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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 04 Mar 2024 at 01:59 Created: 

Symbiosis

Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: ( symbiosis[tiab] OR symbiotic[tiab] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-03-01

Li X, Li Z, Wei Y, et al (2024)

Identification and characterization of the TetR family transcriptional regulator NffT in Rhizobium johnstonii.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) by rhizobia is not only the main natural bionitrogen-source for organisms but also a green process leveraged to increase the fertility of soil for agricultural production. However, an insufficient understanding of the regulatory mechanism of SNF hinders its practical application. During SNF, nifA-fixA signaling is essential for the biosynthesis of nitrogenases and electron transfer chain proteins. In the present study, the TetR regulator NffT, whose mutation increased fixA expression, was discovered through a fixA-promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion assay performed with Rhizobium johnstonii. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that nffT deletion increased the expression of symbiotic genes including nifA and fixA in nifA-fixA signaling, and fixL, fixK, fnrN, and fixN9 in fixL-fixN signaling. nffT overexpression resulted in disordered nodules and reduced nitrogen-fixing efficiency. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that NffT directly regulated the transcription of RL0091-93, which encode an ATP-binding ABC transporter predicted to be involved in carbohydrate transport. Purified His-tagged NffT bound to a 68 bp DNA sequence located -32 to -99 bp upstream of RL0091-93 and NffT deletion significantly increased the expression of RL0091-93. nffT-promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion assay indicated that nffT expression was regulated by the cobNTS genes and cobalamin. Mutations in cobNTS significantly decreased the expression of nffT, and cobalamin restored its expression. These results revealed that NffT affects nodule development and nitrogen-fixing reaction by participating in a complex regulatory network of symbiotic and carbohydrate metabolic genes and, thus, plays a pivotal regulatory role during symbiosis of R. johnstonii-Pisum sativum.IMPORTANCESymbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) by rhizobia is a green way to maintain soil fertility without causing environmental pollution or consuming chemical energy. A detailed understanding of the regulatory mechanism of this complex process is essential for promoting sustainable agriculture. In this study, we discovered the TetR-type regulator NffT, which suppressed the expression of fixA in Rhizobium johnstonii. Furthermore, NffT was confirmed to play pleiotropic roles in R. johnstonii-Pisum sativum symbiosis; specifically, it inhibited rhizobial growth, nodule differentiation, and nitrogen-fixing reactions. We revealed that NffT indirectly affected R. johnstonii-P. sativum symbiosis by participating in a complex regulatory network of symbiotic and carbohydrate metabolic genes. Furthermore, cobalamin, a chemical molecule, was reported for the first time to be involved in TetR-type protein transcription during symbiosis. Thus, NffT identification connects SNF regulation with genetic, metabolic, and chemical signals and provides new insights into the complex regulation of SNF, laying an experimental basis for the targeted construction of rhizobial strains with highly efficient nitrogen-fixing capacity.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Roman-Reyna V, Heiden N, Butchacas J, et al (2024)

The timing of bacterial mesophyll infection shapes the leaf chemical landscape.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Chemistry in eukaryotic intercellular spaces is shaped by both hosts and symbiotic microorganisms such as bacteria. Pathogenic microorganisms like barley-associated Xanthomonas translucens (Xt) swiftly overtake the inner leaf tissue becoming the dominant microbial community member during disease development. The dynamic metabolic changes due to Xt pathogenesis in the mesophyll spaces remain unknown. Genomic group I of Xt consists of two barley-infecting lineages: pathovar translucens (Xtt) and pathovar undulosa (Xtu). Xtu and Xtt, although genomically distinct, cause similar water-soaked lesions. To define the metabolic signals associated with inner leaf colonization, we used untargeted metabolomics to characterize Xtu and Xtt metabolism signatures associated with mesophyll growth. We found that mesophyll apoplast fluid from infected tissue yielded a distinct metabolic profile and shift from catabolic to anabolic processes over time compared to water-infiltrated control. The pathways with the most differentially expressed metabolites by time were glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, sucrose metabolism, pentose interconversion, amino acids, galactose, and purine metabolism. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed that metabolic changes were more affected by the time point rather than the individual colonization of the inner leaves by Xtt compared to Xtu. Overall, in this study, we identified metabolic pathways that explain carbon and nitrogen usage during host-bacterial interactions over time for mesophyll tissue colonization. This foundational research provides initial insights into shared metabolic strategies of inner leaf colonization niche occupation by related but phylogenetically distinct phyllosphere bacteria.

IMPORTANCE: The phyllosphere is a habitat for microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. Metabolic shifts in the inner leaf spaces for most plant-microbe interactions are unknown, especially for Xanthomonas species in understudied plants like barley (Hordeum vulgare). Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (Xtt) and Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) are phylogenomically distinct, but both colonize barley leaves for pathogenesis. In this study, we used untargeted metabolomics to shed light on Xtu and Xtt metabolic signatures. Our findings revealed a dynamic metabolic landscape that changes over time, rather than exhibiting a pattern associated with individual pathovars. These results provide initial insights into the metabolic mechanisms of X. translucens inner leaf pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Brodersen KE, Mosshammer M, Bittner MJ, et al (2024)

Seagrass-mediated rhizosphere redox gradients are linked with ammonium accumulation driven by diazotrophs.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Seagrasses can enhance nutrient mobilization in their rhizosphere via complex interactions with sediment redox conditions and microbial populations. Yet, limited knowledge exists on how seagrass-derived rhizosphere dynamics affect nitrogen cycling. Using optode and gel-sampler-based chemical imaging, we show that radial O2 loss (ROL) from rhizomes and roots leads to the formation of redox gradients around below-ground tissues of seagrass (Zostera marina), which are co-localized with regions of high ammonium concentrations in the rhizosphere. Combining such chemical imaging with fine-scale sampling for microbial community and gene expression analyses indicated that multiple biogeochemical pathways and microbial players can lead to high ammonium concentration within the oxidized regions of the seagrass rhizosphere. Symbiotic N2-fixing bacteria (Bradyrhizobium) were particularly abundant and expressed the diazotroph functional marker gene nifH in Z. marina rhizosphere areas with high ammonium concentrations. Such an association between Z. marina and Bradyrhizobium can facilitate ammonium mobilization, the preferred nitrogen source for seagrasses, enhancing seagrass productivity within nitrogen-limited environments. ROL also caused strong gradients of sulfide at anoxic/oxic interfaces in rhizosphere areas, where we found enhanced nifH transcription by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Furthermore, we found a high abundance of methylotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in rhizosphere areas, where O2 was released from seagrass rhizomes and roots. These bacteria could play a beneficial role for the plants in terms of their methane and sulfide oxidation, as well as their formation of growth factors and phytohormones. ROL from below-ground tissues of seagrass, thus, seems crucial for ammonium production in the rhizosphere via stimulation of multiple diazotrophic associations.

IMPORTANCE: Seagrasses are important marine habitats providing several ecosystem services in coastal waters worldwide, such as enhancing marine biodiversity and mitigating climate change through efficient carbon sequestration. Notably, the fitness of seagrasses is affected by plant-microbe interactions. However, these microscale interactions are challenging to study and large knowledge gaps prevail. Our study shows that redox microgradients in the rhizosphere of seagrass select for a unique microbial community that can enhance the ammonium availability for seagrass. We provide first experimental evidence that Rhizobia, including the symbiotic N2-fixing bacteria Bradyrhizobium, can contribute to the bacterial ammonium production in the seagrass rhizosphere. The release of O2 from rhizomes and roots also caused gradients of sulfide in rhizosphere areas with enhanced nifH transcription by sulfate-reducing bacteria. O2 release from seagrass root systems thus seems crucial for ammonium production in the rhizosphere via stimulation of multiple diazotrophic associations.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Wang M, X Yang (2024)

Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on blueberry growth and rhizosphere soil microenvironment.

PeerJ, 12:e16992.

BACKGROUND: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have a specific symbiotic relationship with plants and rhizosphere soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PGPR on blueberry plant growth, rhizospheric soil nutrients and the microbial community.

METHODS: In this study, nine PGPR strains, belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Buttiauxella, were selected and added into the soil in which the blueberry cuttings were planted. All the physiological indexes of the cuttings and all rhizospheric soil element contents were determined on day 6 after the quartic root irrigation experiments were completed. The microbial diversity in the soil was determined using high-throughput amplicon sequencing technology. The correlations between phosphorus solubilization, the auxin production of PGPR strains, and the physiological indexes of blueberry plants, and the correlation between rhizospheric microbial diversity and soil element contents were determined using the Pearson's correlation, Kendall's tau correlation and Spearman's rank correlation analysis methods.

RESULTS: The branch number, leaf number, chlorophyllcontentand plant height of the treated blueberry group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The rhizospheric soil element contents also increased after PGPR root irrigation. The rhizospheric microbial community structure changed significantly under the PGPR of root irrigation. The dominant phyla, except Actinomycetota, in the soil samples had the greatest correlation with phosphorus solubilization and the auxin production of PGPR strains. The branch number, leaf number, and chlorophyllcontent had a positive correlation with the phosphorus solubilization and auxin production of PGPR strains and soil element contents. In conclusion, plant growth could be promoted by the root irrigation of PGPR to improve rhizospheric soil nutrients and the microenvironment, with modification of the rhizospheric soil microbial community.

DISCUSSION: Plant growth could be promoted by the root irrigation of PGPR to improve rhizospheric soil nutrients and the microenvironment, with the modification of the rhizospheric soil microbial community. These data may help us to better understand the positive effects of PGPR on blueberry growth and the rhizosphere soil microenvironment, as well as provide a research basis for the subsequent development of a rhizosphere-promoting microbial fertilizer.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Cantin LJ, Dunning Hotopp JC, JM Foster (2024)

Improved metagenome assemblies through selective enrichment of bacterial genomic DNA from eukaryotic host genomic DNA using ATAC-seq.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1352378.

Genomics can be used to study the complex relationships between hosts and their microbiota. Many bacteria cannot be cultured in the laboratory, making it difficult to obtain adequate amounts of bacterial DNA and to limit host DNA contamination for the construction of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). For example, Wolbachia is a genus of exclusively obligate intracellular bacteria that live in a wide range of arthropods and some nematodes. While Wolbachia endosymbionts are frequently described as facultative reproductive parasites in arthropods, the bacteria are obligate mutualistic endosymbionts of filarial worms. Here, we achieve 50-fold enrichment of bacterial sequences using ATAC-seq (Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing) with Brugia malayi nematodes, containing Wolbachia (wBm). ATAC-seq uses the Tn5 transposase to cut and attach Illumina sequencing adapters to accessible DNA lacking histones, typically thought to be open chromatin. Bacterial and mitochondrial DNA in the lysates are also cut preferentially since they lack histones, leading to the enrichment of these sequences. The benefits of this include minimal tissue input (<1 mg of tissue), a quick protocol (<4 h), low sequencing costs, less bias, correct assembly of lateral gene transfers and no prior sequence knowledge required. We assembled the wBm genome with as few as 1 million Illumina short paired-end reads with >97% coverage of the published genome, compared to only 12% coverage with the standard gDNA libraries. We found significant bacterial sequence enrichment that facilitated genome assembly in previously published ATAC-seq data sets from human cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and C. elegans contaminated with their food source, the OP50 strain of E. coli. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using ATAC-seq to easily obtain bacterial genomes to aid in symbiosis, infectious disease, and microbiome research.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Toullec G, Rädecker N, Pogoreutz C, et al (2024)

Host starvation and in hospite degradation of algal symbionts shape the heat stress response of the Cassiopea-Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis.

Microbiome, 12(1):42.

BACKGROUND: Global warming is causing large-scale disruption of cnidarian-Symbiodiniaceae symbioses fundamental to major marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs. However, the mechanisms by which heat stress perturbs these symbiotic partnerships remain poorly understood. In this context, the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea has emerged as a powerful experimental model system.

RESULTS: We combined a controlled heat stress experiment with isotope labeling and correlative SEM-NanoSIMS imaging to show that host starvation is a central component in the chain of events that ultimately leads to the collapse of the Cassiopea holobiont. Heat stress caused an increase in catabolic activity and a depletion of carbon reserves in the unfed host, concurrent with a reduction in the supply of photosynthates from its algal symbionts. This state of host starvation was accompanied by pronounced in hospite degradation of algal symbionts, which may be a distinct feature of the heat stress response of Cassiopea. Interestingly, this loss of symbionts by degradation was concealed by body shrinkage of the starving animals, resulting in what could be referred to as "invisible" bleaching.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study highlights the importance of the nutritional status in the heat stress response of the Cassiopea holobiont. Compared with other symbiotic cnidarians, the large mesoglea of Cassiopea, with its structural sugar and protein content, may constitute an energy reservoir capable of delaying starvation. It seems plausible that this anatomical feature at least partly contributes to the relatively high stress tolerance of these animals in rapidly warming oceans. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Crovetto L, Venn AA, Sevilgen D, et al (2024)

Spatial variability of and effect of light on the cœlenteron pH of a reef coral.

Communications biology, 7(1):246.

Coral reefs, the largest bioconstruction on Earth, are formed by calcium carbonate skeletons of corals. Coral skeleton formation commonly referred to as calcification occurs in a specific compartment, the extracellular calcifying medium (ECM), located between the aboral ectoderm and the skeleton. Calcification models often assume a direct link between the surrounding seawater and the ECM. However, the ECM is separated from the seawater by several tissue layers and the cœlenteron, which contains the cœlenteric fluid found in both polyps and cœnosarc (tissue connecting the polyps). Symbiotic dinoflagellate-containing cells line the cœlenteron and their photosynthetic activity contributes to changes in the chemistry of the cœlenteric fluid, particularly with respect to pH. The aim of our study is to compare cœlenteron pH between the cœnosarc and polyps and to compare areas of high or low dinoflagellate density based on tissue coloration. To achieve this, we use liquid ion exchange (LIX) pH microsensors to profile pH in the cœlenteron of polyps and the cœnosarc in different regions of the coral colony in light and darkness. We interpret our results in terms of what light and dark exposure means for proton gradients between the ECM and the coelenteron, and how this could affect calcification.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Manantsoa FF, Rakotoarisoa MF, Chaintreuil C, et al (2024)

Occurrence and diversity of stem nodulation in Aeschynomene and Sesbania legumes from wetlands of Madagascar.

Scientific reports, 14(1):5024.

Legumes have the ability to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soil rhizobia that they house in specific organs, the nodules. In most rhizobium-legume interactions, nodulation occurs on the root. However, certain tropical legumes growing in wetlands possess a unique trait: the capacity to form rhizobia-harbouring nodules on the stem. Despite the originality of the stem nodulation process, its occurrence and diversity in waterlogging-tolerant legumes remains underexplored, impeding a comprehensive analysis of its genetics and biology. Here, we aimed at filling this gap by surveying stem nodulation in legume species-rich wetlands of Madagascar. Stem nodulation was readily observed in eight hydrophytic species of the legume genera, Aeschynomene and Sesbania, for which significant variations in stem nodule density and morphology was documented. Among these species, A. evenia, which is used as genetic model to study the rhizobial symbiosis, was found to be frequently stem-nodulated. Two other Aeschynomene species, A. cristata and A. uniflora, were evidenced to display a profuse stem-nodulation as occurs in S. rostrata. These findings extend our knowledge on legumes species that are endowed with stem nodulation and further indicate that A. evenia, A. cristata, A. uniflora and S. rostrata are of special interest for the study of stem nodulation. As such, these legume species represent opportunities to investigate different modalities of the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and this knowledge could provide cues for the engineering of nitrogen-fixation in non-legume crops.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Zhan X, Zhang K, Wang C, et al (2024)

A c-di-GMP signaling module controls responses to iron in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Nature communications, 15(1):1860.

Cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) serves as a bacterial second messenger that modulates various processes including biofilm formation, motility, and host-microbe symbiosis. Numerous studies have conducted comprehensive analysis of c-di-GMP. However, the mechanisms by which certain environmental signals such as iron control intracellular c-di-GMP levels are unclear. Here, we show that iron regulates c-di-GMP levels in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by modulating the interaction between an iron-sensing protein, IsmP, and a diguanylate cyclase, ImcA. Binding of iron to the CHASE4 domain of IsmP inhibits the IsmP-ImcA interaction, which leads to increased c-di-GMP synthesis by ImcA, thus promoting biofilm formation and reducing bacterial motility. Structural characterization of the apo-CHASE4 domain and its binding to iron allows us to pinpoint residues defining its specificity. In addition, the cryo-electron microscopy structure of ImcA in complex with a c-di-GMP analog (GMPCPP) suggests a unique conformation in which the compound binds to the catalytic pockets and to the membrane-proximal side located at the cytoplasm. Thus, our results indicate that a CHASE4 domain directly senses iron and modulates the crosstalk between c-di-GMP metabolic enzymes.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Zhao DK, Mou ZM, YL Ruan (2024)

Orchids acquire fungal carbon for seed germination: pathways and players.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(24)00029-3 [Epub ahead of print].

To germinate in nature, orchid seeds strictly rely on seed germination-promoting orchid mycorrhizal fungi (sgOMFs) for provision of carbon nutrients. The underlying delivery pathway, however, remains elusive. We develop here a plausible model for sugar transport from sgOMFs to orchid embryonic cells to fuel germination. Orchids exploit sgOMFs to induce the formation of pelotons, elaborate intracellular hyphal coils in orchid embryos. The colonized orchid cells then obtain carbon nutrients by uptake from living hyphae and peloton lysis, primarily as glucose derived from fungal trehalose hydrolyzed by orchid-specific trehalases. The uptake of massive fungally derived glucose is likely to be mediated by two classes of membrane proteins, namely, sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs) and H[+]-hexose symporters. The proposed model serves as a launch pad for further research to better understand and improve orchid seed germination and conservation.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Kuang Z, Yan Z, L Yu (2024)

Weakly supervised learning for multi-class medical image segmentation via feature decomposition.

Computers in biology and medicine, 171:108228 pii:S0010-4825(24)00312-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Weakly supervised learning with image-level labels, releasing deep learning from highly labor-intensive pixel-wise annotation, has gained great attention for medical image segmentation. However, existing weakly supervised methods are mainly designed for single-class segmentation while leaving multi-class medical image segmentation rarely-explored. Different from natural images, label symbiosis, together with location adjacency, are much more common in medical images, making it more challenging for multi-class segmentation. In this paper, we propose a novel weakly supervised learning method for multi-class medical image segmentation with image-level labels. In terms of the multi-class classification backbone, a multi-level classification network encoding multi-scale features is proposed to produce binary predictions, together with the corresponding CAMs, of each class separately. To address the above issues (i.e., label symbiosis and location adjacency), a feature decomposition module based on semantic affinity is first proposed to learn both class-independent and class-dependent features by maximizing the inter-class feature distance. Through a cross-guidance loss to jointly utilize the above features, label symbiosis is largely alleviated. In terms of location adjacency, a mutually exclusive loss is constructed to minimize the overlap among regions corresponding to different classes. Experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed weakly-supervised framework for both single-class and multi-class medical image segmentation. We believe the analysis in this paper would shed new light on future work for multi-class medical image segmentation. The source code of this paper is publicly available at https://github.com/HustAlexander/MCWSS.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Sharko FS, Mazloum A, Krotova AO, et al (2024)

Metagenomic profiling of viral and microbial communities from the pox lesions of lumpy skin disease virus and sheeppox virus-infected hosts.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 11:1321202.

INTRODUCTION: It has been recognized that capripoxvirus infections have a strong cutaneous tropism with the manifestation of skin lesions in the form of nodules and scabs in the respective hosts, followed by necrosis and sloughing off. Considering that the skin microbiota is a complex community of commensal bacteria, fungi and viruses that are influenced by infections leading to pathological states, there is no evidence on how the skin microbiome is affected during capripoxvirus pathogenesis.

METHODS: In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to investigate the microbiome in pox lesions from hosts infected with lumpy skin disease virus and sheep pox virus.

RESULTS: The analysis revealed a high degree of variability in bacterial community structures across affected skin samples, indicating the importance of specific commensal microorganisms colonizing individual hosts. The most common and abundant bacteria found in scab samples were Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Helcococcus ovis and Trueperella pyogenes, irrespective of host. Bacterial reads belonging to the genera Moraxella, Mannheimia, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were identified.

DISCUSSION: This study is the first to investigate capripox virus-associated changes in the skin microbiome using whole-genome metagenomic profiling. The findings will provide a basis for further investigation into capripoxvirus pathogenesis. In addition, this study highlights the challenge of selecting an optimal bioinformatics approach for the analysis of metagenomic data in clinical and veterinary practice. For example, direct classification of reads using a kmer-based algorithm resulted in a significant number of systematic false positives, which may be attributed to the peculiarities of the algorithm and database selection. On the contrary, the process of de novo assembly requires a large number of target reads from the symbiotic microbial community. In this work, the obtained sequencing data were processed by three different approaches, including direct classification of reads based on k-mers, mapping of reads to a marker gene database, and de novo assembly and binning of metagenomic contigs. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their practicality in veterinary settings are discussed in relation to the results obtained.

RevDate: 2024-03-01
CmpDate: 2024-03-01

George NM, Hany-Ali G, Abdelhaliem E, et al (2024)

Alleviating the drought stress and improving the plant resistance properties of Triticum aestivum via biopriming with aspergillus fumigatus.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):150.

BACKGROUND: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most widely grown and vital cereal crops, containing a high percentage of basic nutrients such as carbohydrates and proteins. Drought stress is one of the most significant limitations on wheat productivity. Due to climate change influences plant development and growth, physiological processes, grain quality, and yield. Drought stress has elicited a wide range of plant responses, namely physiological and molecular adaptations. Biopriming is one of the recent attempts to combat drought stress. Mitigating the harmful impact of abiotic stresses on crops by deploying extreme-habitat-adapted symbiotic microbes. The purpose of this study was to see how biopriming Triticum aestivum grains affected the effects of inoculating endophytic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus ON307213 isolated from stressed wheat plants in four model agricultural plants (Gemmiza-7, Sids-1, Sakha8, and Giza 168). And its viability in reducing drought stress through the use of phenotypic parameters such as root and shoot fresh and dry weight, shoot and root length, and so on. On a biochemical and physiological level, enzymatic parameters such as catalase and superoxidase dismutase are used. Total phenolics, flavonoids, and photosynthetic pigments are non-enzymatic parameters. Making use of molecular techniques such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

RESULTS: It has been found that using Aspergillus fumigatus as a biological biopriming tool can positively impact wheat plants experiencing drought stress. The total biomass of stressed wheat plants that had been bio-primed rose by more than 40% as compared to wheat plants that had not been bio-primed. A. fumigatus biopriming either increased or decreased the amount of enzymatic and non-enzymatic substances on biochemical scales, aside from the noticeable increase in photosynthetic pigment that occurs in plants that have been bio-primed and stressed. Drought-resistant genes show a biopriming influence in gene expression.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first paper to describe the practicality of a. fumigatus biopriming and its effect on minimizing the degrading effects of drought through water limitation. It suggests the potential applications of arid habitat-adapted endophytes in agricultural systems.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Liu T, Wang Q, Li Y, et al (2024)

Bio-organic fertilizer facilitated phytoremediation of heavy metal(loid)s-contaminated saline soil by mediating the plant-soil-rhizomicrobiota interactions.

The Science of the total environment, 922:171278 pii:S0048-9697(24)01417-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Bio-organic fertilizer (BOF) was effective to promote the phytoremediation efficiency of heavy metal(loid)s-contaminated saline soil (HCSS) by improving rhizosphere soil properties, especially microbiome. However, there existed unclear impacts of BOF on plant metabolome and plant-driven manipulation on rhizosphere soil microbiota in HCSS, which were pivotal contributors to stress defense of plants trapped in adverse conditions. Here, a pot experiment was conducted to explore the mechanisms of BOF in improving alfalfa (Medicago sativa)-performing phytoremediation of HCSS. BOF application significantly increased the biomass (150.87-401.58 %) to support the augments of accumulation regarding heavy metal(loid)s (87.50 %-410.54 %) and salts (38.27 %-271.04 %) in alfalfa. BOF promoted nutrients and aggregates stability but declined pH of rhizosphere soil, accompanied by the boosts of rhizomicrobiota including increased activity, reshaped community structure, enriched plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Blastococcus, Modestobacter, Actinophytocola, Bacillus, and Streptomyces), strengthened mycorrhizal symbiosis (Leohumicola, Funneliformis, and unclassified_f_Ceratobasidiaceae), optimized co-occurrence networks, and beneficial shift of keystones. The conjoint analysis of plant metabolome and physiological indices confirmed that BOF reprogrammed the metabolic processes (synthesis, catabolism, and long-distance transport of amino acid, lipid, carbohydrate, phytohormone, stress-resistant secondary metabolites, etc) and physiological functions (energy supply, photosynthesis, plant immunity, nutrients assimilation, etc) that are associated intimately. The consortium of root metabolome, soil metabolome, and soil microbiome revealed that BOF facilitated the exudation of metabolites correlated with rhizomicrobiota (structure, biomarker, and keystone) and rhizosphere oxidative status, e.g., fatty acyls, phenols, coumarins, phenylpropanoids, highlighting the plant-driven regulation on rhizosphere soil microbes and environment. By compiling various results and omics data, it was concluded that BOF favored the adaptation and phytoremediation efficiency of alfalfa by mediating the plant-soil-rhizomicrobiota interactions. The results would deepen understanding of the mechanisms by which BOF improved phytoremediation of HCSS, and provide theoretical guidance to soil amelioration and BOF application.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Doranga S, Krogfelt KA, Cohen PS, et al (2024)

Nutrition of Escherichia coli within the intestinal microbiome.

EcoSal Plus [Epub ahead of print].

In this chapter, we update our 2004 review of "The Life of Commensal Escherichia coli in the Mammalian Intestine" (https://doi.org/10.1128/ecosalplus.8.3.1.2), with a change of title that reflects the current focus on "Nutrition of E. coli within the Intestinal Microbiome." The earlier part of the previous two decades saw incremental improvements in understanding the carbon and energy sources that E. coli and Salmonella use to support intestinal colonization. Along with these investigations of electron donors came a better understanding of the electron acceptors that support the respiration of these facultative anaerobes in the gastrointestinal tract. Hundreds of recent papers add to what was known about the nutrition of commensal and pathogenic enteric bacteria. The fact that each biotype or pathotype grows on a different subset of the available nutrients suggested a mechanism for succession of commensal colonizers and invasion by enteric pathogens. Competition for nutrients in the intestine has also come to be recognized as one basis for colonization resistance, in which colonized strain(s) prevent colonization by a challenger. In the past decade, detailed investigations of fiber- and mucin-degrading anaerobes added greatly to our understanding of how complex polysaccharides support the hundreds of intestinal microbiome species. It is now clear that facultative anaerobes, which usually cannot degrade complex polysaccharides, live in symbiosis with the anaerobic degraders. This concept led to the "restaurant hypothesis," which emphasizes that facultative bacteria, such as E. coli, colonize the intestine as members of mixed biofilms and obtain the sugars they need for growth locally through cross-feeding from polysaccharide-degrading anaerobes. Each restaurant represents an intestinal niche. Competition for those niches determines whether or not invaders are able to overcome colonization resistance and become established. Topics centered on the nutritional basis of intestinal colonization and gastrointestinal health are explored here in detail.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Richter F, Calonne-Salmon M, van der Heijden MGA, et al (2024)

AMF-SporeChip provides new insights into arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal asymbiotic hyphal growth dynamics at the cellular level.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbiotic associations with the majority of land plants and deliver a wide range of soil-based ecosystem services. Due to their conspicuous belowground lifestyle in a dark environment surrounded by soil particles, much is still to be learned about the influence of environmental (i.e., physical) cues on spore germination, hyphal morphogenesis and anastomosis/hyphal healing mechanisms. To fill existing gaps in AMF knowledge, we developed a new microfluidic platform - the AMF-SporeChip - to visualise the foraging behaviour of germinating Rhizophagus and Gigaspora spores and confront asymbiotic hyphae with physical obstacles. In combination with timelapse microscopy, the fungi could be examined at the cellular level and in real-time. The AMF-SporeChip allowed us to acquire movies with unprecedented visual clarity and therefore identify various exploration strategies of AMF asymbiotic hyphae. We witnessed tip-to-tip and tip-to-side hyphal anastomosis formation. Anastomosis involved directed hyphal growth in a "stop-and-go" manner, yielding visual evidence of pre-anastomosis signalling and decision-making. Remarkably, we also revealed a so-far undescribed reversible cytoplasmic retraction, including the formation of up to 8 septa upon retraction, as part of a highly dynamic space navigation, probably evolved to optimise foraging efficiency. Our findings demonstrated how AMF employ an intricate mechanism of space searching, involving reversible cytoplasmic retraction, branching and directional changes. In turn, the AMF-SporeChip is expected to open many future frontiers for AMF research.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Giovannetti M, A Genre (2024)

Walking on a tightrope: cell wall-associated kinases act as sensors and regulators of immunity and symbiosis.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Sayed T, Malan H, E Fourie (2024)

Exploring the associations between resilience and psychological well-being among South Africans during COVID-19.

Frontiers in psychology, 15:1323466.

Resilience pertains to an individual's ability to withstand, adapt, and recuperate from adversity and stress. As the world grapples with unprecedented challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the relationship between resilience and psychological well-being becomes essential. Preliminary observations suggest that those with a higher resilience tend to have better psychological well-being, indicating a possible symbiotic relationship between the two. This study was structured using a cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sampling technique was employed, including 631 respondents in South Africa. Data collection took place between June 11 and July 9, 2022, facilitated through a Google Forms questionnaire. This questionnaire encompassed various instruments, namely a biographical questionnaire, the CD-RISC 10, the WHO Well-being Index, the FACIT-Sp-12, and the PMHS. The findings from the collected data highlighted a strong correlation between resilience and overall well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. This elevation in resilience can be instrumental in augmenting psychological well-being. As such, interventions or programs aimed at enhancing individual and community well-being might benefit from incorporating elements that bolster resilience, especially during periods of global adversity.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Zaman R, Shah A, Shah A, et al (2024)

Unraveling the multifaceted effects of climatic factors on mountain pine beetle and its interaction with fungal symbionts.

Global change biology, 30(3):e17207.

Mountain pine beetles (MPBs) pose a substantial threat to North American pine forests, causing extensive tree mortality over large areas. Their tree-killing ability is closely linked to mass aggregation on host trees triggered via pheromones and dependence on their symbiotic fungi. However, the influence of a changing climate on the biology of MPBs and their co-evolved interactions with their fungal symbionts remains uncertain. To investigate this, male and female pairs of beetles were introduced into freshly cut logs from lodgepole pine trees and placed in controlled climate chambers with manipulated environmental conditions, including two levels of CO2 (ambient vs. 1000 ppm), O3 (ambient vs. 100 ppb) and humidity (33% vs. 65%). The beetle-infested logs were left in these chambers for 1 month and then returned to ambient conditions until brood emergence. Emerging broods were collected for further analysis. Additionally, three species of fungal symbionts (Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium and Leptographium longiclavatum) were subjected to the same CO2 , O3 and humidity conditions for 5 days. Lower humidity promoted MPB reproduction and fungal growth. Elevated CO2 accelerated larval growth and emergence while improving brood pheromone production. Elevated O3 had a negative impact on MPB reproduction and brood fitness while improving its immune responses to an entomopathogenic fungus (Beauveria bassiana). It also inhibited fungal growth and reproduction, whereas elevated CO2 had varied (positive or negative) effects on fungal growth and ergosterol (proxy to fungal mass) production depending on the fungal species. Together, these findings suggest that climate change can potentially alter the interactions between MPBs and their fungal symbionts, highlighting the importance of understanding how climate change affects forest pests and their symbiotic relationships to develop effective management strategies in the future.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Valadez-Ingersoll M, Aguirre Carrión PJ, Bodnar CA, et al (2024)

Starvation differentially affects gene expression, immunity and pathogen susceptibility across symbiotic states in a model cnidarian.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 291(2017):20231685.

Mutualistic symbioses between cnidarians and photosynthetic algae are modulated by complex interactions between host immunity and environmental conditions. Here, we investigate how symbiosis interacts with food limitation to influence gene expression and stress response programming in the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida (Aiptasia). Transcriptomic responses to starvation were similar between symbiotic and aposymbiotic Aiptasia; however, aposymbiotic anemone responses were stronger. Starved Aiptasia of both symbiotic states exhibited increased protein levels of immune-related transcription factor NF-κB, its associated gene pathways, and putative target genes. However, this starvation-induced increase in NF-κB correlated with increased immunity only in symbiotic anemones. Furthermore, starvation had opposite effects on Aiptasia susceptibility to pathogen and oxidative stress challenges, suggesting distinct energetic priorities under food scarce conditions. Finally, when we compared starvation responses in Aiptasia to those of a facultative coral and non-symbiotic anemone, 'defence' responses were similarly regulated in Aiptasia and the facultative coral, but not in the non-symbiotic anemone. This pattern suggests that capacity for symbiosis influences immune responses in cnidarians. In summary, expression of certain immune pathways-including NF-κB-does not necessarily predict susceptibility to pathogens, highlighting the complexities of cnidarian immunity and the influence of symbiosis under varying energetic demands.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Emerson KJ, SK Woodley (2024)

Something in the water: aquatic microbial communities influence the larval amphibian gut microbiota, neurodevelopment and behaviour.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 291(2017):20232850.

Microorganisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract of animals and establish symbiotic host-associated microbial communities that influence vertebrate physiology. More specifically, these gut microbial communities influence neurodevelopment through the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis. We tested the hypothesis that larval amphibian neurodevelopment is affected by the aquatic microbial community present in their housing water. Newly hatched Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles were raised in pond water that was unmanipulated (natural) or autoclaved. Tadpoles raised in autoclaved pond water had a gut microbiota with reduced bacterial diversity and altered community composition, had decreased behavioural responses to sensory stimuli, were larger in overall body mass, had relatively heavier brains and had altered brain shape when compared with tadpoles raised in natural pond water. Further, the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota were associated with tadpole behavioural responses and brain measurements. Our results suggest that aquatic microbial communities shape tadpole behaviour and brain development, providing strong support for the occurrence of the MGB axis in amphibians. Lastly, the dramatic role played by aquatic microbial communities on vertebrate neurodevelopment and behaviour should be considered in future wildlife conservation efforts.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Davis CC, P Choisy (2024)

Medicinal plants meet modern biodiversity science.

Current biology : CB, 34(4):R158-R173.

Plants have been an essential source of human medicine for millennia. In this review, we argue that a holistic, interdisciplinary approach to the study of medicinal plants that combines methods and insights from three key disciplines - evolutionary ecology, molecular biology/biochemistry, and ethnopharmacology - is poised to facilitate new breakthroughs in science, including pharmacological discoveries and rapid advancements in human health and well-being. Such interdisciplinary research leverages data and methods spanning space, time, and species associated with medicinal plant species evolution, ecology, genomics, and metabolomic trait diversity, all of which build heavily on traditional Indigenous knowledge. Such an interdisciplinary approach contrasts sharply with most well-funded and successful medicinal plant research during the last half-century, which, despite notable advancements, has greatly oversimplified the dynamic relationships between plants and humans, kept hidden the larger human narratives about these relationships, and overlooked potentially important research and discoveries into life-saving medicines. We suggest that medicinal plants and people should be viewed as partners whose relationship involves a complicated and poorly explored set of (socio-)ecological interactions including not only domestication but also commensalisms and mutualisms. In short, medicinal plant species are not just chemical factories for extraction and exploitation. Rather, they may be symbiotic partners that have shaped modern societies, improved human health, and extended human lifespans.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Kim M, Kim W, Park Y, et al (2024)

Lineage-specific evolution of Aquibium, a close relative of Mesorhizobium, during habitat adaptation.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The novel genus Aquibium that lacks nitrogenase was recently reclassified from the Mesorhizobium genus. The genomes of Aquibium species isolated from water were smaller and had higher GC contents than those of Mesorhizobium species. Six Mesorhizobium species lacking nitrogenase were found to exhibit low similarity in the average nucleotide identity values to the other 24 Mesorhizobium species. Therefore, they were classified as the non-N2-fixing Mesorhizobium lineage (N-ML), an evolutionary intermediate species. The results of our phylogenomic analyses and the loss of Rhizobiales-specific fur/mur indicated that Mesorhizobium species may have evolved from Aquibium species through an ecological transition. Halotolerant and alkali-resistant Aquibium and Mesorhizobium microcysteis belonging to N-ML possessed many tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic transporter and sodium/proton antiporter subunits composed of seven genes (mrpABCDEFG). These genes were not present in the N2-fixing Mesorhizobium lineage (ML), suggesting that genes acquired for adaptation to highly saline and alkaline environments were lost during the evolution of ML as the habitat changed to soil. Land-to-water habitat changes in Aquibium species, close relatives of Mesorhizobium species, could have influenced their genomic evolution by the gain and loss of genes. Our study indicated that lineage-specific evolution could have played a significant role in shaping their genome architecture and conferring their ability to thrive in different habitats.IMPORTANCEPhylogenetic analyses revealed that the Aquibium lineage (AL) and non-N2-fixing Mesorhizobium lineage (N-ML) were monophyletically grouped into distinct clusters separate from the N2-fixing Mesorhizobium lineage (ML). The N-ML, an evolutionary intermediate species having characteristics of both ancestral and descendant species, could provide a genomic snapshot of the genetic changes that occur during adaptation. Genomic analyses of AL, N-ML, and ML revealed that changes in the levels of genes related to transporters, chemotaxis, and nitrogen fixation likely reflect adaptations to different environmental conditions. Our study sheds light on the complex and dynamic nature of the evolution of rhizobia in response to changes in their environment and highlights the crucial role of genomic analysis in understanding these processes.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Grundmann CO, Guzman J, Vilcinskas A, et al (2024)

The insect microbiome is a vast source of bioactive small molecules.

Natural product reports [Epub ahead of print].

Covering: September 1964 to June 2023Bacteria and fungi living in symbiosis with insects have been studied over the last sixty years and found to be important sources of bioactive natural products. Not only classic producers of secondary metabolites such as Streptomyces and other members of the phylum Actinobacteria but also numerous bacteria from the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and an impressive array of fungi (usually pathogenic) serve as the source of a structurally diverse number of small molecules with important biological activities including antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antiparasitic and specific enzyme inhibitors. The insect niche is often the exclusive provider of microbes producing unique types of biologically active compounds such as gerumycins, pederin, dinactin, and formicamycins. However, numerous insects still have not been described taxonomically, and in most cases, the study of their microbiota is completely unexplored. In this review, we present a comprehensive survey of 553 natural products produced by microorganisms isolated from insects by collating and classifying all the data according to the type of compound (rather than the insect or microbial source). The analysis of the correlations among the metadata related to insects, microbial partners, and their produced compounds provides valuable insights into the intricate dynamics between insects and their symbionts as well as the impact of their metabolites on these relationships. Herein, we focus on the chemical structure, biosynthesis, and biological activities of the most relevant compounds.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Pees B, Peters L, Treitz C, et al (2024)

The Caenorhabditis elegans proteome response to two protective Pseudomonas symbionts.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

The Caenorhabditis elegans natural microbiota isolates Pseudomonas lurida MYb11 and Pseudomonas fluorescens MYb115 protect the host against pathogens through distinct mechanisms. While P. lurida produces an antimicrobial compound and directly inhibits pathogen growth, P. fluorescens MYb115 protects the host without affecting pathogen growth. It is unknown how these two protective microbes affect host biological processes. We used a proteomics approach to elucidate the C. elegans response to MYb11 and MYb115. We found that both Pseudomonas isolates increase vitellogenin protein production in young adults, which confirms previous findings on the effect of microbiota on C. elegans reproductive timing. Moreover, the C. elegans responses to MYb11 and MYb115 exhibit common signatures with the response to other vitamin B12-producing bacteria, emphasizing the importance of vitamin B12 in C. elegans-microbe metabolic interactions. We further analyzed signatures in the C. elegans response specific to MYb11 or MYb115. We provide evidence for distinct modifications in lipid metabolism by both symbiotic microbes. We could identify the activation of host-pathogen defense responses as an MYb11-specific proteome signature and provide evidence that the intermediate filament protein IFB-2 is required for MYb115-mediated protection. These results indicate that MYb11 not only produces an antimicrobial compound but also activates host antimicrobial defenses, which together might increase resistance to infection. In contrast, MYb115 affects host processes such as lipid metabolism and cytoskeleton dynamics, which might increase host tolerance to infection. Overall, this study pinpoints proteins of interest that form the basis for additional exploration into the mechanisms underlying C. elegans microbiota-mediated protection from pathogen infection and other microbiota-mediated traits.IMPORTANCESymbiotic bacteria can defend their host against pathogen infection. While some protective symbionts directly interact with pathogenic bacteria, other protective symbionts elicit a response in the host that improves its own pathogen defenses. To better understand how a host responds to protective symbionts, we examined which host proteins are affected by two protective Pseudomonas bacteria in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the C. elegans response to its protective symbionts is manifold, which was reflected in changes in proteins that are involved in metabolism, the immune system, and cell structure. This study provides a foundation for exploring the contribution of the host response to symbiont-mediated protection from pathogen infection.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Huang Y, Cao J, Zhu M, et al (2024)

Bacteroides fragilis aggravates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by regulating lipid metabolism and remodeling gut microbiota.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota dysbiosis is a prominent determinant that significantly contributes to the disruption of lipid metabolism. Consequently, it is essential to the occurrence and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nevertheless, the connection between diet and symbiotic gut microbiota in the progression of NAFLD remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of supplementing commensal Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) on lipid metabolism, gut microbiota, and metabolites in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, elucidating the impact of gut microbiota and metabolites on the development of NAFLD. Our study revealed that supplementation with B. fragilis exacerbated both weight gain and obesity in mice. B. fragilis exacerbated blood glucose levels and liver dysfunction in mice. Furthermore, an increase in liver lipid accumulation and the upregulation of genes correlated with lipid metabolism were observed in mice. Under an HFD, supplementation of commensal B. fragilis resulted in alterations in the gut microbiota, notably a significant increase in Desulfovibrionaceae, which led to elevated endotoxin levels and thereby influenced the progression of NAFLD. It was interesting that the simultaneous examination of gut microbiota metabolites revealed a more pronounced impact of diet on short-chain fatty acids. This study represented the pioneering investigation into the impact of B. fragilis on NAFLD. Our findings demonstrated that B. fragilis induced dysregulation in the intestinal microbiota, leading to elevated levels of lipopolysaccharide and dysfunction in glucose and lipid metabolism, thereby exacerbating NAFLD.IMPORTANCESome intestinal symbiotic microbes are involved in the occurrence of the metabolic disorders. Our study investigated the impact of supplementing commensal Bacteroides fragilis on host metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice. Research results indicated that adding a specific bacterial strain to the complex intestinal microecology can worsen metabolic conditions. This effect mainly affects the structural diversity of intestinal microorganisms, the increase in harmful bacteria in the gut, and the elevation of endotoxin levels, blood glucose, and lipid metabolism, thereby impacting the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Understanding the principles that govern the establishment of microbial communities comprising multiple species is crucial for preventing or repairing dysfunctions in these communities, thereby enhancing host health and facilitating disease treatment. This study demonstrated that gut microbiota dysbiosis could contribute to metabolic dysfunction and provides new insights into how to promote gut microbiota in the prevention and therapy of NAFLD.

RevDate: 2024-02-28
CmpDate: 2024-02-28

Kaweesi T, Colvin J, Campbell L, et al (2024)

In silico prediction of candidate gene targets for the management of African cassava whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, SSA1-SG1), a key vector of viruses causing cassava brown streak disease.

PeerJ, 12:e16949.

Whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci sensu lato) have a wide host range and are globally important agricultural pests. In Sub-Saharan Africa, they vector viruses that cause two ongoing disease epidemics: cassava brown streak disease and cassava mosaic virus disease. These two diseases threaten food security for more than 800 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts are ongoing to identify target genes for the development of novel management options against the whitefly populations that vector these devastating viral diseases affecting cassava production in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to identify genes that mediate osmoregulation and symbiosis functions within cassava whitefly gut and bacteriocytes and evaluate their potential as key gene targets for novel whitefly control strategies. The gene expression profiles of dissected guts, bacteriocytes and whole bodies were compared by RNAseq analysis to identify genes with significantly enriched expression in the gut and bacteriocytes. Phylogenetic analyses identified three candidate osmoregulation gene targets: two α-glucosidases, SUC 1 and SUC 2 with predicted function in sugar transformations that reduce osmotic pressure in the gut; and a water-specific aquaporin (AQP1) mediating water cycling from the distal to the proximal end of the gut. Expression of the genes in the gut was enriched 23.67-, 26.54- and 22.30-fold, respectively. Genome-wide metabolic reconstruction coupled with constraint-based modeling revealed four genes (argH, lysA, BCAT & dapB) within the bacteriocytes as potential targets for the management of cassava whiteflies. These genes were selected based on their role and essentiality within the different essential amino acid biosynthesis pathways. A demonstration of candidate osmoregulation and symbiosis gene targets in other species of the Bemisia tabaci species complex that are orthologs of the empirically validated osmoregulation genes highlights the latter as promising gene targets for the control of cassava whitefly pests by in planta RNA interference.

RevDate: 2024-02-28
CmpDate: 2024-02-28

Aboulhoda BE, Abdelfatah M, El-Wakil ES, et al (2024)

Microbiota-Parasite Interaction: Implication of Secretory Immunoglobulin A and P2X7 Receptor Signaling.

Discovery medicine, 36(181):217-233.

The microbiota community is composed of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protists that exert symbiotic effects within the human body. Unlike microbiota, parasites are characteristically reliant on their hosts to thrive and flourish, producing toxic metabolites that agitate microbiota and disturb homeostasis. The proper management of parasitic infections addresses several important challenges related to low socioeconomic status and emergent resistance. Therefore, understanding the microbiota's role in interactions with hosts and parasites is crucial for managing parasite diseases with fewer economic and adverse effects associated with pharmaceutical interventions. The current review was divided into three sections. Section 1 focused on the mutual microbiota-host interaction through the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). The P2X7R is an abundant intestinal cation channel that is crucial in mucosal immunity, facilitated by SIgA-mediated protection in both innate and adaptive immunity. This study demonstrated that microbiota continually "teach and train" host immunity to attain homeostasis via SIgA production (in T cell-independent and T cell-dependent pathways) and the purinergic receptor P2X7R. In addition, we discussed the potential of manipulating SIgA and P2X7R in immune therapies targeting parasitic infections. Section 2 exhibited parasite-microbiota (microbe-microbe) interactions wherein each can indirectly affect one another through physical and immunogenic alterations and directly via predation, bactericidal protein production, and overlapping of nutrient resources. Thus, microbe-microbe interactions appeared to be multifaceted and species-dependent. Section 3 showed the relationship between microbiota and specific parasites, and the promising role of probiotics. In this section, the review discussed examples of tissue, blood, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory parasitic diseases, while highlighting the associated dysbiosis. Furthermore, Section 3 acknowledged the importance of "strain-dependent" biotherapy to boost beneficial microbiota, modulate immunity, and exert anti-parasitic effects.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Shinzato C, Y Yoshioka (2024)

Genomic Data Reveal Diverse Biological Characteristics of Scleractinian Corals and Promote Effective Coral Reef Conservation.

Genome biology and evolution, 16(2):.

Reef-building corals (Scleractinia, Anthozoa, Cnidaria) are the keystone organisms of coral reefs, which constitute the most diverse marine ecosystems. Since the first decoded coral genome reported in 2011, about 40 reference genomes are registered as of 2023. Comparative genomic analyses of coral genomes have revealed genomic characters that may underlie unique biological characteristics and coral diversification. These include existence of genes for biosynthesis of mycosporine-like amino acids, loss of an enzyme necessary for cysteine biosynthesis in family Acroporidae, and lineage-specific gene expansions of DMSP lyase-like genes in the genus Acropora. While symbiosis with endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates is a common biological feature among reef-building corals, genes associated with the intricate symbiotic relationship encompass not only those shared by many coral species, but also genes that were uniquely duplicated in each coral lineage, suggesting diversified molecular mechanisms of coral-algal symbiosis. Coral genomic data have also enabled detection of hidden, complex population structures of corals, indicating the need for species-specific, local-scale, carefully considered conservation policies for effective maintenance of corals. Consequently, accumulating coral genomic data from a wide range of taxa and from individuals of a species not only promotes deeper understanding of coral reef biodiversity, but also promotes appropriate and effective coral reef conservation. Considering the diverse biological traits of different coral species and accurately understanding population structure and genetic diversity revealed by coral genomic analyses during coral reef restoration planning could enable us to "archive" coral reef environments that are nearly identical to natural coral reefs.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Cheema A, N Garg (2024)

Arbuscular mycorrhizae reduced arsenic induced oxidative stress by coordinating nutrient uptake and proline-glutathione levels in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea).

Ecotoxicology (London, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Accumulation of Arsenic (As) generates oxidative stress by reducing nutrients availability in plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can impart metalloid tolerance in plants by enhancing the synthesis of sulfur (S)-rich peptides (glutathione- GSH) and low-molecular-weight nitrogenous (N) osmolytes (proline- Pro). The present study, therefore investigated the efficiency of 3 AM fungal species (Rhizoglomus intraradices-Ri, Funneliformis mosseae -Fm and Claroideoglomus claroideum- Cc) in imparting As (arsenate-AsV -40 at 60 mg kg[-1] and arsenite- AsIII at 5 and 10 mg kg[-1]) tolerance in two Cicer arietinum (chickpea) genotypes (HC 3 and C 235). As induced significantly higher negative impacts in roots than shoots, which was in accordance with proportionately higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the former, with AsIII more toxic than AsV. Mycorrhizal symbiosis overcame oxidative stress by providing the host plants with necessary nutrients (P, N, and S) through enhanced microbial enzyme activities (MEAs) in soil, which increased the synthesis of Pro and GSH and established a redox balance in the two genotypes. This coordination between nutrient status, Pro-GSH levels, and antioxidant defense was stronger in HC 3 than C 235 due to its higher responsiveness to the three AM species. However, Ri was most beneficial in inducing redox homeostasis, followed by Fm and Cc, since the Cicer arietinum-Ri combination displayed the maximum ability to boost antioxidant defense mechanisms and establish a coordination with Pro synthesis. Thus, the results highlighted the importance of selecting specific chickpea genotypes having an ability to establish effective mycorrhizal symbiosis for imparting As stress tolerance.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Han W, Chen Z, Liu H, et al (2024)

Experimental research on compressive strength deterioration of coal seam floor sandstone under the action of acidic mine drainage.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4593.

In sulphur-coal symbiotic coal seams, after the mining of sulphide iron ore, when the coal resources are mined, the mine water accumulated in the roadway mining area will have a certain impact on the stability of the surrounding rock of the coal seam roadway. Taking the floor sandstone of sulfur coal symbiotic coal seam as the research object, the roof fissure water with pH values of 7.48, 4.81 and 2.62 was used as the experimental solution. 10 experimental schemes were designed to measure the compressive strength of the samples under the action of AMD, and the hydrochemical analysis of AMD was conducted. The pore structures of the samples before and after the action of AMD were analyzed. Based on the hydrochemistry and pore structure, the deterioration mechanism of compressive strength of the coal seam floor sandstone under the action of AMD was explained. The results indicated that the compressive strength of the samples decreased with the increasing action time of AMD. The compressive strength decreased with the increment of the porosity. The concentration of H[+] ion in AMD was relatively small. Na2O in albite dissolved and reacted with water, leading to an increase in the concentration of Na[+] ion. Soluble substances such as MgCl2 and CaSO4 in the pore structure dissolved, leading to an increase in the concentration of Ca[2+] and Mg[2+] ions. The dissolution of soluble substances and the physical-chemical reactions between solutions and minerals were the essential causes of the continuous deterioration of the compressive strength of the coal seam floor sandstone. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the peripheral rock in the roadway of the sulphur coal seam, and can also provide a certain engineering reference for the sulphur coal seam roadway.

RevDate: 2024-02-27
CmpDate: 2024-02-27

Kempraj V, Auth J, Cha DH, et al (2024)

Impact of Larval Food Source on the Stability of the Bactrocera dorsalis Microbiome.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):46.

Bacterial symbionts are crucial to the biology of Bactrocera dorsalis. With larval diet (fruit host) being a key factor that determines microbiome composition and with B. dorsalis using more than 400 fruits as hosts, it is unclear if certain bacterial symbionts are preserved and are passed on to B. dorsalis progenies despite changes in larval diet. Here, we conducted a fly rearing experiment to characterize diet-induced changes in the microbiome of female B. dorsalis. In order to explicitly investigate the impacts of larval diet on the microbiome, including potential stable bacterial constituents of B. dorsalis, we performed 16S rRNA sequencing on the gut tissues of teneral female flies reared from four different host fruits (guava, mango, papaya, and rose apple) infested using a single cohort of wild B. dorsalis that emerged from tropical almond (mother flies). Although B. dorsalis-associated microbiota were predominantly shaped by the larval diet, some major bacterial species from the mother flies were retained in progenies raised on different larval diets. With some variation, Klebsiella (ASV 1 and 2), Morganella (ASV 3), and Providencia (ASV 6) were the major bacterial symbionts that were stable and made up 0.1-80% of the gut and ovipositor microbiome of female teneral flies reared on different host fruits. Our results suggest that certain groups of bacteria are stably associated with female B. dorsalis across larval diets. These findings provide a basis for unexplored research on symbiotic bacterial function in B. dorsalis and may aid in the development of novel management techniques against this devastating pest of horticultural importance.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Zhou Y, Guo S, Wang T, et al (2024)

Modeling the pest-pathogen threats in a warming world for the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) and its symbiotic fungus (Leptographium procerum).

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Dendroctonus valens along with its symbiotic fungi have caused unprecedented damage to pines in China. Leptographium procerum, its primary symbiotic fungus, facilitates the invasion and colonization of the pest, thereby aggravating ecological threats. Assessing shifts in the niches and ranges of D. valens and its symbiotic fungus could provide a valuable basis for pest control. Here, we conducted niche comparisons between native and invasive populations of D. valens. Then, we employed standard ecological niche models and ensembles of small models to predict the potential distributions of D. valens and L. procerum under climate change conditions and to estimate areas of overlap.

RESULTS: The niche of invasive population of D. valens in Chinese mainland only occupied a limited portion of the niche of native population in North America, leaving a substantial native niche unfilled and without any niche expansion. The suitable regions for D. valens are predicted in central and southern North America and central and northeastern Chinese mainland. The overlap with the suitable regions of L. procerum included eastern North America and the central and northeastern Chinese mainland under historical climatic scenarios. The regions susceptible to their symbiotic damage will shift northward in response to future climate change.

CONCLUSIONS: Projected distributions of D. valens and its symbiotic fungus, along with areas vulnerable to their symbiotic damage, provide essential insights for devising strategies against this association. Additionally, our study contributes to comprehending how biogeographic approaches aid in estimating potential risks of pest-pathogen interactions in forests within a warming world.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Yang Q, G Wang (2024)

Isoflavonoid metabolism in leguminous plants: an update and perspectives.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1368870.

Isoflavonoids constitute a well-investigated category of phenylpropanoid-derived specialized metabolites primarily found in leguminous plants. They play a crucial role in legume development and interactions with the environment. Isoflavonoids usually function as phytoalexins, acting against pathogenic microbes in nature. Additionally, they serve as signaling molecules in rhizobial symbiosis. Notably, owing to their molecular structure resembling human estrogen, they are recognized as phytoestrogens, imparting positive effects on human health. This review comprehensively outlines recent advancements in research pertaining to isoflavonoid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, transport, and physiological functions, with a particular emphasis on soybean plants. Additionally, we pose several questions to encourage exploration into novel contributors to isoflavonoid metabolism and their potential roles in plant-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Yan J, Green K, Noel K, et al (2024)

Effects of seasonality and developed land cover on Culex mosquito abundance and microbiome diversity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1332970.

The vectorial capacity of mosquitoes, which influences the dynamics of vector-borne disease transmission, is intricately linked to mosquito abundance and the composition and diversity of their associated microbiomes. However, the influence of environmental factors on mosquito populations and microbiome diversity remains underexplored. Here we examined the effects of seasonality and developed land cover on Culex mosquito abundance and bacterial diversity. Biweekly field sampling of female Culex mosquitoes was conducted using gravid and CDC light traps, spanning summer to autumn across varying developed land cover levels in two urban areas in Central Illinois. Mosquito abundance was assessed by the number of mosquitoes captured per trap night and compared across seasons and developed levels. The mean mosquito abundance for gravid and light traps was 12.96 ± 2.15 and 7.67 ± 1.44, respectively. Notably, higher levels of developed land cover exhibited higher Culex abundance than the low level for light traps, but no significant difference was found between summer and early autumn. In gravid traps, no significant differences were detected across seasons or developed levels. Microbial analysis of the mosquito microbiome revealed that Proteobacteria and Wolbachia, with a mean relative abundance of 80.77 and 52.66% respectively, were identified as the most dominant bacterial phylum and genus. Their relative abundance remained consistent across seasons and developed land cover levels, with negligible variations. Alpha diversity, as measured by observed species, Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson, showed slightly higher values in early-autumn compared to late-summer. A notable pattern of bacterial diversity, as indicated by all four diversity indexes, is evident across varying levels of land development. Significantly, high or intermediate developed levels consistently showed reduced alpha diversity when compared to the lower level. This underscores the pronounced impact of anthropogenic ecological disturbances in shaping mosquito microbiomes. Beta diversity analysis revealed no significant dissimilarities in bacterial community composition across seasons and developed levels, although some separation was noted among different levels of developed land cover. These findings highlight the significant role of environmental factors in shaping mosquito abundance and their associated microbiomes, with potential implications for the vectorial capacity in the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Alshareef SA (2024)

Metabolic analysis of the CAZy class glycosyltransferases in rhizospheric soil fungiome of the plant species Moringa oleifera.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 31(4):103956.

The target of the present work is to study the most abundant carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) of glycosyltransferase (GT) class, which are encoded by fungiome genes present in the rhizospheric soil of the plant species Moringa oleifera. The datasets of this CAZy class were recovered using metagenomic whole shotgun genome sequencing approach, and the resultant CAZymes were searched against the KEGG pathway database to identify function. High emphasis was given to the two GT families, GT4 and GT2, which were the highest within GT class in the number and abundance of gene queries in this soil compartment. These two GT families harbor CAZymes playing crucial roles in cell membrane and cell wall processes. These CAZymes are responsible for synthesizing essential structural components such as cellulose and chitin, which contribute to the integrity of cell walls in plants and fungi. The CAZyme beta-1,3-glucan synthase of GT2 family accumulates 1,3-β-glucan, which provides elasticity as well as tensile strength to the fungal cell wall. Other GT CAZymes contribute to the biosynthesis of several compounds crucial for cell membrane and wall integrity, including lipopolysaccharide, e.g., lipopolysaccharide N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, cell wall teichoic acid, e.g., alpha-glucosyltransferase, and cellulose, e.g., cellulose synthase. These compounds also play pivotal roles in ion homeostasis, organic carbon mineralization, and osmoprotection against abiotic stresses in plants. This study emphasizes the major roles of these two CAZy GT families in connecting the structure and function of cell membranes and cell walls of fungal and plant cells. The study also sheds light on the potential occurrence of tripartite symbiotic relationships involving the plant, rhizospheric bacteriome, and fungiome via the action of CAZymes of GT4 and GT2 families. These findings provide valuable insights towards the generation of innovative agricultural practices to enhance the performance of crop plants in the future.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Lastovetsky OA, Caruso T, Brennan FP, et al (2024)

Spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi host surprisingly diverse communities of endobacteria.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous plant root symbionts, which can house two endobacteria: Ca. Moeniiplasma glomeromycotorum (CaMg) and Ca. Glomeribacter gigasporarum (CaGg). However, little is known about their distribution and population structure in natural AMF populations and whether AMF can harbour other endobacteria. We isolated AMF from two environments and conducted detailed analyses of endobacterial communities associated with surface-sterilised AMF spores. Consistent with the previous reports, we found that CaMg were extremely abundant (80%) and CaGg were extremely rare (2%) in both environments. Unexpectedly, we discovered an additional and previously unknown level of bacterial diversity within AMF spores, which extended beyond the known endosymbionts, with bacteria belonging to 10 other phyla detected across our spore data set. Detailed analysis revealed that: CaGg were not limited in distribution to the Gigasporaceae family of AMF, as previously thought; CaMg population structure was driven by AMF host genotype; and a significant inverse correlation existed between the diversity of CaMg and diversity of all other endobacteria. Based on these data, we generate novel testable hypotheses regarding the function of CaMg in AMF biology by proposing that they might act as conditional mutualists of AMF.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Ke X, X Wang (2024)

Energy sensors: emerging regulators of symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(24)00027-X [Epub ahead of print].

Legume-rhizobium symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a highly energy-consuming process. Recent studies demonstrate that nodule-specific energy sensors play important roles in modulating nodule nitrogen fixation capacity. This opens a new field in the energy regulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation that can provide insights into designing leguminous crops with efficient nitrogen fixation.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Eren Eroğlu AE, Eroğlu V, İ Yaşa (2024)

Genomic Insights into the Symbiotic and Plant Growth-Promoting Traits of "Candidatus Phyllobacterium onerii" sp. nov. Isolated from Endemic Astragalus flavescens.

Microorganisms, 12(2):.

A novel strain of Gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobic bacteria, identified as IY22, was isolated from the root nodules of Astragalus flavescens. The analysis of the 16S rDNA and recA (recombinase A) gene sequences indicated that the strain belongs to the genus Phyllobacterium. During the phylogenetic analysis, it was found that strain IY22 is closely related to P. trifolii strain PETP02[T] and P. bourgognense strain STM 201[T]. The genome of IY22 was determined to be 6,010,116 base pairs long with a DNA G+C ratio of 56.37 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) values showed a range from 91.7% to 93.6% when compared to its close relatives. Moreover, IY22 and related strains had digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values ranging from 16.9% to 54.70%. Multiple genes (including nodACDSNZ, nifH/frxC, nifUS, fixABCJ, and sufABCDES) associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation have been detected in strain IY22. Furthermore, this strain features genes that contribute to improving plant growth in various demanding environments. This study reports the first evidence of an association between A. flavescens and a rhizobial species. Native high-altitude legumes are a potential source of new rhizobia, and we believe that they act as a form of insurance for biodiversity against the threats of desertification and drought.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Cameirão C, Costa D, Rufino J, et al (2024)

Diversity, Composition, and Specificity of the Philaenus spumarius Bacteriome.

Microorganisms, 12(2):.

Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae) was recently classified as a pest due to its ability to act as a vector of the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa. This insect has been reported to harbour several symbiotic bacteria that play essential roles in P. spumarius health and fitness. However, the factors driving bacterial assemblages remain largely unexplored. Here, the bacteriome associated with different organs (head, abdomen, and genitalia) of males and females of P. spumarius was characterized using culturally dependent and independent methods and compared in terms of diversity and composition. The bacteriome of P. spumarius is enriched in Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, and Actinobacteria phyla, as well as in Candidatus Sulcia and Cutibacterium genera. The most frequent isolates were Curtobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Rhizobiaceae sp.1. Males display a more diverse bacterial community than females, but no differences in diversity were found in distinct organs. However, the organ shapes the bacteriome structure more than sex, with the Microbacteriaceae family revealing a high level of organ specificity and the Blattabacteriaceae family showing a high level of sex specificity. Several symbiotic bacterial genera were identified in P. spumarius for the first time, including Rhodococcus, Citrobacter, Halomonas, Streptomyces, and Providencia. Differences in the bacterial composition within P. spumarius organs and sexes suggest an adaptation of bacteria to particular insect tissues, potentially shaped by their significance in the life and overall fitness of P. spumarius. Although more research on the bacteria of P. spumarius interactions is needed, such knowledge could help to develop specific bacterial-based insect management strategies.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

He Z, Naganuma T, HIAS Melville (2024)

Bacteriomic Profiles of Rock-Dwelling Lichens from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield and the South African Highveld Plateau.

Microorganisms, 12(2):.

Lichens are not only fungal-algal symbiotic associations but also matrices for association with bacteria, and the bacterial diversity linked to lichens has been receiving more attention in studies. This study compares the diversity and possible metabolism of lichen-associated bacteria from saxicolous foliose and fruticose taxa Alectoria, Canoparmelia, Crocodia, Menegazzia, Usnea, and Xanthoparmelia from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield and the South African Highveld Plateau. We used DNA extractions from the lichen thalli to amplify the eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) and the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rDNA, of which amplicons were then Sanger- and MiSeq-sequenced, respectively. The V3-V4 sequences of the associated bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ascribed to twelve bacterial phyla previously found in the rock tripe Umbilicaria lichens. The bacterial OTUs emphasized the uniqueness of each region, while, at the species and higher ranks, the regional microbiomes were shown to be somewhat similar. Nevertheless, regional biomarker OTUs were screened to predict relevant metabolic pathways, which implicated different regional metabolic features.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Kalousi FD, Tsakos M, Nikolaou CN, et al (2024)

Chemical Analysis and Biological Activities of Extracts Isolated from Symbiotic L. japonicus Plants.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 14(2):.

Plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites, including compounds with biological activities that could be used for the treatment of human diseases. In the present study, we examined the putative production of bioactive molecules in the legume plant Lotus japonicus, which engages into symbiotic relationships with beneficial soil microorganisms. To monitor the production of secondary metabolites when the plant develops beneficial symbiotic relationships, we performed single and double inoculations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Plant extracts from non-inoculated and inoculated plants were chemically characterized and tested for anti-proliferative, apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects on human HEK-293 cells. Both shoot and root extracts from non-inoculated and inoculated plants significantly reduced the HEK-293 cell viability; however, a stronger effect was observed when the root extracts were tested. Shoot and root extracts from Rhizobium-inoculated plants and shoot extracts from AMF-inoculated plants showed apoptotic effects on human cells. Moreover, both shoot and root extracts from AMF-inoculated plants significantly reduced TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity, denoting anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that symbiotic L. japonicus plants are enriched with metabolites that have interesting biological activities and could be further explored for putative future use in the pharmaceutical sector.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Fournier AK, French M, Letson EA, et al (2024)

The Behavioral Cost of Care: Changes in Maintenance Behavior during Equine-Assisted Interventions.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(4):.

This study examined human-animal symbiosis in an animal-assisted intervention through observations of animal maintenance behaviors. The rise of psychotherapy, learning, and recreation incorporating animals warrants exploration of the welfare of the animals involved in these interventions. The analysis of welfare in multispecies engagements can be discussed in terms of symbiosis. Regarding an intervention's animal provider (e.g., therapy horse) and human recipient (psychotherapy client), the balance of cost and benefit is important. Research describing human and animal interactive behavior during interventions is limited, whether focusing on client outcomes or animal welfare. The present study adapted ethological methods to study humans and animals in an equine-assisted intervention, observing equine maintenance behaviors and equid-human interactive behavior. Maintenance behaviors were recorded before, during, and after equine-assisted (psychosocial) learning sessions with youth, providing 1600 observations. Equine alertness, eating behavior, and ambulation varied significantly before, during, and after the equine-assisted sessions. Such interruptions of typical behavior are an important aspect of welfare and unit of analysis when examining symbiotic relationships. A total of 267 sequences of equid-human approach-response behavior were also recorded, indicating that human-animal interaction was predominantly from humans toward equids. Equids' dominant response to human approach was no response, followed by avoidance, while humans' dominant response to equid approach was reciprocation. The findings are discussed in terms of symbiosis and animal welfare.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Su X, Li J, Peng Y, et al (2024)

An overlooked effect of hydroxylamine on anammox granular sludge: Promoting granulation and boosting activity.

The Science of the total environment, 921:171176 pii:S0048-9697(24)01315-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The exogenous hydroxylamine dosing has been proven to enhance nitrite supply for anammox bacteria. In this study, exogenous hydroxylamine was fed into a sequencing batch reactor to investigate its long-term effect on anammox granular sludge. The results showed that hydroxylamine enhanced the reactor's performance with an increase in total nitrogen removal rate from 0.23 to 0.52 kg N/m[3]/d and an increase in bacterial activity from 11.65 to 78.24 mg N/g VSS/h. Meanwhile, hydroxylamine promoted granulation by eluting flocs. And higher anammox activity and granulation were supported by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) characteristics. Moreover, Candidatus Brocadia's abundance increased from 1.10 % to 3.03 %, and its symbiosis with heterotrophic bacteria was intensified. Additionally, molecular docking detailed the mechanism of the hydroxylamine effect. Overall, this study would provide new insights into the hydroxylamine dosing strategy application.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Prathapan P (2024)

Characterisation of the fig-fig wasp holobiont.

Bio Systems pii:S0303-2647(24)00047-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Plants and animals have long been considered distinct kingdoms, yet here a hitherto undefined 'plant-animal' is described. In an extraordinary symbiosis in which neither organism can complete its lifecycle without the other, the fig tree (Ficus species) provides a habitat for its exclusive pollinator, the fig wasp (Agaonidae family). Characterisation of the 'fig-fig wasp holobiont' marks the first acknowledgement of plant-animal symbiogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Sun K, Pan YT, Jiang HJ, et al (2024)

Root endophyte-mediated alteration in plant H2O2 homeostasis regulates symbiosis outcome and reshapes the rhizosphere microbiota.

Journal of experimental botany pii:7613331 [Epub ahead of print].

Endophytic symbioses between plants and fungi are a dominant feature of many terrestrial ecosystems, yet little is known about the signaling that defines these symbiotic associations. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is recognized as a key signal mediating the plant adaptive response to both biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the role of H2O2 in plant-fungal symbiosis remains elusive. Using a combination of physiological analysis, plant and fungal deletion mutants, and comparative transcriptomics, we reported that various environmental conditions differentially affect the interaction between Arabidopsis and a root endophyte Phomopsis liquidambaris, and link this process to alterations in H2O2 levels and H2O2 fluxes across root tips. We found that enhanced H2O2 efflux leading to a moderate increase in H2O2 levels at the plant-fungal interface is required for maintaining plant-fungal symbiosis. Disturbance of plant H2O2 homeostasis compromises the symbiotic ability of plant roots. Moreover, the fungus-regulated H2O2 dynamics modulate the rhizosphere microbiome by selectively enriching for the phylum Cyanobacteria, with strong antioxidant defenses. Our results demonstrated that the regulation of H2O2 dynamics at the plant-fungal interface affects the symbiotic outcome in response to external conditions and highlight the importance of root endophyte in reshaping the rhizosphere microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

de Souza Moreira FM, Cabral Michel D, R Marques Cardoso (2024)

The elite strain INPA03-11B approved as a cowpea inoculant in Brazil represents a new Bradyrhizobium species and it has high adaptability to stressful soil conditions.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

The strain INPA03-11B[T], isolated in the 1980s from nodules of Centrosema sp. collected in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, was approved by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture as a cowpea inoculant in 2004. Since then, several studies have been conducted regarding its phenotypic, genetic, and symbiotic characteristics under axenic and field conditions. Phenotypic features demonstrate its high adaptability to stressful soil conditions, such as tolerance to acidity, high temperatures, and 13 antibiotics, and, especially, its high symbiotic efficiency with cowpea and soybean, proven in the field. The nodC and nifH phylogenies placed the INPA strain in the same clade as the species B. macuxiense BR 10303[T] which was also isolated from the Amazon region. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA ribosomal gene and housekeeping genes, as well as BOX-PCR profiles, showed its potential as a new species, which was confirmed by a similarity percentage of 94.7% and 92.6% in Average Nucleotide Identity with the closest phylogenetically related species Bradyrhizobium tropiciagri CNPSo1112[T] and B. viridifuturi SEMIA690[T], respectively. dDDH values between INPA03-11B[T] and both CNPSo 1112[T] and SEMIA690[T] were respectively 58.5% and 48.1%, which are much lower than the limit for species boundary (70%). Therefore, we propose the name Bradyrhizobium amazonense for INPA03-11B[T] (= BR3301 = SEMIA6463).

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Shi S, Wang F, Hu Y, et al (2024)

Effects of running time on biological activated carbon filters: water purification performance and microbial community evolution.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Ozone-biologically activated carbon (BAC) filtration is an advanced treatment process that can be applied to remove recalcitrant organic micro-pollutants in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). In this study, we continuously monitored a new and an old BAC filter in a DWTP for 1 year to compare their water purification performance and microbial community evolution. The results revealed that, compared with the new filter, the use of the old BAC filter facilitated a slightly lower rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal. In the case of the new BAC filter, we recorded general increases in the biomass and microbial diversity of the biofilm with a prolongation of operating time, with the biomass stabilizing after 7 months. For both new and old BAC filters, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the microbial community gradually shifted over the course of operation from a predominance of Herminiimonas and Hydrogenophaga to one predominated by Bradyrhizbium, Bryobacter, Hyphomicrobium, and Pedomicrobium, with Bradyrhizobium being established as the most abundant genus in the old BAC filter. Regarding spatial distribution, we detected reductions in the biomass and number of operational taxonomic units with increasing biofilm depth, whereas there was a corresponding increase in microbial diversity. However, compared with the effects of time, the influence of depth on the composition of the biofilm microbial community was considerably smaller. Furthermore, co-occurrence network analysis revealed that the microbial community network of the new filter after 11 months of operation was the most tightly connected, although its modular coefficient was the lowest of those assessed. We speculate that the positive and negative interactions within the network may be attributable to symbiotic or competitive relationships among species. Moreover, there may have been a significant negative interaction between SWB02 and Acidovorax, plausibly associated with a competition for substrates.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Palma L, Frizzo L, Kaiser S, et al (2024)

Genome Sequence Analysis of Native Xenorhabdus Strains Isolated from Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Argentina.

Toxins, 16(2): pii:toxins16020108.

Entomopathogenic nematodes from the genus Steinernema (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) are capable of causing the rapid killing of insect hosts, facilitated by their association with symbiotic Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Xenorhabdus (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae), positioning them as interesting candidate tools for the control of insect pests. In spite of this, only a limited number of species from this bacterial genus have been identified from their nematode hosts and their insecticidal properties documented. This study aimed to perform the genome sequence analysis of fourteen Xenorhabdus strains that were isolated from Steinernema nematodes in Argentina. All of the strains were found to be able of killing 7th instar larvae of Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Their sequenced genomes harbour 110 putative insecticidal proteins including Tc, Txp, Mcf, Pra/Prb and App homologs, plus other virulence factors such as putative nematocidal proteins, chitinases and secondary metabolite gene clusters for the synthesis of different bioactive compounds. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis plus average nucleotide identity calculations strongly suggested that three strains should be considered novel species. The species name for strains PSL and Reich (same species according to % ANI) is proposed as Xenorhabdus littoralis sp. nov., whereas strain 12 is proposed as Xenorhabdus santafensis sp. nov. In this work, we present a dual insight into the biocidal potential and diversity of the Xenorhabdus genus, demonstrated by different numbers of putative insecticidal genes and biosynthetic gene clusters, along with a fresh exploration of the species within this genus.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Ouyang W, Liao Z, Yang X, et al (2024)

Microbial Composition of Water Kefir Grains and Their Application for the Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1.

Toxins, 16(2): pii:toxins16020107.

Water kefir grains (WKGs), the starter used to develop a traditional beverage named water kefir, consist of a symbiotic mixture of probiotics with diverse bioactivities, but little is known about their abilities to remove mycotoxins that have serious adverse effects on humans and animals. This study investigated the ability of WKGs to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most toxic mycotoxins, under different settings, and determined the mechanism of absorption mediated by WKGs and the effect of WKGs on the toxicity induced by AFB1 and the reduction in AFB1 in cow milk and tea soups. The results showed the WKGs used herein were dominated by Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Phenylobacterium, Sediminibacterium, Saccharomyces, Issatchenkia, and Kodamaea. HPLC analysis demonstrated that the WKGs effectively removed AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 µg/mL, pH values ranging from 3 to 9, and temperatures ranging from 4 to 45 °C. Additionally, the removal of AFB1 mainly depended on absorption, which was consistent with the Freundlich and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Moreover, only 49.63% of AFB1 was released from the AFB1-WKG complex after four washes when the release of AFB1 was non-detectable. Furthermore, WKG treatment caused a dramatic reduction in the mutagenicity induced by AFB1 according to an Ames test and reduced more than 54% of AFB1 in cow milk and three tea soups. These results suggested that WKGs can act as a potential bio-absorbent with a high binding ability to detoxify AFB1 in food and feed via a chemical action step and multi-binding sites of AFB1 absorption in a wide range of scenarios.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Hoepner CM, Stewart ZK, Qiao R, et al (2024)

Proteotransciptomics of the Most Popular Host Sea Anemone Entacmaea quadricolor Reveals Not All Toxin Genes Expressed by Tentacles Are Recruited into Its Venom Arsenal.

Toxins, 16(2): pii:toxins16020085.

While the unique symbiotic relationship between anemonefishes and sea anemones is iconic, it is still not fully understood how anemonefishes can withstand and thrive within the venomous environment of their host sea anemone. In this study, we used a proteotranscriptomics approach to elucidate the proteinaceous toxin repertoire from the most common host sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor. Although 1251 different toxin or toxin-like RNA transcripts were expressed in E. quadricolor tentacles (0.05% of gene clusters, 1.8% of expression) and 5375 proteins were detected in milked venom, only 4% of proteins detected in venom were putative toxins (230), and they only represent on average 14% of the normalised protein expression in the milked venom samples. Thus, most proteins in milked venom do not appear to have a toxin function. This work raises the perils of defining a dominant venom phenotype based on transcriptomics data alone in sea anemones, as we found that the dominant venom phenotype differs between the transcriptome and proteome abundance data. E. quadricolor venom contains a mixture of toxin-like proteins of unknown and known function. A newly identified toxin protein family, Z3, rich in conserved cysteines of unknown function, was the most abundant at the RNA transcript and protein levels. The venom was also rich in toxins from the Protease S1, Kunitz-type and PLA2 toxin protein families and contains toxins from eight venom categories. Exploring the intricate venom toxin components in other host sea anemones will be crucial for improving our understanding of how anemonefish adapt to the venomous environment.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Chen YH, Zhu Q, Li J, et al (2024)

Optimization of Fermentation Process for New Anti-Inflammatory Glycosylceramide Metabolite from Aspergillus sp.

Metabolites, 14(2):.

A novel ceramide compound, named Aspercerebroside A (AcA), was successfully isolated from the ethyl acetate layer of the marine symbiotic fungus Aspergillus sp. AcA exhibited notable anti-inflammatory activity by effectively inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations of 30 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL, offering a promising avenue for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. To optimize the yield of glycosylceramide (AcA), a series of techniques, including single-factor experiments, orthogonal experiments, and response surface optimization, were systematically employed to fine-tune the composition of the fermentation medium. Initially, the optimal carbon source (sucrose), nitrogen source (yeast extract powder), and the most suitable medium salinity (14 ppt) were identified through single-factor experiments. Subsequently, orthogonal experiments, employing an orthogonal table for planning and analyzing multifactor experiments, were conducted. Finally, a mathematical model, established using a Box-Behnken design, comprehensively analyzed the interactions between the various factors to determine the optimal composition of the fermentation medium. According to the model's prediction, when the sucrose concentration was set at 37.47 g/L, yeast extract powder concentration at 19.66 g/L, and medium salinity at 13.31 ppt, the predicted concentration of glycosylceramide was 171.084 μg/mL. The experimental results confirmed the model's accuracy, with the actual average concentration of glycosylceramide under these conditions measured at 171.670 μg/mL, aligning closely with the predicted value.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Kgosiemang JL, Ramakuwela T, Figlan S, et al (2024)

Antifungal Effect of Metabolites from Bacterial Symbionts of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2):.

Fungal diseases such as Fusarium head blight (FHB) are significant biotic stressors, negatively affecting wheat production and quality. This study explored the antifungal activity of the metabolites produced by the bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against FHB-causing Fusarium sp. Fusarium graminearum. To achieve this, the symbiotic bacteria of nine EPN isolates from the EPN collection at the Agricultural Research Council-Small Grains (ARC-SG) were isolated from the cadavers of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae after infection with EPNs. Broth cultures (crude) and their supernatants (filtered and autoclaved) of each bacterial isolate were used as bacterial metabolite treatments to test their inhibitory effect on the mycelial growth and spore germination of F. graminearum. Mycelial growth inhibition rates varied among both bacterial isolates and treatments. Crude metabolite treatments proved to be more effective than filtered and autoclaved metabolite treatments, with an overall inhibition rate of 75.25% compared to 23.93% and 13.32%, respectively. From the crude metabolite treatments, the Xenorhabdus khoisanae SGI 197 bacterial isolate from Steinernema beitlechemi SGI 197 had the highest mean inhibition rate of 96.25%, followed by Photorhabdus luminescens SGI 170 bacteria isolated from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora SGI 170 with a 95.79% mean inhibition rate. The filtered metabolite treatments of all bacterial isolates were tested for their inhibitory activity against Fusarium graminearum spore germination. Mean spore germination inhibition rates from Xenorhabdus spp. bacterial isolates were higher (83.91 to 96.29%) than those from Photorhabdus spp. (6.05 to 14.74%). The results obtained from this study suggest that EPN symbiotic bacterial metabolites have potential use as biological control agents of FHB. Although field efficacy against FHB was not studied, the significant inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination suggest that the application of these metabolites at the flowering stage may provide protection to plants against infection with or spread of F. graminearum. These metabolites have the potential to be employed as part of integrated pest management (IPM) to inhibit/delay conidia germination until the anthesis (flowering stage) of wheat seedlings has passed.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Zeng Q, Dong J, Lin X, et al (2024)

Isolation and Identification of Acer truncatum Endophytic Fungus Talaromyces verruculosus and Evaluation of Its Effects on Insoluble Phosphorus Absorption Capacity and Growth of Cucumber Seedlings.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2):.

The symbiosis between endophytic fungi and plants can promote the absorption of potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutrients by plants. Phosphorus is one of the indispensable nutrient elements for plant growth and development. However, the content of available phosphorus in soil is very low, which limits the growth of plants. Phosphorus-soluble microorganisms can improve the utilization rate of insoluble phosphorus. In this study, Talaromyces verruculosus (T. verruculosus), a potential phosphorus-soluble fungus, was isolated from Acer truncatum, a plant with strong stress resistance, and its phosphorus-soluble ability in relation to cucumber seedlings under different treatment conditions was determined. In addition, the morphological, physiological, and biochemical indexes of the cucumber seedlings were assessed. The results show that T. verruculosus could solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and lecithin, and the solubilization effect of lecithin was higher than that of TCP. After the application of T. verruclosus, the leaf photosynthetic index increased significantly. The photosynthetic system damage caused by low phosphorus stress was alleviated, and the root morphological indexes of cucumber seedlings were increased. The plant height, stem diameter, and leaf area of cucumber seedlings treated with T. verruculosus were also significantly higher than those without treatment. Therefore, it was shown that T. verruculosus is a beneficial endophytic fungus that can promote plant growth and improve plant stress resistance. This study will provide a useful reference for further research on endophytic fungi to promote growth and improve plant stress resistance.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Zhang W, Ran Q, Li H, et al (2024)

Endolichenic Fungi: A Promising Medicinal Microbial Resource to Discover Bioactive Natural Molecules-An Update.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2):.

Lichens are some of the most unique fungi and are naturally encountered as symbiotic biological organisms that usually consist of fungal partners (mycobionts) and photosynthetic organisms (green algae and cyanobacteria). Due to their distinctive growth environments, including hot deserts, rocky coasts, Arctic tundra, toxic slag piles, etc., they produce a variety of biologically meaningful and structurally novel secondary metabolites to resist external environmental stresses. The endofungi that live in and coevolve with lichens can also generate abundant secondary metabolites with novel structures, diverse skeletons, and intriguing bioactivities due to their mutualistic symbiosis with hosts, and they have been considered as strategically significant medicinal microresources for the discovery of pharmaceutical lead compounds in the medicinal industry. They are also of great importance in the fundamental research field of natural product chemistry. In this work, we conducted a comprehensive review and systematic evaluation of the secondary metabolites of endolichenic fungi regarding their origin, distribution, structural characteristics, and biological activity, as well as recent advances in their medicinal applications, by summarizing research achievements since 2015. Moreover, the current research status and future research trends regarding their chemical components are discussed and predicted. A systematic review covering the fundamental chemical research advances and pharmaceutical potential of the secondary metabolites from endolichenic fungi is urgently required to facilitate our better understanding, and this review could also serve as a critical reference to provide valuable insights for the future research and promotion of natural products from endolichenic fungi.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Cheng Y, Yang J, Li T, et al (2024)

Endosymbiotic Fungal Diversity and Dynamics of the Brown Planthopper across Developmental Stages, Tissues, and Sexes Revealed Using Circular Consensus Sequencing.

Insects, 15(2): pii:insects15020087.

Endosymbiotic fungi play an important role in the growth and development of insects. Understanding the endosymbiont communities hosted by the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), the most destructive pest in rice, is a prerequisite for controlling BPH rice infestations. However, the endosymbiont diversity and dynamics of the BPH remain poorly studied. Here, we used circular consensus sequencing (CCS) to obtain 87,131 OTUs (operational taxonomic units), which annotated 730 species of endosymbiotic fungi in the various developmental stages and tissues. We found that three yeast-like symbionts (YLSs), Polycephalomyces prolificus, Ophiocordyceps heteropoda, and Hirsutella proturicola, were dominant in almost all samples, which was especially pronounced in instar nymphs 4-5, female adults, and the fat bodies of female and male adult BPH. Interestingly, honeydew as the only in vitro sample had a unique community structure. Various diversity indices might indicate the different activity of endosymbionts in these stages and tissues. The biomarkers analyzed using LEfSe suggested some special functions of samples at different developmental stages of growth and the active functions of specific tissues in different sexes. Finally, we found that the incidence of occurrence of three species of Malassezia and Fusarium sp. was higher in males than in females in all comparison groups. In summary, our study provides a comprehensive survey of symbiotic fungi in the BPH, which complements the previous research on YLSs. These results offer new theoretical insights and practical implications for novel pest management strategies to understand the BPH-microbe symbiosis and devise effective pest control strategies.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Liu X, Zhang Y, Tang C, et al (2024)

Bicarbonate-Dependent Detoxification by Mitigating Ammonium-Induced Hypoxic Stress in Triticum aestivum Root.

Biology, 13(2): pii:biology13020101.

Ammonium (NH4[+]) toxicity is ubiquitous in plants. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this toxicity and bicarbonate (HCO3[-])-dependent alleviation, wheat plants were hydroponically cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution containing 7.5 mM NO3[-] (CK), 7.5 mM NH4[+] (SA), or 7.5 mM NH4[+] + 3 mM HCO3[-] (AC). Transcriptomic analysis revealed that compared to CK, SA treatment at 48 h significantly upregulated the expression of genes encoding fermentation enzymes (pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) and oxygen consumption enzymes (respiratory burst oxidase homologs, dioxygenases, and alternative oxidases), downregulated the expression of genes encoding oxygen transporters (PIP-type aquaporins, non-symbiotic hemoglobins), and those involved in energy metabolism, including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and ATP synthases, but upregulated the glycolytic enzymes in the roots and downregulated the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and elongation. The physiological assay showed that SA treatment significantly increased PDC, ADH, and LDH activity by 36.69%, 43.66%, and 61.60%, respectively; root ethanol concentration by 62.95%; and lactate efflux by 23.20%, and significantly decreased the concentrations of pyruvate and most TCA cycle intermediates, the complex V activity, ATP content, and ATP/ADP ratio. As a consequence, SA significantly inhibited root growth. AC treatment reversed the changes caused by SA and alleviated the inhibition of root growth. In conclusion, NH4[+] treatment alone may cause hypoxic stress in the roots, inhibit energy generation, suppress cell division and elongation, and ultimately inhibit root growth, and adding HCO3[-] remarkably alleviates the NH4[+]-induced inhibitory effects on root growth largely by attenuating the hypoxic stress.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Ben Gaied R, Sbissi I, Tarhouni M, et al (2024)

Bacterial Endophytes from Legumes Native to Arid Environments Are Promising Tools to Improve Mesorhizobium-Chickpea Symbiosis under Salinity.

Biology, 13(2): pii:biology13020096.

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is a major contributor of N in agricultural ecosystems, but the establishment of legume-rhizobium symbiosis is highly affected by soil salinity. Our interest is focused on the use of non-rhizobial endophytes to assist the symbiosis between chickpea and its microsymbiont under salinity to avoid loss of production and fertility. Our aims were (1) to investigate the impact of salinity on both symbiotic partners; including on early events of the Mesorhizobium-chickpea symbiosis, and (2) to evaluate the potential of four non-rhizobial endophytes isolated from legumes native to arid regions (Phyllobacterium salinisoli, P. ifriqiyense, Xanthomonas translucens, and Cupriavidus respiraculi) to promote chickpea growth and nodulation under salinity. Our results show a significant reduction in chickpea seed germination rate and in the microsymbiont Mesorhizobium ciceri LMS-1 growth under different levels of salinity. The composition of phenolic compounds in chickpea root exudates significantly changed when the plants were subjected to salinity, which in turn affected the nod genes expression in LMS-1. Furthermore, the LMS-1 response to root exudate stimuli was suppressed by the presence of salinity (250 mM NaCl). On the contrary, a significant upregulation of exoY and otsA genes, which are involved in exopolysaccharide and trehalose biosynthesis, respectively, was registered in salt-stressed LMS-1 cells. In addition, chickpea co-inoculation with LMS-1 along with the consortium containing two non-rhizobial bacterial endophytes, P. salinisoli and X. translucens, resulted in significant improvement of the chickpea growth and the symbiotic performance of LMS-1 under salinity. These results indicate that this non-rhizobial endophytic consortium may be an appropriate ecological and safe tool to improve chickpea growth and its adaptation to salt-degraded soils.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Oddi L, Volpe V, Carotenuto G, et al (2024)

Boosting species evenness, productivity and weed control in a mixed meadow by promoting arbuscular mycorrhizas.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1303750.

Lowland meadows represent aboveground and belowground biodiversity reservoirs in intensive agricultural areas, improving water retention and filtration, ensuring forage production, contrasting erosion and contributing to soil fertility and carbon sequestration. Besides such major ecosystem services, the presence of functionally different plant species improves forage quality, nutritional value and productivity, also limiting the establishment of weeds and alien species. Here, we tested the effectiveness of a commercial seed mixture in restoring a lowland mixed meadow in the presence or absence of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and biostimulation of symbiosis development with the addition of short chain chito-oligosaccharides (CO). Plant community composition, phenology and productivity were regularly monitored alongside AM colonization in control, inoculated and CO-treated inoculated plots. Our analyses revealed that the CO treatment accelerated symbiosis development significantly increasing root colonization by AM fungi. Moreover, the combination of AM fungal inoculation and CO treatment improved plant species evenness and productivity with more balanced composition in forage species. Altogether, our study presented a successful and scalable strategy for the reintroduction of mixed meadows as valuable sources of forage biomass; demonstrated the positive impact of CO treatment on AM development in an agronomic context, extending previous observations developed under controlled laboratory conditions and leading the way to the application in sustainable agricultural practices.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Li D, Jin XH, Li Y, et al (2024)

Fungal communities associated with early immature tubers of wild Gastrodia elata.

Ecology and evolution, 14(2):e11004 pii:ECE311004.

Full myco-heterotrophic orchid Gastrodia elata Bl. is widely distributed in Northeast Asia, and previous research has not fully investigated the symbiotic fungal community of its early immature tubers. This study utilized Illumina sequencing to compare symbiotic fungal communities in natural G. elata immature tubers and their habitats. LEfSe (Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size) was used to screen for Biomarkers that could explain variations among different fungal communities, and correlation analyses were performed among Biomarkers and other common orchid mycorrhizal fungi. Our results illustrate that the symbiotic fungal communities of immature G. elata tubers cannot be simply interpreted as subsets of the environmental fungal communities because some key members cannot be traced back to the environment. The early growth of G. elata was related to a small group of fungi, such as Sebacina, Thelephora, and Inocybe, which were also common mycorrhizal fungi from other orchids. In addition, Mycena, Auricularia, and Cryptococcus were unique fungal partners of G. elata, and many new species have yet to be discovered. Possible symbiotic Mycena should be M. plumipes and its sibling species in this case. Our results provide insight into the symbiotic partner switch and trophic pattern change during the development and maturation of G. elata.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Kaur H, Vig R, Kumar N, et al (2024)

Multimodal Medical Image Fusion Utilizing Two-scale Image Decomposition via Saliency Detection.

Current medical imaging, 20:1-13.

BACKGROUND: Modern medical imaging modalities used by clinicians have many applications in the diagnosis of complicated diseases. These imaging technologies reveal the internal anatomy and physiology of the body. The fundamental idea behind medical image fusion is to increase the image's global and local contrast, enhance the visual impact, and change its format so that it is better suited for computer processing or human viewing while preventing noise magnification and accomplishing excellent real-time performance.

OBJECTIVE: The top goal is to combine data from various modal images (CT/MRI and MR-T1/MR-T2) into a solitary image that, to the greatest degree possible, retains the key characteristics (prominent features) of the source images.

METHODS: The clinical accuracy of medical issues is compromised because innumerable classical fusion methods struggle to conserve all the prominent features of the original images. Furthermore, complex implementation, high computation time, and more memory requirements are key problems of transform domain methods. With the purpose of solving these problems, this research suggests a fusion framework for multimodal medical images that makes use of a multi-scale edge-preserving filter and visual saliency detection. The source images are decomposed using a two-scale edge-preserving filter into base and detail layers. Base layers are combined using the addition fusion rule, while detail layers are fused using weight maps constructed using the maximum symmetric surround saliency detection algorithm.

RESULTS: The resultant image constructed by the presumed method has improved objective evaluation metrics than other classical methods, as well as unhindered edge contour, more global contrast, and no ringing effect or artifacts.

CONCLUSION: The methodology offers a dominant and symbiotic arsenal of clinical symptomatic, therapeutic, and biomedical research competencies that have the prospective to considerably strengthen medical practice and biological understanding.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Rehneke L, P Schäfer (2024)

Symbiont effector-guided mapping of proteins in plant networks to improve crop climate stress resilience: Symbiont effectors inform highly interconnected plant protein networks and provide an untapped resource for crop climate resilience strategies.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

There is an urgent need for novel protection strategies to sustainably secure crop production under changing climates. Studying microbial effectors, defined as microbe-derived proteins that alter signalling inside plant cells, has advanced our understanding of plant immunity and microbial plant colonisation strategies. Our understanding of effectors in the establishment and beneficial outcome of plant symbioses is less well known. Combining functional and comparative interaction assays uncovered specific symbiont effector targets in highly interconnected plant signalling networks and revealed the potential of effectors in beneficially modulating plant traits. The diverse functionality of symbiont effectors differs from the paradigmatic immuno-suppressive function of pathogen effectors. These effectors provide solutions for improving crop resilience against climate stress by their evolution-driven specification in host protein targeting and modulation. Symbiont effectors represent stringent tools not only to identify genetic targets for crop breeding, but to serve as applicable agents in crop management strategies under changing environments.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Zhou Y, Li Q, Zhang Q, et al (2024)

Environmental Concentrations of Herbicide Prometryn Render Stress-Tolerant Corals Susceptible to Ocean Warming.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming has caused the degradation of coral reefs around the world. While stress-tolerant corals have demonstrated the ability to acclimatize to ocean warming, it remains unclear whether they can sustain their thermal resilience when superimposed with other coastal environmental stressors. We report the combined impacts of a photosystem II (PSII) herbicide, prometryn, and ocean warming on the stress-tolerant coral Galaxea fascicularis through physiological and omics analyses. The results demonstrate that the heat-stress-induced inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency in G. fascicularis is exacerbated in the presence of prometryn. Transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses indicate that the prometryn exposure may overwhelm the photosystem repair mechanism in stress-tolerant corals, thereby compromising their capacity for thermal acclimation. Moreover, prometryn might amplify the adverse effects of heat stress on key energy and nutrient metabolism pathways and induce a stronger response to oxidative stress in stress-tolerant corals. The findings indicate that the presence of prometryn at environmentally relevant concentrations would render corals more susceptible to heat stress and exacerbate the breakdown of coral Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis. The present study provides valuable insights into the necessity of prioritizing PSII herbicide pollution reduction in coral reef protection efforts while mitigating the effects of climate change.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Xiao Y, Gao L, Z Li (2024)

Unique high-temperature tolerance mechanisms of zoochlorellae Symbiochlorum hainanensis derived from scleractinian coral Porites lutea.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming is a key issue that causes coral bleaching mainly because of the thermosensitivity of zooxanthellae. Compared with the well-studied zooxanthellae Symbiodiniaceae in coral holobionts, we rarely know about other coral symbiotic algae, let alone their thermal tolerance. In this study, a zoochlorellae, Symbiochlorum hainanensis, isolated from the coral Porites lutea, was proven to have a threshold temperature of 38°C. Meanwhile, unique high-temperature tolerance mechanisms were suggested by integrated transcriptomics and real-time quantitative PCR, physiological and biochemical analyses, and electron microscopy observation. Under heat stress, S. hainanensis shared some similar response strategies with zooxanthellae Effrenium sp., such as increased ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase activities and chlorophyll a, thiamine, and thiamine phosphate contents. In particular, more chloroplast internal layered structure, increased CAT activity, enhanced selenate reduction, and thylakoid assembly pathways were highlighted for S. hainanensis's high-temperature tolerance. Notably, it is the first time to reveal a whole selenate reduction pathway from SeO4[2-] to Se[2-] and its contribution to the high-temperature tolerance of S. hainanensis. These unique mechanisms, including antioxidation and maintaining photosynthesis homeostasis, efficiently ensure the high-temperature tolerance of S. hainanensis than Effrenium sp. Compared with the thermosensitivity of coral symbiotic zooxanthellae Symbiodiniaceae, this study provides novel insights into the high-temperature tolerance mechanisms of coral symbiotic zoochlorellae S. hainanensis, which will contribute to corals' survival in the warming oceans caused by global climate change.IMPORTANCEThe increasing ocean temperature above 31°C-32°C might trigger a breakdown of the coral-Symbiodiniaceae symbioses or coral bleaching because of the thermosensitivity of Symbiodiniaceae; therefore, the exploration of alternative coral symbiotic algae with high-temperature tolerance is important for the corals' protection under warming oceans. This study proves that zoochlorellae Symbiochlorum hainanensis can tolerate 38°C, which is the highest temperature tolerance known for coral symbiotic algae to date, with unique high-temperature tolerance mechanisms. Particularly, for the first time, an internal selenium antioxidant mechanism of coral symbiotic S. hainanensis to high temperature was suggested.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Yanan L, Ismail MA, A Aminuddin (2024)

How has rural tourism influenced the sustainable development of traditional villages? A systematic literature review.

Heliyon, 10(4):e25627.

Rural tourism has been widely recognized as a means of promoting the revival of traditional villages and has been supported by numerous researchers. It has the potential to provide significant social and economic advantages, making it a popular strategy for rural development in both developed and developing countries. Nevertheless, a growing body of research has substantiated the significant disruptions that rural tourism has imposed on traditional villages. This study employed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) qualitative method to systematically analyze 92 papers from WOS and SCOPUS that investigate the impact of rural tourism on traditional villages. The papers were categorized into five groups: spatial, economic, sociocultural, and holistic. This categorization allowed for the identification of the purpose, theme, sub-topics, research methods, and data sources used in these papers, which in turn provided an overview of the characteristics and overall trends in research in this field. It compensates for the deficiencies of lesser reviews that just emphasize rural tourism as the primary catalyst for the sustainable development of traditional villages. Based on a thorough investigation, this paper asserts that the development of tourism in traditional villages should be differentiated from typical rural tourism sites that prioritize the preferences of tourists. The primary objective should be to prioritize the preservation of community values, with a strong emphasis on community participation. This should be done while considering the interests of various stakeholders and promoting a diverse range of livelihoods that are rooted in traditional practices. By doing so, the essence of authenticity in traditional villages can be reinforced, leading to a greater sense of connection and loyalty among tourists. The preservation of traditional village genes fosters a symbiotic relationship with rural tourism, resulting in a mutually beneficial cycle.

RevDate: 2024-02-23
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Hutchings B, López-Legentil S, Stefaniak LM, et al (2024)

Distinct microbial communities in an ascidian-crustacean symbiosis.

Environmental microbiology reports, 16(1):e13242.

Ascidians are marine invertebrates known to occasionally host symbiotic crustaceans. Although the microbiomes of both ascidians and free-living crustaceans have been characterized, there is no documentation of microbial communities in an ascidian-crustacean symbiosis. Samples of the solitary ascidian Ascidia sydneiensis and ambient seawater were collected in Belize. Four symbiotic amphipod crustaceans were retrieved from the branchial sac of the animal, and their microbiomes were compared with those from their ascidian host (tunic and branchial sac compartments) and seawater. Microbiome richness and diversity differed significantly between sample types, with amphipod microbiomes exhibiting significantly lower diversity than tunic and ambient seawater samples. Microbiome composition also differed significantly between sample types and among all pairwise comparisons, except for branchial sac and amphipod microbiomes. Differential operational taxonomic unit (OTU) analyses revealed that only 3 out of 2553 OTUs had significantly different relative abundances in amphipods compared with ascidian branchial sacs, whereas 72 OTUs differed between amphipod and tunic and 315 between amphipod and seawater samples. Thus, different body compartments of A. sydneiensis hosted distinct microbiomes, and symbiotic amphipods contained microbiomes resembling the region they inhabit (i.e., the branchial sac), suggesting that environmental filtering and co-evolutionary processes are determinants of microbiome composition within ascidian-crustacean symbioses.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Abulfaraj AA, Shami AY, Alotaibi NM, et al (2024)

Exploration of genes encoding KEGG pathway enzymes in rhizospheric microbiome of the wild plant Abutilon fruticosum.

AMB Express, 14(1):27.

The operative mechanisms and advantageous synergies existing between the rhizobiome and the wild plant species Abutilon fruticosum were studied. Within the purview of this scientific study, the reservoir of genes in the rhizobiome, encoding the most highly enriched enzymes, was dominantly constituted by members of phylum Thaumarchaeota within the archaeal kingdom, phylum Proteobacteria within the bacterial kingdom, and the phylum Streptophyta within the eukaryotic kingdom. The ensemble of enzymes encoded through plant exudation exhibited affiliations with 15 crosstalking KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. The ultimate goal underlying root exudation, as surmised from the present investigation, was the biosynthesis of saccharides, amino acids, and nucleic acids, which are imperative for the sustenance, propagation, or reproduction of microbial consortia. The symbiotic companionship existing between the wild plant and its associated rhizobiome amplifies the resilience of the microbial community against adverse abiotic stresses, achieved through the orchestration of ABA (abscisic acid) signaling and its cascading downstream effects. Emergent from the process of exudation are pivotal bioactive compounds including ATP, D-ribose, pyruvate, glucose, glutamine, and thiamine diphosphate. In conclusion, we hypothesize that future efforts to enhance the growth and productivity of commercially important crop plants under both favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions may focus on manipulating plant rhizobiomes.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Yagame T, Figura T, Tanaka E, et al (2024)

Mycobiont identity and light conditions affect belowground morphology and physiology of a mixotrophic orchid Cremastra variabilis (Orchidaceae).

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

We have investigated whether mycobiont identity and environmental conditions affect morphology and physiology of the chlorophyllous orchid: Cremastra variabilis. This species grows in a broad range of environmental conditions and associates with saprotrophic rhizoctonias including Tulasnellaceae and saprotrophic non-rhizoctonian fungi from the family Psathyrellaceae. We cultured the orchid from seeds under aseptic culture conditions and subsequently inoculated the individuals with either a Tulasnellaceae or a Psathyrellaceae isolate. We observed underground organ development of the inoculated C. variabilis plants and estimated their nutritional dependency on fungi using stable isotope abundance. Coralloid rhizome development was observed in all individuals inoculated with the Psathyrellaceae isolate, and 1-5 shoots per seedling grew from the tip of the coralloid rhizome. In contrast, individuals associated with the Tulasnellaceae isolate did not develop coralloid rhizomes, and only one shoot emerged per plantlet. In darkness, δ[13]C enrichment was significantly higher with both fungal isolates, whereas δ[15]N values were only significantly higher in plants associated with the Psathyrellaceae isolate. We conclude that C. variabilis changes its nutritional dependency on fungal symbionts depending on light availability and secondly that the identity of fungal symbiont influences the morphology of underground organs.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Zhang IH, Borer B, Zhao R, et al (2024)

Uncultivated DPANN archaea are ubiquitous inhabitants of global oxygen-deficient zones with diverse metabolic potential.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Archaea belonging to the DPANN (Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, and Nanohaloarchaeota) superphylum have been found in an expanding number of environments and perform a variety of biogeochemical roles, including contributing to carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycling. Generally characterized by ultrasmall cell sizes and reduced genomes, DPANN archaea may form mutualistic, commensal, or parasitic interactions with various archaeal and bacterial hosts, influencing the ecology and functioning of microbial communities. While DPANN archaea reportedly comprise a sizeable fraction of the archaeal community within marine oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ) water columns, little is known about their metabolic capabilities in these ecosystems. We report 33 novel metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to the DPANN phyla Nanoarchaeota, Pacearchaeota, Woesearchaeota, Undinarchaeota, Iainarchaeota, and SpSt-1190 from pelagic ODZs in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific and the Arabian Sea. We find these archaea to be permanent, stable residents of all three major ODZs only within anoxic depths, comprising up to 1% of the total microbial community and up to 25%-50% of archaea as estimated from read mapping to MAGs. ODZ DPANN appear to be capable of diverse metabolic functions, including fermentation, organic carbon scavenging, and the cycling of sulfur, hydrogen, and methane. Within a majority of ODZ DPANN, we identify a gene homologous to nitrous oxide reductase. Modeling analyses indicate the feasibility of a nitrous oxide reduction metabolism for host-attached symbionts, and the small genome sizes and reduced metabolic capabilities of most DPANN MAGs suggest host-associated lifestyles within ODZs.IMPORTANCEArchaea from the DPANN (Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota, and Nanohaloarchaeota) superphylum have diverse metabolic capabilities and participate in multiple biogeochemical cycles. While metagenomics and enrichments have revealed that many DPANN are characterized by ultrasmall genomes, few biosynthetic genes, and episymbiotic lifestyles, much remains unknown about their biology. We report 33 new DPANN metagenome-assembled genomes originating from the three global marine oxygen-deficient zones (ODZs), the first from these regions. We survey DPANN abundance and distribution within the ODZ water column, investigate their biosynthetic capabilities, and report potential roles in the cycling of organic carbon, methane, and nitrogen. We test the hypothesis that nitrous oxide reductases found within several ODZ DPANN genomes may enable ultrasmall episymbionts to serve as nitrous oxide consumers when attached to a host nitrous oxide producer. Our results indicate DPANN archaea as ubiquitous residents within the anoxic core of ODZs with the potential to produce or consume key compounds.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Xiong Q, Sopko B, Klimov PB, et al (2024)

A novel Bartonella-like bacterium forms an interdependent mutualistic symbiosis with its host, the stored-product mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

A novel Bartonella-like symbiont (BLS) of Tyrophagus putrescentiae was characterized. BLS formed a separate cluster from the Bartonella clade together with an ant symbiont. BLS was present in mite bodies (103 16S DNA copies/mite) and feces but was absent in eggs. This indicated the presence of the BLS in mite guts. The BLS showed a reduction in genome size (1.6 Mb) and indicates gene loss compared to Bartonella apis. The BLS can be interacted with its host by using host metabolic pathways (e.g., the histidine and arginine metabolic pathways) as well as by providing its own metabolic pathways (pantothenate and lipoic acid) to the host, suggesting the existence of a mutualistic association. Our experimental data further confirmed these potential mutualistic nutritional associations, as cultures of T. putrescentiae with low BLS abundance showed the strongest response after the addition of vitamins. Despite developing an arguably tight dependency on its host, the BLS has probably retained flagellar mobility, as evidenced by the 32 proteins enriched in KEGG pathways associated with flagellar assembly or chemotaxis (e.g., fliC, flgE, and flgK, as highly expressed genes). Some of these proteins probably also facilitate adhesion to host gut cells. The microcin C transporter was identified in the BLS, suggesting that microcin C may be used in competition with other gut bacteria. The 16S DNA sequence comparison indicated a mite clade of BLSs with a broad host range, including house dust and stored-product mites. Our phylogenomic analyses identified a unique lineage of arachnid specific BLSs in mites and scorpions.IMPORTANCEA Bartonella-like symbiont was found in an astigmatid mite of allergenic importance. We assembled the genome of the bacterium from metagenomes of different stored-product mite (T. putrescentiae) cultures. The bacterium provides pantothenate and lipoic acid to the mite host. The vitamin supply explains the changes in the relative abundance of BLSs in T. putrescentiae as the microbiome response to nutritional or pesticide stress, as observed previously. The phylogenomic analyses of available 16S DNA sequences originating from mite, scorpion, and insect samples identified a unique lineage of arachnid specific forming large Bartonella clade. BLSs associated with mites and a scorpion. The Bartonella clade included the previously described Ca. Tokpelaia symbionts of ants.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

García-Lozano M, Henzler C, Porras MÁG, et al (2024)

Paleocene origin of a streamlined digestive symbiosis in leaf beetles.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(24)00107-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Timing the acquisition of a beneficial microbe relative to the evolutionary history of its host can shed light on the adaptive impact of a partnership. Here, we investigated the onset and molecular evolution of an obligate symbiosis between Cassidinae leaf beetles and Candidatus Stammera capleta, a γ-proteobacterium. Residing extracellularly within foregut symbiotic organs, Stammera upgrades the digestive physiology of its host by supplementing plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We observe that Stammera is a shared symbiont across tortoise and hispine beetles that collectively comprise the Cassidinae subfamily, despite differences in their folivorous habits. In contrast to its transcriptional profile during vertical transmission, Stammera elevates the expression of genes encoding digestive enzymes while in the foregut symbiotic organs, matching the nutritional requirements of its host. Despite the widespread distribution of Stammera across Cassidinae beetles, symbiont acquisition during the Paleocene (∼62 mya) did not coincide with the origin of the subfamily. Early diverging lineages lack the symbiont and the specialized organs that house it. Reconstructing the ancestral state of host-beneficial factors revealed that Stammera encoded three digestive enzymes at the onset of symbiosis, including polygalacturonase-a pectinase that is universally shared. Although non-symbiotic cassidines encode polygalacturonase endogenously, their repertoire of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes is more limited compared with symbiotic beetles supplemented with digestive enzymes from Stammera. Highlighting the potential impact of a symbiotic condition and an upgraded metabolic potential, Stammera-harboring beetles exploit a greater variety of plants and are more speciose compared with non-symbiotic members of the Cassidinae.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Li Y, Pan Z, Liao J, et al (2023)

Micro-aeration and low influent C/N are key environmental factors for achieving ANAMMOX in livestock farming wastewater treatment plants.

Water research, 253:120141 pii:S0043-1354(23)00577-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX)-mediated system is a cost-effective green nitrogen removal process. However, there are few examples of successful application of this advanced wastewater denitrification process in wastewater treatment plants, and the understanding of how to implement anaerobic ammonia oxidation process in full-scale is still limited. In this study, it was found that the abundance of anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in the two livestock wastewater plants named J1 and J2, respectively, showed diametrically opposed trends of waxing and waning with time. The microbial communities of the activated sludge in the two plants at different time were sampled and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to reveal the key factors affecting the realization of the ANAMMOX. Changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen and C/N had a significant effect on the relative abundance of anaerobic ammonia oxidation bacteria (AnAOB). The low concentration of DO (0.2∼0.5 mg/L) could inhibit the activity of nitrifying bacteria (NOB) to achieve partial oxidation of ammonia nitrogen and provide sufficient substrate for the growth of AnAOB, similar to the CANON (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen removal Over Nitrite). Unlike CANON, heterotrophic denitrification is also a particularly critical part of the livestock wastewater treatment, and a suitable C/N of about 0.6 could reduce the competition risk of heterotrophic microorganisms to AnAOB and ensure a good ecological niche for AnAOB. Based on the results of 16S rRNA and microbial co-occurrence networks, it was discovered that microorganisms in the sludge not only had a richer network interaction, but also achieved a mutually beneficial symbiotic interaction network among denitrifying bacteria (Pseudomonas sp., Terrimonas sp., Dokdonella sp.), AnAOB (Candidatus Brocadia sp.) at DO of 0.2∼0.5 mg/L and C/N of 0.6. Among the top 20 in abundance of genus level, AnAOB had a high relative abundance of 27.66%, followed by denitrifying bacteria of 3.67%, AOB of 0.64% and NOB of 0.26%, which is an essential indicator for the emergence of an AnAOB-dominated nitrogen removal cycle. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of dissolved oxygen and C/N regulation by analyzing the mechanism of ANAMMOX sludge extinction and growth in two plants under anthropogenic regulation of AnAOB in full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Šibanc N, Clark DR, Helgason T, et al (2024)

Extreme environments simplify reassembly of communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The ecological impacts of long-term (press) disturbance on mechanisms regulating the relative abundance (i.e., commonness or rarity) and temporal dynamics of species within a community remain largely unknown. This is particularly true for the functionally important arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi; obligate plant-root endosymbionts that colonize more than two-thirds of terrestrial plant species. Here, we use high-resolution amplicon sequencing to examine how AM fungal communities in a specific extreme ecosystem-mofettes or natural CO2 springs caused by geological CO2 exhalations-are affected by long-term stress. We found that in mofettes, specific and temporally stable communities form as a subset of the local metacommunity. These communities are less diverse and dominated by adapted, "stress tolerant" taxa. Those taxa are rare in control locations and more benign environments worldwide, but show a stable temporal pattern in the extreme sites, consistently dominating the communities in grassland mofettes. This pattern of lower diversity and high dominance of specific taxa has been confirmed as relatively stable over several sampling years and is independently observed across multiple geographic locations (mofettes in different countries). This study implies that the response of soil microbial community composition to long-term stress is relatively predictable, which can also reflect the community response to other anthropogenic stressors (e.g., heavy metal pollution or land use change). Moreover, as AM fungi are functionally differentiated, with different taxa providing different benefits to host plants, changes in community structure in response to long-term environmental change have the potential to impact terrestrial plant communities and their productivity.IMPORTANCEArbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic relationships with more than two-thirds of plant species. In return for using plant carbon as their sole energy source, AM fungi improve plant mineral supply, water balance, and protection against pathogens. This work demonstrates the importance of long-term experiments to understand the effects of long-term environmental change and long-term disturbance on terrestrial ecosystems. We demonstrated a consistent response of the AM fungal community to a long-term stress, with lower diversity and a less variable AM fungal community over time under stress conditions compared to the surrounding controls. We have also identified, for the first time, a suite of AM fungal taxa that are consistently observed across broad geographic scales in stressed and anthropogenically heavily influenced ecosystems. This is critical because global environmental change in terrestrial ecosystems requires an integrative approach that considers both above- and below-ground changes and examines patterns over a longer geographic and temporal scale, rather than just single sampling events.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Marqués-Gálvez JE, Pandharikar G, Basso V, et al (2024)

Populus MYC2 orchestrates root transcriptional reprogramming of defence pathway to impair Laccaria bicolor ectomycorrhizal development.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

The jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathway plays an important role in the establishment of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. The Laccaria bicolor effector MiSSP7 stabilizes JA corepressor JAZ6, thereby inhibiting the activity of Populus MYC2 transcription factors. Although the role of MYC2 in orchestrating plant defences against pathogens is well established, its exact contribution to ECM symbiosis remains unclear. This information is crucial for understanding the balance between plant immunity and symbiotic relationships. Transgenic poplars overexpressing or silencing for the two paralogues of MYC2 transcription factor (MYC2s) were produced, and their ability to establish ectomycorrhiza was assessed. Transcriptomics and DNA affinity purification sequencing were performed. MYC2s overexpression led to a decrease in fungal colonization, whereas its silencing increased it. The enrichment of terpene synthase genes in the MYC2-regulated gene set suggests a complex interplay between the host monoterpenes and fungal growth. Several root monoterpenes have been identified as inhibitors of fungal growth and ECM symbiosis. Our results highlight the significance of poplar MYC2s and terpenes in mutualistic symbiosis by controlling root fungal colonization. We identified poplar genes which direct or indirect control by MYC2 is required for ECM establishment. These findings deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ECM symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Sadeghi M, Mestivier D, Carbonnelle E, et al (2023)

Loss of symbiotic and increase of virulent bacteria through microbial networks in Lynch syndrome colon carcinogenesis.

Frontiers in oncology, 13:1313735.

PURPOSE: Through a pilot study, we performed whole gut metagenomic analysis in 17 Lynch syndrome (LS) families, including colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and their healthy first-degree relatives. In a second asymptomatic LS cohort (n=150) undergoing colonoscopy-screening program, individuals with early precancerous lesions were compared to those with a normal colonoscopy. Since bacteria are organized into different networks within the microbiota, we compared related network structures in patients and controls.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fecal prokaryote DNA was extracted prior to colonoscopy for whole metagenome (n=34, pilot study) or 16s rRNA sequencing (validation study). We characterized bacteria taxonomy using Diamond/MEGAN6 and DADA2 pipelines and performed differential abundances using Shaman website. We constructed networks using SparCC inference tools and validated the construction's accuracy by performing qPCR on selected bacteria.

RESULTS: Significant differences in bacterial communities in LS-CRC patients were identified, with an enrichment of virulent bacteria and a depletion of symbionts compared to their first-degree relatives. Bacteria taxa in LS asymptomatic individuals with colonic precancerous lesions (n=79) were significantly different compared to healthy individuals (n=71). The main bacterial network structures, constructed based on bacteria-bacteria correlations in CRC (pilot study) and in asymptomatic precancerous patients (validation-study), showed a different pattern than in controls. It was characterized by virulent/symbiotic co-exclusion in both studies and illustrated (validation study) by a higher Escherichia/Bifidobacterium ratio, as assessed by qPCR.

CONCLUSION: Enhanced fecal virulent/symbiotic bacteria ratios influence bacterial network structures. As an early event in colon carcinogenesis, these ratios can be used to identify asymptomatic LS individual with a higher risk of CRC.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Zhang C, van der Heijden MGA, Dodds BK, et al (2024)

Correction: A tripartite bacterial-fungal-plant symbiosis in the mycorrhiza-shaped microbiome drives plant growth and mycorrhization.

Microbiome, 12(1):30.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Gao B, Wang Y, Long C, et al (2024)

Microplastics inhibit the growth of endosymbiotic Symbiodinium tridacnidorum by altering photosynthesis and bacterial community.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 346:123603 pii:S0269-7491(24)00317-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics, ubiquitous anthropogenic marine pollutants, represent potential threats to coral-Symbiodiniaceae relationships in global reef ecosystems. However, the mechanism underlying the impacts of polystyrene microplastics (PS-MPs) on Symbiodiniaceae remains poorly understood. In this study, the cytological, physiological, and microbial responses of Symbiodinium tridacnidorum, a representative Symbiodiniaceae species, to varying concentrations of PS-MPs (0, 5, 50, 100, and 200 mg L[-1]) were investigated. The results revealed that microplastic exposure inhibited cell division, resulting in reduced cell density compared to control group. Furthermore, algal photosynthetic activity, as indicated by chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and net photosynthetic rate, declined with increasing microplastic concentration up to 50 mg L[-1]. Notably, elevated levels of microplastics (100 and 200 mg L[-1]) prompted a significant increase in cell size in S. tridacnidorum. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy indicated that hetero-aggregation was formed between high levels of PS-MPs and algal cells, ultimately causing damage to S. tridacnidorum. Moreover, the impact of PS-MPs exposure on the bacterial community associated with S. tridacnidorum was investigated. The results showed a reduction in alpha diversity of the bacterial community in groups exposed to 50, 100, and 200 mg L[-1] of microplastics compared to those treated with 0 and 5 mg L[-1]. Additionally, the relative abundance of Marinobacter, Marivita, and Filomicrobium significantly increased, while Algiphilus and norank Nannocystaceae declined after microplastic exposure. These findings suggest that MPs can inhibit the growth of S. tridacnidorum and alter the associated bacterial community, posing a potential serious threat to coral symbiosis involving S. tridacnidorum.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Yuan M, Jin T, Wu J, et al (2024)

IAA-miR164a-NAC100L1 module mediates symbiotic incompatibility of cucumber/pumpkin grafted seedlings through regulating callose deposition.

Horticulture research, 11(2):uhad287.

Grafting is one of the key technologies to overcome the obstacles of continuous cropping, and improve crop yield and quality. However, the symbiotic incompatibility between rootstock and scion affects the normal growth and development of grafted seedlings after survival. The specific molecular regulation mechanism of graft incompatibility is still largely unclear. In this study, we found that the IAA-miR164a-NAC100L1 module induced callose deposition to mediate the symbiotic incompatibility of cucumber/pumpkin grafted seedlings. The incompatible combination (IG) grafting interface accumulated more callose, and the activity of callose synthase (CmCalS1) and IAA content were significantly higher than in the compatible combination (CG). Treatment with IAA polar transport inhibitor in the root of the IG plants decreased CmCalS activity and callose content. Furthermore, IAA negatively regulated the expression of Cm-miR164a, which directly targeted cleavage of CmNAC100L1. Interestingly, CmNAC100L1 interacted with CmCalS1 to regulate its activity. Further analysis showed that the interaction between CmNAC100L1 and CmCalS1 increased the activity of CmCalS1 in the IG plants but decreased it in the CG plants. Point mutation analysis revealed that threonine at the 57th position of CmCalS1 protein played a critical role to maintain its enzyme activity in the incompatible rootstock. Thus, IAA inhibited the expression of Cm-miR164a to elevate the expression of CmNAC100L1, which promoted CmNAC100L1 interaction with CmCalS1 to enhance CmCalS1 activity, resulting in callose deposition and symbiotic incompatibility of cucumber/pumpkin grafted seedlings.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Ghitti E, Rolli E, Vergani L, et al (2024)

Flavonoids influence key rhizocompetence traits for early root colonization and PCB degradation potential of Paraburkholderia xenovorans LB400.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1325048.

INTRODUCTION: Flavonoids are among the main plant root exudation components, and, in addition to their role in symbiosis, they can broadly affect the functionality of plant-associated microbes: in polluted environments, for instance, flavonoids can induce the expression of the enzymatic degradative machinery to clean-up soils from xenobiotics like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, their involvement in root community recruitment and assembly involving non-symbiotic beneficial interactions remains understudied and may be crucial to sustain the holobiont fitness under PCB stress.

METHODS: By using a set of model pure flavonoid molecules and a natural blend of root exudates (REs) with altered flavonoid composition produced by Arabidopsis mutant lines affected in flavonoid biosynthesis and abundance (null mutant tt4, flavonoid aglycones hyperproducer tt8, and flavonoid conjugates hyperaccumulator ttg), we investigated flavonoid contribution in stimulating rhizocompetence traits and the catabolic potential of the model bacterial strain for PCB degradation Paraburkholderia xenovorans LB400.

RESULTS: Flavonoids influenced the traits involved in bacterial recruitment in the rhizoplane by improving chemotaxis and motility responses, by increasing biofilm formation and by promoting the growth and activation of the PCB-degradative pathway of strain LB400, being thus potentially exploited as carbon sources, stimulating factors and chemoattractant molecules. Indeed, early rhizoplane colonization was favored in plantlets of the tt8 Arabidopsis mutant and reduced in the ttg line. Bacterial growth was promoted by the REs of mutant lines tt4 and tt8 under control conditions and reduced upon PCB-18 stress, showing no significant differences compared with the WT and ttg, indicating that unidentified plant metabolites could be involved. PCB stress presumably altered the Arabidopsis root exudation profile, although a sudden "cry-for-help" response to recruit strain LB400 was excluded and flavonoids appeared not to be the main determinants. In the in vitro plant-microbe interaction assays, plant growth promotion and PCB resistance promoted by strain LB400 seemed to act through flavonoid-independent mechanisms without altering bacterial colonization efficiency and root adhesion pattern.

DISCUSSIONS: This study further contributes to elucidate the vast array of functions provided by flavonoids in orchestrating the early events of PCB-degrading strain LB400 recruitment in the rhizosphere and to support the holobiont fitness by stimulating the catabolic machinery involved in xenobiotics decomposition and removal.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

St Thomas NM, Myers TG, Alani OS, et al (2024)

Green and red fluorescent strains of Xenorhabdus griffiniae HGB2511, the bacterial symbiont of the nematode Steinernema hermaphroditum (India).

microPublication biology, 2024:.

Steinernema entomopathogenic nematodes form specific, obligate symbiotic associations with gram-negative, gammaproteobacteria members of the Xenorhabdus genus. Together, the nematodes and symbiotic bacteria infect and kill insects, utilize the nutrient-rich cadaver for reproduction, and then reassociate, the bacteria colonizing the nematodes' anterior intestines before the nematodes leave the cadaver to search for new prey. In addition to their use in biocontrol of insect pests, these nematode-bacteria pairs are highly tractable experimental laboratory models for animal-microbe symbiosis and parasitism research. One advantageous feature of entomopathogenic nematode model systems is that the nematodes are optically transparent, which facilitates direct observation of nematode-associated bacteria throughout the lifecycle. In this work, green- and red-fluorescently labeled X. griffiniae HGB2511 bacteria were created and associated with their S . hermaphroditum symbiotic nematode partners and observed using fluorescence microscopy. As expected, the fluorescent bacteria were visible as a colonizing cluster in the lumen of the anterior intestinal caecum of the infective stage of the nematode. These tools allow detailed observations of X. griffiniae localization and interactions with its nematode and insect host tissues throughout their lifecycles.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Cheng J, Zhou L, H Wang (2024)

Symbiotic microbial communities in various locations of the lung cancer respiratory tract along with potential host immunological processes affected.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1296295.

Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among all cancers worldwide. The 5-year overall survival rate for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is estimated at around 26%, whereas for small cell lung cancer (SCLC), the survival rate is only approximately 7%. This disease places a significant financial and psychological burden on individuals worldwide. The symbiotic microbiota in the human body has been significantly associated with the occurrence, progression, and prognosis of various diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis. Studies have demonstrated that respiratory symbiotic microorganisms and their metabolites play a crucial role in modulating immune function and contributing to the pathophysiology of lung cancer through their interactions with the host. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the microbial characteristics associated with lung cancer, with a focus on the respiratory tract microbiota from different locations, including saliva, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), bronchial brush samples, and tissue. We describe the respiratory tract microbiota's biodiversity characteristics by anatomical region, elucidating distinct pathological features, staging, metastasis, host chromosomal mutations, immune therapies, and the differentiated symbiotic microbiota under the influence of environmental factors. Our exploration investigates the intrinsic mechanisms linking the microbiota and its host. Furthermore, we have also provided a comprehensive review of the immune mechanisms by which microbiota are implicated in the development of lung cancer. Dysbiosis of the respiratory microbiota can promote or inhibit tumor progression through various mechanisms, including DNA damage and genomic instability, activation and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, and stimulation of epithelial cells leading to the upregulation of carcinogenesis-related pathways.

RevDate: 2024-02-18

Li TP, Wang CH, Xie JC, et al (2024)

Microbial changes and associated metabolic responses modify host plant adaptation in Stephanitis nashi.

Insect science [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic microorganisms are essential for the physiological processes of herbivorous pests, including the pear lace bug Stephanitis nashi, which is known for causing extensive damage to garden plants and fruit trees due to its exceptional adaptability to diverse host plants. However, the specific functional effects of the microbiome on the adaptation of S. nashi to its host plants remains unclear. Here, we identified significant microbial changes in S. nashi on 2 different host plants, crabapple and cherry blossom, characterized by the differences in fungal diversity as well as bacterial and fungal community structures, with abundant correlations between bacteria or fungi. Consistent with the microbiome changes, S. nashi that fed on cherry blossom demonstrated decreased metabolites and downregulated key metabolic pathways, such as the arginine and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, which were crucial for host plant adaptation. Furthermore, correlation analysis unveiled numerous correlations between differential microorganisms and differential metabolites, which were influenced by the interactions between bacteria or fungi. These differential bacteria, fungi, and associated metabolites may modify the key metabolic pathways in S. nashi, aiding its adaptation to different host plants. These results provide valuable insights into the alteration in microbiome and function of S. nashi adapted to different host plants, contributing to a better understanding of pest invasion and dispersal from a microbial perspective.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Palberg D, Kaszecki E, Dhanjal C, et al (2024)

Impact of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides on phyllospheric Methylobacterium.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):119.

Symbiotic Methylobacterium comprise a significant portion of the phyllospheric microbiome, and are known to benefit host plant growth, development, and confer tolerance to stress factors. The near ubiquitous use of the broad-spectrum herbicide, glyphosate, in farming operations globally has necessitated a more expansive evaluation of the impacts of the agent itself and formulations containing glyphosate on important components of the plant phyllosphere, including Methylobacterium.This study provides an investigation of the sensitivity of 18 strains of Methylobacterium to glyphosate and two commercially available glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH). Nearly all strains of Methylobacterium showed signs of sensitivity to the popular GBH formulations WeatherMax® and Transorb® in a modified Kirby Bauer experiment. However, exposure to pure forms of glyphosate did not show a significant effect on growth for any strain in both the Kirby Bauer test and in liquid broth, until polysorbate-20 (Tween20) was added as a surfactant. Artificially increasing membrane permeability through the introduction of polysorbate-20 caused a 78-84% reduction in bacterial cell biomass relative to controls containing glyphosate or high levels of surfactant only (0-9% and 6-37% reduction respectively). Concentrations of glyphosate as low as 0.05% w/v (500 µg/L) from both commercial formulations tested, inhibited the culturability of Methylobacterium on fresh nutrient-rich medium.To better understand the compatibility of important phyllospheric bacteria with commercial glyphosate-based herbicides, this study endeavours to characterize sensitivity in multiple strains of Methylobacterium, and explore possible mechanisms by which toxicity may be induced.

RevDate: 2024-02-18

Lin K, Zheng W, Guo M, et al (2024)

The intestinal microbial metabolite acetyl l-carnitine improves gut inflammation and immune homeostasis via CADM2.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease pii:S0925-4439(24)00078-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Intestinal symbiotic bacteria play a key role in the regulation of immune tolerance in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) hosts. However, the bacterial strains directly involved in this regulation and their related metabolites are largely unknown. We sought to investigate the effects of intestinal microbial metabolites on intestinal epithelium and to elucidate their therapeutic potential in regulating intestinal mucosal inflammation and immune homeostasis. Here, we used metagenomic data from Crohn's disease (CD) patients to analyze the composition of intestinal flora and identify metabolite profiles associated with disease behavior, and used the mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis to characterize the therapeutic effects of the flora metabolite acetyl l-carnitine (ALC) on DSS-induced colitis. We found that intraperitoneal injection of ALC treatment could significantly alleviate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis in mice, including prevention of weight loss, reduction in disease activity index (DAI) scores, increasing of colonic length, reduction in histological scores, and improvement in intestinal barrier function. Further, transcriptome sequencing analysis and gene silencing experiments revealed that the absence of CADM2 abolished the inhibitory effect of ALC on the TLR-MyD88 pathway in colonic epithelial cells, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory factors in colon epithelial cells. And we confirmed a significant downregulation of CADM2 expression in intestinal tissues of CD patients compared to healthy people in a population cohort. In addition, we also found that ALC increased the ratio of Treg cells in colon, and decreased the ratio of Th17 cells and macrophages, thereby improving the immune tolerance of the organism. The proposed study could be a potential approach for the treatment of CD.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Hornstein ED, Charles M, Franklin M, et al (2024)

IPD3, a master regulator of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, affects genes for immunity and metabolism of non-host Arabidopsis when restored long after its evolutionary loss.

Plant molecular biology, 114(2):21.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AM) is a beneficial trait originating with the first land plants, which has subsequently been lost by species scattered throughout the radiation of plant diversity to the present day, including the model Arabidopsis thaliana. To explore if elements of this apparently beneficial trait are still present and could be reactivated we generated Arabidopsis plants expressing a constitutively active form of Interacting Protein of DMI3, a key transcription factor that enables AM within the Common Symbiosis Pathway, which was lost from Arabidopsis along with the AM host trait. We characterize the transcriptomic effect of expressing IPD3 in Arabidopsis with and without exposure to the AM fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, and compare these results to the AM model Lotus japonicus and its ipd3 knockout mutant cyclops-4. Despite its long history as a non-AM species, restoring IPD3 in the form of its constitutively active DNA-binding domain to Arabidopsis altered expression of specific gene networks. Surprisingly, the effect of expressing IPD3 in Arabidopsis and knocking it out in Lotus was strongest in plants not exposed to AMF, which is revealed to be due to changes in IPD3 genotype causing a transcriptional state, which partially mimics AMF exposure in non-inoculated plants. Our results indicate that molecular connections to symbiosis machinery remain in place in this nonAM species, with implications for both basic science and the prospect of engineering this trait for agriculture.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Li M, Zhou Y, Cheng J, et al (2024)

Response of the mosquito immune system and symbiotic bacteria to pathogen infection.

Parasites & vectors, 17(1):69.

Mosquitoes are the deadliest animal in the word, transmitting a variety of insect-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and Zika, causing more deaths than any other vector-borne pathogen. Moreover, in the absence of effective drugs and vaccines to prevent and treat insect-borne diseases, mosquito control is particularly important as the primary measure. In recent decades, due to the gradual increase in mosquito resistance, increasing attention has fallen on the mechanisms and effects associated with pathogen infection. This review provides an overview of mosquito innate immune mechanisms in terms of physical and physiological barriers, pattern recognition receptors, signalling pathways, and cellular and humoral immunity, as well as the antipathogenic effects of mosquito symbiotic bacteria. This review contributes to an in-depth understanding of the interaction process between mosquitoes and pathogens and provides a theoretical basis for biological defence strategies against mosquito-borne infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

U'Ren JM, Oita S, Lutzoni F, et al (2024)

Environmental drivers and cryptic biodiversity hotspots define endophytes in Earth's largest terrestrial biome.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(24)00100-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding how symbiotic associations differ across environmental gradients is key to predicting the fate of symbioses as environments change, and it is vital for detecting global reservoirs of symbiont biodiversity in a changing world.[1][,][2][,][3] However, sampling of symbiotic partners at the full-biome scale is difficult and rare. As Earth's largest terrestrial biome, boreal forests influence carbon dynamics and climate regulation at a planetary scale. Plants and lichens in this biome host the highest known phylogenetic diversity of fungal endophytes, which occur within healthy photosynthetic tissues and can influence hosts' resilience to stress.[4][,][5] We examined how communities of endophytes are structured across the climate gradient of the boreal biome, focusing on the dominant plant and lichen species occurring across the entire south-to-north span of the boreal zone in eastern North America. Although often invoked for understanding the distribution of biodiversity, neither a latitudinal gradient nor mid-domain effect[5][,][6][,][7] can explain variation in endophyte diversity at this trans-biome scale. Instead, analyses considering shifts in forest characteristics, Picea biomass and age, and nutrients in host tissues from 46° to 58° N reveal strong and distinctive signatures of climate in defining endophyte assemblages in each host lineage. Host breadth of endophytes varies with climate factors, and biodiversity hotspots can be identified at plant-community transitions across the boreal zone at a global scale. Placed against a backdrop of global circumboreal sampling,[4] our study reveals the sensitivity of endophytic fungi, their reservoirs of biodiversity, and their important symbiotic associations, to climate.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Bell AG, McMurtrie J, Bolaños LM, et al (2024)

Influence of host phylogeny and water physicochemistry on microbial assemblages of the fish skin microbiome.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7609682 [Epub ahead of print].

The skin of fish contains a diverse microbiota that has symbiotic functions with the host, facilitating pathogen exclusion, immune system priming and nutrient degradation. The composition of fish skin microbiomes varies across species and in response to a variety of stressors, however, there has been no systematic analysis across these studies to evaluate how these factors shape fish skin microbiomes. Here, we examined 1922 fish skin microbiomes from 36 studies that included 98 species and nine rearing conditions to investigate associations between fish skin microbiome, fish species, and water physiochemical factors. Proteobacteria, particularly the class Gammaproteobacteria, were present in all marine and freshwater fish skin microbiomes. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Ralstonia, Sphingomonas and Flavobacterium were the most abundant genera within freshwater fish skin microbiomes, and Alteromonas, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter and Vibrio were the most abundant in saltwater fish. Our results show that different culturing (rearing) environments have a small but significant effect on the skin bacterial community compositions. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and salinity significantly correlated with differences in beta-diversity but not necessarily alpha-diversity. To improve study comparability on fish skin microbiomes, we provide recommendations for approaches to the analyses of sequencing data and improve study reproducibility.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Anneberg TJ, Cullen NP, O'Neill EM, et al (2024)

Neopolyploidy has variable effects on the diversity and composition of the wild strawberry microbiome.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: Whole-genome duplication (neopolyploidy) can instantly differentiate the phenotype of neopolyploids from their diploid progenitors. These phenotypic shifts in organs such as roots and leaves could also differentiate the way neopolyploids interact with microbial species. While some studies have addressed how specific microbial interactions are affected by neopolyploidy, we lack an understanding of how genome duplication affects the diversity and composition of microbial communities.

METHODS: We performed a common garden experiment with multiple clones of artificially synthesized autotetraploids and their ancestral diploids, derived from 13 genotypes of wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca. We sequenced epiphytic bacteria and fungi from roots and leaves and characterized microbial communities and leaf functional traits.

RESULTS: Autotetraploidy had no effect on bacterial alpha diversity of either organ, but it did have a genotype-dependent effect on the diversity of fungi on leaves. In contrast, autotetraploidy restructured the community composition of leaf bacteria and had a genotype-dependent effect on fungal community composition in both organs. The most differentially abundant bacterial taxon on leaves belonged to the Sphingomonas, while a member of the Trichoderma was the most differentially abundant fungal taxon on roots. Ploidy-induced change in leaf size was strongly correlated with a change in bacterial but not fungal leaf communities.

CONCLUSIONS: Genome duplication can immediately alter aspects of the plant microbiome, but this effect varies by host genotype and bacterial and fungal community. Expanding these studies to wild settings where plants are exposed continuously to microbes are needed to confirm the patterns observed here.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Huang X, Tang Q, Liu S, et al (2024)

Discovery of an antitumor compound from xenorhabdus stockiae HN_xs01.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(3):101.

Xenorhabdus, known for its symbiotic relationship with Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This dual-host symbiotic nematode exhibits pathogenic traits, rendering it a promising biocontrol agent against insects. Our prior investigations revealed that Xenorhabdus stockiae HN_xs01, isolated in our laboratory, demonstrates exceptional potential in halting bacterial growth and displaying anti-tumor activity. Subsequently, we separated and purified the supernatant of the HN_xs01 strain and obtained a new compound with significant inhibitory activity on tumor cells, which we named XNAE. Through LC-MS analysis, the mass-to-nucleus ratio of XNAE was determined to be 254.24. Our findings indicated that XNAE exerts a time- and dose-dependent inhibition on B16 and HeLa cells. After 24 h, its IC50 for B16 and HeLa cells was 30.178 µg/mL and 33.015 µg/mL, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed conspicuous damage to subcellular structures, notably mitochondria and the cytoskeleton, resulting in a notable reduction in cell numbers among treated tumor cells. Interestingly, while XNAE exerted a more pronounced inhibitory effect on B16 cells compared to HeLa cells, it showed no discernible impact on HUVEC cells. Treatment of B16 cells with XNAE induced early apoptosis and led to cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase, as evidenced by flow cytometry analysis. The impressive capability of X. stockiae HN_xs01 in synthesizing bioactive secondary metabolites promises to significantly expand the reservoir of natural products. Further exploration to identify the bioactivity of these compounds holds the potential to shed light on their roles in bacteria-host interaction. Overall, these outcomes underscore the promising potential of XNAE as a bioactive compound for tumor treatment.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Hu SK, Anderson RE, Pachiadaki MG, et al (2024)

Microbial eukaryotic predation pressure and biomass at deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

The ISME journal pii:7529155 [Epub ahead of print].

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent geochemistry shapes the foundation of the microbial food web by fueling chemolithoautotrophic microbial activity. Microbial eukaryotes (or protists) play a critical role in hydrothermal vent food webs as consumers, hosts of symbiotic bacteria, and as a nutritional source to higher trophic levels. We measured microbial eukaryotic cell abundance and predation pressure in low temperature diffuse hydrothermal fluids at the Von Damm and Piccard vent fields along the Mid-Cayman Rise in the Western Caribbean Sea. We present findings from experiments performed under in situ pressure that show higher cell abundances and grazing rates compared to those done at 1 atmosphere (shipboard ambient pressure); this trend was attributed to the impact of depressurization on cell integrity. A relationship between protistan grazing rate, prey cell abundance, and temperature of end member hydrothermal vent fluid was observed at both vent fields, regardless of experimental approach. Our results show substantial protistan biomass at hydrothermally-fueled microbial food webs, and when coupled with improved grazing estimates, suggests an important contribution of grazers to the local carbon export and supply of nutrient resources to the deep ocean.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Dong PT, Tian J, Kobayashi-Kirschvink KJ, et al (2024)

Episymbiotic Saccharibacteria induce intracellular lipid droplet production in their host bacteria.

The ISME journal pii:7513100 [Epub ahead of print].

Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7) are a group of widespread and genetically diverse ultrasmall bacteria with highly reduced genomes that belong to Candidate Phyla Radiation, a large monophyletic lineage with poorly understood biology. Nanosynbacter lyticus type strain TM7x is the first Saccharibacteria member isolated from the human oral microbiome. With restrained metabolic capacities, TM7x lives on the surface of, and forms an obligate episymbiotic relationship with its bacterial host, Schaalia odontolytica strain XH001. The symbiosis allows TM7x to propagate but presents a burden to host bacteria by inducing stress response. Here, we employed super-resolution fluorescence imaging to investigate the physical association between TM7x and XH001. We showed that the binding with TM7x led to a substantial alteration in the membrane fluidity of XH001. We also revealed the formation of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) in XH001 when forming episymbiosis with TM7x, a feature that has not been reported in oral bacteria. The TM7x-induced LDs accumulation in XH001 was confirmed by label-free Raman spectroscopy, which also unveiled additional phenotypical features when XH001 cells are physically associated with TM7x. Further exploration through culturing XH001 under various stress conditions showed that LDs accumulation was a general response to stress. A survival assay demonstrated that the presence of LDs plays a protective role in XH001, enhancing its survival under adverse conditions. In conclusion, our study sheds new light on the intricate interaction between Saccharibacteria and their host bacterium, highlighting the potential benefit conferred by TM7x to its host, and further emphasizing the context-dependent nature of symbiotic relationships.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Syska C, Kiers A, Rancurel C, et al (2024)

VapC10 toxin of the legume symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti targets tRNASer and controls intracellular lifestyle.

The ISME journal pii:7590948 [Epub ahead of print].

The soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti can establish a nitrogen fixing symbiosis with the model legume Medicago truncatula. The rhizobia induce the formation of a specialized root organ called nodule, where they differentiate into bacteroids and reduce atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Little is known on the mechanisms involved in nodule senescence onset and in bacteroid survival inside the infected plant cells. Whereas Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) systems have been shown to promote intracellular survival within host cells in human pathogenic bacteria, their role in symbiotic bacteria was rarely investigated. S. meliloti encodes several TA systems, mainly of the VapBC family. Here we present the functional characterization, through a multidisciplinary approach, of the VapBC10 TA system of S. meliloti. Following a MORE RNA-seq analysis, we demonstrated that the VapC10 toxin is an RNase that cleaves the anticodon loop of two tRNASer. Thereafter, a bioinformatics approach was used to predict VapC10 targets in bacteroids. This analysis suggests that toxin activation triggers a specific proteome reprogramming that could limit nitrogen fixation capability and viability of bacteroids. Accordingly, a vapC10 mutant induces a delayed senescence in nodules, associated to an enhanced bacteroid survival. VapBC10 TA system could contribute to S. meliloti adaptation to symbiotic lifestyle, in response to plant nitrogen status.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Díez-Vives C, A Riesgo (2024)

High compositional and functional similarity in the microbiome of deep-sea sponges.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Sponges largely depend on their symbiotic microbes for their nutrition, health, and survival. This is especially true in high microbial abundance (HMA) sponges, where filtration is usually deprecated in favor of a larger association with prokaryotic symbionts. Sponge-microbiome association is substantially less understood for deep-sea sponges than for shallow water species. This is most unfortunate, since HMA sponges can form massive sponge grounds in the deep sea, where they dominate the ecosystems, driving their biogeochemical cycles. Here, we assess the microbial transcriptional profile of three different deep-sea HMA sponges in four locations of the Cantabrian Sea and compared them to shallow water HMA and LMA (low microbial abundance) sponge species. Our results reveal that the sponge microbiome has converged in a fundamental metabolic role for deep-sea sponges, independent of taxonomic relationships or geographic location, which is shared in broad terms with shallow HMA species. We also observed a large number of redundant microbial members performing the same functions, likely providing stability to the sponge inner ecosystem. A comparison between the community composition of our deep-sea sponges and another 39 species of HMA sponges from deep-sea and shallow habitats, belonging to the same taxonomic orders, suggested strong homogeneity in microbial composition (i.e. weak species-specificity) in deep sea species, which contrasts with that observed in shallow water counterparts. This convergence in microbiome composition and functionality underscores the adaptation to an extremely restrictive environment with the aim of exploiting the available resources.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Dong Q, Hua D, Wang X, et al (2024)

Temporal colonization and metabolic regulation of the gut microbiome in neonatal oxen at single nucleotide resolution.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

The colonization of microbes in the gut is key to establishing a healthy host-microbiome symbiosis for newborns. We longitudinally profiled the gut microbiome in a model consisting of 36 neonatal oxen from birth up to 2 months postpartum and carried out microbial transplantation to reshape their gut microbiome. Genomic reconstruction of deeply sequenced fecal samples resulted in a total of 3931 metagenomic-assembled genomes from 472 representative species, of which 184 were identified as new species when compared with existing databases of oxen. Single nucleotide level metagenomic profiling shows a rapid influx of microbes after birth, followed by dynamic shifts during the first few weeks of life. Microbial transplantation was found to reshape the genetic makeup of 33 metagenomic-assembled genomes (FDR < 0.05), mainly from Prevotella and Bacteroides species. We further linked over 20 million microbial single nucleotide variations to 736 plasma metabolites, which enabled us to characterize 24 study-wide significant associations (P < 4.4 × 10-9) that identify the potential microbial genetic regulation of host immune and neuro-related metabolites, including glutathione and L-dopa. Our integration analyses further revealed that microbial genetic variations may influence the health status and growth performance by modulating metabolites via structural regulation of their encoded proteins. For instance, we found that the albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity were correlated with L-dopa, which was determined by single nucleotide variations via structural regulations of metabolic enzymes. The current results indicate that temporal colonization and transplantation-driven strain replacement are crucial for newborn gut development, offering insights for enhancing newborn health and growth.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Lee J, Jeong B, Kim J, et al (2024)

Specialized digestive mechanism for an insect-bacterium gut symbiosis.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

In Burkholderia-Riptortus symbiosis, the host bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors Burkholderia symbionts in its symbiotic organ, M4 midgut, for use as a nutrient source. After occupying M4, excess Burkholderia symbionts are moved to the M4B region, wherein they are effectively digested and absorbed. Previous studies have shown that M4B has strong symbiont-specific antibacterial activity, which is not because of the expression of antimicrobial peptides but rather because of the expression of digestive enzymes, mainly cathepsin L protease. However, in this study, inhibition of cathepsin L activity did not reduce the bactericidal activity of M4B, indicating that there is an unknown digestive mechanism that renders specifically potent bactericidal activity against Burkholderia symbionts. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the lumen of symbiotic M4B was filled with a fibrillar matter in contrast to the empty lumen of aposymbiotic M4B. Using chromatographic and electrophoretic analyses, we found that the bactericidal substances in M4B existed as high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes that were resistant to protease degradation. The bactericidal HMW complexes were visualized on non-denaturing gels using protein- and polysaccharide-staining reagents, thereby indicating that the HMW complexes are composed of proteins and polysaccharides. Strongly stained M4B lumen with Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent in M4B paraffin sections confirmed HMW complexes with polysaccharide components. Furthermore, M4B smears stained with Periodic acid-Schiff revealed the presence of polysaccharide fibers. Therefore, we propose a key digestive mechanism of M4B: bacteriolytic fibers, polysaccharide fibers associated with digestive enzymes such as cathepsin L, specialized for Burkholderia symbionts in Riptortus gut symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Maire J, Tsang Min Ching SJ, Damjanovic K, et al (2024)

Tissue-associated and vertically transmitted bacterial symbiont in the coral Pocillopora acuta.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Coral microhabitats are colonized by a myriad of microorganisms, including diverse bacteria which are essential for host functioning and survival. However, the location, transmission, and functions of individual bacterial species living inside the coral tissues remain poorly studied. Here, we show that a previously undescribed bacterial symbiont of the coral Pocillopora acuta forms cell-associated microbial aggregates (CAMAs) within the mesenterial filaments. CAMAs were found in both adults and larval offspring, suggesting vertical transmission. In situ laser capture microdissection of CAMAs followed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics produced a near complete metagenome-assembled genome. We subsequently cultured the CAMA bacteria from Pocillopora acuta colonies, and sequenced and assembled their genomes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the CAMA bacteria belong to an undescribed Endozoicomonadaceae genus and species, which we propose to name Candidatus Sororendozoicomonas aggregata gen. nov sp. nov. Metabolic pathway reconstruction from its genome sequence suggests this species can synthesize most amino acids, several B vitamins, and antioxidants, and participate in carbon cycling and prey digestion, which may be beneficial to its coral hosts. This study provides detailed insights into a new member of the widespread Endozoicomonadaceae family, thereby improving our understanding of coral holobiont functioning. Vertically transmitted, tissue-associated bacteria, such as Sororendozoicomonas aggregata may be key candidates for the development of microbiome manipulation approaches with long-term positive effects on the coral host.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Wang YL, Ikuma K, Brooks SC, et al (2024)

Non-mercury methylating microbial taxa are integral to understanding links between mercury methylation and elemental cycles in marine and freshwater sediments.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(24)00287-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The goal of this study was to explore the role of non mercury-methylating taxa in mercury methylation and to identify potential links between elemental cycles and mercury methylation. Statistical approaches were utilized to investigate the microbial community and biochemical functions in relation to methylmercury concentrations in marine and freshwater sediments. Sediments were collected from the methylation zone (top 15 cm) in four Hg-contaminated sites. Both abiotic (e.g., sulfate, sulfide, iron, salinity, total organic matter, etc.) and biotic factors (e.g., hgcA, abundances of methylating and non-methylating taxa) were quantified. Random forest and stepwise regression were performed to assess whether non-methylating taxa were significantly associated with methylmercury concentration. Co-occurrence and functional network analyses were constructed to explore associations between taxa by examining microbial community structure, composition, and biochemical functions across sites. Regression analysis showed that approximately 80% of the variability in sediment MeHg concentration was predicted by total mercury concentration, the abundances of mercury methylating taxa, and the abundances of the non-Hg methylating taxa. The co-occurrence networks identified Paludibacteraceae and Syntrophorhabdaceae as keystone non Hg methylating taxa in multiple sites, indicating the potential for syntrophic interactions with Hg methylators. Strong associations were also observed between methanogens and SRBs, which were likely symbiotic associations. The functional network results suggested that non-Hg methylating taxa play important roles in sulfur respiration, nitrogen respiration, and the carbon metabolism-related functions methylotrophy, methanotrophy, and chemoheterotrophy. Interestingly, keystone functions varied by site and did not involve carbon- and sulfur-related functions only. Our findings highlight associations between methylating and non methylating taxa and sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen cycles in sediment methylation zones, with implications for predicting and understanding the impact of climate and land/sea use changes on mercury methylation.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Zou R, Zhou J, Cheng B, et al (2024)

Aquaporin LjNIP1;5 positively modulates drought tolerance by promoting arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology pii:S0168-9452(24)00063-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Drought stress often affects crop growth and even causes crop death, while aquaporins can maintain osmotic balance by transporting water across membranes, so it is important to study how to improve drought tolerance of crops by using aquaporins. In this work, we characterize a set of subfamily members named NIPs belonging to the family of aquaporins in Lotus japonicus, grouping 14 family members based on the sequence similarity in the aromatic/arginine (Ar/R) region. Among these members, LjNIP1;5 is one of the genes with the highest expression in roots which is induced by the AM fungus. In Lotus japonicus, LjNIP1;5 is highly expressed in symbiotic roots, and its promoter can be induced by drought stress and AM fungus. Root colonization analysis reveals that ljnip1:5 mutant exhibits lower mycorrhizal colonization than the wild type, with increasing the proportion of large arbuscule, and fewer arbuscule produced by symbiosis under drought stress. In the LjNIP1;5OE plant, we detected a strong antioxidant capacity compared to the control, and LjNIP1;5OE showed higher stem length under drought stress. Taken together, the current results facilitate our comprehensive understanding of the plant adaptive to drought stress with the coordination of the specific fungi.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Berg G, Dorador C, Egamberdieva D, et al (2024)

Shared governance in the plant holobiont and implications for one health.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7607369 [Epub ahead of print].

The Holobiont theory is more than eighty years old, while the importance of microbial communities for plant holobionts was already identified by Lorenz Hiltner more than a century ago. Both concepts are strongly supported by results from the new field of microbiome research. Here, we present ecological and genetic features of the plant holobiont that underpin principles of a shared governance between hosts and microbes and summarize the relevance of plant holobionts in the context of global change. Moreover, we uncover knowledge gaps that arise when integrating plant holobionts in the broader perspective of the holobiome as well as one and planetary health concepts. Action is needed to consider interacting holobionts at the holobiome scale, for prediction and control of microbiome function to improve human and environmental health outcomes.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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In this comprehensive history of symbiosis theory--the first to be written--Jan Sapp masterfully traces its development from modest beginnings in the late nineteenth century to its current status as one of the key conceptual frameworks for the life sciences. The symbiotic perspective on evolution, which argues that "higher species" have evolved from a merger of two or more different kinds of organisms living together, is now clearly established with definitive molecular evidence demonstrating that mitochondria and chloroplasts have evolved from symbiotic bacteria. In telling the exciting story of an evolutionary biology tradition that has effectively challenged many key tenets of classical neo-Darwinism, Sapp sheds light on the phenomena, movements, doctrines, and controversies that have shaped attitudes about the scope and significance of symbiosis. Engaging and insightful, Evolution by Association will be avidly read by students and researchers across the life sciences.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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