characteristic for primitive legume-rhizobia systems. Further study of the root nodule bacteria having complementary sets of symbiotic genes will contribute to clarify the evolutionary paths of legume-rhizobia relationships and the mechanisms of effective integration between partners.

RevDate: 2019-03-31

Yoshino K, Yamamoto K, Hara K, et al (2019)

The conservation of polyol transporter proteins and their involvement in lichenized Ascomycota.

Fungal biology, 123(4):318-329.

In lichen symbiosis, polyol transfer from green algae is important for acquiring the fungal carbon source. However, the existence of polyol transporter genes and their correlation with lichenization remain unclear. Here, we report candidate polyol transporter genes selected from the genome of the lichen-forming fungus (LFF) Ramalina conduplicans. A phylogenetic analysis using characterized polyol and monosaccharide transporter proteins and hypothetical polyol transporter proteins of R. conduplicans and various ascomycetous fungi suggested that the characterized yeast' polyol transporters form multiple clades with the polyol transporter-like proteins selected from the diverse ascomycetous taxa. Thus, polyol transporter genes are widely conserved among Ascomycota, regardless of lichen-forming status. In addition, the phylogenetic clusters suggested that LFFs belonging to Lecanoromycetes have duplicated proteins in each cluster. Consequently, the number of sequences similar to characterized yeast' polyol transporters were evaluated using the genomes of 472 species or strains of Ascomycota. Among these, LFFs belonging to Lecanoromycetes had greater numbers of deduced polyol transporter proteins. Thus, various polyol transporters are conserved in Ascomycota and polyol transporter genes appear to have expanded during the evolution of Lecanoromycetes.

RevDate: 2019-03-30

Somerville J, Zhou L, B Raymond (2019)

Aseptic Rearing and Infection with Gut Bacteria Improve the Fitness of Transgenic Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella.

Insects, 10(4): pii:insects10040089.

Mass insect rearing can have a range of applications, for example in biological control of pests. The competitive fitness of released insects is extremely important in a number of applications. Here, we investigated how to improve the fitness of a transgenic diamondback moth, which has shown variation in mating ability when reared in different insectaries. Specifically we tested whether infection with a gut bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae, and aseptic rearing of larvae could improve insect growth and male performance. All larvae were readily infected with E. cloacae. Under aseptic rearing, pupal weights were reduced and there was a marginal reduction in larval survival. However, aseptic rearing substantially improved the fitness of transgenic males. In addition, under aseptic rearing, inoculation with E. cloacae increased pupal weights and male fitness, increasing the proportion of transgenic progeny from 20% to 30% relative to uninfected insects. Aseptic conditions may improve the fitness of transgenic males by excluding microbial contaminants, while symbiont inoculation could further improve fitness by providing additional protection against infection, or by normalizing insect physiology. The simple innovation of incorporating antibiotic into diet, and inoculating insects with symbiotic bacteria that are resistant to that antibiotic, could provide a readily transferable tool for other insect rearing systems.

RevDate: 2019-03-30

da Costa RR, Hu H, Li H, et al (2019)

Symbiotic Plant Biomass Decomposition in Fungus-Growing Termites.

Insects, 10(4): pii:insects10040087.

Termites are among the most successful animal groups, accomplishing nutrient acquisition through long-term associations and enzyme provisioning from microbial symbionts. Fungus farming has evolved only once in a single termite sub-family: Macrotermitinae. This sub-family has become a dominant decomposer in the Old World; through enzymatic contributions from insects, fungi, and bacteria, managed in an intricate decomposition pathway, the termites obtain near-complete utilisation of essentially any plant substrate. Here we review recent insights into our understanding of the process of plant biomass decomposition in fungus-growing termites. To this end, we outline research avenues that we believe can help shed light on how evolution has shaped the optimisation of plant-biomass decomposition in this complex multipartite symbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-04-13

Raina JB, Fernandez V, Lambert B, et al (2019)

The role of microbial motility and chemotaxis in symbiosis.

Nature reviews. Microbiology, 17(5):284-294.

Many symbiotic relationships rely on the acquisition of microbial partners from the environment. However, the mechanisms by which microbial symbionts find and colonize their hosts are often unknown. We propose that the acquisition of environmental symbionts often necessitates active migration and colonization by the symbionts through motility and chemotaxis. The pivotal role of these behaviours in the onset and maintenance of symbiotic interactions is well established in a small number of model systems but remains largely overlooked for the many symbioses that involve the recruitment of microbial partners from the environment. In this Review, we highlight when, where and how chemotaxis and motility can enable symbiont recruitment and propose that these symbiont behaviours are important across a wide range of hosts and environments.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Buysse M, Plantard O, McCoy KD, et al (2019)

Tissue localization of Coxiella-like endosymbionts in three European tick species through fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Ticks and tick-borne diseases pii:S1877-959X(18)30402-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Ticks are commonly infected by Coxiella-like endosymbionts (Coxiella-LE) which are thought to supply missing B vitamin nutrients required for blood digestion.While this nutritional symbiosis is essential for the survival and reproduction of infected tick species, our knowledge of where Coxiella-LE is localized in tick tissues is partial at best since previous studies have focused on a limited number of Asian or American tick species. To fill this gap, we investigated the tissue localization of Coxiella-LE in three European tick species, Ornithodoros maritimus, Dermacentor marginatus and Ixodes hexagonus, using a diagnostic fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, combined with PCR-based detection. Specific fluorescent foci were observed in several tick tissues. We visualized a pronounced tissue tropism of Coxiella-LE for tick ovaries and Malpighian tubules, a pattern suggestive of a high degree of lifestyle specialization toward mutualism: infection of the ovaries is indicative of transovarial transmission, whereas infection of the Malpighian tubules suggests a nutritional function. We postulate that Malpighian tubules are key organs for the nutritional symbiosis, notably the synthesis of B vitamins by Coxiella-LE, whereas the infection of the ovaries ensures vertical transmission of the symbionts to future generations. We also detected occasional infections in other organs, such as salivary glands and the midgut. Finally, we discuss the potential significance of the different tissue tropism for tick biology.

RevDate: 2019-03-28

Field KJ, Bidartondo MI, Rimington WR, et al (2019)

Functional complementarity of ancient plant-fungal mutualisms: contrasting nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon exchanges between Mucoromycotina and Glomeromycotina fungal symbionts of liverworts.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Liverworts, which are amongst the earliest-divergent plant lineages and important ecosystem pioneers, often form nutritional mutualisms with arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycotina and fine root endophyte Mucoromycotina fungi, both of which co-evolved with early land plants. Some liverworts, in common with many later-divergent plants, harbour both fungal groups, suggesting these fungi may complementarily improve plant access to different soil nutrients. We tested this hypothesis by growing liverworts in single and dual fungal partnerships under a modern atmosphere and under 1500 ppm [CO2 ], as experienced by early land plants. Access to soil nutrients via fungal partners was investigated with 15 N-labelled algal necromass and 33 P orthophosphate. Photosynthate allocation to fungi was traced using 14 CO2 . Only Mucoromycotina fungal partners provided liverworts with substantial access to algal 15 N, irrespective of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Both symbionts increased 33 P uptake, but Glomeromycotina were often more effective. Dual partnerships showed complementarity of nutrient pool use and greatest photosynthate allocation to symbiotic fungi. We show there are important functional differences between the plant-fungal symbioses tested, providing new insights into the functional biology of Glomeromycotina and Mucoromycotina fungal groups that form symbioses with plants. This may explain the persistence of both fungal lineages in symbioses across the evolution of land plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-03-28

Matsuo K, Haku A, Bi B, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation prevents Candida albicans from colonizing the gastrointestinal tract.

Microbiology and immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbes symbiotically colonize the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, interacting with each other and their host to maintain GI tract homeostasis. Recent reports have shown that gut microbes help protect the gut from colonization by pathogenic microbes. Here, we report that commensal microbes prevent colonization of the pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans, in the GI tract. Wild-type specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice are resistant to C. albicans colonization in the GI tract. However, administering certain antibiotics to SPF mice enables C. albicans colonization. Quantitative kinetics of commensal bacteria are inversely correlated with the number of C. albicans in the gut. Here, we provide further evidence that fecal microbiota transplantation effectively prevents Candida colonization in the GI tract. These data demonstrate the importance of commensal bacteria as a barrier of the GI tract surface, and highlight the potential clinical applications of commensal bacteria for preventing pathogenic fungal infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-04-04

Nissinen R, Helander M, Kumar M, et al (2019)

Heritable Epichloë symbiosis shapes fungal but not bacterial communities of plant leaves.

Scientific reports, 9(1):5253 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-41603-5.

Keystone microbial species have driven eco-evolutionary processes since the origin of life. However, due to our inability to detect the majority of microbiota, members of diverse microbial communities of fungi, bacteria and viruses have largely been ignored as keystone species in past literature. Here we tested whether heritable Epichloë species of pooidae grasses modulate microbiota of their shared host plant.

RevDate: 2019-04-15

Hajialilo E, Rezaeian M, Niyyati M, et al (2019)

Molecular characterization of bacterial, viral and fungal endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba isolates in keratitis patients of Iran.

Experimental parasitology, 200:48-54 pii:S0014-4894(19)30005-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Free-living amoebae belong to the genus Acanthamoeba; can feed on microbial population by phagocytosis, and with the capability to act as a reservoir and a vehicle of microorganisms to susceptible host. Therefore, the role of endosymbiosis in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is complex and not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to identify bacterial, fungal, and human adenovirus (HADV) endosymbionts as well as evaluating the endosymbionts role of such organisms in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba in keratitis patients living in Iran. Fifteen Acanthamoeba (T4 genotype) isolates were recovered from corneal scrapes and contact lenses of patients with keratitis. Cloning and purification was performed for all isolate. Gram staining was performed to identify bacterial endosymbionts. DNA extraction, PCR, and nested PCR was set up to identify endosymbiont of amoeba. Evaluation of pathogenicity was conducted by osmo-tolerance and thermo-tolerance assays and cell culture, and then CPE (cytopathic effect) was survey. Statistical analysis was used between Acanthamoeba associated endosymbionts and Acanthamoeba without endosymbiont at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. A p value < 0.05 was considered as significant, statistically. A total of 9 (60%) Acanthamoeba (T4 genotypes) isolates were successfully cloned for detecting microorganism endosymbionts. The only isolate negative for the presence of endosymbiont was ICS9. ICS7 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus sp., and human adenovirus endosymbionts) and ICS2 (Escherichia coli endosymbiont) isolates were considered as Acanthamoeba associated endosymbionts. ICS7 and ICS2 isolates were highly pathogen whereas ICS9 isolate showed low pathogenicity in pathogenicity evaluated. Positive CPE for ICS7 and ICS2 isolates and negative CPE for ICS9 isolate were observed in cell culture. The average number of cells, trophozoites, and cysts among ICS7, ICS2, and ICS9 isolates at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h was significant. This is the first survey on microbial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba in keratitis patients of Iran, and also the first report of Aspergillus sp, Achromobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Brevibacillus sp, Brevundimonas sp and Mastadenovirus sp in Acanthamoeba as endosymbionts. Our study demonstrated that microbial endosymbionts can affect the pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba; however, further research is required to clarify the exact pattern of symbiosis, in order to modify treatment protocol.

RevDate: 2019-03-28

Qi Y, Chen X, Hu Z, et al (2019)

Bibliometric Analysis of Algal-Bacterial Symbiosis in Wastewater Treatment.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(6): pii:ijerph16061077.

In recent years, the algae-bacteria symbiotic system has played a significant role in the sustainable development of wastewater treatment. With the continuous expansion of research outputs, publications related to wastewater treatment via algal-bacterial consortia appear to be on the rise. Based on SCI-EXPANDED database, this study investigated the research activities and tendencies of algae-bacteria symbiotic wastewater treatment technology by bibliometric method from 1998 to 2017. The results indicated that environmental sciences and ecology was the most productive subject categories, followed by engineering. Bioresource Technology was the most prominent journal in this field with considerable academic influence. China (146), USA (139) and Spain (76) had the largest amount of publications. Among them, USA was in a leading position in international cooperation, with the highest h-index (67) in 79 countries/territories. The cooperation between China and USA was the closest. The cooperative publishing rate of the Chinese Academy of Sciences was 83.33%, but most of them were in cooperation with domestic institutions, while international cooperation was relatively limited. Methane production, biofuel production, and extracellular polymeric substance were future focal frontiers of research, and this field had gradually become a multi-perspective and inter-disciplinary approach combining biological, environmental and energy technologies.

RevDate: 2019-03-28

Salgado-Morales R, Martínez-Ocampo F, Obregón-Barboza V, et al (2019)

Assessing the Pathogenicity of Two Bacteria Isolated from the Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis indica against Galleria mellonella and Some Pest Insects.

Insects, 10(3): pii:insects10030083.

The entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis are parasites of insects and are associated with mutualist symbiosis enterobacteria of the genus Photorhabdus; these bacteria are lethal to their host insects. Heterorhabditis indica MOR03 was isolated from sugarcane soil in Morelos state, Mexico. The molecular identification of the nematode was confirmed using sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the D2/D3 expansion segment of the 28S rRNA gene. In addition, two bacteria HIM3 and NA04 strains were isolated from the entomopathogenic nematode. The genomes of both bacteria were sequenced and assembled de novo. Phylogenetic analysis was confirmed by concatenated gene sequence datasets as Photorhabdus luminescens HIM3 (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, dnaN, gyrA, and gyrB genes) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa NA04 (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and gyrB genes). H. indica MOR03 infects Galleria mellonella, Tenebrio molitor, Heliothis subflexa, and Diatraea magnifactella larvae with LC50 values of 1.4, 23.5, 13.7, and 21.7 IJs/cm², respectively, at 48 h. These bacteria are pathogenic to various insects and have high injectable insecticide activity at 24 h.

RevDate: 2019-04-14

Del Cerro P, Megías M, López-Baena FJ, et al (2019)

Osmotic stress activates nif and fix genes and induces the Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Nod factor production via NodD2 by up-regulation of the nodA2 operon and the nodA3 gene.

PloS one, 14(3):e0213298 pii:PONE-D-18-32081.

The symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes is characterized by a complex molecular dialogue in which the bacterial NodD protein plays a major role due to its capacity to activate the expression of the nodulation genes in the presence of appropiate flavonoids. These genes are involved in the synthesis of molecules, the nodulation factors (NF), responsible for launching the nodulation process. Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899, a rhizobial strain that nodulates Phaseolus vulgaris, is characterized by its tolerance to multiple environmental stresses such as high temperatures, acidity or elevated osmolarity. This strain produces nodulation factors under saline stress and the same set of CIAT 899 nodulation genes activated by inducing flavonoids are also up-regulated in a process controlled by the NodD2 protein. In this paper, we have studied the effect of osmotic stress (high mannitol concentrations) on the R. tropici CIAT 899 transcriptomic response. In the same manner as with saline stress, the osmotic stress mediated NF production and export was controlled directly by NodD2. In contrast to previous reports, the nodA2FE operon and the nodA3 and nodD1 genes were up-regulated with mannitol, which correlated with an increase in the production of biologically active NF. Interestingly, in these conditions, this regulatory protein controlled not only the expression of nodulation genes but also the expression of other genes involved in protein folding and synthesis, motility, synthesis of polysaccharides and, surprinsingly, nitrogen fixation. Moreover, the non-metabolizable sugar dulcitol was also able to induce the NF production and the activation of nod genes in CIAT 899.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Quiroga G, Erice G, Ding L, et al (2019)

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates aquaporins activity and improves root cell water permeability in maize plants subjected to water stress.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Studies have suggested that increased root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal roots could be the result of increased cell-to-cell water flux via aquaporins. This study aimed to elucidate if the key effect of the regulation of maize aquaporins by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is the enhancement of root cell water transport capacity. Thus, water permeability coefficient (Pf) and cell hydraulic conductivity (Lpc) were measured in root protoplast and intact cortex cells of AM and non-AM plants subjected or not to water stress. Results showed that cells from droughted-AM roots maintained Pf and Lpc values of nonstressed plants, whereas in non-AM roots, these values declined drastically as a consequence of water deficit. Interestingly, the phosphorylation status of PIP2 aquaporins increased in AM plants subjected to water deficit, and Pf values higher than 12 μm s-1 were found only in protoplasts from AM roots, revealing the higher water permeability of AM root cells. In parallel, the AM symbiosis increased stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, and related parameters, showing a higher photosynthetic capacity in these plants. This study demonstrates a better performance of AM root cells in water transport under water deficit, which is connected to the shoot physiological performance in terms of photosynthetic capacity.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Goh DM, Cosme M, Kisiala AB, et al (2019)

A Stimulatory Role for Cytokinin in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis of Pea.

Frontiers in plant science, 10:262.

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis between terrestrial plants and AM fungi is regulated by plant hormones. For most of these, a role has been clearly assigned in this mutualistic interaction; however, there are still contradictory reports for cytokinin (CK). Here, pea plants, the wild type (WT) cv. Sparkle and its mutant E151 (Pssym15), were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. E151 has previously been characterized as possessing high CK levels in non-mycorrhizal (myc-) roots and exhibiting high number of fungal structures in mycorrhizal (myc+) roots. Myc- and myc+ plants were treated 7, 9, and 11 days after inoculation (DAI) with synthetic compounds known to alter CK status. WT plants were treated with a synthetic CK [6-benzylaminopurine (BAP)] or the CK degradation inhibitor INCYDE, whereas E151 plants were treated with the CK receptor antagonist PI-55. At 13 DAI, plant CK content was analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of the synthetic compounds on AM colonization were assessed at 28 (WT) or 35 (E151) DAI via a modified magnified intersections method. The only noticeable difference seen between myc- and myc+ plants in terms of CK content was in the levels of nucleotides (NTs). Whereas WT plants responded to fungi by lowering their NT levels, E151 plants did not. Since NTs are thought to be converted into active CK forms, this result suggests that active CKs were synthesized more effectively in WT than in E151. In general, myc+ and myc- WT plants responded similarly to INCYDE by lowering significantly their NT levels and increasing slightly their active CK levels; these responses were less obvious in BAP-treated WT plants. In contrast, the response of E151 plants to PI-55 depended on the plant mycorrhizal status. Whereas treated myc- plants exhibited high NT and low active CK levels, treated myc+ plants displayed low levels of both NTs and active CKs. Moreover, treated WT plants were more colonized than treated E151 plants. We concluded that CKs have a stimulatory role in AM colonization because increased active CK levels were paralleled with increased AM colonization while decreased CK levels corresponded to reduced AM colonization.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Xiao R, Wang X, Xie E, et al (2019)

An IMD-like pathway mediates the intestinal immunity to modulate the homeostasis of gut microbiota in Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

Developmental and comparative immunology, 97:20-27 pii:S0145-305X(18)30631-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Most animals have established the mutualistic interactions with their intestinal microbes which provide multiple benefits to their host physiology. However, the mechanisms behind hosts determine the load and composition of gut microbiota are still poorly understood outside dipteran insects. Here, the gene, encoding the NF-κB-like transcription factor Relish, being designated as RfRelish, was identified and analyzed in red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier. We revealed that the abundance of RfRelish transcripts in the fat body, hemolymph and gut are significantly higher than that in non-immunity-related tissues, and its expression level can be markedly induced by bacterial challenges. When RfRelish was silenced, the ability of individuals to clear the pathogenic bacteria in body cavity and gut was significantly compromised, suggesting that both the systemic and gut local immunity were impaired dramatically by RfRelish knockdown. Additionally, the silenced insects exhibited increased gut bacterial load, and the relative abundance of some gut bacteria was changed as compared to controls. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the IMD-like pathway restricts the proliferation of gut bacteria and shapes the commensal community structure in the intestine of R. ferrugineus by mediating the secretion of antimicrobial peptides. We provide a striking example on how an insect pest maintains the homeostasis of gut microbiota via a conserved immune pathway without compromising the advantages of the mutualistic relationships.

RevDate: 2019-03-26

Fan J, Qin H, Zhang Y, et al (2019)

Degradation of 4-chlorophenol by BM Fe/Cu-O2 system: The symbiosis of ·O2- and ·OH radicals.

Water environment research : a research publication of the Water Environment Federation [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, Fe/Cu bimetal composite was prepared by high energy ball milling (BM) method for the removal of refractory organics. The BM Fe/Cu bimetal was characterized by SEM-EDS, XRD, and XPS. Evenly distributed Fe and Cu was observed in the EDS-mapping. In contrasting experiments, the removal rate of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) by BM Fe/Cu materials was about 10-fold faster than that by chemical substitution deposition (CSD) Fe/Cu material. Complete 4-CP removal and 66.7% of total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization in the BM Fe/Cu-O2 system were achieved. Dissolved oxygen plays a crucial role for 4-CP degradation through the in situ generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) like H2 O2 , ·OH and ·O2- via oxygen activation reactions. The predominant reactive radicals were identified to be ·O2- and ·OH through ESR technique and inhibition experiments. The coexistence of oxidation and reduction of 4-CP in the BM Fe/Cu-O2 system was proposed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-04-12
CmpDate: 2019-04-12

Chen BD, Yu M, Hao ZP, et al (2019)

Research progress in arbuscular mycorrhizal technology.

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 30(3):1035-1046.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis facilitates plant mineral nutrient acquisition and plays key roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. The application of AM fungi is a component of sustainable agriculture and ecological restoration. We introduced the current status of AM fungi collections, production of commercial inocula and AM fungi related patents, summarized the research advances in inoculum production, inoculation techniques, and factors influencing the success of inoculation practice in the field, based on case studies of mycorrhizal technology in agriculture, horticulture, and ecological restoration. Finally, we proposed some basic scientific questions and technical bottleneck that deserve futher studies, to promote the development and application of mycorrhizal technologies.

RevDate: 2019-03-26

Agarkar AA, H Agrawal (2019)

LRSPPP: lightweight R-LWE-based secure and privacy-preserving scheme for prosumer side network in smart grid.

Heliyon, 5(3):e01321 pii:e01321.

In recent years, researchers have made tremendous progress to address an important question of how to provide security and privacy in Internet of Things systems. Privacy protection refers to safeguarding leakage of private information of the customers. In the context of Smart Grid, majority of the studies are based on addressing consumer side privacy. A recent research work has revealed that consumer side network has evolved into prosumer side network. Prosumer refers to consumer and producer, which means a dual role of a customer in the smart grid network. In this paper, we attempt to address the security and privacy issues at the prosumer side of smart grid network. Our work is different from the previous works in two ways. The paper proposes a lightweight encryption based privacy preservation scheme; Lightweight R-LWE-based Secure and Privacy-Preserving Scheme for Prosumer side network (LRSPPP). In LRSPPP, a new messaging scheme is defined which effectively minimizes the number of messages thus making it lightweight. Furthermore, the proposed privacy preservation scheme is using Learning With Errors over Rings (R-LWE) lattice cryptography. There is no previous evidence of use of R-LWE based encryption for prosumer's privacy protection in smart grid. The security and performance analysis shows that the LRSPPP is superior compared to three other existing schemes.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Oliver Goetze T, Al-Batran SE, Pabst U, et al (2018)

Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) in combination with standard of care chemotherapy in primarily untreated chemo naïve upper gi-adenocarcinomas with peritoneal seeding - a phase II/III trial of the AIO/CAOGI/ACO.

Pleura and peritoneum, 3(2):20180113 pii:pp-pp-2018-0113.

Background: Peritoneal metastasis is a common and dismal evolution of several gastrointestinal (GI) tumors, including gastric, colorectal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, and other cancers. The therapy of peritoneal metastasis is largely palliative; with the aim of prolonging life and preserving its quality. In the meantime, a significant pharmacological advantage of intraperitoneal chemotherapy was documented in the preclinical model, and numerous clinical studies have delivered promising clinical results.

Methods: This is a prospective, open, randomized multicenter phase III clinical study with two arms that aims to evaluate the effects of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) combined with systemic chemotherapy vs. intravenous systemic chemotherapy alone on patients with metastatic upper GI tumors with a peritoneal seeding. Upper GI-adenocarcinomas originated from biliary tract, pancreas and stomach, or esophago- gastric junction are eligible. Patients in the study are treated with standard of care systemic palliative chemotherapy (mFOLFOX6) vs. PIPAC with intravenous (i.v.) chemotherapy (mFOLFOX6). Patients in first line with first diagnosed peritoneal seeding are eligible. Primary outcome is progression free survival (PFS).

Conclusions: PIPAC-procedure is explicit a palliative method but it delivers cytotoxic therapy like in hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC)-procedure directly to the tumor in a minimally invasive technique, without the need for consideration of the peritoneal-plasma barrier. The technique of PIPAC is minimally invasive and very gentle and the complete procedure takes only round about 45 min and, therefore, optimal in a clearly palliative situation where cure is not the goal. It is also ideal for using this approach in a first line situation, where deepest response should be achieved. The symbiosis of systemic therapy and potentially effective surgery has to be well-planned without deterioration of the patient due to aggressive way of surgery like in cytoreductive surgery (CRS)+HIPEC.

Trial registration: EudraCT: 2018-001035-40.

RevDate: 2019-03-26

Chiu CH, U Paszkowski (2019)

Mechanisms and Impact of Symbiotic Phosphate Acquisition.

Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology pii:cshperspect.a034603 [Epub ahead of print].

Phosphorous is important for life but often limiting for plants. The symbiotic pathway of phosphate uptake via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is evolutionarily ancient and today occurs in natural and agricultural ecosystems alike. Plants capable of this symbiosis can obtain up to all of the phosphate from symbiotic fungi, and this offers potential means to develop crops less dependent on unsustainable P fertilizers. Here, we review the mechanisms and insights gleaned from the fine-tuned signal exchanges that orchestrate the intimate mutualistic symbiosis between plants and AMF. As the currency of trade, nutrients have signaling functions beyond being the nutritional goal of mutualism. We propose that such signaling roles and metabolic reprogramming may represent commitments for a mutualistic symbiosis that act across the stages of symbiosis development.

RevDate: 2019-03-25

Uchi N, Fukudome M, Nozaki N, et al (2019)

Antimicrobial Activities of Cysteine-rich Peptides Specific to Bacteriocytes of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

Microbes and environments [Epub ahead of print].

Aphids have a mutualistic relationship with the bacterial endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola. We previously reported seven cysteine-rich peptides in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and named them Bacteriocyte-specific Cysteine-Rich (BCR) peptides; these peptides are exclusively expressed in bacteriocytes, special aphid cells that harbor symbionts. Similar symbiotic organ-specific cysteine-rich peptides identified in the root nodules of leguminous plants are named Nodule-specific Cysteine-Rich (NCR) peptides. NCR peptides target rhizobia in the nodules and are essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. A BacA (membrane protein) mutant of Sinorhizobium is sensitive to NCR peptides and is unable to establish symbiosis. Based on the structural and expressional similarities between BCR peptides and NCR peptides, we hypothesized that aphid BCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity, similar to some NCR peptides. We herein synthesized BCR peptides and investigated their antimicrobial activities and effects on the bacterial membrane of Escherichia coli. The peptides BCR1, BCR3, BCR5, and BCR8 exhibited antimicrobial activities with increased membrane permeability. An sbmA mutant of E. coli, a homolog of bacA of S. meliloti, was more sensitive to BCR peptides than the wild type. Our results suggest that BCR peptides have properties that may be required to control the endosymbiont, similar to NCR peptides in legumes.

RevDate: 2019-04-10

Bartolomaeus H, Markó L, Wilck N, et al (2019)

Precarious Symbiosis Between Host and Microbiome in Cardiovascular Health.

Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 73(5):926-935.

RevDate: 2019-03-23

Kord H, Fakheri B, Ghabooli M, et al (2019)

Salinity-associated microRNAs and their potential roles in mediating salt tolerance in rice colonized by the endophytic root fungus Piriformospora indica.

Functional & integrative genomics pii:10.1007/s10142-019-00671-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Piriformospora indica (P. indica), an endophytic root fungus, supports the growth and enhanced tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several recent studies showed the significant role of small RNA (sRNA) molecules including microRNAs (miRNAs) in plant adaption to environmental stress, but little is known concerning the symbiosis-mediated salt stress tolerance regulated at miRNAs level. The overarching goal of this research is to elucidate the impact of miRNAs in regulating the P. indica-mediated salt tolerance in rice. Applying sRNA-seq analysis led to identify a set of 547 differentially abundant miRNAs in response to P. indica inoculation and salt stress. These included 206 rice-specific and 341 previously known miRNAs from other plant species. In silico analysis of miRNAs predictions of the differentially abundant miRNAs led to identifying of 193 putatively target genes, most of which were encoded either genes or transcription factors involved in nutrient uptake, sodium ion transporters, growth regulators, and auxin- responsive proteins. The rice-specific miRNAs targeted the transcription factors involved in the import of potassium ions into the root cells, the export of sodium ions, and plant growth and development. Interestingly, P. indica affected the differential abundance of miRNAs regulated genes and transcription factors linked to salt stress tolerance. Our data helps to understand the molecular basis of salt stress tolerance mediated by symbionts in plant and the potential impact of miRNAs for genetic improvement of rice varieties for tolerance to salt stress.

RevDate: 2019-03-22

Ricks KD, RT Koide (2019)

Biotic filtering of endophytic fungal communities in Bromus tectorum.

Oecologia pii:10.1007/s00442-019-04388-y [Epub ahead of print].

The assembly of horizontally transmitted endophytic fungi within plant tissues may be affected by "biotic filtering". In other words, only particular endophytic fungal taxa from the available inoculum pool may be able to colonize a given plant species. We tested that hypothesis in Bromus tectorum, an important invasive species in the arid, western United States. We collected seed from Bromus tectorum and sources of inoculum for endophytic fungi including soil and various kinds of plant litter at a field site in central Utah. We characterized, using Illumina sequencing, the endophytic fungal communities in the various inoculum sources, inoculated Bromus tectorum seedlings under gnotobiotic conditions with the various sources, and then characterized the communities of endophytic fungi that assembled in their roots and leaves. Different inoculum sources containing significantly different endophytic fungal communities produced complex communities of endophytic fungi in leaves and roots of Bromus tectorum. In leaves, the communities assembling from the various inoculum sources were not significantly different from each other and, in roots, they were only slightly different from each other, mainly due to variation in a single fungal OTU, Coprinopsis brunneofibrillosa. Consequently, there was significantly more variation in the structure of the communities of endophytic fungi among the inoculum sources than in the resultant endophytic fungal communities in the leaves and roots of Bromus tectorum. These results are consistent with biotic filtering playing a significant role in endophytic fungal community assembly.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Zhang D, PS Frenette (2019)

Crosstalk between neutrophils and the microbiota.

Blood pii:blood-2018-11-844555 [Epub ahead of print].

TThe microbiota has emerged as an important regulator of the host immunity by the induction, functional modulation or suppression of local and systemic immune responses. In return, the host immune system restricts translocation and fine-tunes the composition and distribution of the microbiota to maintain a beneficial symbiosis. This paradigm applies to neutrophils, a critical component of the innate immunity, allowing their production and function to be influenced by microbial components and metabolites derived from the microbiota, and engaging them in the process of microbiota containment and regulation. The crosstalk between neutrophils and the microbiota adjusts the magnitude of neutrophil-mediated inflammation upon challenge while preventing neutrophil responses against commensals under steady state. Here, we review the major molecular and cellular mediators of the interactions between neutrophils and the microbiota, and discuss their interplay and contribution in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.

RevDate: 2019-04-15

Jonnalagadda M, Faizan MA, Ozarkar S, et al (2019)

A Genome-Wide Association Study of Skin and Iris Pigmentation among Individuals of South Asian Ancestry.

Genome biology and evolution, 11(4):1066-1076.

South Asia has a complex history of migrations and is characterized by substantial pigmentary and genetic diversity. For this reason, it is an ideal region to study the genetic architecture of normal pigmentation variation. Here, we present a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of skin pigmentation using skin reflectance (M-index) as a quantitative phenotype. The meta-analysis includes a sample of individuals of South Asian descent living in Canada (N = 348), and a sample of individuals from two caste and four tribal groups from West Maharashtra, India (N = 480). We also present the first GWAS of iris color in South Asian populations. This GWAS was based on quantitative measures of iris color obtained from high-resolution iris pictures. We identified genome-wide significant associations of variants within the well-known gene SLC24A5, including the nonsynonymous rs1426654 polymorphism, with both skin pigmentation and iris color, highlighting the pleiotropic effects of this gene on pigmentation. Variants in the HERC2 gene (e.g., rs12913832) were also associated with iris color and iris heterochromia. Our study emphasizes the usefulness of quantitative methods to study iris color variation. We also identified novel genome-wide significant associations with skin pigmentation and iris color, but we could not replicate these associations due to the lack of independent samples. It will be critical to expand the number of studies in South Asian populations in order to better understand the genetic variation driving the diversity of skin pigmentation and iris color observed in this region.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Tolley SJA, Nonacs P, P Sapountzis (2019)

Wolbachia Horizontal Transmission Events in Ants: What Do We Know and What Can We Learn?.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:296.

While strict vertical transmission insures the durability of intracellular symbioses, phylogenetic incongruences between hosts and endosymbionts suggest horizontal transmission must also occur. These horizontal acquisitions can have important implications for the biology of the host. Wolbachia is one of the most ecologically successful prokaryotes in arthropods, infecting an estimated 50-70% of all insect species. Much of this success is likely due to the fact that, in arthropods, Wolbachia is notorious for manipulating host reproduction to favor transmission through the female germline. However, its natural potential for horizontal transmission remains poorly understood. Here we evaluate the fundamental prerequisites for successful horizontal transfer, including necessary environmental conditions, genetic potential of bacterial strains, and means of mediating transfers. Furthermore, we revisit the relatedness of Wolbachia strains infecting the Panamanian leaf-cutting ant, Acromyrmex echinatior, and its inquiline social parasite, Acromyrmex insinuator, and compare our results to a study published more than 15 years ago by Van Borm et al. (2003). The results of this pilot study prompt us to reevaluate previous notions that obligate social parasitism reliably facilitates horizontal transfer and suggest that not all Wolbachia strains associated with ants have the same genetic potential for horizontal transmission.

RevDate: 2019-03-20

Jonathan RL, Hernández-López A, Estrada-Navarrete G, et al (2019)

The non-canonical heat shock protein PvNod22 is essential for infection thread progression during rhizobial endosymbiosis in common bean.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

In the establishment of plant-rhizobial symbiosis, the plant hosts express nodulin proteins during root nodule organogenesis. A limited number of nodulins have been characterized, and these perform essential functions in root nodule development and metabolism. Most nodulins are expressed in the nodule and at lower levels in other plant tissues. Previously, we isolated Nodulin 22 (PvNod22) from a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cDNA library derived from Rhizobium-infected roots. PvNod22 is a non-canonical, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized, small heat shock protein (sHsp) that confers protection against oxidative stress when over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Virus-induced gene silencing of PvNod22 resulted in necrotic lesions in the aerial organs of P. vulgaris plants cultivated under optimal conditions, activation of the ER-unfolded protein response (UPR) and, finally, in plant death. Here, we examined the expression of PvNod22 in common bean plants during the establishment of rhizobial endosymbiosis and its relationship with two cellular processes associated with plant immunity, the UPR and autophagy. In the RNA interference lines, numerous infection threads stopped their progression before reaching the cortex cell layer of the root, and nodules contained fewer nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Collectively, our results suggest that PvNod22 has a non-redundant function during legume-rhizobia symbiosis associated with infection thread elongation likely by sustaining protein homeostasis in the ER.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Bayliss SLJ, Scott ZR, Coffroth MA, et al (2019)

Genetic variation in Breviolum antillogorgium, a coral reef symbiont, in response to temperature and nutrients.

Ecology and evolution, 9(5):2803-2813 pii:ECE34959.

Symbionts within the family Symbiodiniaceae are important on coral reefs because they provide significant amounts of carbon to many different reef species. The breakdown of this mutualism that occurs as a result of increasingly warmer ocean temperatures is a major threat to coral reef ecosystems globally. Recombination during sexual reproduction and high rates of somatic mutation can lead to increased genetic variation within symbiont species, which may provide the fuel for natural selection and adaptation. However, few studies have asked whether such variation in functional traits exists within these symbionts. We used several genotypes of two closely related species, Breviolum antillogorgium and B. minutum, to examine variation of traits related to symbiosis in response to increases in temperature or nitrogen availability in laboratory cultures. We found significant genetic variation within and among symbiont species in chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency, and growth rate. Two genotypes showed decreases in traits in response to increased temperatures predicted by climate change, but one genotype responded positively. Similarly, some genotypes within a species responded positively to high-nitrogen environments, such as those expected within hosts or eutrophication associated with global change, while other genotypes in the same species responded negatively, suggesting context-dependency in the strength of mutualism. Such variation in traits implies that there is potential for natural selection on symbionts in response to temperature and nutrients, which could confer an adaptive advantage to the holobiont.

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Prasad S, Shah A, Bhalsing KS, et al (2019)

Abnormal hippocampal subfields are associated with cognitive impairment in Essential Tremor.

Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) pii:10.1007/s00702-019-01992-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Multi-domain cognitive impairment (CI) has been frequently described in patients with essential tremor (ET). However, the exact neuroanatomical basis for this impairment is uncertain. This study aims to ascertain the role of the hippocampal formation in cognitive impairment in ET. Forty patients with ET and 40 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Cognition was assessed using a structured neuropsychological battery and patients were categorized as ET with CI (ETCI) and ET without CI (ETNCI). Automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields was performed using FreeSurfer 6.0. The obtained volumes were correlated with scores of neuropsychological tests. Significant atrophy of the left subiculum, CA4, granule-cell layer of dentate gyrus, right molecular layer, and hypertrophy of bilateral parasubiculum, right hippocampus-amygdala-transition-area, bilateral hippocampal tail (HT) and widening of right hippocampal fissure was observed in ET. Trends toward atrophy of right subiculum, and widening of left HF was also observed. Comparison of HC and ETCI revealed atrophy of right subiculum, hypertrophy of bilateral parasubiculum, HT, and widening of left HF. ETCI showed a trend toward widening of right HF. ETNCI had isolated left parasubicular hypertrophy and in comparison, to ETNCI the ETCI subgroup had atrophy of bilateral fimbria. Significant correlations were observed between the volumes of HT, HF, fimbria and scores of tests for executive function, working and verbal memory. Patients with ET have significant volumetric abnormalities of several hippocampal subfields and these abnormalities may be important contributors for some forms of cognitive impairment observed in ET.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Polzin J, Arevalo P, Nussbaumer T, et al (2019)

Polyclonal symbiont populations in hydrothermal vent tubeworms and the environment.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1896):20181281.

Horizontally transmitted symbioses usually house multiple and variable symbiont genotypes that are acquired from a much more diverse environmental pool via partner choice mechanisms. However, in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila (Vestimentifera, Siboglinidae), it has been suggested that the Candidatus Endoriftia persephone symbiont is monoclonal. Here, we show with high-coverage metagenomics that adult R. pachyptila house a polyclonal symbiont population consisting of one dominant and several low-frequency variants. This dominance of one genotype is confirmed by multilocus gene sequencing of amplified housekeeping genes in a broad range of host individuals where three out of four loci (atpA, uvrD and recA) revealed no genomic differences, while one locus (gyrB) was more diverse in adults than in juveniles. We also analysed a metagenome of free-living Endoriftia and found that the free-living population showed greater sequence variability than the host-associated population. Most juveniles and adults shared a specific dominant genotype, while other genotypes can dominate in few individuals. We suggest that although generally permissive, partner choice is selective enough to restrict uptake of some genotypes present in the environment.

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Gano-Cohen KA, Wendlandt CE, Stokes PJ, et al (2019)

Interspecific conflict and the evolution of ineffective rhizobia.

Microbial symbionts exhibit broad genotypic variation in their fitness effects on hosts, leaving hosts vulnerable to costly partnerships. Interspecific conflict and partner-maladaptation are frameworks to explain this variation, with different implications for mutualism stability. We investigated the mutualist service of nitrogen fixation in a metapopulation of root-nodule forming Bradyrhizobium symbionts in Acmispon hosts. We uncovered Bradyrhizobium genotypes that provide negligible mutualist services to hosts and had superior in planta fitness during clonal infections, consistent with cheater strains that destabilise mutualisms. Interspecific conflict was also confirmed at the metapopulation level - by a significant negative association between the fitness benefits provided by Bradyrhizobium genotypes and their local genotype frequencies - indicating that selection favours cheating rhizobia. Legumes have mechanisms to defend against rhizobia that fail to fix sufficient nitrogen, but these data support predictions that rhizobia can subvert plant defenses and evolve to exploit hosts.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Shi YM, Brachmann AO, Westphalen MA, et al (2019)

Dual phenazine gene clusters enable diversification during biosynthesis.

Nature chemical biology, 15(4):331-339.

Biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) bridging genotype and phenotype continuously evolve through gene mutations and recombinations to generate chemical diversity. Phenazine BGCs are widespread in bacteria, and the biosynthetic mechanisms of the formation of the phenazine structural core have been illuminated in the last decade. However, little is known about the complex phenazine core-modification machinery. Here, we report the diversity-oriented modifications of the phenazine core through two distinct BGCs in the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus szentirmaii, which lives in symbiosis with nematodes. A previously unidentified aldehyde intermediate, which can be modified by multiple enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions, is a common intermediate bridging the pathways encoded by these BGCs. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity of the resulting phenazine derivatives suggests a highly effective strategy to convert Gram-positive specific phenazines into broad-spectrum antibiotics, which might help the bacteria-nematode complex to maintain its special environmental niche.

RevDate: 2019-03-29
CmpDate: 2019-03-29

Azmat R, S Moin (2019)

The remediation of drought stress under VAM inoculation through proline chemical transformation action.

Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology, 193:155-161.

This article discussed the enhanced drought tolerance under arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation and normal growth of plants which linked with the activity of photoreceptors. The photoreceptor action in dual symbiosis under drought stress showed not only the high photosynthetic activity but also provide information about the broad range of physiological responses. The pot experiment conducted in a natural environment where drought condition was observed twice a week via regular irrigation with water up to twelve months. Plants analysis showed the high contents of water, hydrogen peroxide, carotenoids, proline, antioxidant enzymes like super dismutase (SOD) and catalase(CAT) in both leaves and roots with a large surface area of leaves over control. The elevated concentration of hydrogen peroxide (0.04 ± 0.0 μmol/g) coupled with singlet oxygen species was the main modified molecular mechanism which was operative in drought condition. The accretion of proline under drought stress in dual symbiosis (32.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL) was related to the highest branching pattern of young leaves and the chemical transformation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2O2 and 3O2 into useful molecules like water and triplet molecular oxygen. The higher contents of carotenoids (5.0 ± 1.2 mg/g) in drought over control (4.8 ± 1.6 mg/g) and AM plant (4.9 ± 1.2 mg/g) was found to be supportive in the conversion of singlet oxygen into triplet one.

RevDate: 2019-04-13

Fernández I, Cosme M, Stringlis IA, et al (2019)

Molecular dialogue between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the nonhost plant Arabidopsis thaliana switches from initial detection to antagonism.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Approximately 29% of all vascular plant species are unable to establish an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Despite this, AM fungi (Rhizophagus spp.) are enriched in the root microbiome of the nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana, and Arabidopsis roots become colonized when AM networks nurtured by host plants are available. Here, we investigated the nonhost-AM fungus interaction by analyzing transcriptional changes in Rhizophagus, Arabidopsis and the host plant Medicago truncatula while growing in the same mycorrhizal network. In early interaction stages, Rhizophagus activated the Arabidopsis strigolactone biosynthesis genes CCD7 and CCD8, suggesting that detection of AM fungi is not completely impaired. However, in colonized Arabidopsis roots, fungal nutrient transporter genes GintPT, GintAMT2, GintMST2 and GintMST4, essential for AM symbiosis, were not activated. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis pointed to activation of costly defenses in colonized Arabidopsis roots. Moreover, Rhizophagus colonization caused a 50% reduction in shoot biomass, but also led to enhanced systemic immunity against Botrytis cinerea. This suggests that early signaling between AM fungi and Arabidopsis is not completely impaired and that incompatibility appears at later interaction stages. Moreover, Rhizophagus-mediated defenses coincide with reduced Arabidopsis growth, but also with systemic disease resistance, highlighting the multifunctional role of AM fungi in host and nonhost interactions.

RevDate: 2019-03-18

Hapeshi A, Benarroch JM, Clarke DJ, et al (2019)

Iso-propyl stilbene: a life cycle signal?.

Microbiology (Reading, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Members of the Gram-negative bacterial genus Photorhabdus are all highly insect pathogenic and exist in an obligate symbiosis with the entomopathogenic nematode worm Heterorhabditis. All members of the genus produce the small-molecule 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene (IPS) as part of their secondary metabolism. IPS is a multi-potent compound that has antimicrobial, antifungal, immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities and also plays an important role in symbiosis with the nematode. In this study we have examined the response of Photorhabdus itself to exogenous ectopic addition of IPS at physiologically relevant concentrations. We observed that the bacteria had a measureable phenotypic response, which included a decrease in bioluminescence and pigment production. This was reflected in changes in its transcriptomic response, in which we reveal a reduction in transcript levels of genes relating to many fundamental cellular processes, such as translation and oxidative phosphorylation. Our observations suggest that IPS plays an important role in the biology of Photorhabdus bacteria, fulfilling roles in quorum sensing, antibiotic-competition advantage and maintenance of the symbiotic developmental cycle.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Tribble GD, Angelov N, Weltman R, et al (2019)

Frequency of Tongue Cleaning Impacts the Human Tongue Microbiome Composition and Enterosalivary Circulation of Nitrate.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:39.

The oral microbiome has the potential to provide an important symbiotic function in human blood pressure physiology by contributing to the generation of nitric oxide (NO), an essential cardiovascular signaling molecule. NO is produced by the human body via conversion of arginine to NO by endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but eNOS activity varies by subject. Oral microbial communities are proposed to supplement host NO production by reducing dietary nitrate to nitrite via bacterial nitrate reductases. Unreduced dietary nitrate is delivered to the oral cavity in saliva, a physiological process termed the enterosalivary circulation of nitrate. Previous studies demonstrated that disruption of enterosalivary circulation via use of oral antiseptics resulted in increases in systolic blood pressure. These previous studies did not include detailed information on the oral health of enrolled subjects. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis, we determined whether introduction of chlorhexidine antiseptic mouthwash for 1 week was associated with changes in tongue bacterial communities and resting systolic blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals with documented oral hygiene behaviors and free of oral disease. Tongue cleaning frequency was a predictor of chlorhexidine-induced changes in systolic blood pressure and tongue microbiome composition. Twice-daily chlorhexidine usage was associated with a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after 1 week of use and recovery from use resulted in an enrichment in nitrate-reducing bacteria on the tongue. Individuals with relatively high levels of bacterial nitrite reductases had lower resting systolic blood pressure. These results further support the concept of a symbiotic oral microbiome contributing to human health via the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. These data suggest that management of the tongue microbiome by regular cleaning together with adequate dietary intake of nitrate provide an opportunity for the improvement of resting systolic blood pressure.

RevDate: 2019-03-18

Bamba M, Aoki S, Kajita T, et al (2019)

Exploring Genetic Diversity and Signatures of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Nodule Bacteria Associated with Lotus japonicus in Natural Environments.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

To investigate the genetic diversity and understand the process of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in nodule bacteria associated with Lotus japonicus, we analyzed sequences of three housekeeping and five symbiotic genes using samples from a geographically wide range in Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the housekeeping genes indicated that L. japonicus in natural environments was associated with diverse lineages of Mesorhizobium species, whereas the sequences of symbiotic genes were highly similar between strains, resulting in remarkably low nucleotide diversity at both synonymous and non-synonymous sites. Guanine-cytosine content values were lower in symbiotic genes, and relative frequencies of recombination between symbiotic genes were also lower than those between housekeeping genes. An analysis of molecular variance showed significant genetic differentiation among populations in both symbiotic and housekeeping genes. These results confirm that the Mesorhizobium genes required for symbiosis with L. japonicus behave as a genomic island (i. e. a symbiosis island) and suggest that this island has spread into diverse genomic backgrounds of Mesorhizobium via HGT events in natural environments. Furthermore, our data compilation revealed that the genetic diversity of symbiotic genes in L. japonicus-associated symbionts was among the lowest compared with reports of other species, which may be related to the recent population expansion proposed in Japanese populations of L. japonicus.

RevDate: 2019-03-18

Shitole AA, Giram PS, Raut PW, et al (2019)

Clopidogrel eluting electrospun polyurethane/polyethylene glycol thromboresistant, hemocompatible nanofibrous scaffolds.

Journal of biomaterials applications [Epub ahead of print].

Biomaterials used as blood-contacting material must be hemocompatible and exhibit lower thrombotic potential while maintaining hemostasis and angiogenesis. With the aim of developing thromboresistant, hemocompatible nanofibrous scaffolds, polyurethane/polyethylene glycol scaffolds incorporated with 1, 5, and 10 wt% Clopidogrel were fabricated and evaluated for their physiochemical properties, biocompatibility, hemocompatibility, and antithrombotic potential. The results of physicochemical characterization revealed the fabrication of nanometer-sized scaffolds with smooth surfaces. The incorporation of both polyethylene glycol and Clopidogrel to polyurethane enhanced the hydrophilicity and water uptake potential of polyurethane/polyethylene glycol/Clopidogrel scaffolds. The dynamic mechanical analysis revealed the enhancement in mechanical strength of the polyurethane/polyethylene glycol scaffolds on incorporation of Clopidogrel. The polyurethane/polyethylene glycol/Clopidogrel scaffolds showed a tri-phasic drug release pattern. The results of hemocompatibility assessment demonstrated the excellent blood compatibility of the polyurethane/polyethylene glycol/Clopidogrel scaffolds, with the developed scaffolds exhibiting lower hemolysis, increased albumin and plasma protein adsorption while reduction in fibrinogen adsorption. Further, the platelet adhesion was highly suppressed and significant increase in coagulation period was observed for Clopidogrel incorporated scaffolds. The results of cell adhesion and cell viability substantiate the biocompatibility of the developed nanofibrous scaffolds with the HUVEC cell viability on polyurethane/polyethylene glycol, polyurethane/polyethylene glycol/Clopidogrel-1, 5, and 10% at day 7 found to be 12.35, 13.36, 14.85, and 4.18% higher as compared to polyurethane scaffolds, and the NIH/3T3 cell viability found to be 35.27, 70.82, 36.60, and 7.95% higher as compared to polyurethane scaffolds, respectively. Altogether the results of the study advocate the incorporation of Clopidogrel to the polyurethane/polyethylene glycol blend in order to fabricate scaffolds with appropriate antithrombotic property, hemocompatibility, and cell proliferation capacity and thus, might be successfully used as antithrombotic material for biomedical application.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )