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30 Mar 2023 at 01:55
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Bibliography on: Symbiosis


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Mar 2023 at 01:55 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: ( symbiosis[tiab] OR symbiotic[tiab] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-03-29

Xu ZX, Zhu XM, Yin H, et al (2023)

Symbiosis between Dendrobium catenatum protocorms and Serendipita indica involves the plant hypoxia response pathway.

Plant physiology pii:7093009 [Epub ahead of print].

Mycorrhizae are ubiquitous symbioses established between fungi and plant roots. Orchids, in particular, require compatible mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination and protocorm development. Unlike arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which have wide host ranges, orchid mycorrhizal fungi are often highly specific to their host orchids. However, the molecular mechanism of orchid mycorrhizal symbiosis is largely unknown compared to that of arbuscular mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbiosis. Here, we report that an endophytic Sebacinales fungus, Serendipita indica, promotes seed germination and the development of protocorms into plantlets in several epiphytic Epidendroideae orchid species (six species in two genera), including Dendrobium catenatum, a critically endangered orchid with high medicinal value. Although plant-pathogen interaction and high meristematic activity can induce the hypoxic response in plants, it has been unclear whether interactions with beneficial fungi, especially mycorrhizal ones, also involve the hypoxic response. By studying the symbiotic relationship between D. catenatum and S. indica, we determined that hypoxia-responsive genes, such as those encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), are highly induced in symbiotic D. catenatum protocorms. In situ hybridization assay indicated that the ADH gene is predominantly expressed in the basal mycorrhizal region of symbiotic protocorms. Additionally, the ADH inhibitors puerarin and 4-methylpyrazole both decreased S. indica colonization in D. catenatum protocorms. Thus, our study reveals that S. indica is widely compatible with orchids and that ADH and its related hypoxia-responsive pathway are involved in establishing successful symbiotic relationships in germinating orchids.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Reyero-Saavedra R, Fuentes SI, Leija A, et al (2023)

Identification and Characterization of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Non-Nodulating Mutants Altered in Rhizobial Infection.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:plants12061310.

The symbiotic N2-fixation process in the legume-rhizobia interaction is relevant for sustainable agriculture. The characterization of symbiotic mutants, mainly in model legumes, has been instrumental for the discovery of symbiotic genes, but similar studies in crop legumes are scant. To isolate and characterize common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) symbiotic mutants, an ethyl methanesulphonate-induced mutant population from the BAT 93 genotype was analyzed. Our initial screening of Rhizobium etli CE3-inoculated mutant plants revealed different alterations in nodulation. We proceeded with the characterization of three non-nodulating (nnod), apparently monogenic/recessive mutants: nnod(1895), nnod(2353) and nnod(2114). Their reduced growth in a symbiotic condition was restored when the nitrate was added. A similar nnod phenotype was observed upon inoculation with other efficient rhizobia species. A microscopic analysis revealed a different impairment for each mutant in an early symbiotic step. nnod(1895) formed decreased root hair curling but had increased non-effective root hair deformation and no rhizobia infection. nnod(2353) produced normal root hair curling and rhizobia entrapment to form infection chambers, but the development of the latter was blocked. nnod(2114) formed infection threads that did not elongate and thus did not reach the root cortex level; it occasionally formed non-infected pseudo-nodules. The current research is aimed at mapping the responsible mutated gene for a better understanding of SNF in this critical food crop.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Remmal I, Bel Mokhtar N, Maurady A, et al (2023)

Characterization of the Bacterial Microbiome in Natural Populations of Barley Stem Gall Midge, Mayetiola hordei, in Morocco.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030797.

Mayetiola hordei (Kieffer), known as barley stem gall midge, is one of the most destructive barley pests in many areas around the world, inflicting significant qualitative and quantitative damage to crop production. In this study, we investigate the presence of reproductive symbionts, the effect of geographical origin on the bacterial microbiome's structure, and the diversity associated with natural populations of M. hordei located in four barley-producing areas in Morocco. Wolbachia infection was discovered in 9% of the natural populations using a precise 16S rDNA PCR assay. High-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene indicated that the native environments of samples had a substantial environmental impact on the microbiota taxonomic assortment. Briefly, 5 phyla, 7 classes, and 42 genera were identified across all the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the bacterial composition of M. hordei natural populations. The presence of Wolbachia infection may assist in the diagnosis of ideal natural populations, providing a new insight into the employment of Wolbachia in the control of barley midge populations, in the context of the sterile insect technique or other biological control methods.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Maftei NM, Iancu AV, Goroftei Bogdan RE, et al (2023)

A Novel Symbiotic Beverage Based on Sea Buckthorn, Soy Milk and Inulin: Production, Characterization, Probiotic Viability, and Sensory Acceptance.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030736.

Nowadays, vegan consumers demand that food products have more and more properties that contribute to the prevention of some diseases, such as lower fat content, increased mineral content (calcium, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus), pleasant flavor, and low calorie values. Therefore, the beverage industry has tried to offer consumers products that include probiotics, prebiotics, or symbiotics with improved flavor and appearance and beneficial effects on health. The possibility of producing beverages based on soy milk with sea buckthorn syrup or sea buckthorn powder supplemented with inulin and fermented with the Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei strain was examined. The aim of this study was to obtain a novel symbiotic product that exploits the bioactive potential of sea buckthorn fruits. Tests were carried out in the laboratory phase by fermenting soy milk, to which was added sea buckthorn syrup (20%) or sea buckthorn powder (3%) and inulin in proportions of 1% and 3%, with temperature variation of fermentation (30 and 37 °C). During the fermentation period, the survivability of prebiotic bacteria, pH, and titratable acidity were measured. The storage time of beverages at 4 °C ± 1 °C was 14 days, and the probiotic viability, pH, titratable acidity, and water holding capacity were determined. Novel symbiotic beverages based on sea buckthorn syrup or powder, inulin, and soy milk were successfully obtained using the Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei strain as a starter culture. Moreover, the inulin added to the novel symbiotic beverage offered microbiological safety and excellent sensory attributes as well.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Bickford WA, Snow DS, Smith MKH, et al (2023)

Experimentally Induced Dieback Conditions Limit Phragmites australis Growth.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030639.

Phragmites australis is a cosmopolitan grass species common in wetland ecosystems across the world. In much of North America, the non-native subspecies of Phragmites threatens wetland biodiversity, hinders recreation, and is a persistent problem for natural resource managers. In other parts of the world, populations are in decline, as Reed Die-Back Syndrome (RDBS) plagues some Phragmites stands in its native range. RDBS is defined by a clumped growth form, stunted root and shoot growth, premature senescence, and shoot death. RDBS has been associated with a build-up of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and altered bacterial and oomycete communities in soils, but the exact causes are unknown. To control invasive Phragmites populations, we sought to develop treatments that mimic the conditions of RDBS. We applied various SCFA treatments at various concentrations to mesocosm soils growing either Phragmites or native wetland plants. We found that the high-concentration SCFA treatments applied weekly induced strong significant declines in above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites. Declines were significant but slightly weaker in native species. In addition, soil bacterial abundance increased, diversity decreased, and bacterial community composition significantly differed following treatments, such that treated pots maintained a higher relative abundance of Pseudomonadaceae and fewer Acidobacteriaceae than untreated pots. Our results suggest that application of SCFAs to Phragmites can lead to stunted plants and altered soil bacterial communities similar to populations affected by RDBS. However, the lack of species-specificity and intensive application rate may not make this treatment ideal as a widespread management tool.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Yang J, Zhang Q, Zhang T, et al (2023)

Comparative Analysis of the Symbiotic Microbiota in the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis): Microbial Structure, Co-Occurrence Patterns, and Predictive Functions.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030544.

Symbiotic microorganisms in the digestive and circulatory systems are found in various crustaceans, and their essential roles in crustacean health, nutrition, and disease have attracted considerable interest. Although the intestinal microbiota of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has been extensively studied, information on the symbiotic microbiota at various sites of this aquatic economic species, particularly the hepatopancreas and hemolymph, is lacking. This study aimed to comprehensively characterize the hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and intestinal microbiota of Chinese mitten crab through the high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results showed no significant difference in microbial diversity between the hemolymph and hepatopancreas (Welch t-test; p > 0.05), but their microbial diversity was significantly higher than that in the intestine (p < 0.05). Distinct differences were found in the structure, composition, and predicted function of the symbiotic microbiota at these sites. At the phylum level, the hemolymph and hepatopancreas microbiota were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteriota, followed by Bacteroidota and Actinobacteriota, whereas the gut microbiota was mainly composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidota. At the genus level, Candidatus Hepatoplasma, Shewanella, and Aeromonas were dominant in the hepatopancreas; Candidatus Bacilloplasma, Roseimarinus, and Vibrio were dominant in the intestine; Enterobacter, norank_Vicinamibacterales, and Pseudomonas were relatively high-abundance genera in the hemolymph. The composition and abundance of symbiotic microbiota in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas were extremely similar (p > 0.05), and no significant difference in functional prediction was found (p > 0.05). Comparing the hemolymph in the intestine and hepatopancreas, the hemolymph had lower variation in bacterial composition among individuals, having a more uniform abundance of major bacterial taxa, a smaller coefficient of variation, and the highest proportion of shared genera. Network complexity varied greatly among the three sites. The hepatopancreas microbiota was the most complex, followed by the hemolymph microbiota, and the intestinal microbiota had the simplest network. This study revealed the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and gut microbiota in Chinese mitten crab. The results expanded our understanding of the symbiotic microbiota in crustaceans, providing potential indicators for assessing the health status of Chinese mitten crab.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Xiao X, Liao X, Yan Q, et al (2023)

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improve the Growth, Water Status, and Nutrient Uptake of Cinnamomum migao and the Soil Nutrient Stoichiometry under Drought Stress and Recovery.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(3): pii:jof9030321.

Drought greatly influences the growth and ecological stoichiometry of plants in arid and semi-arid regions such as karst areas, where Cinnamomum migao (C. migao) is an endemic tree species that is used as a bioenergy resource. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a key role in nutrient uptake in the soil-plant continuum, increasing plant tolerance to drought. However, few studies have examined the contribution of AMF in improving the growth of C. migao seedlings and the soil nutrient stoichiometry under drought-stress conditions. A pot experiment was conducted under natural light in a plastic greenhouse to investigate the effects of individual inoculation and Co-inoculation of AMF [Funneliformis mosseae (F. mosseae) and Claroideoglomus etunicatum (C. etunicatum)] on the growth, water status, and nutrient uptake of C. migao as well as the soil nutrient stoichiometry under well-watered (WW) and drought-stress (DS) conditions. The results showed that compared with non-AMF control (CK), AM symbiosis significantly stimulated plant growth and had higher dry mass. Mycorrhizal plants had better water status than corresponding CK plants. AMF colonization notably increased the total nitrogen and phosphorus content of C. migao seedlings compared with CK. Mycorrhizal plants had higher leaf and stem total carbon concentrations than CK. The results indicated that AM symbiosis protects C. migao seedlings against drought stress by improving growth, water status, and nutrient uptake. In general, the C. migao seedlings that formed with C. etunicatum showed the most beneficial effect on plant growth, water status, and nutrient uptake among all treatments. In the future, we should study more about the biological characteristics of each AMF in the field study to understand more ecological responses of AMF under drought stress, which can better provide meaningful guidance for afforestation projects in karst regions.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Brito-Santana P, Duque-Pedraza JJ, Bernabéu-Roda LM, et al (2023)

Sinorhizobium meliloti DnaJ Is Required for Surface Motility, Stress Tolerance, and for Efficient Nodulation and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(6): pii:ijms24065848.

Bacterial surface motility is a complex microbial trait that contributes to host colonization. However, the knowledge about regulatory mechanisms that control surface translocation in rhizobia and their role in the establishment of symbiosis with legumes is still limited. Recently, 2-tridecanone (2-TDC) was identified as an infochemical in bacteria that hampers microbial colonization of plants. In the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, 2-TDC promotes a mode of surface motility that is mostly independent of flagella. To understand the mechanism of action of 2-TDC in S. meliloti and unveil genes putatively involved in plant colonization, Tn5 transposants derived from a flagellaless strain that were impaired in 2-TDC-induced surface spreading were isolated and genetically characterized. In one of the mutants, the gene coding for the chaperone DnaJ was inactivated. Characterization of this transposant and newly obtained flagella-minus and flagella-plus dnaJ deletion mutants revealed that DnaJ is essential for surface translocation, while it plays a minor role in swimming motility. DnaJ loss-of-function reduces salt and oxidative stress tolerance in S. meliloti and hinders the establishment of efficient symbiosis by affecting nodule formation efficiency, cellular infection, and nitrogen fixation. Intriguingly, the lack of DnaJ causes more severe defects in a flagellaless background. This work highlights the role of DnaJ in the free-living and symbiotic lifestyles of S. meliloti.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Jovandaric MZ, Dugalic S, Babic S, et al (2023)

Programming Factors of Neonatal Intestinal Dysbiosis as a Cause of Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(6): pii:ijms24065723.

The intestinal microbiota consists of trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi that achieve a perfect symbiosis with the host. They perform immunological, metabolic, and endocrine functions in the body. The microbiota is formed intrauterine. Dysbiosis is a microbiome disorder characterized by an imbalance in the composition of the microbiota, as well as changes in their functional and metabolic activities. The causes of dysbiosis include improper nutrition in pregnant women, hormone therapy, the use of drugs, especially antibiotics, and a lack of exposure to the mother's vaginal microbiota during natural birth. Changes in the intestinal microbiota are increasingly being identified in various diseases, starting in the early neonatal period into the adult period. Conclusions: In recent years, it has become more and more obvious that the components of the intestinal microbiota are crucial for the proper development of the immune system, and its disruption leads to disease.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Liu J, Liu L, Tian L, et al (2023)

Overexpression of LjPLT3 Enhances Salt Tolerance in Lotus japonicus.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(6): pii:ijms24065149.

Intracellular polyols are used as osmoprotectants by many plants under environmental stress. However, few studies have shown the role of polyol transporters in the tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the expression characteristics and potential functions of Lotus japonicus polyol transporter LjPLT3 under salt stress. Using LjPLT3 promoter-reporter gene plants showed that LjPLT3 was expressed in the vascular tissue of L. japonicus leaf, stem, root, and nodule. The expression was also induced by NaCl treatment. Overexpression of LjPLT3 in L. japonicus modified the growth rate and saline tolerance of the transgenic plants. The OELjPLT3 seedlings displayed reduced plant height under both nitrogen-sufficient and symbiotic nitrogen fixation conditions when 4 weeks old. The nodule number of OELjPLT3 plants was reduced by 6.7-27.4% when 4 weeks old. After exposure to a NaCl treatment in Petri dishes for 10 days, OELjPLT3 seedlings had a higher chlorophyll concentration, fresh weight, and survival rate than those in the wild type. For symbiotic nitrogen fixation conditions, the decrease in nitrogenase activity of OELjPLT3 plants was slower than that of the wild type after salt treatment. Compared to the wild type, both the accumulation of small organic molecules and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were higher under salt stress. Considering the concentration of lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transgenic lines, we speculate that overexpression of LjPLT3 in L. japonicus might improve the ROS scavenging system to alleviate the oxidative damage caused by salt stress, thereby increasing plant salinity tolerance. Our results will direct the breeding of forage legumes in saline land and also provide an opportunity for the improvement of poor and saline soils.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Kowalski Z, Kulczycka J, Makara A, et al (2023)

Industrial Symbiosis for Sustainable Management of Meat Waste: The Case of Śmiłowo Eco-Industrial Park, Poland.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20065162.

This study presents the developing process of the Śmiłowo Eco-Park, located in the Noteć valley region (Poland), is a part of the biggest Polish agri-food consortium, from its initial small waste management company to its final structure as an eco-industrial park using industrial symbiosis methods. The industrial symbiosis applied in the Eco-park promotes a business model which covers the whole life cycle of the products starting from the plant growing by animal feed preparation, livestock breeding, meat preparations, meat-bone meal production from animal waste, and the use of pig slurry as a fertilizer. The Eco-park model is presented in the form of a system of connected stream flows of materials and energy covering the full lifecycle of products, from cereal cultivation, through the production of industrial feed, and poultry and pig breeding for the production of meat products. The solutions used include the prevention of environmental pollution through the modernization of existing processes, implementation of new technologies, reduction of waste and its reuse, recycling, and recovery of materials and energy, the substitution of raw materials with waste, and thermal treatment of waste and its use as biofuel. This case study allows for analyses of the organizational and technical key strategic activities which enable waste, including hazardous waste, to be transformed into valuable materials and energy. These activities have modified the system of material and energy flows through the value chain to realize the goal of allowing profitable management of waste according to circular economy methods and also indicates methods of supporting modifications of supply chains in terms of implementation of the industrial symbiosis business model according to its relationship with sustainable development, cleaner production, and circular economy models. EIP Śmiłowo annually utilizes 300,000 t meat waste, produces 110,000 t meat bone meal biofuel, uses 120,000 t of pig manure as fertilizers, produces 460,000 GJ bioenergy, eliminates 92,000 t CO2 emissions.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Černý V, Priehodová E, C Fortes-Lima (2023)

A Population Genetic Perspective on Subsistence Systems in the Sahel/Savannah Belt of Africa and the Historical Role of Pastoralism.

Genes, 14(3): pii:genes14030758.

This review focuses on the Sahel/Savannah belt, a large region of Africa where two alternative subsistence systems (pastoralism and agriculture), nowadays, interact. It is a long-standing question whether the pastoralists became isolated here from other populations after cattle began to spread into Africa (~8 thousand years ago, kya) or, rather, began to merge with other populations, such as agropastoralists, after the domestication of sorghum and pearl millet (~5 kya) and with the subsequent spread of agriculture. If we look at lactase persistence, a trait closely associated with pastoral lifestyle, we see that its variants in current pastoralists distinguish them from their farmer neighbours. Most other (mostly neutral) genetic polymorphisms do not, however, indicate such clear differentiation between these groups; they suggest a common origin and/or an extensive gene flow. Genetic affinity and ecological symbiosis between the two subsistence systems can help us better understand the population history of this African region. In this review, we show that genomic datasets of modern Sahel/Savannah belt populations properly collected in local populations can complement the still insufficient archaeological research of this region, especially when dealing with the prehistory of mobile populations with perishable material culture and therefore precarious archaeological visibility.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Athanasopoulou K, Adamopoulos PG, A Scorilas (2023)

Unveiling the Human Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiome: The Past, Present, and Future of Metagenomics.

Biomedicines, 11(3): pii:biomedicines11030827.

Over 10[14] symbiotic microorganisms are present in a healthy human body and are responsible for the synthesis of vital vitamins and amino acids, mediating cellular pathways and supporting immunity. However, the deregulation of microbial dynamics can provoke diverse human diseases such as diabetes, human cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. The human gastrointestinal tract constitutes a hospitable environment in which a plethora of microbes, including diverse species of archaea, bacteria, fungi, and microeukaryotes as well as viruses, inhabit. In particular, the gut microbiome is the largest microbiome community in the human body and has drawn for decades the attention of scientists for its significance in medical microbiology. Revolutions in sequencing techniques, including 16S rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing and whole genome sequencing, facilitate the detection of microbiomes and have opened new vistas in the study of human microbiota. Especially, the flourishing fields of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics aim to detect all genomes and transcriptomes that are retrieved from environmental and human samples. The present review highlights the complexity of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome and deciphers its implication not only in cellular homeostasis but also in human diseases. Finally, a thorough description of the widely used microbiome detection methods is discussed.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Sun S, Wang D, Dong D, et al (2023)

Altered intestinal microbiome and metabolome correspond to the clinical outcome of sepsis.

Critical care (London, England), 27(1):127.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome plays a pivotal role in the progression of sepsis. However, the specific mechanism of gut microbiota and its metabolites involved in the process of sepsis remains elusive, which limits its translational application.

METHOD: In this study, we used a combination of the microbiome and untargeted metabolomics to analyze stool samples from patients with sepsis enrolled at admission, then microbiota, metabolites, and potential signaling pathways that might play important roles in disease outcome were screened out. Finally, the above results were validated by the microbiome and transcriptomics analysis in an animal model of sepsis.

RESULTS: Patients with sepsis showed destruction of symbiotic flora and elevated abundance of Enterococcus, which were validated in animal experiments. Additionally, patients with a high burden of Bacteroides, especially B. vulgatus, had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores and longer stays in the intensive care unit. The intestinal transcriptome in CLP rats illustrated that Enterococcus and Bacteroides had divergent profiles of correlation with differentially expressed genes, indicating distinctly different roles for these bacteria in sepsis. Furthermore, patients with sepsis exhibited disturbances in gut amino acid metabolism compared with healthy controls; namely, tryptophan metabolism was tightly related to an altered microbiota and the severity of sepsis.

CONCLUSION: Alterations in microbial and metabolic features in the gut corresponded with the progression of sepsis. Our findings may help to predict the clinical outcome of patients in the early stage of sepsis and provide a translational basis for exploring new therapies.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Chowaniec K, Latkowska E, K Skubała (2023)

Effect of thallus melanisation on the sensitivity of lichens to heat stress.

Scientific reports, 13(1):5083.

Extreme climatic phenomena such as heat waves, heavy rainfall and prolonged droughts are one of the main problems associated with ongoing climate change. The global increase in extreme rainfalls associated with summer heatwaves are projected to increase in amplitude and frequency in the near future. However, the consequences of such extreme events on lichens are largely unknown. The aim was to determine the effect of heat stress on the physiology of lichen Cetraria aculeata in a metabolically active state and to verify whether strongly melanised thalli are more resistant than poorly melanised thalli. In the present study, melanin was extracted from C. aculeata for the first time. Our study showed that the critical temperature for metabolism is around 35 °C. Both symbiotic partners responded to heat stress, manifested by the decreased maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry, high level of cell membrane damage, increased membrane lipid peroxidation and decreased dehydrogenase activity. Highly melanised thalli were more sensitive to heat stress, which excludes the role of melanins as compounds protecting against heat stress. Therefore, mycobiont melanisation imposes a trade-off between protection against UV and avoidance of damage caused by high temperature. It can be concluded that heavy rainfall during high temperatures may significantly deteriorate the physiological condition of melanised thalli. However, the level of membrane lipid peroxidation in melanised thalli decreased over time after exposure, suggesting greater efficiency of antioxidant defence mechanisms. Given the ongoing climate changes, many lichen species may require a great deal of plasticity to maintain their physiological state at a level that ensures their survival.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Nugumanova G, Ponomarev ED, Askarova S, et al (2023)

Freshwater Cyanobacterial Toxins, Cyanopeptides and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Toxins, 15(3): pii:toxins15030233.

Cyanobacteria produce a wide range of structurally diverse cyanotoxins and bioactive cyanopeptides in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. The health significance of these metabolites, which include genotoxic- and neurotoxic agents, is confirmed by continued associations between the occurrence of animal and human acute toxic events and, in the long term, by associations between cyanobacteria and neurodegenerative diseases. Major mechanisms related to the neurotoxicity of cyanobacteria compounds include (1) blocking of key proteins and channels; (2) inhibition of essential enzymes in mammalian cells such as protein phosphatases and phosphoprotein phosphatases as well as new molecular targets such as toll-like receptors 4 and 8. One of the widely discussed implicated mechanisms includes a misincorporation of cyanobacterial non-proteogenic amino acids. Recent research provides evidence that non-proteinogenic amino acid BMAA produced by cyanobacteria have multiple effects on translation process and bypasses the proof-reading ability of the aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. Aberrant proteins generated by non-canonical translation may be a factor in neuronal death and neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that the production of cyanopeptides and non-canonical amino acids is a more general mechanism, leading to mistranslation, affecting protein homeostasis, and targeting mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. It can be evolutionarily ancient and initially developed to control phytoplankton communities during algal blooms. Outcompeting gut symbiotic microorganisms may lead to dysbiosis, increased gut permeability, a shift in blood-brain-barrier functionality, and eventually, mitochondrial dysfunction in high-energy demanding neurons. A better understanding of the interaction between cyanopeptides metabolism and the nervous system will be crucial to target or to prevent neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

López-Angulo J, Matesanz S, Illuminati A, et al (2023)

Ecological drivers of fine-scale distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a semiarid Mediterranean scrubland.

Annals of botany pii:7091583 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enhance the uptake of water and minerals to the plant hosts, alleviating plant stress. Therefore, AM fungal-plant interactions are particularly important in drylands and other stressful ecosystems. We aimed to determine the combined and independent effects of above- and belowground plant community attributes (i.e. diversity and composition), soil heterogeneity and spatial covariates on the spatial structure of the AM fungal communities in a semiarid Mediterranean scrubland. Furthermore, we evaluated how the phylogenetic relatedness of both plants and AM fungi shapes these symbiotic relationships.

METHODS: We taxonomically and phylogenetically characterised the composition and diversity of AM fungal and plant communities in a dry Mediterranean scrubland, using DNA metabarcoding and spatially-explicit sampling design at the plant neighbourhood scale.

KEY RESULTS: The above- and belowground plant community attributes, soil physicochemical properties and spatial variables explained unique fractions of AM fungal diversity and composition. Mainly, variations in plant composition affected the AM fungal composition and diversity. Our results also showed that particular AM fungal taxa tended to be associated with closely related plant species, suggesting the existence of phylogenetic signal. Although soil texture, fertility and pH affected AM fungal community assembly, spatial factors had a greater influence on AM fungal community composition and diversity than soil physicochemical properties.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight that the more easily accessible aboveground vegetation is a reliable indicator of the linkages between plant roots and AM fungi. We also emphasize the importance of soil physicochemical properties as well as belowground plant information, while accounting for the phylogenetic relationships of both plants and fungi since these factors improve our ability to predict the relationships between AM fungal and plant communities.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Liu Y, Lin L, Zheng H, et al (2023)

Mechanisms of Antitumor Invasion and Metastasis of the Marine Fungal Derivative Epi-Aszonalenin A in HT1080 Cells.

Marine drugs, 21(3): pii:md21030156.

Epi-aszonalenin A (EAA) is an alkaloid that is isolated and purified from the secondary metabolites of coral symbiotic fungi and has been shown to have good atherosclerotic intervention activity and anti-angiogenic activity in our previous studies. In the present study, antiangiogenic activity was used as a basis of an intensive study of its mechanism of action against tumor metastasis and invasion. Invasive metastatic pairs are a hallmark of malignancy, and the dissemination of tumor cells is the most dangerous process in the development of tumors. The results of cell wound healing and the Transwell chamber assay showed that EAA interfered well with PMA-induced migration and invasion of HT1080 cells. Western blot and the ELISA assay showed that EAA decreased MMPs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activity and inhibited the expression of N-cadherin and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) by regulating the phosphorylation of downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), PI3K/AKT, and NF-κB pathways. Simultaneous molecular docking results revealed that the mimic coupling between the EAA and MMP-2/-9 molecules formed a stable interaction. The results of this study provide a research basis for the inhibition of tumor metastasis by EAA, and together with previous studies, confirm the potential pharmacology and drug potential for this class of compound for application in angiogenesis-related diseases and further improve the availability of coral symbiotic fungi.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Lee J, Jeong B, Bae HR, et al (2023)

Trehalose Biosynthesis Gene otsA Protects against Stress in the Initial Infection Stage of Burkholderia-Bean Bug Symbiosis.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide, functions as a stress protectant in many organisms, including bacteria. In symbioses involving bacteria, the bacteria have to overcome various stressors to associate with their hosts; thus, trehalose biosynthesis may be important for symbiotic bacteria. Here, we investigated the role of trehalose biosynthesis in the Burkholderia-bean bug symbiosis. Expression levels of two trehalose biosynthesis genes, otsA and treS, were elevated in symbiotic Burkholderia insecticola cells, and hence mutant ΔotsA and ΔtreS strains were generated to examine the functions of these genes in symbiosis. An in vivo competition assay with the wild-type strain revealed that fewer ΔotsA cells, but not ΔtreS cells, colonized the host symbiotic organ, the M4 midgut, than wild-type cells. The ΔotsA strain was susceptible to osmotic pressure generated by high salt or high sucrose concentrations, suggesting that the reduced symbiotic competitiveness of the ΔotsA strain was due to the loss of stress resistance. We further demonstrated that fewer ΔotsA cells infected the M4 midgut initially but that fifth-instar nymphs exhibited similar symbiont population size as the wild-type strain. Together, these results demonstrated that the stress resistance role of otsA is important for B. insecticola to overcome the stresses it encounters during passage through the midgut regions to M4 in the initial infection stage but plays no role in resistance to stresses inside the M4 midgut in the persistent stage. IMPORTANCE Symbiotic bacteria have to overcome stressful conditions present in association with the host. In the Burkholderia-bean bug symbiosis, we speculated that a stress-resistant function of Burkholderia is important and that trehalose, known as a stress protectant, plays a role in the symbiotic association. Using otsA, the trehalose biosynthesis gene, and a mutant strain, we demonstrated that otsA confers Burkholderia with competitiveness when establishing a symbiotic association with bean bugs, especially playing a role in initial infection stage. In vitro assays revealed that otsA provides the resistance against osmotic stresses. Hemipteran insects, including bean bugs, feed on plant phloem sap, which may lead to high osmotic pressures in the midguts of hemipterans. Our results indicated that the stress-resistant role of otsA is important for Burkholderia to overcome the osmotic stresses present during the passage through midgut regions to reach the symbiotic organ.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Han S, Zhou Y, Wang D, et al (2023)

Effect of Different Host Plants on the Diversity of Gut Bacterial Communities of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797).

Insects, 14(3): pii:insects14030264.

Intestinal symbiotic bacteria have formed an interdependent symbiotic relationship with many insect species after long-term coevolution, which plays a critical role in host growth and adaptation. Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a worldwide significant migratory invasive pest. As a polyphagous pest, S. frugiperda can harm more than 350 plants and poses a severe threat to food security and agricultural production. In this study, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the diversity and structure of the gut bacteria of this pest feeding on six diets (maize, wheat, rice, honeysuckle flowers, honeysuckle leaves, and Chinese yam). The results showed that the S. frugiperda fed on rice had the highest bacterial richness and diversity, whereas the larvae fed on honeysuckle flowers had the lowest abundance and diversity of gut bacterial communities. Firmicutes, Actinobacteriota, and Proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla. PICRUSt2 analysis indicated that most of the functional prediction categories were concentrated in metabolic bacteria. Our results confirmed that the gut bacterial diversity and community composition of S. frugiperda were affected significantly by host diets. This study provided a theoretical basis for clarifying the host adaptation mechanism of S. frugiperda, which also provided a new direction to improve polyphagous pest management strategies.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Stramazzo I, Capriello S, Filardo S, et al (2023)

Microbiota and Thyroid Disease: An Updated Systematic Review.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology [Epub ahead of print].

Studies analyzing the relationship between microbiota composition and the thyroid have been increasing rapidly in recent years, and evidence has recently come to light about the involvement of the gut microbiota in various aspects of thyroid pathology. Recently, besides studies analyzing the microbiota composition of different biological niches (salivary microbiota or thyroid tumor microenvironment) in patients with thyroid disorders, some studies have been carried out in peculiar subcategories of patients (pregnant women or obese). Other studies added a metabolomic insight into the characterization of fecal microflora in an attempt to enlighten specific metabolic pathways that could be involved in thyroid disorder pathogenesis. Lastly, some studies described the use of probiotics or symbiotic supplementation aimed at modulating gut microbiota composition for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the last advancements in the relationship between gut microbiota composition and thyroid autoimmunity, extending the analysis also to nonautoimmune thyroid disorders as well as to the characterization of the microbiota belonging to different biological niches in these patients. The overall results of the present review article strengthen the existence of a bidirectional relationship between the intestine, with its microbial set, and thyroid homeostasis, thus supporting the newly recognized entity known as the gut-thyroid axis.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Kim H, Shin J, Kim S, et al (2023)

Helical fluxionality: numerical frustration drives concerted low-barrier screw motions of a tricopper cluster.

Chemical science, 14(12):3265-3269.

Uneven allocation of resources creates frustration, tension, and conflicts. Confronted with an apparent mismatch between the number of donor atoms and the number of metal atoms to be supported, helically twisted ligands cleverly come up with a sustainable symbiotic solution. As an example, we present a tricopper metallohelicate exhibiting screw motions for intramolecular site exchange. A combination of X-ray crystallographic and solution NMR spectroscopic studies revealed thermo-neutral site exchange of three metal centres hopping back and forth inside the helical cavity lined by a spiral staircase-like arrangement of ligand donor atoms. This hitherto unknown helical fluxionality is a superimposition of translational and rotational movements of molecular actuation, taking the shortest path with an extraordinarily low energy barrier without compromising the overall structural integrity of the metal-ligand assembly.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Sevgili A, Can C, Ceyhan DI, et al (2023)

Molecular identification of LAB and yeasts from traditional sourdoughs and their impacts on the sourdough bread quality characteristics.

Current research in food science, 6:100479.

In this research, the LAB and yeast isolations and identifications of homemade traditional sourdoughs were investigated. Both LAB and yeasts were identified by the PCR method and used in the production of sourdough bread (SDB). Twelve types of SDB were produced from combinations of isolated LAB and yeasts. Eleven LAB and yests were identified from 36 sourdoughs. The most frequently isolated LAB species were Lactobacillus brevis (45.0%), Pediococcus acidilactici (20.0%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (18.3%) while other LAB species were isolated by only 1.7-3.5%. On the other hand, 27.5% of the isolates were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was followed by Pichia kudriavzevii (25.0%) and Kluyveromyces marxianus (12.5%). The total titratable acidity and pH of the sourdough ranged from 3.10 to 34.45% and from 4.05 to 4.80 respectively. High acceptable loaf height (7.2 cm), moisture (30.05%), dry matter (69.95%), volume (1370 cm[3]), specific volume (4.35 cm[3] g [-1]) and sensory value (62 scores) were determined for SDB12. Isolated LAB is mainly composed of heterofermentative species (75%). Among the bread produced with the combination of LAB and yeasts, the SDB12 was the most preferred SDB in terms of sensory analysis and other quality characteristics. The use of homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB and yeast combinations provided high-quality SDB. This would be due to the symbiotic growth of these microorganisms. The use of L. plantarum by L. brevis and by other species resulted in high-quality SDB.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Mizobuchi H (2023)

Oral route lipopolysaccharide as a potential dementia preventive agent inducing neuroprotective microglia.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1110583.

In today's aging society, dementia is an urgent problem to be solved because no treatment or preventive methods have been established. This review focuses on oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, as a novel preventive drug for dementia. LPS is also called endotoxin and is well known to induce inflammation when administered systemically. On the other hand, although we humans routinely ingest LPS derived from symbiotic bacteria of edible plants, the effect of oral administration of LPS has hardly been studied. Recently, oral administration of LPS was reported to prevent dementia by inducing neuroprotective microglia. Furthermore, it has been suggested that colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) is involved in the dementia prevention mechanism by oral administration of LPS. Thus, in this review, we summarized the previous studies of oral administration of LPS and discussed the predicted dementia prevention mechanism. In addition, we showed the potential of oral LPS administration as a preventive drug for dementia by highlighting research gaps and future issues for clinical application development.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Frangedakis E, Marron AO, Waller M, et al (2023)

What can hornworts teach us?.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1108027.

The hornworts are a small group of land plants, consisting of only 11 families and approximately 220 species. Despite their small size as a group, their phylogenetic position and unique biology are of great importance. Hornworts, together with mosses and liverworts, form the monophyletic group of bryophytes that is sister to all other land plants (Tracheophytes). It is only recently that hornworts became amenable to experimental investigation with the establishment of Anthoceros agrestis as a model system. In this perspective, we summarize the recent advances in the development of A. agrestis as an experimental system and compare it with other plant model systems. We also discuss how A. agrestis can help to further research in comparative developmental studies across land plants and to solve key questions of plant biology associated with the colonization of the terrestrial environment. Finally, we explore the significance of A. agrestis in crop improvement and synthetic biology applications in general.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Lepetit M, R Brouquisse (2023)

Control of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis by the plant nitrogen demand is tightly integrated at the whole plant level and requires inter-organ systemic signaling.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1114840.

Symbiotic nodules formed on legume roots with rhizobia fix atmospheric N2. Bacteria reduce N2 to NH4 [+] that is assimilated into amino acids by the plant. In return, the plant provides photosynthates to fuel the symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Symbiosis is tightly adjusted to the whole plant nutritional demand and to the plant photosynthetic capacities, but regulatory circuits behind this control remain poorly understood. The use of split-root systems combined with biochemical, physiological, metabolomic, transcriptomic, and genetic approaches revealed that multiple pathways are acting in parallel. Systemic signaling mechanisms of the plant N demand are required for the control of nodule organogenesis, mature nodule functioning, and nodule senescence. N-satiety/N-deficit systemic signaling correlates with rapid variations of the nodules' sugar levels, tuning symbiosis by C resources allocation. These mechanisms are responsible for the adjustment of plant symbiotic capacities to the mineral N resources. On the one hand, if mineral N can satisfy the plant N demand, nodule formation is inhibited, and nodule senescence is activated. On the other hand, local conditions (abiotic stresses) may impair symbiotic activity resulting in plant N limitation. In these conditions, systemic signaling may compensate the N deficit by stimulating symbiotic root N foraging. In the past decade, several molecular components of the systemic signaling pathways controlling nodule formation have been identified, but a major challenge remains, that is, to understand their specificity as compared to the mechanisms of non-symbiotic plants that control root development and how they contribute to the whole plant phenotypes. Less is known about the control of mature nodule development and functioning by N and C nutritional status of the plant, but a hypothetical model involving the sucrose allocation to the nodule as a systemic signaling process, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and the redox status as potential effectors of this signaling is emerging. This work highlights the importance of organism integration in plant biology.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Yang H, Li NQ, JY Gao (2023)

A novel method to produce massive seedlings via symbiotic seed germination in orchids.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1114105.

Orchids produce large numbers of dust-like seeds that rely heavily on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMFs) for germination. Using OMFs to facilitate orchid proliferation is considered an effective method for orchid conservation but still presents challenges in practice. In this study, orchid seed-fungus complexes, in which orchid seeds and fungal mycelia were embedded together to form granules, were developed as platforms to facilitate seed germination and seedling production. Overall, seedlings were produced by seed-fungus complexes for five orchid species with large variations in the percentages of seedlings produced among species/treatments. For the different fungal treatments in Dendrobium officinale, Sebacinales LQ performed much better than the other fungal strains. At 90 days after sowing, 75.8±2.6% seedlings were produced in the LQ treatment, which was significantly higher than in the Tulasnella sp. JM (22.0±3.0%) and Tulasnella sp. TPYD-2 (5.3±1.0%) treatments, as well as in the LQ and TPYD-2 cocultured treatment (40.4±3.2%), while no seedlings were formed in the Tulasnella sp. SSCDO-5 or control treatments. For the other four orchid species, only one compatible fungus for each species was used, and the percentages of seedlings in epiphytic Dendrobium devonianum (67.2±2.9%) and D. nobile (38.9±2.8%) were much higher than those in terrestrial Paphiopedilum spicerianum (2.9±1.1%) and Arundina graminifolia (6.7±2.1%) at 90 days after sowing. Adding 1% polymer water-absorbent resin to the seed-fungus complexes of D. officinale seeds with fungal strain Sebacinales LQ significantly increased seedling formation, while other additional substances showed negative effects on seedling formation. For the storage of seed-fungus complexes, it is recommended to store the seed-fungus complexes in valve bags at room temperature for a short time and at a low temperature of 4°C for no more than 30 days. As a platform for symbiotic seed germination, the seed-fungus complex can facilitate seed germination, produce seedlings and support subsequent seedling growth, and its seedling productivity depends on seed germination characteristics, seed viability, and the efficiency of fungi. Seed-fungus complexes have great potential to be used as propagules in orchid conservation.

RevDate: 2023-03-26

Hixson KK, Fajardo DA, Devitt NP, et al (2023)

Annotated genome sequence of a fast-growing diploid clone of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.).

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:7086176 [Epub ahead of print].

Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is an ecologically significant and important, fast-growing commercial tree species native to western coastal and riparian regions of North America, having highly desirable wood, pigment and medicinal properties. We have sequenced the genome of a rapidly growing clone. The assembly is nearly complete, containing the full complement of expected genes. This supports our objectives of identifying and studying genes and pathways involved in nitrogen fixing symbiosis, and those related to secondary metabolites that underlie red alder's many interesting defense, pigmentation and wood quality traits. We established that this clone is most likely diploid, and identified a set of SNPs that will have utility in future breeding and selection endeavors, as well as in ongoing population studies. We have added a well-characterized genome to others from the order Fagales. In particular, it improves significantly upon the only other published alder genome sequence, that of Alnus glutinosa. Our work initiated a detailed comparative analysis of members of the order Fagales, and established some similarities with previous reports in this clade suggesting biased retention of certain gene functions in the vestiges of an ancient genome duplication as compared to more recent tandem duplications.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Ruzzier E, Ortis G, Vallotto D, et al (2023)

The first full host plant dataset of Curculionidae Scolytinae of the world: tribe Xyleborini LeConte, 1876.

Scientific data, 10(1):166.

Xyleborini is the largest tribe of Scolytinae accounting for about 1300 species worldwide; all species are primarily xylomycetophagous, developing on symbiotic fungi farmed in plant woody tissues. Xyleborini wood-boring action, associated with the inoculum of symbiotic fungi, can lead, sometimes, to the emergence of host plant dieback, wood damage and death; for this reason, multiple Xyleborini are major pests on both cultivated, forest and ornamental trees. Many Xyleborini are invasive worldwide and great effort is expended to manage their biological invasions or prevent new arrivals. Imports of host plants often have a primary role as a pathway for introduction and are frequently responsible for the establishment of species in non-native environments. In this context, data availability on Xyleborini host plants is a major limiting factor in the development of effective detection and monitoring strategies as well as a fundamental variable to consider in risk assessment of plant pests and invasive species. This contribution provides updated host records and the hosts economic categorization for the 1293 Xyleborini known worldwide to date.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Yang H, E Wang (2023)

Dynamic regulation of symbiotic signal perception in legumes.

Science bulletin pii:S2095-9273(23)00192-5 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Gulzar S, Saeed S, Taufiq Kirmani S, et al (2022)

Enhancing the knowledge of parents on child health using eLearning in a government school in the semi-rural community of Karachi, Pakistan.

PLOS global public health, 2(6):e0000500.

Education is one of the vital social determinants of health. Health and education share a symbiotic relationship for all cadre including children and adolescents to ensure that they are well equipped to combat the health risk in the environment. The current literature globally found some initiatives to create health awareness among school children. However, there is a dearth of studies available addressing parental health awareness through school platforms. Therefore, the current study aims to fill this gap, and the Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery initiated the School Health Program (SHP) in one of the remote communities in Sindh, Pakistan. The overall goal of the study was to improve children's health by enhancing the health awareness of the parents through school platforms utilizing online modalities. Another objective of this study was to identify the effect of using eLearning on parental knowledge and perceptions. The study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed-method design. Twelve health awareness sessions relevant to children's health using eLearning were conducted over one year. Parents' knowledge was assessed through a pre-posttest, which was administered after each teaching session. Subsequently, focused group discussions were carried out with parents, community leaders, and schoolteachers to gain insights regarding the effectiveness of the health education program. The pre-and post-test results showed again in knowledge in nine out of twelve sessions. The findings from qualitative content analysis yielded three key themes: Perceived usefulness of eLearning, Barriers affecting usability, and Way forward for eLearning through school platforms. The study showed parental satisfaction with the online health education awareness program. They exhibited enthusiasm and desire for further similar sessions in the future. The results demonstrated an enhancement in parental awareness about common health conditions among school children. This study may be replicated on a larger scale in the schools of Pakistan.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Basiru S, Ait Si Mhand K, M Hijri (2023)

Disentangling arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria at the soil-root interface.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are essential components of the plant root mycobiome and are found in approximately 80% of land plants. As obligate plant symbionts, AMF harbor their own microbiota, both inside and outside the plant root system. AMF-associated bacteria (AAB) possess various functional traits, including nitrogen fixation, organic and inorganic phosphate mobilization, growth hormone production, biofilm production, enzymatic capabilities, and biocontrol against pathogen attacks, which not only contribute to the health of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis but also promote plant growth. Because of this, there is increasing interest in the diversity, functioning, and mechanisms that underlie the complex interactions between AMF, AAB, and plant hosts. This review critically examines AMF-associated bacteria, focusing on AAB diversity, the factors driving richness and community composition of these bacteria across various ecosystems, along with the physical, chemical, and biological connections that enable AMF to select and recruit beneficial bacterial symbionts on and within their structures and hyphospheres. Additionally, potential applications of these bacteria in agriculture are discussed, emphasizing the potential importance of AMF fungal highways in engineering plant rhizosphere and endophyte bacteria communities, and the importance of a functional core of AAB taxa as a promising tool to improve plant and soil productivity. Thus, AMF and their highly diverse bacterial taxa represent important tools that could be efficiently explored in sustainable agriculture, carbon sequestration, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to nitrogen fertilizer applications. Nevertheless, future studies adopting integrated multidisciplinary approaches are crucial to better understand AAB functional diversity and the mechanisms that govern these tripartite relationships.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Matthews AE, Wijeratne AJ, Sweet AD, et al (2023)

Dispersal-limited Symbionts Exhibit Unexpectedly Wide Variation in Host Specificity.

Systematic biology pii:7085352 [Epub ahead of print].

A fundamental aspect of symbiotic relationships is host specificity, ranging from extreme specialists associated with only a single host species to generalists associated with many different species. Although symbionts with limited dispersal capabilities are expected to be host specialists, some are able to associate with multiple hosts. Understanding the micro- and macroevolutionary causes of variations in host specificity is often hindered by sampling biases and the limited power of traditional evolutionary markers. Here, we studied feather mites to address the barriers associated with estimates of host specificity for dispersal-limited symbionts. We sampled feather mites (Proctophyllodidae) from a nearly comprehensive set of North American breeding warblers (Parulidae) to study mite phylogenetic relationships and host-symbiont codiversification. We used pooled-sequencing (Pool-Seq) and short-read Illumina technology to interpret results derived from a traditional barcoding gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) versus 11 protein-coding mitochondrial genes using concatenated and multispecies coalescent approaches. Despite the statistically significant congruence between mite and host phylogenies, mite-host specificity varies widely, and host switching is common regardless of the genetic marker resolution (i.e., barcode versus multilocus). However, the multilocus approach was more effective than the single barcode in detecting the presence of a heterogeneous Pool-Seq sample. These results suggest that presumed symbiont dispersal capabilities are not always strong indicators of host specificity or of historical host-symbiont coevolutionary events. Comprehensive sampling at fine phylogenetic scales may help to better elucidate the microevolutionary filters that impact macroevolutionary processes regulating symbioses, particularly for dispersal-limited symbionts.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Feng J, Song Y, B Zhu (2023)

Ecosystem-dependent responses of soil carbon storage to phosphorus enrichment.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Phosphorus deposition can stimulate both plant carbon inputs and microbial carbon outputs. However, how P enrichment affects soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis of 642 SOC observations from 213 field P-addition experiments worldwide, and explored the regulations of plant inputs, microbial outputs, plant characteristics, and environmental and experimental factors on SOC responses. We found that, globally, P addition stimulated SOC by 4.0% (95% CI: 2.0-6.0%), but the stimulation only occurred in forest and cropland rather than in grassland. Across sites, the response of SOC correlated with that of plant aboveground rather than belowground biomass, suggesting that the change in plant inputs from aboveground was more important than that from belowground in regulating SOC changes due to P addition. Among multiple factors, plant N fixation status and mean annual temperature were the best predictors for SOC responses to P addition, with SOC stimulation being higher in ecosystems dominated by symbiotic nitrogen fixers and ecosystems in high-temperature regions like tropical forests. Our findings highlight the differential and ecosystem-dependent responses of SOC to P enrichment, and can contribute to accurate predictions of soil carbon dynamics in a P-enriched world.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Himi E, Miyoshi-Akiyama T, Matsushima Y, et al (2023)

Establishment of an unfed strain of Paramecium bursaria and analysis of associated bacterial communities controlling its proliferation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1036372.

The ciliate Paramecium bursaria harbors several hundred symbiotic algae in its cell and is widely used as an experimental model for studying symbiosis between eukaryotic cells. Currently, various types of bacteria and eukaryotic microorganisms are used as food for culturing P. bursaria; thus, the cultivation conditions are not uniform among researchers. To unify cultivation conditions, we established cloned, unfed strains that can be cultured using only sterile medium without exogenous food. The proliferation of these unfed strains was suppressed in the presence of antibiotics, suggesting that bacteria are required for the proliferation of the unfed strains. Indeed, several kinds of bacteria, such as Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales, Rhodospirillales, and Sphingomonadales, which are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen and/or degrade chemical pollutants, were detected in the unfed strains. The genetic background of the individually cloned, unfed strains were the same, but the proliferation curves of the individual P. bursaria strains were very diverse. Therefore, we selected multiple actively and poorly proliferating individual strains and compared the bacterial composition among the individual strains using 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the bacterial composition among actively proliferating P. bursaria strains was highly homologous but different to poorly proliferating strains. Using unfed strains, the cultivation conditions applied in different laboratories can be unified, and symbiosis research on P. bursaria will make great progress.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Gao Y, Huang S, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Analysis of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the symbiotic relationship between Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and Manihot esculenta Crantz.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1130924.

INTRODUCTION: Plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) mutualistic interactions are essential for sustainable agriculture production. Although it is shown that AMF inoculation improves cassava physiological performances and yield traits, the molecular mechanisms involved in AM symbiosis remain largely unknown. Herein, we integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses of symbiotic (Ri) and asymbiotic (CK) cassava roots and explored AM-induced biochemical and transcriptional changes.

RESULTS: Three weeks (3w) after AMF inoculations, proliferating fungal hyphae were observable, and plant height and root length were significantly increased. In total, we identified 1,016 metabolites, of which 25 were differentially accumulated (DAMs) at 3w. The most highly induced metabolites were 5-aminolevulinic acid, L-glutamic acid, and lysoPC 18:2. Transcriptome analysis identified 693 and 6,481 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the comparison between CK (3w) against Ri at 3w and 6w, respectively. Functional enrichment analyses of DAMs and DEGs unveiled transport, amino acids and sugar metabolisms, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and plant-pathogen interactions as the most differentially regulated pathways. Potential candidate genes, including nitrogen and phosphate transporters, transcription factors, phytohormone, sugar metabolism-related, and SYM (symbiosis) signaling pathway-related, were identified for future functional studies.

DISCUSSION: Our results provide molecular insights into AM symbiosis and valuable resources for improving cassava production.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Ait-Zenati F, Djoudi F, Mehelleb D, et al (2023)

Involvement of the human microbiome in frequent cancers, current knowledge and carcinogenesis mechanisms.

Bulletin du cancer pii:S0007-4551(23)00092-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The human body is home to a complex microbial community, living in symbiosis. However, when an imbalance occurs, known as dysbiosis, it can lead to organic diseases such as cancers. Helicobacter pylori is commonly recognized as the causative agent of gastric cancer. Numerous studies have explored the potential role of other microorganisms in cancers. For example, the role of intestinal microbiota in the hepatocellular carcinoma formation and progression, the microbiota in breast cancer and the interaction between the microbiome and TP53 in human lung carcinogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest findings on the microbiome involved in the most common cancers and the suggested mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Gobbo F, Corriale MJ, Gázquez A, et al (2023)

Arbuscular mycorrhizae reduce the response of important plant functional traits to drought and salinity. A meta-analysis study.

Functional plant biology : FPB pii:FP22242 [Epub ahead of print].

We aimed at exploring the plant functional traits whose responses to drought or salinity are altered by the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). We performed a meta-analysis across 114 articles spanning 110 plant species or cultivars. We quantified the size effect of AM symbiosis on the stress response of several functional traits, using linear mixed model analysis (LMM). Correlation analysis between functional traits and total biomass responses to stresses were also performed through LMM. The literature search and further selection yielded seven functional traits, extracted from 114 laboratory studies, including 888 observations and 110 plant species/cultivars. Evidence for significant effects of predictor variables (type of stress, AM symbiosis and/or their interaction) on functional trait response were found for leaf area ratio (LAR), root mass fraction (RMF) and root-shoot (R:S) ratio. Our results provided evidence to accept the hypothesis that AM fungal inoculation may reduce the stress response of these plant functional traits by decreasing its magnitude. We also found a weak correlation between stress responses of these traits and total biomass variation. Although our literature search and data collection were intensive and our results robust, the scope of our conclusions is limited by the agronomical bias of plant species targeted by the meta-analysis. Further knowledge on non-cultivable plant species and better understanding of the mechanisms ruling resources allocation in plants would allow more generalised conclusions.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Zhen G, Pan Y, Han Y, et al (2023)

Enhanced co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste using novel electrochemical anaerobic membrane bioreactor (EC-AnMBR).

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00365-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Membrane fouling remains a big challenge hindering the wide-application of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology. In this study, an electrochemical anaerobic membrane bioreactor (EC-AnMBR) was developed by coupling electrochemical regulation to enhance co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste and mitigate membrane fouling. The highest methane production (0.12 ± 0.02 L/Lreactor/day) and net energy recovery (31.82 kJ/day) were achieved under the optimum conditions of 0.8 V, hydraulic retention time of 10 days and solids retention time of 50 days. Electrochemical regulation accelerated the mineralization of high-molecular-weight organics and reinforced the membrane antifouling ability by inducing electrostatic repulsive force and electrochemical oxidation. Besides, symbiotic relationships among functional microorganisms (Spirochaetes, Methanolinea, etc.) were enhanced, improving the hydrolysis and methanogenesis processes of complex organics and the long-term stability. This study confirms the technical feasibility of EC-AnMBR in treating high-solid biowastes, and provides the fundamental data to support its application in real-world scenarios.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Detcharoen M, Jiggins FM, Schlick-Steiner BC, et al (2023)

Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria alter the gut microbiome in the fly Drosophila nigrosparsa.

Journal of invertebrate pathology pii:S0022-2011(23)00032-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Wolbachia are known to cause reproductive manipulations and in some arthropod species, Wolbachia were reported to cause changes in gut microbiome. However, the effects of Wolbachia bacteria on the microbiomes of their hosts, including Drosophila flies, have not been fully accessed. Here, we checked the bacterial microbiome in guts of Wolbachia-uninfected and of Wolbachia-infected Drosophila nigrosparsa, both separated into a bleach-only (embryos bleached) and a gnotobiotic (embryos bleached and inoculated with bacteria) treatment. We observed a clear separation between the Wolbachia-infected and the Wolbachia-uninfected samples, and the infected samples had higher variation in alpha diversity than the uninfected ones. There were reductions in the abundances of Proteobacteria (Pseudomonadota), especially Acetobacter, in the infected samples of both treatments. These findings highlight that Wolbachia change the gut microbiome in D. nigrosparsa as well as that the interactions between Wolbachia and bacteria like Acetobacter need to be investigated.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Hlaváčková K, Šamajová O, Hrbáčková M, et al (2023)

Advanced microscopy resolves dynamic localization patterns of stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase SIMK during alfalfa root hair interactions with Ensifer meliloti.

Journal of experimental botany pii:7084758 [Epub ahead of print].

Leguminous plants have established a mutualistic endosymbiotic interaction with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia to secure nitrogen sources in new specialised organs called root nodules. Before nodule formation, the development of early symbiotic structures is essential for rhizobia docking, internalization, targeted delivery and intracellular accommodation. We have recently reported that overexpression of stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (SIMK) in alfalfa affects root hair, nodule and shoot formation, which raised the questions how SIMK may modulate these processes. In particular, detailed subcellular spatial distribution, activation and developmental relocation of SIMK during the early stages of alfalfa nodulation remain unclear. Here, we qualitatively and quantitatively characterised SIMK distribution patterns in Ensifer meliloti-infected root hairs using live-cell imaging and immunolocalization, employing alfalfa stable transgenic lines with genetically manipulated SIMK abundance and kinase activity. In the SIMKK-RNAi line, showing downregulation of SIMKK and SIMK, we found considerably decreased accumulation of phosphorylated SIMK around infection pockets and infection threads. However, this was strongly increased in the GFP-SIMK line, constitutively overexpressing GFP-tagged SIMK. Thus, genetically manipulated SIMK modulates root hair capacity to form infection pockets and infection threads. Employment of advanced light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) on intact plants allowed gentle and non-invasive imaging of spatiotemporal interactions between root hairs and symbiotic Ensifer meliloti, while immunofluorescence detection confirmed that SIMK was activated in these locations. Our results shed new light on SIMK spatiotemporal participation in early interactions between alfalfa and Ensifer meliloti, and its internalization into root hairs, showing that local accumulation of active SIMK indeed modulates early nodulation in alfalfa.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Zheng M, Xu M, Li D, et al (2023)

Negative responses of terrestrial nitrogen fixation to nitrogen addition weaken across increased soil organic carbon levels.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01583-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The traditional view holds that biological nitrogen (N) fixation is energetically expensive and thus, facultative N fixers reduce N fixation rates while obligate N fixers are excluded by non-N fixers as soil N becomes rich. This view, however, contradicts the phenomenon that N fixation does not decline in many terrestrial ecosystems under N enrichment. To address this paradoxical phenomenon, we conducted a meta-analysis of N fixation and diazotroph (N-fixing microorganism) community structure in response to N addition across terrestrial ecosystems. N addition inhibited N fixation, but the inhibitory effect weakened across increased soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations. The response ratios of N fixation (including free-living, plant-associated, and symbiotic types) to N addition were lower in the ecosystems with low SOC concentrations (<10 mg/g) than in those with medium or high SOC concentrations (10-20 and > 20 mg/g, respectively). The negative N-addition effects on diazotroph abundance and diversity also weakened across increased SOC levels. Among the climatic and soil factors, SOC was the most important predictor regarding the responses of N fixation and diazotroph community structure to N addition. Overall, our study reveals the role of SOC in affecting the responses of N fixation to N addition, which helps understand the relationships of biological N fixation and N enrichment as well as the mechanisms of terrestrial C and N coupling.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Czymmek KJ, Duncan KE, H Berg (2023)

Realizing the Full Potential of Advanced Microscopy Approaches for Interrogating Plant-Microbe Interactions.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

Microscopy has served as a fundamental tool for insight and discovery in plant-microbe interactions for centuries. From classical light and electron microscopy to corresponding specialized methods for sample preparation and cellular contrasting agents, these approaches have become routine components in the toolkit of plant and microbiology scientists alike to visualize, probe and understand the nature of host-microbe relationships. Over the last three decades, three-dimensional perspectives led by the development of electron tomography, and especially, confocal techniques continue to provide remarkable clarity and spatial detail of tissue and cellular phenomena. Confocal and electron microscopy provide novel revelations that are now commonplace in medium and large institutions. However, many other cutting-edge technologies and sample preparation workflows are relatively unexploited yet offer tremendous potential for unprecedented advancement in our understanding of the inner workings of pathogenic, beneficial, and symbiotic plant-microbe interactions. Here, we highlight key applications, benefits, and challenges of contemporary advanced imaging platforms for plant-microbe systems with special emphasis on several recently developed approaches, such as light-sheet, single molecule, super-resolution, and adaptive optics microscopy, as well as ambient and cryo-volume electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, and cryo-electron tomography. Furthermore, the potential for complementary sample preparation methodologies, such as optical clearing, expansion microscopy, and multiplex imaging, will be reviewed. Our ultimate goal is to stimulate awareness of these powerful cutting-edge technologies and facilitate their appropriate application and adoption to solve important and unresolved biological questions in the field. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Kishigami M, Matsuoka F, Maeno A, et al (2023)

Yeast associated with flower longicorn beetle Leptura ochraceofasciata (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae), with implication for its function in symbiosis.

PloS one, 18(3):e0282351 pii:PONE-D-22-30685.

Wood is difficult for most animals to digest due to large amounts of indigestible polymers, but some wood-feeding insects are considered to be able to utilize it as food with the aid of microbial symbionts. Most members of flower longicorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lepturinae) feed on nectar and pollen of flowers as adults and wood as larvae. In some lepturines, associations with yeasts are known: female adults possess fungus-storing organs (termed mycetangia) at ovipositors, and larvae also possess such organs (termed mycetomes) in their midguts to carry the associated yeasts. Despite the high diversity of Lepturinae in the world, lepturine-yeast associations, such as the consistency of associated yeasts among the beetle's developmental stages and ecological function of yeast symbionts, have been poorly documented. Here, we investigated the yeast symbiont of the Japanese common lepturine Leptura ochraceofasciata. X-ray computed microtomography revealed that a pair of tube-like, S-shaped mycetangia was located at the basal part of the ovipositor and that a muscle bundle joined the apex of the mycetangium to spiculum ventrale of sternum VIII. All female adults harbored only one yeast species, Scheffersomyces insectosa, in the mycetangia. All larvae harbored S. insectosa exclusively in the mycetomes. Scheffersomyces insectosa was also recovered from surfaces of eggs. Scheffersomyces insectosa assimilated wood-associated sugars including xylose, cellobiose, and xylan in culture. These results suggest the intimate association between L. ochraceofasciata and S. insectosa: S. insectosa is transmitted from the mother to offspring during oviposition and may be related to larval growth in wood.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Solanki AC, Gurjar NS, S Sharma (2023)

Co-Inoculation of Non-Symbiotic Bacteria Bacillus and Paraburkholderia Can Improve the Soybean Yield, Nutrient Uptake, and Soil Parameters.

Molecular biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Due to its nutritional value and oil, soybean (Glycine max L.) became an economic crop in India and worldwide. The current study investigated the effect of forest-associated plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on soybean yield and grain nutrient content. Five potential bacteria were used in this study based on their PGPR traits. The pot assay result with two crops (soybean and chickpea) confirmed the growth promotion activity of the two strains (Bacillus subtilis MpS15 and Paraburkholderia sabiae NvS21). The result showed significant (p < 0.05) enhancement in plant length and biomass with the seed treatment with strains (MpS15 and NvS21) compared to the control. Later both biocompatible potential strains were used in field experiments as individuals and consortia. Seed treatment of consortia significantly improves the nodulation and photosynthetic content more than individual treatments and control. Compared to the control, the co-inoculation of MpS15 and NvS21 increased soybean grain, straw yield, and grain NPK contents. Interestingly, soil parameters (organic carbon, available NPK) showed a strong correlation (p < 0.05) with plant parameters and nutrient uptake. Overall, our study provides strong relationships between soil parameters, microbial inoculum as consortia, and soybean performance, and these strains may be utilized as bioinoculant in future.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Jones JE, GDD Hurst (2023)

History matters: thermal environment before, but not during wasp attack determines the efficiency of symbiont-mediated protection.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The outcome of natural enemy attack in insects is commonly impacted by the presence of defensive microbial symbionts residing within the host. The thermal environment is a factor known to affect symbiont-mediated traits in insects. Cooler temperatures, for instance, have been shown to reduce Spiroplasma-mediated protection in Drosophila. Our understanding of protective symbiosis requires a deeper understanding of environment -symbiont- protection links. Here, we dissect the effect of the thermal environment on Spiroplasma-mediated protection against Leptopilina boulardi in Drosophila melanogaster by examining the effect of temperature before, during and after wasp attack on fly survival and wasp success. We observed that the developmental temperature of the mothers of attacked larvae, and not the temperature of the attacked larvae themselves during or after wasp attack, strongly determines the protective influence of Spiroplasma. Cooler maternal environments was associated with weaker Spiroplasma protection of their progeny. The effect of developmental temperature on Spiroplasma-mediated protection is likely mediated by a reduction in Spiroplasma titre. These results indicate the historical thermal environment is a stronger determinant of protection than current environment. Further, protection is a character with transgenerational non-genetic variation likely to produce complex short term responses to selection. In addition, the cool sensitivity of the Spiroplasma-Drosophila symbioses contrasts to the more common failure of symbioses at elevated temperatures, indicating a need to understand the mechanistic basis of low temperature sensitivity on this symbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Oliveira HC, Seabra AB, Kondak S, et al (2023)

Multilevel approach of plant-nanomaterial relationship: from cells to living ecosystems.

Journal of experimental botany pii:7083643 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to their unique properties, nanomaterials (NMs) behave peculiarly in biosystems. Regarding plants, the interactions of NMs can be interpreted on a spatial scale: from local interactions in cells to systemic effects on whole plants and on ecosystems. Interpreted on a time scale, the effects of NMs on plants may be immediate or subsequent. At the cellular level, the composition and structure of the cell wall and membranes are modified by NMs, promoting internalization. The effects of NMs on germination and seedling physiology and on the primary and secondary metabolisms in the shoot are realized at organ and organism levels. Nanomaterials interact with the beneficial ecological partners of plants. The effects of NMs on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and legume-rhizobia symbiosis can be stimulating or inhibitory, depending on the concentration and type of NM. Nanomaterials exert a negative effect on arbuscular mycorrhiza, and vice versa. Pollinators are exposed to NMs, which may affect plant reproduction. The substances released by the roots influence the availability of NMs in the rhizosphere and components of plant cells trigger internalization, translocation, and transformation of NMs. Understanding of the multilevel and bidirectional relationship between plants and NMs is of great relevance in practice.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Wei YH, Ma X, Zhao JC, et al (2023)

Succinate metabolism and its regulation of host-microbe interactions.

Gut microbes, 15(1):2190300.

Succinate is a circulating metabolite, and the relationship between abnormal changes in the physiological concentration of succinate and inflammatory diseases caused by the overreaction of certain immune cells has become a research focus. Recent investigations have shown that succinate produced by the gut microbiota has the potential to regulate host homeostasis and treat diseases such as inflammation. Gut microbes are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Microbial metabolites serve as nutrients in energy metabolism, and act as signal molecules that stimulate host cell and organ function and affect the structural balance between symbiotic gut microorganisms. This review focuses on succinate as a metabolite of both host cells and gut microbes and its involvement in regulating the gut - immune tissue axis by activating intestinal mucosal cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and intestinal epithelial cells. We also examined its role as the mediator of microbiota - host crosstalk and its potential function in regulating intestinal microbiota homeostasis. This review explores feasible ways to moderate succinate levels and provides new insights into succinate as a potential target for microbial therapeutics for humans.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Wang L, Tian T, Liang J, et al (2023)

A transcription factor of the NAC family regulates nitrate-induced legume nodule senescence.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Legumes establish symbioses with rhizobia by forming nitrogen-fixing nodules. Nitrate is a major environmental factor that affects symbiotic functioning. However, the molecular mechanism of nitrate-induced nodule senescence is poorly understood. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals an NAC-type transcription factor in Lotus japonicus, LjNAC094, that acts as a positive regulator in nitrate-induced nodule senescence. Stable overexpression and mutant lines of NAC094 were constructed and used for phenotypic characterization. DNA-affinity purification sequencing was performed to identify NAC094 targeting genes and results were confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift and transactivation assays. Overexpression of NAC094 induces premature nodule senescence. Knocking out NAC094 partially relieves nitrate-induced degradation of leghemoglobins and abolishes nodule expression of senescence-associated genes (SAGs) that contain a conserved binding motif for NAC094. Nitrate-triggered metabolic changes of wild-type nodules are largely affected in nac094 mutant nodules. Induction of NAC094 and its targeting SAGs was almost blocked in the nitrate-insensitive nlp1, nlp4, and nlp1 nlp4 mutants. We conclude that NAC094 functions downstream of NLP1 and NLP4 by regulating nitrate-induced expression of SAGs. Our study fills in a key gap between nitrate and the execution of nodule senescence, and provides a potential strategy to improve nitrogen fixation and stress tolerance of legumes.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Hornstein ED, Charles M, Franklin M, et al (2023)

Re-engineering a lost trait: IPD3 , a master regulator of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, affects genes for immunity and metabolism of non-host Arabidopsis when restored long after its evolutionary loss.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.03.06.531368.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AM) is a beneficial trait originating with the first land plants, which has subsequently been lost by species scattered throughout the radiation of plant diversity to the present day, including the model Arabidopsis thaliana . To explore why an apparently beneficial trait would be repeatedly lost, we generated Arabidopsis plants expressing a constitutively active form of Interacting Protein of DMI3 , a key transcription factor that enables AM within the Common Symbiosis Pathway, which was lost from Arabidopsis along with the AM host trait. We characterize the transcriptomic effect of expressing IPD3 in Arabidopsis with and without exposure to the AM fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis , and compare these results to the AM model Lotus japonicus and its ipd3 knockout mutant cyclops-4 . Despite its long history as a non-AM species, restoring IPD3 in the form of its constitutively active DNA-binding domain to Arabidopsis altered expression of specific gene networks. Surprisingly, the effect of expressing IPD3 in Arabidopsis and knocking it out in Lotus was strongest in plants not exposed to AMF, which is revealed to be due to changes in IPD3 genotype causing a transcriptional state which partially mimics AMF exposure in non-inoculated plants. Our results indicate that despite the long interval since loss of AM and IPD3 in Arabidopsis , molecular connections to symbiosis machinery remain in place in this nonAM species, with implications for both basic science and the prospect of engineering this trait for agriculture.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Dodge R, Jones EW, Zhu H, et al (2023)

A symbiotic physical niche in Drosophila melanogaster regulates stable association of a multi-species gut microbiota.

Nature communications, 14(1):1557.

The gut is continuously invaded by diverse bacteria from the diet and the environment, yet microbiome composition is relatively stable over time for host species ranging from mammals to insects, suggesting host-specific factors may selectively maintain key species of bacteria. To investigate host specificity, we used gnotobiotic Drosophila, microbial pulse-chase protocols, and microscopy to investigate the stability of different strains of bacteria in the fly gut. We show that a host-constructed physical niche in the foregut selectively binds bacteria with strain-level specificity, stabilizing their colonization. Primary colonizers saturate the niche and exclude secondary colonizers of the same strain, but initial colonization by Lactobacillus species physically remodels the niche through production of a glycan-rich secretion to favor secondary colonization by unrelated commensals in the Acetobacter genus. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for understanding the establishment and stability of a multi-species intestinal microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Li S, Roger LM, Kumar L, et al (2023)

High-frequency imagery to capture coral tissue (Montipora capricornis) response to environmental stress, a pilot study.

PloS one, 18(3):e0283042 pii:PONE-D-22-16130.

Environment stress is a major threat to the existence of coral reefs and has generated a lot of interest in the coral research community. Under the environmental stress, corals can experience tissue loss and/or the breakdown of symbiosis between the cnidarian host and its symbiotic algae causing the coral tissue to appear white as the skeleton can be seen by transparency. Image analysis is a common method used to assess tissue response under the environmental stress. However, the traditional approach is limited by the dynamic nature of the coral-algae symbiosis. Here, we observed coral tissue response in the scleractinian coral, Montipora capricornis, using high frequency image analysis throughout the experiment, as opposed to the typical start/end point assessment method. Color analysis reveals that the process can be divided into five stages with two critical stages according to coral tissue morphology and color ratio. We further explore changes to the morphology of individual polyps by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient and recurrence plots, where the quasi-periodic and nonstationary dynamics can be identified. The recurrence quantification analysis also allows the comparison between the different polyps. Our research provides a detailed visual and mathematical analysis of coral tissue response to environmental stress, which potentially shows universal applicability. Moreover, our approach provides a robust quantitative advancement for improving our insight into a suite of biotic responses in the perspective of coral health evaluation and fate prediction.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Fukaya S, Masuda L, M Takemura (2023)

Analysis of Morphological Changes in the Nucleus and Vacuoles of Acanthamoeba castellanii following Giant Virus Infection.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Acanthamoeba castellanii medusavirus is a member of the phylum Nucleocytoviricota, also known as giant viruses, and has a unique strategy of infecting Acanthamoeba castellanii and replicating viral genes in the host nucleus. Here, we show time series changes in the intracellular morphology, including the nucleus, of host cells infected with four types of giant viruses, including medusavirus, using time-lapse phase-contrast microscopy and image analysis. We updated our phase-contrast-based kinetic analysis algorithm for amoebae (PKA3) to use multiple microscopic images with different focus positions to allow a more detailed analysis of their intracellular structures. Image analysis using PKA3 revealed that as medusavirus infection progressed, the host nucleus increased in size and the number of vacuoles decreased. In addition, infected host cells are known to become smaller and rounder at later stages of infection, but here they were found to be larger than uninfected cells at earlier stages. These results suggested that the propagation mechanism of medusavirus includes the formation of empty virus particles in the host cytoplasm, packaging of the viral genome replicated in the host nucleus, and then the release of viral particles. IMPORTANCE In this study, we quantitatively revealed how long the increase in host cell size or the increase in host nucleus size occurs after infection with giant viruses, especially medusavirus. To understand the underlying mechanism, we performed image analysis and determined that the host cell size increased at approximately 6 h postinfection (hpi) and the host nucleus enlarged at approximately 22 hpi, pointing to the importance of biochemical experiments. In addition, we showed that the intracellular structures could be quantitatively analyzed using multiple phase-contrast microscopy images with different focus positions at the same time point. Hence, morphological analyses of intracellular structures using phase-contrast microscopy, which have wide applications in live-cell observations, may be useful in studying various organisms that infect or are symbiotic with A. castellanii.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Ran Z, Chen X, Li R, et al (2023)

Transcriptomics and metabolomics reveal the changes induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Panax quinquefolius L.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Panax quinquefolius L. is one of the most important foods and herbs because of its high nutritional value and medicinal potential. In our previous study we found that the content of ginsenoside in P. quinquefolius was improved by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, little research has been conducted on the molecular mechanisms in P. quinquefolius roots induced by AMF colonization. To identify the metabolomic and transcriptomic mechanisms of P. quinquefolius induced by AMF, the non-mycorrhized (Control) and mycorrhized (AMF) of P. quinquefolius were used as experimental materials for comparative analysis of transcriptome and metabolome.

RESULTS: Compared with the control, 182 metabolites and 545 genes were significantly changed at the metabolic and transcriptional levels in AMF treatment. The metabolic pattern of AMF was changed, and the contents of ginsenosides (Rb1, Rg2), threonine and glutaric acid were significantly increased. There were significant differences in the expression of genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction, glutathione metabolism, and the plant-pathogen interaction pathway. In addition, several transcription factors from NAC, WRKY and bHLH families were identified in AMF vs the control. Furthermore, the combined analysis of "transcriptomic-metabolomics" analysis showed that "Plant hormone signal transduction", "Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism" and "Glutathione metabolism" pathway were the important enriched pathway in response to AMF colonization.

CONCLUSION: Overall, these results provide new insights into P. quinquefolius response to AMF, which improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of P. quinquefolius induced by AMF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Garces KR, Bell-Dereske L, Rudgers JA, et al (2023)

Nitrogen addition and fungal symbiosis alter early dune plant succession.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) enrichment can have complex effects on plant communities. In low-nutrient, primary successional systems such as sand dunes, N enrichment may alter the trajectory of plant community assembly or the dominance of foundational, ecosystem-engineering plants. Predicting the consequences of N enrichment may be complicated by plant interactions with microbial symbionts because increases in a limiting resource, such as N, could alter the costs and benefits of symbiosis. To evaluate the direct and interactive effects of microbial symbiosis and N addition on plant succession, we established a long-term field experiment in Michigan, USA, manipulating the presence of the symbiotic fungal endophyte Epichloë amarillans in Ammophila breviligulata, a dominant ecosystem-engineering dune grass species. From 2016 to 2020, we implemented N fertilization treatments (control, low, high) in a subset of the long-term experiment. N addition suppressed the accumulation of plant diversity over time mainly by reducing species richness of colonizing plants. However, this suppression occurred only when the endophyte was present in Ammophila. Although Epichloë enhanced Ammophila tiller density over time, N addition did not strongly interact with Epichloë symbiosis to influence vegetative growth of Ammophila. Instead, N addition directly altered plant community composition by increasing the abundance of efficient colonizers, especially C4 grasses. In conclusion, hidden microbial symbionts can alter the consequences of N enrichment on plant primary succession.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Baldrian P, López-Mondéjar R, P Kohout (2023)

Forest microbiome and global change.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Forests influence climate and mitigate global change through the storage of carbon in soils. In turn, these complex ecosystems face important challenges, including increases in carbon dioxide, warming, drought and fire, pest outbreaks and nitrogen deposition. The response of forests to these changes is largely mediated by microorganisms, especially fungi and bacteria. The effects of global change differ among boreal, temperate and tropical forests. The future of forests depends mostly on the performance and balance of fungal symbiotic guilds, saprotrophic fungi and bacteria, and fungal plant pathogens. Drought severely weakens forest resilience, as it triggers adverse processes such as pathogen outbreaks and fires that impact the microbial and forest performance for carbon storage and nutrient turnover. Nitrogen deposition also substantially affects forest microbial processes, with a pronounced effect in the temperate zone. Considering plant-microorganism interactions would help predict the future of forests and identify management strategies to increase ecosystem stability and alleviate climate change effects. In this Review, we describe the impact of global change on the forest ecosystem and its microbiome across different climatic zones. We propose potential approaches to control the adverse effects of global change on forest stability, and present future research directions to understand the changes ahead.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Liu Y, Zhao H, Fu B, et al (2022)

Mapping Cell Phenomics with Multiparametric Flow Cytometry Assays.

Phenomics (Cham, Switzerland), 2(4):272-281.

Phenomics explores the complex interactions among genes, epigenetics, symbiotic microorganisms, diet, and environmental exposure based on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of individuals and groups. Increasingly efficient and comprehensive phenotyping techniques have been integrated into modern phenomics-related research. Multicolor flow cytometry technology provides more measurement parameters than conventional flow cytometry. Based on detailed descriptions of cell phenotypes, rare cell populations and cell subsets can be distinguished, new cell phenotypes can be discovered, and cell apoptosis characteristics can be detected, which will expand the potential of cell phenomics research. Based on the enhancements in multicolor flow cytometry hardware, software, reagents, and method design, the present review summarizes the recent advances and applications of multicolor flow cytometry in cell phenomics, illuminating the potential of applying phenomics in future studies.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Zhong S, Yang J, H Huang (2023)

The role of single and mixed biofilms in Clostridioides difficile infection and strategies for prevention and inhibition.

Critical reviews in microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a serious disease with a high recurrence rate. The single and mixed biofilms formed by C. difficile in the gut contribute to the formation of recurrent CDI (rCDI). In parallel, other gut microbes influence the formation and development of C. difficile biofilms, also known as symbiotic biofilms. Interactions between members within the symbiotic biofilm are associated with the worsening or alleviation of CDI. These interactions include effects on C. difficile adhesion and chemotaxis, modulation of LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing (QS) system activity, promotion of cross-feeding by microbial metabolites, and regulation of intestinal bile acid and pyruvate levels. In the process of C. difficile biofilms control, inhibition of C. difficile initial biofilm formation and killing of C. difficile vegetative cells and spores are the main targets of action. The role of symbiotic biofilms in CDI suggested that targeting interventions of C. difficile-promoting gut microbes could indirectly inhibit the formation of C. difficile mixed biofilms and improved the ultimate therapeutic effect. In summary, this review outlines the mechanisms of C. difficile biofilm formation and summarises the treatment strategies for such single and mixed biofilms, aiming to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of CDI.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Sarton-Lohéac G, Nunes da Silva CG, Mazel F, et al (2023)

Deep Divergence and Genomic Diversification of Gut Symbionts of Neotropical Stingless Bees.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Social bees harbor conserved gut microbiotas that may have been acquired in a common ancestor of social bees and subsequently codiversified with their hosts. However, most of this knowledge is based on studies on the gut microbiotas of honey bees and bumblebees. Much less is known about the gut microbiotas of the third and most diverse group of social bees, the stingless bees. Specifically, the absence of genomic data from their microbiotas presents an important knowledge gap in understanding the evolution and functional diversity of the social bee microbiota. Here, we combined community profiling with culturing and genome sequencing of gut bacteria from six neotropical stingless bee species from Brazil. Phylogenomic analyses show that most stingless bee gut isolates form deep-branching sister clades of core members of the honey bee and bumblebee gut microbiota with conserved functional capabilities, confirming the common ancestry and ecology of their microbiota. However, our bacterial phylogenies were not congruent with those of the host, indicating that the evolution of the social bee gut microbiota was not driven by strict codiversification but included host switches and independent symbiont gain and losses. Finally, as reported for the honey bee and bumblebee microbiotas, we found substantial genomic divergence among strains of stingless bee gut bacteria, suggesting adaptation to different host species and glycan niches. Our study offers first insights into the genomic diversity of the stingless bee microbiota and highlights the need for broader samplings to understand the evolution of the social bee gut microbiota. IMPORTANCE Stingless bees are the most diverse group of the corbiculate bees and represent important pollinator species throughout the tropics and subtropics. They harbor specialized microbial communities in their gut that are related to those found in honey bees and bumblebees and that are likely important for bee health. Few bacteria have been cultured from the gut of stingless bees, which has prevented characterization of their genomic diversity and functional potential. Here, we established cultures of major members of the gut microbiotas of six stingless bee species and sequenced their genomes. We found that most stingless bee isolates belong to novel bacterial species distantly related to those found in honey bees and bumblebees and encoding similar functional capabilities. Our study offers a new perspective on the evolution of the social bee gut microbiota and presents a basis for characterizing the symbiotic relationships between gut bacteria and stingless bees.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Xiang N, Meyer A, Pogoreutz C, et al (2023)

Excess labile carbon promotes diazotroph abundance in heat-stressed octocorals.

Royal Society open science, 10(3):221268.

Nitrogen limitation is the foundation of stable coral-algal symbioses. Diazotrophs, prokaryotes capable of fixing N2 into ammonia, support the productivity of corals in oligotrophic waters, but could contribute to the destabilization of holobiont functioning when overstimulated. Recent studies on reef-building corals have shown that labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) enrichment or heat stress increases diazotroph abundance and activity, thereby increasing nitrogen availability and destabilizing the coral-algal symbiosis. However, the (a)biotic drivers of diazotrophs in octocorals are still poorly understood. We investigated diazotroph abundance (via relative quantification of nifH gene copy numbers) in two symbiotic octocorals, the more mixotrophic soft coral Xenia umbellata and the more autotrophic gorgonian Pinnigorgia flava, under (i) labile DOC enrichment for 21 days, followed by (ii) combined labile DOC enrichment and heat stress for 24 days. Without heat stress, relative diazotroph abundances in X. umbellata and P. flava were unaffected by DOC enrichment. During heat stress, DOC enrichment (20 and 40 mg glucose l[-1]) increased the relative abundances of diazotrophs by sixfold in X. umbellata and fourfold in P. flava, compared with their counterparts without excess DOC. Our data suggest that labile DOC enrichment and concomitant heat stress could disrupt the nitrogen limitation in octocorals by stimulating diazotroph proliferation. Ultimately, the disruption of nitrogen cycling may further compromise octocoral fitness by destabilizing symbiotic nutrient cycling. Therefore, improving local wastewater facilities to reduce labile DOC input into vulnerable coastal ecosystems may help octocorals cope with ocean warming.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Zhang K, Shen Z, Yang W, et al (2022)

Unraveling the metabolic effects of benzophenone-3 on the endosymbiotic dinoflagellate Cladocopium goreaui.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1116975.

As a well-known pseudo-persistent environmental pollutant, oxybenzone (BP-3) and its related organic ultraviolet (UV) filters have been verified to directly contribute to the increasing mortality rate of coral reefs. Previous studies have revealed the potential role of symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae in protecting corals from the toxic effects of UV filters. However, the detailed protection mechanism(s) have not been explained. Here, the impacts of BP-3 on the symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae Cladocopium goreaui were explored. C. goreaui cells exhibited distinct cell growth at different BP-3 doses, with increasing growth at the lower concentration (2 mg L[-1]) and rapid death at a higher concentration (20 mg L[-1]). Furthermore, C. goreaui cells showed a significant BP-3 uptake at the lower BP-3 concentration. BP-3 absorbing cells exhibited elevated photosynthetic efficiency, and decreased cellular carbon and nitrogen contents. Besides, the derivatives of BP-3 and aromatic amino acid metabolism highly responded to BP-3 absorption and biodegradation. Our physiological and metabolic results reveal that the symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae could resist the toxicity of a range of BP-3 through promoting cell division, photosynthesis, and reprogramming amino acid metabolism. This study provides novel insights into the influences of organic UV filters to coral reef ecosystems, which urgently needs increasing attention and management.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Muthuraja R, Muthukumar T, C Natthapol (2023)

Drought tolerance of Aspergillus violaceofuscus and Bacillus licheniformis and their influence on tomato growth and potassium uptake in mica amended tropical soils under water-limiting conditions.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1114288.

Drought is a significant abiotic stress that alters plant physiology and ultimately affects crop productivity. Among essential plant nutrients, potassium (K) is known to mitigate the deleterious effect of drought on plant growth. If so, K addition or inoculation of potassium solubilizing microorganisms (KSMs) that are tolerant to drought should promote plant growth during water stress. Therefore, in this study, K solubilizing Aspergillus violaceofuscus and Bacillus licheniformis, isolated from saxicolous environments, were tested for their capacity to tolerate drought using different molecular weights (~4000, 6000, and 8000 Da), and concentrations (0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 mg/L) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) under in vitro conditions. The results showed that high concentrations (750 and 1000 mg/L) of PEG with different molecular weight considerably improved bacterial cell numbers/fungal biomass and catalase (CAT) and proline activities. Moreover, the ability of KSMs alone or in combination to impart drought tolerance and promote plant growth in the presence and absence of mica (9.3% K2O) supplementation was tested in Alfisol and Vertisol soil types under greenhouse conditions. The results revealed that the tomato plants inoculated with KSMs individually or dually with/without mica improved the physiological and morphological traits of the tomato plants under drought. Generally, tomato plants co-inoculated with KSMs and supplemented with mica were taller (2.62 and 3.38-fold) and had more leaf area (2.03 and 1.98-fold), total root length (3.26 and 8.86-fold), shoot biomass (3.87 and 3.93-fold), root biomass (9.00 and 7.24-fold), shoot K content (3.08 and 3.62-fold), root K content (3.39 and 2.03-fold), relative water content (1.51 and 1.27-fold), CAT activity (2.11 and 2.14-fold), proline content (3.41 and 3.28-fold), and total chlorophyll content (1.81 and 1.90-fold), in unsterilized Alfisol and Vertisol soil types, respectively, than uninoculated ones. Dual inoculation of the KSMs along with mica amendment, also improved the endorrhizal symbiosis of tomato plants more than their individual inoculation or application in both soil types. These findings imply that the A. violaceofuscus and B. licheniformis isolates are promising as novel bioinoculants for improving crop growth in water-stressed and rainfed areas of the tropics in the future.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Hashemipetroudi SH, Arab M, Heidari P, et al (2023)

Genome-wide analysis of the laccase (LAC) gene family in Aeluropus littoralis: A focus on identification, evolution and expression patterns in response to abiotic stresses and ABA treatment.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1112354.

Laccases are plant enzymes with essential functions during growth and development. These monophenoloxidases are involved in lignin polymerization, and their expression respond to environmental stress. However, studies of laccases in some plants and fungi have highlighted that many structural and functional aspects of these genes are still unknown. Here, the laccase gene family in Aeluropus littoralis (AlLAC) is described based on sequence structure and expression patterns under abiotic stresses and ABA treatment. Fifteen non-redundant AlLACs were identified from the A. littoralis genome, which showed differences in physicochemical characteristics and gene structure. Based on phylogenetic analysis, AlLACs and their orthologues were classified into five groups. A close evolutionary relationship was observed between LAC gene family members in rice and A. littoralis. According to the interaction network, AlLACs interact more with proteins involved in biological processes such as iron incorporation into the metallo-sulfur cluster, lignin catabolism, regulation of the symbiotic process and plant-type primary cell wall biogenesis. Gene expression analysis of selected AlLACs using real-time RT (reverse transcription)-PCR revealed that AlLACs are induced in response to abiotic stresses such as cold, salt, and osmotic stress, as well as ABA treatment. Moreover, AlLACs showed differential expression patterns in shoot and root tissues. Our findings indicate that AlLACs are preferentially involved in the late response of A. littoralis to abiotic stress.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Agyekum DVA, Kobayashi T, Dastogeer KMG, et al (2023)

Diversity and function of soybean rhizosphere microbiome under nature farming.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1130969.

Nature farming is a farming system that entails cultivating crops without using chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The present study investigated the bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere of soybean grown in conventional and nature farming soils using wild-type and non-nodulating mutant soybean. The effect of soil fumigant was also analyzed to reveal its perturbation of microbial communities and subsequent effects on the growth of soybean. Overall, the wild-type soybean exhibited a better growth index compared to mutant soybean and especially in nature farming. Nodulation and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi colonization were higher in plants under nature farming than in conventionally managed soil; however, fumigation drastically affected these symbioses with greater impacts on plants in nature farming soil. The rhizosphere microbiome diversity in nature farming was higher than that in conventional farming for both cultivars. However, the diversity was significantly decreased after fumigation treatment with a greater impact on nature farming. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that nature farming and conventional farming soil harbored distinct microbial communities and that soil fumigation significantly altered the communities in nature farming soils but not in conventional farming soils. Intriguingly, some beneficial microbial taxa related to plant growth and health, including Rhizobium, Streptomyces, and Burkholderia, were found as distinct microbes in the nature farming soil but were selectively bleached by fumigant treatment. Network analysis revealed a highly complex microbial network with high taxa connectivity observed under nature farming soil than in conventional soil; however, fumigation strongly broke it. Overall, the results highlighted that nature farming embraced higher microbial diversity and the abundance of beneficial soil microbes with a complex and interconnected network structure, and also demonstrated the underlying resilience of the microbial community to environmental perturbations, which is critical under nature farming where chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not applied.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Menocal O, Cruz LF, Kendra PE, et al (2023)

Flexibility in the ambrosia symbiosis of Xyleborus bispinatus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1110474.

INTRODUCTION: Ambrosia beetles maintain strict associations with specific lineages of fungi. However, anthropogenic introductions of ambrosia beetles into new ecosystems can result in the lateral transfer of their symbionts to other ambrosia beetles. The ability of a Florida endemic ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus bispinatus, to feed and establish persistent associations with two of its known symbionts (Raffaelea subfusca and Raffaelea arxii) and two other fungi (Harringtonia lauricola and Fusarium sp. nov.), which are primary symbionts of invasive ambrosia beetles, was investigated.

METHODS: The stability of these mutualisms and their effect on the beetle's fitness were monitored over five consecutive generations. Surface-disinfested pupae with non-developed mycangia were reared separately on one of the four fungal symbionts. Non-treated beetles (i.e., lab colony) with previously colonized mycangia were used as a control group.

RESULTS: Xyleborus bispinatus could exchange its fungal symbionts, survive, and reproduce on different fungal diets, including known fungal associates and phylogenetically distant fungi, which are plant pathogens and primary symbionts of other invasive ambrosia beetles. These changes in fungal diets resulted in persistent mutualisms, and some symbionts even increased the beetle's reproduction. Females that developed on Fusarium sp. nov. had a significantly greater number of female offspring than non-treated beetles. Females that fed solely on Harringtonia or Raffaelea symbionts produced fewer female offspring.

DISCUSSION: Even though some ambrosia beetles like X. bispinatus can partner with different ambrosia fungi, their symbiosis under natural conditions is modulated by their mycangium and possibly other environmental factors. However, exposure to symbionts of invasive beetles can result in stable partnerships with these fungi and affect the population dynamics of ambrosia beetles and their symbionts.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Hossain MS, DeLaune PB, TJ Gentry (2023)

Microbiome analysis revealed distinct microbial communities occupying different sized nodules in field-grown peanut.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1075575.

Legume nodulation is the powerhouse of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) where host-specific rhizobia dominate the nodule microbiome. However, other rhizobial or non-rhizobial inhabitants can also colonize legume nodules, and it is unclear how these bacteria interact, compete, or combinedly function in the nodule microbiome. Under such context, to test this hypothesis, we conducted 16S-rRNA based nodule microbiome sequencing to characterize microbial communities in two distinct sized nodules from field-grown peanuts inoculated with a commercial inoculum. We found that microbial communities diverged drastically in the two types of peanut nodules (big and small). Core microbial analysis revealed that the big nodules were inhabited by Bradyrhizobium, which dominated composition (>99%) throughout the plant life cycle. Surprisingly, we observed that in addition to Bradyrhizobium, the small nodules harbored a diverse set of bacteria (~31%) that were not present in big nodules. Notably, these initially less dominant bacteria gradually dominated in small nodules during the later plant growth phases, which suggested that native microbial communities competed with the commercial inoculum in the small nodules only. Conversely, negligible or no competition was observed in the big nodules. Based on the prediction of KEGG pathway analysis for N and P cycling genes and the presence of diverse genera in the small nodules, we foresee great potential of future studies of these microbial communities which may be crucial for peanut growth and development and/or protecting host plants from various biotic and abiotic stresses.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Wang Z, Huang W, Mai Y, et al (2023)

Environmental stress promotes the persistence of facultative bacterial symbionts in amoebae.

Ecology and evolution, 13(3):e9899.

Amoebae are one major group of protists that are widely found in natural and engineered environments. They are a significant threat to human health not only because many of them are pathogenic but also due to their unique role as an environmental shelter for pathogens. However, one unsolved issue in the amoeba-bacteria relationship is why so many bacteria live within amoeba hosts while they can also live independently in the environments. By using a facultative amoeba- Paraburkholderia bacteria system, this study shows that facultative bacteria have higher survival rates within amoebae under various environmental stressors. In addition, bacteria survive longer within the amoeba spore than in free living. This study demonstrates that environmental stress can promote the persistence of facultative bacterial symbionts in amoebae. Furthermore, environmental stress may potentially select and produce more amoeba-resisting bacteria, which may increase the biosafety risk related to amoebae and their intracellular bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

de Fátima Ferreira da Silva L, Rodrigues KF, Gennari A, et al (2023)

Milk fermentation with prebiotic flour of Vasconcellea quercifolia A.St.-Hil.

Journal of food science and technology, 60(4):1303-1312.

Non-conventional food plants have bioactive compounds and a high nutritional value. Among these, Vasconcellea quercifolia has nutritional benefits, but it is also easy to cultivate and has a low production cost. In this study, the flour from the unripe fruit of V. quercifolia was evaluated in terms of its potential as a prebiotic for the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis. To do so, fermented milk samples were prepared with 2%, 3%, and 6% of flour and 8.25 log CFU/mL of each microorganism. Samples were analyzed in terms of the number of viable cells of L. acidophilus and B. lactis, as well as pH level, total solids, titratable acidity, and texture in the course of 21 days of storage at 4ºC. The obtained microbial viability revealed the in vitro symbiotic effect of flour from V. quercifolia on the probiotic strains of L. acidophilus and B. lactis, which reached 10.20 and 11.19 log CFU/mL, respectively, after 21 days of storage, showing a significant difference in cell growth of 1.7 and 2.5 log CFU/mL compared with the control. The pH level decreased from 4.8 to 4.5 after storage time, so it did not alter the conditions for the growth of bacteria. The physical and chemical parameters analyzed did not reveal significant differences (p > 0.05), which indicates product stability. Therefore, flour from the unripe fruit of V. quercifolia has a prebiotic property and can be used as a nutritional supplement for L. acidophilus and B. lactis.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Zellner AA, Hischebeth GT, Molitor E, et al (2023)

Periprosthetic joint infection caused by kytococcus schroeteri: The first reported case and a review of the literature.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 106(1):115922 pii:S0732-8893(23)00032-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Oftentimes, Gram-positive cocci are the cause for periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). Most of these infections include bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis or other coagulase-negative staphylococci. We here present the first case of a PJI caused by Kytococcus schroeteri. While being a Gram-positive coccus, it is very rarely the cause for infections in the human body. K. schroeteri is part of the micrococcus branch and often encountered as a symbiotic bacterium living on the skin. Regarding its pathogenic potential, not a lot is known since less than a few dozen human infections have been reported worldwide. Furthermore, many of the cases reported are either associated with implanted material, especially heart valves, or associated with patients whose immune response is deficient. Only 3 reports of osteoarticular infections are described so far.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Peng Y, Chen Y, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Dysbiosis and primary B-cell immunodeficiencies: current knowledge and future perspective.

Immunologic research [Epub ahead of print].

According to Elie Metchnikoff, an originator of modern immunology, several pivotal functions for disease and health are provided by indigenous microbiota. Nonetheless, important mechanistic insights have been elucidated more recently, owing to the growing availability of DNA sequencing technology. There are 10 to 100 trillion symbiotic microbes (such as viruses, bacteria, and yeast) in each human gut microbiota. Both locally and systemically, the gut microbiota has been demonstrated to impact immune homeostasis. Primary B-cell immunodeficiencies (PBIDs) are a group of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) referring to the dysregulated antibody production due to either intrinsic genetic defects or failures in functions of B cells. Recent studies have found that PBIDs cause disruptions in the gut's typical homeostatic systems, resulting in inadequate immune surveillance in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which is linked to increased dysbiosis, which is characterized by a disruption in the microbial homeostasis. This study aimed to review the published articles in this field to provide a comprehensive view of the existing knowledge about the crosstalk between the gut microbiome and PBID, the factors shaping the gut microbiota in PBID, as well as the potential clinical approaches for restoring a normal microbial community.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Yan F, Wang S, Huang Z, et al (2023)

Microbial ecological responses of partial nitritation/anammox granular sludge to real water matrices and its potential application.

Environmental research, 226:115701 pii:S0013-9351(23)00493-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Granular sludges are commonly microbial aggregates used to apply partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) processes during efficient biological nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich wastewater. Considering keystone taxa of anammox bacteria (AnAOB) in granules and their sensitivity to unfavorable environments, it is essential to investigate microbial responses of autotrophic PN/A granules to real water matrices containing organic and inorganic pollutants. In this study, tap water, surface water, and biotreated wastewater effluents were fed into a series of continuous PN/A granular reactors, respectively, and the differentiation in functional activity, sludge morphology, microbial community structure, and nitrogen metabolic pathways was analyzed by integrating kinetic batch testing, size characterization, and metagenomic sequencing. The results showed that feeding of biotreated wastewater effluents causes significant decreases in nitrogen removal activity and washout of AnAOB (dominated by Candidatus Kuenenia) from autotrophic PN/A granules due to the accumulation of heavy metals and formation of cavities. Microbial co-occurrence networks and nitrogen cycle-related genes provided evidence for the high dependence of symbiotic heterotrophs (such as Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes) on anammox metabolism. The enhancement of Nitrosomonas nitritation in the granules would be considered as an important contributor to greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions from real water matrices. In a novel view on the application of microbial responses, we suggest a bioassay of PN/A granules by size characterization of red-color cores in ecological risk assessment of water environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Li X, Zhou M, Shi F, et al (2023)

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on mercury accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.): From enriched isotope tracing perspective.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 255:114776 pii:S0147-6513(23)00280-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The microorganisms that co-exist between soil and rice systems in heavy metal-contaminated soil environments play important roles in the heavy metal pollution states of rice, as well as in the growth of the rice itself. In this study, in order to further examine the effects of soil microorganisms on the mercury (Hg) uptake of rice plants and determine potential soil phytoremediation agents, an enriched [199]Hg isotope was spiked in a series of pot experiments to trace the absorption and migration of Hg and rice growth in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). It was observed that the AMF inoculations significantly reduced the Hg concentration in the rice. The Hg concentration in rice in the AMF inoculation group was between 52.82% and 96.42% lower than that in the AMF non-inoculation group. It was also interesting to note that the presence of AMF tended to cause Hg (especially methyl-Hg (Me[199]Hg)) to migrate and accumulate in the non-edible parts of the rice, such as the stems and leaves. Under the experimental conditions selected in this study, the proportion of Me[199]Hg in rice grains decreased from 9.91% to 27.88%. For example, when the exogenous Hg concentration was 0.1 mg/kg, the accumulated methyl-Hg content in the grains of the rice in the AMF inoculation group accounted for only 20.19% of the Me[199]Hg content in the rice plants, which was significantly lower than that observed in the AMF non-inoculated group (48.07%). AMF also inhibited the absorption of Hg by rice plants, and the decrease in the Hg concentration levels in rice resulted in significant improvements in growth indices, including biomass and micro-indexes, such as antioxidant enzyme activities. The improvements occurred mainly because the AMF formed symbiotic structures with the roots of rice plants, which fixed Hg in the soil. AMF also reduce the bioavailability of Hg by secreting a series of substances and changing the physicochemical properties of the rhizosphere soil. These findings suggest the possibility of using typical co-existing microorganisms for the remediation of soil heavy metal contamination and provide valuable insights into reducing human Hg exposure through rice consumption.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Njunge JM, JL Walson (2023)

Microbiota and growth among infants and children in low-income and middle-income settings.

Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care pii:00075197-990000000-00071 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adequate nutrition is essential but insufficient for optimal childhood growth and development. Increasingly, it is clear that the gut microbiota modulates childhood growth and may be particularly important in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), where growth faltering, undernutrition, environmental contamination and enteric pathogens are more common. We summarize recent evidence demonstrating the role of the gut microbiota in impacting childhood growth and interventions targeting the gut microbiota to impact growth in children in LMIC settings.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that maturation of the infant microbiota is linked with the development of the immune system, which is key to host-microbe symbiosis. Infants lacking Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Infantis, which predominates breastfed microbiome, display immune activation while supplementation is linked to increased immune tolerance and among undernourished children, promotes growth. Microbiome-directed complimentary foods (MDCF) containing local ingredients is a novel strategy to promote gut microbiota development, especially among undernourished children and improve growth. Dietary patterns during pregnancy may drive selection of gut microbial species that impact infant health and growth.

SUMMARY: Growth patterns among children in LMIC settings are closely associated with the diversity and maturity of the infant microbiome. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics targeting microbiota dysbiosis may impact birth outcomes, infant immune development and infections, and childhood growth in LMIC settings.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Li Z (2023)

Operating characteristics of the factor flow networks in rural areas: A case study of a typical industrial town in China.

PloS one, 18(3):e0283232 pii:PONE-D-22-29826.

The networks of factor flows in rural areas are the main support for rural revitalization, which has become one of the research trends in rural geography. Taking a typical industrial town in China as an example, the study explored the operating characteristics of rural factor flow networks and the relations of multi-factor flows based on the social survey method and fine-grained flows data. Results showed that population flows, capital flows and policy flows increased significantly in rural areas. Thereinto, population flows, especially labor flows, mainly ran into the townships and industrial cluster villages, so did capital inflows and outflows, while policy flows ran around the township. The villages with dense population and capital flows formed the "central villages", which had exceeded the township in the two flow networks. Policy flows and capital flows played a guiding role in population flows, so did the policy flows on the capital flows. Meanwhile, the population flows and the capital flows could reinforce each other. In conclusion, a multi-center structure network with the separation of economic center and administrative center had been formed in rural areas. And there was a close interaction between these factor flows. Furthermore, the theoretical model of town-village symbiotic network was constructed.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Dávila-Delgado R, Flores-Canúl K, Juárez-Verdayes MA, et al (2023)

Rhizobia induce SYMRK endocytosis in Phaseolus vulgaris root hair cells.

Planta, 257(4):83.

PvSYMRK-EGFP undergoes constitutive and rhizobia-induced endocytosis, which rely on the phosphorylation status of T589, the endocytic YXXØ motif and the kinase activity of the receptor. Legume-rhizobia nodulation is a complex developmental process. It initiates when the rhizobia-produced Nod factors are perceived by specific LysM receptors present in the root hair apical membrane. Consequently, SYMRK (Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase) becomes active in the root hair and triggers an extensive signaling network essential for the infection process and nodule organogenesis. Despite its relevant functions, the underlying cellular mechanisms involved in SYMRK signaling activity remain poorly characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that PvSYMRK-EGFP undergoes constitutive and rhizobia-induced endocytosis. We found that in uninoculated roots, PvSYMRK-EGFP is mainly associated with the plasma membrane, although intracellular puncta labelled with PvSymRK-EGFP were also observed in root hair and nonhair-epidermal cells. Inoculation with Rhizobium etli producing Nod factors induces in the root hair a redistribution of PvSYMRK-EGFP from the plasma membrane to intracellular puncta. In accordance, deletion of the endocytic motif YXXØ (YKTL) and treatment with the endocytosis inhibitors ikarugamycin (IKA) and tyrphostin A23 (TyrA23), as well as brefeldin A (BFA), drastically reduced the density of intracellular PvSYMRK-EGFP puncta. A similar effect was observed in the phosphorylation-deficient (T589A) and kinase-dead (K618E) mutants of PvSYMRK-EGFP, implying these structural features are positive regulators of PvSYMRK-EGFP endocytosis. Our findings lead us to postulate that rhizobia-induced endocytosis of SYMRK modulates the duration and amplitude of the SYMRK-dependent signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Vreeburg SME, Auxier B, Jacobs B, et al (2023)

A genetic linkage map and improved genome assembly of the termite symbiont Termitomyces cryptogamus.

BMC genomics, 24(1):123.

BACKGROUND: The termite-fungus symbiosis is an ancient stable mutualism of two partners that reproduce and disperse independently. With the founding of each termite colony the symbiotic association must be re-established with a new fungus partner. Complementarity in the ability to break down plant substrate may help to stabilize this symbiosis despite horizontal symbiont transmission. An alternative, non-exclusive, hypothesis is that a reduced rate of evolution may contribute to stabilize the symbiosis, the so-called Red King Effect.

METHODS: To explore this concept, we produced the first linkage map of a species of Termitomyces, using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of 88 homokaryotic offspring. We constructed a highly contiguous genome assembly using PacBio data and a de-novo evidence-based annotation. This improved genome assembly and linkage map allowed for examination of the recombination landscape and its potential effect on the mutualistic lifestyle.

RESULTS: Our linkage map resulted in a genome-wide recombination rate of 22 cM/Mb, lower than that of other related fungi. However, the total map length of 1370 cM was similar to that of other related fungi.

CONCLUSIONS: The apparently decreased rate of recombination is primarily due to genome expansion of islands of gene-poor repetitive sequences. This study highlights the importance of inclusion of genomic context in cross-species comparisons of recombination rate.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Wang S, Ren Y, Han L, et al (2023)

Insights on the Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Eucalyptus grandis Tolerance to Drought Stress.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Drought stress has a negative impact on plant growth and production. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which establish symbioses with most terrestrial vascular plant species, play important roles in improving host plant mineral nutrient acquisition and resistance to drought. However, the physiological and molecular regulation mechanisms occurring in mycorrhizal Eucalyptus grandis coping with drought stress remain unclear. Here, we studied the physiological changes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade gene expression profiles of E. grandis associated with AM fungi under drought stress. The results showed that colonization by AM fungi significantly enhanced plant growth, with higher plant biomass, shoot height, root length, and relative water content (RWC) under drought conditions. Mycorrhizal plants had lower levels of accumulation of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and O2[·-] than seedlings not colonized with AM fungi. In addition, mycorrhizal E. grandis also had higher peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities under drought conditions, improving the antioxidant system response. Eighteen MAPK cascade genes were isolated from E. grandis, and the expression levels of the MAPK cascade genes were positively induced by symbiosis with AM fungi, which was correlated with changes in the proline, MDA, H2O2, and O2[·-] contents and POD, SOD, and CAT activities. In summary, our results showed that AM symbiosis enhances E. grandis drought tolerance by regulating plant antioxidation abilities and MAPK cascade gene expression. IMPORTANCE Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in improving plant growth and development under drought stress. The MAPK cascade may regulate many physiological and biochemical processes in plants in response to drought stress. Previous studies have shown that there is a complex regulatory network between the plant MAPK cascade and drought stress. However, the relationship between the E. grandis MAPK cascade and AM symbiosis in coping with drought remains to be investigated. Our results suggest that AM fungi could improve plant drought tolerance mainly by improving the antioxidant ability to protect plants from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alleviate oxidative stress damage. The expression of the MAPK cascade genes was induced in mycorrhizal E. grandis seedlings under drought stress. This study revealed that MAPK cascade regulation is of special significance for improving the drought tolerance of E. grandis. This study provides a reference for improving mycorrhizal seedling cultivation under stress.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Klonowska A, Ardley J, Moulin L, et al (2023)

Discovery of a novel filamentous prophage in the genome of the Mimosa pudica microsymbiont Cupriavidus taiwanensis STM 6018.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1082107.

Integrated virus genomes (prophages) are commonly found in sequenced bacterial genomes but have rarely been described in detail for rhizobial genomes. Cupriavidus taiwanensis STM 6018 is a rhizobial Betaproteobacteria strain that was isolated in 2006 from a root nodule of a Mimosa pudica host in French Guiana, South America. Here we describe features of the genome of STM 6018, focusing on the characterization of two different types of prophages that have been identified in its genome. The draft genome of STM 6018 is 6,553,639 bp, and consists of 80 scaffolds, containing 5,864 protein-coding genes and 61 RNA genes. STM 6018 contains all the nodulation and nitrogen fixation gene clusters common to symbiotic Cupriavidus species; sharing >99.97% bp identity homology to the nod/nif/noeM gene clusters from C. taiwanensis LMG19424[T] and "Cupriavidus neocalidonicus" STM 6070. The STM 6018 genome contains the genomes of two prophages: one complete Mu-like capsular phage and one filamentous phage, which integrates into a putative dif site. This is the first characterization of a filamentous phage found within the genome of a rhizobial strain. Further examination of sequenced rhizobial genomes identified filamentous prophage sequences in several Beta-rhizobial strains but not in any Alphaproteobacterial rhizobia.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Cimolato A, Ciotti F, Kljajić J, et al (2023)

Symbiotic electroneural and musculoskeletal framework to encode proprioception via neurostimulation: ProprioStim.

iScience, 26(3):106248.

Peripheral nerve stimulation in amputees achieved the restoration of touch, but not proprioception, which is critical in locomotion. A plausible reason is the lack of means to artificially replicate the complex activity of proprioceptors. To uncover this, we coupled neuromuscular models from ten subjects and nerve histologies from two implanted amputees to develop ProprioStim: a framework to encode proprioception by electrical evoking neural activity in close agreement with natural proprioceptive activity. We demonstrated its feasibility through non-invasive stimulation on seven healthy subjects comparing it with standard linear charge encoding. Results showed that ProprioStim multichannel stimulation was felt more natural, and hold promises for increasing accuracy in knee angle tracking, especially in future implantable solutions. Additionally, we quantified the importance of realistic 3D-nerve models against extruded models previously adopted for further design and validation of novel neurostimulation encoding strategies. ProprioStim provides clear guidelines for the development of neurostimulation policies restoring natural proprioception.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Ding N, Yang YY, Wan NX, et al (2023)

[Seasonal Variation and Influencing Factors of Bacterial Communities in Storage Reservoirs].

Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 44(3):1484-1496.

In order to explore the seasonal variation and influencing factors of bacterial community structure in storage reservoirs, the impact of environmental factors must first be examined. In this study, the seasonal variation in bacterial community structure and its response to water quality factors were explored by monitoring the water quality of Qingdao Jihongtan Reservoir, the only reservoir of the Yellow River diversion project, using high-throughput sequencing technology and symbiotic network analysis. The results showed that the diversity and richness of bacterial communities were highest in summer and lowest in winter, and those in the inlet were higher than those in the outlet. The structure of the bacterial community was similar in spring and winter and in summer to autumn. The dominant bacteria phyla were:Actinobacteriota (6.63%-57.38%), Proteobacteria (11.32%-48.60%), Bacteroidota (5.05%-25.74%), and Cyanobacteria (0.65%-24.74%). Additionally, the abundances of Chloroflexi, Dependentiae, Fusobacteriota, and Margulisbacteria were the highest in autumn and the lowest in winter. The dominant bacterial genera were:hgcI_clade (3.72%-34.66%), CL500_29_marine_group (0.31%-20.13%), and Limnohabitans (0.16%-10.37%). Further, the abundances of Flavobacterium, Polaromonas, and Rhodoferax were the highest in winter and the lowest in summer; the trend of Domibacillus and Limnobacter was the opposite. The abundance of Proteobacteria and Campilobacteria in the inlet was significantly higher than that in the outlet, and the Planctomycetota showed the opposite. The abundances of Dinghuibacter, Arenimonas, and Rhodobacter in the inlet were significantly higher than those in the outlet. Competition and antagonism dominated the interaction relationship of bacterial communities in spring, whereas mutualism dominated in winter. There were significant differences among key species in the symbiotic network at different seasons and sampling sites. Water temperature, DO, water storage capacity, and water storage sources had a great influence on bacterial community structure in the Jihongtan Reservoir.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Wu Z, XinYu , Liu G, et al (2023)

Sustained detoxification of 1,2-dichloroethane to ethylene by a symbiotic consortium containing Dehalococcoides species.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)00445-1 [Epub ahead of print].

1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is a ubiquitous volatile halogenated organic pollutant in groundwater and soil, which poses a serious threat to the ecosystem and human health. Microbial reductive dechlorination has been recognized as an environmentally-friendly strategy for the remediation of sites contaminated with 1,2-DCA. In this study, we obtained an anaerobic microbiota derived from 1,2-DCA contaminated groundwater, which was able to sustainably convert 1,2-DCA into non-toxic ethylene with an average dechlorination rate of 30.70 ± 11.06 μM d[-1] (N = 6). The microbial community profile demonstrated that the relative abundance of Dehalococcoides species increased from 0.53 ± 0.08% to 44.68 ± 3.61% in parallel with the dechlorination of 1,2-DCA. Quantitative PCR results showed that the Dehalococcoides species 16 S rRNA gene increased from 2.40 ± 1.71 × 10[8] copies∙mL[-1] culture to 4.07 ± 2.45 × 10[8] copies∙mL[-1] culture after dechlorinating 110.69 ± 30.61 μmol of 1,2-DCA with a growth yield of 1.55 ± 0.93 × 10[8] cells per μmol Cl[-] released (N = 6), suggesting that Dehalococcoides species used 1,2-DCA for organohalide respiration to maintain cell growth. Notably, the relative abundances of Methanobacterium sp. (p = 0.0618) and Desulfovibrio sp. (p = 0.0001995) also increased significantly during the dechlorination of 1,2-DCA and were clustered in the same module with Dehalococcoides species in the co-occurrence network. These results hinted that Dehalococcoides species, the obligate organohalide-respiring bacterium, exhibited potential symbiotic relationships with Methanobacterium and Desulfovibrio species. This study illustrates the importance of microbial interactions within functional microbiota and provides a promising microbial resource for in situ bioremediation in sites contaminated with 1,2-DCA.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Cui G, Konciute MK, Ling L, et al (2023)

Molecular insights into the Darwin paradox of coral reefs from the sea anemone Aiptasia.

Science advances, 9(11):eadf7108.

Symbiotic cnidarians such as corals and anemones form highly productive and biodiverse coral reef ecosystems in nutrient-poor ocean environments, a phenomenon known as Darwin's paradox. Resolving this paradox requires elucidating the molecular bases of efficient nutrient distribution and recycling in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Using the sea anemone Aiptasia, we show that during symbiosis, the increased availability of glucose and the presence of the algae jointly induce the coordinated up-regulation and relocalization of glucose and ammonium transporters. These molecular responses are critical to support symbiont functioning and organism-wide nitrogen assimilation through glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase-mediated amino acid biosynthesis. Our results reveal crucial aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying nitrogen conservation and recycling in these organisms that allow them to thrive in the nitrogen-poor ocean environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Rivera HE, Tramonte CA, Samaroo J, et al (2023)

Heat challenge elicits stronger physiological and gene expression responses than starvation in symbiotic Oculina arbuscula.

The Journal of heredity pii:7078461 [Epub ahead of print].

Heterotrophy has been shown to mitigate coral-algal dysbiosis (coral bleaching) under heat challenge, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely unexplored. Here, we quantified coral physiology and gene expression of fragments from 13 genotypes of symbiotic Oculina arbuscula after a 28-d feeding experiment under (1) fed, ambient (24 °C); (2) unfed, ambient; (3) fed, heated (ramp to 33 °C); and (4) unfed, heated treatments. We monitored algal photosynthetic efficiency throughout the experiment, and after 28 d, profiled coral and algal carbohydrate and protein reserves, coral gene expression, algal cell densities, and chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-c2 pigments. Contrary to previous findings, heterotrophy did little to mitigate the impacts of temperature, and we observed few significant differences in physiology between fed and unfed corals under heat challenge. Our results suggest the duration and intensity of starvation and thermal challenge play meaningful roles in coral energetics and stress response; future work exploring these thresholds and how they may impact coral responses under changing climate is urgently needed. Gene expression patterns under heat challenge in fed and unfed corals showed gene ontology enrichment patterns consistent with classic signatures of the environmental stress response. While gene expression differences between fed and unfed corals under heat challenge were subtle: Unfed, heated corals uniquely upregulated genes associated with cell cycle functions, an indication that starvation may induce the previously described, milder "type B" coral stress response. Future studies interested in disentangling the influence of heterotrophy on coral bleaching would benefit from leveraging the facultative species studied here, but using the coral in its symbiotic and aposymbiotic states.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Fuchs B, Saikkonen K, Damerau A, et al (2023)

Herbicide residues in soil decrease microbe-mediated plant protection.

Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

The residues of glyphosate, are found to remain in soils longer than reputed, affecting the rhizosphere microbes. This may adversely affect crop and other non-target plants because the plant's resilience and resistance largely rely on plant-associated microbes. Ubiquitous glyphosate residues in soil and how they impact mutualistic microbes inhabiting the aboveground plant parts have been largely unexplored. We studied the effects of herbicide residues in soil on Epichloë sp., which are common endophytic symbionts inhabiting the aerial parts of cool-season grasses. In the symbiosis, the obligate symbiont subsists entirely on its host plant, and in exchange, it provides alkaloids conferring resistance to herbivores for the host grass that invest little in its own chemical defense. We first showed a decreased growth of Epichloë endophytes in vitro when directly exposed to two concentrations of glyphosate or glyphosate-based herbicides. Second, we provide evidence for a reduction of Epichloë-derived, insect-toxic loline alkaloids in endophyte-symbiotic meadow fescue (F. pratensis) plants growing in soil with a glyphosate history. Plants were grown for two years in an open field site and natural herbivore infestation correlated with the glyphosate-mediated reduction of loline alkaloid concentrations. Our findings indicate that herbicides residing in soil not only affect rhizosphere microbiota but aerial plant endophyte functionality which emphasizes the destructive effect of glyphosate on plant symbiotic microbes, here with cascading effects on plant-pest insect interactions.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Yamamoto D, W Toki (2023)

Presence of non-symbiotic yeasts in a symbiont-transferring organ of a stag beetle that lacks yeast symbionts found in other stag beetles.

Scientific reports, 13(1):3726.

Dispersal from wood to wood is essential for wood-inhabiting fungi and wood-inhabiting insects play an important role in the dispersal success of such fungi. However, it is poorly understood whether wood-inhabiting insects which change the habitats from wood to non-wood environments can contribute to the fungal dispersal. Larvae of most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are wood feeders, while adults are sap feeders. Female adults of lulcanids possess specialized organs (mycetangia) for transportation of fungal symbionts and harbor specific yeasts (e.g., Scheffersomyces spp.) within. Here, we report that the lucanid Aegus subnitidus harbors non-specific yeasts facultatively in mycetangia. We conducted yeast isolation from mycetangia and hindguts of female adults, in a larval gallery in wood-associated materials, and in female-visiting fermented tree sap using culture-dependent methods. Less than half of the females carried a total of 20 yeast species with small amounts using mycetangia and a female harbored up to five species, suggesting the absence of an intimate association with specific yeasts that are found in other lucanids. Yeast species compositions markedly differed between the larval gallery and sap. Most yeasts from the larval galley exhibited xylose-assimilation abilities, while few yeasts from sap did. Mycetangial yeasts comprised a combination from both sources. In hindguts, most yeasts were found in sap (> 70%) with no yeasts in the larval gallery. Sap-associated yeasts in each female mycetangium were also obtained from the female-visiting sap patch, while mycetangial, larval gallery-associated yeasts were absent from the patch, suggesting the survival success of larval gallery-associated yeasts in mycetangia through sap patches. Therefore, wood-inhabiting insects that possess mycetangia can potentially act as vectors of non-symbiotic wood-inhabiting yeasts dispersing from wood to wood via other environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Su Y, Lin HC, C Dale (2023)

Protocol to establish a genetically tractable synthetic symbiosis between Sodalis praecaptivus and grain weevils by insect egg microinjection.

STAR protocols, 4(2):102156 pii:S2666-1667(23)00114-4 [Epub ahead of print].

We present a protocol to establish a synthetic symbiosis between the mCherry-expressing Sodalis praecaptivus and the grain weevil host, Sitophilus zeamais. We describe steps to isolate grain weevil eggs, followed by microinjecting the bacterial symbiont into insect eggs using a modified Drosophila injection protocol, which leads to localization of bacteria in female insect ovaries. We then detail larval transplantation and visualization of bacteria in live insects using a fluorescence dissection microscope to assess the transgenerational transmission to offspring in weevils. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Su et al. (2022).[1].

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Jhu MY, GED Oldroyd (2023)

Dancing to a different tune, can we switch from chemical to biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable food security?.

PLoS biology, 21(3):e3001982 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-22-02491.

Our current food production systems are unsustainable, driven in part through the application of chemically fixed nitrogen. We need alternatives to empower farmers to maximise their productivity sustainably. Therefore, we explore the potential for transferring the root nodule symbiosis from legumes to other crops. Studies over the last decades have shown that preexisting developmental and signal transduction processes were recruited during the evolution of legume nodulation. This allows us to utilise these preexisting processes to engineer nitrogen fixation in target crops. Here, we highlight our understanding of legume nodulation and future research directions that might help to overcome the barrier of achieving self-fertilising crops.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Anand U, Pal T, Yadav N, et al (2023)

Current Scenario and Future Prospects of Endophytic Microbes: Promising Candidates for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Management for Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Globally, substantial research into endophytic microbes is being conducted to increase agricultural and environmental sustainability. Endophytic microbes such as bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi inhabit ubiquitously within the tissues of all plant species without causing any harm or disease. Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with diverse plant species and can regulate numerous host functions, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, growth and development, and stimulating immune systems. Moreover, plant endophytes play a dominant role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation, and are widely used in many industries. Endophytes have a stronger predisposition for enhancing mineral and metal solubility by cells through the secretion of organic acids with low molecular weight and metal-specific ligands (such as siderophores) that alter soil pH and boost binding activity. Finally, endophytes synthesize various bioactive compounds with high competence that are promising candidates for new drugs, antibiotics, and medicines. Bioprospecting of endophytic novel secondary metabolites has given momentum to sustainable agriculture for combating environmental stresses. Biotechnological interventions with the aid of endophytes played a pivotal role in crop improvement to mitigate biotic and abiotic stress conditions like drought, salinity, xenobiotic compounds, and heavy metals. Identification of putative genes from endophytes conferring resistance and tolerance to crop diseases, apart from those involved in the accumulation and degradation of contaminants, could open new avenues in agricultural research and development. Furthermore, a detailed molecular and biochemical understanding of endophyte entry and colonization strategy in the host would better help in manipulating crop productivity under changing climatic conditions. Therefore, the present review highlights current research trends based on the SCOPUS database, potential biotechnological interventions of endophytic microorganisms in combating environmental stresses influencing crop productivity, future opportunities of endophytes in improving plant stress tolerance, and their contribution to sustainable remediation of hazardous environmental contaminants.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Wen Z, Yang M, Han H, et al (2023)

Mycorrhizae Enhance Soybean Plant Growth and Aluminum Stress Tolerance by Shaping the Microbiome Assembly in an Acidic Soil.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Strongly acidic soils are characterized by high aluminum (Al) toxicity and low phosphorus (P) availability, which suppress legume plant growth and nodule development. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) stimulate rhizobia and enhance plant P uptake. However, it is unclear how this symbiotic soybean-AMF-rhizobial trio promotes soybean growth in acidic soils. We examined the effects of AMF and rhizobium addition on the growth of two soybean genotypes, namely, Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive soybeans as well as their associated bacterial and fungal communities in an acidic soil. With and without rhizobial addition, AMF significantly increased the fresh shoot and root biomass of Al-tolerant soybean by 47%/87% and 37%/24%, respectively. This increase in plant biomass corresponded to the enrichment of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizospheric soil, namely, Chitinophagaceae bacterium 4GSH07, Paraburkholderia soli, Sinomonas atrocyanea, and Aquincola tertiaricarbonis. For Al-sensitive soybean, AMF addition increased the fresh shoot and root biomass by 112%/64% and 30%/217%, respectively, with/without rhizobial addition. Interestingly, this significant increase coincided with a decrease in the pathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae as well as an increase in S. atrocyanea, A. tertiaricarbonis, and Talaromyces verruculosus (a P-solubilizing fungus) in the rhizospheric soil. Lastly, the compartment niche along the soil-plant continuum shaped microbiome assembly, with pathogenic/saprotrophic microbes accumulating in the rhizospheric soil and PGPR related to nitrogen fixation or stress resistance (e.g., Rhizobium leguminosarum and Sphingomonas azotifigens) accumulating in the endospheric layer. IMPORTANCE Taken together, this study examined the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobial combinations on the growth of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive soybeans as well as their associated microbial communities in acidic soils and concluded that AMF enhances soybean growth and Al stress tolerance by recruiting PGPR and altering the root-associated microbiome assembly in a host-dependent manner. In the future, these findings will help us better understand the impacts of AMF on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and will contribute to the development of soybean breeding techniques for the comprehensive use of PGPR in sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Li OY, Wang X, Yang K, et al (2023)

The approaching pilot for One Health governance index.

Infectious diseases of poverty, 12(1):16.

BACKGROUND: One Health approach advocates realizing the best health and harmonious symbiosis of human, animal and natural environment through cross-border, multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation. The good governance model is the leading factor for the performance of One Health governance. In order to tackle the complex problems in the One Health governance at the global level, the variation of One Health governance in different countries was analyzed by a set of indicators within the One Health system.

METHOD: The capacity of One Health governance was assessed after establishment of a set of indicators for the One Health governance index (OHGI) following the methodology of the global One Health index. The data to calculate OHGI was collected from various database sources, including the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health, and official health-related institutions of various countries. Eight indicators (including 19 sub-indicators) were employed in the OHGI system to comprehensively evaluate the capacity of One Health governance in 146 countries of the world.

