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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 28 Sep 2021 at 01:52 Created: 

Symbiosis

Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: symbiosis NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-09-27

Zhu JJ, Lan W, X Zhang (2021)

Geographic proximity, supply chain and organizational glocalized survival: China's e-commerce investments in Indonesia.

PloS one, 16(9):e0256837 pii:PONE-D-21-18757.

Chinese e-commerce companies are in the ascendant into the overseas market, while still lack adequate academic attention. Adopting case study and public policy approaches, this article applies the symbiosis theory, based on the fundamentals of the development data of Chinese e-commerce companies in the Indonesia market, to construct an evaluation model and proposes a strategic orientation to reaching an embedded survival and further development. Through understanding the structural characteristics and developing status of different types of Chinese e-commerce companies going overseas, a detailed investigation to the Chinese e-commerce companies investing in Indonesia has been conducted. Findings show that the production capacity cooperation stage of the two countries has a trend of asymmetric symbiosis gradually developing towards symmetric symbiosis. To promote a continuous economic cooperation between China and Indonesia, this article proposes that the national-level collaboration policies, cross-border e-commerce value chain, as well as organizational-level coordination are the key sectors for reaching the vision of symmetric symbiosis between the two countries. Sectors in infrastructure, trade, capital, and people's mindset intimacy also contribute to construct a symbiosis mechanism for capacity cooperation between the two nations.

RevDate: 2021-09-27

Wilkes TI, Warner DJ, Edmonds-Brown V, et al (2020)

A comparison of methodologies for the staining and quantification of intracellular components of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root cortex of two varieties of winter wheat.

Access microbiology, 2(2):acmi000083 pii:000083.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are one of the most common fungal organisms to exist in symbiosis with terrestrial plants, facilitating the growth and maintenance of arable crops. Wheat has been studied extensively for AM fungal symbiosis using the carcinogen trypan blue as the identifying stain for fungal components, namely arbuscles, vesicles and hyphal structures. The present study uses Sheaffer blue ink with a lower risk as an alternative to this carcinogenic stain. Justification for this is determined by stained wheat root sections (n=120), with statistically significant increases in the observed abundance of intracellular root cortical fungal structures stained with Sheaffer blue ink compared to trypan blue for both Zulu (P=0.003) and Siskin (P=0.0003) varieties of winter wheat. This new alternative combines an improved quantification of intracellular fungal components with a lower hazard risk at a lower cost.

RevDate: 2021-09-27

Boivin S, Mahé F, Debellé F, et al (2021)

Genetic Variation in Host-Specific Competitiveness of the Symbiont Rhizobium leguminosarum Symbiovar viciae.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:719987.

Legumes of the Fabeae tribe form nitrogen-fixing root nodules resulting from symbiotic interaction with the soil bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar viciae (Rlv). These bacteria are all potential symbionts of the Fabeae hosts but display variable partner choice when co-inoculated in mixture. Because partner choice and symbiotic nitrogen fixation mostly behave as genetically independent traits, the efficiency of symbiosis is often suboptimal when Fabeae legumes are exposed to natural Rlv populations present in soil. A core collection of 32 Rlv bacteria was constituted based on the genomic comparison of a collection of 121 genome sequences, representative of known worldwide diversity of Rlv. A variable part of the nodD gene sequence was used as a DNA barcode to discriminate and quantify each of the 32 bacteria in mixture. This core collection was co-inoculated on a panel of nine genetically diverse Pisum sativum, Vicia faba, and Lens culinaris genotypes. We estimated the relative Early Partner Choice (EPC) of the bacteria with the Fabeae hosts by DNA metabarcoding on the nodulated root systems. Comparative genomic analyses within the bacterial core collection identified molecular markers associated with host-dependent symbiotic partner choice. The results revealed emergent properties of rhizobial populations. They pave the way to identify genes related to important symbiotic traits operating at this level.

RevDate: 2021-09-26

Deng J, Assandri G, Chauhan P, et al (2021)

Wolbachia-driven selective sweep in a range expanding insect species.

BMC ecology and evolution, 21(1):181.

BACKGROUND: Evolutionary processes can cause strong spatial genetic signatures, such as local loss of genetic diversity, or conflicting histories from mitochondrial versus nuclear markers. Investigating these genetic patterns is important, as they may reveal obscured processes and players. The maternally inherited bacterium Wolbachia is among the most widespread symbionts in insects. Wolbachia typically spreads within host species by conferring direct fitness benefits, and/or by manipulating its host reproduction to favour infected over uninfected females. Under sufficient selective advantage, the mitochondrial haplotype associated with the favoured maternally-inherited symbiotic strains will spread (i.e. hitchhike), resulting in low mitochondrial genetic variation across the host species range.

METHOD: The common bluetail damselfly (Ischnura elegans: van der Linden, 1820) has recently emerged as a model organism for genetics and genomic signatures of range expansion during climate change. Although there is accumulating data on the consequences of such expansion on the genetics of I. elegans, no study has screened for Wolbachia in the damselfly genus Ischnura. Here, we present the biogeographic variation in Wolbachia prevalence and penetrance across Europe and Japan (including samples from 17 populations), and from close relatives in the Mediterranean area (i.e. I. genei: Rambur, 1842; and I. saharensis: Aguesse, 1958).

RESULTS: Our data reveal (a) multiple Wolbachia-strains, (b) potential transfer of the symbiont through hybridization, (c) higher infection rates at higher latitudes, and (d) reduced mitochondrial diversity in the north-west populations, indicative of hitchhiking associated with the selective sweep of the most common strain. We found low mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the Wolbachia-infected north-western European populations (Sweden, Scotland, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Italy) of I. elegans, and, conversely, higher mitochondrial diversity in populations with low penetrance of Wolbachia (Ukraine, Greece, Montenegro and Cyprus). The timing of the selective sweep associated with infected lineages was estimated between 20,000 and 44,000 years before present, which is consistent with the end of the last glacial period about 20,000 years.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide an example of how endosymbiont infections can shape spatial variation in their host evolutionary genetics during postglacial expansion. These results also challenge population genetic studies that do not consider the prevalence of symbionts in many insects, which we show can impact geographic patterns of mitochondrial genetic diversity.

RevDate: 2021-09-27
CmpDate: 2021-09-27

Selvaraj G, Santos-Garcia D, Mozes-Daube N, et al (2021)

An eco-systems biology approach for modeling tritrophic networks reveals the influence of dietary amino acids on symbiont dynamics of Bemisia tabaci.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 97(9):.

Metabolic conversions allow organisms to produce essential metabolites from the available nutrients in an environment, frequently requiring metabolic exchanges among co-inhabiting organisms. Here, we applied genomic-based simulations for exploring tri-trophic interactions among the sap-feeding insect whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), its host-plants, and symbiotic bacteria. The simplicity of this ecosystem allows capturing the interacting organisms (based on genomic data) and the environmental content (based on metabolomics data). Simulations explored the metabolic capacities of insect-symbiont combinations under environments representing natural phloem. Predictions were correlated with experimental data on the dynamics of symbionts under different diets. Simulation outcomes depict a puzzle of three-layer origins (plant-insect-symbionts) for the source of essential metabolites across habitats and stratify interactions enabling the whitefly to feed on diverse hosts. In parallel to simulations, natural and artificial feeding experiments provide supporting evidence for an environment-based effect on symbiont dynamics. Based on simulations, a decrease in the relative abundance of a symbiont can be associated with a loss of fitness advantage due to an environmental excess in amino-acids whose production in a deprived environment used to depend on the symbiont. The study demonstrates that genomic-based predictions can bridge environment and community dynamics and guide the design of symbiont manipulation strategies.

RevDate: 2021-09-27
CmpDate: 2021-09-27

Qiao Y, Miao S, Jin J, et al (2021)

Differential responses of the sunn4 and rdn1-1 super-nodulation mutants of Medicago truncatula to elevated atmospheric CO2.

Annals of botany, 128(4):441-452.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nitrogen fixation in legumes requires tight control of carbon and nitrogen balance. Thus, legumes control nodule numbers via an autoregulation mechanism. 'Autoregulation of nodulation' mutants super-nodulate are thought to be carbon-limited due to the high carbon-sink strength of excessive nodules. This study aimed to examine the effect of increasing carbon supply on the performance of super-nodulation mutants.

METHODS: We compared the responses of Medicago truncatula super-nodulation mutants (sunn-4 and rdn1-1) and wild type to five CO2 levels (300-850 μmol mol-1). Nodule formation and nitrogen fixation were assessed in soil-grown plants at 18 and 42 d after sowing.

KEY RESULTS: Shoot and root biomass, nodule number and biomass, nitrogenase activity and fixed nitrogen per plant of all genotypes increased with increasing CO2 concentration and reached a maximum at 700 μmol mol-1. While the sunn-4 mutant showed strong growth retardation compared with wild-type plants, elevated CO2 increased shoot biomass and total nitrogen content of the rdn1-1 mutant up to 2-fold. This was accompanied by a 4-fold increase in nitrogen fixation capacity in the rdn1-1 mutant.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the super-nodulation phenotype per se did not limit growth. The additional nitrogen fixation capacity of the rdn1-1 mutant may enhance the benefit of elevated CO2 for plant growth and N2 fixation.

RevDate: 2021-09-27
CmpDate: 2021-09-27

Blasco-Costa I, Hayward A, Poulin R, et al (2021)

Next-generation cophylogeny: unravelling eco-evolutionary processes.

Trends in ecology & evolution, 36(10):907-918.

A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is how microevolutionary processes translate into species diversification. Cophylogeny provides an appropriate framework to address this for symbiotic associations, but historically has been primarily limited to unveiling patterns. We argue that it is essential to integrate advances from ecology and evolutionary biology into cophylogeny, to gain greater mechanistic insights and transform cophylogeny into a platform to advance understanding of interspecific interactions and diversification more widely. We discuss key directions, such as incorporating trait reconstruction and considering multiple scales of network organization, and highlight recent developments for implementation. A new quantitative framework is proposed to allow integration of relevant information, such as quantitative traits and assessment of the contribution of individual mechanisms to cophylogenetic patterns.

RevDate: 2021-09-27
CmpDate: 2021-09-27

Freestone MW, Swarts ND, Reiter N, et al (2021)

Continental-scale distribution and diversity of Ceratobasidium orchid mycorrhizal fungi in Australia.

Annals of botany, 128(3):329-343.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mycorrhizal fungi are a critical component of the ecological niche of most plants and can potentially constrain their geographical range. Unlike other types of mycorrhizal fungi, the distributions of orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) at large spatial scales are not well understood. Here, we investigate the distribution and diversity of Ceratobasidium OMF in orchids and soils across the Australian continent.

METHODS: We sampled 217 Ceratobasidium isolates from 111 orchid species across southern Australia and combined these with 311 Ceratobasidium sequences from GenBank. To estimate the taxonomic diversity of Ceratobasidium associating with orchids, phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequence locus was undertaken. Sequence data from the continent-wide Australian Microbiome Initiative were used to determine the geographical range of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in orchids, with the distribution and climatic correlates of the two most frequently detected OTUs modelled using MaxEnt.

KEY RESULTS: We identified 23 Ceratobasidium OTUs associating with Australian orchids, primarily from the orchid genera Pterostylis, Prasophyllum, Rhizanthella and Sarcochilus. OTUs isolated from orchids were closely related to, but distinct from, known pathogenic fungi. Data from soils and orchids revealed that ten of these OTUs occur on both east and west sides of the continent, while 13 OTUs were recorded at three locations or fewer. MaxEnt models suggested that the distributions of two widespread OTUs are correlated with temperature and soil moisture of the wettest quarter and far exceeded the distributions of their host orchid species.

CONCLUSIONS: Ceratobasidium OMF with cross-continental distributions are common in Australian soils and frequently have geographical ranges that exceed that of their host orchid species, suggesting these fungi are not limiting the distributions of their host orchids at large spatial scales. Most OTUs were distributed within southern Australia, although several OTUs had distributions extending into central and northern parts of the continent, illustrating their tolerance of an extraordinarily wide range of environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2021-09-27
CmpDate: 2021-09-27

Xu T, L Chen (2021)

Chemical communication in ant-hemipteran mutualism: potential implications for ant invasions.

Current opinion in insect science, 45:121-129.

Ant-hemipteran mutualism is one of the most frequently observed food-for-protection associations in nature, and is recently found to contribute to the invasions of several of the most destructive invasive ants. Chemical communication underlies establishment and maintenance of such associations, in which a multitude of semiochemicals, such as pheromones, cuticular hydrocarbons, honeydew sugars and bacteria-produced honeydew volatiles mediate location, recognition, selection, learning of mutualistic partners. Here, we review what is known about the chemical communication between ants and honeydew-producing hemipterans, and discuss how invasive ants can rapidly recognize and establish a mutualistic relationship with the hemipterans with which they have never coevolved. We also highlight some future directions for a clearer understanding of the chemical communication in ant-hemipteran mutualism and its role in ant invasions.

RevDate: 2021-09-27
CmpDate: 2021-09-27

Blackstone NW (2021)

Evolutionary conflict and coloniality in animals.

Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution, 336(3):212-220.

Despite considerable interest in the effects of evolutionary conflict in colonies of social insects, relatively little attention has been paid to this issue in clonal animals with modular construction, such as colonial ascidians, bryozoans, and cnidarians. These colonial animals are structural individuals, subdivided into repeated morphological modules, which can individually acquire, process, and share resources. While size-related selection favors colony formation, evolutionary conflicts remain a potent obstacle to such cooperation. These conflicts can occur at several levels and must be mediated for cooperation to emerge. Module-level conflicts potentially result in coalitions of genetically similar modules failing to share resources or monopolizing reproduction. Mediation occurs by a number of mechanisms including: (a) a single-module bottleneck at the initiation of colony formation, (b) allorecognition that limits colony fusion to close kin, (c) development of new modules from connective tissue, (d) synchronization of module budding, (e) programmed module death, (f) terminal differentiation of reproductive modules, and (g) architectural constraints. Effective mediation of module-level conflicts, however, may in some cases contribute to cell-level conflicts. Animal colonies typically have multipotent stem cells, and genetically variant stem cells can potentially monopolize gamete formation. Limiting colony fusion to close kin may not eliminate such conflict. Finally, in at least some taxa an association between photosymbiosis and coloniality is found. Allocation of photosynthate can lead to host-symbiont conflicts that can be mediated by housing symbionts intracellularly and using chemiosmotic mechanisms to detect defectors. Colonial animals thus serve as a living laboratory of evolutionary conflict and its mediation.

RevDate: 2021-09-25

Ramírez CS, Tolmie C, Opperman DJ, et al (2021)

Copper nitrite reductase from Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011: crystal structure and interaction with the physiological vs. a non-metabolically-related cupredoxin-like mediator.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society [Epub ahead of print].

We report the crystal structure of the copper-containing nitrite reductase (NirK) from the Gram-negative bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 (Sm), together with complex structural alignment and docking studies with both non-cognate and the physiologically-related pseudoazurins, SmPaz1 and SmPaz2, respectively. S. meliloti is a rhizobacterium used for the formulation of Medicago sativa bionoculants, and SmNirK plays a key role in this symbiosis through the denitrification pathway. The structure of SmNirK, solved at a resolution of 2.5 å, showed a striking resemblance with the overall structure of the well-known class I NirKs composed of two Greek key β-barrel domains. The activity of SmNirK is ~12% of the activity reported for classical NirKs, which could be attributed to several factors such as subtle structural differences in the secondary proton channel, solvent accessibility of the substrate channel, and that the denitrifying activity has to be finely regulated within the endosymbiont. In vitro kinetics performed in homogenous and heterogeneous media showed that both SmPaz1 and SmPaz2, which are coded in different regions of the genome, donate electrons to SmNirK with similar performance. Even though the energetics of the interprotein electron transfer (ET) process is not favorable with either electron donors, adduct formation mediated by conserved residues allows minimizing the distance between the copper centers involved in the interprotein ET process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-25

Petrou K, Nunn BL, Padula MP, et al (2021)

Broad scale proteomic analysis of heat-destabilised symbiosis in the hard coral Acropora millepora.

Scientific reports, 11(1):19061.

Coral reefs across the globe are threatened by warming oceans. The last few years have seen the worst mass coral bleaching events recorded, with more than one quarter of all reefs irreversibly impacted. Considering the widespread devastation, we need to increase our efforts to understanding the physiological and metabolic shifts underlying the breakdown of this important symbiotic ecosystem. Here, we investigated the proteome (PRIDE accession # PXD011668) of both host and symbionts of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora exposed to ambient (~ 28 °C) and elevated temperature (~ 32 °C for 2 days, following a five-day incremental increase) and explored associated biomolecular changes in the symbiont, with the aim of gaining new insights into the mechanisms underpinning the collapse of the coral symbiosis. We identified 1,230 unique proteins (774 host and 456 symbiont) in the control and thermally stressed corals, of which 107 significantly increased and 125 decreased in abundance under elevated temperature relative to the control. Proteins involved in oxidative stress and proteolysis constituted 29% of the host proteins that increased in abundance, with evidence of impairment to endoplasmic reticulum and cytoskeletal regulation proteins. In the symbiont, we detected a decrease in proteins responsible for photosynthesis and energy production (33% of proteins decreased in abundance), yet minimal signs of oxidative stress or proteolysis. Lipid stores increased > twofold despite reduction in photosynthesis, suggesting reduced translocation of carbon to the host. There were significant changes in proteins related to symbiotic state, including proteins linked to nitrogen metabolism in the host and the V-ATPase (-0.6 fold change) known to control symbiosome acidity. These results highlight key differences in host and symbiont proteomic adjustments under elevated temperature and identify two key proteins directly involved in bilateral nutrient exchange as potential indicators of symbiosis breakdown.

RevDate: 2021-09-23

Lemos Gonçalves GR, Melo Dos Santos PV, Costa VE, et al (2021)

Trophic relationships between the crab Libinia ferreirae and its symbionts.

Marine environmental research, 171:105479 pii:S0141-1136(21)00235-X [Epub ahead of print].

Symbioses are ubiquitous in the animal kingdom. However, in most cases, the role of each member is relatively fixed, and it is rare for the same species to exhibit different symbiotic behaviours throughout its ontogeny. Here, we use stable isotope analyses of food resources to identify the relationships between the spider crab Libinia ferreirae as a symbiont of its jellyfish host during juvenile life stages and as a host for sea anemone epibionts on its carapace as an adult. We ask the following questions: How do the food sources used by the crab change between its juvenile and adult phase? How does the symbiotic relationship change when the crab develops from a juvenile into an adult? We were particularly interested in the extent to which L. ferreirae juveniles feed on jellyfish hosts versus planktonic prey during the juvenile symbiont phase and how adults feed on their epibionts during the free-living phase. δ13C of L. ferreirae differed between juvenile (associated with the jellyfish) and adult stages (free-living), unsurprisingly suggesting that there is little isotopic niche overlap between these life phases. SIMMr models using δ13C and δ15N of the crab and its potential food sources indicated that the juvenile crab symbionts did not derive any significant nutrition from medusae and relied predominantly on zooplankton prey. Since juvenile crabs do not have structures to capture zooplankton for feeding, we suggest that they may be kleptoparasites, stealing zooplankton food from their host, though further work is needed to identify the form that such a symbiosis might take. The nutrition of free-living crabs was predominantly derived from benthic algae and shrimps rather than from epibionts. These epibionts appear to use similar food resources as the host, suggesting a symbiotic relationship more akin to mutualism. Thus, the crabs move from a symbiosis in which they may act as parasites to one where they act as hosts. Such flexible approaches to symbioses may be more common than currently described, particularly in species with different functional roles during individual life stages.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Kamiab F, Tavassolian I, M Hosseinifarahi (2020)

Biologia futura: the role of polyamine in plant science.

Biologia futura, 71(3):183-194.

Polyamines (PAs) are positively charged amines such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine that ubiquitously exist in all organisms. They have been considered as a new type of plant biostimulants, with pivotal roles in many physiological processes. Polyamine levels are controlled by intricate regulatory feedback mechanisms. PAs are directly or indirectly regulated through interaction with signaling metabolites (H202, NO), aminobutyric acid (GABA), phytohormones (abscisic acid, gibberellins, ethylene, cytokinins, auxin, jasmonic acid and brassinosteroids) and nitrogen metabolism (maintaining the balance of C:N in plants). Exogenous applications of PAs enhance the stress resistance, flowering and fruit set, synthesis of bioactive compounds and extension of agricultural crops shelf life. Up-regulation of PAs biosynthesis by genetic manipulation can be a novel strategy to increase the productivity of agricultural crops. Recently, the role of PAs in symbiosis relationships between plants and beneficial microorganisms has been confirmed. PA metabolism has also been targeted to design new harmless fungicides.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Omokawa H, Kurosawa N, Kato S, et al (2021)

Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Sulfolobales Archaeon Strain, HS-7, Isolated from the Unzen Hot Spring in Japan.

Microbiology resource announcements, 10(38):e0058221.

The order Sulfolobales includes thermoacidophilic archaea that thrive in acidic geothermal environments. A novel Sulfolobales archaeon strain, HS-7, which may represent a novel genus, was isolated from an acidic hot spring in Japan. We report the 2.15-Mb complete genome sequence of strain HS-7.

RevDate: 2021-09-22

Abbott E, Dixon G, M Matz (2021)

Shuffling between Cladocopium and Durusdinium extensively modifies the physiology of each symbiont without stressing the coral host.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

As sea surface temperatures increase, many coral species that used to harbor symbionts of the genus Cladocopium have become colonized with the thermally tolerant genus, Durusdinium. Here, we asked how gene expression in the symbionts of one genus changes depending on the abundance of another symbiont genus within the same coral host, and what effect this interaction has on the host. Symbiont gene expression was overwhelmingly driven by whether the genus was the minority or the majority within the host, which affected 79% (Durusdinium) and 96% (Cladocopium) of all genes. Particularly strong effects in both genera were observed for photosynthesis components (up-regulated in the minority state) and proteins putatively associated with cell motility (up-regulated in the majority state). Importantly, there was no distinct gene expression signature associated with the mixed symbiosis state when both genera were represented in comparable proportions within the host, which could lead to more intense competition. The mixed symbiosis was also not associated with elevated host stress: in fact, after heat treatment, stress signatures were the lowest in mixed-symbiosis corals compared to both Cladocopium- and Durusdinium-dominated corals. In conclusion, during shuffling between Cladocopium and Durusdinium both symbiont genera go through extensive and largely reciprocal physiological transitions, but there is no evidence of intensifying antagonistic interactions that are detrimental to the host. Unless the mixed-symbiosis corals in this study are not representative of the typical transition between Cladocopium and Durusdinium, the process of shuffling from one symbiont genus to another appears to be cost-free for the coral host, and even appears to be associated with lower stress susceptibility. This raises optimism for the future corals, which will likely have to rely on symbiont shuffling more and more to withstand environmental challenges.

RevDate: 2021-09-22

McClure SM, AS Kuhlmann (2021)

Practices of disciplinary symbiosis: (Re)blending theory and method, anthropology and public health.

American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: If you are dually trained in anthropology and public health and your goal is an academic career, in what academic unit should you make your professional home? Should you be a public health-trained academic anthropologist or an anthropologist in a public health school or program?

AIMS: Associate Professor of Public Health Anne Sebert Kuhlmann and Assistant Professor of Anthropology Stephanie McClure see their dual training as essential to enacting the career goal of fostering understanding of and positively affecting health in people's everyday lives and preparing students to do the same. "We credit our dual training for our robust perspectives on the nature and causes of health and illness and our recognition that theory and methods are complementary tools in teaching and research. We also recognize that though dual training brings conceptual power and functional applicability to our work, it can also be a challenge to navigate a career path that effectively blends the two. Conventional hierarchies in academia and in public health practice can position the two disciplines for conflict rather than complementarity".

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, the two first review the complementarity and conflict between anthropology and public health.

DISCUSSION: Next, shifting to a conversational mode, they compare their paths to dual training, their attempts and successes at bringing those blended perspectives to bear in their current positions, and their ideas about more robustly inhabiting (within themselves) and fostering (between the disciplines) public health/anthropology collaborations.

RevDate: 2021-09-23

Audenaert EA, Duquesne K, De Roeck J, et al (2020)

Ischiofemoral impingement: the evolutionary cost of pelvic obstetric adaptation.

Journal of hip preservation surgery, 7(4):677-687.

The risk for ischiofemoral impingement has been mainly related to a reduced ischiofemoral distance and morphological variance of the femur. From an evolutionary perspective, however, there are strong arguments that the condition may also be related to sexual dimorphism of the pelvis. We, therefore, investigated the impact of gender-specific differences in anatomy of the ischiofemoral space on the ischiofemoral clearance, during static and dynamic conditions. A random sampling Monte-Carlo experiment was performed to investigate ischiofemoral clearance during stance and gait in a large (n = 40 000) virtual study population, while using gender-specific kinematics. Subsequently, a validated gender-specific geometric morphometric analysis of the hip was performed and correlations between overall hip morphology (statistical shape analysis) and standard discrete measures (conventional metric approach) with the ischiofemoral distance were evaluated. The available ischiofemoral space is indeed highly sexually dimorphic and related primarily to differences in the pelvic anatomy. The mean ischiofemoral distance was 22.2 ± 4.3 mm in the females and 29.1 ± 4.1 mm in the males and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Additionally, the ischiofemoral distance was observed to be a dynamic measure, and smallest during femoral extension, and this in turn explains the clinical sign of pain in extension during long stride walking. In conclusion, the presence of a reduced ischiofemroal distance and related risk to develop a clinical syndrome of ischiofemoral impingement is strongly dominated by evolutionary effects in sexual dimorphism of the pelvis. This should be considered when female patients present with posterior thigh/buttock pain, particularly if worsened by extension. Controlled laboratory study.

RevDate: 2021-09-26

Gupta GD, Bansal R, Mistry H, et al (2021)

Structure-function analysis reveals Trichoderma virens Tsp1 to be a novel fungal effector protein modulating plant defence.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 191:267-276 pii:S0141-8130(21)02006-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Trichoderma virens colonizes roots and develops a symbiotic relationship with plants where the fungal partner derives nutrients from plants and offers defence, in return. Tsp1, a small secreted cysteine-rich protein, was earlier found to be upregulated in co-cultivation of T. virens with maize roots. Tsp1 is well conserved in Ascomycota division of fungi, but none of its homologs have been studied yet. We have expressed and purified recombinant Tsp1, and resolved its structure to 1.25 Å resolutions, from two crystal forms, using Se-SAD methods. The Tsp1 adopts a β barrel fold and forms dimer in structure as well as in solution form. DALI based structure analysis revealed the structure similarity with two known fungal effector proteins: Alt a1 and PevD1. Structure and evolutionary analysis suggested that Tsp1 belongs to a novel effector protein family. Tsp1 acted as an inducer of salicylic acid mediated susceptibility in plants, rendering maize plants more susceptible to a necrotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus, as observed using plant defence assay and RT-qPCR analysis.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Żurek G, Wiewióra B, Rybka K, et al (2021)

Different response of perennial ryegrass-Epichloë endophyte symbiota to the elevated concentration of heavy metals in soil.

Journal of applied genetics [Epub ahead of print].

The phenomenon of plant mutualistic symbiosis with microbes may have a positive effect on the improvement of plant tolerance to environmental stresses as well as on the ability of plants to accumulate heavy metal (HM) ions from soil. The influence of Epichloë fungal endophyte (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants grown in the presence of elevated concentrations of HM ions (Cd2+, Pb2+, and Cu2+) in soil was studied. The presence of Epichloë in the host grass tissues resulted in different accumulation of HM ions in the aboveground parts of the plants. In some cases, endophyte infection positively affected ryegrass ability to accumulate HM ions from soil. In plants with (E +) and without (E -) endophytes, the hormesis effect was induced by the elevated concentration of Cu2+ ions, resulting in better growth and photosynthesis, as examined by measurements of Chl a fluorescence. The obtained results indicate that based on the laboratory evaluation of the efficiency of HM accumulation, we were able to choose the best associations of perennial ryegrass with endophytes for HM phytoremediation.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Strohecker J, Golladay J, Paramo M, et al (2021)

Reactive Oxygen Species and the Stress Response in Octocorals.

Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ, 94(6):394-410.

AbstractReactive oxygen species (ROS) may damage cellular components but may also contribute to signaling that mitigates damage. In this context, the role of ROS in the stress response that leads to coral bleaching was investigated in three series of experiments with octocorals Sarcothelia sp. and Sympodium sp. Using video and fluorescent microscopy, the first experiments examined ROS and symbiont migration. Colonies mildly stressed with increased temperature and light showed increases in both ROS and numbers of migrating symbionts compared with stress-free controls. Symbionts migrating in the gastrovascular lumen may escape programmed cell death and provide a reservoir of healthy symbionts once conditions return to normal. In the second series of experiments, colonies were mildly stressed with elevated temperature and light. During stress, treated colonies were incubated in seawater enriched with two concentrations of bicarbonate (1 and 3 mmol/L), while controls were incubated in normal seawater. Bicarbonate enrichment provides additional carbon for photosynthesis and at some concentrations diminished the ROS emissions of stressed colonies of Sympodium sp. and Sarcothelia sp. In all experiments, the latter species tended to exhibit more ROS. Sympodium sp. contains Cladocopium sp. symbionts, which are less tolerant of stress, while Sarcothelia sp. contains the more resistant Durusdinium sp. Indeed, in direct comparisons, Sarcothelia sp. experienced higher levels of ROS under stress-free conditions and thus is conditioned to endure the stress associated with bleaching. Generally, ROS levels provide important insight into the cnidarian stress response and should be measured more often in studies of this response.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Koko JH, Swift SOI, NA Hynson (2021)

Hawaiian Island endemic and indigenous plant species have higher mycorrhizal incidence than the global average.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: Prior efforts have shown that continents harbor a greater proportion of mycorrhizal hosts than on islands. However, in the Hawaiian Islands, estimates of the proportion of mycorrhizal plant species are higher than on continents (>90%), but there are few studies to support this claim. Concurrently, Hawaii's flora faces some of the greatest global risks of extinction, and significant efforts are aimed at restoring native vegetation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to improve plant restoration success, but little work has been done in Hawaii to understand the extent of mycorrhizal associations among native plant populations.

METHODS: We surveyed 35 native Hawaiian plant species in the wild, focusing on plant species that are reared for reintroduction. Roots from wild individuals were collected from 10 sites on Oahu to determine degree of mycorrhizal fungal colonization and how this varies across host populations.

RESULTS: Of the species surveyed, 97% had evidence of mycorrhizal colonization, including 25 endemic and nine indigenous species from 23 families. The mycorrhizal status of 22 of the species surveyed was unknown before this study. For four species, the degree of colonization by AM fungi differed among sites, and these differences corresponded with variations in precipitation and temperature.

CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of mycorrhizal colonization provides evidence that island flora can actually harbor more mycorrhizal hosts than species on mainlands and that future reintroduction projects should consider the potentially important roles of AM fungi for success of these hosts in the wild.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Torres N, Yu R, Martínez-Lüscher J, et al (2021)

Effects of Irrigation at Different Fractions of Crop Evapotranspiration on Water Productivity and Flavonoid Composition of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:712622.

Climate change models predict lower precipitation and higher air temperatures that will negatively affect viticultural regions. Irrigation of vineyards will be crucial for mitigating abiotic stress during the growing season. However, the environmental impact of irrigation requires consideration for ensuring its sustainability in the future. We evaluated the standard irrigation practices on grapevine water use efficiency, berry flavonoid composition, vineyard water footprint, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-grapevine symbiosis in two seasons with contrasting amounts of precipitation. The irrigation treatments consisted of weekly replacement of 25, 50, and 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) during two growing seasons. Irrigation in grapevine vineyards mitigated the water scarcity when precipitation during the dormant season was not sufficient. The results provided field data supporting that despite the low rainfall recorded in one of the seasons, increasing the amount of irrigation was not advised, and replacing 50% ETc was sufficient. In this treatment, berry composition was improved with increased contents of total soluble solids, anthocyanins, and flavonols, and a stable flavonoid profile without an economic decrease in yield. In addition, with 50% ETc, the mycorrhizal symbiosis was not compromised and water resources were not highly impacted. Altogether, our results provide fundamental knowledge for viticulturists to design an appropriate irrigation schedule under the future warming scenarios with minimal environmental impact in semi-arid regions facing warming trends.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Cuesta-Maté A, Renelies-Hamilton J, Kryger P, et al (2021)

Resistance and Vulnerability of Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Bacteria to Commonly Used Pesticides.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:717990.

Agricultural and apicultural practices expose honeybees to a range of pesticides that have the potential to negatively affect their physiology, neurobiology, and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that these effects extend to the honeybee gut microbiome, which serves important functions for honeybee health. Here we test the potential effects of the pesticides thiacloprid, acetamiprid, and oxalic acid on the gut microbiota of honeybees, first in direct in vitro inhibition assays and secondly in an in vivo caged bee experiment to test if exposure leads to gut microbiota community changes. We found that thiacloprid did not inhibit the honeybee core gut bacteria in vitro, nor did it affect overall community composition or richness in vivo. Acetamiprid did also not inhibit bacterial growth in vitro, but it did affect community structure within bees. The eight bacterial genera tested showed variable levels of susceptibility to oxalic acid in vitro. In vivo, treatment with this pesticide reduced amplicon sequence variant (ASV) richness and affected gut microbiome composition, with most marked impact on the common crop bacteria Lactobacillus kunkeei and the genus Bombella. We conducted network analyses which captured known associations between bacterial members and illustrated the sensitivity of the microbiome to environmental stressors. Our findings point to risks of honeybee exposure to oxalic acid, which has been deemed safe for use in treatment against Varroa mites in honeybee colonies, and we advocate for more extensive assessment of the long-term effects that it may have on honeybee health.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Price DRG, Bartley K, Blake DP, et al (2021)

A Rickettsiella Endosymbiont Is a Potential Source of Essential B-Vitamins for the Poultry Red Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:695346.

Many obligate blood-sucking arthropods rely on symbiotic bacteria to provision essential B vitamins that are either missing or at sub-optimal levels in their nutritionally challenging blood diet. The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae, an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite, is a serious threat to the hen egg industry. Poultry red mite infestation has a major impact on hen health and welfare and causes a significant reduction in both egg quality and production. Thus far, the identity and biological role of nutrient provisioning bacterial mutualists from D. gallinae are little understood. Here, we demonstrate that an obligate intracellular bacterium of the Rickettsiella genus is detected in D. gallinae mites collected from 63 sites (from 15 countries) across Europe. In addition, we report the genome sequence of Rickettsiella from D. gallinae (Rickettsiella - D. gallinae endosymbiont; Rickettsiella DGE). Rickettsiella DGE has a circular 1.89Mbp genome that encodes 1,973 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis confirms the placement of Rickettsiella DGE within the Rickettsiella genus, related to a facultative endosymbiont from the pea aphid and Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLEs) from blood feeding ticks. Analysis of the Rickettsiella DGE genome reveals that many protein-coding sequences are either pseudogenized or lost, but Rickettsiella DGE has retained several B vitamin biosynthesis pathways, suggesting the importance of these pathways in evolution of a nutritional symbiosis with D. gallinae. In silico metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that Rickettsiella DGE is unable to synthesize protein amino acids and, therefore, amino acids are potentially provisioned by the host. In contrast, Rickettsiella DGE retains biosynthetic pathways for B vitamins: thiamine (vitamin B1) via the salvage pathway; riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and the cofactors: flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and coenzyme A (CoA) that likely provision these nutrients to the host.

RevDate: 2021-09-21
CmpDate: 2021-09-21

Correia FP, LC Lourenço (2021)

Artificial intelligence application in diagnostic gastrointestinal endoscopy - Deus ex machina?.

World journal of gastroenterology, 27(32):5351-5361.

The close relationship of medicine with technology and the particular interest in this symbiosis in recent years has led to the development of several computed artificial intelligence (AI) systems aimed at various areas of medicine. A number of studies have demonstrated that those systems allow accurate diagnoses with histological precision, thus facilitating decision-making by clinicians in real time. In the field of gastroenterology, AI has been applied in the diagnosis of pathologies of the entire digestive tract and their attached glands, and are increasingly accepted for the detection of colorectal polyps and confirming their histological classification. Studies have shown high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in relation to expert endoscopists, and mainly in relation to those with less experience. Other applications that are increasingly studied and with very promising results are the investigation of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus and the endoscopic and histological assessment of colon inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. In some cases AI is thus better than or at least equal to human abilities. However, additional studies are needed to reinforce the existing data, and mainly to determine the applicability of this technology in other indications. This review summarizes the state of the art of AI in gastroenterological pathology.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Abbaspour H, Pour FSN, MA Abdel-Wahhab (2021)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates the physiological responses, ion distribution and relevant gene expression to trigger salt stress tolerance in pistachio.

Physiology and molecular biology of plants : an international journal of functional plant biology, 27(8):1765-1778.

Mycorrhizal symbiosis is generally considered effective in ameliorating plant tolerance to abiotic stress by altering gene expression, and evaluation of genes involved in ion homeostasis and nutrient uptake. This study aimed to use arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) to alleviate salinity stress and analyse relevant gene expression in pistachio plants under No/NaCl stress in greenhouse conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was used to study the physiological responses, ion distribution and relevant gene expression in pistachio plants under salinity stress. After four months of symbiosis, mycorrhizal root colonization showed a significant reduction in all tested parameters under salt stress treatment compared to non-saline treatment. Salinity affected the morphological traits, and decreased the nutrient content including N, P, Mg and Fe as well as K/Na and Ca/Na ratios, relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), and increased the concentration of K, Ca and Na nutrient, glycine betaine, ROS and MDA. Inoculation of seedlings with AMF mitigated the negative effects of salinity on plant growth as indicated by increasing the root colonization, morphological traits, glycine betaine, RWC and MSI. Specifically, under salinity stress, shoot and root dry weight, P and Fe nutrient content, K/Na and Ca/Na ratio of AMF plants were increased by 53.2, 48.6, 71.6, 60.2, 87.5, and 80.1% respectively, in contrast to those of the NMF plants. The contents of Na, O2•- and MDA in AMF plants were significantly decreased by 66.8, 36.8, and 23.1%, respectively at 250 mM NaCl. Moreover, salinity markedly increased SOS1, CCX2 and SKOR genes expression and the inoculation with AMF modulated these genes expression; however, NRT2.4, PHO1 and PIP2.4 gene expressions were increased by salinity and AMF. It could be concluded that inoculation of AMF with Rhizophagus irregularis conferred a larger endurance towards soil salinity in pistachio plants and stimulate the nutrient uptake and ionic homeostasis maintenance, superior RWC and osmoprotection, toxic ion partitioning, maintaining membrane integrity and the ion-relevant genes expression.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Das A, Begum K, Akhtar S, et al (2021)

Genome-wide detection and classification of terpene synthase genes in Aquilaria agallochum.

Physiology and molecular biology of plants : an international journal of functional plant biology, 27(8):1711-1729.

Agarwood, one of the precious woods in the globe, is produced by Aquilaria plant species during an upshot of wounding and infection. Produced as a defence response, the dark, fragrant resin gets secreted in the plant's duramen, which is impregnated with fragrant molecules with the due course. Agarwood has gained worldwide popularity due to its high aromatic oil, fragrance, and pharmaceutical value, which makes it highly solicited by numerous industries. Predominant chemical constituents of agarwood, sesquiterpenoids, and 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones have been scrutinized to comprehend the scientific nature of the fragrant wood and develop novel products. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these aromatic compounds are still not comprehensively studied in Aquilaria. In this study, publicly available genomic and transcriptomics data of Aquilaria agallochum were integrated to identify putative functional terpene synthase genes (TPSs). The in silico study enabled us to identify ninety-six TPSs, of which thirty-nine full-length genes were systematically classified into TPS-a, TPS-b, TPS-c, TPS-e, TPS-f, and TPS-g subfamilies based on their gene structure, conserve motif, and phylogenetic comparison with TPSs from other plant species. Analysis of the cis-regulatory elements present upstream of AaTPSs revealed their association with hormone, stress and light responses. In silico expression studies detected their up-regulation in stress induced tissue. This study provides a basic understanding of terpene synthase gene repertoire in Aquilaria agallochum and unlatches opportunities for the biochemical characterization and biotechnological exploration of these genes.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-021-01040-z.

RevDate: 2021-09-26

Wang DL, Yang XQ, Shi WZ, et al (2021)

The selective anti-fungal metabolites from Irpex lacteus and applications in the chemical interaction of Gastrodia elata, Armillaria sp., and endophytes.

Fitoterapia, 155:105035 pii:S0367-326X(21)00210-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The investigation of the metabolites from endophyte Irpex lacteus cultured in host "tian ma" (Gastrodia elata) revealed five new tremulane sesquiterpenes (1-5), and a new tetrahydrofuran derivative (6). Compound 1 was the first tremulane glucoside, and 6 possessed a rare tetrahydropyran-tetrahydrofuran scaffold. Main metabolite (2,3-dihydroxydodacane-4,7-dione, 14) from I. lacteus showed significant selectivity for antifungal activity against phytopathogen and endophytes associated with G. elata rather than against Armillaria sp. providing nutrition for the host G. elata. 14 accounted for 27.4% of isolated compounds from G. elata medium, and 69.3% by co-culturing with Armillaria sp. So the I. lacteus tended to promote the growth of Armillaria sp. in co-culture by producing 2,3-dihydroxydodacane-4,7-dione (14) to selective inhibit the phytopathogen and endophyte existed in host G. elata for the benefit of G. elata-Armillaria symbiosis. And the results were in accord with the real environment of G. elata depending on the nutrition of Armillaria. Some metabolites had anti-fungal activities against phytopathogens of G. elata with MICs ≤8 μg/mL.

RevDate: 2021-09-22

Kudo T, Aonuma H, E Hasegawa (2021)

A symbiotic aphid selfishly manipulates attending ants via dopamine in honeydew.

Scientific reports, 11(1):18569.

Symbiotic relationships are widespread in nature, but the mechanisms maintaining these relationships remain to be elucidated because symbiosis incurs a maintenance cost to each participant, which lowers its reproductive rate. In host-parasite relationships, parasites are known to manipulate the host's behavior selfishly, and there is an arms race between them. Selfish manipulations also occur in symbiosis, but the effects of selfish manipulations on symbiosis are not fully understood. Here, we show that an ant-associated aphid manipulates attending ants to receive stronger protection. Aphid honeydew regurgitated by ants contains dopamine (DA). The ants showed low aggressiveness before contact with the aphids, but it rose after contact. Administration of DA to the ants increased ant aggressiveness as the concentration increased, while an antagonist of DA inhibited this effect. The other 3 amines showed no effect on aggressiveness. A previous study showed that attending ants selfishly manipulate aphids by increasing the reproductive rate of green morph to obtain high-quality honeydew. These results suggest that mutual selfish manipulation benefits both participants and is likely to strengthen symbiosis. The selfishness of each participant may contribute to sustaining this symbiosis because their selfishness increases their long-term fitness.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Nelson JM, Hauser DA, FW Li (2021)

The diversity and community structure of symbiotic cyanobacteria in hornworts inferred from long-read amplicon sequencing.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: Nitrogen-fixing endosymbioses with cyanobacteria have evolved independently in five very different plant lineages. Expanding knowledge of these symbioses promises to improve the understanding of symbiosis evolution and broaden the toolkit for agricultural engineering to reduce artificial fertilizer use. Here we focused on hornworts, a bryophyte lineage in which all members host cyanobacteria, and investigated factors shaping the diversity of their cyanobiont communities.

METHODS: We sampled hornworts and adjacent soils in upstate New York throughout the hornwort growing season. We included all three sympatric hornwort species in the area, allowing us to directly compare partner selectivity. To profile cyanobacteria communities, we established a metabarcoding protocol targeting rbcL-X with PacBio long reads.

RESULTS: The hornwort cyanobionts detected were phylogenetically diverse, including clades that do not contain other known plant symbionts. We found significant overlap between hornwort cyanobionts and soil cyanobacteria, a pattern not previously reported in other plant-cyanobacteria symbioses. Cyanobiont communities differed between host plants only centimeters apart, but we did not detect an effect of sampling time or host species on the cyanobacterial community structure.

CONCLUSIONS: This study expands the phylogenetic diversity of known symbiotic cyanobacteria. Our analyses suggest that hornwort cyanobionts have a tight connection to the soil background, and we found no evidence that time within growing season, host species, or distance at the scale of meters strongly govern cyanobacteria community assembly. This study provides a critical foundation for further study of the ecology, evolution, and interaction dynamics of plant-cyanobacteria symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Saboor A, Ali MA, Danish S, et al (2021)

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the physiological functioning of maize under zinc-deficient soils.

Scientific reports, 11(1):18468.

Zinc (Zn) deficiency can severely inhibit plant growth, yield, and enzymatic activities. Zn plays a vital role in various enzymatic activities in plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in improving the plant's Zn nutrition and mitigating Zn stress effects on plants. The current study was conducted to compare the response of inoculated and non-inoculated maize (YH 1898) in the presence of different levels of zinc under greenhouse conditions under a Zn deficient condition. There were two mycorrhizal levels (i.e., M + with mycorrhizae, M- without mycorrhizae) and five Zn levels (i.e., 0, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 mg kg-1), with three replicates following completely randomized design. At the vegetative stage (before tillering), biochemical, physiological, and agronomic attributes were measured. The results showed that maize plants previously inoculated with AMF had higher gaseous exchange traits, i.e., a higher stomatal conductance rate, favoring an increased photosynthetic rate. Improvement in antioxidant enzyme activity was also observed in inoculated compared to non-inoculated maize plants. Moreover, AMF inoculation also played a beneficial role in nutrients availability and its uptake by plants. Higher Zn12 (12 mg Zn kg-1 soil) treatment accumulated a higher Zn concentration in soil, root, and shoot in AMF-inoculated than in non-inoculated maize plants. These results are consistent with mycorrhizal symbiosis beneficial role for maize physiological functioning in Zn deficient soil conditions. Additionally, AMF inoculation mitigated the stress conditions and assisted nutrient uptake by maize.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Kim DD, Wan L, Cao X, et al (2021)

Metagenomic insights into co-proliferation of Vibrio spp. and dinoflagellates Prorocentrum during a spring algal bloom in the coastal East China Sea.

Water research, 204:117625 pii:S0043-1354(21)00820-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Coastal harmful algal blooms (HABs), commonly termed 'red tides', have severe undesirable consequences to the marine ecosystems and local fishery and tourism industries. Increase in nitrogen and/or phosphorus loading is often regarded as the major culprits of increasing frequency and intensity of the coastal HAB; however, fundamental understanding is lacking as to the causes and mechanism of bloom formation despite decades of intensive investigation. In this study, we interrogated the prokaryotic microbiomes of surface water samples collected at two neighboring segments of East China Sea that contrast greatly in terms of the intensity and frequency of Prorocentrum-dominated HAB. Mantel tests identified significant correlations between the structural and functional composition of the microbiomes and the physicochemical state and the algal biomass density of the surface seawater, implying the possibility that prokaryotic microbiota may play key roles in the coastal HAB. A conspicuous feature of the microbiomes at the sites characterized with high trophic state index and eukaryotic algal cell counts was disproportionate proliferation of Vibrio spp., and their complete domination of the functional genes attributable to the dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) pathway substantially enriched at these sites. The genes attributed to phosphorus uptake function were significantly enriched at these sites, presumably due to the Pi-deficiency induced by algal growth; however, the profiles of the phosphorus mineralization genes lacked consistency, barring any conclusive evidence with regard to contribution of prokaryotic microbiota to phosphorus bioavailability. The results of the co-occurrence network analysis performed with the core prokaryotic microbiome supported that the observed proliferation of Vibrio and HAB may be causally associated. The findings of this study suggest a previously unidentified association between Vibrio proliferation and the Prorocentrum-dominated HAB in the subtropical East China Sea, and opens a discussion regarding a theoretically unlikely, but still possible, involvement of Vibrio-mediated DNRA in Vibrio-Prorocentrum symbiosis. Further experimental substantiation of this supposed symbiotic mechanism may prove crucial in understanding the dynamics of explosive local algal growth in the region during spring algal blooms.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Turney PD (2021)

Evolution of Autopoiesis and Multicellularity in the Game of Life.

Artificial life, 27(1):26-43.

Recently we introduced a model of symbiosis, Model-S, based on the evolution of seed patterns in Conway's Game of Life. In the model, the fitness of a seed pattern is measured by one-on-one competitions in the Immigration Game, a two-player variation of the Game of Life. Our previous article showed that Model-S can serve as a highly abstract, simplified model of biological life: (1) The initial seed pattern is analogous to a genome. (2) The changes as the game runs are analogous to the development of the phenome. (3) Tournament selection in Model-S is analogous to natural selection in biology. (4) The Immigration Game in Model-S is analogous to competition in biology. (5) The first three layers in Model-S are analogous to biological reproduction. (6) The fusion of seed patterns in Model-S is analogous to symbiosis. The current article takes this analogy two steps further: (7) Autopoietic structures in the Game of Life (still lifes, oscillators, and spaceships-collectively known as ashes) are analogous to cells in biology. (8) The seed patterns in the Game of Life give rise to multiple, diverse, cooperating autopoietic structures, analogous to multicellular biological life. We use the apgsearch software (Ash Pattern Generator Search), developed by Adam Goucher for the study of ashes, to analyze autopoiesis and multicellularity in Model-S. We find that the fitness of evolved seed patterns in Model-S is highly correlated with the diversity and quantity of multicellular autopoietic structures.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Zhang J, Peng S, Li S, et al (2021)

Arachis hypogaea L. from Acid Soils of Nanyang (China) Is Frequently Associated with Bradyrhizobium guangdongense and Occasionally with Bradyrhizobium ottawaense or Three Bradyrhizobium Genospecies.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Henan Province is a major area of peanut production in China but the rhizobia nodulating the crop in this region have not been described. A collection of 217 strains of peanut rhizobia was obtained from six field sites across four soil types in Henan Province, North China, by using peanut as a trap host under glasshouse conditions. The 217 strains separated into 8 distinct types on PCR-RFLP analysis of their IGS sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII genes of 11 representative strains of the 8 IGS types identified Bradyrhizobium guangdongense, B. ottawaense and three novel Bradyrhizobium genospecies. Bradyrhizobium guangdongense was dominant, accounting for 75.0% of the total isolates across the field sites while B. ottawaense covered 5.1% and the three novel Bradyrhizobium genospecies 4.1 to 8.8% of the total. The symbiosis-related nodA and nifH gene sequences were not congruent with the core genes on phylogenetic analysis and separated into three groups, two of which were similar to sequences of Bradyrhizobium spp. isolated from peanut in south-east China and the third identical to that of B. yuanmingense isolated from Lespedeza cuneata in northern China. A canonical correlation analysis between the distribution of IGS genotypes and soil physicochemical characteristics and climatic factors indicated that the occurrence of IGS types/species was mainly associated with soil pH and available phosphorus.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Altinli M, Schnettler E, M Sicard (2021)

Symbiotic Interactions Between Mosquitoes and Mosquito Viruses.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:694020.

Mosquitoes not only transmit human and veterinary pathogens called arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) but also harbor mosquito-associated insect-specific viruses (mosquito viruses) that cannot infect vertebrates. In the past, studies investigating mosquito viruses mainly focused on highly pathogenic interactions that were easier to detect than those without visible symptoms. However, the recent advances in viral metagenomics have highlighted the abundance and diversity of viruses which do not generate mass mortality in host populations. Over the last decade, this has facilitated the rapid growth of virus discovery in mosquitoes. The circumstances around the discovery of mosquito viruses greatly affected how they have been studied so far. While earlier research mainly focused on the pathogenesis caused by DNA and some double-stranded RNA viruses during larval stages, more recently discovered single-stranded RNA mosquito viruses were heavily studied for their putative interference with arboviruses in female adults. Thus, many aspects of mosquito virus interactions with their hosts and host-microbiota are still unknown. In this context, considering mosquito viruses as endosymbionts can help to identify novel research areas, in particular in relation to their long-term interactions with their hosts (e.g. relationships during all life stages, the stability of the associations at evolutionary scales, transmission routes and virulence evolution) and the possible context-dependent range of interactions (i.e. beneficial to antagonistic). Here, we review the symbiotic interactions of mosquito viruses considering different aspects of their ecology, such as transmission, host specificity, host immune system and interactions with other symbionts within the host cellular arena. Finally, we highlight related research gaps in mosquito virus research.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Wu N, Li Z, M Tang (2021)

Impact of salt and exogenous AM inoculation on indigenous microbial community structure in the rhizosphere of dioecious plant, Populus cathayana.

Scientific reports, 11(1):18403.

The sex-specific physical and biochemical responses in dioecious plants to abiotic stresses could result in gender imbalance, and how to ease the current situation by microorganisms is still unclear. Using native soil where poplars were grown, growth parameters, soil physicochemical properties in the rhizosphere soil of different sexes of Populus cathayana exposed to salt stress and exogenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation were tested. Besides, the sex-specific microbial community structures in the rhizosphere soil of different sexes of Populus cathayana were compared under salt stress. To identify the sex-specific microbial community characteristics related to salinity and AM symbiosis, a combined qPCR and DGGE method was used to monitor microbial community diversity. Seedlings suffered severe pressure by salt stress, reflected in limited growth, biomass, and nutrient element accumulation, especially on females. Exogenous AM inoculation treatment alleviated these negative effects, especially under salt treatment of 75 mM. Compared with salt effect, exogenous AM inoculation treatment showed a greater effect on soil physical-chemical properties of both sexes. Based on DGGE results, salt stress negatively affected fungal richness but positively affected fungal Simpson diversity index, while exogenous AM inoculation treatment showed the opposite effect. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to show the causal relationships between salt and exogenous AM inoculation treatments with biomass accumulation and microbial community: salt and exogenous AM inoculation treatment showed complicated effects on elementary concentrations, soil properties, which resulted in different relationship with biomass accumulation and microbial community. Salt stress had a negative effect on soil properties and microbial community structure in the rhizosphere soil of P. cathayana, whereas exogenous AM inoculation showed positive impacts on most of the soil physical-chemical properties and microbial community status.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Worsley SF, Innocent TM, Holmes NA, et al (2021)

Competition-based screening helps to secure the evolutionary stability of a defensive microbiome.

BMC biology, 19(1):205.

BACKGROUND: The cuticular microbiomes of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants pose a conundrum in microbiome biology because they are freely colonisable, and yet the prevalence of the vertically transmitted bacteria Pseudonocardia, which contributes to the control of Escovopsis fungus garden disease, is never compromised by the secondary acquisition of other bacterial strains. Game theory suggests that competition-based screening can allow the selective recruitment of antibiotic-producing bacteria from the environment, by providing abundant resources to foment interference competition between bacterial species and by using Pseudonocardia to bias the outcome of competition in favour of antibiotic producers.

RESULTS: Here, we use RNA-stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) to confirm that Acromyrmex ants can maintain a range of microbial symbionts on their cuticle by supplying public resources. We then used RNA sequencing, bioassays, and competition experiments to show that vertically transmitted Pseudonocardia strains produce antibacterials that differentially reduce the growth rates of other microbes, ultimately biassing the bacterial competition to allow the selective establishment of secondary antibiotic-producing strains while excluding non-antibiotic-producing strains that would parasitise the symbiosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that competition-based screening is a plausible mechanism for maintaining the integrity of the co-adapted mutualism between the leaf-cutting ant farming symbiosis and its defensive microbiome. Our results have broader implications for explaining the stability of other complex symbioses involving horizontal acquisition.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Rosland NA, Ikhsan N, Min CC, et al (2021)

Influence of Symbiotic Probiont Strains on the Growth of Amphora and Chlorella and Its Potential Protections Against Vibrio spp. in Artemia.

Current microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The emerging aquaculture industry is in need of non-antibiotic-based disease control approaches to minimize the risk of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacterial infections mainly caused by Vibrio spp. have caused mass mortalities of fish especially during the larval stages. The objectives of this study were to verify the potential of symbiotic probiont strains, isolated from microalgae (Amphora, Chlorella, and Spirulina) for suppressing the growth of Vibrio spp. and at the same time ascertain their abilities to enhance microalgal biomass by mutualistic interactions through microalgae-bacteria symbiosis. In addition, in vivo studies on Artemia bioencapsulated with probiont strains (single strain and mix strains) and microalgae were evaluated. The selected potential probionts were identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain A-1 (LFA-1), Bacillus sp. strain A-2 (BA-2), Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain Cl-3 (LFCl-3), and Bacillus pocheonensis strain S-2 (BPS-2) using 16s rRNA. The cell densities of Amphora culture supplemented with BA-2 and Chlorella culture supplemented with LFCl-3 were higher than those of the controls. Artemia bioencapsulated with mix strains (LFA-1 + BA-2 + LFCl-3 + BPS-2) and Amphora demonstrated the highest survival rate compared to the controls, after being challenged with V. harveyi (60 ± 4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (78 ± 2%). Our study postulated that BA-2 and LFCl-3 were found to be good promoting bacteria for microalgal growth and microalgae serve as a vector to transport probiotic into Artemia. Moreover, mixture of potential probionts is beneficial for Artemia supplementation in conferring protection to Artemia nauplii against pathogenic Vibrios.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Jenkins BH, Maguire F, Leonard G, et al (2021)

Emergent RNA-RNA interactions can promote stability in a facultative phototrophic endosymbiosis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(38):.

Eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis was responsible for the spread of chloroplast (plastid) organelles. Stability is required for the metabolic and genetic integration that drives the establishment of new organelles, yet the mechanisms that act to stabilize emergent endosymbioses-between two fundamentally selfish biological organisms-are unclear. Theory suggests that enforcement mechanisms, which punish misbehavior, may act to stabilize such interactions by resolving conflict. However, how such mechanisms can emerge in a facultative endosymbiosis has yet to be explored. Here, we propose that endosymbiont-host RNA-RNA interactions, arising from digestion of the endosymbiont population, can result in a cost to host growth for breakdown of the endosymbiosis. Using the model facultative endosymbiosis between Paramecium bursaria and Chlorella spp., we demonstrate that this mechanism is dependent on the host RNA-interference (RNAi) system. We reveal through small RNA (sRNA) sequencing that endosymbiont-derived messenger RNA (mRNA) released upon endosymbiont digestion can be processed by the host RNAi system into 23-nt sRNA. We predict multiple regions of shared sequence identity between endosymbiont and host mRNA, and demonstrate through delivery of synthetic endosymbiont sRNA that exposure to these regions can knock down expression of complementary host genes, resulting in a cost to host growth. This process of host gene knockdown in response to endosymbiont-derived RNA processing by host RNAi factors, which we term "RNAi collisions," represents a mechanism that can promote stability in a facultative eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis. Specifically, by imposing a cost for breakdown of the endosymbiosis, endosymbiont-host RNA-RNA interactions may drive maintenance of the symbiosis across fluctuating ecological conditions.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Waterworth SC, Parker-Nance S, Kwan JC, et al (2021)

Comparative Genomics Provides Insight into the Function of Broad-Host Range Sponge Symbionts.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

The fossil record indicates that the earliest evidence of extant marine sponges (phylum Porifera) existed during the Cambrian explosion and that their symbiosis with microbes may have begun in their extinct ancestors during the Precambrian period. Many symbionts have adapted to their sponge host, where they perform specific, specialized functions. There are also widely distributed bacterial taxa such as Poribacteria, SAUL, and Tethybacterales that are found in a broad range of invertebrate hosts. Here, we added 11 new genomes to the Tethybacterales order, identified a novel family, and show that functional potential differs between the three Tethybacterales families. We compare the Tethybacterales with the well-characterized Entoporibacteria and show that these symbionts appear to preferentially associate with low-microbial abundance (LMA) and high-microbial abundance (HMA) sponges, respectively. Within these sponges, we show that these symbionts likely perform distinct functions and may have undergone multiple association events, rather than a single association event followed by coevolution. IMPORTANCE Marine sponges often form symbiotic relationships with bacteria that fulfil a specific need within the sponge holobiont, and these symbionts are often conserved within a narrow range of related taxa. To date, there exist only three known bacterial taxa (Entoporibacteria, SAUL, and Tethybacterales) that are globally distributed and found in a broad range of sponge hosts, and little is known about the latter two. We show that the functional potential of broad-host range symbionts is conserved at a family level and that these symbionts have been acquired several times over evolutionary history. Finally, it appears that the Entoporibacteria are associated primarily with high-microbial abundance sponges, while the Tethybacterales associate with low-microbial abundance sponges.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Qu Z, Zhang H, Wang Q, et al (2021)

Exploring the Symbiotic Mechanism of a Virus-Mediated Endophytic Fungus in Its Host by Dual Unique Molecular Identifier-RNA Sequencing.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The symbiosis of endophytes and plants is universal in nature. However, how endophytes grow in plants is not entirely clear. Previously, we reported that a virus-infected fungal pathogen could grow in plants as an endophyte. In this study, we utilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strain DT-8, a virus-mediated endophyte, to investigate the mechanism of symbiosis with rapeseed by dual unique molecular identifier-RNA sequencing (dual-UMI RNA-seq). We found that the expressions of genes encoding S. sclerotiorum amylase/glucoamylase, glucose transporters, and rapeseed sugars will eventually be exported transporter 11 (SWEET11) were upregulated. It suggested that strain DT-8 might utilize plant starch as a nutrient. The defense systems of rapeseed were also activated, such as production of reactive oxygen species, phenylpropanoids, and brassinin, to control the growth of strain DT-8, while strain DT-8 counteracted host suppression by producing effector-like proteins, detoxification enzymes, and antioxidant components. Moreover, rapeseed also upregulated pectate lyase and pectinesterase genes to facilitate the colonization by strain DT-8. Our findings provide novel insights into the interaction of virus-mediated endophytes and their hosts that warrant further study. IMPORTANCE Although endophytes are widespread in nature, the interactions between endophytes and their hosts are still not fully understood. Members of a unique class of endophytes, the virus-mediated endophytic fungi, are continuously being discovered and have received wide attention. In this study, we investigated the interaction between a mycovirus-mediated endophytic fungus and its host rapeseed by using dual-UMI RNA-seq. According to the dual-UMI RNA-seq results, an aerial view of symbiotic mechanism under balanced regulation was suggested. This research expands our understanding of the symbiotic mechanisms of virus-fungus-plant interactions and could establish a foundation for the further development of practical application with virus-mediated hypovirulent fungi.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Nagasawa M, T Kikusui (2021)

Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Social Bonds and Separation Stress in Rodents, Dogs, and Other Species.

Current topics in behavioral neurosciences [Epub ahead of print].

Mammalian species form unique bonds between mothers and infants. Maternal care, including suckling, is necessary for infant survival, and the mother and, sometimes, the father require a lot of effort in nurturing infants. An infant's probability of survival depends on the extent of the investment of care by the mother. In parallel, mothers must identify their offspring and invest only in those who possess their genes to achieve evolutionary benefits. Therefore, they need to recognize their offspring and show a strong preference for them. For this reason, bond formation between mothers and infants is important. The mother monitors her offspring's physical condition and stays close to them. The offspring also form strong bonds with their mothers. Therefore, a separation between the mother and infant causes severe stress for both parties. Although it was initially thought that such bonds between mother and infant are limited to the same species, we have also observed a similar phenomenon in the human-dog relationship. In this article, we discuss the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie bond formation and separation based on findings of neurobiological research in mice and the relationship between humans and dogs.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Aroney STN, Poole PS, C Sánchez-Cañizares (2021)

Rhizobial Chemotaxis and Motility Systems at Work in the Soil.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:725338.

Bacteria navigate their way often as individual cells through their chemical and biological environment in aqueous medium or across solid surfaces. They swim when starved or in response to physical and chemical stimuli. Flagella-driven chemotaxis in bacteria has emerged as a paradigm for both signal transduction and cellular decision-making. By altering motility, bacteria swim toward nutrient-rich environments, movement modulated by their chemotaxis systems with the addition of pili for surface movement. The numbers and types of chemoreceptors reflect the bacterial niche and lifestyle, with those adapted to complex environments having diverse metabolic capabilities, encoding far more chemoreceptors in their genomes. The Alpha-proteobacteria typify the latter case, with soil bacteria such as rhizobia, endosymbionts of legume plants, where motility and chemotaxis are essential for competitive symbiosis initiation, among other processes. This review describes the current knowledge of motility and chemotaxis in six model soil bacteria: Sinorhizobium meliloti, Agrobacterium fabacearum, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Azorhizobium caulinodans, Azospirillum brasilense, and Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. Although motility and chemotaxis systems have a conserved core, rhizobia possess several modifications that optimize their movements in soil and root surface environments. The soil provides a unique challenge for microbial mobility, since water pathways through particles are not always continuous, especially in drier conditions. The effectiveness of symbiont inoculants in a field context relies on their mobility and dispersal through the soil, often assisted by water percolation or macroorganism movement or networks. Thus, this review summarizes the factors that make it essential to consider and test rhizobial motility and chemotaxis for any potential inoculant.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Goddard ML, Belval L, Martin IR, et al (2021)

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Triggers Major Changes in Primary Metabolism Together With Modification of Defense Responses and Signaling in Both Roots and Leaves of Vitis vinifera.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:721614.

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide but is subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses, especially related to climate change. In this context, the grapevine culture could take advantage of symbiosis through association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are able to establish symbiosis with most terrestrial plants. Indeed, it is well established that mycorrhization improves grapevine nutrition and resistance to stresses, especially water stress and resistance to root pathogens. Thus, it appears essential to understand the effect of mycorrhization on grapevine metabolism and defense responses. In this study, we combined a non-targeted metabolomic approach and a targeted transcriptomic study to analyze changes induced in both the roots and leaves of V. vinifera cv. Gewurztraminer by colonization with Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri). We showed that colonization of grapevine with AMF triggers major reprogramming of primary metabolism in the roots, especially sugar and fatty acid metabolism. On the other hand, mycorrhizal roots had decreased contents of most sugars and sugar acids. A significant increase in several fatty acids (C16:1, linoleic and linolenic acids and the C20 arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids) was also detected. However, a downregulation of the JA biosynthesis pathway was evidenced. We also found strong induction of the expression of PR proteins from the proteinase inhibitor (PR6) and subtilase (PR7) families in roots, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the mycorrhiza development but could also confer higher resistance to root pathogens. Metabolic changes induced by mycorrhization were less marked in leaves but involved higher levels of linoleic and linolenic acids and decreased sucrose, quinic, and shikimic acid contents. In addition, Ri colonization resulted in enhanced JA and SA levels in leaves. Overall, this study provides a detailed picture of metabolic changes induced by AMF colonization in a woody, economically important species. Moreover, stimulation of fatty acid biosynthesis and PR protein expression in roots and enhanced defense hormone contents in leaves establish first insight in favor of better resistance of grapevine to various pathogens provided by AMF colonization.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Nesbitt H, Burke C, M Haghi (2021)

Manipulation of the Upper Respiratory Microbiota to Reduce Incidence and Severity of Upper Respiratory Viral Infections: A Literature Review.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:713703.

There is a high incidence of upper respiratory viral infections in the human population, with infection severity being unique to each individual. Upper respiratory viruses have been associated previously with secondary bacterial infection, however, several cross-sectional studies analyzed in the literature indicate that an inverse relationship can also occur. Pathobiont abundance and/or bacterial dysbiosis can impair epithelial integrity and predispose an individual to viral infection. In this review we describe common commensal microorganisms that have the capacity to reduce the abundance of pathobionts and maintain bacterial symbiosis in the upper respiratory tract and discuss the potential and limitations of localized probiotic formulations of commensal bacteria to reduce the incidence and severity of viral infections.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

He X, Xie H, Gao D, et al (2021)

Biochar and Intercropping With Potato-Onion Enhanced the Growth and Yield Advantages of Tomato by Regulating the Soil Properties, Nutrient Uptake, and Soil Microbial Community.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:695447.

The application of biochar stimulates the activities of microorganisms that affect soil quality and plant growth. However, studies on the impacts of biochar mainly focus on a monoculture, its effects on interspecific interactions are rarely reported. Here, we investigated the impacts of biochar on tomato/potato-onion intercropped (TO) in a pot experiment. Tomato monoculture (T) and TO were treated with no, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2% biochar concentrations in a pot experiment. Microbial communities from tomato rhizosphere soil were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Illumina MiSeq. The results showed that compared with the tomato monoculture, 0.6%TO and 1.2%TO significantly increased tomato yield in 2018. TO and 1.2%TO significantly increased plant height and dry weight in 2018 and 2019. Biochar treatments increased soil pH, decreased NO 3 - -N and bulk density, and increased the absorption of N, P, and K by tomato. Bacterial and fungal abundances increased with an increase in biochar concentration, while Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. abundances showed an "increase-decrease-increase" trend. Biochar had a little effect on bacterial diversities but significantly lowered fungal diversities. TO, 0.6%TO, and 1.2%TO increased the potentially beneficial organisms (e.g., Pseudeurotium and Solirubrobacter) and lowered the potentially pathogenic organisms (e.g., Kribbella and Ilyonectria). Different concentrations of biochar affected the bacterial and fungal community structures. Redundancy analysis indicated that the bacterial community was strongly correlated with soil pH, NO 3 - -N, and EC, while the fungal community was closely related to soil NO 3 - -N and moisture. The network analysis showed that biochar and intercropping affected the symbiosis pattern of the microorganisms and increased the proportion of positive interactions and nitrifying microorganisms (Nitrospirae) in the microbial community. Overall, our results indicated that monoculture and intercropping with biochar improved soil physicochemical states and plant nutrient absorption, and regulated soil microbial communities, these were the main factors to promote tomato growth and increase tomato productivity.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Kise H, Obuchi M, JD Reimer (2021)

A new Antipathozoanthus species (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia, Zoantharia) from the northwest Pacific Ocean.

ZooKeys, 1040:49-64.

A new species of zoantharian within the genus Antipathozoanthus is described based on specimens collected from the coast of mainland Japan, northwest Pacific Ocean. Antipathozoanthustubus sp. nov. is characterized by its substrate (epibiotic on polychaete tube) and habitat (exposed rock). As well, the results of molecular phylogenetic analyses using concatenated multiple genetic markers also support the distinction between A.tubus sp. nov. and its congenerics. Antipathozoanthustubus sp. nov. is the first species of Antipathozoanthus species reported to be epibiotic on polychaete tubes, and is the second species in the genus that is not associated with antipatharians.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Chen X, Hu A, Zou Q, et al (2021)

The Mesorhizobium huakuii transcriptional regulator AbiEi plays a critical role in nodulation and is important for bacterial stress response.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):245.

BACKGROUND: Bacterial abortive infection (Abi) systems are type IV toxin-antitoxin (TA) system, which could elicit programmed cell death and constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria under various stress conditions. However, no rhizobial AbiE family TA system has been reported so far. Here, a M. huakuii AbiE TA system was identified and characterized.

RESULTS: A mutation in M. huakuii abiEi gene, encoding an adjacent GntR-type transcriptional regulator, was generated by homologous recombination. The abiEi mutant strain grew less well in rich TY medium, and displayed increased antioxidative capacity and enhanced gentamicin resistance, indicating the abiEi operon was negatively regulated by the antitoxin AbiEi in response to the oxidative stress and a particular antibiotic. The mRNA expression of abiEi gene was significantly up-regulated during Astragalus sinicus nodule development. The abiEi mutant was severely impaired in its competitive ability in rhizosphere colonization, and was defective in nodulation with 97% reduction in nitrogen-fixing capacity. The mutant infected nodule cells contained vacuolation and a small number of abnormal bacteroids with senescence character. RNA-seq experiment revealed it had 5 up-regulated and 111 down-regulated genes relative to wild type. Of these down-regulated genes, 21 are related to symbiosis nitrogen fixation and nitrogen mechanism, 16 are involved in the electron transport chain and antioxidant responses, and 12 belong to type VI secretion system (T6SS).

CONCLUSIONS: M. huakuii AbiEi behaves as a key transcriptional regulator mediating root nodule symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-09-12

Rangel LI, Hamilton O, de Jonge R, et al (2021)

Fungal social influencers: secondary metabolites as a platform for shaping the plant-associated community.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Fungal secondary metabolites (FSMs) are capable of manipulating plant community dynamics by inhibiting or facilitating the establishment of co-habitating organisms. Although production of FSMs is not crucial for survival of the producer, their absence can indirectly impair growth and/or niche competition of these fungi on the plant. Presence of FSMs with no obvious consequence on the fitness of the producer leaves questions regarding ecological impact. This review investigates how fungi employ FSMs as a platform to mediate fungal-fungal, fungal-bacterial, and fungal-animal interactions associated with the plant community. We discuss how the biological function of FSMs may indirectly benefit the producer by altering the dynamics of surrounding organisms. We introduce several instances where FSMs influence antagonistic- or alliance-driven interactions. Part of our aim is to decipher the meaning of the FSM 'language' since it is widely noted to impact the surrounding community. Here, we highlight the contribution of FSMs to plant-associated interaction networks that affect the host either broadly or in ways that may have previously been unclear.

RevDate: 2021-09-12

Pereira AM, A Clemente (2021)

Dogs' microbiome from tip to toe.

Topics in companion animal medicine pii:S1938-9736(21)00077-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiota and microbiome, which refers, respectively, to the microorganisms and conjoint of microorganisms and genes are known to live in symbiosis with hosts, being implicated in health and disease. The advancements and cost reduction associated with high-throughput sequencing techniques have allowed expanding the knowledge of microbial communities in several species, including dogs. Throughout their body, dogs harbor distinct microbial communities according to the location (e.g., skin, ear canal, conjunctiva, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, gut), which have been a target of study mostly in the last couple of years. Although there might be a core microbiota for different body sites, shared by dogs, it is likely influenced by intrinsic factors such as age, breed, and sex, but also by extrinsic factors such as the environment (e.g., lifestyle, urban vs rural), and diet. It starts to become clear that some medical conditions are mediated by alterations in microbiota namely dysbiosis. Moreover, understanding microbial colonization and function can be used to prevent medical conditions, for instance, modulation of gut microbiota of puppies is more effective to ensure a healthy gut than interventions in adults. This paper gathers current knowledge of dogs' microbial communities, exploring their function, implications in the development of diseases, and potential interactions among communities while providing hints for further research.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Xi L, Shen Y, Zhao X, et al (2021)

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on frond antimony enrichment, morphology, and proteomics in Pteris cretica var. nervosa during antimony phytoremediation.

The Science of the total environment, 804:149904 pii:S0048-9697(21)04979-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Pteris cretica var. nervosa is a dominant fern species found in antimony (Sb) mining areas, capable of forming symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), especially with those members of the Glomus genus. Despite this fern's relevance and the potential contribution of mycorrhizal symbiosis to phytoremediation, the AMF's impact on P. var. nervosa phytoremediation of Sb remains unknown. Here, we exposed P. var. nervosa to different concentrations of Sb for 6 months. Our results showed that Sb reduced shoot biomass, enlarged the root/shoot ratio, and disrupted the fronds' intracellular structure. AMF inoculation, however, was able to moderate these phenotypic changes and increased the accumulation level of Sb in plants. From a proteomics analysis of this plant's fronds, a total of 283 proteins were identified. Notably, those proteins with catalytic function, carbon fixing and ATP metabolic function were highly enriched. K-means clustering demonstrated protein-changing patterns involved in multiple metabolic pathways during exposure to Sb. Further, these patterns can be moderated by AMF inoculation. Pearson correlations were used to assess the plant biomarkers-soil Sb relationships; This revealed a strong correlation between ribosome alteration and the root/shoot ratio when inoculated with AMF, and a positive correlation between photosynthesis proteins and chlorophyll (SPAD value). Our results indicate AMF could moderate the fronds impairment by maintaining the sufficient protein levels for ribosomal functioning, photosynthesis activity and to counter ROS production. We demonstrate the effective use of AMF associated with P. cretica var. nervosa for Sb phytoremediation and the potential of applying proteomics to better understand the mechanism behind this symbiotic plant physiological response.

RevDate: 2021-09-11

van de Guchte M, Mondot S, J Doré (2021)

Dynamic properties of the intestinal ecosystem call for combination therapies, targeting inflammation and microbiota, in ulcerative colitis.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(21)03482-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal microbiota - host interactions play a major role in health and disease. This has been documented at the microbiota level ("dysbiosis" in chronic immune-mediated diseases) and through the study of specific bacteria - host interactions, but rarely at the level of intestinal ecosystem dynamics. Yet, understanding the behavior of this ecosystem may be key to the successful treatment of disease. We recently postulated that health and disease represent alternative stable states of the intestinal ecosystem (different configurations that can exist under identical external conditions), which would demand for adapted strategies in disease treatment. Here, we examine if alternative stable states indeed exist in this ecosystem, and if they could affect remission from ulcerative colitis (UC).

METHODS: We analyzed data from a study on pediatric UC. The data reflect current treatment practice following the recruitment of new-onset, treatment-naïve, patients. Patients received personalized anti-inflammatory treatments over a period of one year. Stool samples at 0, 4, 12 and 52 weeks allowed an estimation of microbiota status (through 16S rRNA gene sequencing) and host inflammatory status (through the measurement of fecal calprotectin levels).

RESULTS: We identify four microbiota states and four host states. Longitudinal data show that the improvement of inflammatory status is accompanied by an improvement of microbiota status. However, they also provide strong indications that both improvements are retarded or blocked by alternative states barriers.

CONCLUSIONS: Our observations strongly suggest that inflammation suppression should be combined with microbiota management where possible to improve the efficacy of UC treatment.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Xu S, Chen J, Qin M, et al (2021)

Geography-dependent symbiont communities in two oligophagous aphid species.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6368335 [Epub ahead of print].

Aphids and their diverse symbionts have become a good model to study bacteria-arthropod symbiosis. The feeding habits of aphids are usually influenced by a variety of symbionts. Most studies on symbiont diversity have focused on polyphagous aphids, while symbiont community patterns for oligophagous aphids remain unclear. Here, we surveyed the bacterial communities in natural populations of two oligophagous aphids, Melanaphis sacchari and Neophyllaphis podocarpi, in natural populations. Seven common symbionts were detected, among which Buchnera aphidicola and Wolbachia were the most prevalent. In addition, an uncommon Sodalis-like symbiont was also detected in these two aphids, and Gilliamella was found in some samples of M. sacchari. We further assessed the significant variation in symbiont communities within the two aphid species, geographical regions and host specialization using statistical and ordination analyses. Geography was an important factor in shaping the symbiont community structure in these oligophagous aphids. Furthermore, the strong geographical influence may be related to specific environmental factors, especially temperature, among different regions. These findings extend our knowledge of the significance of geography and its associated environmental conditions in the symbiont community structure associated with oligophagous aphids.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Preethish-Kumar V, Shah A, Polavarapu K, et al (2021)

Disrupted structural connectome and neurocognitive functions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: classifying and subtyping based on Dp140 dystrophin isoform.

Journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive disabilities in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) children beginning in early childhood and distal DMD gene deletions involving disruption of Dp140 isoform are more likely to manifest significant neurocognitive impairments. MRI data analysis techniques like brain-network metrics can provide information on microstructural integrity and underlying pathophysiology.

METHODS: A prospective study on 95 participants [DMD = 57, and healthy controls (HC) = 38]. The muscular dystrophy functional rating scale (MDFRS) scores, neuropsychology batteries, and multiplex ligand-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) testing were used for clinical assessment, IQ estimation, and genotypic classification. Diffusion MRI and network-based statistics were used to analyze structural connectomes at various levels and correlate with clinical markers.

RESULTS: Motor and executive sub-networks were extracted and analyzed. Out of 57 DMD children, 23 belong to Dp140 + and 34 to Dp140- subgroup. Motor disabilities are pronounced in Dp140- subgroup as reflected by lower MDFRS scores. IQ parameters are significantly low in all-DMD cases; however, the Dp140- has specifically lowest scores. Significant differences were observed in global efficiency, transitivity, and characteristic path length between HC and DMD. Subgroup analysis demonstrates that the significance is mainly driven by participants with Dp140- than Dp140 + isoform. Finally, a random forest classifier model illustrated an accuracy of 79% between HC and DMD and 90% between DMD- subgroups.

CONCLUSIONS: Current findings demonstrate structural network-based characterization of abnormalities in DMD, especially prominent in Dp140-. Our observations suggest that participants with Dp140 + have relatively intact connectivity while Dp140- show widespread connectivity alterations at global, nodal, and edge levels. This study provides valuable insights supporting the genotype-phenotype correlation of brain-behavior involvement in DMD children.

RevDate: 2021-09-25

Kiefer JST, Batsukh S, Bauer E, et al (2021)

Author Correction: Inhibition of a nutritional endosymbiont by glyphosate abolishes mutualistic benefit on cuticle synthesis in Oryzaephilus surinamensis.

Communications biology, 4(1):1079.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Büttner H, Niehs SP, Vandelannoote K, et al (2021)

Bacterial endosymbionts protect beneficial soil fungus from nematode attack.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(37):.

Fungi of the genus Mortierella occur ubiquitously in soils where they play pivotal roles in carbon cycling, xenobiont degradation, and promoting plant growth. These important fungi are, however, threatened by micropredators such as fungivorous nematodes, and yet little is known about their protective tactics. We report that Mortierella verticillata NRRL 6337 harbors a bacterial endosymbiont that efficiently shields its host from nematode attacks with anthelmintic metabolites. Microscopic investigation and 16S ribosomal DNA analysis revealed that a previously overlooked bacterial symbiont belonging to the genus Mycoavidus dwells in M. verticillata hyphae. Metabolic profiling of the wild-type fungus and a symbiont-free strain obtained by antibiotic treatment as well as genome analyses revealed that highly cytotoxic macrolactones (CJ-12,950 and CJ-13,357, syn necroxime C and D), initially thought to be metabolites of the soil-inhabiting fungus, are actually biosynthesized by the endosymbiont. According to comparative genomics, the symbiont belongs to a new species (Candidatus Mycoavidus necroximicus) with 12% of its 2.2 Mb genome dedicated to natural product biosynthesis, including the modular polyketide-nonribosomal peptide synthetase for necroxime assembly. Using Caenorhabditis elegans and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae as test strains, we show that necroximes exert highly potent anthelmintic activities. Effective host protection was demonstrated in cocultures of nematodes with symbiotic and chemically complemented aposymbiotic fungal strains. Image analysis and mathematical quantification of nematode movement enabled evaluation of the potency. Our work describes a relevant role for endofungal bacteria in protecting fungi against mycophagous nematodes.

RevDate: 2021-09-21
CmpDate: 2021-09-21

Allen-Vercoe E (2021)

Commensals make the most of their hosts.

Cell host & microbe, 29(9):1337-1339.

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Brown et al. reveal a large group of genes within the human microbiome that code for ADP-ribosyltransferases that are predicted to manipulate host cells. Previously studied for pathogens, these host modification mechanisms may also be common properties of commensals.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Decelle J, Veronesi G, LeKieffre C, et al (2021)

Subcellular architecture and metabolic connection in the planktonic photosymbiosis between Collodaria (radiolarians) and their microalgae.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Photosymbiosis is widespread and ecologically important in the oceanic plankton but remains poorly studied. Here, we used multimodal subcellular imaging to investigate the photosymbiosis between colonial Collodaria and their microalga dinoflagellate (Brandtodinium). We showed that this symbiosis is very dynamic whereby symbionts interact with different host cells via extracellular vesicles within the colony. 3D electron microscopy revealed that the photosynthetic apparatus of the microalgae was more voluminous in symbiosis compared to free-living while the mitochondria volume was similar. Stable isotope probing coupled with NanoSIMS showed that carbon and nitrogen were stored in the symbiotic microalga in starch granules and purine crystals, respectively. Nitrogen was also allocated to the algal nucleolus. In the host, low 13 C transfer was detected in the Golgi. Metal mapping revealed that intracellular iron concentration was similar in free-living and symbiotic microalgae (ca 40 ppm) and two-fold higher in the host, whereas copper concentration increased in symbionts and was detected in the host cell and extracellular vesicles. Sulfur concentration was around two times higher in symbionts (chromatin and pyrenoid) than their host. This study improves our understanding on the functioning of this oceanic photosymbiosis and paves the way for more studies to further assess its biogeochemical significance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Agarwal R, Gupta M, Antony A, et al (2021)

In Vitro Studies Reveal that Pseudomonas, from Odontotermes obesus Colonies, can Function as a Defensive Mutualist as it Prevents the Weedy Fungus While Keeping the Crop Fungus Unaffected.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Insects that farm monocultures of fungi are canonical examples of nutritional symbiosis as well as independent evolution of agriculture in non-human animals. But just like in human agriculture, these fungal crops face constant threat of invasion by weeds which, if unchecked, take over the crop fungus. In fungus-growing termites, the crop fungus (Termitomyces) faces such challenges from the weedy fungus Pseudoxylaria. The mechanism by which Pseudoxylaria is suppressed is not known. However, evidence suggests that some bacterial secondary symbionts can serve as defensive mutualists by preventing the growth of Pseudoxylaria. However, such secondary symbionts must possess the dual, yet contrasting, capabilities of suppressing the weedy fungus while keeping the growth of the crop fungus unaffected. This study describes the isolation, identification, and culture-dependent estimation of the roles of several such putative defensive mutualists from the colonies of the wide-spread fungus-growing termite from India, Odontotermes obesus. From the 38 bacterial cultures tested, a strain of Pseudomonas showed significantly greater suppression of the weedy fungus than the crop fungus. Moreover, a 16S rRNA pan-microbiome survey, using the Nanopore platform, revealed Pseudomonas to be a part of the core microbiota of O. obesus. A meta-analysis of microbiota composition across different species of Odontotermes also confirms the widespread prevalence of Pseudomonas within this termite. These lines of evidence indicate that Pseudomonas could be playing the role of defensive mutualist within Odontotermes.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Xie J, Yan QL, T Zhang (2020)

[Temporal effects of thinning on the composition and growth of regenerated woody plants in Larix kaempferi plantations].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 31(8):2481-2490.

Understanding the temporal effects of thinning on the composition and growth of regene-rated broadleaved woody species in coniferous plantations can provide profound references for promoting the conversion of monoculture plantations into mixed conifer-broadleaved forests, which could solve the problem that the production and ecological functions of monoculture plantations cannot be balanced. We compared the composition of regenerated woody plant species in Larix kaempferi plantation with short-term (1-3 years), medium-term (4-9 years) and long-term (>9 years) after thinning. Furthermore, we selected three regenerated tree species with higher importance value and reciprocal symbiosis with L. kaempferi, which differed in shade tolerance, including shade-intolerant species Quercus mongolica, intermediate shade-tolerant species Acer mono, and shade-tolerant species Tilia mandschurica. We analyzed the relationships between light conditions (i.e., canopy density) and the growth (i.e., base diameter and height) of those species in L. kaempferi plantation with different terms after thinning. The results showed that 46 species of regene-rated broadleaved woody plants were recorded in thinned plantations. The common and dominant tree in different terms after thinning was A. mono, and the shrub species were Lonicera japonica and Euonymus alatus. With the increasing time after thinning, species richness of regenerated trees decreased, but the ratio of tree to shrub species increased and the intermediate shade-tolerant tree species took the dominant position. The temporal effect of thinning on the growth of three tree species was affected by shade tolerance ability. Basal diameter and height of T. mandschurica were higher than those of Q. mongolica and A. mono. With the increases of time after thinning, basal diameter of T. mandschurica and height of A. mono were more sensitive to light, indicating that there were respectively "a shade tolerance strategy" and "a shade avoidance strategy" to adapt to the post-thinning environment. The effects of thinning on the composition and growth of regenerated broadleaved woody species in L. kaempferi plantations were significantly time-sensitive. When deve-loping thinning measures to promote the regeneration of broadleaved trees in plantations, we should consider to extend the thinning interval appropriately to ensure the growth of broadleaved tree seedlings (e.g., T. mandschurica and A. mono) and accelerate their migration into the canopy layer. This would promote the formation of mixed conifer-broadleaved forests and eventually realize the sustainable development of plantations.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Hom EFY, AS Penn (2021)

Symbiosis and the Anthropocene.

Symbiosis (Philadelphia, Pa.) [Epub ahead of print].

Recent human activity has profoundly transformed Earth biomes on a scale and at rates that are unprecedented. Given the central role of symbioses in ecosystem processes, functions, and services throughout the Earth biosphere, the impacts of human-driven change on symbioses are critical to understand. Symbioses are not merely collections of organisms, but co-evolved partners that arise from the synergistic combination and action of different genetic programs. They function with varying degrees of permanence and selection as emergent units with substantial potential for combinatorial and evolutionary innovation in both structure and function. Following an articulation of operational definitions of symbiosis and related concepts and characteristics of the Anthropocene, we outline a basic typology of anthropogenic change (AC) and a conceptual framework for how AC might mechanistically impact symbioses with select case examples to highlight our perspective. We discuss surprising connections between symbiosis and the Anthropocene, suggesting ways in which new symbioses could arise due to AC, how symbioses could be agents of ecosystem change, and how symbioses, broadly defined, of humans and "farmed" organisms may have launched the Anthropocene. We conclude with reflections on the robustness of symbioses to AC and our perspective on the importance of symbioses as ecosystem keystones and the need to tackle anthropogenic challenges as wise and humble stewards embedded within the system.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Shinkura R (2021)

Therapeutic immunoglobulin A antibody for dysbiosis-related diseases.

International immunology pii:6366027 [Epub ahead of print].

Dysbiosis is alterations in the microbial composition compared with a healthy microbiota and often features a reduction in gut microbial diversity and a change in microbial taxa. Dysbiosis, especially in the gut, has also been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. A body of evidence has shown that intestinal polymeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies are important to regulate the gut microbiota as well as to exclude pathogenic bacteria or viral infection such as influenza and SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) at mucosal sites. Since the 1970s, trials for oral administration of therapeutic IgA or IgG have been performed mainly to treat infectious enteritis caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli or Clostridium difficile. However, few of them has been successfully developed as a clinical application up to now. In addition to the protective function against intestinal pathogens, IgA is well known to modulate the gut commensal microbiota leading to symbiosis. Nevertheless, the development of therapeutic IgA drugs to treat dysbiosis is not progressing. In this review, the advantages of therapeutic IgA antibodies and the problems for their development will be discussed.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Muñoz VL, Figueredo MS, Reinoso H, et al (2021)

Role of ethylene in effective establishment of the peanut-bradyrhizobia symbiotic interaction.

Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Ethylene has been implicated in nitrogen fixing symbioses in legumes, where rhizobial invasion occurs via infection threads (IT). In the symbiosis between peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and bradyrhizobia, the bacteria penetrate the root cortex intercellularly and IT are not formed. Little attention has been paid to the function of ethylene in the establishment of this symbiosis. The aim of this article is to evaluate whether ethylene plays a role in the development of this symbiotic interaction and the participation of Nod Factors (NF) in the regulation of ethylene signalling. Manipulation of ethylene in peanut was accomplished by application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which mimics applied ethylene, or AgNO3, which blocks ethylene responses. To elucidate the participation of NF in the regulation of ethylene signalling, we inoculated plants with a mutant isogenic rhizobial strain unable to produce NF and evaluated the effect of AgNO3 on gene expression of NF and ethylene responsive signalling pathways. Data revealed that ethylene perception is required for the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules, while addition of ACC does not affect peanut symbiotic performance. This phenotypic evidence is in agreement with transcriptomic data from genes involved in symbiotic and ethylene signalling pathways. NF seem to modulate the expression of ethylene signalling genes. Unlike legumes infected through IT formation, ACC addition to peanut does not adversely affect nodulation, but ethylene perception is required for establishment of this symbiosis. Evidence for the contribution of NF to the modulation of ethylene-inducible defence gene expression is provided.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Sonel E, Gür Ş, T Eren (2021)

Analysis of factors affecting industrial symbiosis collaboration.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The rapidly increasing population causes an increase in consumption amounts day by day. This leads to negative effects such as the reduction of limited resources. In order to eliminate or reduce such negative effects, sustainable approaches are adopted for the future. Industrial symbiosis is one of these sustainable approaches. Industrial symbiosis is when two or more economic enterprises operating independently of each other form beneficial partnerships. In this study, the factors affecting industrial symbiosis collaboration were determined by literature review and by analyzing these factors; it is aimed to eliminate inefficiencies and to ensure the sustainability of established relations. The criteria determined are weighted with the Analytical Network Process method, which is one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods, and it is aimed to calculate the degree of importance and priority.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Bitomský M, Pakeman RJ, Schaefer H, et al (2021)

Mycorrhizal status is a poor predictor of the distribution of herbaceous species along the gradient of soil nutrient availability in coastal and grassland habitats.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Plant mycorrhizal status (a trait indicating the ability to form mycorrhizas) can be a useful plant trait for predicting changes in vegetation influenced by increased fertility. Mycorrhizal fungi enhance nutrient uptake and are expected to provide a competitive advantage for plants growing in nutrient-poor soils; while in nutrient-rich soils, mycorrhizal symbiosis may be disadvantageous. Some studies in natural systems have shown that mycorrhizal plants can be more frequent in P and N-poor soils (low nutrient availability) or Ca and Mg-high (high pH) soils, but empirical support is still not clear. Using vegetation and soil data from Scottish coastal habitats, and Latvian and Czech grasslands, we examined whether there is a link between plant mycorrhizal status and plant-available P, N, Ca and Mg. We performed the max test analysis (to examine the central tendency) and a combination of quantile regression and meta-analysis (to examine tendencies in different quantiles) on both community and plant species data combined with plant phylogenies. We consistently found no changes in mycorrhizal status at the community and species levels along the gradients of plant-available P, N, Ca and Mg in the central tendency and in almost all quantiles across all datasets. Thus, we found no support for the hypotheses that herbaceous species which are able to form mycorrhizas are more frequent in nutrient-poor and high pH environments. Obligatory, facultatively and non-mycorrhizal herbaceous species appear to assemble randomly along the gradients of nutrient availability in several European herbaceous habitats, suggesting that all these strategies perform similarly under non-extreme soil nutrient conditions.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Tang N, Lebreton A, Xu W, et al (2021)

Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Differential Gene Expression of Secreted Proteases and Highly Specific Gene Repertoires Involved in Lactarius-Pinus Symbioses.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:714393.

Ectomycorrhizal fungi establish a mutualistic symbiosis in roots of most woody plants. The molecular underpinning of ectomycorrhizal development was only explored in a few lineages. Here, we characterized the symbiotic transcriptomes of several milkcap species (Lactarius, Russulales) in association with different pine hosts. A time-course study of changes in gene expression during the development of L. deliciosus-Pinus taeda symbiosis identified 6 to 594 differentially expressed fungal genes at various developmental stages. Up- or down-regulated genes are involved in signaling pathways, nutrient transport, cell wall modifications, and plant defenses. A high number of genes coding for secreted proteases, especially sedolisins, were induced during root colonization. In contrast, only a few genes encoding mycorrhiza-induced small secreted proteins were identified. This feature was confirmed in several other Lactarius species in association with various pines. Further comparison among all these species revealed that each Lactarius species encodes a highly specific symbiotic gene repertoire, a feature possibly related to their host-specificity. This study provides insights on the genetic basis of symbiosis in an ectomycorrhizal order, the Russulales, which was not investigated so far.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Mendoza-Suárez M, Andersen SU, Poole PS, et al (2021)

Competition, Nodule Occupancy, and Persistence of Inoculant Strains: Key Factors in the Rhizobium-Legume Symbioses.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:690567.

Biological nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium-legume symbioses represents an environmentally friendly and inexpensive alternative to the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers in legume crops. Rhizobial inoculants, applied frequently as biofertilizers, play an important role in sustainable agriculture. However, inoculants often fail to compete for nodule occupancy against native rhizobia with inferior nitrogen-fixing abilities, resulting in low yields. Strains with excellent performance under controlled conditions are typically selected as inoculants, but the rates of nodule occupancy compared to native strains are rarely investigated. Lack of persistence in the field after agricultural cycles, usually due to the transfer of symbiotic genes from the inoculant strain to naturalized populations, also limits the suitability of commercial inoculants. When rhizobial inoculants are based on native strains with a high nitrogen fixation ability, they often have superior performance in the field due to their genetic adaptations to the local environment. Therefore, knowledge from laboratory studies assessing competition and understanding how diverse strains of rhizobia behave, together with assays done under field conditions, may allow us to exploit the effectiveness of native populations selected as elite strains and to breed specific host cultivar-rhizobial strain combinations. Here, we review current knowledge at the molecular level on competition for nodulation and the advances in molecular tools for assessing competitiveness. We then describe ongoing approaches for inoculant development based on native strains and emphasize future perspectives and applications using a multidisciplinary approach to ensure optimal performance of both symbiotic partners.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Prazeres M, Roberts TE, Ramadhani SF, et al (2021)

Diversity and flexibility of algal symbiont community in globally distributed larger benthic foraminifera of the genus Amphistegina.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):243.

BACKGROUND: Understanding the specificity and flexibility of the algal symbiosis-host association is fundamental for predicting how species occupy a diverse range of habitats. Here we assessed the algal symbiosis diversity of three species of larger benthic foraminifera from the genus Amphistegina and investigated the role of habitat and species identity in shaping the associated algal community.

RESULTS: We used next-generation sequencing to identify the associated algal community, and DNA barcoding to identify the diatom endosymbionts associated with species of A. lobifera, A. lessonii, and A. radiata, collected from shallow habitats (< 15 m) in 16 sites, ranging from the Mediterranean Sea to French Polynesia. Next-generation sequencing results showed the consistent presence of Ochrophyta as the main algal phylum associated with all species and sites analysed. A significant proportion of phylotypes were classified as Chlorophyta and Myzozoa. We uncovered unprecedented diversity of algal phylotypes found in low abundance, especially of the class Bacillariophyta (i.e., diatoms). We found a significant influence of sites rather than host identity in shaping algal communities in all species. DNA barcoding revealed the consistent presence of phylotypes classified within the order Fragilariales as the diatoms associated with A. lobifera and A. lessonii, while A. radiata specimens host predominately diatoms of the order Triceratiales.

CONCLUSIONS: We show that local habitat is the main factor influencing the overall composition of the algal symbiont community. However, host identity and the phylogenetic relationship among hosts is relevant in shaping the specific endosymbiont diatom community, suggesting that the relationship between diatom endosymbiont and hosts plays a crucial role in the evolutionary history of the genus Amphistegina. The capacity of Amphistegina species to associate with a diverse array of diatoms, and possibly other algal groups, likely underpins the ecological success of these crucial calcifying organisms across their extensive geographic range.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Chrostek E, Martins N, Marialva MS, et al (2021)

Wolbachia-Conferred Antiviral Protection Is Determined by Developmental Temperature.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Wolbachia is a maternally transmitted bacterium that is widespread in arthropods and filarial nematodes and confers strong antiviral protection in Drosophila melanogaster and other arthropods. Wolbachia-transinfected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are currently being deployed to fight transmission of dengue and Zika viruses. However, the mechanism of antiviral protection and the factors influencing are still not fully understood. Here, we show that temperature modulates Wolbachia-conferred protection in Drosophila melanogaster. Temperature after infection directly impacts Drosophila C virus (DCV) replication and modulates Wolbachia protection. At higher temperatures, viruses proliferate more and are more lethal, while Wolbachia confers lower protection. Strikingly, host developmental temperature is a determinant of Wolbachia-conferred antiviral protection. While there is strong protection when flies develop from egg to adult at 25°C, the protection is highly reduced or abolished when flies develop at 18°C. However, Wolbachia-induced changes during development are not sufficient to limit virus-induced mortality, as Wolbachia is still required to be present in adults at the time of infection. This developmental effect is general, since it was present in different host genotypes, Wolbachia variants, and upon infection with different viruses. Overall, we show that Wolbachia-conferred antiviral protection is temperature dependent, being present or absent depending on the environmental conditions. This interaction likely impacts Wolbachia-host interactions in nature and, as a result, frequencies of host and symbionts in different climates. Dependence of Wolbachia-mediated pathogen blocking on developmental temperature could be used to dissect the mechanistic bases of protection and influence the deployment of Wolbachia to prevent transmission of arboviruses. IMPORTANCE Insects are often infected with beneficial intracellular bacteria. The bacterium Wolbachia is extremely common in insects and can protect them from pathogenic viruses. This effect is being used to prevent transmission of dengue and Zika viruses by Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. To understand the biology of insects in the wild, we need to discover which factors affect Wolbachia-conferred antiviral protection. Here, we show that the temperature at which insects develop from eggs to adults can determine the presence or absence of antiviral protection. The environment, therefore, strongly influences this insect-bacterium interaction. Our work may help to provide insights into the mechanism of viral blocking by Wolbachia, deepen our understanding of the geographical distribution of host and symbiont, and incentivize further research on the temperature dependence of Wolbachia-conferred protection for control of mosquito-borne disease.

RevDate: 2021-09-18

Yang Z, Du H, Xing X, et al (2021)

A small heat shock protein, GmHSP17.9, from nodule confers symbiotic nitrogen fixation and seed yield in soybean.

Plant biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

Legume-rhizobia symbiosis enables biological nitrogen fixation to improve crop production for sustainable agriculture. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are involved in multiple environmental stresses and plant development processes. However, the role of sHSPs in nodule development in soybean remains largely unknown. In the present study, we identified a nodule-localized sHSP, called GmHSP17.9, in soybean, which was markedly up-regulated during nodule development. GmHSP17.9 was specifically expressed in the infected regions of the nodules. GmHSP17.9 overexpression and RNAi in transgenic composite plants and loss of function in CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing mutant plants in soybean resulted in remarkable alterations in nodule number, nodule fresh weight, nitrogenase activity, contents of poly β-hydroxybutyrate bodies (PHBs), ureide and total nitrogen content, which caused significant changes in plant growth and seed yield. GmHSP17.9 was also found to act as a chaperone for its interacting partner, GmNOD100, a sucrose synthase in soybean nodules which was also preferentially expressed in the infected zone of nodules, similar to GmHSP17.9. Functional analysis of GmNOD100 in composite transgenic plants revealed that GmNOD100 played an essential role in soybean nodulation. The hsp17.9 lines showed markedly more reduced sucrose synthase activity, lower contents of UDP-glucose and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), and decreased activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in nodules due to the missing interaction with GmNOD100. Our findings reveal an important role and an unprecedented molecular mechanism of sHSPs in nodule development and nitrogen fixation in soybean.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Pashkova TM, Morozova NV, Kuzmin MD, et al (2021)

[Characteristics of the pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with calculous pyelonephritis].

Urologiia (Moscow, Russia : 1999).

OBJECTIVE: Comparative phenotypic and genetic assessment of the pathogenic potential of E. coli strains isolated from patients with calculous pyelonephritis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 78 strains of E. coli isolated from urine of patients with calculous pyelonephritis in the acute phase (n=58) and in the remission phase (n=20). Escherichia were investigated for the presence of virulence genes papA, pap EF, papGII; afa, bma E, iutA, fyuA, feoB, kspMTII, usp multiplex PCR using selected primers. Phenotypically determined the ability to biofilm formation, antilysozyme, antihemoglobin, anticytokine, adhesive and sIgA-protease activity E. coli.

RESULTS: The virulent potential of Escherichia coli at the pheno- and genotype levels was characterized. In strains of E. coli isolated from the urine of patients in the remission phase, the ability to form biofilms was more often and with high values of the trait; and in strains isolated in relapse - adhesive activity, the ability to inactivate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, antihemoglobin activity, and genes encoding aphimbrial adhesin (afa), responsible for the synthesis of siderophore aerobactin (iutA), transporting bivalent iron (feoB).

CONCLUSION: The revealed differences in the pheno- and genotypic profiles between the cultures of Escherichia coli isolated from patients with calculous pyelonephritis in the phases of exacerbation and remission make it possible to differentiate the isolated strain and predict the course of the infectious-inflammatory process.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Rimal Y, Gochhait S, A Bisht (2021)

Data interpretation and visualization of COVID-19 cases using R programming.

Informatics in medicine unlocked, 26:100705.

Background: Data analysis and visualization are essential for exploring and communicating medical research findings, especially when working with COVID records.

Results: Data on COVID-19 diagnosed cases and deaths from December 2019 is collected automatically from www.statista.com, datahub.io, and the Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). We have developed an application for data visualization and analysis of several indicators to follow the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic using Statista, Data Hub, and MDPI data from densely populated countries like the United States, Japan, and India using R programming.

Conclusions: The COVID19-World online web application systematically produces daily updated country-specific data visualization and analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic worldwide. The application will help with a better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic worldwide.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Gould AL, Fritts-Penniman A, A Gaisiner (2021)

Museum Genomics Illuminate the High Specificity of a Bioluminescent Symbiosis for a Genus of Reef Fish.

Frontiers in ecology and evolution, 9:.

Symbiotic relationships between bioluminescent bacteria and fishes have evolved multiple times across hundreds of fish taxa, but relatively little is known about the specificity of these associations and how stable they are over host generations. This study describes the degree of specificity of a bioluminescent symbiosis between cardinalfishes in the genus Siphamia and luminous bacteria in the Vibrio family. Primarily using museum specimens, we investigated the codivergence of host and symbiont and test for patterns of divergence that correlate with both biogeography and time. Contrary to expectations, we determined that the light organ symbionts of all 14 Siphamia species examined belong to one genetic clade of Photobacterium mandapamensis (Clade II), indicating that the association is highly specific and conserved throughout the host genus. Thus, we did not find evidence of codivergence among hosts and symbionts. We did observe that symbionts hosted by individuals sampled from colder water regions were more divergent, containing more than three times as many single nucleotide polymorphisms than the rest of the symbionts examined. Overall, our findings indicate that the symbiosis between Siphamia fishes and P. mandapamensis Clade II has been highly conserved across host taxa and over a broad geographic range despite the facultative nature of the bacterial symbiont. We also present a new approach to simultaneously recover genetic information from a bacterial symbiont and its vertebrate host from formalin-fixed specimens, enhancing the utility of museum collections.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Jadhav S, V Nema (2021)

HIV-Associated Neurotoxicity: The Interplay of Host and Viral Proteins.

Mediators of inflammation, 2021:1267041.

HIV-1 can incite activation of chemokine receptors, inflammatory mediators, and glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. The mechanisms associated with such immune activation can disrupt neuronal and glial functions. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is being observed since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic due to a change in the functional integrity of cells from the central nervous system (CNS). Even with the presence of antiretroviral therapy, there is a decline in the functioning of the brain especially movement skills, noticeable swings in mood, and routine performance activities. Under the umbrella of HAND, various symptomatic and asymptomatic conditions are categorized and are on a rise despite the use of newer antiretroviral agents. Due to the use of long-lasting antiretroviral agents, this deadly disease is becoming a manageable chronic condition with the occurrence of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), symptomatic mild neurocognitive disorder, or HIV-associated dementia. In-depth research in the pathogenesis of HIV has focused on various mechanisms involved in neuronal dysfunction and associated toxicities ultimately showcasing the involvement of various pathways. Increasing evidence-based studies have emphasized a need to focus and explore the specific pathways in inflammation-associated neurodegenerative disorders. In the current review, we have highlighted the association of various HIV proteins and neuronal cells with their involvement in various pathways responsible for the development of neurotoxicity.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Gupta MM, DHS Richardson (2021)

Editorial: Anthropogenic impacts on symbiotic systems.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Bishop C, Jurga E, L Graham (2021)

Patterns of bacterial diversity in embryonic capsules of the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum: an expanding view of a symbiosis.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 97(10):.

The unicellular green alga, Oophila amblystomatis, populates egg capsules of the spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum. This nutrient-exchange mutualism is widely perceived as a bipartite interaction, but the presence and contributing effects of bacteria to this symbiosis are unknown. We used standard cultivation techniques and amplicon sequencing of the V4/V5 region of 16S rRNA gene to identify and compare diversity of bacterial taxa in embryonic capsules with that in the aquatic breeding habitat. Our sampling regime allowed us to investigate diversity among individual capsules of an egg mass and between two ponds and sampling years. Capsules contain much lower diversity of bacteria than pond water, and spatial and temporal variation in intracapsular and pond bacterial diversity was observed. Despite this variation, sequences corresponding to species in the orders Burkholderiales and Oligoflexales were either prevalent or abundant, or both. Isolates most commonly recovered from capsules were closely related to species in the genus Herbaspirillum (Burkholderiaceae); other isolates were pseudomonads, but in all cases are closely related to known vascular plant-associated species. We conclude that, despite observed variation, there are bacterial taxa whose presence is held in common spatially and temporally among capsules and that the symbiosis between O. amblystomatis and A. maculatum may involve these taxa.

RevDate: 2021-09-04

Stahlhut KN, Dowell JA, Temme AA, et al (2021)

Genetic control of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization by Rhizophagus intraradices in Helianthus annuus (L.).

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Plant symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provides many benefits, including increased nutrient uptake, drought tolerance, and belowground pathogen resistance. To develop a better understanding of the genetic architecture of mycorrhizal symbiosis, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this plant-fungal interaction in cultivated sunflower. A diversity panel of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was phenotyped for root colonization under inoculation with the AM fungus Rhizophagus intraradices. Using a mixed linear model approach with a high-density genetic map, we identified genomic regions that are likely associated with R. intraradices colonization in sunflower. Additionally, we used a set of twelve diverse lines to assess the effect that inoculation with R. intraradices has on dried shoot biomass and macronutrient uptake. Colonization among lines in the mapping panel ranged from 0-70% and was not correlated with mycorrhizal growth response, shoot phosphorus response, or shoot potassium response among the Core 12 lines. Association mapping yielded three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated with R. intraradices colonization. This is the first study to use GWAS to identify genomic regions associated with AM colonization in an Asterid eudicot species. Three genes of interest identified from the regions containing these SNPs are likely related to plant defense.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Qiu X, Gao T, Yang J, et al (2021)

Water-Soluble Humic Materials Modulating Metabolism and Triggering Stress Defense in Sinorhizobium fredii.

Microbiology spectrum, 9(1):e0029321.

Bacteria have evolved a series of mechanisms to maintain their survival and reproduction in changeable and stressful environments. In-depth understanding of these mechanisms can allow for better developing and utilizing of bacteria with various biological functions. In this study, we found that water-soluble humic materials (WSHM), a well-known environment-friendly plant growth biostimulant, significantly promoted the free-living growth and survival of Sinorhizobium fredii CCBAU45436 in a bell-shaped, dose-dependent manner, along with more-efficient carbon source consumption and relief of medium acidification. By using RNA-Seq analysis, a total of 1,136 genes significantly up-/downregulated by external addition of WSHM were identified under test conditions. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched in functional categories related to carbon/nitrogen metabolism, cellular stress response, and genetic information processing. Further protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and reverse genetic engineering indicated that WSHM might reprogram the transcriptome through inhibiting the expression of key hub gene rsh, which encodes a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing synthesis and hydrolysis of the "magic spot" (p)ppGpp. In addition, the root colonization and viability in soil of S. fredii CCBAU45436 were increased by WSHM. These findings provide us with new insights into how WSHM benefit bacterial adaptations and demonstrate great application value to be a unique inoculant additive. IMPORTANCE Sinorhizobium fredii CCBAU45436 is a highly effective, fast-growing rhizobium that can establish symbiosis with multiple soybean cultivars. However, it is difficult to maintain the high-density effective viable cells in the rhizobial inoculant for the stressful conditions during production, storage, transport, and application. Here, we showed that WSHM greatly increased the viable cells of S. fredii CCBAU45436 in culture, modulating metabolism and triggering stress defense. The root colonization and viability in soil of S. fredii CCBAU45436 were also increased by WSHM. Our results shed new insights into the effects of WSHM on bacteria and the importance of metabolism and stress defense during the bacteria's whole life. In addition, the functional mechanism of WSHM may provide candidate genes for improving environmental adaptability and application potential of bacteria through genetic engineering.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Côté IM, SJ Brandl (2021)

Functional niches of cleanerfish species are mediated by habitat use, cleaning intensity and client selectivity.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

An animal's functional niche is a complex, multidimensional construct, mediated by an individual's morphology, physiology and behaviour. Behavioural aspects of the niche can be difficult to quantify, as their expression is often subtle and tailored to an infinite number of different situations that involve sophisticated mechanisms such as mutualisms, species dominance or fear effects. The extreme diversity of tropical fish assemblages has led to extensive debate over the extent to which species differ in their resource use and functional role. Ectoparasite removal by cleanerfish species is considered a behaviourally complex interspecific interaction in vertebrates, but differences in the services rendered by various species of cleanerfish, and potential consequences for the range of clients (i.e. resources) they attract, have rarely been examined. Here, we quantify differences among three coexisting species of morphologically similar cleaner wrasses (Labroides bicolor, L. dimidiatus and L. pectoralis) in the global centre of marine biodiversity, the Coral Triangle. We found no clear taxonomic partitioning of clients among cleanerfishes. However, the three cleanerfish species exhibited distinct habitat preferences, and differed in their cleaning intensity: L. bicolor serviced the fewest species and clients, while L. pectoralis serviced the most clients and spent the most time cleaning. Accordingly, L. pectoralis showed no preference for clients based on client size or abundance, while both L. bicolor and L. dimidiatus had a higher likelihood of interacting with clients based on their size (larger client species in L. bicolor, smaller client species in L. dimidiatus) and abundance (more abundant client species for both). Our results suggest that the services rendered by the three species of cleanerfishes differ in their spatial availability, quality and selectivity, thus permitting the coexistence of these species despite their ecological similarity. This, in turn, creates a complex seascape of species-specific cleaning services that underpins crucial biotic interactions in the ocean's most diverse ecosystem.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Dusselier M, Ke Q, Khalil I, et al (2021)

A Cooperative OSDA Blueprint for Highly Siliceous Faujasite Zeolite Catalysts with Enhanced Acidity Accessibility.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) [Epub ahead of print].

A cooperative OSDA strategy is demonstrated, leading to novel high-silica FAU zeolites with a large potential for disruptive acid catalysis. In bottom-up synthesis, the symbiosis of choline ion (Ch +) and 15-crown-5 (CE) was evidenced, in a form of full occupation of the sodalite (sod) cages with the trans Ch + conformer, induced by the CE presence. CE itself occupied the supercages along with additional gauche Ch + , but in synthesis without CE, no trans was found. The cooperation, and thus the fraction of trans Ch + , was closely related to the Si/Al ratio, a key measure for FAU stability and acidity. As such, a bottom-up handle for lowering the Al-content of FAU and tuning its acid site distribution is shown. A mechanistic study demonstrated that forming sod cages with trans Ch + is key to the nucleation of high-silica FAU zeolites. The materials showed superior performances to commercial FAU zeolites and those synthesized without cooperation, in the catalytic degradation of polyethylene.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Bolejko A, Andersson BT, Debess J, et al (2021)

Facilitators for and barriers to radiography research in public healthcare in Nordic countries.

Radiography (London, England : 1995) pii:S1078-8174(21)00115-2 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that the future of diagnostic imaging relies on engagement in research and evidence-based practice. This implies a role transition from a clinical radiographer to a clinical radiographer-researcher. Clinical radiographers' stimuli for engaging in research in Nordic countries are unknown. This study aimed to address this gap.

METHODS: Cross-sectional data collection via an online questionnaire on facilitators for and barriers to participation in radiography research was carried out among 507 clinical radiographers in public healthcare in the Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

RESULTS: Support from colleagues (odds ratio [OR] 2.62) and other professionals (OR 2.74), and self-esteem in research skills (OR ≥ 2.21), were facilitators for radiography research. Lack of knowledge and skills to conduct research (OR 2.48) was revealed to hinder radiographers' participation in research. The absence of a radiography research culture in the workplace explained non-participation in research (OR 1.75).

CONCLUSION: This study revealed significant factors for clinical radiographers' participation in research.

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: A strategy for establishing a radiography research culture in healthcare is proposed that is novel for the context. Management support for knowledge development and activity leading to inter-professional research projects across knowledge fields, provision of a radiography research lead and acknowledgement of radiography research among colleagues signify the establishment of the culture. These prerequisites might provide a paradigm change towards not only the symbiosis of a clinical radiographer and an autonomous researcher but also a partner who adds radiography research to evidence-based practice in diagnostic imaging.

RevDate: 2021-09-16

Bizarria R, Pagnocca FC, A Rodrigues (2021)

Yeasts in the attine ant-fungus mutualism: Diversity, functional roles, and putative biotechnological applications.

Yeast (Chichester, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Insects interact with a wide variety of yeasts, often providing a suitable substrate for their growth. Some yeast-insect interactions are tractable models for understanding the relationships between the symbionts. Attine ants are prominent insects in the Neotropics and have performed an ancient fungiculture of mutualistic basidiomycete fungi for more than 55-65 million years. Yeasts gain access to this sophisticated mutualism, prompting diversity, ecological, and biotechnological studies in this environment. We review half a century research in this field, surveying for recurrent yeast taxa and their putative ecological roles in this environment. We found that previous studies mainly covered the yeast diversity from a small fraction of attine ants, being Saccharomycetales, Tremellales, and Trichosporonales as the most frequent yeast or yeast-like orders found. Apiotrichum, Aureobasidium, Candida, Cutaneotrichosporon, Debaryomyces, Meyerozyma, Papiliotrema, Rhodotorula, Trichomonascus, and Trichosporon are the most frequent recovered genera. On the other hand, studies of yeasts' ecological roles on attine ant-fungus mutualism only tapped the tip of the iceberg. Previous established hypotheses in the literature cover the production of lignocellulosic enzymes, chemical detoxification, and fungus garden protection. Some of these roles have parallels in biotechnological processes. In conclusion, the attine ant environment has a hidden potential for studying yeast biodiversity, ecology, and biotechnology, which has been particularly unexplored considering the vast diversity of fungus-growing ants.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Dauphin B, de Freitas Pereira M, Kohler A, et al (2021)

Cryptic genetic structure and copy-number variation in the ubiquitous forest symbiotic fungus Cenococcum geophilum.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi associated with plants constitute one of the most successful symbiotic interactions in forest ecosystems. ECM support trophic exchanges with host plants and are important factors for the survival and stress resilience of trees. However, ECM clades often harbour morpho-species and cryptic lineages, with weak morphological differentiation. How this relates to intraspecific genome variability and ecological functioning is poorly known. Here, we analysed 16 European isolates of the ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum, an extremely ubiquitous forest symbiotic fungus with no known sexual or asexual spore-forming structures but with a massively enlarged genome. We carried out whole-genome sequencing to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We found no geographic structure at the European scale but divergent lineages within sampling sites. Evidence for recombination was restricted to specific cryptic lineages. Lineage differentiation was supported by extensive copy-number variation. Finally, we confirmed heterothallism with a single MAT1 idiomorph per genome. Synteny analyses of the MAT1 locus revealed substantial rearrangements and a pseudogene of the opposite MAT1 idiomorph. Our study provides the first evidence for substantial genome-wide structural variation, lineage-specific recombination and low continent-wide genetic differentiation in C. geophilum. Our study provides a foundation for targeted analyses of intra-specific functional variation in this major symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-09-23
CmpDate: 2021-09-23

Fukudome M, Shimokawa Y, Hashimoto S, et al (2021)

Nitric Oxide Detoxification by Mesorhizobium loti Affects Root Nodule Symbiosis with Lotus japonicus.

Microbes and environments, 36(3):.

Root nodule symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia involves nitric oxide (NO) regulation by both the host plant and symbiotic rhizobia. However, the mechanisms by which the rhizobial control of NO affects root nodule symbiosis in Lotus japonicus are unknown. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of enhanced NO removal by Mesorhizobium loti on symbiosis with L. japonicus. The hmp gene, which in Sinorhizobium meliloti encodes a flavohemoglobin involved in NO detoxification, was introduced into M. loti to generate a transconjugant with enhanced NO removal. The symbiotic phenotype of the transconjugant with L. japonicus was examined. The transconjugant showed delayed infection and higher nitrogenase activity in mature nodules than the wild type, whereas nodule senescence was normal. This result is in contrast to previous findings showing that enhanced NO removal in L. japonicus by class 1 phytoglobin affected nodule senescence. To evaluate differences in NO detoxification between M. loti and L. japonicus, NO localization in nodules was investigated. The enhanced expression of class 1 phytoglobin in L. japonicus reduced the amount of NO not only in infected cells, but also in vascular bundles, whereas that of hmp in M. loti reduced the amount of NO in infected cells only. This difference suggests that NO detoxification by M. loti exerts different effects in symbiosis than that by L. japonicus.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Wang P, Snijders R, Kohlen W, et al (2021)

Medicago SPX1 and SPX3 regulate phosphate homeostasis, mycorrhizal colonization, and arbuscule degradation.

The Plant cell pii:6361634 [Epub ahead of print].

To acquire sufficient mineral nutrients such as phosphate (Pi) from the soil, most plants engage in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Attracted by plant-secreted strigolactones, the fungi colonize the roots and form highly-branched hyphal structures called arbuscules inside inner cortex cells. The host plant must control the different steps of this interaction to maintain its symbiotic nature. However, how plants sense the amount of Pi obtained from the fungus, and how this determines the arbuscule lifespan, are far from understood. Here, we show that Medicago truncatula SPX-domain containing proteins SPX1 and SPX3 regulate root Pi starvation responses, in part by interacting with PHOSPHATE RESPONSE REGULATOR2, as well as fungal colonization and arbuscule degradation. SPX1 and SPX3 are induced upon Pi starvation but become more restricted to arbuscule-containing cells upon the establishment of symbiosis. This induction in arbuscule-containing cells is associated with the presence of cis-regulatory AW-boxes and transcriptional regulation by the WRINKLED1-like transcription factor WRI5a. Under Pi-limiting conditions, SPX1 and SPX3 facilitate the expression of the strigolactone biosynthesis gene DWARF27, which could help explain the increased fungal branching in response to root exudates. Later, in arbuscule-containing cells, SPX1 and SPX3 redundantly control arbuscule degradation. Thus, SPX proteins play important roles as phosphate sensors to maintain a beneficial AM symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Sheng H, Weng R, He Y, et al (2021)

The coupling of mixotrophic denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) promoting the start-up of anammox by addition of calcium nitrate.

Bioresource technology, 341:125822 pii:S0960-8524(21)01163-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This study discovered one nitrate-calcium-based anammox start-up pathway. Compared with control, the start-up time of anammox was saved by 33.3%, and the average total nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 29.6% to 53.7% during the start-up. Besides, the continuous nitrite accumulation (1.18 mg/L) and a marked increase in the relative abundance of denitrifying and anammox bacteria were observed in the only Ca(NO3)2-added group. These results suggested that calcium nitrate induced partial denitrification to provide nitrite for anammox. Additionally, the role of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the Ca(NO3)2-added systems also deserved attention, for the contribution of DNRA to nitrate removal as well as the relative abundance of DNRA bacteria were both increased for the Ca(NO3)2-added groups. These results suggested that a mutualistic symbiosis among denitrification, DNRA and anammox exists in the calcium nitrate-added systems, which may explain the reason for acceleration of anammox start-up by adding calcium nitrate.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Fuentes Barrera GA, Gabarrell I Durany X, Rieradevall Pons J, et al (2021)

Trends in global research on industrial parks: A bibliometric analysis from 1996-2019.

Heliyon, 7(8):e07778.

Industrial parks have been used to promote the economic development of countries. However, its rapid growth has generated environmental problems related to the depletion of natural resources and pollution. Consequently, the network analysis and the bibliometric analysis applied in this research generated qualitative and quantitative information from a systemic perspective on the thematic and community evolution of research on industrial parks (IP) performed to improve its negative environmental impact and reach sustainability. This study used the Web of Science (WoS) database from 1996 - 2019. The main trends and critical research points were identified in four periods of 6-year each. Social network analysis (SNA) was used to identify the intellectual structure main and the academic collaboration networks established among countries/territories, institutions, and authors. The most productive country in articles is currently China (882), however, when we consider the frequency of articles per million inhabitants, it ranks seventh. The WoS database grouped 63.6 ​% of the articles published in the subjects of "Environmental Sciences & Ecology", "Engineering", and "Science & Technology - Other Topics". Industrial Ecology (IE), Industrial Symbiosis (IS), and Circular Economy (CE) were the author keywords with the highest frequency, indicating that IP research has focused from these perspectives to promote the exchange of byproducts and to evaluate the performance and environmental impact of industrial areas through the use of methodologies such as carbon footprints, emergy analysis, and life cycle analysis (LCA). Finally, some themes were identified and proposed for future research based on analyzing research trends and hot spots from the literature review on industrial parks.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Wei X, Chen J, Zhang C, et al (2020)

Ericoid mycorrhizal fungus enhances microcutting rooting of Rhododendron fortunei and subsequent growth.

Horticulture research, 7(1):140.

Adventitious root (AR) formation is a unique feature of plant reproduction and plays a vital role in crop production as many horticultural and forestry plants are propagated through cuttings. A growing number of reports have shown that microbes, particularly mycorrhizal fungi are able to promote AR formation, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study established an in vitro culture system and investigated AR formation in microcuttings of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. inoculated with Oidiodendron maius Barron Om19, an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus strain. Hormones and precursors involved in the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in Om19 mycelium were analyzed. Om19 was able to produce a large quantity of tryptophan (Trp) and also indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) and IAA, indicating that IAA biosynthesis in Om19 could be through a Trp-dependent pathway. After inoculation of Om19, ARs were quickly formed in microcuttings. Symbiosis related genes were activated in ARs, and Om19 effectively colonized the roots. YUC3, a key gene in plant biosynthesis of IAA and genes involved in nitrogen (N) uptake and metabolism, phosphorus (P) uptake were highly upregulated. Plants absorbed significantly greater quantity of mineral nutrients, and their growth was substantially enhanced compared to the control plants without Om19 inoculation. A working model for Om19 enhanced AR formation was proposed. The rapid formation of ARs in cuttings could be due in part to the induction of IAA biosynthesized by Om19 and also attributed to Trp catalyzed biosynthesis of IAA in plants. AR formation, in turn, provided Om19 preferred sites for colonization. Our study suggested that in addition to promoting AR formation, Om19 could potentially be used as a new biofertilizer for enhancing production of ericaceous plants, such as blueberry, cranberry, and rhododendron.

RevDate: 2021-09-25

Taylor Parkins SK, Murthy S, Picioreanu C, et al (2021)

Multiphysics modelling of photon, mass and heat transfer in coral microenvironments.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 18(182):20210532.

Coral reefs are constructed by calcifying coral animals that engage in a symbiosis with dinoflagellate microalgae harboured in their tissue. The symbiosis takes place in the presence of steep and dynamic gradients of light, temperature and chemical species that are affected by the structural and optical properties of the coral and their interaction with incident irradiance and water flow. Microenvironmental analyses have enabled quantification of such gradients and bulk coral tissue and skeleton optical properties, but the multi-layered nature of corals and its implications for the optical, thermal and chemical microenvironment remains to be studied in more detail. Here, we present a multiphysics modelling approach, where three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the light field in a simple coral slab morphology with multiple tissue layers were used as input for modelling the heat dissipation and photosynthetic oxygen production driven by photon absorption. By coupling photon, heat and mass transfer, the model predicts light, temperature and O2 gradients in the coral tissue and skeleton, under environmental conditions simulating, for example, tissue contraction/expansion, symbiont loss via coral bleaching or different distributions of coral host pigments. The model reveals basic structure-function mechanisms that shape the microenvironment and ecophysiology of the coral symbiosis in response to environmental change.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Michalik A, Castillo Franco D, Kobiałka M, et al (2021)

Alternative Transmission Patterns in Independently Acquired Nutritional Cosymbionts of Dictyopharidae Planthoppers.

mBio, 12(4):e0122821.

Sap-sucking hemipterans host specialized, heritable microorganisms that supplement their diet with essential nutrients. These microbes show unusual features that provide a unique perspective on the coevolution of host-symbiont systems but are still poorly understood. Here, we combine microscopy with high-throughput sequencing to revisit 80-year-old reports on the diversity of symbiont transmission modes in a broadly distributed planthopper family, Dictyopharidae. We show that in seven species examined, the ancestral nutritional symbionts Sulcia and Vidania producing essential amino acids are complemented by co-primary symbionts, either Arsenophonus or Sodalis, acquired several times independently by different host lineages and contributing to the biosynthesis of B vitamins. These symbionts reside within separate bacteriomes within the abdominal cavity, although in females Vidania also occupies bacteriocytes in the rectal organ. Notably, the symbionts are transovarially transmitted from mothers to offspring in two alternative ways. In most examined species, all nutritional symbionts simultaneously infect the posterior end of the full-grown oocytes and next gather in their perivitelline space. In contrast, in other species, Sodalis colonizes the cytoplasm of the anterior pole of young oocytes, forming a cluster separate from the "symbiont ball" formed by late-invading Sulcia and Vidania. Our results show how newly arriving microbes may utilize different strategies to establish long-term heritable symbiosis. IMPORTANCE Sup-sucking hemipterans host ancient heritable microorganisms that supplement their unbalanced diet with essential nutrients and have repeatedly been complemented or replaced by other microorganisms. These symbionts need to be reliably transmitted to subsequent generations through the reproductive system, and often they end up using the same route as the most ancient ones. We show for the first time that in a single family of planthoppers, the complementing symbionts that have established infections independently utilize different transmission strategies, one of them novel, with the transmission of different microbes separated spatially and temporally. These data show how newly arriving microbes may utilize different strategies to establish long-term heritable symbioses.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Shikuma NJ (2021)

Bacteria-Stimulated Metamorphosis: an Ocean of Insights from Investigating a Transient Host-Microbe Interaction.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Recent research on host-microbe interactions has focused on intimate symbioses. Yet transient interactions, such as the stimulation of animal metamorphosis by bacteria, can have significant impacts on each partner. During these short-lived interactions, swimming animal larvae identify a desirable location on the seafloor and undergo metamorphosis into a juvenile based on the presence of specific bottom-dwelling bacteria. While this phenomenon is critical for seeding new animals to establish or maintain benthic ecosystems, there is an ocean of fundamental questions that remain unanswered. Here, I propose an updated model of how bacteria stimulate animal metamorphosis based on evidence that bacteria inject a stimulatory protein that prompts tubeworm metamorphosis. I consider what we hope to learn about stimulatory bacterial products, how animals recognize these products, and the consequences for both partners. Finally, I provide examples of how studying an enigmatic host-microbe interaction can serve as an engine for scientific discovery.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Tian L, Liu L, Xu S, et al (2021)

A D-pinitol transporter, LjPLT11, regulates plant growth and nodule development in Lotus japonicus.

Journal of experimental botany pii:6359879 [Epub ahead of print].

Polyol transporters (PLTs) have been functionally characterized in yeast and Xenopus laevis oocytes as H +-symporters with broad substrate specificity, but little is known about their physiological roles in planta. To extend this knowledge we investigated roles of LjPLT11 in Lotus japonicus-Mesorhizobium symbiosis. Functional analyses of the LjPLT11 in yeast characterized this protein as an energy-independent transporter of xylitol, two O-methyl inositols, xylose and galactose. We also showed that LjPLT11 is located on peribacteroid membranes (PBMs) and functions as a facilitative transporter of D-pinitol within infected cells of L. japonicus nodules. Knockdown of LjPLT11 (LjPLT11i) in L. japonicus accelerated plant growth under nitrogen-sufficiency, but resulted in abnormal bacteroids with corresponding reductions in nitrogenase activity in nodules and plant growth in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. LjPLT11i nodules had higher osmotic pressure in cytosol and fewer in bacteroids than wildtype nodules both three and four weeks after inoculation of M. loti. Levels and distributions of reactive oxygen species were also perturbed in infected cells of four-week-old nodules in LjPLT11i plants. The results indicate that LjPLT11 plays a key role in adjustment of levels of its substrate pinitol, and thus maintenance of osmotic balance in infected cells and PBM stability during nodule development.

RevDate: 2021-09-16
CmpDate: 2021-09-16

Wang S, Xia J, De Paepe K, et al (2021)

Ultra-high Pressure Treatment Controls In Vitro Fecal Fermentation Rate of Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Rosa Roxburghii Tratt Pomace and Induces Butyrogenic Shifts in Microbiota Composition.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 69(36):10638-10647.

Dietary fiber has been considered a key element in shaping the beneficial host-microbe symbiosis. In the present study, we identified Rosa roxburghii Tratt fruits as a promising dietary fiber source. The physicochemical properties and in vitro fermentability by human fecal microbes of R. roxburghii pomace water insoluble dietary fiber (RIDF) obtained from ultrasonic extraction and ultrahigh pressure (90 MPa)-treated RIDF (RIDF-90) were compared to those of R. roxburghii Tratt pomace (R). Ultrahigh pressure modification significantly increased the water holding, oil holding, and swelling capacity of RIDF-90 in comparison to R and RIDF. RIDF-90 displayed the slowest fermentation rate yet yielded the highest butyrate production. The superior butyrogenic properties of both RIDF-90 and, in part, RIDF were reflected by increased Coprococcus and Ruminococcus levels, demonstrating that ultrasonic extraction and/or further ultrahigh pressure treatment of insoluble fibers promotes the prebiotic value of R. roxburghii Tratt.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Ganesan R, Kaltenpoth M, LV Flórez (2021)

Transposon-insertion Sequencing as a Tool to Elucidate Bacterial Colonization Factors in a Burkholderia gladioli Symbiont of Lagria villosa Beetles.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Inferring the function of genes by manipulating their activity is an essential tool for understanding the genetic underpinnings of most biological processes. Advances in molecular microbiology have seen the emergence of diverse mutagenesis techniques for the manipulation of genes. Among them, transposon-insertion sequencing (Tn-seq) is a valuable tool to simultaneously assess the functionality of many candidate genes in an untargeted way. The technique has been key to identify molecular mechanisms for the colonization of eukaryotic hosts in several pathogenic microbes and a few beneficial symbionts. Here, Tn-seq is established as a method to identify colonization factors in a mutualistic Burkholderia gladioli symbiont of the beetle Lagria villosa. By conjugation, Tn5 transposon-mediated insertion of an antibiotic-resistance cassette is carried out at random genomic locations in B. gladioli. To identify the effect of gene disruptions on the ability of the bacteria to colonize the beetle host, the generated B. gladioli transposon-mutant library is inoculated on the beetle eggs, while a control is grown in vitro in a liquid culture medium. After allowing sufficient time for colonization, DNA is extracted from the in vivo and in vitro grown libraries. Following a DNA library preparation protocol, the DNA samples are prepared for transposon-insertion sequencing. DNA fragments that contain the transposon-insert edge and flanking bacterial DNA are selected, and the mutation sites are determined by sequencing away from the transposon-insert edge. Finally, by analyzing and comparing the frequencies of each mutant between the in vivo and in vitro libraries, the importance of specific symbiont genes during beetle colonization can be predicted.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Prakash O, Parmar M, Vaijanapurkar M, et al (2021)

Recent trend, biases and limitations of cultivation-based diversity studies of microbes.

FEMS microbiology letters, 368(17):.

The current study attempts to analyze recent trends, biases and limitations of cultivation-based microbial diversity studies based on published, novel species in the past 6 years in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM), an official publication of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP) and the Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology (BAM) Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS). IJSEM deals with taxa that have validly published names under the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP). All the relevant publications from the last 6 years were retrieved, sorted and analyzed to get the answers to What is the current rate of novel species description? Which country has contributed substantially and which phyla represented better in culturable diversity studies? What are the current limitations? Published data for the past 6 years indicate that 500-900 novel species are reported annually. China, Korea, Germany, UK, India and the USA are at the forefront while contributions from other nations are meager. Despite the recent development in culturomics tools the dominance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria are still prevalent in cultivation, while the representation of archaea, obligate anaerobes, microaerophiles, synergistic symbionts, aerotolerant and other fastidious microbes is poor. Single strain-based taxonomic descriptions prevail and emphasis on objective-based cultivation for biotechnological and environmental significance is not yet conspicuous.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Huang HH, Si J, Brandt A, et al (2021)

Taking Both Sides: Seeking Symbiosis Between Intelligent Prostheses and Human Motor Control during Locomotion.

Current opinion in biomedical engineering, 20:.

Robotic lower-limb prostheses aim to replicate the power-generating capability of biological joints during locomotion to empower individuals with lower-limb loss. However, recent clinical trials have not demonstrated clear advantages of these devices over traditional passive devices. We believe this is partly because the current designs of robotic prothesis controllers and clinical methods for fitting and training individuals to use them do not ensure good coordination between the prosthesis and user. Accordingly, we advocate for new holistic approaches in which human motor control and intelligent prosthesis control function as one system (defined as human-prosthesis symbiosis). We hope engineers and clinicians will work closely to achieve this symbiosis, thereby improving the functionality and acceptance of robotic prostheses and users' quality of life.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Wechsler H (2021)

Immunity and security using holism, ambient intelligence, triangulation, and stigmergy: Sensitivity analysis confronts fake news and COVID-19 using open set transduction.

Journal of ambient intelligence and humanized computing [Epub ahead of print].

This paper introduces a multi-faceted security methodology based on Holism, Ambient Intelligence, Triangulation, and Stigmergy (HATS) to combat the spread of current pandemics such as fake news and COVID-19. HATS leverages the apparent complementarity and similarity of physical and mental pandemics using adversarial learning and transduction to promote immunity on both using conformal prediction and principled symbiosis. As such, HATS confronts both mental and physical adversity found in misinformation and disinformation. It confers herd immunity using holism and triangulation that call to advantage on sensitivity analysis using open set transduction and meta-reasoning. Ambient intelligence and stigmergy further mediate meta-reasoning and re-identification in building and sharing immunity. As change is constant and everything is fluid, as truth is not always reality and reality is not always truth, and as truth is imponderable and lie can become truth, two things have to happen. First, reconditioning and reconfiguration engage random deficiency to discern familiarity from strangeness and a-typicality. Second, transfer learning using trans-adaptation and transposition, serve adaptation and interoperability. Together, this empowers open set transduction in facing adaptive persistent threats such as deception and denial when it engages moving target defense using modification and de-identification. Immunology and security further come together using to advantage the coupling of active and adversarial learning.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Dijkhuizen LW, Tabatabaei BES, Brouwer P, et al (2021)

Far-Red Light-Induced Azolla filiculoides Symbiosis Sexual Reproduction: Responsive Transcripts of Symbiont Nostoc azollae Encode Transporters Whilst Those of the Fern Relate to the Angiosperm Floral Transition.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:693039.

Water ferns of the genus Azolla and the filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc azollae constitute a model symbiosis that enabled the colonization of the water surface with traits highly desirable for the development of more sustainable crops: their floating mats capture CO2 and fix N2 at high rates using light energy. Their mode of sexual reproduction is heterosporous. The regulation of the transition from the vegetative phase to the spore forming phase in ferns is largely unknown, yet a prerequisite for Azolla domestication, and of particular interest as ferns represent the sister lineage of seed plants. Sporocarps induced with far red light could be crossed so as to verify species attribution of strains from the Netherlands but not of the strain from the Anzali lagoon in Iran; the latter strain was assigned to a novel species cluster from South America. Red-dominated light suppresses the formation of dissemination stages in both gametophyte- and sporophyte-dominated lineages of plants, the response likely is a convergent ecological strategy to open fields. FR-responsive transcripts included those from MIKCC homologues of CMADS1 and miR319-controlled GAMYB transcription factors in the fern, transporters in N. azollae, and ycf2 in chloroplasts. Loci of conserved microRNA (miRNA) in the fern lineage included miR172, yet FR only induced miR529 and miR535, and reduced miR319 and miR159. Phylogenomic analyses of MIKCC TFs suggested that the control of flowering and flower organ specification may have originated from the diploid to haploid phase transition in the homosporous common ancestor of ferns and seed plants.

RevDate: 2021-08-28

Singh P, Kadam V, Y Patil (2021)

Isolation and development of a microbial consortium for the treatment of automobile service station wastewater.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: This work aims to investigate the nature of waste being generated by automobile service stations (ASS) and to devise a microbial-based formulation for the treatment of ASS wastewater.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of soil and water samples from the vicinity of different ASS in and around the Pune city region (India) revealed the presence of significant amounts of many heavy metals including zinc (Zn) 13.8-175.44 mg kg-1 , nickel (Ni) 0.6-5.5 mg kg-1 and copper (Cu) 8.07-179.2 mg kg-1 as well as oil and grease (O&G). A consortium, consisting of selected members from the ASS soil bacterial isolates, was formulated. The selection of consortium members was based on their ability to degrade hydrocarbons, tolerate heavy metals, and produce biosurfactant and lipase. The developed microbial consortium was capable of reducing the concentration of Ni, manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) by 69.25%, 14.63% and 84.93%, respectively, and O&G by 71.8% in the aqueous medium under laboratory conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Wastewater and soil analysis confirmed the presence of a high amount of O&G and metals in and around ASS. The developed microbial consortium holds potential for the treatment of wastewater rich in O&G and heavy metals.

There is a dearth of scientific studies in India on the wastewater and polluted soils associated with ASS. This work reveals and confirms the hazardous nature of ASS and the need for the development and feasibility of microbial-based technology for the sustainable bioremediation of such sites.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )