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29 Sep 2023 at 01:57
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Bibliography on: Symbiosis


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:57 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: ( symbiosis[tiab] OR symbiotic[tiab] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Rajput M, N Thakur (2023)

Editorial: Advances in host-pathogen interactions for diseases in animals and birds.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1282110.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Guardiola-Márquez CE, Santos-Ramírez MT, Figueroa-Montes ML, et al (2023)

Identification and Characterization of Beneficial Soil Microbial Strains for the Formulation of Biofertilizers Based on Native Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms Isolated from Northern Mexico.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:plants12183262.

Plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPM) benefit plant health by enhancing plant nutrient-use efficiency and protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. This study aimed to isolate and characterize autochthonous PGPM from important agri-food crops and nonagricultural plants to formulate biofertilizers. Native microorganisms were isolated and evaluated for PGP traits (K, P, and Zn solubilization, N2-fixation, NH3-, IAA and siderophore production, and antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum). Isolates were tested on radish and broccoli seedlings, evaluating 19 individual isolates and 12 microbial consortia. Potential bacteria were identified through DNA sequencing. In total, 798 bacteria and 209 fungi were isolated. Isolates showed higher mineral solubilization activity than other mechanisms; 399 bacteria and 156 fungi presented mineral solubilization. Bacteria were relevant for nitrogen fixation, siderophore, IAA (29-176 mg/L), and ammonia production, while fungi for Fusarium growth inhibition (40-69%). Twenty-four bacteria and eighteen fungi were selected for their PGP traits. Bacteria had significantly (ANOVA, p < 0.05) better effects on plants than fungi; treatments improved plant height (23.06-51.32%), leaf diameter (25.43-82.91%), and fresh weight (54.18-85.45%) in both crops. Most potential species belonged to Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Serratia, and Rahnella genera. This work validated a high-throughput approach to screening hundreds of rhizospheric microorganisms with PGP potential isolated from rhizospheric samples.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gao J, Cao B, Zhao R, et al (2023)

Critical Signaling Transduction Pathways and Intestinal Barrier: Implications for Pathophysiology and Therapeutics.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(9): pii:ph16091216.

The intestinal barrier is a sum of the functions and structures consisting of the intestinal mucosal epithelium, mucus, intestinal flora, secretory immunoglobulins, and digestive juices. It is the first-line defense mechanism that resists nonspecific infections with powerful functions that include physical, endocrine, and immune defenses. Health and physiological homeostasis are greatly dependent on the sturdiness of the intestinal barrier shield, whose dysfunction can contribute to the progression of numerous types of intestinal diseases. Disorders of internal homeostasis may also induce barrier impairment and form vicious cycles during the response to diseases. Therefore, the identification of the underlying mechanisms involved in intestinal barrier function and the development of effective drugs targeting its damage have become popular research topics. Evidence has shown that multiple signaling pathways and corresponding critical molecules are extensively involved in the regulation of the barrier pathophysiological state. Ectopic expression or activation of signaling pathways plays an essential role in the process of shield destruction. Although some drugs, such as molecular or signaling inhibitors, are currently used for the treatment of intestinal diseases, their efficacy cannot meet current medical requirements. In this review, we summarize the current achievements in research on the relationships between the intestinal barrier and signaling pathways. The limitations and future perspectives are also discussed to provide new horizons for targeted therapies for restoring intestinal barrier function that have translational potential.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Yüksel E, Yıldırım A, İmren M, et al (2023)

Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus Bacteria as Potential Candidates for the Control of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae), the Principal Vector of West Nile Virus and Lymphatic Filariasis.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091095.

Vector-borne diseases pose a severe threat to human and animal health. Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a widespread mosquito species and serves as a vector for the transmission of infectious diseases such as West Nile disease and Lymphatic Filariasis. Synthetic insecticides have been the prime control method for many years to suppress Cx. pipiens populations. However, recently, the use of insecticides has begun to be questioned due to the detrimental impact on human health and the natural environment. Therefore, many authorities urge the development of eco-friendly control methods that are nontoxic to humans. The bacterial associates [Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp. (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae)] of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Sterinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) are one of the green approaches to combat a variety of insect pests. In the present study, the mosquitocidal activity of the cell-free supernatants and cell suspension (4 × 10[7] cells mL[-1]) of four different symbiotic bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila, X. bovienii, X. budapestensis, and P. luminescens subsp. kayaii) was assessed against different development stages of Cx. pipiens (The 1st/2nd and 3rd/4th instar larvae and pupa) under laboratory conditions. The bacterial symbionts were able to kill all the development stages with varying levels of mortality. The 1st/2nd instar larvae exhibited the highest susceptibility to the cell-free supernatants and cell suspensions of symbiotic bacteria and the efficacy of the cell-free supernatants and cell suspensions gradually declined with increasing phases of growth. The highest effectiveness was achieved by the X. bovienii KCS-4S strain inducing 95% mortality to the 1st/2nd instar larvae. The results indicate that tested bacterial symbionts have great potential as an eco-friendly alternative to insecticides.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Margarita V, Congiargiu A, Diaz N, et al (2023)

Mycoplasma hominis and Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii in Trichomonas vaginalis: Peaceful Cohabitants or Contentious Roommates?.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091083.

Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogenic protozoan diffused worldwide capable of infecting the urogenital tract in humans, causing trichomoniasis. One of its most intriguing aspects is the ability to establish a close relationship with endosymbiotic microorganisms: the unique association of T. vaginalis with the bacterium Mycoplasma hominis represents, to date, the only example of an endosymbiosis involving two true human pathogens. Since its discovery, several aspects of the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis have been characterized, demonstrating that the presence of the intracellular guest strongly influences the pathogenic characteristics of the protozoon, making it more aggressive towards host cells and capable of stimulating a stronger proinflammatory response. The recent description of a further symbiont of the protozoon, the newly discovered non-cultivable mycoplasma Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii, makes the picture even more complex. This review provides an overview of the main aspects of this complex microbial consortium, with particular emphasis on its effect on protozoan pathobiology and on the interplays among the symbionts.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Liu J, Xu H, Wang Z, et al (2023)

Core Endophytic Bacteria and Their Roles in the Coralloid Roots of Cultivated Cycas revoluta (Cycadaceae).

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092364.

As a gymnosperm group, cycads are known for their ancient origin and specialized coralloid root, which can be used as an ideal system to explore the interaction between host and associated microorganisms. Previous studies have revealed that some nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria contribute greatly to the composition of the endophytic microorganisms in cycad coralloid roots. However, the roles of host and environment in shaping the composition of endophytic bacteria during the recruitment process remain unclear. Here, we determined the diversity, composition, and function prediction of endophytic bacteria from the coralloid roots of a widely cultivated cycad, Cycas revoluta Thunb. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we comprehensively investigated the diversity and community structure of the bacteria in coralloid roots and bulk soils sampled from 11 sites in China, aiming to explore the variations in core endophytic bacteria and to predict their potential functions. We found a higher microbe diversity in bulk soils than in coralloid roots. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in the diversity and composition of endophytic bacteria across different localities, and the same result was found after removing cyanobacteria. Desmonostoc was the most dominant in coralloid roots, followed by Nostoc, yet these two cyanobacteria were not shared by all samples. Rhodococcus, Edaphobacter, Niastella, Nordella, SH-PL14, and Virgisporangium were defined as the core microorganisms in coralloid roots. A function prediction analysis revealed that endophytic bacteria majorly participated in the plant uptake of phosphorus and metal ions and in disease resistance. These results indicate that the community composition of the bacteria in coralloid roots is affected by both the host and environment, in which the host is more decisive. Despite the very small proportion of core microbes, their interactions are significant and likely contribute to functions related to host survival. Our study contributes to an understanding of microbial diversity and composition in cycads, and it expands the knowledge on the association between hosts and symbiotic microbes.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hernández I, Taulé C, Pérez-Pérez R, et al (2023)

Endophytic Seed-Associated Bacteria as Plant Growth Promoters of Cuban Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092317.

Cuban rice cultivars INCA LP-5 and INCA LP-7 are widely distributed in Cuba and Caribbean countries. Although there are studies about rhizospheric bacteria associated with these cultivars, there are no reports about their seed-associated bacteria. This study aimed to isolate endophytic bacteria from rice seeds and select those with the greatest plant growth-promoting traits. A total of nineteen bacterial strains from the genera Pantoea, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the husk and endosperm of rice seeds. The strains Pantoea sp. S5-1, Pseudomonas sp. S5-38, and Pseudomonas sp. S7-1 were classified as the most promissory to increase rice growth as they demonstrated the presence of multiple plant growth-promoting traits such as the production of auxins, phosphate, and potassium solubilization, the production of siderophores, and the inhibition of the phytopathogen Pyricularia oryzae. The inoculation of strains of Pantoea sp. and Pseudomonas spp. in rice improves the height, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight of the shoot and root after 21 days post-inoculation in hydroponic assays. This study constitutes the first report on Cuban rice cultivars about the presence of endophytes in seeds and their potential to promote seedling growth. Pantoea sp. S5-1, Pseudomonas sp. S5-38, and Pseudomonas sp. S7-1 were selected as the more promising strains for the development of bio-stimulators or bio-inoculants for Cuban rice crops.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Nagakubo D, Y Kaibori (2023)

Oral Microbiota: The Influences and Interactions of Saliva, IgA, and Dietary Factors in Health and Disease.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092307.

Recent advances in metagenomic analyses have made it easier to analyze microbiota. The microbiota, a symbiotic community of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses within a specific environment in tissues such as the digestive tract and skin, has a complex relationship with the host. Recent studies have revealed that microbiota composition and balance particularly affect the health of the host and the onset of disease. Influences such as diet, food preferences, and sanitation play crucial roles in microbiota composition. The oral cavity is where the digestive tract directly communicates with the outside. Stable temperature and humidity provide optimal growth environments for many bacteria. However, the oral cavity is a unique environment that is susceptible to pH changes, salinity, food nutrients, and external pathogens. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of the oral microbiota, as changes in bacterial composition and balance could contribute to the development of systemic diseases. This review focuses on saliva, IgA, and fermented foods because they play critical roles in maintaining the oral bacterial environment by regulating its composition and balance. More attention should be paid to the oral microbiota and its regulatory factors in oral and systemic health.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Feng Z, Wang Y, Ma L, et al (2023)

Genomic Characteristics and Functional Analysis of Brucella sp. Strain WY7 Isolated from Antarctic Krill.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092281.

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a key species of the Antarctic ecosystem whose unique ecological status and great development potential have attracted extensive attention. However, the genomic characteristics and potential biological functions of the symbiotic microorganisms of Antarctic krill remain unknown. In this study, we cultured and identified a strain of Brucella sp. WY7 from Antarctic krill using whole-genome sequencing and assembly, functional annotation, and comparative genomics analysis. First, based on 16S rDNA sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis, we identified strain WY7 as Brucella. The assembled genome of strain WY7 revealed that it has two chromosomes and a plasmid, with a total genome length of 4,698,850 bp and an average G + C content of 57.18%. The DNA-DNA hybridization value and average nucleotide identity value of strain WY7 and Brucella anthropi ATCC[®] 49188[TM], a type strain isolated from human clinical specimens, were 94.8% and 99.07%, respectively, indicating that strain WY7 is closely related to Brucella anthropi. Genomic island prediction showed that the strain has 60 genomic islands, which may produce HigB and VapC toxins. AntiSMASH analysis results showed that strain WY7 might produce many secondary metabolites, such as terpenes, siderophores and ectoine. Moreover, the genome contains genes involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds, suggesting that strain WY7 can use aromatic compounds in its metabolism. Our work will help to understand the genomic characteristics and metabolic potential of bacterial strains isolated from Antarctic krill, thereby revealing their roles in Antarctic krill and marine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Colletti A, Pellizzato M, AF Cicero (2023)

The Possible Role of Probiotic Supplementation in Inflammation: A Narrative Review.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092160.

The fine balance between symbiotic and potentially opportunistic and/or pathogenic microorganisms can undergo quantitative alterations, which, when associated with low intestinal biodiversity, could be responsible for the development of gut inflammation and the so-called "intestinal dysbiosis". This condition is characterized by the disbalance of a fine synergistic mechanism involving the mucosal barrier, the intestinal neuroendocrine system, and the immune system that results in an acute inflammatory response induced by different causes, including viral or bacterial infections of the digestive tract. More frequently, however, dysbiosis is induced slowly and subtly by subliminal causal factors, resulting in a chronic condition related to different diseases affecting the digestive tract and other organs and apparatuses. Studies on animal models, together with studies on humans, highlight the significant role of the gut microbiota and microbiome in the occurrence of inflammatory conditions such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); neurodegenerative, urologic, skin, liver, and kidney pathologies; and premature aging. The blood translocation of bacterial fragments has been found to be one of the processes linked to gut dysbiosis and responsible for the possible occurrence of "metabolic endotoxemia" and systemic inflammation, associated with an increased risk of oxidative stress and related diseases. In this context, supplementation with different probiotic strains has been shown to restore gut eubiosis, especially if administered in long-term treatments. The aim of this review is to describe the anti-inflammatory effects of specific probiotic strains observed in clinical trials and the respective indications, highlighting the differences in efficacy depending on strain, formulation, time and duration of treatment, and dosage used.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ruan M, Hu Z, Zhu Q, et al (2023)

16S rDNA Sequencing-Based Insights into the Bacterial Community Structure and Function in Co-Existing Soil and Coal Gangue.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092151.

Coal gangue is a solid waste emitted during coal production. Coal gangue is deployed adjacent to mining land and has characteristics similar to those of the soils of these areas. Coal gangue-soil ecosystems provide habitats for a rich and active bacterial community. However, co-existence networks and the functionality of soil and coal gangue bacterial communities have not been studied. Here, we performed Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing, symbiotic network and statistical analyses, and microbial phenotype prediction to study the microbial community in coal gangue and soil samples from Shanxi Province, China. In general, the structural difference between the bacterial communities in coal gangue and soil was large, indicating that interactions between soil and coal gangue are limited but not absent. The bacterial community exhibited a significant symbiosis network in soil and coal gangue. The co-occurrence network was primarily formed by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. In addition, BugBase microbiome phenotype predictions and PICRUSt bacterial functional potential predictions showed that transcription regulators represented the highest functional category of symbiotic bacteria in soil and coal gangue. Proteobacteria played an important role in various processes such as mobile element pathogenicity, oxidative stress tolerance, and biofilm formation. In general, this work provides a theoretical basis and data support for the in situ remediation of acidified coal gangue hills based on microbiological methods.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Skiba EA, Shavyrkina NA, Skiba MA, et al (2023)

Biosynthesis of Bacterial Nanocellulose from Low-Cost Cellulosic Feedstocks: Effect of Microbial Producer.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814401.

Biodegradable bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a highly in-demand but expensive polymer, and the reduction of its production cost is an important task. The present study aimed to biosynthesize BNC on biologically high-quality hydrolyzate media prepared from miscanthus and oat hulls, and to explore the properties of the resultant BNC depending on the microbial producer used. In this study, three microbial producers were utilized for the biosynthesis of BNC: individual strains Komagataeibacter xylinus B-12429 and Komagataeibacter xylinus B-12431, and symbiotic Medusomyces gisevii Sa-12. The use of symbiotic Medusomyces gisevii Sa-12 was found to have technological benefits: nutrient media require no mineral salts or growth factors, and pasteurization is sufficient for the nutrient medium instead of sterilization. The yield of BNCs produced by the symbiotic culture turned out to be 44-65% higher than that for the individual strains. The physicochemical properties of BNC, such as nanofibril width, degree of polymerization, elastic modulus, Iα allomorph content and crystallinity index, are most notably dependent on the microbial producer type rather than the nutrient medium composition. This is the first study in which we investigated the biosynthesis of BNC on hydrolyzate media prepared from miscanthus and oat hulls under the same conditions but using different microbial producers, and showed that it is advisable to use the symbiotic culture. The choice of a microbial producer is grounded on the yield, production process simplification and properties. The BNC production from technical raw materials would cover considerable demands of BNC for technical purposes without competing with food resources.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ovchinnikova E, Chiasson D, Wen Z, et al (2023)

Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Medicago Regulated by the Transcription Factor MtbHLHm1;1 and the Ammonium Facilitator Protein MtAMF1;3.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814263.

Root systems of most land plants are colonised by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi. The symbiosis supports nutrient acquisition strategies predominantly associated with plant access to inorganic phosphate. The nutrient acquisition is enhanced through an extensive network of external fungal hyphae that extends out into the soil, together with the development of fungal structures forming specialised interfaces with root cortical cells. Orthologs of the bHLHm1;1 transcription factor, previously described in soybean nodules (GmbHLHm1) and linked to the ammonium facilitator protein GmAMF1;3, have been identified in Medicago (Medicago truncatula) roots colonised by AM fungi. Expression studies indicate that transcripts of both genes are also present in arbuscular containing root cortical cells and that the MtbHLHm1;1 shows affinity to the promoter of MtAMF1;3. Both genes are induced by AM colonisation. Loss of Mtbhlhm1;1 expression disrupts AM arbuscule abundance and the expression of the ammonium transporter MtAMF1;3. Disruption of Mtamf1;3 expression reduces both AM colonisation and arbuscule development. The respective activities of MtbHLHm1;1 and MtAMF1;3 highlight the conservation of putative ammonium regulators supporting both the rhizobial and AM fungal symbiosis in legumes.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Tsyganova AV, Seliverstova EV, VE Tsyganov (2023)

Comparison of the Formation of Plant-Microbial Interface in Pisum sativum L. and Medicago truncatula Gaertn. Nitrogen-Fixing Nodules.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813850.

Different components of the symbiotic interface play an important role in providing positional information during rhizobial infection and nodule development: successive changes in cell morphology correspond to subsequent changes in the molecular architecture of the apoplast and the associated surface structures. The localisation and distribution of pectins, xyloglucans, and cell wall proteins in symbiotic nodules of Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula were studied using immunofluorescence and immunogold analysis in wild-type and ineffective mutant nodules. As a result, the ontogenetic changes in the symbiotic interface in the nodules of both species were described. Some differences in the patterns of distribution of cell wall polysaccharides and proteins between wild-type and mutant nodules can be explained by the activation of defence reaction or premature senescence in mutants. The absence of fucosylated xyloglucan in the cell walls in the P. sativum nodules, as well as its predominant accumulation in the cell walls of uninfected cells in the M. truncatula nodules, and the presence of the rhamnogalacturonan I (unbranched) backbone in meristematic cells in P. sativum can be attributed to the most striking species-specific features of the symbiotic interface.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Geraris Kartelias I, Karantonis HC, Giaouris E, et al (2023)

Kombucha Fermentation of Olympus Mountain Tea (Sideritis scardica) Sweetened with Thyme Honey: Physicochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Functional Properties.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:foods12183496.

This study implemented kombucha fermentation of Olympus Mountain tea (Sideritis scardica) sweetened with honey (OMTWH) in order to investigate the potential for producing a novel beverage with functional properties. The increase in the total count of bacteria and yeast suggests that the OMTWH acts as a viable substrate for supporting the proliferation of the microorganisms of the Kombucha symbiotic culture. The fermentation resulted in a reduction in pH and increased total titratable acidity. After fermentation, a statistically significant increase in the vitamins C, B1, B2, B6, B7, and B12 content was observed (p < 0.05). Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of the fermented beverage was significantly enhanced, as assessed by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS assay, respectively. Results revealed that OMTWH had a potent inhibitory activity of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase; OMTWH fermented with a kombucha consortium exhibited even higher inhibition. Hence, the process of kombucha fermentation can convert OMTWH into a novel beverage with enhanced functional properties.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Fodor A, Hess C, Ganas P, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial Peptides (AMP) in the Cell-Free Culture Media of Xenorhabdus budapestensis and X. szentirmaii Exert Anti-Protist Activity against Eukaryotic Vertebrate Pathogens including Histomonas meleagridis and Leishmania donovani Species.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091462.

Anti-microbial peptides provide a powerful toolkit for combating multidrug resistance. Combating eukaryotic pathogens is complicated because the intracellular drug targets in the eukaryotic pathogen are frequently homologs of cellular structures of vital importance in the host organism. The entomopathogenic bacteria (EPB), symbionts of entomopathogenic-nematode species, release a series of non-ribosomal templated anti-microbial peptides. Some may be potential drug candidates. The ability of an entomopathogenic-nematode/entomopathogenic bacterium symbiotic complex to survive in a given polyxenic milieu is a coevolutionary product. This explains that those gene complexes that are responsible for the biosynthesis of different non-ribosomal templated anti-microbial protective peptides (including those that are potently capable of inactivating the protist mammalian pathogen Leishmania donovanii and the gallinaceous bird pathogen Histomonas meleagridis) are co-regulated. Our approach is based on comparative anti-microbial bioassays of the culture media of the wild-type and regulatory mutant strains. We concluded that Xenorhabdus budapestensis and X. szentirmaii are excellent sources of non-ribosomal templated anti-microbial peptides that are efficient antagonists of the mentioned pathogens. Data on selective cytotoxicity of different cell-free culture media encourage us to forecast that the recently discovered "easy-PACId" research strategy is suitable for constructing entomopathogenic-bacterium (EPB) strains producing and releasing single, harmless, non-ribosomal templated anti-microbial peptides with considerable drug, (probiotic)-candidate potential.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Adra C, Tran TD, Foster K, et al (2023)

Untargeted MS-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Termite Gut-Associated Streptomycetes with Antifungal Activity against Pyrrhoderma noxium.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091373.

Pyrrhoderma noxium is a plant fungal pathogen that induces the disease of brown root rot in a large variety of tree species. It is currently infecting many of the amenity trees within Brisbane City of Queensland, Australia. Steering away from harmful chemical fungicides, biological control agents offer environmentally friendly alternatives. Streptomycetes are known for their production of novel bioactive secondary metabolites with biocontrol potential, particularly, streptomycete symbionts isolated from unique ecological niches. In this study, 37 termite gut-associated actinomycete isolates were identified using molecular methods and screened against P. noxium. A majority of the isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces, and 15 isolates exhibited strong antifungal activity with up to 98.5% mycelial inhibition of the fungal pathogen. MS/MS molecular networking analysis of the isolates' fermentation extracts revealed several chemical classes with polyketides being among the most abundant. Most of the metabolites, however, did not have matches to the GNPS database, indicating potential novel antifungal compounds in the active extracts obtained from the isolates. Pathway enrichment and overrepresentation analyses revealed pathways relating to polyketide antibiotic production, among other antibiotic pathways, further confirming the biosynthetic potential of the termite gut-associated streptomycetes with biocontrol potential against P. noxium.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

De Marco G, Cappello T, M Maisano (2023)

Histomorphological Changes in Fish Gut in Response to Prebiotics and Probiotics Treatment to Improve Their Health Status: A Review.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(18): pii:ani13182860.

The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) promotes the digestion and absorption of feeds, in addition to the excretion of waste products of digestion. In fish, the GIT is divided into four regions, the headgut, foregut, midgut, and hindgut, to which glands and lymphoid tissues are associated to release digestive enzymes and molecules involved in the immune response and control of host-pathogens. The GIT is inhabited by different species of resident microorganisms, the microbiota, which have co-evolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship and are responsible for metabolic benefits and counteracting pathogen infection. There is a strict connection between a fish's gut microbiota and its health status. This review focuses on the modulation of fish microbiota by feed additives based on prebiotics and probiotics as a feasible strategy to improve fish health status and gut efficiency, mitigate emerging diseases, and maximize rearing and growth performance. Furthermore, the use of histological assays as a valid tool for fish welfare assessment is also discussed, and insights on nutrient absorptive capacity and responsiveness to pathogens in fish by gut morphological endpoints are provided. Overall, the literature reviewed emphasizes the complex interactions between microorganisms and host fish, shedding light on the beneficial use of prebiotics and probiotics in the aquaculture sector, with the potential to provide directions for future research.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Tritean N, Dima ȘO, Trică B, et al (2023)

Selenium-Fortified Kombucha-Pollen Beverage by In Situ Biosynthesized Selenium Nanoparticles with High Biocompatibility and Antioxidant Activity.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antiox12091711.

Biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been shown to exhibit increased bioavailability. Fermentation of pollen by a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY/Kombucha) leads to the release of pollen content and enhances the prebiotic and probiotic effects of Kombucha. The aim of this study was to fortify Kombucha beverage with SeNPs formed in situ by Kombucha fermentation with pollen. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the biosynthesis of SeNPs and the pollen-fermented Kombucha beverage. SeNPs were characterized by Transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Zeta potential. The pollen-fermented Kombucha beverage enriched with SeNPs was characterized by measuring the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, soluble silicon, saccharides, lactic acid, and the total content of Se[0]. The polyphenols were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pollen and the bacterial (nano)cellulose were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), FTIR, and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). We also assessed the in vitro biocompatibility in terms of gingival fibroblast viability and proliferation, as well as the antioxidant activity of SeNPs and the pollen-fermented Kombucha beverage enriched with SeNPs. The results highlight their increased biological performance in this regard.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Jesus JG, Máguas C, Dias R, et al (2023)

What If Root Nodules Are a Guesthouse for a Microbiome? The Case Study of Acacia longifolia.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091168.

Acacia longifolia is one of the most aggressive invaders worldwide whose invasion is potentiated after a fire, a common perturbation in Mediterranean climates. As a legume, this species establishes symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria inside root nodules; however, the overall microbial diversity is still unclear. In this study, we addressed root nodules' structure and biodiversity through histology and Next-Generation Sequencing, targeting 16S and 25S-28S rDNA genes for bacteria and fungi, respectively. We wanted to evaluate the effect of fire in root nodules from 1-year-old saplings, by comparing unburnt and burnt sites. We found that although having the same general structure, after a fire event, nodules had a higher number of infected cells and greater starch accumulation. Starch accumulated in uninfected cells can be a possible carbon source for the microbiota. Regarding diversity, Bradyrhizobium was dominant in both sites (ca. 77%), suggesting it is the preferential partner, followed by Tardiphaga (ca. 9%), a non-rhizobial Alphaproteobacteria, and Synechococcus, a cyanobacteria (ca. 5%). However, at the burnt site, additional N-fixing bacteria were included in the top 10 genera, highlighting the importance of this process. Major differences were found in the mycobiome, which was diverse in both sites and included genera mostly described as plant endophytes. Coniochaeta was dominant in nodules from the burnt site (69%), suggesting its role as a facilitator of symbiotic associations. We highlight the presence of a large bacterial and fungal community in nodules, suggesting nodulation is not restricted to nitrogen fixation. Thus, this microbiome can be involved in facilitating A. longifolia invasive success.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

A L, K J (2023)

At the root of plant symbioses: Untangling the genetic mechanisms behind mutualistic associations.

Current opinion in plant biology pii:S1369-5266(23)00113-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Mutualistic interactions between plants and microorganisms shape the continuous evolution and adaptation of plants such as to the terrestrial environment that was a founding event of subsequent life on land. Such interactions also play a central role in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and are of primary importance for a sustainable future. To boost plant's productivity and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, new approaches involving associated symbiotic organisms have recently been explored. New discoveries on mutualistic symbioses evolution and the interaction between partners will be key steps to enhance plant potential.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Shikov AE, Savina IA, Nizhnikov AA, et al (2023)

Recombination in Bacterial Genomes: Evolutionary Trends.

Toxins, 15(9): pii:toxins15090568.

Bacterial organisms have undergone homologous recombination (HR) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) multiple times during their history. These processes could increase fitness to new environments, cause specialization, the emergence of new species, and changes in virulence. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge of the impact and intensity of genetic exchanges and the location of recombination hotspots on the genome is necessary for understanding the dynamics of adaptation to various conditions. To this end, we aimed to characterize the functional impact and genomic context of computationally detected recombination events by analyzing genomic studies of any bacterial species, for which events have been detected in the last 30 years. Genomic loci where the transfer of DNA was detected pertained to mobile genetic elements (MGEs) housing genes that code for proteins engaged in distinct cellular processes, such as secretion systems, toxins, infection effectors, biosynthesis enzymes, etc. We found that all inferences fall into three main lifestyle categories, namely, ecological diversification, pathogenesis, and symbiosis. The latter primarily exhibits ancestral events, thus, possibly indicating that adaptation appears to be governed by similar recombination-dependent mechanisms.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Wu CY, Huang CK, Hong WS, et al (2023)

Influence of Symbiotic Fermentation Broth on Regulating Metabolism with Gut Microbiota and Metabolite Profiles Is Estimated Using a Third-Generation Sequencing Platform.

Metabolites, 13(9): pii:metabo13090999.

Overnutrition with a high-fat or high-sugar diet is widely considered to be the risk factor for various metabolic, chronic, or malignant diseases that are accompanied by alterations in gut microbiota, metabolites, and downstream pathways. In this study, we investigated supplementation with soybean fermentation broth containing saponin (SFBS, also called SAPOZYME) in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat-fructose diet or normal chaw. In addition to the lessening of weight gain, the influence of SFBS on reducing hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia associated with a high-fat-fructose diet was estimated using the results of related biological tests. The results of gut microbial profiling indicated that the high-fat-fructose diet mediated increases in opportunistic pathogens. In contrast, SFBS supplementation reprogrammed the high-fat-fructose diet-related microbial community with a relatively high abundance of potential probiotics, including Akkermansia and Lactobacillus genera. The metagenomic functions of differential microbial composition in a mouse model and enrolled participants were assessed using the PICRUSt2 algorithm coupled with the MetaCyc and the KEGG Orthology databases. SFBS supplementation exerted a similar influence on an increase in the level of 4-aminobutanoate (also called GABA) through the L-glutamate degradation pathway in the mouse model and the enrolled healthy population. These results suggest the beneficial influence of SFBS supplementation on metabolic disorders associated with a high-fat-fructose diet, and SFBS may function as a nutritional supplement for people with diverse requirements.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Rosenberg N (2016)

From Trees to Rhizomes.

Perspectives in biology and medicine, 59(2):246-252.

This essay argues for a reorientation in medicine, a reorientation that integrates Descartes's tree-like approach to medical knowledge, which positions medical care in traditional, vertically hierarchical processes of patient differentiation, with the rhizome-like approach proposed by Deleuze and Guattari, which offers a more horizontal, weblike approach to patient care. The result would be a symbiosis that better uses the strengths of both models to treat patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Anonymous (1917)

Studies in Wound Infections: On the Question of Bacterial Symbiosis in Wound Infections.

Medical bulletin (Paris, France), 1(2):92-94.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Deutsch Y, Samara M, Nasser A, et al (2023)

Kocuria flava, a Bacterial Endophyte of the Marine Macroalga Bryopsis plumosa, Emits 8-Nonenoic Acid Which Inhibits the Aquaculture Pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica.

Marine drugs, 21(9): pii:md21090476.

Secondary metabolites-organic compounds that are often bioactive-produced by endophytes, among others, provide a selective advantage by increasing the organism's survivability. Secondary metabolites mediate the symbiotic relationship between endophytes and their host, potentially providing the host with tolerance to, and protection against biotic and abiotic stressors. Secondary metabolites can be secreted as a dissolved substance or emitted as a volatile. In a previous study, we isolated bioactive endophytes from several macroalgae and tested them in vitro for their ability to inhibit major disease-causing pathogens of aquatic animals in the aquaculture industry. One endophyte (isolate Abp5, K. flava) inhibited and killed, in vitro, the pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica, an oomycete that causes saprolegniasis-a disease affecting a wide range of aquatic animals. Here, using analytical chemistry tools, we found that Abp5 produces the volatile organic compound (VOC) 8-nonenoic acid. Once we confirmed the production of this compound by the endophyte, we tested the compound's ability to treat S. parasitica in in vitro and in vivo bioassays. In the latter, we found that 5 mg/L of the compound improves the survival of larvae challenged with S. parasitica by 54.5%. Our isolation and characterization of the VOC emitted by the endophytic K. flava establish the groundwork for future studies of endophytic biocontrol agents from macroalgae. Use of this compound could enable managing oomycete agricultural pathogens in general, and S. parasitica in particular, a major causal agent in aquaculture diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Zhong Z, Zhang G, G Fu (2023)

Effect of Experiment Warming on Soil Fungi Community of Medicago sativa, Elymus nutans and Hordeum vulgare in Tibet.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9): pii:jof9090885.

The uncertainty response of soil fungi community to climate warming in alpine agroecosystems will limit our ability to fully exploit and utilize soil fungi resources, especially in alpine regions. In this study, a warming experiment was conducted in one perennial leguminous agroecosystem [i.e., alfalfa (Medicago sativa)], perennial gramineous agroecosystem (i.e., Elymus nutans) and annual gramineous agroecosystem [i.e., highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L)] in Tibet since 2016 to investigate the response of soil fungi community to climate warming. Soils at two layers (i.e., 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) were collected in August 2017 to estimate soil fungi community based on the ITS method. The α-diversity, community composition and functional group abundance of soil fungi in the leguminous agroecosystem were more sensitive to climate warming. The α-diversity of soil fungi in the perennial gramineous agroecosystem were more sensitive to climate warming, but topology parameters of soil fungi species cooccurrence network in the annual gramineous agroecosystem were more sensitive to climate warming. Compared with 0-10 cm, soil fungal α-diversity, community composition and functional group abundance at 10-20 cm were more sensitive to climate warming. The topological parameters of soil fungi species cooccurrence network at 0-10 cm in the gramineous agroecosystem were more sensitive to climate warming, but those at 10-20 cm in the leguminous agroecosystem were more sensitive to climate warming. Warming increased the differences of soil fungi α-diversity and functional composition. For the Medicago sativa agroecosystem, warming increased the abundance of soil pathogenic fungi but decreased the abundance of soil symbiotic and saprophytic fungi at 10-20 cm. Therefore, responses of the soil fungi community to climate warming varied with agroecosystem types and soil depth. Climate warming can alter the differences of the soil fungi community among agroecosystems. Changes in soil fungi community caused by climate warming may be detrimental to the growth of alpine crops, at least for perennial Medicago sativa in Tibet.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Fang LL, Liu YJ, Wang ZH, et al (2023)

Electrical Conductivity and pH Are Two of the Main Factors Influencing the Composition of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in the Vegetation Succession Series of Songnen Saline-Alkali Grassland.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9): pii:jof9090870.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widely distributed microorganisms in the soil, playing an important role in vegetation succession, plant community diversity, and improving soil physicochemical properties. In this study, morphological identification and high-throughput sequencing technology were used to comprehensively analyze the AMF community composition and diversity at different succession stages of Songnen saline-alkali grassland. To determine the root colonization status of plants collected in the field, a colonization system was established using late-succession plants as host plants to verify the existence of mycorrhizal symbiosis and the matching phenomenon of AMF in Songnen saline-alkali grassland. The results indicated that both morphological methods and high-throughput sequencing technology showed that glomus was the dominant genus of AMF in Songnen saline grassland. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and linear regression analysis showed that electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were the main environmental factors affecting AMF species diversity and community structure in the succession sequence of Songnen saline grassland. In addition, the results of root colonization identification and the colonization system test in the field showed that AMF successfully colonized vegetation at different succession stages and had mycorrhizal symbiosis. The results of this study could help to understand the AMF community of Songnen saline-alkali grassland as well as provide a reference and basis for optimizing the AMF community structure of Songnen saline-alkali grassland through human intervention in the future and using mycorrhizal technology to restore and rebuild the degraded ecosystem of Songnen saline-alkali grassland.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Schwarz M, Tokuda G, Osaki H, et al (2023)

Reevaluating Symbiotic Digestion in Cockroaches: Unveiling the Hindgut's Contribution to Digestion in Wood-Feeding Panesthiinae (Blaberidae).

Insects, 14(9): pii:insects14090768.

Cockroaches of the subfamily Panesthiinae (family Blaberidae) are among the few major groups of insects feeding on decayed wood. Despite having independently evolved the ability to thrive on this recalcitrant and nitrogen-limited resource, they are among the least studied of all wood-feeding insect groups. In the pursuit of unraveling their unique digestive strategies, we explored cellulase and xylanase activity in the crop, midgut, and hindgut lumens of Panesthia angustipennis and Salganea taiwanensis. Employing Percoll density gradient centrifugation, we further fractionated luminal fluid to elucidate how the activities in the gut lumen are further partitioned. Our findings challenge conventional wisdom, underscoring the significant contribution of the hindgut, which accounts for approximately one-fifth of cellulase and xylanase activity. Particle-associated enzymes, potentially of bacterial origin, dominate hindgut digestion, akin to symbiotic strategies observed in select termites and passalid beetles. Our study sheds new light on the digestive prowess of panesthiine cockroaches, providing invaluable insights into the evolution of wood-feeding insects and their remarkable adaptability to challenging, nutrient-poor substrates.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Chen S, Zhou A, Y Xu (2023)

Symbiotic Bacteria Regulating Insect-Insect/Fungus/Virus Mutualism.

Insects, 14(9): pii:insects14090741.

Bacteria associated with insects potentially provide many beneficial services and have been well documented. Mutualism that relates to insects is widespread in ecosystems. However, the interrelation between "symbiotic bacteria" and "mutualism" has rarely been studied. We introduce three systems of mutualism that relate to insects (ants and honeydew-producing Hemiptera, fungus-growing insects and fungi, and plant persistent viruses and vector insects) and review the species of symbiotic bacteria in host insects, as well as their functions in host insects and the mechanisms underlying mutualism regulation. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and role of symbiotic bacteria, based on metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiology, will be required for describing the entire interaction network.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Lyndby NH, Murthy S, Bessette S, et al (2023)

Non-invasive investigation of the morphology and optical properties of the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea with optical coherence tomography.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(2007):20230127.

The jellyfish Cassiopea largely cover their carbon demand via photosynthates produced by microalgal endosymbionts, but how holobiont morphology and tissue optical properties affect the light microclimate and symbiont photosynthesis in Cassiopea remain unexplored. Here, we use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study the morphology of Cassiopea medusae at high spatial resolution. We include detailed 3D reconstructions of external micromorphology, and show the spatial distribution of endosymbionts and white granules in the bell tissue. Furthermore, we use OCT data to extract inherent optical properties from light-scattering white granules in Cassiopea, and show that granules enhance local light-availability for symbionts in close proximity. Individual granules had a scattering coefficient of µs = 200-300 cm[-1], and scattering anisotropy factor of g = 0.7, while large tissue-regions filled with white granules had a lower µs = 40-100 cm[-1], and g = 0.8-0.9. We combined OCT information with isotopic labelling experiments to investigate the effect of enhanced light-availability in whitish tissue regions. Endosymbionts located in whitish tissue exhibited significantly higher carbon fixation compared to symbionts in anastomosing tissue (i.e. tissue without light-scattering white granules). Our findings support previous suggestions that white granules in Cassiopea play an important role in the host modulation of the light-microenvironment.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Shah S, Dougan KE, Chen Y, et al (2023)

Gene duplication is the primary driver of intraspecific genomic divergence in coral algal symbionts.

Open biology, 13(9):230182.

Dinoflagellates in the order Suessiales include the family Symbiodiniaceae, which have essential roles as photosymbionts in corals, and their cold-adapted sister group, Polarella glacialis. These diverse taxa exhibit extensive genomic divergence, although their genomes are relatively small (haploid size < 3 Gbp) when compared with most other free-living dinoflagellates. Different strains of Symbiodiniaceae form symbiosis with distinct hosts and exhibit different regimes of gene expression, but intraspecific whole-genome divergence is poorly understood. Focusing on three Symbiodiniaceae species (the free-living Effrenium voratum and the symbiotic Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Durusdinium trenchii) and the free-living outgroup P. glacialis, for which whole-genome data from multiple isolates are available, we assessed intraspecific genomic divergence with respect to sequence and structure. Our analysis, based on alignment and alignment-free methods, revealed a greater extent of intraspecific sequence divergence in Symbiodiniaceae than in P. glacialis. Our results underscore the role of gene duplication in generating functional innovation, with a greater prevalence of tandemly duplicated single-exon genes observed in the genomes of free-living species than in symbionts. These results demonstrate the remarkable intraspecific genomic divergence in dinoflagellates under the constraint of reduced genome sizes, shaped by genetic duplications and symbiogenesis events during the diversification of Symbiodiniaceae.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Shatova OP, Zabolotneva AA, AV Shestopalov (2023)

Molecular Ensembles of Microbiotic Metabolites in Carcinogenesis.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 88(7):867-879.

The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are extremely complex and involve multiple components that contribute to the malignant cell transformation, tumor growth, and metastasis. In recent decades, there has been a growing interest in the role of symbiotic human microbiota in the regulation of metabolism and functioning of host immune system. The symbiosis between a macroorganism and its microbiota has given rise to the concept of a holoorganism. Interactions between the components of a holoorganism have formed in the process of coevolution, resulting in the acquisition by microbiotic metabolites of a special role of signaling molecules and main regulators of molecular interactions in the holoorganism. As elements of signaling pathways in the host organism, bacterial metabolites have become essential participants in various physiological and pathological processes, including tumor growth. At the same time, signaling metabolites often exhibit multiple effects and impact both the functions of the host cells and metabolic activity and composition of the microbiome. This review discusses the role of microbiotic metabolites in the induction and prevention of malignant transformation of cells in the host organism and their impact on the efficacy of anticancer therapy, with special emphasis on the involvement of some components of the microbial metabolite molecular ensemble in the initiation and progression of tumor growth.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Martin Říhová J, Gupta S, Darby AC, et al (2023)

Arsenophonus symbiosis with louse flies: multiple origins, coevolutionary dynamics, and metabolic significance.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Arsenophonus is a widespread insect symbiont with life strategies that vary from parasitism to obligate mutualism. In insects living exclusively on vertebrate blood, mutualistic Arsenophonus strains are presumed to provide B vitamins missing in the insect host diet. Hippoboscidae, obligate blood feeders related to tsetse flies, have been previously suggested to have acquired Arsenophonus symbionts in several independent events. Based on comparative genomic analyses of 11 Hippoboscidae-associated strains, 9 of them newly assembled, we reveal a wide range of their genomic characteristics and phylogenetic affiliations. Phylogenetic patterns and genomic traits split the strains into two different types. Seven strains display characteristics of obligate mutualists with significantly reduced genomes and long phylogenetic branches. The remaining four strains cluster on short branches, and their genomes resemble those of free-living bacteria or facultative symbionts. Both phylogenetic positions and genomic traits indicate that evolutionary history of the Hippoboscidae-Arsenophonus associations is a mixture of short-term coevolutions with at least four independent origins. The comparative approach to a reconstruction of B vitamin pathways across the available Arsenophonus genomes has produced two kinds of patterns. On one hand, it indicates the different importance of individual B vitamins in the host-symbiont interaction. While some (riboflavin, pantothenate, and folate) seem to be synthesized by all Hippoboscidae-associated obligate symbionts, pathways for others (thiamine, nicotinamide, and cobalamin) are mostly missing. On the other hand, the broad comparison has produced patterns that can serve as bases for further assessments of the pathways' completeness and functionality. IMPORTANCE Insects that live exclusively on vertebrate blood utilize symbiotic bacteria as a source of essential compounds, e.g., B vitamins. In louse flies, the most frequent symbiont originated in genus Arsenophonus, known from a wide range of insects. Here, we analyze genomic traits, phylogenetic origins, and metabolic capacities of 11 Arsenophonus strains associated with louse flies. We show that in louse flies, Arsenophonus established symbiosis in at least four independent events, reaching different stages of symbiogenesis. This allowed for comparative genomic analysis, including convergence of metabolic capacities. The significance of the results is twofold. First, based on a comparison of independently originated Arsenophonus symbioses, it determines the importance of individual B vitamins for the insect host. This expands our theoretical insight into insect-bacteria symbiosis. The second outcome is of methodological significance. We show that the comparative approach reveals artifacts that would be difficult to identify based on a single-genome analysis.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Anneberg TJ, Turcotte MM, TL Ashman (2023)

Plant neopolyploidy and genetic background differentiate the microbiome of duckweed across a variety of natural freshwater sources.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Whole-genome duplication has long been appreciated for its role in driving phenotypic novelty in plants, often altering the way organisms interface with the abiotic environment. Only recently, however, have we begun to investigate how polyploidy influences interactions of plants with other species, despite the biotic niche being predicted as one of the main determinants of polyploid establishment. Nevertheless, we lack information about how polyploidy affects the diversity and composition of the microbial taxa that colonize plants, and whether this is genotype-dependent and repeatable across natural environments. This information is a first step towards understanding whether the microbiome contributes to polyploid establishment. We, thus, tested the immediate effect of polyploidy on the diversity and composition of the bacterial microbiome of the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza using four pairs of diploids and synthetic autotetraploids. Under controlled conditions, axenic plants were inoculated with pond waters collected from 10 field sites across a broad environmental gradient. Autotetraploids hosted 4%-11% greater bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity than their diploid progenitors. Polyploidy, along with its interactions with the inoculum source and genetic lineage, collectively explained 7% of the total variation in microbiome composition. Furthermore, polyploidy broadened the core microbiome, with autotetraploids having 15 unique bacterial taxa in addition to the 55 they shared with diploids. Our results show that whole-genome duplication directly leads to novelty in the plant microbiome and importantly that the effect is dependent on the genetic ancestry of the polyploid and generalizable over many environmental contexts.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Nattoh G, Onyango B, Makhulu EE, et al (2023)

Microsporidia MB in the primary malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is avirulent and undergoes maternal and horizontal transmission.

Parasites & vectors, 16(1):335.

BACKGROUND: The demonstration that the recently discovered Anopheles symbiont Microsporidia MB blocks malaria transmission in Anopheles arabiensis and undergoes vertical and horizontal transmission suggests that it is a promising candidate for the development of a symbiont-based malaria transmission-blocking strategy. The infection prevalence and characteristics of Microsporidia MB in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.), another primary vector species of malaria in Kenya, were investigated.

METHODS: Field-collected females were confirmed to be Microsporidia MB-positive after oviposition. Egg counts of Microsporidia MB-infected and non-infected individuals were used to infer the effects of Microsporidia MB on fecundity. The time to pupation, adult sex ratio and survival were used to determine if Microsporidia MB infection has similar characteristics in the host mosquitoes An. gambiae and An. arabiensis. The intensity of Microsporidia MB infection in tissues of the midgut and gonads, and in carcasses, was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To investigate horizontal transmission, virgin males and females that were either Microsporidia MB-infected or non-infected were placed in standard cages for 48 h and allowed to mate; transmission was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting Microsporidia MB genes.

RESULTS: Microsporidia MB was found to naturally occur at a low prevalence in An. gambiae s.s. collected in western Kenya. Microsporidia MB shortened the development time from larva to pupa, but other fitness parameters such as fecundity, sex ratio, and adult survival did not differ between Microsporidia MB-infected and non-infected hosts. Microsporidia MB intensities were high in the male gonadal tissues. Transmission experiments indicated that Microsporidia MB undergoes both maternal and horizontal transmission in An. gambiae s.s.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings that Microsporidia MB naturally infects, undergoes maternal and horizontal transmission, and is avirulent in An. gambiae s.s. indicate that many of the characteristics of its infection in An. arabiensis hold true for the former. The results of the present study indicate that Microsporidia MB could be developed as a tool for the transmission-blocking of malaria across different Anopheles species.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Liu Z, Yang J, Long Y, et al (2023)

Single-nucleus transcriptomes reveal spatiotemporal symbiotic perception and early response in Medicago.

Nature plants [Epub ahead of print].

Establishing legume-rhizobial symbiosis requires precise coordination of complex responses in a time- and cell type-specific manner. Encountering Rhizobium, rapid changes of gene expression levels in host plants occur in the first few hours, which prepare the plants to turn off defence and form a symbiotic relationship with the microbes. Here, we applied single-nucleus RNA sequencing to characterize the roots of Medicago truncatula at 30 min, 6 h and 24 h after nod factor treatment. We found drastic global gene expression reprogramming at 30 min in the epidermis and cortex and most of these changes were restored at 6 h. Moreover, plant defence response genes are activated at 30 min and subsequently suppressed at 6 h in non-meristem cells. Only in the cortical cells but not in other cell types, we found the flavonoid synthase genes required to recruit rhizobia are highly expressed 30 min after inoculation with nod factors. A gene module enriched for symbiotic nitrogen fixation genes showed that MtFER (MtFERONIA) and LYK3 (LysM domain receptor-like kinase 3) share similar responses to symbiotic signals. We further found that MtFER can be phosphorylated by LYK3 and it participates in rhizobial symbiosis. Our results expand our understanding of dynamic spatiotemporal symbiotic responses at the single-cell level.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Gasser M, Keller J, Fournier P, et al (2023)

Identification and evolution of nsLTPs in the root nodule nitrogen fixation clade and molecular response of Frankia to AgLTP24.

Scientific reports, 13(1):16020.

Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are antimicrobial peptides, involved in several plant biological processes including root nodule nitrogen fixation (RNF). Nodulating plants belonging to the RNF clade establish symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacteria rhizobia (legumes symbiosis model) and Frankia (actinorhizal symbiosis model) leading to root nodule formation. nsLTPs are involved in processes active in early step of symbiosis and functional nodule in both models. In legumes, nsLTPs have been shown to regulate symbiont entry, promote root cortex infection, membrane biosynthesis, and improve symbiosis efficiency. More recently, a nsLTP, AgLTP24 has been described in the context of actinorhizal symbiosis between Alnus glutinosa and Frankia alni ACN14a. AgLTP24 is secreted at an early step of symbiosis on the deformed root hairs and targets the symbiont in the nitrogen-fixing vesicles in functional nodules. nsLTPs are involved in RNF, but their functions and evolutionary history are still largely unknown. Numerous putative nsLTPs were found up-regulated in functional nodules compared to non-infected roots in different lineages within the RNF clade. Here, results highlight that nodulating plants that are co-evolving with their nitrogen-fixing symbionts appear to have independently specialized nsLTPs for this interaction, suggesting a possible convergence of function, which opens perspectives to investigate nsLTPs functions in RNF.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Maegele I, Rupp S, Özbek S, et al (2023)

A predatory gastrula leads to symbiosis-independent settlement in Aiptasia.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(40):e2311872120.

The planula larvae of the sea anemone Aiptasia have so far not been reported to complete their life cycle by undergoing metamorphosis into adult forms. This has been a major obstacle in their use as a model for coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis. Here, we show that Aiptasia larvae actively feed on crustacean nauplii, displaying a preference for live prey. This feeding behavior relies on functional stinging cells, indicative of complex neuronal control. Regular feeding leads to significant size increase, morphological changes, and efficient settlement around 14 d postfertilization. Surprisingly, the presence of dinoflagellate endosymbionts does not affect larval growth or settlement dynamics but is crucial for sexual reproduction. Our findings finally close Aiptasia's life cycle and highlight the functional nature of its larvae, as in Haeckel's Gastrea postulate, yet reveal its active carnivory, thus contributing to our understanding of early metazoan evolution.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Cabrera-Rangel JF, Mendoza-Servín JV, Córdova-López G, et al (2022)

Symbiotic and toxinogenic Rhizopus spp. isolated from soils of different papaya producing regions in Mexico.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 3:893700.

Mucoralean fungi from the genus Rhizopus are common inhabitants of terrestrial ecosystems, being some pathogens of animals and plants. In this study, we analyzed the symbiotic and toxinogenic potential of Rhizopus species derived from agricultural soils dedicated to the production of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Mexico. Four representative strains of soil-derived Rhizopus spp. were analyzed employing molecular, microscopic, and metabolic methods. The ITS phylogenies identified the fungi as Rhizopus microsporus HP499, Rhizopus delemar HP475 and HP479, and Rhizopus homothallicus HP487. We discovered that R. microsporus HP499 and R. delemar HP475 harbor similar endofungal bacterial symbionts that belong to the genus Mycetohabitans (Burkholderia sensu lato) and that none of the four fungi were associated with Narnavirus RmNV-20S and RmNV-23S. Intriguingly, the interaction between R. delemar - Mycetohabitans showed different phenotypes from known R. microsporus - Mycetohabitans symbioses. Elimination of bacteria in R. delemar HP475 did not cause a detrimental effect on fungal growth or asexual reproduction. Moreover, metabolic and molecular analyses confirmed that, unlike symbiotic R. microsporus HP499, R. delemar HP475 does not produce rhizoxin, one of the best-characterized toxins produced by Mycetohabitans spp. The rhizoxin (rhi) biosynthetic gene cluster seems absent in this symbiotic bacterium. Our study highlights that the symbioses between Rhizopus and Mycetohabitans are more diverse than anticipated. Our findings contribute to expanding our understanding of the role bacterial symbionts have in the pathogenicity, biology and evolution of Mucorales.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Hoosein S, Neuenkamp L, Trivedi P, et al (2023)

AM fungal-bacterial relationships: what can they tell us about ecosystem sustainability and soil functioning?.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 4:1141963.

Considering our growing population and our continuous degradation of soil environments, understanding the fundamental ecology of soil biota and plant microbiomes will be imperative to sustaining soil systems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi extend their hyphae beyond plant root zones, creating microhabitats with bacterial symbionts for nutrient acquisition through a tripartite symbiotic relationship along with plants. Nonetheless, it is unclear what drives these AM fungal-bacterial relationships and how AM fungal functional traits contribute to these relationships. By delving into the literature, we look at the drivers and complexity behind AM fungal-bacterial relationships, describe the shift needed in AM fungal research towards the inclusion of interdisciplinary tools, and discuss the utilization of bacterial datasets to provide contextual evidence behind these complex relationships, bringing insights and new hypotheses to AM fungal functional traits. From this synthesis, we gather that interdependent microbial relationships are at the foundation of understanding microbiome functionality and deciphering microbial functional traits. We suggest using pattern-based inference tools along with machine learning to elucidate AM fungal-bacterial relationship trends, along with the utilization of synthetic communities, functional gene analyses, and metabolomics to understand how AM fungal and bacterial communities facilitate communication for the survival of host plant communities. These suggestions could result in improving microbial inocula and products, as well as a better understanding of complex relationships in terrestrial ecosystems that contribute to plant-soil feedbacks.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Chen CY, Selvaraj P, NI Naqvi (2023)

Functional analysis of auxin derived from a symbiotic mycobiont.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1216680.

The biosynthesis of auxin or indole-3-acetic acid by microorganisms has a major impact on plant-microbe interactions. Several beneficial microbiota are known to produce auxin, which largely influences root development and growth in the host plants. Akin to findings in rhizobacteria, recent studies have confirmed the production of auxin by plant growth-promoting fungi too. Here, we show that Penicillium citrinum isolate B9 produces auxin as deduced by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry analysis. Such fungal auxin is secreted and contributes directly to enhanced root and shoot development and overall plant growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, auxin production by P. citrinum likely involves more than one tryptophan-dependent pathway. Using auxin biosynthesis inhibitor L-Kynurenine, we show that the indole-3-pyruvate pathway might be one of the key biosynthetic routes involved in such auxin production. Confocal microscopy of the DR5rev:GFP Arabidopsis reporter line helped demonstrate that P. citrunum B9-derived auxin is biologically active and is able to significantly enhance auxin signaling in roots during such improved root growth and plant development. Furthermore, the phenotypic growth defects arising from impaired auxin signaling in Arabidopsis taa1 mutant or upon L-Kynurenine treatment of wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings could be significantly alleviated by fungus B9-derived auxin, thus suggesting its positive role in plant growth promotion. Collectively, our results provide clear evidence that the production of auxin is one of the main mechanisms involved in induction of the beneficial plant growth by P. citrinum.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Sun S, Zhao Y, Dong Q, et al (2023)

Symbiotic diazotrophs in response to yak grazing and Tibetan sheep grazing in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau grassland soils.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1257521.

Grazing by local livestock is the traditional human practice in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau grassland, and moderate intensity grazing can maintain high productivity and diversity of alpine grassland. Grazing ecosystems are often nitrogen-limited, but N2-fixing communities in response to yak grazing and Tibetan sheep grazing in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau grassland have remained underexplored. In this study, we applied quantitative PCR quantitation and MiSeq sequencing of nifH under yak grazing and Tibetan grazing through a manipulated grazing experiment on an alpine grassland. The results showed that the grazing treatments significantly increased the soil ammonium nitrogen (AN) and total phosphorus (TP), but reduced the diazotrophs abundance. Compared with no grazing treatment, the composition of diazotrophs could be maximally maintained when the ratio of yak and Tibetan sheep were 1:2. The foraging strategies of grazing livestock reduced the legumes biomass, and thus reduced the diazotrophs abundance. Data analysis suggested that the direct key factors in regulating diazotrophs are AN and TP, and the changes of these two soil chemical properties were affected by the dung and urine of herbivore assemblages. Overall, these results indicated that the mixed grazing with a ratio of yak to Tibetan sheep as 1:2 can stabilize the soil diazotrophsic community, suggesting that MG12 are more reasonable grazing regimes in this region.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zhao C, Wang L, Zhang K, et al (2023)

Variation of Helicoverpa armigera symbionts across developmental stages and geographic locations.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1251627.

Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) poses a global problem, causing substantial economic and ecological losses. Endosymbionts in insects play crucial roles in multiple insect biological processes. However, the interactions between H. armigera and its symbionts have not been well characterized to date. We investigated the symbionts of H. armigera in the whole life cycle from different geographical locations. In the whole life cycle of H. armigera, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacteria at the phylum level, while Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Glutamicibacter, and Bacillus were the four dominant bacteria at the genus level. Furthermore, high similarity in symbiotic bacterial community was observed in different stages of H. armigera, which were dominated by Enterococcus and Enterobacter. In fields, the dominant bacteria were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, whereas, in the laboratory, the dominant bacteria were Proteobacteria. At the genus level, the dominant bacteria in cotton bollworm eggs of wild populations were Enterobacter, Morganella, Lactococcus, Asaia, Apibacter, and Enterococcus, and the subdominant bacteria were Bartonella, Pseudomonas, and Orbus. Moreover, the symbionts varied with geographical locations, and the closer the geographical distance, the more similar the microbial composition. Taken together, our study identifies and compares the symbiont variation along with geographical gradients and host development dynamic and reveals the high flexibility of microbiome communities in H. armigera, which probably benefits for the successful survival in a complicated changing environment.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Wang Y, Xu J, Yuan Q, et al (2023)

Effect of symbiotic fungi-Armillaria gallica on the yield of Gastrodia elata Bl. and insight into the response of soil microbial community.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1233555.

Armillaria members play important roles in the nutrient supply and growth modulation of Gastrodia elata Bl., and they will undergo severe competition with native soil organisms before colonization and become symbiotic with G. elata. Unraveling the response of soil microbial organisms to symbiotic fungi will open up new avenues to illustrate the biological mechanisms driving G. elata's benefit from Armillaria. For this purpose, Armillaria strains from four main G. elata production areas in China were collected, identified, and co-planted with G. elata in Guizhou Province. The result of the phylogenetic tree indicated that the four Armillaria strains shared the shortest clade with Armillaria gallica. The yields of G. elata were compared to uncover the potential role of these A. gallica strains. Soil microbial DNA was extracted and sequenced using Illumina sequencing of 16S and ITS rRNA gene amplicons to decipher the changes of soil bacterial and fungal communities arising from A. gallica strains. The yield of G. elata symbiosis with the YN strain (A. gallica collected from Yunnan) was four times higher than that of the GZ strain (A. gallica collected from Guizhou) and nearly two times higher than that of the AH and SX strains (A. gallica collected from Shanxi and Anhui). We found that the GZ strain induced changes in the bacterial community, while the YN strain mainly caused changes in the fungal community. Similar patterns were identified in non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis, in which the GZ strain greatly separated from others in bacterial structure, while the YN strain caused significant separation from other strains in fungal structure. This current study revealed the assembly and response of the soil microbial community to A. gallica strains and suggested that exotic strains of A. gallica might be helpful in improving the yield of G. elata by inducing changes in the soil fungal community.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Zhang T, P Vďačný (2023)

Deciphering phylogenetic relationships of and delimiting species boundaries within the controversial ciliate genus Conchophthirus using an integrative morpho-evo approach.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(23)00231-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The phylum Ciliophora (ciliates) comprises about 2600 symbiotic and over 5500 free-living species. The inclusion of symbiotic ciliates in phylogenetic analyses often challenges traditional classification frameworks due to their morphological adaptions to the symbiotic lifestyle. Conchophthirus is such a controversial obligate endocommensal genus whose affinities to other symbiotic and free-living scuticociliates are still poorly understood. Using uni- and multivariate morphometrics as well as 2D-based molecular and phylogenetic analyses, we attempted to test for the monophyly of Conchophthirus, study the boundaries of Conchophthirus species isolated from various bivalves at mesoscale, and reveal the phylogenetic relationships of Conchophthirus to other scuticociliates. Multidimensional analyses of morphometric and cell geometric data generated the same homogenous clusters, as did phylogenetic analyses based on 144 new sequences of two mitochondrial and five nuclear molecular markers. Conchophthirus is not closely related to 'core' scuticociliates represented by the orders Pleuronematida and Philasterida, as assumed in the past using morphological data. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers consistently showed the free-living Dexiotricha and the mouthless endosymbiotic Haptophrya to be the nearest relatives of Conchophthirus. These three highly morphologically and ecologically dissimilar genera represent an orphan clade from the early radiation of scuticociliates in molecular phylogenies.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Aminov R, L Aminova (2023)

The role of the glycome in symbiotic host-microbe interactions.

Glycobiology pii:7281520 [Epub ahead of print].

Glycosylation plays a crucial role in many aspects of cell biology, including cellular and organismal integrity, structure-and-function of many glycosylated molecules in the cell, signal transduction, development, cancer, and in a number of diseases. Besides, at the inter-organismal level of interaction, a variety of glycosylated molecules are involved in the host-microbiota recognition and initiation of downstream signalling cascades depending on the outcomes of the glycome-mediated ascertainment. The role of glycosylation in host-microbe interactions is better elaborated within the context of virulence and pathogenicity in bacterial infection processes but the symbiotic host-microbe relationships also involve substantive glycome-mediated interactions. The works in the latter field have been reviewed to a much lesser extent, and the main aim of this mini-review is to compensate for this deficiency and summarise the role of glycomics in host-microbe symbiotic interactions.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Li J, Zhang K, Li L, et al (2023)

Phosphorus nutrition strategies in a Symbiodiniacean species: Implications in coral-alga symbiosis facing increasing phosphorus deficiency in future warmer oceans.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Coral reefs thrive in the oligotrophic ocean and rely on symbiotic algae to acquire nutrients. Global warming is projected to intensify surface ocean nutrient deficiency and anthropogenic discharge of wastes with high nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) ratios can exacerbate P nutrient limitation. However, our understanding on how symbiotic algae cope with P deficiency is limited. Here, we investigated the responses of a coral symbiotic species of Symbiodiniaceae, Cladocopium goreaui, to P-limitation by examining its physiological performance and transcriptomic profile. Under P stress, C. goreaui exhibited decreases in algal growth, photosynthetic efficiency, and cellular P content but enhancement in carbon fixation, N assimilation, N:P ratio, and energy metabolism, with downregulated expression of carbohydrate exporter genes. Besides, C. goreaui showed flexible mechanisms of utilizing different dissolved organic phosphorus to relieve P deficiency. When provided glycerol phosphate, C. goreaui hydrolyzed it extracellularly to produce phosphate for uptake. When grown on phytate, in contrast, C. goreaui upregulated the endocytosis pathway while no dissolved inorganic phosphorus was released into the medium, suggesting that phytate was transported into the cell, potentially via the endocytosis pathway. This study sheds light on the survival strategies of C. goreaui and potential weakening of its role as an organic carbon supplier in P-limited environments, underscoring the importance of more systematic investigation on future projections of such effects.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Adams JN, Escalona M, Marimuthu MPA, et al (2023)

The reference genome assembly of the bright cobblestone lichen, Acarospora socialis.

The Journal of heredity pii:7262908 [Epub ahead of print].

Acarospora socialis, the bright cobblestone lichen, is commonly found in southwestern North America. This charismatic yellow lichen is a species of key ecological significance as it is often a pioneer species in new environments. Despite their ecological importance virtually no research has been conducted on the genomics of A. socialis. To address this, we used long-read sequencing to generate the first high-quality draft genome of A. socialis. Lichen thallus tissue was collected from Pinkham Canyon in Joshua Tree National Park, California and deposited in the UC Riverside herbarium under accession #295874. The de novo assembly of the mycobiont partner of the lichen was generated from Pacific Biosciences HiFi long reads and Dovetail Omni-C chromatin capture data. After removing algal and bacterial contigs, the fungal genome was approximately 31.2 Mb consisting of 38 scaffolds with contig and scaffold N50 of 2.4 Mb. The BUSCO completeness score of the assembled genome was 97.5% using the Ascomycota gene set. Information on the genome of A. socialis is important for California conservation purposes given that this lichen is threatened in some places locally by wildfires due to climate change. This reference genome will be used for understanding the genetic diversity, population genomics, and comparative genomics of A. socialis species. Genomic resources for this species will support population and landscape genomics investigations, exploring the use of A. socialis as a bioindicator species for climate change, and in studies of adaptation by comparing populations that occur across aridity gradients in California.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Lopes BAB, Silva AMM, Santana MC, et al (2022)

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Quality Indicators in Eucalyptus genotypes With Different Drought Tolerance Levels.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 3:913570.

Silviculture has great importance worldwide, and the use of Eucalyptus species, which account for 75% of the local planted forest in Brazil, is one of the factors that contributes to the success of this activity in the country. Despite its adaptability, the yield of Eucalyptus is often affected by climate change, particularly water deficiency. Plants have developed strategies to mitigate water stress, for example, through their association with mycorrhizal fungi. The genus Eucalyptus, particularly in the plant domain, establishes symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF). The influence of Eucalyptus species on AMF and soil quality indicators is not well understood. Our aim was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the various responses of soil AMF communities and soil nutrient dynamics in the presence of Eucalyptus species with different degrees of drought tolerance. A field experiment was established containing six Eucalyptus species, E. brassiana, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. cloeziana, E. grandis, and E. urophylla, all of which were planted in large plots. Soil and root samples were taken when the plants were 1.7 and 2.2 years old. We found that Eucalyptus species with low (E. grandis and E. urophylla) and intermediate drought tolerance (E. citriodora and E. cloeziana) showed stronger correlations with the AMF community than Eucalyptus species with high drought tolerance (E. brassiana and E. camaldulensis). Differences were also found between Eucalyptus species for AMF spore numbers and root colonization percentages, which was most evident for E. urophylla. The microbiological attributes found to be most responsive to Eucalyptus species were soil enzyme activities, AMF spore numbers, root colonization percentages, and fungal abundance. Soil organic carbon, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, copper, and iron were the main chemical drivers related to the soil AMF community structure in the presence of E. brassiana.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Tang D, Tang X, W Fang (2022)

New Downstream Signaling Branches of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades Identified in the Insect Pathogenic and Plant Symbiotic Fungus Metarhizium robertsii.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 3:911366.

Fungi rely on major signaling pathways such as the MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling pathways to regulate their responses to fluctuating environmental conditions, which is vital for fungi to persist in the environment. The cosmopolitan Metarhizium fungi have multiple lifestyles and remarkable stress tolerance. Some species, especially M. robertsii, are emerging models for investigating the mechanisms underlying ecological adaptation in fungi. Here we review recently identified new downstream branches of the MAPK cascades in M. robertsii, which controls asexual production (conidiation), insect infection and selection of carbon and nitrogen nutrients. The Myb transcription factor RNS1 appears to be a central regulator that channels information from the Fus3- and Slt2-MAPK cascade to activate insect infection and conidiation, respectively. Another hub regulator is the transcription factor AFTF1 that transduces signals from the Fus3-MAPK and the membrane protein Mr-OPY2 for optimal formation of the infection structures on the host cuticle. Homologs of these newly identified regulators are found in other Metarhizium species and many non-Metarhizium fungi, indicating that these new downstream signaling branches of the MAPK cascades could be widespread.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Mukherjee PK, Horwitz BA, Vinale F, et al (2022)

Editorial: Molecular Intricacies of Trichoderma-Plant-Pathogen Interactions.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 3:892228.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Mattila H, Österman-Udd J, Mali T, et al (2022)

Basidiomycota Fungi and ROS: Genomic Perspective on Key Enzymes Involved in Generation and Mitigation of Reactive Oxygen Species.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 3:837605.

Our review includes a genomic survey of a multitude of reactive oxygen species (ROS) related intra- and extracellular enzymes and proteins among fungi of Basidiomycota, following their taxonomic classification within the systematic classes and orders, and focusing on different fungal lifestyles (saprobic, symbiotic, pathogenic). Intra- and extracellular ROS metabolism-involved enzymes (49 different protein families, summing 4170 protein models) were searched as protein encoding genes among 63 genomes selected according to current taxonomy. Extracellular and intracellular ROS metabolism and mechanisms in Basidiomycota are illustrated in detail. In brief, it may be concluded that differences between the set of extracellular enzymes activated by ROS, especially by H2O2, and involved in generation of H2O2, follow the differences in fungal lifestyles. The wood and plant biomass degrading white-rot fungi and the litter-decomposing species of Agaricomycetes contain the highest counts for genes encoding various extracellular peroxidases, mono- and peroxygenases, and oxidases. These findings further confirm the necessity of the multigene families of various extracellular oxidoreductases for efficient and complete degradation of wood lignocelluloses by fungi. High variations in the sizes of the extracellular ROS-involved gene families were found, however, among species with mycorrhizal symbiotic lifestyle. In addition, there are some differences among the sets of intracellular thiol-mediation involving proteins, and existence of enzyme mechanisms for quenching of intracellular H2O2 and ROS. In animal- and plant-pathogenic species, extracellular ROS enzymes are absent or rare. In these fungi, intracellular peroxidases are seemingly in minor role than in the independent saprobic, filamentous species of Basidiomycota. Noteworthy is that our genomic survey and review of the literature point to that there are differences both in generation of extracellular ROS as well as in mechanisms of response to oxidative stress and mitigation of ROS between fungi of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Villalobos Solis MI, Engle NL, Spangler MK, et al (2022)

Expanding the Biological Role of Lipo-Chitooligosaccharides and Chitooligosaccharides in Laccaria bicolor Growth and Development.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 3:808578.

The role of lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) as signaling molecules that mediate the establishment of symbiotic relationships between fungi and plants is being redefined. New evidence suggests that the production of these molecular signals may be more of a common trait in fungi than what was previously thought. LCOs affect different aspects of growth and development in fungi. For the ectomycorrhizal forming fungi, Laccaria bicolor, the production and effects of LCOs have always been studied with a symbiotic plant partner; however, there is still no scientific evidence describing the effects that these molecules have on this organism. Here, we explored the physiological, molecular, and metabolomic changes in L. bicolor when grown in the presence of exogenous sulfated and non-sulfated LCOs, as well as the chitooligomers, chitotetraose (CO4), and chitooctaose (CO8). Physiological data from 21 days post-induction showed reduced fungal growth in response to CO and LCO treatments compared to solvent controls. The underlying molecular changes were interrogated by proteomics, which revealed substantial alterations to biological processes related to growth and development. Moreover, metabolite data showed that LCOs and COs caused a downregulation of organic acids, sugars, and fatty acids. At the same time, exposure to LCOs resulted in the overproduction of lactic acid in L. bicolor. Altogether, these results suggest that these signals might be fungistatic compounds and contribute to current research efforts investigating the emerging impacts of these molecules on fungal growth and development.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Rollano-Peñaloza OM, Mollinedo PA, Widell S, et al (2021)

Transcriptomic Analysis of Quinoa Reveals a Group of Germin-Like Proteins Induced by Trichoderma.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 2:768648.

Symbiotic strains of fungi in the genus Trichoderma affect growth and pathogen resistance of many plant species, but the interaction is not known in molecular detail. Here we describe the transcriptomic response of two cultivars of the crop Chenopodium quinoa to axenic co-cultivation with Trichoderma harzianum BOL-12 and Trichoderma afroharzianum T22. The response of C. quinoa roots to BOL-12 and T22 in the early phases of interaction was studied by RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR verification. Interaction with the two fungal strains induced partially overlapping gene expression responses. Comparing the two plant genotypes, a broad spectrum of putative quinoa defense genes were found activated in the cultivar Kurmi but not in the Real cultivar. In cultivar Kurmi, relatively small effects were observed for classical pathogen response pathways but instead a C. quinoa-specific clade of germin-like genes were activated. Germin-like genes were found to be more rapidly induced in cultivar Kurmi as compared to Real. The same germin-like genes were found to also be upregulated systemically in the leaves. No strong correlation was observed between any of the known hormone-mediated defense response pathways and any of the quinoa-Trichoderma interactions. The differences in responses are relevant for the capabilities of applying Trichoderma agents for crop protection of different cultivars of C. quinoa.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Figueiredo AF, Boy J, G Guggenberger (2021)

Common Mycorrhizae Network: A Review of the Theories and Mechanisms Behind Underground Interactions.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 2:735299.

Most terrestrial plants establish symbiotic associations with mycorrhizal fungi for accessing essential plant nutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi have been frequently reported to interconnect plants via a common mycelial network (CMN), in which nutrients and signaling compounds can be exchanged between the connected plants. Several studies have been performed to demonstrate the potential effects of the CMN mediating resource transfer and its importance for plant fitness. Due to several contrasting results, different theories have been developed to predict benefits or disadvantages for host plants involved in the network and how it might affect plant communities. However, the importance of the mycelium connections for resources translocation compared to other indirect pathways, such as leakage of fungi hyphae and subsequent uptake by neighboring plant roots, is hard to distinguish and quantify. If resources can be translocated via mycelial connections in significant amounts that could affect plant fitness, it would represent an important tactic for plants co-existence and it could shape community composition and dynamics. Here, we report and critically discuss the most recent findings on studies aiming to evaluate and quantify resources translocation between plants sharing a CMN and predict the pattern that drives the movement of such resources into the CMN. We aim to point gaps and define open questions to guide upcoming studies in the area for a prospect better understanding of possible plant-to-plant interactions via CMN and its effect in shaping plants communities. We also propose new experiment set-ups and technologies that could be used to improve previous experiments. For example, the use of mutant lines plants with manipulation of genes involved in the symbiotic associations, coupled with labeling techniques to track resources translocation between connected plants, could provide a more accurate idea about resource allocation and plant physiological responses that are truly accountable to CMN.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Balestrini R (2021)

Grand Challenges in Fungi-Plant Interactions.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 2:750003.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Taylor JT, Wang KD, Horwitz B, et al (2021)

Early Transcriptome Response of Trichoderma virens to Colonization of Maize Roots.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 2:718557.

Trichoderma virens is a well-known mycoparasitic fungal symbiont that is valued for its biocontrol capabilities. T. virens initiates a symbiotic relationship with a plant host through the colonization of its roots. To achieve colonization, the fungus must communicate with the host and evade its innate defenses. In this study, we explored the genes involved with the host communication and colonization process through transcriptomic profiling of the wild-type fungus and selected deletion mutants as they colonized maize roots. Transcriptome profiles of the T. virens colonization of maize roots over time revealed that 24 h post inoculation appeared to be a key time for plant-microbe communication, with many key gene categories, including signal transduction mechanisms and carbohydrate transport and metabolism, peaking in expression at this early colonization time point. The transcriptomic profiles of Sm1 and Sir1 deletion mutants in the presence of plants demonstrated that Sir1, rather than Sm1, appears to be the key regulator of the fungal response to maize, with 64% more unique differentially expressed genes compared to Sm1. Additionally, we developed a novel algorithm utilizing gene clustering and coexpression network analyses to select potential colonization-related gene targets for characterization. About 40% of the genes identified by the algorithm would have been missed using previous methods for selecting gene targets.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Du L, Gao X, Zhao L, et al (2023)

Assessment of the risk of imidaclothiz to the dominant aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01969-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The neonicotinoid of imidaclothiz insecticide with low resistance and high efficiency, has great potential for application in pest control in specifically cotton field. In this systematically evaluate the effects of sublethal doses of imidaclothiz (LC10: 11.48 mg/L; LC30: 28.03 mg/L) on the biology, transcriptome, and microbiome of Binodoxys communis, the predominant primary parasitic natural enemy of aphids. The findings indicated that imidaclothiz has significant deleterious effects on the survival rate, parasitic rate, and survival time of B. communis. Additionally, there was a marked reduction in the survival rate and survival time of the F1 generation, that is, the negative effect of imidaclothiz on B. communis was continuous and trans-generational. Transcriptome analysis revealed that imidaclothiz treatment elicited alterations in the expression of genes associated with energy and detoxification metabolism. In addition, 16S rRNA analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of Rhodococcus and Pantoea, which are associated with detoxification metabolism, due to imidaclothiz exposure. These findings provide evidence that B. communis may regulate gene expression in conjunction with symbiotic bacteria to enhance adaptation to imidaclothiz. Finally, this study precise evaluation of imidaclothiz's potential risk to B. communis and provides crucial theoretical support for increasing the assessment of imidaclothiz in integrated pest management.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Gao X, Hu F, Cui H, et al (2023)

Glyphosate decreases survival, increases fecundity, and alters the microbiome of the natural predator Harmonia axyridis (ladybird beetle).

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01978-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Glyphosate is a widely-used herbicide that shows toxicity to non-target organisms. The predatory natural enemy Harmonia axyridis may ingest glyphosate present in pollen and aphid prey. The present study characterized the responses of adult H. axyridis to environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate (5, 10, and 20 mg/L) for one or five days. There were no obvious effects on adult H. axyridis survival rates or fecundity in response to 5 or 10 mg/L glyphosate. However, exposure to 20 mg/L glyphosate significantly reduced the survival rate and increased fecundity. Analysis of the adult H. axyridis microbiota with 16S rRNA sequencing demonstrated changes in the relative and/or total abundance of specific taxa, including Serratia, Enterobacter, Staphylococcus, and Hafnia-Obesumbacterium. These changes in symbiotic bacterial abundance may have led to changes in survival rates or fecundity of this beetle. This is the first report of herbicide-induced stimulation of fecundity in a non-target predatory natural enemy, reflecting potentially unexpected risks of glyphosate exposure in adult H. axyridis. Although glyphosate resistant crops have been widely planted, the results of this study indicate a need to strengthen glyphosate management to prevent over-use, which could cause glyphosate toxicity and threaten environmental and human health.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Jiang Y, Gao H, Wang L, et al (2023)

Quorum sensing-activated phenylalanine metabolism drives OMV biogenesis to enhance mosquito commensal colonization resistance to Plasmodium.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(23)00342-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota and its symbiotic relationship with the host are crucial for preventing pathogen infection. However, little is known about the mechanisms that drive commensal colonization. Serratia bacteria, commonly found in Anopheles mosquitoes, potentially mediate mosquito resistance to Plasmodium. Using S. ureilytica Su_YN1 as a model, we show that a quorum sensing (QS) circuit is crucial for stable colonization. After blood ingestion, the QS synthase SueI generates the signaling molecule N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). Once C6-HSL binds to the QS receptor SueR, repression of the phenylalanine-to-acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) conversion pathway is lifted. This pathway regulates outer membrane vesicle (OMV) biogenesis and promotes Serratia biofilm-like aggregate formation, facilitating gut adaptation and colonization. Notably, exposing Serratia Su_YN1-carrying Anopheles mosquitoes to C6-HSL increases Serratia gut colonization and enhances Plasmodium transmission-blocking efficacy. These findings provide insights into OMV biogenesis and commensal gut colonization and identify a powerful strategy for enhancing commensal resistance to pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Kalayci FNC, S Ozen (2023)

Possible Role of Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiome in SLE.

Current rheumatology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The resident gut microbiota serves as a double-edged sword that aids the host in multiple ways to preserve a healthy equilibrium and serve as early companions and boosters for the gradual evolution of our immune defensive layers; nevertheless, the perturbation of the symbiotic resident intestinal communities has a profound impact on autoimmunity induction, particularly in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we seek to critically evaluate the microbiome research in SLE with a focus on intestinal dysbiosis.

RECENT FINDINGS: SLE is a complex and heterogeneous disorder with self-attack due to loss of tolerance, and there is aberrant excessive immune system activation. There is mounting evidence suggesting that intestinal flora disturbances may accelerate the formation and progression of SLE, presumably through a variety of mechanisms, including intestinal barrier dysfunction and leaky gut, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, gender bias, and biofilms. Gut microbiome plays a critical role in SLE pathogenesis, and additional studies are warranted to properly define the impact of gut microbiome in SLE, which can eventually lead to new and potentially safer management approaches for this debilitating disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

von Beeren C, Pohl S, Fikáček M, et al (2023)

Army ant middens - Home and nursery of a diverse beetle fauna.

Ecology and evolution, 13(9):e10451.

Army ants provide nourishment to a large variety of animals. This includes birds that feed on animals flushed out by army ant raids, symbiotic arthropods that consume the ants' prey or their brood, and other arthropods that scavenge on army ant refuse deposits. The latter have not received much attention, and the few published studies lack detailed species identifications. Here we provide a first systematic inventory of the beetle fauna associated with refuse deposits of Eciton army ants, with a focus on Eciton burchellii. We collected 8364 adult beetles, 511 larvae, and 24 eggs from 34 deposits at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We used a combination of DNA barcoding and morphology to identify a subset of 436 specimens to species level. The samples included several new species, and we here formally describe two water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae). Refuse deposits harbored a diverse beetle fauna. The identified subset consisted of 91 beetle species from 12 families, with rove beetles being the most abundant and diverse visitors. Of the 85 species found with E. burchellii, 50 species were collected from only one or two refuse deposits. Conversely, seven species were found in 10 or more refuse deposits, indicating a certain level of habitat specialization. We matched adults and immatures for 22 beetle species via DNA barcodes, demonstrating that army ant middens also serve as a beetle nursery. The present survey highlights the significant ecological function of army ants as promoters of biodiversity and their status as keystone species in tropical rainforests.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Sahu S, Kaur A, Singh G, et al (2023)

Harnessing the potential of microalgae-bacteria interaction for eco-friendly wastewater treatment: A review on new strategies involving machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Journal of environmental management, 346:119004 pii:S0301-4797(23)01792-9 [Epub ahead of print].

In the pursuit of effective wastewater treatment and biomass generation, the symbiotic relationship between microalgae and bacteria emerges as a promising avenue. This analysis delves into recent advancements concerning the utilization of microalgae-bacteria consortia for wastewater treatment and biomass production. It examines multiple facets of this symbiosis, encompassing the judicious selection of suitable strains, optimal culture conditions, appropriate media, and operational parameters. Moreover, the exploration extends to contrasting closed and open bioreactor systems for fostering microalgae-bacteria consortia, elucidating the inherent merits and constraints of each methodology. Notably, the untapped potential of co-cultivation with diverse microorganisms, including yeast, fungi, and various microalgae species, to augment biomass output. In this context, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) stand out as transformative catalysts. By addressing intricate challenges in wastewater treatment and microalgae-bacteria symbiosis, AI and ML foster innovative technological solutions. These cutting-edge technologies play a pivotal role in optimizing wastewater treatment processes, enhancing biomass yield, and facilitating real-time monitoring. The synergistic integration of AI and ML instills a novel dimension, propelling the fields towards sustainable solutions. As AI and ML become integral tools in wastewater treatment and symbiotic microorganism cultivation, novel strategies emerge that harness their potential to overcome intricate challenges and revolutionize the domain.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Wang Z, Ogaya C, Dörfler V, et al (2023)

Pheno- and genotyping in vitro dauer juvenile recovery in the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

The entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is an effective biological-control agent of insect pests. The dauer juveniles (DJs) seek for, infect insects, and release cells of the carried symbiotic bacterium of the genus Photorhabdus. Inside the host, the DJs perceive signals from the insect's haemolymph that trigger the exit from the arrested stage and the further development to mature adults. This developmental step is called DJ recovery. In commercial production, a high and synchronous DJ recovery determines the success of liquid-culture mass production. To enhance the understanding about genetic components regulating DJ recovery, more than 160 mutant- and 25 wild type inbred lines (WT ILs) were characterized for DJ recovery induced by cell-free bacterial supernatant. The mutant lines exhibited a broader DJ recovery range than WT ILs (4.6-67.2% vs 1.6-35.7%). A subset of mutant lines presented high variability of virulence against mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) (from 22 to 78% mortality) and mean time survival under oxidative stress (70 mM H2O2; from 10 to 151 h). Genotyping by sequencing of 96 mutant lines resulted in more than 150 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which four results are strongly associated with the DJ recovery trait. The present results are the basis for future approaches in improving DJ recovery by breeding under in vitro liquid-culture mass production in H. bacteriophora. This generated platform of EMS-mutants is as well a versatile tool for the investigation of many further traits of interest in EPNs. KEYPOINTS: • Exposure to bacterial supernatants of Photorhabdus laumondii induces the recovery of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora dauer juveniles (DJs). Both, the bacteria and the nematode partner, influence this response. However, the complete identity of its regulators is not known. • We dissected the genetic component of DJ recovery regulation in H. bacteriophora nematodes by generating a large array of EMS mutant lines and characterizing their recovery pheno- and genotypes. • We determined sets of mutants with contrasting DJ recovery and genotyped a subset of the EMS-mutant lines via genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and identified SNPs with significant correlation to the recovery trait.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Yamamoto Y, Suzuki Y, Tsukuda R, et al (2023)

Genome sequence of Enterococcus gallinarum AH4, a milk oligosaccharide-degrading strain isolated from suckling rats.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

We had previously isolated Enterococcus gallinarum AH4, a strain capable of degrading rat milk oligosaccharides. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequence of AH4. This whole-genome information will expand our understanding of milk oligosaccharide-mediated symbioses between bacteria and host mammals.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Dong PT, Tian J, Kobayashi-Kirschvink KJ, et al (2023)

Episymbiotic bacterium induces intracellular lipid droplet production in its host bacteria.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.09.06.556576.

Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7) Nanosynbacter lyticus type strain TM7x exhibits a remarkably compact genome and an extraordinarily small cell size. This obligate epibiotic parasite forms a symbiotic relationship with its bacterial host, Schaalia odontolytica , strain XH001 (formerly Actinomyces odontolyticus strain XH001). Due to its limited genome size, TM7x possesses restrained metabolic capacities, predominantly living on the surface of its bacterial host to sustain this symbiotic lifestyle. To comprehend this intriguing, yet understudied interspecies interaction, a thorough understanding of the physical interaction between TM7x and XH001 is imperative. In this study, we employed super-resolution fluorescence imaging to investigate the physical association between TM7x and XH001. We found that the binding with TM7x led to a substantial alteration in the membrane fluidity of the host bacterium XH001. Unexpectedly, we revealed the formation of intracellular lipid droplets in XH001 when forming episymbiosis with TM7x, a feature not commonly observed in oral bacteria cells. The TM7x-induced LD accumulation in XH001 was further confirmed by label-free non-invasive Raman spectroscopy, which also unveiled additional phenotypical features when XH001 cells are physically associated with TM7x. Further exploration through culturing host bacterium XH001 alone under various stress conditions showed that LD accumulation was a general response to stress. Intriguingly, a survival assay demonstrated that the presence of LDs likely plays a protective role in XH001, enhancing its overall survival under adverse conditions. In conclusion, our study sheds new light on the intricate interaction between Saccharibacteria and its host bacterium, highlighting the potential benefit conferred by TM7x to its host, and further emphasizing the context-dependent nature of symbiotic relationships.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Pan H, Shim A, Lubin MB, et al (2023)

Hopanoid lipids promote soybean- Bradyrhizobium symbiosis.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.09.04.556284.

UNLABELLED: The symbioses between leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria known as rhizobia are well known for promoting plant growth and sustainably increasing soil nitrogen. Recent evidence indicates that hopanoids, a family of steroid-like lipids, promote Bradyrhizobium symbioses with tropical legumes. To characterize hopanoids in Bradyrhizobium symbiosis with soybean, the most economically significant Bradyrhizobium host, we validated a recently published cumate-inducible hopanoid mutant of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110, Pcu- shc ::Δ shc . GC-MS analysis showed that this strain does not produce hopanoids without cumate induction, and under this condition, is impaired in growth in rich medium and under osmotic, temperature, and pH stress. In planta , Pcu- shc ::Δ shc is an inefficient soybean symbiont with significantly lower rates of nitrogen fixation and low survival within host tissue. RNA-seq revealed that hopanoid loss reduces expression of flagellar motility and chemotaxis-related genes, further confirmed by swim plate assays, and enhances expression of genes related to nitrogen metabolism and protein secretion. These results suggest that hopanoids provide a significant fitness advantage to B. diazoefficiens in legume hosts and provide a foundation for future mechanistic studies of hopanoid function in protein secretion and motility.

IMPORTANCE: A major problem for global sustainability is feeding our exponentially growing human population while available arable land is decreasing, especially in areas with the greatest population growth. Harnessing the power of plant-beneficial microbes has gained attention as a potential solution, including the increasing our reliance on the symbioses of leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. This study examines the role of hopanoid lipids in the symbiosis between Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA110, an important commercial inoculant strain, and its economically important host soybean. Our research extends our knowledge of the functions of bacterial lipids in symbiosis to an agricultural context, which may one day help improve the practical applications of plant-beneficial microbes in agriculture.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Gerullis M, Pieruschka R, Fahrner S, et al (2023)

From genes to policy: mission-oriented governance of plant-breeding research and technologies.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1235175.

Mission-oriented governance of research focuses on inspirational, yet attainable goals and targets the sustainable development goals through innovation pathways. We disentangle its implications for plant breeding research and thus impacting the sustainability transformation of agricultural systems, as it requires improved crop varieties and management practices. Speedy success in plant breeding is vital to lower the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, increase crop resilience to climate stresses and reduce postharvest losses. A key question is how this success may come about? So far plant breeding research has ignored wider social systems feedbacks, but governance also failed to deliver a set of systemic breeding goals providing directionality and organization to research policy of the same. To address these challenges, we propose a heuristic illustrating the core elements needed for governing plant breeding research: Genetics, Environment, Management and Social system (GxExMxS) are the core elements for defining directions for future breeding. We illustrate this based on historic cases in context of current developments in plant phenotyping technologies and derive implications for governing research infrastructures and breeding programs. As part of mission-oriented governance we deem long-term investments into human resources and experimental set-ups for agricultural systems necessary to ensure a symbiotic relationship for private and public breeding actors and recommend fostering collaboration between social and natural sciences for working towards transdisciplinary collaboration.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Wang Z, Liu Y, Wang H, et al (2023)

Genome and transcriptome of Ips nitidus provide insights into high-altitude hypoxia adaptation and symbiosis.

iScience, 26(10):107793.

Ips nitidus is a well-known conifer pest that has contributed significantly to spruce forest disturbance in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and seriously threatens the ecological balance of these areas. We report a chromosome-level genome of I. nitidus determined by PacBio and Hi-C technology. Phylogenetic inference showed that it diverged from the common ancestor of I. typographus ∼2.27 mya. Gene family expansion in I. nitidus was characterized by DNA damage repair and energy metabolism, which may facilitate adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia. Interestingly, differential gene expression analysis revealed upregulated genes associated with high-altitude hypoxia adaptation and downregulated genes associated with detoxification after feeding and tunneling in fungal symbiont Ophiostoma bicolor-colonized substrates. Our findings provide evidence of the potential adaptability of I. nitidus to conifer host, high-altitude hypoxia and insight into how fungal symbiont assist in this process. This study enhances our understanding of insect adaptation, symbiosis, and pest management.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Zeng RE, Geng QH, Gao HK, et al (2023)

Mechanism of symbiotic nodulation between nitrogen and peanut.

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 45(9):801-812.

Nitrogen is critical for peanut growth and development, and symbiotic nodulation and nitrogen fixation is one of the main ways for peanut to obtain nitrogen. The influence of exogenous nitrogen on nodule nitrogen fixation involves complex regulatory mechanisms, revealing the regulatory mechanisms of nitrogen on nodule nitrogen fixation is of great significance for realizing the potential of biological nitrogen fixation. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of "Crack entry" in the formation of peanut root nodule, the mechanism of symbiotic nodulation and quantitative regulation of peanut, and the regulatory mechanism of nitrogen affecting peanut nodulation. At present, the molecular mechanism by which nitrogen affects the interaction between Bradyrhizobium and peanut, thereby regulating nodulation, is still unclear. Therefore, future research should focus on the signal exchange, nodule number regulation, and nutrient exchange mechanism of nitrogen effects on Bradyrhizobium and peanut, which would provide a theoretical basis for improving nodule nitrogen fixation efficiency and peanut yield, and reduce chemical nitrogen fertilizer application.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Hussain A, Dar MNR, Cheema WK, et al (2023)

Clinical symbiosis of hybrid nanoparticles and induced magnetic field on heat and mass transfer in multiple stenosed artery with erratic thrombosis.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15588.

This article scrutinizes blood circulation through an artery having magnetized hybrid nanoparticles (silver and gold) with multiple stenoses at the outer walls and erratic thrombus of different radii at the center. In the realm of biomedical innovation, magnetized hybrid nanoparticles emerge as a captivating frontier. These nanoparticles, amalgamating diverse materials, exhibit magnetic properties that engender novel prospects for targeted drug delivery, medical imaging enhancement, and therapeutic interventions. The study was carried out employing modern bio-fluid dynamics (BFD) software. In this iterative procedure, a second-order finite difference approach is used to solve the governing equations with 0.005 tolerance. The experiment is performed on a blood conduit with mild stenosis assumptions, and expressions of temperature, resistance impedance to flow, velocity, wall shear stress, and pressure gradient are generated by employing related boundary conditions. No one has ever attempted to acquire the remedial impact of an induced magnetic field and hybrid nanoparticles on the bloodstream in a tapering artery containing multiple stenoses on the outside walls and multi-thrombus at the center using 3-D bio-fluid simulation. Furthermore, the study's findings are unique, and these computational discoveries were not previously published by any researcher. The findings suggest that hybrid nanoparticles can be used as medication carriers to reduce the impact of thrombosis and stenosis-induced resistance to blood flow or coagulation-related factors.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Gong S, Liang J, Jin X, et al (2023)

Unfolding the secrets of microbiome (Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria) in cold-water coral.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Recent deep-ocean exploration has uncovered a variety of cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems around the world ocean, but it remains unclear how microbiome is associated with these corals at a molecular levels. This study utilized metabarcoding, tissue section observation, and metatranscriptomes to investigate the microbiome (Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria) of CWC species (Narella versluysi, Heterogorgia uatumani, and Muriceides sp.) from depths ranging from 260 m to 370 m. Warm-water coral (WWC) species (Acropora pruinosa, Pocillopora damicornis, and Galaxea fascicularis) were used as control groups. Results revealed that CWC host diverse bacteria and Symbiodiniaceae cells were observed in endoderm of CWC tissues. Several new candidate bacterial phyla were found in both CWC and WWC, including Coralsanbacteria, Coralqiangbacteria, Coralgsqaceae, Coralgongineae, etc. Both the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metatranscriptomes revealed that Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were abundant bacterial phyla in CWC. At the gene transcription level, the CWC-associated Symbiodiniaceae community showed a low-level transcription of genes involved in photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, while bacteria associated with CWC exhibited a high-level transcription of genes for carbon fixation via the Wood-Lijungdahl pathway, short chain fatty acids production, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. IMPORTANCE This study shed new light on the functions of both Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria in cold-water coral (CWC). The results demonstrated that Symbiodiniaceae can survive and actively transcribe genes in CWC, suggesting a possible symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the host. This study also revealed complete non-photosynthetic CO2 fixation pathway of bacteria in CWC, as well as their roles in short chain fatty acids production and assimilation of host-derived organic nitrogen and sulfur. These findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the carbon, nitrogen sulfur cycles in CWC, which were possibly crucial for CWC survival in in deep-water environments.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Yan Z, Du K, Yan Y, et al (2023)

Respiration-driven methanotrophic growth of diverse marine methanogens.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(39):e2303179120.

Anaerobic marine environments are the third largest producer of the greenhouse gas methane. The release to the atmosphere is prevented by anaerobic 'methanotrophic archaea (ANME) dependent on a symbiotic association with sulfate-reducing bacteria or direct reduction of metal oxides. Metagenomic analyses of ANME are consistent with a reverse methanogenesis pathway, although no wild-type isolates have been available for validation and biochemical investigation. Herein is reported the characterization of methanotrophic growth for the diverse marine methanogens Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A and Methanococcoides orientis sp. nov. Growth was dependent on reduction of either ferrihydrite or humic acids revealing a respiratory mode of energy conservation. Acetate and/or formate were end products. Reversal of the well-characterized methanogenic pathways is remarkably like the consensus pathways for uncultured ANME based on extensive metagenomic analyses.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Parrott A, Tavakol SA, Zieles K, et al (2023)

The evolution of stereoelectroencephalography: symbiotic progress in medical imaging and procedural technologies.

Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics [Epub ahead of print].

Stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) was pioneered in France, at a time when cerebral anatomy was invisible to contemporaneous imaging modalities. Epilepsy surgeons relied on indirect targeting techniques to identify epileptogenic tissue. Since then, alongside the rapid rise of medical imaging technology, sEEG has experienced dramatic stepwise progress. A flurry of advancements has pushed this technique to its current-day standards, enabling neurosurgeons to access any intracranial location in a safe, highly precise, and expeditious manner. Presently, epilepsy surgeons throughout the world apply robot-assisted sEEG. Herein, the authors chronicle this incredible evolution.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Yadav VS, A Majumdar (2023)

Mitigating the barriers of industrial symbiosis for waste management: An integrated decision-making framework for the textile and clothing industry.

Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA [Epub ahead of print].

Waste management in the textile and clothing (TAC) industry is a challenging issue due to high resource consumption and pollution generation. Therefore, the adoption of industrial symbiosis (IS) is the need of the hour for the TAC industry. However, the adoption of IS in emerging economies like India, Brazil, Bangladesh, etc. is limited due to various impediments. The present work aims to identify and analyse these barriers and develop mitigation strategies in the context of Indian TAC industry. Eighteen IS barriers have been identified and validated; and the interrelationships among them are studied by applying the 'weighted influence non-linear gauge system (WINGS)' method, which not only estimates the intensity of influence but also takes the self-strength of barriers into account. The results show that lack of trust amongst supply chain partners, lack of financial incentives from the government, lack of guidance from regularity bodies and industry associations and lack of consumer awareness are the most significant barriers. Additionally, the strategies to mitigate these barriers are developed based on a quadruple helix framework considering academia--government-industry-society as the main actors. The findings of the study will be helpful for the TAC industry, policymakers and other concerned stakeholders in framing suitable strategies to improve the long-term waste management practices of the industry and to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs).

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Kemp DW, Hoadley KD, Lewis AM, et al (2023)

Thermotolerant coral-algal mutualisms maintain high rates of nutrient transfer while exposed to heat stress.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(2007):20231403.

Symbiotic mutualisms are essential to ecosystems and numerous species across the tree of life. For reef-building corals, the benefits of their association with endosymbiotic dinoflagellates differ within and across taxa, and nutrient exchange between these partners is influenced by environmental conditions. Furthermore, it is widely assumed that corals associated with symbionts in the genus Durusdinium tolerate high thermal stress at the expense of lower nutrient exchange to support coral growth. We traced both inorganic carbon (H[13]CO3[-]) and nitrate ([15]NO3[-]) uptake by divergent symbiont species and quantified nutrient transfer to the host coral under normal temperatures as well as in colonies exposed to high thermal stress. Colonies representative of diverse coral taxa associated with Durusdinium trenchii or Cladocopium spp. exhibited similar nutrient exchange under ambient conditions. By contrast, heat-exposed colonies with D. trenchii experienced less physiological stress than conspecifics with Cladocopium spp. while high carbon assimilation and nutrient transfer to the host was maintained. This discovery differs from the prevailing notion that these mutualisms inevitably suffer trade-offs in physiological performance. These findings emphasize that many host-symbiont combinations adapted to high-temperature equatorial environments are high-functioning mutualisms; and why their increased prevalence is likely to be important to the future productivity and stability of coral reef ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Vats A, Yadav PK, Banerjee V, et al (2023)

Symbiotic dynamics in living liquid crystals.

Physical review. E, 108(2-1):024701.

An amalgam of nematic liquid crystals and active matter, referred to as living liquid crystals, is a promising self-healing material with futuristic applications for targeted delivery of information and microcargo. We provide a phenomenological model to study the symbiotic pattern dynamics in this contemporary system using the Toner-Tu model for active matter (AM), the Landau-de Gennes free energy for liquid crystals (LCs), and an experimentally motivated coupling term that favours coalignment of the active and nematic components. Our extensive theoretical studies unfold two novel steady states, chimeras and solitons, with sharp regions of distinct orientational order that sweep through the coupled system in synchrony. The induced dynamics in the passive nematic is unprecedented. We show that the symbiotic dynamics of the AM and LC components can be exploited to induce and manipulate order in an otherwise disordered system.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Jacobovitz MR, Hambleton EA, A Guse (2023)

Unlocking the Complex Cell Biology of Coral-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis: A Model Systems Approach.

Annual review of genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic interactions occur in all domains of life, providing organisms with resources to adapt to new habitats. A prime example is the endosymbiosis between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates. Eukaryotic dinoflagellate symbionts reside inside coral cells and transfer essential nutrients to their hosts, driving the productivity of the most biodiverse marine ecosystem. Recent advances in molecular and genomic characterization have revealed symbiosis-specific genes and mechanisms shared among symbiotic cnidarians. In this review, we focus on the cellular and molecular processes that underpin the interaction between symbiont and host. We discuss symbiont acquisition via phagocytosis, modulation of host innate immunity, symbiont integration into host cell metabolism, and nutrient exchange as a fundamental aspect of stable symbiotic associations. We emphasize the importance of using model systems to dissect the cellular complexity of endosymbiosis, which ultimately serves as the basis for understanding its ecology and capacity to adapt in the face of climate change. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genetics, Volume 57 is November 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Rúa-Giraldo ÁL (2023)

Fungal taxonomy: A puzzle with many missing pieces.

Biomedica : revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud, 43(Sp. 1):288-311.

Fungi are multifaceted organisms found in almost all ecosystems on Earth, where they establish various types of symbiosis with other living beings. Despite being recognized by humans since ancient times, and the high number of works delving into their biology and ecology, much is still unknown about these organisms. Some criteria classically used for their study are nowadays limited, generating confusion in categorizing them, and even more, when trying to understand their genealogical relationships. To identify species within Fungi, phenotypic characters to date are not sufficient, and to construct a broad phylogeny or a phylogeny of a particular group, there are still gaps affecting the generated trees, making them unstable and easily debated. For health professionals, fungal identification at lower levels such as genus and species, is enough to select the most appropriate therapy for their control, understand the epidemiology of clinical pictures associated, and recognize outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance. However, the taxonomic location within the kingdom, information with apparently little relevance, can allow phylogenetic relationships to be established between fungal taxa, facilitating the understanding of their biology, distribution in nature, and pathogenic potential evolution. Advances in molecular biology and computer science techniques from the last 30 years have led to crucial changes aiming to establish the criteria to define a fungal species, allowing us to reach a kind of stable phylogenetic construction. However, there is still a long way to go, and it requires the joint work of the scientific community at a global level and support for basic research.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Gould DJ, Dowsey MM, Glanville-Hearst M, et al (2023)

Patients' Views on AI for Risk Prediction in Shared Decision-Making for Knee Replacement Surgery: Qualitative Interview Study.

Journal of medical Internet research, 25:e43632 pii:v25i1e43632.

BACKGROUND: The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in decision-making around knee replacement surgery is increasing, and this technology holds promise to improve the prediction of patient outcomes. Ambiguity surrounds the definition of AI, and there are mixed views on its application in clinical settings.

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the understanding and attitudes of patients who underwent knee replacement surgery regarding AI in the context of risk prediction for shared clinical decision-making.

METHODS: This qualitative study involved patients who underwent knee replacement surgery at a tertiary referral center for joint replacement surgery. The participants were selected based on their age and sex. Semistructured interviews explored the participants' understanding of AI and their opinions on its use in shared clinical decision-making. Data collection and reflexive thematic analyses were conducted concurrently. Recruitment continued until thematic saturation was achieved.

RESULTS: Thematic saturation was achieved with 19 interviews and confirmed with 1 additional interview, resulting in 20 participants being interviewed (female participants: n=11, 55%; male participants: n=9, 45%; median age: 66 years). A total of 11 (55%) participants had a substantial postoperative complication. Three themes captured the participants' understanding of AI and their perceptions of its use in shared clinical decision-making. The theme Expectations captured the participants' views of themselves as individuals with the right to self-determination as they sought therapeutic solutions tailored to their circumstances, needs, and desires, including whether to use AI at all. The theme Empowerment highlighted the potential of AI to enable patients to develop realistic expectations and equip them with personalized risk information to discuss in shared decision-making conversations with the surgeon. The theme Partnership captured the importance of symbiosis between AI and clinicians because AI has varied levels of interpretability and understanding of human emotions and empathy.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent knee replacement surgery in this study had varied levels of familiarity with AI and diverse conceptualizations of its definitions and capabilities. Educating patients about AI through nontechnical explanations and illustrative scenarios could help inform their decision to use it for risk prediction in the shared decision-making process with their surgeon. These findings could be used in the process of developing a questionnaire to ascertain the views of patients undergoing knee replacement surgery on the acceptability of AI in shared clinical decision-making. Future work could investigate the accuracy of this patient group's understanding of AI, beyond their familiarity with it, and how this influences their acceptance of its use. Surgeons may play a key role in finding a place for AI in the clinical setting as the uptake of this technology in health care continues to grow.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Noreen S, Yaseen T, Iqbal J, et al (2023)

Morphological and Molecular Characterizations of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Influence on Soil Physicochemical Properties and Plant Nutrition.

ACS omega, 8(36):32468-32482.

Pulses are considered a remarkable and stable source of nutrients, which are being presently extensively cultivated and consumed in different parts of the world. Pulses belong to the family Leguminosae and are a rich source of nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) for best growth via symbiotic relationship with bacteria and AMF (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi). The aim of the current study was evaluating the influence of AMF diversity associated with various pulses (French bean, mung bean, kidney bean, peas, soybean, peanuts, and grams). Furthermore, AMF characterization was done using morphological features of spores and sequencing of the rDNA gene, which confirmed the existence of 10 different AMF taxa. Among the different genera, the genus Glomus was observed to be the most dominant with 30% species followed by Gigaspora (22%), Sclerocystis (12%), Acaulospora (8%), Rhizophagus and Septoglomus (7%), Diversispora (5%), and Claroideoglomus, Archaeospora, and Ambispora (3%). Furthermore, soil physicochemical analysis and percentage of AMF colonization results revealed the fact that the phosphorus content (inversely proportional to the AMF diversity) was a determining factor of AMF diversity. The highest amount of available phosphorus (62.825 mg kg[-1]) in the district Swabi resulted in a low rate of AMF colonization (6.66 ± 11.54%) with a comparatively higher rate of AMF colonization (50.66 ± 1.15%) found in the soil of the district Chitral having a low phosphorus content (17.3 ± 7.6 mg kg[-1]). Nutrient uptake by pulses including nitrogen (2.4 ± 1.3%), phosphorus (13.5 ± 7.6 mg kg [-1]), potassium (99.5 ± 25.8 mg kg [-1]), zinc (1.4 ± 0.5 mg kg [-1]), moisture (2.3 ± 1.3%), crude fats (5.6 ± 2.8%), ash (4 ± 1.2%), and proteins (13.6 ± 9.01%) determined the fact that AMF species diversity is positively correlated to the plant mineral nutrition. From the current study, it is concluded that AMF inoculation to the soil fields is beneficial to ensure the sustainability and productivity of pulse crops in diverse environmental conditions without polluting the soil.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Xiao M, Li G, H Yang (2023)

Microbe-host interactions: structure and functions of Gram-negative bacterial membrane vesicles.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1225513.

Bacteria-host interaction is a common, relevant, and intriguing biological phenomena. The host reacts actively or passively to the bacteria themselves, their products, debris, and so on, through various defense systems containing the immune system, the bacteria communicate with the local or distal tissues of the host via their own surface antigens, secreted products, nucleic acids, etc., resulting in relationships of attack and defense, adaptation, symbiosis, and even collaboration. The significance of bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) as a powerful vehicle for the crosstalk mechanism between the two is growing. In the recent decade, the emergence of MVs in microbial interactions and a variety of bacterial infections, with multiple adhesions to host tissues, cell invasion and evasion of host defense mechanisms, have brought MVs to the forefront of bacterial pathogenesis research. Whereas MVs are a complex combination of molecules not yet fully understood, research into its effects, targeting and pathogenic components will advance its understanding and utilization. This review will summarize structural, extraction and penetration information on several classes of MVs and emphasize the role of MVs in transport and immune response activation. Finally, the potential of MVs as a therapeutic method will be highlighted, as will future research prospects.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Cabirol A, Moriano-Gutierrez S, P Engel (2023)

Neuroactive metabolites modulated by the gut microbiota in honey bees.

Molecular microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Honey bees have emerged as a new model to study the gut-brain axis, as they exhibit complex social behaviors and cognitive abilities, while experiments with gnotobiotic bees have revealed that their gut microbiota alters both brain and behavioral phenotypes. Furthermore, while honey bee brain functions supporting a broad range of behaviors have been intensively studied for over 50 years, the gut microbiota of bees has been experimentally characterized only recently. Here, we combined six published datasets from metabolomic analyses to provide an overview of the neuroactive metabolites whose abundance in the gut, hemolymph and brain varies in presence of the gut microbiota. Such metabolites may either be produced by gut bacteria, released from the pollen grains during their decomposition by bacteria, or produced by other organs in response to different bacterial products. We describe the current state of knowledge regarding the impact of such metabolites on brain function and behavior and provide further hypotheses to explore in this emerging field of research.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Rogowska-van der Molen MA, Berasategui-Lopez A, Coolen S, et al (2023)

Microbial degradation of plant toxins.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although they have many functions, a subclass of toxic secondary metabolites mainly serve plants as deterring agents against herbivores, insects, or pathogens. Microorganisms present in divergent ecological niches, such as soil, water, or insect and rumen gut systems have been found capable of detoxifying these metabolites. As a result of detoxification, microbes gain growth nutrients and benefit their herbivory host via detoxifying symbiosis. Here, we review current knowledge on microbial degradation of toxic alkaloids, glucosinolates, terpenes, and polyphenols with an emphasis on the genes and enzymes involved in breakdown pathways. We highlight that the insect-associated microbes might find application in biotechnology and become targets for an alternative microbial pest control strategy.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Fang C, Du H, Wang L, et al (2023)

Mechanisms underlying key agronomic traits and implications for molecular breeding in soybean.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao pii:S1673-8527(23)00188-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is an important crop that provides protein and vegetable oil for human consumption. As soybean is a photoperiod-sensitive crop, its cultivation and yield are limited by the photoperiodic conditions in the field. In contrast to other major crops, soybean has a special plant architecture and a special symbiotic nitrogen fixation system, representing two unique breeding directions. Thus, flowering time, plant architecture, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation are three critical or unique yield-determinative factors. This review summarizes the progress made in our understanding of these three critical yield-determining factors in soybean. Meanwhile, we propose potential research directions to increase soybean production, discuss the application of genomics and genomic-assisted breeding, and explore research directions to address future challenges, particularly those posed by global climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Zhang Q, Wang S, Xie Q, et al (2023)

Control of arbuscule development by a transcriptional negative feedback loop in Medicago.

Nature communications, 14(1):5743.

Most terrestrial plants establish a symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which provide them with lipids and sugars in exchange for phosphorus and nitrogen. Nutrient exchange must be dynamically controlled to maintain a mutually beneficial relationship between the two symbiotic partners. The WRI5a and its homologues play a conserved role in lipid supply to AMF. Here, we demonstrate that the AP2/ERF transcription factor MtERM1 binds directly to AW-box and AW-box-like cis-elements in the promoters of MtSTR2 and MtSTR, which are required for host lipid efflux and arbuscule development. The EAR domain-containing transcription factor MtERF12 is also directly activated by MtERM1/MtWRI5a to negatively regulate arbuscule development, and the TOPLESS co-repressor is further recruited by MtERF12 through EAR motif to oppose MtERM1/MtWRI5a function, thereby suppressing arbuscule development. We therefore reveal an ERM1/WRI5a-ERF12-TOPLESS negative feedback loop that enables plants to flexibly control nutrient exchange and ensure a mutually beneficial symbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Mfopit YM, Engel JS, Chechet GD, et al (2023)

Molecular detection of Sodalis glossinidius, Spiroplasma species and Wolbachia endosymbionts in wild population of tsetse flies collected in Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):260.

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are cyclical vectors of African trypanosomiasis (AT). The flies have established symbiotic associations with different bacteria that influence certain aspects of their physiology. Vector competence of tsetse flies for different trypanosome species is highly variable and is suggested to be affected by bacterial endosymbionts amongst other factors. Symbiotic interactions may provide an avenue for AT control. The current study provided prevalence of three tsetse symbionts in Glossina species from Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria.

RESULTS: Tsetse flies were collected and dissected from five different locations. DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction used to detect presence of Sodalis glossinidius, Spiroplasma species and Wolbachia endosymbionts, using species specific primers. A total of 848 tsetse samples were analysed: Glossina morsitans submorsitans (47.52%), Glossina palpalis palpalis (37.26%), Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (9.08%) and Glossina tachinoides (6.13%). Only 95 (11.20%) were infected with at least one of the three symbionts. Among infected flies, six (6.31%) had Wolbachia and Spiroplasma mixed infection. The overall symbiont prevalence was 0.88, 3.66 and 11.00% respectively, for Sodalis glossinidius, Spiroplasma species and Wolbachia endosymbionts. Prevalence varied between countries and tsetse fly species. Neither Spiroplasma species nor S. glossinidius were detected in samples from Cameroon and Nigeria respectively.

CONCLUSION: The present study revealed, for the first time, presence of Spiroplasma species infections in tsetse fly populations in Chad and Nigeria. These findings provide useful information on repertoire of bacterial flora of tsetse flies and incite more investigations to understand their implication in the vector competence of tsetse flies.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

de Freitas Pereira M, Cohen D, Auer L, et al (2023)

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis prepares its host locally and systemically for abiotic cue signaling.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Tree growth and survival are dependent on their ability to perceive signals, integrate them, and trigger timely and fitted molecular and growth responses. While ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is a predominant tree-microbe interaction in forest ecosystems, little is known about how and to what extent it helps trees cope with environmental changes. We hypothesized that the presence of Laccaria bicolor influences abiotic cue perception by Populus trichocarpa and the ensuing signaling cascade. We submitted ectomycorrhizal or non-ectomycorrhizal P. trichocarpa cuttings to short-term cessation of watering or ozone fumigation to focus on signaling networks before the onset of any physiological damage. Poplar gene expression, metabolite levels, and hormone levels were measured in several organs (roots, leaves, mycorrhizas) and integrated into networks. We discriminated the signal responses modified or maintained by ectomycorrhization. Ectomycorrhizas buffered hormonal changes in response to short-term environmental variations systemically prepared the root system for further fungal colonization and alleviated part of the root abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. The presence of ectomycorrhizas in the roots also modified the leaf multi-omics landscape and ozone responses, most likely through rewiring of the molecular drivers of photosynthesis and the calcium signaling pathway. In conclusion, P. trichocarpa-L. bicolor symbiosis results in a systemic remodeling of the host's signaling networks in response to abiotic changes. In addition, ectomycorrhizal, hormonal, metabolic, and transcriptomic blueprints are maintained in response to abiotic cues, suggesting that ectomycorrhizas are less responsive than non-mycorrhizal roots to abiotic challenges.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Zhao B, Jia X, Yu N, et al (2023)

Microbe-dependent and independent nitrogen and phosphate acquisition and regulation in plants.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most important macronutrients required for plant growth and development. To cope with the limited and uneven distribution of N and P in complicated soil environments, plants have evolved intricate molecular strategies to improve nutrient acquisition that involve adaptive root development, production of root exudates, and the assistance of microbes. Recently, great advances have been made in understanding the regulation of N and P uptake and utilization and how plants balance the direct uptake of nutrients from the soil with the nutrient acquisition from beneficial microbes such as arbuscular mycorrhiza. Here, we summarize the major advances in these areas and highlight plant responses to changes in nutrient availability in the external environment through local and systemic signals.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Leal-Dutra CA, Yuen LM, Guedes BAM, et al (2023)

Evidence that the domesticated fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus recycles its cytoplasmic contents as nutritional rewards to feed its leafcutter ant farmers.

IMA fungus, 14(1):19.

Leafcutter ants farm a fungal cultivar (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus) that converts inedible vegetation into food that sustains colonies with up to millions of workers. Analogous to edible fruits of crops domesticated by humans, L. gongylophorus has evolved specialized nutritional rewards-swollen hyphal cells called gongylidia that package metabolites and are consumed by ant farmers. Yet, little is known about how gongylidia form, and thus how fungal physiology and ant provisioning collectively govern farming performance. We explored the process of gongylidium formation using advanced microscopy to image the cultivar at scales of nanometers, and both in vitro experiments and in silico analyses to examine the mechanisms of gongylidia formation when isolated from ant farmers. We first used transmission electron, fluorescence, and confocal microscopy imaging to see inside hyphal cells. This imaging showed that the cultivar uses a process called autophagy to recycle its own cellular material (e.g. cytosol, mitochondria) and then shuttles the resulting metabolites into a vacuole whose continual expansion displaces other organelles and causes the gongylidium cell's bulging bulb-like appearance. We next used scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy to link this intracellular rearrangement to the external branching patterns of gongylidium cells as they clump together into edible bundles called staphyla. We next confirmed that autophagy plays a critical role in gongylidium formation both: (1) in vitro as gongylidium suppression occurred when isolated fungal cultures were grown on media with autophagy inhibitors, and (2) in silico as differential transcript expression (RNA-seq) analyses showed upregulation of multiple autophagy gene isoforms in gongylidia relative to undifferentiated hyphae. While autophagy is a ubiquitous and often highly derived process across the tree of life, our study reveals a new role for autophagy as a mechanism of functional integration between ant farmers and their fungal crop, and potentially as a signifier of higher-level homeostasis between uniquely life-time committed ectosymbionts.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Duo L, Yang Y, Gao Y, et al (2023)

Graphene oxide affects the symbiosis of legume-rhizobium and associated rhizosphere rhizobial communities.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)02436-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The large-scale production and utilization of graphene oxide (GO) have raised concerns regarding its environmental exposure and potential risks. However, existing research on GO toxicity has primarily focused on individual organisms. Little attention has been given to the interaction between GO and the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis of legume-rhizobium. In this study, we focused on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a typical leguminous nitrogen-fixing plant, to investigate the effects of GO on various aspects of this symbiotic relationship, including root nodulation, rhizobial viability, nodule nitrogen fixation, DNA damage, and the composition of the rhizobial community in the rhizosphere. As the dosage of GO increased, a significant inhibition in nodulation development was observed. Exposure to GO resulted in decreased growth and viability of rhizobia, as well as induced DNA damage in nodule cells. Furthermore, with increasing GO dosage, there were significant reductions in nitrogenase activity, leghemoglobin level, and cytoplasmic ammonia content within the root nodules. Additionally, the presence of GO led to notable changes in the rhizobial community in the rhizosphere. Our findings support the existence of the damage promoted by GO in the symbiosis of nitrogen fixing rhizobia with legumes. This underscores the importance of careful soil GO management.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Tian H, Ma Z, Yang H, et al (2023)

Fermentation of Persimmon Leaves Extract by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Molecular biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Persimmon leaves usually as agricultural and forestry waste were fermented by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth and metabolic performances of L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae, as well as the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant abilities of the extract was investigated, including the content of flavonoids, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical clearance rates. Growth of L. plantarum was limited, even though the acid production was sustainable, while S. cerevisiae was more suitable to inhabit in the persimmon leaves extract. A symbiotic relationship was observed between the two microbes, reflected in aspects of growth of S. cerevisiae, pH reduction, and ethanol production. The DPPH radical clearance rates of all groups decreased at the early period, and increased later. The co-culture group reached the second highest value of DPPH radical clearance rate only next to the single group of L. plantarum at 9 h. All groups showed an overall downward trend of the hydroxyl radical clearance rates during the 9 h-fermentation. These findings highlight the promising industrial application of fermentation of the plant-based materials with Lactiplantibacillus and Saccharomyces species to improve the biological properties.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Liu Y, Liu X, Zhang Z, et al (2023)

Experimental and fluid flow simulation studies of laser-electrochemical hybrid manufacturing of micro-nano symbiotic superamphiphobic surfaces.

The Journal of chemical physics, 159(11):.

Micro-nano symbiotic superamphiphobic surfaces can prevent liquids from adhering to metal surfaces and, as a result, improve their corrosion resistance, self-cleaning performance, pollution resistance, and ice resistance. However, the fabrication of stable and controllable micro-nano symbiotic superamphiphobic structures on metal surfaces commonly used in industry remains a significant challenge. In this study, a laser-electrochemical hybrid subtractive-additive manufacturing method was proposed and developed for preparing copper superamphiphobic surfaces. Both experimental and fluid simulation studies were carried out. Utilizing this novel hybrid method, the controllable preparation of superamphiphobic micro-nano symbiotic structures was realized. The experimental results showed that the prepared surfaces had excellent superamphiphobic properties following subsequent modification with low surface energy substances. The contact angles of water droplets and oil droplets on the surface following electrodeposition treatment reached values of 161 ± 4° and 151 ± 4°, respectively, which showed that the prepared surface possessed perfect superamphiphobicity. Both the fabrication method and the test results provided useful insights for the preparation of stable and controllable superamphiphobic structures on metal surfaces in the future.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Binci F, Offer E, Crosino A, et al (2023)

Spatially and temporally distinct Ca 2+ changes in Lotus japonicus roots orient fungal-triggered signalling pathways towards symbiosis or immunity.

Journal of experimental botany pii:7274483 [Epub ahead of print].

Plants activate an immune or symbiotic response depending on the detection of distinct signals from root-interacting microbes. Both signalling cascades involve Ca 2+ as a central mediator of early signal transduction. In this study, we combined aequorin- and cameleon-based methods to dissect the changes in cytosolic and nuclear Ca 2+ concentration caused by different chitin-derived fungal elicitors in Lotus japonicus roots. Our quantitative analyses highlighted the dual character of the evoked Ca 2+ responses taking advantage of the comparison between different genetic backgrounds: an initial Ca 2+ influx, dependent on the LysM receptor CERK6 and independent of the Common Symbiotic Signalling Pathway (CSSP), is followed by a second CSSP-dependent and CERK6-independent phase, that corresponds to the well-known perinuclear/nuclear Ca 2+ spiking. We show that the expression of immunity marker genes correlates with the amplitude of the first Ca 2+ change, depends on elicitor concentration and is controlled by Ca 2+ storage in the vacuole. Our findings provide an insight into the Ca 2+-mediated signalling mechanisms discriminating plant immunity- and symbiosis-related pathways in the context of their simultaneous activation by single fungal elicitors.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Trognon J, Rima M, Lajoie B, et al (2023)

NaCl-induced modulation of species distribution in a mixed P. aeruginosa / S. aureus /B.cepacia biofilm.

Biofilm, 6:100153 pii:S2590-2075(23)00050-3.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Burkholderia cepacia are notorious pathogens known for their ability to form resilient biofilms, particularly within the lung environment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The heightened concentration of NaCl, prevalent in the airway liquid of CF patients' lungs, has been identified as a factor that promotes the growth of osmotolerant bacteria like S. aureus and dampens host antibacterial defenses, thereby fostering favorable conditions for infections. In this study, we aimed to investigate how increased NaCl concentrations impact the development of multi-species biofilms in vitro, using both laboratory strains and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. cepacia co-cultures. Employing a low-nutrient culture medium that fosters biofilm growth of the selected species, we quantified biofilm formation through a combination of adherent CFU counts, qPCR analysis, and confocal microscopy observations. Our findings reaffirmed the challenges faced by S. aureus in establishing growth within 1:1 mixed biofilms with P. aeruginosa when cultivated in a minimal medium. Intriguingly, at an elevated NaCl concentration of 145 mM, a symbiotic relationship emerged between S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, enabling their co-existence. Notably, this hyperosmotic environment also exerted an influence on the interplay of these two bacteria with B. cepacia. We demonstrated that elevated NaCl concentrations play a pivotal role in orchestrating the distribution of these three species within the biofilm matrix. Furthermore, our study unveiled the beneficial impact of NaCl on the biofilm growth of clinically relevant mucoid P. aeruginosa strains, as well as two strains of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This underscores the crucial role of the microenvironment during the colonization and infection processes. The results suggest that hyperosmotic conditions could hold the key to unlocking a deeper understanding of the genesis and behavior of CF multi-species biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Kolanowska M (2023)

Future distribution of the epiphytic leafless orchid (Dendrophylax lindenii), its pollinators and phorophytes evaluated using niche modelling and three different climate change projections.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15242.

The identification of future refugia for endangered species from the effects of global warming is crucial for improving their conservation. Because climate-driven shifts in ranges and local extinctions can result in a spatial mismatch with their symbiotic organisms, however, it is important to incorporate in niche modelling the ecological partners of the species studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate change on the distribution of suitable niches for the ghost orchid (Dendrophylax lindenii) and its phorophytes and pollinators. Thus, its five species of host trees and three pollen vectors were included in the analysis. Climatic preferences of all the species studied were evaluated. The modelling was based on three different climate change projections and four Shared Socio-economic Pathway trajectories. All the species analysed are characterized by narrow temperature tolerances, which with global warming are likely to result in local extinctions and range shifts. D. lindenii is likely to be subjected to a significant loss of suitable niches, but within a reduced geographical range, both host trees and pollen vectors will be available in the future. Future conservation of this orchid should focus on areas that are likely be suitable for it and its ecological partners.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Krishnan N, Rózsa L, Szilágyi A, et al (2023)

Coevolutionary Stability of Host-Symbiont Systems with Mixed-mode Transmission.

Journal of theoretical biology pii:S0022-5193(23)00217-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The coevolution of hosts and symbionts based on virulence and mode of transmission is a complex and diverse biological phenomenon. We introduced a conceptual model to study the stable coexistence and coevolution of an obligate symbiont (mutualist or parasite) with mixed-mode transmission and its host. Using an age-structured Leslie model for the host, we demonstrated how the obligate symbiont could modify the host's life history traits (survival and fecundity) and the long-term growth rate of the infected lineage. When the symbiont is vertically transmitted, we found that the host and its symbiont could maximize the infected lineage's evolutionary success (multi-level selection). Our model showed that symbionts' effect on host longevity and reproduction might differ, even be opposing, and their net effect might often be counterintuitive. The evolutionary stability of the ecologically stable coexistence was analyzed in the framework of coevolutionary dynamics. Moreover, we found conditions for the ecological and evolutionary stability of the resident host-symbiont pair, which does not allow invasion by rare mutants (each mutant dies out by ecological selection). We concluded that, within the context of our simplified model conditions, a host-symbiont system with mixed-mode transmission is evolutionarily stable unconditionally only if the host can maximize the Malthusian parameters of the infected and non-infected lineages using the same strategy. Finally, we performed a game-theoretical analysis of our selection situation and compared two stability definitions.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Weisberg AJ, JH Chang (2023)

Mobile Genetic Element Flexibility as an Underlying Principle to Bacterial Evolution.

Annual review of microbiology, 77:603-624.

Mobile genetic elements are key to the evolution of bacteria and traits that affect host and ecosystem health. Here, we use a framework of a hierarchical and modular system that scales from genes to populations to synthesize recent findings on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) of bacteria. Doing so highlights the role that emergent properties of flexibility, robustness, and genetic capacitance of MGEs have on the evolution of bacteria. Some of their traits can be stored, shared, and diversified across different MGEs, taxa of bacteria, and time. Collectively, these properties contribute to maintaining functionality against perturbations while allowing changes to accumulate in order to diversify and give rise to new traits. These properties of MGEs have long challenged our abilities to study them. Implementation of new technologies and strategies allows for MGEs to be analyzed in new and powerful ways.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Tang H, L Wu (2023)

MAMPs: A devil tamed becomes an angel.

Cell host & microbe, 31(9):1422-1425.

Symbiotic microorganisms modulate systemic immunity with unclear mechanisms. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Clarke and colleagues uncover a coherent mechanism where the systemic spread of Firmicutes cell wall glycoconjugates enhances global immune fitness while simultaneously being delicately controlled to prevent systemic inflammation.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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In this comprehensive history of symbiosis theory--the first to be written--Jan Sapp masterfully traces its development from modest beginnings in the late nineteenth century to its current status as one of the key conceptual frameworks for the life sciences. The symbiotic perspective on evolution, which argues that "higher species" have evolved from a merger of two or more different kinds of organisms living together, is now clearly established with definitive molecular evidence demonstrating that mitochondria and chloroplasts have evolved from symbiotic bacteria. In telling the exciting story of an evolutionary biology tradition that has effectively challenged many key tenets of classical neo-Darwinism, Sapp sheds light on the phenomena, movements, doctrines, and controversies that have shaped attitudes about the scope and significance of symbiosis. Engaging and insightful, Evolution by Association will be avidly read by students and researchers across the life sciences.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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