RESULTS: Among the 146 countries scored in the OHGI system, the average score was 34.11, with a median score of 31.49, ranged from 8.50 to 70.28. Most countries with higher OHGI scores come from Europe and Central Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and North America, while countries with the lower OHGI scores are almost from sub-Saharan Africa. Six countries scored more than 65 points, including Australia, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, the United States of America and Finland, indicating that these countries are relatively mature in most aspects of One Health governance. However, there were some developing countries with OHGI scored lower than 15. Therefore, the gap between countries with higher OHGI scores and those with lower OHGI scores is more than 60.

CONCLUSIONS: Good governance on One Health is an important indicator to measure One Health's governance capacity. The political stability, the level of rule of law and economic conditions in different regions are significantly correlated with the One Health governance capacity. Actions need to be taken urgently to close the gap of One Health governance between different regions.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Mei K, Kou R, Bi Y, et al (2023)

A study of primary health care service efficiency and its spatial correlation in China.

BMC health services research, 23(1):247.

BACKGROUND: China's primary health care system has undergone major changes since the new round of medical reform in 2009, but the current status of primary health care institution service efficiency is still unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the China's primary health care institution service efficiency and provide a reference for improving the efficiency and promoting the development of primary health care institution.

METHODS: Based on panel data of 31 provinces (municipalities directly under the central government and autonomous regions) in mainland China from 2011 to 2020, using the super efficiency slack-based measure-data envelopment analysis model, to analyze the data from a static perspective, and the changes in the efficiency of primary health care services were analyzed from a dynamic perspective by using the Malmquist index method. Spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to verify the spatial correlation of primary health care service efficiency among various regions.

RESULTS: The number of Primary health care institutions increased from 918,000 in 2011 to 970,000 in 2020. The average primary health care institution service efficiency in the northeastern region including Jilin (0.324), Heilongjiang (0.460), Liaoning (0.453) and northern regions such as Shaanxi (0.344) and Neimenggu (0.403) was at a low level, while the eastern coastal regions such as Guangdong (1.116), Zhejiang (1.211), Shanghai (1.402) have higher average service efficiency levels. The global Moran's I showed the existence of spatial autocorrelation, and the local Moran's I index suggested that the problem of uneven regional development was prominent, showing a contiguous regional distribution pattern. Among them, H-H (high-efficiency regions) were mainly concentrated in Jiangsu, Anhui and Shanghai, and L-L regions (low-efficiency regions) were mostly in northern and northeastern China.

CONCLUSION: The service efficiency of primary health care institution in China showed a rising trend in general, but the overall average efficiency was still at a low level, and there were significant geographical differences, which showed a spatial distribution of "high in the east and low in the west, high in the south and low in the north". The northwestern region, after receiving relevant support, has seen a rapid development of primary health care, and its efficiency was steadily improving and gradually reaching a high level. The average primary health care institution service efficiency in the northeastern region including the northern region of China was at a low level, while the average efficiency in the eastern coastal region and some economically developed regions was high, which also verifies the dependence and high symbiosis of primary health care institution service efficiency on regional economy.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Kageyama D, Harumoto T, Nagamine K, et al (2023)

A male-killing gene encoded by a symbiotic virus of Drosophila.

Nature communications, 14(1):1357.

In most eukaryotes, biparentally inherited nuclear genomes and maternally inherited cytoplasmic genomes have different evolutionary interests. Strongly female-biased sex ratios that are repeatedly observed in various arthropods often result from the male-specific lethality (male-killing) induced by maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria such as Spiroplasma and Wolbachia. However, despite some plausible case reports wherein viruses are raised as male-killers, it is not well understood how viruses, having much smaller genomes than bacteria, are capable of inducing male-killing. Here we show that a maternally inherited double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus belonging to the family Partitiviridae (designated DbMKPV1) induces male-killing in Drosophila. DbMKPV1 localizes in the cytoplasm and possesses only four genes, i.e., one gene in each of the four genomic segments (dsRNA1-dsRNA4), in contrast to ca. 1000 or more genes possessed by Spiroplasma or Wolbachia. We also show that a protein (designated PVMKp1; 330 amino acids in size), encoded by a gene on the dsRNA4 segment, is necessary and sufficient for inducing male-killing. Our results imply that male-killing genes can be easily acquired by symbiotic viruses through reassortment and that symbiotic viruses are hidden players in arthropod evolution. We anticipate that host-manipulating genes possessed by symbiotic viruses can be utilized for controlling arthropods.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Silva AMM, Jones DL, Chadwick DR, et al (2023)

Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria facilitate [33]P uptake in maize plants under water stress?.

Microbiological research, 271:127350 pii:S0944-5013(23)00052-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to provide key ecosystem services, protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we hypothesized that a combination of AMF (Rhizophagus clarus) and PGPR (Bacillus sp.) could enhance [33]P uptake in maize plants under soil water stress. A microcosm experiment using mesh exclusion and a radiolabeled phosphorus tracer ([33]P) was installed using three types of inoculation: i) only AMF, ii) only PGPR, and iii) a consortium of AMF and PGPR, alongside a control treatment without inoculation. For all treatments, a gradient of three water-holding capacities (WHC) was considered i) 30% (severe drought), ii) 50% (moderate drought), and iii) 80% (optimal condition, no water stress). In severe drought conditions, AMF root colonization of dual-inoculated plants was significantly lower compared to individual inoculation of the AMF, whilst [33]P uptake by dual-inoculated plants or plants inoculated with bacteria was 2.4-fold greater than the uninoculated treatment. Under moderate drought conditions the use of AMF promoted the highest [33]P uptake by plants, increasing it by 2.1-fold, when compared to the uninoculated treatment. Without drought stress, AMF showed the lowest [33]P uptake and, overall, plant P acquisition was lower for all inoculation types when compared to the severe and moderate drought treatments. The total shoot P content was modulated by the water-holding capacity and inoculation type, with the lowest values observed under severe drought and the highest values under moderate drought. The highest soil electrical conductivity (EC) values were found under severe drought in AMF-inoculated plants and the lowest EC for no drought in single or dual-inoculated plants. Furthermore, water-holding capacity influenced the total soil bacterial and mycorrhizal abundance over time, with the highest abundances being found under severe and moderate drought. This study demonstrates that the positive influence of microbial inoculation on [33]P uptake by plants varied with soil water gradient. Furthermore, under severe stress conditions, AMF invested more in the production of hyphae, vesicles and spore production, indicating a significant carbon drain from the host plant as evidenced by the lack of translation of increased [33]P uptake into biomass. Therefore, under severe drought the use of bacteria or dual-inoculation seems to be more effective than individual AMF inoculation in terms of [33]P uptake by plants, while under moderate drought, the use of AMF stood out.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Tabassum Z, Mohan A, Mamidi N, et al (2023)

Recent trends in nanocomposite packaging films utilising waste generated biopolymers: Industrial symbiosis and its implication in sustainability.

IET nanobiotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Uncontrolled waste generation and management difficulties are causing chaos in the ecosystem. Although it is vital to ease environmental pressures, right now there is no such practical strategy available for the treatment or utilisation of waste material. Because the Earth's resources are limited, a long-term, sustainable, and sensible solution is necessary. Currently waste material has drawn a lot of attention as a renewable resource. Utilisation of residual biomass leftovers appears as a green and sustainable approach to lessen the waste burden on Earth while meeting the demand for bio-based goods. Several biopolymers are available from renewable waste sources that have the potential to be used in a variety of industries for a wide range of applications. Natural and synthetic biopolymers have significant advantages over petroleum-based polymers in terms of cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and user-friendliness. Using waste as a raw material through industrial symbiosis should be taken into account as one of the strategies to achieve more economic and environmental value through inter-firm collaboration on the path to a near-zero waste society. This review extensively explores the different biopolymers which can be extracted from several waste material sources and that further have potential applications in food packaging industries to enhance the shelf life of perishables. This review-based study also provides key insights into the different strategies and techniques that have been developed recently to extract biopolymers from different waste byproducts and their feasibility in practical applications for the food packaging business.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Jabeen MF, TSC Hinks (2023)

MAIT cells and the microbiome.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1127588.

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes, strikingly enriched at mucosal surfaces and characterized by a semi-invariant αβ T cell receptor (TCR) recognizing microbial derived intermediates of riboflavin synthesis presented by the MHC-Ib molecule MR1. At barrier sites MAIT cells occupy a prime position for interaction with commensal microorganisms, comprising the microbiota. The microbiota is a rich source of riboflavin derived antigens required in early life to promote intra-thymic MAIT cell development and sustain a life-long population of tissue resident cells. A symbiotic relationship is thought to be maintained in health whereby microbes promote maturation and homeostasis, and in turn MAIT cells can engage a TCR-dependent "tissue repair" program in the presence of commensal organisms conducive to sustaining barrier function and integrity of the microbial community. MAIT cell activation can be induced in a MR1-TCR dependent manner or through MR1-TCR independent mechanisms via pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12/-15/-18 and type I interferon. MAIT cells provide immunity against bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. However, MAIT cells may have deleterious effects through insufficient or exacerbated effector activity and have been implicated in autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic conditions in which microbial dysbiosis is a shared feature. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the microbiota in the development and maintenance of circulating and tissue resident MAIT cells. We also explore how microbial dysbiosis, alongside changes in intestinal permeability and imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory components of the immune response are together involved in the potential pathogenicity of MAIT cells. Whilst there have been significant improvements in our understanding of how the microbiota shapes MAIT cell function, human data are relatively lacking, and it remains unknown if MAIT cells can conversely influence the composition of the microbiota. We speculate whether, in a human population, differences in microbiomes might account for the heterogeneity observed in MAIT cell frequency across mucosal sites or between individuals, and response to therapies targeting T cells. Moreover, we speculate whether manipulation of the microbiota, or harnessing MAIT cell ligands within the gut or disease-specific sites could offer novel therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Bregman G, Lalzar M, Livne L, et al (2023)

Preliminary study of shark microbiota at a unique mix-species shark aggregation site, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1027804.

Sharks, as apex predators, play an essential ecological role in shaping the marine food web and maintaining healthy and balanced marine ecosystems. Sharks are sensitive to environmental changes and anthropogenic pressure and demonstrate a clear and rapid response. This designates them a "keystone" or "sentinel" group that may describe the structure and function of the ecosystem. As a meta-organism, sharks offer selective niches (organs) for microorganisms that can provide benefits for their hosts. However, changes in the microbiota (due to physiological or environmental changes) can turn the symbiosis into a dysbiosis and may affect the physiology, immunity and ecology of the host. Although the importance of sharks within the ecosystem is well known, relatively few studies have focused on the microbiome aspect, especially with long-term sampling. Our study was conducted at a site of coastal development in Israel where a mixed-species shark aggregation (November-May) is observed. The aggregation includes two shark species, the dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) and sandbar (Carcharhinus plumbeus) which segregate by sex (females and males, respectively). In order to characterize the bacterial profile and examine the physiological and ecological aspects, microbiome samples were collected from different organs (gills, skin, and cloaca) from both shark species over 3 years (sampling seasons: 2019, 2020, and 2021). The bacterial composition was significantly different between the shark individuals and the surrounding seawater and between the shark species. Additionally, differences were apparent between all the organs and the seawater, and between the skin and gills. The most dominant groups for both shark species were Flavobacteriaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Rhodobacteraceae. However, specific microbial biomarkers were also identified for each shark. An unexpected difference in the microbiome profile and diversity between the 2019-2020 and 2021 sampling seasons, revealed an increase in the potential pathogen Streptococcus. The fluctuations in the relative abundance of Streptococcus between the months of the third sampling season were also reflected in the seawater. Our study provides initial information on shark microbiome in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. In addition, we demonstrated that these methods were also able to describe environmental episodes and the microbiome is a robust measure for long-term ecological research.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Dally M, Izraeli Y, Belausov E, et al (2022)

Rickettsia association with two Macrolophus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species: A comparative study of phylogenies and within-host localization patterns.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1107153.

Many arthropods host bacterial symbionts, some of which are known to influence host nutrition and diet breadth. Omnivorous bugs of the genus Macrolophus (Heteroptera: Miridae) are mainly predatory, but may also feed on plants. The species M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma (=M. caliginosus) are key natural enemies of various economically important agricultural pests, and are known to harbor two Rickettsia species, R. bellii and R. limoniae. To test for possible involvement of symbiotic bacteria in the nutritional ecology of these biocontrol agents, the abundance, phylogeny, and distribution patterns of the two Rickettsia species in M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma were studied. Both of the Rickettsia species were found in 100 and 84% of all tested individuals of M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that a co-evolutionary process between Macrolophus species and their Rickettsia is infrequent. Localization of R. bellii and R. limoniae has been detected in both female and male of M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma. FISH analysis of female gonads revealed the presence of both Rickettsia species in the germarium of both bug species. Each of the two Rickettsia species displayed a unique distribution pattern along the digestive system of the bugs, mostly occupying separate epithelial cells, unknown caeca-like organs, the Malpighian tubules and the salivary glands. This pattern differed between the two Macrolophus species: in M. pygmaeus, R. limoniae was distributed more broadly along the host digestive system and R. bellii was located primarily in the foregut and midgut. In contrast, in M. melanotoma, R. bellii was more broadly distributed along the digestive system than the clustered R. limoniae. Taken together, these results suggest that Rickettsia may have a role in the nutritional ecology of their plant-and prey-consuming hosts.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Ding Y, Fern Ndez-Montero A, Mani A, et al (2023)

Secretory IgM (sIgM) is an ancient master regulator of microbiota homeostasis and metabolism.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.02.26.530119.

UNLABELLED: The co-evolution between secretory immunoglobulins (sIgs) and microbiota began with the emergence of IgM over half a billion years ago. Yet, IgM function in vertebrates is mostly associated with systemic immunity against pathogens. sIgA and sIgT are the only sIgs known to be required in the control of microbiota homeostasis in warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates respectively. Recent studies have shown that sIgM coats a large proportion of the gut microbiota of humans and teleost fish, thus suggesting an ancient and conserved relationship between sIgM and microbiota early in vertebrate evolution. To test this hypothesis, we temporarily and selectively depleted IgM from rainbow trout, an old bony fish species. IgM depletion resulted in a drastic reduction in microbiota IgM coating levels and losses in gutassociated bacteria. These were accompanied by bacterial translocation, severe gut tissue damage, inflammation and dysbiosis predictive of metabolic shifts. Furthermore, depletion of IgM resulted in body weight loss and lethality in an experimental colitis model. Recovery of sIgM to physiological levels restores tissue barrier integrity, while microbiome homeostasis and their predictive metabolic capabilities are not fully restituted. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized role of sIgM as an ancient master regulator of microbiota homeostasis and metabolism and challenge the current paradigm that sIgA and sIgT are the key vertebrate sIgs regulating microbiome homeostasis.

ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARY: IgM, the most ancient and conserved immunoglobulin in jawed vertebrates, is required for successful symbiosis with the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Liu S, Gao J, Wang S, et al (2023)

Community differentiation of rhizosphere microorganisms and their responses to environmental factors at different development stages of medicinal plant Glehnia littoralis.

PeerJ, 11:e14988.

Rhizosphere microorganisms play a key role in affecting plant quality and productivity through its interaction with plant root system. To figure out the bottleneck of the decline of yield and quality in the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs Glehnia littoralis they now encounter, it is important to study the dynamics of rhizosphere microbiota during the cultivation of G. littoralis. In the present study, the composition, diversity and function of rhizosphere microbes at different development stages of G. littoralis, as well as the correlation between rhizosphere microbes and environmental factors were systematically studied by high-throughput sequencing. There were significant differences between the rhizosphere microbes at early and middle-late development stages. More beneficial bacteria, such as Proteobacteria, and more symbiotic and saprophytic fungi were observed at the middle-late development stage of G. littoralis, while beneficial bacteria such as Actinobacteria and polytrophic transitional fungi were abundant at all development stages. The results of redundancy analysis show that eight environmental factors drive the changes of microflora at different development stages. pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and available phosphorus (AP) had important positive effects on the bacterial and fungal communities at the early development stage; saccharase (SC) and nitrate nitrogen (NN) showed significant positive effects on the bacterial and fungal communities at the middle and late stages; while urease (UE), available potassium (AK), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) have different effects on bacterial and fungal communities at different development stages. Random forest analysis identified 47 bacterial markers and 22 fungal markers that could be used to distinguish G. littoralis at different development stages. Network analysis showed that the rhizosphere microbes formed a complex mutualistic symbiosis network, which is beneficial to the growth and development of G. littoralis. These results suggest that host development stage and environmental factors have profound influence on the composition, diversity, community structure and function of plant rhizosphere microorganisms. This study provides a reference for optimizing the cultivation of G. littoralis.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Zhou G, Miao F, Tang Z, et al (2023)

Kohonen neural network and symbiotic-organism search algorithm for intrusion detection of network viruses.

Frontiers in computational neuroscience, 17:1079483.

INTRODUCTION: The development of the Internet has made life much more convenient, but forms of network intrusion have become increasingly diversified and the threats to network security are becoming much more serious. Therefore, research into intrusion detection has become very important for network security.

METHODS: In this paper, a clustering algorithm based on the symbiotic-organism search (SOS) algorithm and a Kohonen neural network is proposed.

RESULTS: The clustering accuracy of the Kohonen neural network is improved by using the SOS algorithm to optimize the weights in the Kohonen neural network.

DISCUSSION: Our approach was verified with the KDDCUP99 network intrusion data. The experimental results show that SOS-Kohonen can effectively detect intrusion. The detection rate was higher, and the false alarm rate was lower.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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In this comprehensive history of symbiosis theory--the first to be written--Jan Sapp masterfully traces its development from modest beginnings in the late nineteenth century to its current status as one of the key conceptual frameworks for the life sciences. The symbiotic perspective on evolution, which argues that "higher species" have evolved from a merger of two or more different kinds of organisms living together, is now clearly established with definitive molecular evidence demonstrating that mitochondria and chloroplasts have evolved from symbiotic bacteria. In telling the exciting story of an evolutionary biology tradition that has effectively challenged many key tenets of classical neo-Darwinism, Sapp sheds light on the phenomena, movements, doctrines, and controversies that have shaped attitudes about the scope and significance of symbiosis. Engaging and insightful, Evolution by Association will be avidly read by students and researchers across the life sciences.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )