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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 21 Jun 2024 at 02:00 Created: 

Climate Change

The world is warming up, with 2023 being by far the hottest year since record keeping began and 2024 shaping up to be hotter yet. But these changes only involve one or two degrees. What's the big deal?

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one liter of water by one degree is one kilocalorie (kcal). Scaling up, the amount of energy required for a one-degree increase in the water temperature of the Gulf of Mexico is 2,434,000,000,000,000,000 kcals. That's 25 million times more energy than released by the WW-II atomic bomb that destroyed the city of Hiroshima and killed more than 100,000 people.

So, for every one degree increase in water temperature, the Gulf of Mexico takes on 25-million atomic-bombs' worth of new energy, which is then available to fuel hurricanes and other storms. Maybe a one-degree rise in temperature is a big deal.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Nogrady B (2024)

How farming could become the ultimate climate-change tool.

Nature, 630(8017):S23-S25.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Leal Filho W, Abeldaño Zuñiga RA, Sierra J, et al (2024)

An assessment of priorities in handling climate change impacts on infrastructures.

Scientific reports, 14(1):14147.

Climate change (CC) will likely significantly impact the world's infrastructure significantly. Rising temperatures, increased precipitation, and rising sea levels are all likely to stress critical infrastructures (CI). Rising temperatures can lead to infrastructure damage from extreme heat events. This can cause roads and bridges to buckle or crack, leading to costly repairs and potential traffic disruptions. In addition, heat waves can damage vital electrical infrastructure, leading to widespread power outages. In light of this context, this article reports on a study which examined the connections and impacts of CC on infrastructure. The study employed a mixed-method approach, combining bibliometric analysis for the period 1997-2022 with a series of relevant case studies from the five continents to offer insight into the impact of CC on infrastructure. The article fills a research gap in respect of assessments of the extent to which climate change (CC) negative influences the infrastructure, with a special focus on developing countries. It also showcases CI projects and adaptation measures being currently deployed, to address CC. The results show that the current infrastructure is vulnerable to CC. The selected case studies on CI adaptation show that in developing and industrialised countries, there is a perceived need to understand better the connections and potential impacts of CC on critical areas such as transport, settlements, and coastal infrastructure. In order to protect infrastructure from CC impacts, governments need to invest in measures such as flood control, early warning systems, and improved building codes. Additionally, they need to work to reduce greenhouse gas emissions more actively, which are the primary cause of CC.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Baptista E, Pereira AJSC, Domingos FP, et al (2024)

Exposure to radon gas in groundwater in southwest Angola (Lubango-Huíla): Implications of geology and climate change.

Journal of environmental radioactivity, 278:107484 pii:S0265-931X(24)00116-4 [Epub ahead of print].

In southern African countries most of the population uses groundwater collected in dug wells for domestic consumption instead of water from public distribution systems. To investigate the impact of natural and human factors on urban groundwater quality, 276 samples were collected in the Lubango region (Angola) in water distribution systems and dug wells ranging from a few meters to almost one hundred meters in depth. Radon concentrations (RC) were determined by liquid scintillation counting according to ISO 13164-4:2015. Geology is the main source of the variability of RC, with median values higher than 100 Bq/L in granitoid units and lower values in mafic and sedimentary units (ranging from 5 to 38 Bq/L). On average, RC was higher in dug wells compared to public water distribution systems. The annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon in water is, on average, ten times lower in the later compared to dug wells. Therefore, from a public exposure perspective, water distribution systems are preferred as means for water distribution. A severe multi-year meteorological drought over the past decade affecting 76-94 % of the population in southern Angola has been linked with climate change. Consequently, a regional lowering of the water table was observed, as well as a reduction in the productivity of shallower wells, leading to a search for water at greater depths. This work demonstrates an increase in median RC from 66 Bq/L in wells shallower than 30 m to values over 100 Bq/L with increasing depth of water extraction and for the same geological unit. The highest RC observed were also observed at the deepest wells. The dose ingested is proportional to RC, being also higher at deeper water extraction depths. The increase in public radiation exposure from radon ingestion due to water extraction at greater depths is attributed to the underlying issue of climate change. Monitoring water quality in terms of radionuclide concentration is advised to ensure the exposure to ionizing radiation remains at acceptable levels in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Montoro-Ramírez EM, Parra-Anguita L, Álvarez-Nieto C, et al (2024)

Climate change effects in older people's health: A scoping review.

Journal of advanced nursing [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Climate change has serious consequences for the morbidity and mortality of older adults.

OBJECTIVE: To identify the effects of climate change on older people's health.

METHODS: A scoping review was conducted following the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines and the PRISMA-ScR checklist. Quantitative research and reports from organizations describing the effects of climate change on older people were selected.

RESULTS: Sixty-three full-text documents were selected. Heat and air pollution were the two factors that had the most negative effects on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in older people. Mental health and cognitive function were also affected.

CONCLUSIONS: Climate change affects several health problems in older individuals, especially high temperatures and air pollution. Nursing professionals must have the necessary skills to respond to the climate risks in older adults. More instruments are required to determine nursing competencies on climate change and the health of this population group.

No patient or public contribution.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Frontiers Production Office (2024)

Erratum: Analysis of the current risk of Leishmania infantum transmission for domestic dogs in Spain and Portugal and its future projection in climate change scenarios.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 11:1436792.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2024.1399772.].

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Sadiq M, Rahim N, Tahir MM, et al (2024)

Conservation tillage: a way to improve yield and soil properties and decrease global warming potential in spring wheat agroecosystems.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1356426.

Climate change is one of the main challenges, and it poses a tough challenge to the agriculture industry globally. Additionally, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are the main contributor to climate change; however, croplands are a prominent source of GHG emissions. Yet this complex challenge can be mitigated through climate-smart agricultural practices. Conservation tillage is commonly known to preserve soil and mitigate environmental change by reducing GHG emissions. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of information on the influences of conservation tillage on wheat yield, soil properties, and GHG flux, particularly in the semi-arid Dingxi belt. Hence, in order to fill this gap, different tillage systems, namely conventional tillage (CT) control, straw incorporation with conventional tillage (CTS), no-tillage (NT), and stubble return with no-tillage (NTS), were laid at Dingxi, Gansu province of China, under a randomized complete block design with three replications to examine their impacts on yield, soil properties, and GHG fluxes. Results depicted that different conservative tillage systems (CTS, NTS, and NT) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the plant height, number of spikes per plant, seed number per meter square, root yield, aboveground biomass yield, thousand-grain weight, grain yield, and dry matter yield compared with CT. Moreover, these conservation tillage systems notably improved the soil properties (soil gravimetric water content, water-filled pore space, water storage, porosity, aggregates, saturated hydraulic conductivity, organic carbon, light fraction organic carbon, carbon storage, microbial biomass carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen storage, microbial biomass nitrogen, total phosphorous, available phosphorous, total potassium, available potassium, microbial counts, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, and catalase) while decreasing the soil temperature and bulk density over CT. However, CTS, NTS, and NT had non-significant effects on ECe, pH, and stoichiometric properties (C:N ratio, C:P ratio, and N:P ratio). Additionally, conservation-based tillage regimes NTS, NT, and CTS significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the emission and net global warming potential of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) by 23.44, 19.57, and 16.54%, respectively, and decreased the greenhouse gas intensity by 23.20, 29.96, and 18.72%, respectively, over CT. We conclude that NTS is the best approach to increasing yield, soil and water conservation, resilience, and mitigation of agroecosystem capacity.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Rosso A, D Vione (2024)

Pollutant Photodegradation Affected by Evaporative Water Concentration in a Climate Change Scenario.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 29(11):.

Evaporative water concentration takes place in arid or semi-arid environments when stationary water bodies, such as lakes or ponds, prevalently lose water by evaporation, which prevails over outflow or seepage into aquifers. Absence or near-absence of precipitation and elevated temperatures are important prerequisites for the process, which has the potential to deeply affect the photochemical attenuation of pollutants, including contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Here we show that water evaporation would enhance the phototransformation of many CECs, especially those undergoing degradation mainly through direct photolysis and triplet-sensitized reactions. In contrast, processes induced by hydroxyl and carbonate radicals would be inhibited. Our model results suggest that the photochemical impact of water evaporation might increase in the future in several regions of the world, with no continent likely being unaffected, due to the effects of local precipitation decrease combined with an increase in temperature that facilitates evaporation.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Fedorov N, Muldashev A, Mikhaylenko O, et al (2024)

Forecast the Habitat Sustainability of Schoenus ferrugineus L. (Cyperaceae) in the Southern Urals under Climate Change.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(11):.

An analysis of the current potential range of the Pleistocene relict plant species Schoenus ferrugineus and modeling of changes in its future range under moderate (RCP4.5) and strong (RCP8.5) climate change in the middle and second half of the 21st century were carried out. The MaxEnt program was used for modeling. Climate variables from CHELSA Bioclim, the global digital soil mapping system SoilGrids, and a digital elevation model were used as predictors. Modeling has shown that climate change will lead to a significant reduction in the suitability of S. ferrugineus habitat conditions by the mid-21st century. The predicted changes in the distribution of habitats of S. ferrugineus, a diagnostic species of calcareous mires and an indicator of their ecological state, indicate a possible strong transformation of wetland complexes in the Southern Urals region even under moderate climate change. A reduction in the distribution of S. ferrugineus at the eastern limit of its range will also be facilitated by more frequent extreme droughts. To maintain the distribution of S. ferrugineus on the eastern border of its range, a number of measures are proposed to mitigate the negative consequences of climate change, contributing to the preservation of the hydrological regime of calcareous mires.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Wan Q, Du S, Chen Y, et al (2024)

Ecological Niche Differentiation and Response to Climate Change of the African Endemic Family Myrothamnaceae.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(11):.

Studying the ecological niches of species and their responses to climate change can provide better conservation strategies for these species. Myrothamnaceae is endemic to Africa, comprising only two species that belong to Myrothamnus (M. flabellifolius and M. moschatus). These closely related species exhibit allopatric distributions, positioning them as ideal materials for studying the species ecological adaptation. This study explores the ecological niche differentiation between M. flabellifolius and M. moschatus and their response capabilities to future climate change. The results indicate that M. flabellifolius and M. moschatus have undergone niche differentiation. The main drivers of niche differences are the minimum temperature of the coldest month (Bio6) for M. flabellifolius, precipitation of the driest month (Bio14), and precipitation of the coldest quarter (Bio19) for M. moschatus. M. flabellifolius demonstrated a stronger adaptation to environments characterized by lower precipitation, relatively lower temperatures, and greater annual temperature variations compared to M. moschatus. Under future climate scenarios (SSP5-8.5, 2081-2100 years), the results show that approximately 85% of the total suitable habitat for M. flabellifolius will be lost, with an 85% reduction in high-suitability areas and almost complete loss of the original mid-low suitability areas. Concurrently, about 29% of the total suitable habitat for M. moschatus will be lost, with a 34% reduction in high suitability areas and roughly 60% of the original mid-low suitability areas becoming unsuitable. This suggests that M. flabellifolius will face greater threats under future climate change. This study contributes novel insight into niche differentiation in Myrothamnaceae and provides useful information for the conservation of this distinctive African lineage.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Hu XG, Chen J, Chen Q, et al (2024)

The Spatial Shifts and Vulnerability Assessment of Ecological Niches under Climate Change Scenarios for Betula luminifera, a Fast-Growing Precious Tree in China.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(11):.

The spatial shifts and vulnerability assessments of ecological niches for trees will offer fresh perspectives for sustainable development and preservation of forests, particularly within the framework of rapid climate change. Betula luminifera is a fast-growing native timber plantation species in China, but the natural resources have been severely damaged. Here, a comprehensive habitat suitability model (including ten niche-based GIS modeling algorithms) was developed that integrates three types of environmental factors, namely, climatic, soil, and ultraviolet variables, to assess the species contemporary and future distribution of suitable habitats across China. Our results suggest that the habitats of B. luminifera generally occur in subtropical areas (about 1.52 × 10[6] km[2]). However, the growth of B. luminifera is profoundly shaped by the nuances of its local environment, the most reasonable niche spaces are only 1.15 × 10[6] km[2] when limiting ecological factors (soil and ultraviolet) are considered, generally considered as the core production region. Furthermore, it is anticipated that species-suitable habitats will decrease by 10 and 8% with climate change in the 2050s and 2070s, respectively. Our study provided a clear understanding of species-suitable habitat distribution and identified the reasons why other niche spaces are unsuitable in the future, which can warn against artificial cultivation and conservation planning.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Rong W, Huang X, Hu S, et al (2024)

Impacts of Climate Change on the Habitat Suitability and Natural Product Accumulation of the Medicinal Plant Sophora alopecuroides L. Based on the MaxEnt Model.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(11):.

Sophora alopecuroides L., a perennial herb in the arid and semi-arid regions of northwest China, has the ecological functions of windbreaking and sand fixation and high medicinal value. In recent years, global warming and human activities have led to changes in suitable habitats for S. alopecuroides, which may affect the accumulation of natural products. In this study, MaxEnt 3.4 and ArcGIS 10.4 software were used to predict the distribution of potentially suitable habitats for S. alopecuroides in China under climate change. Furthermore, the geographical distribution of S. alopecuroides as affected by human activities, the differences in the content of natural products of S. alopecuroides between different suitable habitats, and the correlation between natural products and environmental factors were analyzed. The results showed that suitable habitats for S. alopecuroides were projected to expand in the future, and the major environmental factors were temperature (Bio1), rainfall (Bio18), and soil pH (pH). When Bio1, Bio18, and pH were 8.4283 °C, 7.1968 mm, and 9.9331, respectively, the distribution probability (P) of S. alopecuroides was the highest. After adding a human activity factor, the accuracy of the model prediction results was improved, and the area of suitable habitats was greatly reduced, showing a fragmented pattern. Meanwhile, habitat suitability had a specific effect on the content of natural products in S. alopecuroides. Specifically, the content of natural products in S. alopecuroides in wild habitats was higher than that in artificial cultivation, and highly suitable habitats showed higher contents than those in non-highly suitable habitats. The contents of total alkaloids and total flavonoids were positively correlated with human activities and negatively correlated with land use types. Among them, total alkaloids were negatively correlated with aspect, and total flavonoids were positively correlated with aspect. In addition, it is suggested that Xinjiang should be the priority planting area for S. alopecuroides in China, and priority should be given to protection measures in the Alashan area. Overall, this study provides an important foundation for the determination of priority planting areas and resource protection for S. alopecuroides.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Larionow P, Gawrych M, Mackiewicz J, et al (2024)

The Climate Change Worry Scale (CCWS) and Its Links with Demographics and Mental Health Outcomes in a Polish Sample.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11):.

Developing valid and reliable measures of psychological responses to climate change is of high importance, as this facilitates our understanding of people's psychological responses, including their pro-environmental behavior. Recently, the Climate Change Worry Scale (CCWS) was introduced. This study aimed to develop the first Polish version of the CCWS and explore its psychometric properties. Our sample comprised 420 Polish adults aged 18-70, with a mean age of 26.20 (standard deviation = 10.61) years. The CCWS's factor structure was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. McDonald's omega and Cronbach's alpha coefficients were computed to assess internal consistency reliability. Pearson correlations between climate change worry (CCW) and experience of climate change (i.e., an individual's level of perception of being affected by climate change), pro-environmental behavior, ill-being (i.e., anxiety and depression symptoms), and well-being were calculated. Our results support the strong factorial validity of the CCWS, conforming to its intended one-factor solution, with excellent internal consistency reliability for the total scale score (i.e., McDonald's omega and Cronbach's alpha values of 0.93). We noted large positive correlations between CCW and experiences of climate change, as well as pro-environmental behavior, and medium positive correlations with psychopathology symptoms. CCW scores were not associated with well-being. As the CCWS represents a measure of a specific manifestation of worry, we also examined its discriminant validity against more general psychological distress markers, and it evidenced strong validity in this regard. Overall, the Polish version of the CCWS appears to have strong psychometric properties, and will therefore be a useful tool to use in research on psychological responses to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Wong C (2024)

How climate change is hitting Europe: three graphics reveal health impacts.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Zheng D, Tong D, Davis SJ, et al (2024)

Climate change impacts on the extreme power shortage events of wind-solar supply systems worldwide during 1980-2022.

Nature communications, 15(1):5225.

Economic productivity depends on reliable access to electricity, but the extreme shortage events of variable wind-solar systems may be strongly affected by climate change. Here, hourly reanalysis climatological data are leveraged to examine historical trends in defined extreme shortage events worldwide. We find uptrends in extreme shortage events regardless of their frequency, duration, and intensity since 1980. For instance, duration of extreme low-reliability events worldwide has increased by 4.1 hours (0.392 hours per year on average) between 1980-2000 and 2001-2022. However, such ascending trends are unevenly distributed worldwide, with a greater variability in low- and middle-latitude developing countries. This uptrend in extreme shortage events is driven by extremely low wind speed and solar radiation, particularly compound wind and solar drought, which however are strongly disproportionated. Only average 12.5% change in compound extremely low wind speed and solar radiation events may give rise to over 30% variability in extreme shortage events, despite a mere average 1.0% change in average wind speed and solar radiation. Our findings underline that wind-solar systems will probably suffer from weakened power security if such uptrends persist in a warmer future.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Tapkigen J, Harding S, Pulkki J, et al (2024)

Climate change-induced shifts in the food systems and diet-related non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review and a conceptual framework.

BMJ open, 14(6):e080241 pii:bmjopen-2023-080241.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between climate change, food systems and diet-related non-communicable diseases (DR-NCDs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and propose a conceptual framework for food systems in SSA.

DESIGN: A scoping review.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies included investigated the relationship between climate change and related systemic risks, food systems, DR-NCDs and its risk factors in SSA. Studies focusing on the association between climate change and DR-NCDs unrelated to food systems, such as social inequalities, were excluded.

SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: A comprehensive search was conducted in ProQuest (nine databases), Google Scholar and PubMed in December 2022.

CHARTING METHODS: Data extracted from studies included author, study type, country of study, climate change component, DR-NCD outcomes and risk factors, and impacts of climate change on DR-NCDs. A narrative approach was used to analyse the data. Based on the evidence gathered from SSA, we modified an existing food system conceptual framework.

RESULTS: The search retrieved 19 125 studies, 10 of which were included in the review. Most studies used a cross-sectional design (n=8). Four explored the influence of temperature on liver cancer through food storage while four explored the influence of temperature and rainfall on diabetes and obesity through food production. Cross-sectional evidence suggested that temperature is associated with liver cancer and rainfall with diabetes.

CONCLUSION: The review highlights the vulnerability of SSA's food systems to climate change-induced fluctuations, which in turn affect dietary patterns and DR-NCD outcomes. The evidence is scarce and concentrates mostly on the health effects of temperature through food storage. It proposes a conceptual framework to guide future research addressing climate change and DR-NCDs in SSA.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Hambira WL, Kolawole OD, Saarinen J, et al (2024)

Perspectives of nature-based tourism-dependent communities on climate change in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

The intensity and frequency of climate extremes such as heat waves, droughts and extreme rainfall events are projected to rise. This will increase the severity of their impacts across socio-ecological systems. Economic sectors such as nature-based tourism become more vulnerable because of their reliance on climate and natural capital as key resources. While attempts have been made to understand how climate change may impact tourists and the industry itself, little is known about the same on tourism-dependent communities. This paper determines the extent to which tourism-dependent communities are vulnerable to climate change in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, to enhance their wider livelihood the development of strategies for improving adaptive capacity, resilience, and reduced exposure sensitivities. A household survey of 172 households was conducted in three purposively selected villages of Mababe, Sankuyo and Khwai, actively involved in community-based tourism for their socio-economic development. Information sourced related to livelihood options, peoples' resilience, local risks, and hazards. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The results indicate that respondents have observed climatic changes over the years such as increased temperatures, decreased rainfall, and increased frequencies of extreme events. The respondents attributed changes in natural capital to these observed climatic conditions in the form of desiccation, dwindling populations of some wildlife species, decreased fish stocks and reduced vegetation cover. This renders the tourism-dependent communities vulnerable as their livelihood is threatened. The paper thus concludes that climate change adaptation is an urgent priority for local communities who are already exposed to existing climatic and non-climatic stresses.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Parejko JA (2024)

Climate change and plant rhizosphere microbiomes: an experiential course-embedded research project.

Journal of microbiology & biology education [Epub ahead of print].

The current and ongoing challenges brought on by climate change will require future scientists who have hands-on experience using advanced molecular techniques, can work with large data sets, and can make correlations between metadata and microbial diversity. A course-embedded research project can prepare students to answer complex research questions that might help plants adapt to climate change. The project described herein uses plants as a host to study the impact of climate change-induced drought on host-microbe interactions through next-generation DNA sequencing and analysis using a command-line program. Specifically, the project studies the impact of simulated drought on the rhizosphere microbiome of Fast Plants rapid cycling Brassica rapa using inexpensive greenhouse supplies and 16S rRNA V3/V4 Illumina sequencing. Data analysis is performed with the freely accessible Python-based microbiome bioinformatics platform QIIME 2.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Wang E, Lu Z, Rohani ER, et al (2024)

Current and future distribution of Forsythia suspensa in China under climate change adopting the MaxEnt model.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1394799.

This study evaluated the potential impact of climate change on the distribution of Forsythia suspensa, a valuable traditional Chinese medicinal plant, using the MaxEnt model integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS). By analyzing occurrence data from various databases and environmental variables including climate and soil factors, we forecasted the present and future (2050s and 2070s) habitat suitability of F. suspensa under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (RCP8.5, RCP4.5, RCP2.6). Results indicated that the suitable habitats for F. suspensa were primarily located in North, East, Central, Northwest, and Southwest China, with a significant potential expansion of suitable habitats anticipated by the 2070s, particularly under the high emission scenario. The study identified precipitation and temperature as the primary environmental drivers impacting the distribution of F. suspensa. Furthermore, a northward shift in the centroid of suitable habitats under future climate scenarios suggested a potential migration response to global warming. This work provides crucial insights into the future conservation and cultivation strategies for F. suspensa amidst changing climatic conditions.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Yang CY, Ding Y, Ma FL, et al (2024)

[Climate change affects plant aboveground biomass by regulating the growth periods in alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau, China].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 35(5):1260-1268.

Climate change significantly affects plant biomass and phenological occurrence time in alpine grasslands of Tibetan Plateau. The changes in phenological periods are closely related to the length of vegetative and reproductive growth periods, which may further affect aboveground biomass accumulation. In this study, based on fixed-point observations of plant biomass and phenology as well as the corresponding climatic data from 1997 to 2020 in the alpine grasslands of Tibetan Plateau, we used statistical methods such as ordinary linear regression and piecewise structural equation model to explore the characteristics of interannual climate change in the study area, the variation trends of plant biomass and phenological periods, and the correlations between biomass and phenological and climatic factors. The results showed that mean annual temperature and annual precipitation in the study area increased significantly from 1997 to 2020, suggesting a clear "warm-wet" trend. Aboveground biomass and relative biomass of Stipa sareptana var. krylovii (the dominant species) decreased significantly. However, absolute and relative biomass of subdominant species (Kobresia humilis) increased significantly, indicating that the dominance of K. humilis increased. The warm-wet climates enhanced aboveground biomass accumulation of K. humilis by extending the period of reproductive growth. Mean annual temperature and annual precipitation decreased aboveground biomass of S. sareptana by shortening the length of vegetative growth period. In a word, the warmer and wetter climate significantly affected aboveground biomass accumulation by regulating the changes in the phenological period, and the interspecific difference in their response resulted in a larger change in community composition. This study area may show a trend from alpine grassland to alpine meadow, and thus further works are urgently needed.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Li J, Liu Z, Wang P, et al (2024)

[Response of radial growth of Pinus wallichiana to climate change in Mount Qomolangma, Tibet, China].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 35(5):1205-1213.

Global warming would significantly impact tree growth in the Tibetan Plateau. However, the specific effects of climate change on the radial growth of Pinus wallichiana in Mount Qomolangma are still uncertain. To investigate the responses of radial growth of P. wallichiana to climate change, we analyzed tree-ring samples in Mount Qomolangma. We removed the age-related growth trends and established three chronologies by using the modified negative exponential curve, basal area index, and regional curve standardization, and conducted Pearson correlation and moving correlation analyses to examine the association between radial growth of P. wallichiana and climatic factors. The results showed that this region had experienced a significant upward trend in temperature and that the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) indicated a decreasing trend since 1980s, while the relative humi-dity changed from a significant upward to a downward trend around 2004, implying the climate shifted toward warmer and drier. Results of Pearson correlation analysis indicated a significant and positive relationship between the radial growth of P. wallichiana and the minimum temperature of April-June and July-September, and precipitation of January-April in the current year. The radial growth of P. wallichiana was significantly and negatively associated with the relative humidity of June, July, and August in the current year. As temperature rose after 1983, the relationship between radial growth of P. wallichiana and the minimum temperature in July and September of the current year increased from a non-significant association to a significant and positive association, while the relationship between radial growth of P. wallichiana and relative humidity in August and precipitation in September of the current year changed from non-significant correlation to a significant and negative correlation. Results of the moving correlation analysis suggested that the radial growth of P. wallichiana showed a significant and stable correlation with the July-September minimum temperature of the current year. Under the background of climate warming, the rapid increases of temperature would accelerate the radial growth of P. wallichiana in Mount Qomolangma.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Qi YY, Keyimu M, Li ZS, et al (2024)

[Radial growth response of Populus euphratica to climate change in the Cele desert oasis ecotone, China].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 35(5):1187-1195.

Populus euphratica is an important tree species in the arid regions of Northwest China, which is sensitive to climate changes. Climate of the Northwest China is changing to be "warm and humid", but how it would affect the regional forest growth is not clear. In this study, the radial growth response of P. euphratica to major climatic factors and their temporal changes during 1984-2021 were analyzed by using dendrochronology method in the desert oasis ecotone of Cele in the southern Tarim basin. The results showed that tree-ring width index of P. euphratica had a significant negative correlation with temperature in September of the previous year, and in February and May of current year, had significant positive correlation with precipitation in September of previous year and March and May of current year, and had significant positive correlations with SPEI in February and May of current year. The relationships between tree-ring width index and combined month climatic factors were more obvious. The results of moving correlation analysis showed that the correlation between tree-ring width index and temperature in the growing season tended to be strengthened in recent years, while the correlation between tree-ring width index and precipitation, SPEI tended to be declined or remain stable. The variations of the relationships between tree-ring width index and combined month climatic factors were more obvious compared that with single month. Current regional climate is conducive to the growth and development, as well as the improvement of ecological shelter function of P. euphratica forest in the desert oasis ecotone of Cele.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Liu Z, Li J, Shi SL, et al (2024)

[Response of radial growth of different timberline species to climate change in Yading Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 35(5):1177-1186.

The radial growth of trees in alpine timberline is particularly sensitive to climate change. We sampled and disposed tree-ring cores of three coniferous tree species including Juniperus saltuaria, Abies forrestii, and Larix potaninii at alpine timberline in Yading Nature Reserve. The standard tree-ring chronology was used to explore the response of radial growth of different timberline species to climate change. The results showed that radial growth of L. potaninii increased after 2000, while that of A. forrestii declined after 2002, and J. saltuaria showed a significant decreasing growth trend in the past 10 years. Such results indicated divergent growth responses to climate factors among the three tree species at alpine timberline. The radial growth of J. saltuaria was sensitive to temperature, and was positively correlated with the minimum temperature from previous October to current August, the mean tempera-ture from previous November to current April and from current July to October, but was negatively associated with the relative humidity from current July to October. The radial growth of A. forrestii showed negative correlation with mean temperature and the maximum temperature from May to June in the current year, while it exhibited positive association with the relative humidity and the Palmer drought severity index from May to June in the current year. L. potaninii radial growth was positively associated with mean temperature and the maximum temperature of November-December in the previous year, the maximum temperature of current March and mean temperature of current August. The temporal stability of climate-growth relationship varied among different timberline species. The positive correlation between radial growth of A. forrestii and J. saltuaria and temperature gradually decreased, while the posi-tive relationship of L. potaninii radial growth and temperature gradually increased. Under the background of climate warming, rapid rise in surface air temperatures may promote the radial growth of L. potaninii, while inhibit that of J. saltuaria and A. forrestii, which may change the position of regional timberline.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Wood JD, Detto M, Browne M, et al (2024)

The Ecosystem as Super-organ/Ism, Revisited: Scaling Hydraulics to Forests under Climate Change.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:7695291 [Epub ahead of print].

Classic debates in community ecology focused on the complexities of considering an ecosystem as a super-organ or organism. New consideration of such perspectives could clarify mechanisms underlying the dynamics of forest carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and water vapor loss, important for predicting and managing the future of Earth's ecosystems and climate system. Here, we provide a rubric for considering ecosystem traits as aggregated, systemic, or emergent, i.e., representing the ecosystem as an aggregate of its individuals, or as a metaphorical or literal super-organ or organism. We review recent approaches to scaling-up plant water relations (hydraulics) concepts developed for organs and organisms to enable and interpret measurements at ecosystem-level. We focus on three community scale versions of water relations traits that have potential to provide mechanistic insight into climate change responses of CO2 and H2O gas exchange and forest productivity: leaf water potential (Ψcanopy), pressure volume curves (eco-PV), and hydraulic conductance (Keco). These analyses can reveal additional ecosystem-scale parameters analogous to those typically quantified for leaves or plants (e.g., wilting point and hydraulic vulnerability) that may act as thresholds in forest responses to drought including growth cessation, mortality and flammability. We unite these concepts in a novel framework to predict Ψcanopy and its approaching of critical thresholds during drought, using measurements of Keco and eco-PV curves. We thus delineate how extension of water relations concepts from organ- and organism-scales can reveal the hydraulic constraints on the interaction of vegetation and climate, and provide new mechanistic understanding and prediction of forest water use and productivity.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Gong ZY, Wang CL, Dong DD, et al (2024)

[Influence of climate change and human activities on grassland phenology in Anhui Province].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 35(4):1092-1100.

To explore the influence of climate change and human activities on grassland phenology in Anhui Pro-vince, and quantify the contribution rate of climate change and human activities to phenology, we extracted the phenology of grassland, including the start of growing season (SOS) and the end of growing season (EOS), based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset of Anhui Province from 2003 to 2020. The temporal and spatial characteristics and future evolution trends of phenological changes were analyzed using slope trend ana-lysis, Mann-Kendall non-parametric test, and Hurst index. We further conducted correlation analysis and residual analysis based on the datasets of mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation to explore the responses of phenology to climate change and human activities, and quantify their contribution rate. The results showed that SOS and EOS showed an advancing trend with a rate of 0.8 and 0.7 days per year from 2003 to 2020. SOS in the sou-thern part of the study area was significantly earlier than in the central and northern regions, while EOS gradually advanced from south to north. Both SOS and EOS in the future showed an advancing trend. SOS was negatively correlated with annual average temperature, while positively correlated with annual precipitation. EOS was negatively correlated with both annual average temperature and annual precipitation. The proportion of the area where SOS was advanced driven by both climate change and human activities was 56.9%, and the value was 48.3% for EOS. Human activities were the main driving factor for phenology, and climate change was the secondary driving factor. The relative contributions of human activities and climate change to SOS were 66.4% and 33.6%, and to EOS were 61.2% and 38.8%, respectively. Human activities had stronger impact on SOS and EOS than climate change, resulting in earlier phenology.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent Action Needed for Africa and the world.

Nigerian medical journal : journal of the Nigeria Medical Association, 63(6):438-441.

Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Yin Z, Song X, Zhou B, et al (2024)

Traditional Meiyu-Baiu has been suspended by global warming.

National science review, 11(7):nwae166.

More than 1000 years, the Meiyu-Baiu have shaped the uniqueness of natural resources, civilization and culture in the Yangtze River Basin of China and the main islands of Japan. In recent decades, frequent rainstorms and droughts have seemingly diminished the misty features of traditional Meiyu-Baiu rainfall. However, there is still no consensus on whether their traditional nature is suspended. In this study, we quantitatively demonstrate that the Meiyu-Baiu almost completely lost their traditional features during 1961-2023, ∼80% of which can be attributed to anthropogenic warming. Furthermore, in a warmer future, the traditional Meiyu-Baiu will be more unlikely to appear. This study underscores the urgency in adapting to climate shift because destructive extremes are measurably taking the place of mild and maternal rains.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Sazegar P, Kaur P, RA Abbott (2024)

Application of Illness Scripts Theory to Climate Change Through a Multi-Residency Educational Symposium.

Journal of graduate medical education, 16(3):353-354.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Sharifi A, Baubekova A, Patro ER, et al (2024)

The combined effects of anthropogenic and climate change on river flow alterations in the Southern Caspian Sea Iran.

Heliyon, 10(11):e31960.

In recent years, the effects of human activities and climate change on river flow patterns have become a major concern worldwide. This is particularly true in the southern Caspian Sea (SCS) region of Iran, where increasing water-intensive socio-economic development and climate change have significantly altered river flow regimes. To better understand these changes, this study employs two nonparametric methods, the modified Mann-Kendall method (MK3) and Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA), to examine spatial and temporal changes in hydrometeorological variables in the SCS. The study also evaluates the impact of human activities and climate change on river flow alteration using elasticity-based methods and the Budyko hypothesis in 40 rivers on the closest gauges to the Caspian Sea. The results indicate an alarming trend of increasing temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and decreasing river flows in the SCS region. In particular, human activities were found to be responsible for around 91.7 % of the change on average, resulting in a significant decline in inflow to the Caspian Sea by about 3216 MCM annually. This declining trend in inflow could potentially exacerbate the eutrophication conditions in the Sea and negatively impact its ecosystem and economics. Therefore, appropriate measures need to be taken to address these environmental and socio-economic issues in the southern Caspian Sea region.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Benesch T, Sergeeva M, Wainstock D, et al (2024)

Climate change, health, and human rights: calling on states to address the health risks of climate change, through the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.

Lancet regional health. Americas, 34:100801.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Goldfarb DS, AA Patel (2024)

Climate change and its implications for kidney health.

Current opinion in urology pii:00042307-990000000-00165 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extremes of weather as a result of climate change are affecting social, economic and health systems. Kidney health is being threatened by global warming while treatment of kidney disease is contributing to increasing resource utilization and leaving a substantial carbon footprint. Improved physician awareness and patient education are needed to mitigate the risk.

RECENT FINDINGS: Rising temperatures are changing kidney disease patterns, with increasing prevalence of acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease and kidney stones. These issues disproportionately affect people suffering from social inequality and limited access to resources.

SUMMARY: In this article, we review the effects of climate change on kidney stones, and acute and chronic kidney injury. Finally, we discuss the impact of renal replacement therapies on the environment and proposed ways to mitigate it.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Elsisi M, Elshiekh M, Sabry N, et al (2024)

The genetic orchestra of salicylic acid in plant resilience to climate change induced abiotic stress: critical review.

Stress biology, 4(1):31.

Climate change, driven by human activities and natural processes, has led to critical alterations in varying patterns during cropping seasons and is a vital threat to global food security. The climate change impose several abiotic stresses on crop production systems. These abiotic stresses include extreme temperatures, drought, and salinity, which expose agricultural fields to more vulnerable conditions and lead to substantial crop yield and quality losses. Plant hormones, especially salicylic acid (SA), has crucial roles for plant resiliency under unfavorable environments. This review explores the genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying SA's role in mitigating abiotic stress-induced damage in plants. It also explores the SA biosynthesis pathways, and highlights the regulation of their products under several abiotic stresses. Various roles and possible modes of action of SA in mitigating abiotic stresses are discussed, along with unraveling the genetic mechanisms and genes involved in responses under stress conditions. Additionally, this review investigates molecular pathways and mechanisms through which SA exerts its protective effects, such as redox signaling, cross-talks with other plant hormones, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Moreover, the review discusses potentials of using genetic engineering approaches, such as CRISPR technology, for deciphering the roles of SA in enhancing plant resilience to climate change related abiotic stresses. This comprehensive analysis bridges the gap between genetics of SA role in response to climate change related stressors. Overall goal is to highlight SA's significance in safeguarding plants and by offering insights of SA hormone for sustainable agriculture under challenging environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Fu Y, Jian S, X Yu (2024)

Water use efficiency in China is impacted by climate change and land use and land cover.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

A crucial physiological indicator known as water use efficiency (WUE) (Foley et al.) assesses the trade-off between water loss and carbon uptake. The carbon and water coupling mechanisms, energy balance, and hydrological cycle processes in the ecosystem are impacted by climate change, vegetation dynamics, and land use change. In this study, we employed Sen trend analysis, the Mann-Kendall test, the land-use transfer matrix, and multiple linear regression analysis to investigate the regional and temporal dynamics of WUE and its reaction to climate change and land-use transfer changes in China. According to the findings, the annual average WUE in China was 0.998 gC/mm·m[2] from 2000 to 2017. Of the nine major river basins, the Continental Basin had the lowest WUE (0.529 gC/mm·m[2]), and the Southwest River Basin had the highest WUE (0.691 gC/mm·m[2]), while the Pearl River Basin and the Southeast River Basin had the highest WUEs (1.184 gC/mm·m[2]). The Haihe River Basin and the Yellow River Basin were the key regions with elevated WUE. Forest had the greatest WUE (1.134 gC/mm·m[2]; out of the nine major river basins), followed by shrub (1.109 gC/mm·m[2]). Vegetation dynamics changes had a higher impact on WUE than climate change and land use changes, when the contributions of climate change, vegetation dynamics changes, and land use changes to WUE were separated. The largest climatic factor influencing variations in WUE was VPD (28.04% ± 3.98%), whereas among the vegetation dynamics factors, NDVI (33.75% ± 6.90%) and LAI (22.21% ± 2.11%) contributed the most. The transition from high to low vegetation cover led to a relative decrease in WUE, and vice versa, according to data on land use change in China from 2000 to 2017. Land use change made a positive impact to WUE change. The findings of this study may be helpful in China for choosing a suitable regional plant cover and managing local water resources sustainably.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Wang J, O'Brien E, Holloway P, et al (2024)

Climate change impact and adaptation assessment for road drainage systems.

Journal of environmental management, 364:121209 pii:S0301-4797(24)01195-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change exhibits a clear trend of escalating frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, posing heightened risks to drainage systems along the existing road networks. However, very few studies to date have investigated the consequences of projected future changes in rainfall on main road drainage and the resulting risk of road flooding. The work presented in this paper builds on the limited research by introducing a probabilistic model for assessing the impact of climate change on road drainage systems, incorporating climate uncertainty and drainage system variation. The probabilistic scenario-based model and associated framework offer a practical and innovative method for estimating the impact of short-duration storms under future climates for 2071-2100, in the absence of fine-resolution spatio-temporal data. The model also facilitates the assessment of the effectiveness of a climate adaptation strategy. An illustrative case-study of a road drainage system located in the south of Ireland is presented. It was found that the probability of road flooding during intense rainfall is projected to surpass the current acceptable limits set by Irish standards. Assessment of a proactive climate adaptation strategy implemented in 2015 indicated it may need to be adjusted to further reduce climate change impacts and optimise adaptation costs.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Bolakhe S (2024)

Wildfires are raging in Nepal - climate change isn't the only culprit.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Ebi KL, Bowen K, Haines A, et al (2024)

Estimating the total effect of anthropogenic climate change on human health and wellbeing.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Pirnajmedin F, Jaškūnė K, MM Majidi (2024)

Adaptive strategies to drought stress in grasses of the poaceae family under climate change: Physiological, genetic and molecular perspectives: A review.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 213:108814 pii:S0981-9428(24)00482-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Drought stress is one of the most critical abiotic factors which negatively impacts on growth, productivity, and survival of plants. Grass species have an important role in the sustainable intensification of cropping systems. This review focus on the specific drought tolerance characteristics in grass species and application of prevalent classical and molecular methods for genetic improvement of them to drought stress. Generally, grass species adapt to drought stress by utilizing more than one strategy including of changes in the root growth, photosynthetic pigments, activation of antioxidant enzymes, and accumulation of compatible osmolytes. They also have other specific characteristics consisted of summer dormancy, drought recovery, and persistence, which lead to drought adaptation after prolonged drought. Studies on different grasses, indicated that most of above mentioned traits usually have positive correlation with drought tolerance. Also, high heritability has been reported for most of them in different grasses. Therefore, an effective index might be considering in identification of drought tolerance genotypes. Recently, high-throughput imaging phenotyping and advanced molecular techniques such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), RNA sequencing, genome-wide association study, and genome editing help conventional breeding methods to increase the accuracy, selection efficiency, genetic gains, and speed of breeding programs for developing drought tolerant cultivars.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Regev S, Carmel Y, G Gal (2024)

Assessing alternative lake management actions for climate change adaptation.

Ambio [Epub ahead of print].

Lake management actions are required to protect lake ecosystems that are being threatened by climate change. Freshwater lakes in semiarid regions are of upmost importance to their region. Simulations of the subtropical Lake Kinneret project that rising temperatures will cause change to phytoplankton species composition, including increased cyanobacteria blooms, endangering lake ecosystem services. Using lake ecosystem models, we examined several management actions under climate change, including two alternatives of desalinated water introduction into the lake, hypolimnetic water withdrawal, watershed management changes and low versus high lake water level. To account for prediction uncertainty, we utilized an ensemble of two 1D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical lake models along with 500 realizations of meteorological conditions. Results suggest that supplying desalinated water for local use, thus releasing more natural waters through the Jordan River, increasing nutrient flow, may reduce cyanobacteria blooms, mitigating climate change effects. However, these results are accompanied by considerable uncertainty.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Dos Santos HT, CA Marchioro (2024)

Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909) Voltinism: Implications for Fruit Production in Southern Brazil.

Neotropical entomology [Epub ahead of print].

The leafroller Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick) is an important pest of temperate fruits. Its biology and population dynamics are strongly influenced by temperature. In this context, this study aims to select a mathematical model that accurately describes the temperature-dependent development rate of A. sphaleropa and applies this model to predict the impact of climate change on the number of annual generations (voltinism) of the pest in southern Brazil. Nine mathematical models were employed to fit the species' developmental rate at different constant temperatures. Voltinism was projected using climate data from the current period (1994-2013) and projections for 2050 and 2070. The Brière-1 model (D(T) = aT(T-TL)(TH-T)[1/2]) provided the best fit for the temperature-dependent developmental rate of A. sphaleropa. According to this model, the regions with the highest voltinism under current climatic conditions are the northern and central areas of Paraná, the western and northeastern regions of Santa Catarina, and northwestern Rio Grande do Sul. The model also predicts a rise in A. sphaleropa voltinism as a consequence of climate change, especially in the mountainous regions of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, with projected increases of up to 25.1%. These regions encompass most areas where temperate fruits used as hosts by the leafroller are cultivated. This study represents a significant advancement in understanding the implications of global warming on A. sphaleropa voltinism and suggests that forthcoming climatic conditions will likely favor the species across much of southern Brazil.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Afifi M, Malkawi M, M El-Adawy (2024)

Women's health and climate change: a threat or an opportunity.

Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit, 30(5):330-332.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Zhang W, Shao Y, Zou X, et al (2024)

Fluctuating "soil CO2-lake" is key for understanding global climate change.

Innovation (Cambridge (Mass.)), 5(4):100642.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Nordeng Z, Kriit HK, Poltimäe H, et al (2024)

Valuation and perception of the costs of climate change on health.

Scandinavian journal of public health [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change affects our societies and lives through our economies, our livelihoods, and our health. Economic losses of climate change are estimated at $23 trillion, largely through externalities due to premature mortality, healthcare expenditure, and health-related work losses. Even if there are established methods to quantify the health economic burden, there is limited information on how people perceive this information. The current study aimed to examine different health cost evaluation methods and observe perceptions of stakeholders in the climate change context.

METHOD: The participatory research approach of the World Café with 41 participants was applied to explore four topics associated with valuing the costs of climate change. The data were analyzed following an inductive approach.

RESULTS: Despite the willingness-to-pay approach being widely applied, many experts see actual healthcare costs as a more explicit indicator of costs; however, this approach might underestimate actual costs. Participants experienced difficulties accepting and understanding cost estimates that indicated very high externalities as a percentage of gross domestic product. The cost-effectiveness of mitigation and adaptation measures was also challenged by a concern that while the costs of such measures are incurred now, the benefits do not come to fruition until later, for example, when building bike lanes or dams.

CONCLUSIONS: Policies should favor environmentally friendly activities such as making cycling more convenient in cities with the health benefits presented in monetary terms, while limiting car driving. Moreover, the public might better understand the costs of climate change via tools that map how solutions influence different sectors and outlining the costs in evaluating the benefits for health and the environment.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Zhang Y, Wan Y, Wang C, et al (2024)

Potential distribution of three invasive agricultural pests in China under climate change.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13672.

Invasive pests reduce biodiversity and ecosystem service functions, thereby leading to economic and also agricultural losses. Banana skipper (Erionota torus Evans), red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), and coconut caterpillar (Opisina arenosella Walker) are invasive insect pests in the palm-growing regions and they have had serious consequences for the planting of bananas (Musa nana), palms (Trachycarpus fortune) and coconut (Cocos nucifera). Based on screened occurrence data, the present research utilized Maximum Entropy model (Maxent) to simulate the distribution dynamics of these three invasive insects in China, under current and future climate (2050s, 2070s, 2090s) in two shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs: 126 and 585) of the newly released coupled model intercomparison project phase6 (CMIP6). The results show that: (1) Under current and future climate conditions, all model groups exhibited an AUC value exceeding 0.92, which shows that the model prediction results are very good;(2) The suitable habitat area of E. torus Evans remains relatively stable with some expansion in the SSP126 of 2090s and some contraction in the SSP585 of 2090s. The suitable habitat area of R. ferrugineus showed an overall contraction, with substantial contraction in the SSP585 of 2090s.The suitable habitat area of O. arenosella has an overall expansion, with the most pronounced expansion in the SSP585 of 2070s; (3) The current centroid of suitable habitats for R. ferrugineus and E. torus Evans is located in Guangxi Province and wholely shift toward the south direction under future climate. The centroid of suitable habitats for O. arenosella is currently located in the northeastern maritime area of Hainan Province and will shift toward the north direction under future climate; (4) Temperature, precipitation and Human disturbance factors (Population density and Human influence index) were crucial variables for describing the distribution of the three species. For E. torus Evans in particular, percentage contributions of Population density was up to 31.4, which is only 0.1 different from ranked first Bio19 (Precipitation of the coldest quarter). The dynamics of habitats of these three species and the correlating driver factors proposed in this work provide essential insights into future spatial management of the three invasive insects in China. Our work is necessary and timely in identifying newly areas at high risk of expansion of the three invasive insects in the future, then suggesting strategic control measures to prevent their spread, and finally providing scientific evidence for the early prevention and rapid response to the three invasive insects.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Sapkota TB, Vetter SH, Jat ML, et al (2024)

Corrigendum to "Cost-effective opportunities for climate change mitigation in Indian agriculture" [Sci. Total Environ. 655 (2019) 1342-1354].

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Bao Y, Han A, Gele T, et al (2024)

Climate change reduces elevational and latitudinal differences in spring phenology of pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus spectabilis Bulter).

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03994-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus spectabilis Bulter, Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as an ectotherm, temperature plays a crucial role in its development. With climate change, earlier development of insect pests is expected to pose a more frequent threat to forest communities. Yet the quantitative research about the extent to which global warming affects pine caterpillar populations is rarely understood, particularly across various elevations and latitudes. Spring phenology of pine caterpillars showed an advancing trend with 0.8 d/10a, 2.2 d/10a, 2.2 d/10a, and 3.3 d/10a under the SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 scenario, respectively. There was a maximum advance of 20 d in spring phenology of pine caterpillars during the 2090s, from mid-March to early March, and even late February. This study highlighted the significant advance in spring phenology at elevations >1000 m and lower latitudes. Consequently, the differences in elevational and latitudinal gradients were relatively small as the increasing temperatures at the end of the 21st century. And the average temperature in February-March was effective in explaining theses variability. These findings are crucial for adapting and mitigating to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Viji R, Yi Y, Xueyuan W, et al (2024)

Evaluate climate change and anthropogenic activities influencing geochemical variations in sediment between and within the avulsion period in the Lower Yellow River avulsion channels.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)01310-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The geochemical data from sediments in avulsion channels provide historical evidence of climate change and human-induced alterations in river basin environments. The present study focused on the particle size of sediments in cores and the level of geochemical variation in avulsion channels of the Lower Yellow River Delta (YRD), China. The sediment samples were collected in a depth range of 20-400 cm in avulsion channels. The collected samples were analyzed for sediment particle size and geochemical composition using standard methods. The results demonstrated rapid increases in agriculture practices, rainfall pattern changes, and terrestrial sediment runoff reduction in river basins after the 1960s. The reduced sediment loads in the Sanmenxia Reservoir significantly changed the sediment grain size and geochemical levels in the avulsion channel from August 1960.8 to January -1961.1. In particular, TC, TN, and C/N levels decreased with increasing sediment depth. The C/N values of <12 denoted completely reduced terrestrial sources of organic matter in the channel during the August 1960- January 1961 period compared to the July 1953- August 1960 period. The two-way ANOVA p-values were (p<0.016-p<0.001) strong between the avulsion periods but had no significant variation within the avulsion periods. We emphasize that this study provides a close interplay of different historical periods of geochemical variation in avulsion channel sediments in the alluvial fan YRD, and we argue that the evolution of the middle upstream river basin was subjective by climate change and human developmental actions, which impacted the YRD. In particular, reservoir-interrupted water flow and sediment reduction impacts associated with geochemical fluctuations are documented in the YRD.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

D'Ambrosio M, Locke T, R Hendricks-Sturrup (2024)

Addressing Climate Change-Induced Tick-borne Lyme Disease Patterns Through Data-Driven 'One Health' Policy.

Journal of public health management and practice : JPHMP, 30(4):E157-E160.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Dočkalová K, Stuchlík E, Hamerlík L, et al (2024)

Cold mountain stream chironomids (Diptera) of the genus Diamesa indicate both historical and recent climate change.

Environmental entomology pii:7692858 [Epub ahead of print].

Chironomids of the genus Diamesa (Meigen, 1835, Diptera: Chironomidae) inhabit cold, oxygen-rich running waters. We have investigated the presence of Diamesa and other freshwater macroinvertebrates at 22 stream sampling sites in 3 European high mountain regions (the Central Pyrenees, the Ötztal Alps, and the Tatra Mountains) to establish suitable temperature conditions for Diamesa dominance. It has been generally accepted that their high abundance was linked to the presence of glaciers; however, we have shown that in the Tatra Mountains, where there are no glaciers, the conditions for the dominance of Diamesa species are created due to permanent snowfields, the geographical orientation of the valley and shading by the surrounding high peaks. The historical connection of Diamesa to glaciers was investigated from the paleolimnological records of subfossil chironomid assemblages from the Bohemian Forest, where glaciers disappeared before or during the Late Glacial period. As expected, water temperature seems to be the main driver of Diamesa distribution, and we determined that the relative abundance of Diamesa species was significantly higher at the sites with a mean July water temperature below 6.5 °C. The Diamesa-dominated stream communities seems to be endangered due to ongoing climate warming and this assumption is supported by our paleolimnological results from the Bohemian Forest lakes, where Diamesa has disappeared due to warming of lake inflows at the beginning of the Holocene. These findings strengthen the former suggestions that some Diamesa species could be used as an indicator for tracking recent environmental changes in vulnerable ecosystems of cold mountain streams.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Ortula NWA, Alcober AMC, Travieza DEC, et al (2024)

Filipinos and Philippine government on public health vis-à-vis climate change: an interactive proposal.

Journal of public health (Oxford, England) pii:7692304 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Hannah L, Irvine A, Brito-Morales I, et al (2024)

To save the high seas, plan for climate change.

Nature, 630(8016):298-301.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Ros A, A Brinker (2024)

Thermotactic behaviour in lacustrine and riverine forms of Salmo trutta and its relevance to an emerging parasitic disease (PKD) in the wake of climate change.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13539.

The thermotactic response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) was examined with the goal to investigate potential effects of the emerging temperature-dependent fatal trout disease PKD (proliferative kidney disease). First the differences in cold-water preferences of two forms of brown trout, lacustrine (migratory) and riverine, were determined. Second, it was studied whether this preference was changed in fish infected with PKD. The experiment involved a one-week habituation period at 14 °C in a two-chamber runway followed by a week of 3 °C temperature difference between the two runways. The fish could freely move between lanes via an opening at the end where food was provided. The temperature manipulation was repeated twice, and there were 3 trials per experimental group. All fish developed a clear spatial preference in the test. Lacustrine trout demonstrated a preference for warmer water, while riverine trout preferred cooler water. This may increase the risk to PKD in the lacustrine form. Most strikingly, riverine trout experimentally exposed to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the parasite that causes PKD, demonstrated stronger cold-seeking behaviour than control fish. Cold seeking behaviour suggests the occurrence of a disease-induced behavioural chill response, which may play an important role in disease recovery. This demonstrates the significance of protecting river connectivity and cold-water sanctuaries as management strategies for preserving salmonid populations in a warming climate.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Wang G, Cai W, A Santoso (2024)

Variability of the Indian Ocean Dipole post-2100 reverses to a reduction despite persistent global warming.

Nature communications, 15(1):5023.

Previous examination of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) response to greenhouse warming shows increased variability in the eastern pole but decreased variability in the western pole before 2100. The opposing response is due to a shallowing equatorial thermocline promoting sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the east, but a more stable atmosphere decreasing variability in equatorial zonal winds that weakens SST variability in the west. Post-2100, how the IOD may change remains unknown. Here we show that IOD variability weakens post-2100 in majority of models under a long-term high emission scenario to 2300. Post-2100, the atmosphere stability increases further and persistent ocean warming arrests or even reverses the eastern Indian Ocean shallowing thermocline. These changes conspire to drive decreased variability in both poles, reducing amplitude of moderate, strong and early-maturing positive IOD events. Our result highlights a nonlinear response of the IOD to long-term greenhouse warming under the high emission scenario.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Tu Y, Yao Z, Guo J, et al (2024)

Predicting the potential risk of Caragana shrub encroachment in the Eurasian steppe under anthropogenic climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04073-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and human activities drive widespread shrub encroachment in global grassland ecosystems, particularly in the Eurasian steppe. Caragana shrubs, the primary contributors to shrub encroachment in this region, play a crucial role in shaping the ecosystem's structure and function. Future changes in the suitable distribution range of Caragana species will directly affect the ecological security and sustainable socio-economic development of the Eurasian steppe ecosystem. We used an ensemble modeling approach to predict Caragana shrub-dominated plant communities' current and future distribution in three major steppe subregions: the Black Sea-Kazakhstan steppe, the Tibetan Plateau steppe, and the Central Asian steppe. We assessed the potential risk of Caragana shrub encroachment by predicting changes in the suitable distribution area of 19 Caragana shrub species under future climate changes. Our research findings suggest that the expansion of Caragana species in different subregions of the Eurasian steppe is influenced by the effects of climate change in various ways. The distribution of Caragana species is primarily influenced by precipitation and temperature, and the global human modification (ghm) has a significant impact on the Central Asian and Tibetan Plateau subregions. Minimal changes are expected in the Black Sea-Kazakhstan subregion, a slight increase on the Tibetan Plateau, and a substantial rise in the Central Asian subregion, which suggests a higher potential risk of Caragana species shrub encroachment in that area. Our research provides valuable insights into the response of Caragana shrub encroachment to changing climates and human activities. It also has implications for the sustainable management of different areas of the vast Eurasian steppe ecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Baykara Mat ST, BN Yilmaz (2024)

Is awareness of climate change a predictor of eco-anxiety? Research within the scope of nursing students.

Nurse education today, 140:106274 pii:S0260-6917(24)00184-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Understanding nursing students' awareness of climate change and its impact on their anxiety levels is crucial in representing a significant research area for the sustainability of healthcare services and the development of strategies to address climate change.

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine nursing students' awareness of global climate change and eco-anxiety levels. Additionally, it seeks to uncover the relationship between these two factors.

DESIGN: During the academic year 2022-2023, this research was conducted with nursing students at a university in Istanbul, utilizing a cross-sectional and exploratory correlational design. The study involved 390 nursing students at the same university, aiming to reach the entire population without using any sampling method. Valid data were obtained from 374 students. The Student Information Form, University Students' Climate Change Awareness Scale and the Eco-anxiety Scale used as instruments for data collection. Subsequently, the data underwent analysis in a computational environment utilizing descriptive statistical methods and Pearson correlation analysis.

RESULTS: Most of the participants were female and single. The mean "total global climate change awareness" of the students was 75.072 ± 15.094, and the mean "general eco-anxiety" of the students was 1.158 ± 0.629. A weak positive relationship was found between the total global climate change awareness and general environmental concerns of the students participating in the study at r = 0.233 (p = 0.000 < 0.05). The level of awareness of climate change explains 5 % of nursing students' eco-anxiety levels.

CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes a significant relationship between climate change awareness and increased ecological anxiety. Filling a gap in the field due to the lack of specific research focusing on nursing students highlights the importance of maintaining awareness to prevent ecological anxiety from reaching undesirable levels. This approach is crucial in actively encouraging nurses to contribute to developing educational curricula and environmentally friendly health policies.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Kazi DS, Katznelson E, Liu CL, et al (2024)

Climate Change and Cardiovascular Health: A Systematic Review.

JAMA cardiology pii:2820068 [Epub ahead of print].

IMPORTANCE: Climate change may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes by causing direct physiologic changes, psychological distress, and disruption of health-related infrastructure. Yet, the association between numerous climate change-related environmental stressors and the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events has not been systematically reviewed.

OBJECTIVE: To review the current evidence on the association between climate change-related environmental stressors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

EVIDENCE REVIEW: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify peer-reviewed publications from January 1, 1970, through November 15, 2023, that evaluated associations between environmental exposures and cardiovascular mortality, acute cardiovascular events, and related health care utilization. Studies that examined only nonwildfire-sourced particulate air pollution were excluded. Two investigators independently screened 20 798 articles and selected 2564 for full-text review. Study quality was assessed using the Navigation Guide framework. Findings were qualitatively synthesized as substantial differences in study design precluded quantitative meta-analysis.

FINDINGS: Of 492 observational studies that met inclusion criteria, 182 examined extreme temperature, 210 ground-level ozone, 45 wildfire smoke, and 63 extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, dust storms, and droughts. These studies presented findings from 30 high-income countries, 17 middle-income countries, and 1 low-income country. The strength of evidence was rated as sufficient for extreme temperature; ground-level ozone; tropical storms, hurricanes, and cyclones; and dust storms. Evidence was limited for wildfire smoke and inadequate for drought and mudslides. Exposure to extreme temperature was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the magnitude varied with temperature and duration of exposure. Ground-level ozone amplified the risk associated with higher temperatures and vice versa. Extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, were associated with increased cardiovascular risk that persisted for many months after the initial event. Some studies noted a small increase in cardiovascular mortality, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, and hospitalizations for ischemic heart disease after exposure to wildfire smoke, while others found no association. Older adults, racial and ethnic minoritized populations, and lower-wealth communities were disproportionately affected.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Several environmental stressors that are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but data on outcomes in low-income countries are lacking. Urgent action is needed to mitigate climate change-associated cardiovascular risk, particularly in vulnerable populations.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Monteiro Ramos N, P Castro (2024)

The climate battles of ideas: Minority discourses in readers' comments to climate change articles in the Portuguese press.

Public understanding of science (Bristol, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Today, the dominant climate change discourses affirm its anthropogenic nature and the urgency for policies. However, minority discourses remain active in the worldwide debate, refining arguments beyond simple denial-as shown regarding formal/official discourses of the United States and European far-right parties. This makes it necessary to examine the public understanding of climate change in everyday, informal minority discourses, looking at how they work for broadening societal space for "quarantining" the transformative potential of climate change meanings/policies. For this, we analyze readers' comments on climate change articles from two Portuguese newspapers, drawing from the frameworks of neutralization techniques and meaning barriers. Findings show that although denial of anthropogenic climate change remains, discursive efforts concentrate on person-stigmatizing depictions of climate change actors, delegitimized as "elites" in populist vocabularies, reflecting a consistent alignment between everyday discourses and those of the United States and European official far-right. We discuss the functions this pattern may have for the growth of climate change minority positions.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Li X, Black TA, Zha T, et al (2024)

Long-term trend and interannual variation in evapotranspiration of a young temperate Douglas-fir stand over 2002-2022 reveals the impacts of climate change.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

The shortage of decades-long continuous measurements of ecosystem processes limits our understanding of how changing climate impacts forest ecosystems. We used continuous eddy-covariance and hydrometeorological data over 2002-2022 from a young Douglas-fir stand on Vancouver Island, Canada to assess the long-term trend and interannual variability in evapotranspiration (ET) and transpiration (T). Collectively, annual T displayed a decreasing trend over the 21 years with a rate of 1% yr[-1], which is attributed to the stomatal downregulation induced by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Similarly, annual ET also showed a decreasing trend since evaporation stayed relatively constant. Variability in detrended annual ET was mostly controlled by the average soil water storage during the growing season (May-October). Though the duration and intensity of the drought did not increase, the drought-induced decreases in T and ET showed an increasing trend. This pattern may reflect the changes in forest structure, related to the decline in the deciduous understory cover during the stand development. These results suggest that the water-saving effect of stomatal regulation and water-related factors mostly determined the trend and variability in ET, respectively. This may also imply an increase in the limitation of water availability on ET in young forests, associated with the structural and compositional changes related to forest growth.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Ccami-Bernal F, Barriga-Chambi F, Quispe-Vicuña C, et al (2024)

Health science students' preparedness for climate change: a scoping review on knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

BMC medical education, 24(1):648.

INTRODUCTION: Climate change (CC) is a global public health issue, and the role of health professionals in addressing its impact is crucial. However, to what extent health professionals are prepared to deal with CC-related health problems is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health students about the CC.

METHODS: We conducted a scoping review through systematic searches in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Proquest, and EBSCO. We included original scientific research with no language or time restrictions. Two authors independently reviewed and decided on the eligibility of the studies, then performed data extraction.

RESULTS: 21 studies were included, with a total of 9205 undergraduate nursing, medical, pharmacy, and public health students mainly. Most health science students (> 75%) recognized human activities as the main cause of CC. However, they perceived a lack of knowledge on how to address CC. Moreover, we found inadequate coverage or limited development of CC in related curricula that may contribute to incomplete learning or low confidence in the theoretical and practical concepts of students.

CONCLUSION: The findings of our scoping review suggest that while health sciences students possess a general understanding of CC, there is a significant gap in their knowledge regarding its specific health impacts. To address this gap, there is a need for targeted education and training for future health care professionals that emphasizes the health effects of CC.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Bogdziewicz M, Kelly D, Ascoli D, et al (2024)

Evolutionary ecology of masting: mechanisms, models, and climate change.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(24)00117-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Many perennial plants show mast seeding, characterized by synchronous and highly variable reproduction across years. We propose a general model of masting, integrating proximate factors (environmental variation, weather cues, and resource budgets) with ultimate drivers (predator satiation and pollination efficiency). This general model shows how the relationships between masting and weather shape the diverse responses of species to climate warming, ranging from no change to lower interannual variation or reproductive failure. The role of environmental prediction as a masting driver is being reassessed; future studies need to estimate prediction accuracy and the benefits acquired. Since reproduction is central to plant adaptation to climate change, understanding how masting adapts to shifting environmental conditions is now a central question.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Weber RW (2024)

Current and Future Effects of Climate Change on Airborne Allergens.

Current allergy and asthma reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Delineation of the impact of elevated carbon dioxide and concomitant global warming on airborne allergens is performed.

RECENT FINDINGS: European tree pollen trends in general showed earlier start and end dates and increased total pollen release, with some differences both in locale and among species. Earlier flowering was also seen with grasses and weeds. In the case of some boreal trees, flowering was delayed due to a pre-seasonal requirement for necessary accumulated chilling temperature to achieve bud-set. Anthropogenic climate change induced rise in temperature and CO2 levels has resulted in demonstrable increases in aeroallergens. This has been most dramatic in tree pollen annual load, but also seen with grasses and weeds. Collected data is greatest for the Northern Hemisphere, especially the European continent, with supporting data from North America and Australia.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Du J, Bird A, Boniface G, et al (2024)

The Perceived Role of Occupational Therapists in Climate Change.

Canadian journal of occupational therapy. Revue canadienne d'ergotherapie [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction. In 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted that climate change would cause thousands of additional deaths per year from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress alone between the years of 2030 and 2050. With such health consequences and environmental changes, climate change is impacting human occupations globally. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the occupational therapists' role in climate change, particularly in the Canadian context. Objectives. Our research aimed to explore what is the perceived role of occupational therapists in climate change and climate action from the perspective of Canadian occupational therapists and international experts. Methods. This qualitative study used interpretive description methodology. We recruited 12 occupational therapists, including 4 research experts in the field. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each participant. Data were analyzed thematically. Results. This study uncovered three themes that focused on the complex interconnections between climate challenges and climate actions that occupational therapists are wrestling with personally, clinically, and professionally. Specifically, this study emphasized the importance of supporting individual occupational therapists with their personal challenges, integrating climate actions into clinical practices, and incorporating climate change and climate justice into occupational therapy curricula and professional advocacy. Conclusions. The environment, including the planet's ecosystem, is a fundamental component in many models of occupational therapy practice. This research provides a rich understanding in the themes of occupational therapists' perceptions of climate change and climate actions, particularly within a Canadian context.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Graham F (2024)

Daily briefing: How to figure out which climate-change policies really work.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Situma S, Nyakarahuka L, Omondi E, et al (2024)

Widening geographic range of Rift Valley fever disease clusters associated with climate change in East Africa.

BMJ global health, 9(6): pii:bmjgh-2023-014737.

BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiology of Rift Valley fever (RVF) disease in Africa suggests growing frequency and expanding geographic range of small disease clusters in regions that previously had not reported the disease. We investigated factors associated with the phenomenon by characterising recent RVF disease events in East Africa.

METHODS: Data on 100 disease events (2008-2022) from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania were obtained from public databases and institutions, and modelled against possible geoecological risk factors of occurrence including altitude, soil type, rainfall/precipitation, temperature, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), livestock production system, land-use change and long-term climatic variations. Decadal climatic variations between 1980 and 2022 were evaluated for association with the changing disease pattern.

RESULTS: Of 100 events, 91% were small RVF clusters with a median of one human (IQR, 1-3) and three livestock cases (IQR, 2-7). These clusters exhibited minimal human mortality (IQR, 0-1), and occurred primarily in highlands (67%), with 35% reported in areas that had never reported RVF disease. Multivariate regression analysis of geoecological variables showed a positive correlation between occurrence and increasing temperature and rainfall. A 1°C increase in temperature and a 1-unit increase in NDVI, one months prior were associated with increased RVF incidence rate ratios of 1.20 (95% CI 1.1, 1.2) and 1.93 (95% CI 1.01, 3.71), respectively. Long-term climatic trends showed a significant decadal increase in annual mean temperature (0.12-0.3°C/decade, p<0.05), associated with decreasing rainfall in arid and semi-arid lowlands but increasing rainfall trends in highlands (p<0.05). These hotter and wetter highlands showed increasing frequency of RVF clusters, accounting for 76% and 43% in Uganda and Kenya, respectively.

CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the changing epidemiology of RVF disease. The widening geographic range of disease is associated with climatic variations, with the likely impact of wider dispersal of virus to new areas of endemicity and future epidemics.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Wang Z, Shi Y, Tang Q, et al (2024)

Capturing woody aboveground biomass historical change and potential under climate change using Landsat time-series for afforestation in dryland of China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04034-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Capturing long-term dynamics and the potential under climate change of woody aboveground biomass (AGB) is imperative for calculating and raising carbon sequestration of afforestation in dryland. It is always been a great challenge to accurately capture AGB dynamics of sparse woody vegetation mixed with grassland using only Landsat time-series, resulting in changing trajectory of woody AGB estimates cannot accurately reflect woody vegetation growth regularity in dryland. In this study, surface reflectance (SR) sensitive to woody AGB was firstly selected and interannual time-series of composited SR was smoothed using S-G filter for each pixel, and then optimal machine learning algorithm was selected to estimate woody AGB time-series. Pixels that have reached AGB potential were detected based on the AGB changing trajectory, and the potential was spatial-temporal extended using random forest model combining environmental variables under current climate condition and CMIP6 climate models. Results show that: 1) minimum value composite based on NIRv during Jul.-Sep. is more capable of explaining woody AGB variation in dryland (R = 0.87, p < 0.01), and Random Forest (RF) model has the best performance in estimating woody AGB (R[2] = 0.75, RMSE = 4.74 t·ha[-1]) among sis commonly used machine learning models. 2) Annual woody AGB estimates can be perfectly fitted with a logistic growth curve (R[2] = 0.97, p < 0.001) indicating explicit growth regularity of woody vegetation, which provides physiological foundation for determining woody AGB potential. 3) Woody AGB potential can be accurately simulated by RF combining environmental variables (R[2] = 0.95, RMSE = 2.89 t·ha[-1]), and current woody AGB still has a potential of small increase, whereas the overall losses of woody AGB potential were observed in 2030, 2040 and 2050 under CMIP6 SSP-RCP scenarios.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Wang Y, Zhao Y, Miao G, et al (2024)

Predicting the potential distribution of Dendrolimus punctatus and its host Pinus massoniana in China under climate change conditions.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1362020.

INTRODUCTION: Dendrolimus punctatus, a major pest endemic to the native Pinus massoniana forests in China, displays major outbreak characteristics and causes severe destructiveness. In the context of global climate change, this study aims to investigate the effects of climatic variations on the distribution of D. punctatus and its host, P. massoniana.

METHODS: We predict their potential suitable distribution areas in the future, thereby offering a theoretical basis for monitoring and controlling D. punctatus, as well as conserving P. massoniana forest resources. By utilizing existing distribution data on D. punctatus and P. massoniana, coupled with relevant climatic variables, this study employs an optimized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model for predictions. With feature combinations set as linear and product (LP) and the regularization multiplier at 0.1, the model strikes an optimal balance between complexity and accuracy.

RESULTS: The results indicate that the primary climatic factors influencing the distribution of D. punctatus and P. massoniana include the minimum temperature of the coldest month, annual temperature range, and annual precipitation. Under the influence of climate change, the distribution areas of P. massoniana and its pests exhibit a high degree of similarity, primarily concentrated in the region south of the Qinling-Huaihe line in China. In various climate scenarios, the suitable habitat areas for these two species may expand to varying degrees, exhibiting a tendency to shift toward higher latitude regions. Particularly under the high emission scenario (SSP5-8.5), D. punctatus is projected to expand northwards at the fastest rate.

DISCUSSION: By 2050, its migration direction is expected to closely align with that of P. massoniana, indicating that the pine forests will continue to be affected by the pest. These findings provide crucial empirical references for region-specific prevention of D. punctatus infestations and for the rational utilization and management of P. massoniana resources.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Atwa W, Almazroi AA, N Ayub (2024)

Reliable renewable energy forecasting for climate change mitigation.

PeerJ. Computer science, 10:e2067.

Accurate prediction of electricity generation from diverse renewable energy sources (RES) plays a pivotal role in optimizing power schedules within RES, contributing to the collective effort to combat climate change. While prior research often focused on individual energy sources in isolation, neglecting intricate interactions among multiple sources, this limitation frequently leads to inaccurate estimations of total power generation. In this study, we introduce a hybrid architecture designed to address these challenges, incorporating advanced artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The hybrid model seamlessly integrates a gated recurrent unit (GRU) and a ResNext model, and it is tuned with the modified jaya algorithm (MJA) to capture localized correlations among different energy sources. Leveraging its nonlinear time-series properties, the model integrates meteorological conditions and specific energy source data. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to extract linear time-series data characteristics for each energy source. Application of the proposed AI-infused approach to a renewable energy system demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility in the context of climate change mitigation. Results reveal the superior accuracy of the hybrid framework compared to more complex models such as decision trees and ResNet. Specifically, our proposed method achieved remarkable performance, boasting the lowest error rates with a normalized RMSE of 6.51 and a normalized MAPE of 4.34 for solar photovoltaic (PV), highlighting its exceptional precision in terms of mean absolute errors. A detailed sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the influence of every element in the hybrid framework, emphasizing the importance of energy correlation patterns. Comparative assessments underscore the increased accuracy and stability of the suggested AI-infused framework when compared to other methods.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

de Schrijver E, Sivaraj S, Raible CC, et al (2023)

Nationwide projections of heat- and cold-related mortality impacts under various climate change and population development scenarios in Switzerland.

Environmental research letters : ERL [Web site], 18(9):094010.

Climate change and progressive population development (i.e., ageing and changes in population size) are altering the temporal patterns of temperature-related mortality in Switzerland. However, limited evidence exists on how current trends in heat- and cold-related mortality would evolve in future decades under composite scenarios of global warming and population development. Moreover, the contribution of these drivers to future mortality impacts is not well-understood. Therefore, we aimed to project heat- and cold-related mortality in Switzerland under various combinations of emission and population development scenarios and to disentangle the contribution of each of these two drivers using high-resolution mortality and temperature data. We combined age-specific (<75 and ⩾75 years) temperature-mortality associations in each district in Switzerland (1990-2010), estimated through a two-stage time series analysis, with 2 km downscaled CMIP5 temperature data and population and mortality rate projections under two scenarios: RCP4.5/SSP2 and RCP8.5/SSP5. We derived heat and cold-related mortality for different warming targets (1.5 °C, 2.0 °C and 3.0 °C) using different emission and population development scenarios and compared this to the baseline period (1990-2010). Heat-related mortality is projected to increase from 312 (116; 510) in the 1990-2010 period to 1274 (537; 2284) annual deaths under 2.0 °C of warming (RCP4.5/SSP2) and to 1871 (791; 3284) under 3.0 °C of warming (RCP8.5/SSP5). Cold-related mortality will substantially increase from 4069 (1898; 6016) to 6558 (3223; 9589) annual deaths under 2.0 °C (RCP4.5/SSP2) and to 5997 (2951; 8759) under 3.0 °C (RCP8.5/SSP5). Moreover, while the increase in cold-related mortality is solely driven by population development, for heat, both components (i.e., changes in climate and population) have a similar contribution of around 50% to the projected heat-related mortality trends. In conclusion, our findings suggest that both heat- and cold-related mortality will substantially increase under all scenarios of climate change and population development in Switzerland. Population development will lead to an increase in cold-related mortality despite the decrease in cold temperature under warmer scenarios. Whereas the combination of the progressive warming of the climate and population development will substantially increase and exacerbate the total temperature-related mortality burden in Switzerland.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Ladányi M, Divéky-Ertsey A, L Csambalik (2024)

Editorial: Adaptation of traditional crop cultivars to climate change in terms of nutritional aspects.

Frontiers in nutrition, 11:1427068.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Golchin A, M Misaghi (2024)

Investigating the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities on SOC storage and cumulative CO2 emissions in forest soils across altitudinal gradients using the century model.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03905-6 [Epub ahead of print].

This study investigated the impact of climate change, grazing, manure application, and liming on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in forest soils across different altitudes. Despite similar soil texture, acidity, and salinity across elevations, SOC stock significantly increased with altitude due to cooler temperatures and higher precipitation. The highest SOC stock (97.46 t ha[-1]) was observed at 2000-2500 m, compared to the lowest (44.23 t ha[-1]) at 500-1000 m. The Century C Model accurately predicted SOC stock, with correlation and determination coefficients exceeding 0.98. A climate change scenario projecting decreased precipitation (2.15 mm per decade) and increased temperature (0.4 °C) revealed potential SOC stock losses ranging from 28.36 to 36.35 %, particularly at higher altitudes. Grazing further decreased SOC stock, with a more pronounced effect at higher elevations. However, manure application (40 t ha[-1] every four years) and liming (7-10 t ha[-1] every three years) had positive effects on SOC stock, again amplified at higher altitudes and with an increase in lime application rate. In scenarios combining climate change with manure application and climate change with liming, manure application and liming mitigated some negative impacts of climate change, but could not fully offset them, resulting in 1.49-5.42 % and 0.39-4.07 % decreases respectively. Simulations of cumulative CO2 emissions mirrored the distribution of SOC stock, with higher emissions observed at higher altitudes and with management practices that increased SOC stock. This study emphasizes the critical role of conserving high-altitude forest soils and implementing optimal forest management strategies to combat climate change by minimizing SOC losses.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Bojer AK, Woldetsadik M, BH Biru (2024)

Machine learning and CORDEX-Africa regional model for assessing the impact of climate change on the Gilgel Gibe Watershed, Ethiopia.

Journal of environmental management, 363:121394 pii:S0301-4797(24)01380-X [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is one of the most pressing challenges of our time, profoundly impacting global water resources and sustainability. This study aimed to predict the long-term effects of climate change on the Gilgel Gibe watershed by integrating machine learning (ML) methods and climate model scenarios. Utilizing an ensemble mean of four regional climate models (RCMs) from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Africa project, we forecast future climatic conditions. Although global and regional climate simulations offer valuable insights, their limitations necessitate alternative approaches, such as ML, for improved accuracy. Employing an ensemble ML model with Random Forest (RF), Extra Tree (ET), and CatBoost (CB) algorithms, we assessed various bias-correction methods using historical data from 1993 to 2009. Our results highlight the effectiveness of distribution mapping (DM) in capturing temperature variability and precipitation patterns, using the power transpiration (PT) method to represent precipitation variability. Projections indicate a decline in future precipitation under the RCP 8.5 (-32.2%) and SSP 4.5 (-88.8%) for 2024-2049, with further decreases expected for 2050-2099. Conversely, temperatures will rise under RCP 4.5 (TMAX 0.67 °C) and RCP 8.5 (TMAX 0.25 °C and TMIN 1.11 °C) in the near term, exacerbated by higher emissions under SSP 4.5 and 8.5. By leveraging an ensemble mean of four observed RCMs in an ML framework, our study successfully reproduced future Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and (CMIP6) climatic datasets, with the CB model demonstrating superior performance in predicting future precipitation and temperature trends. These findings offer valuable insights for shaping future climate scenarios and informing policy decisions for the Gilgel Gibe Watershed, thereby enhancing water resource management in the basin and its environs.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Xu B, X Wu (2024)

A comprehensive analysis to optimizing national-scale protected area systems under climate change.

Journal of environmental management, 363:121408 pii:S0301-4797(24)01394-X [Epub ahead of print].

With the intensification of climate change, incorporating climate information into protected areas planning has become crucial in reducing biodiversity loss. However, the current natural reserve system in China does not take climate information into account. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness of existing protected areas through climate refuge and connectivity rankings, and Zonation software was used to identify the ecological priority zone in China by combining climate indicators and human footprint. The results show that the current natural protected areas in China have certain limitations in dealing with climate change, and some protected areas may struggle to maintain their value in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Moreover, China still has lots of important areas that can maintain biodiversity under climate change, but most of them are not covered by protected areas. The results provide support for the planning of China's nature protected area system in response to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Krohn LM, Klimpel F, Béziat P, et al (2024)

Impacts of COVID-19 and climate change on wastewater-derived substances in urban drinking water: Evidence from gadolinium-based contrast agents in tap water from Berlin, Germany.

Water research, 259:121847 pii:S0043-1354(24)00748-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic gadolinium from MRI contrast agents has been detected in surface waters worldwide. It is released with the treated effluents of wastewater treatment plants, similar to other wastewater-derived substances (WWDS) such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. We determined concentrations of the rare earth elements in tap water from Berlin, Germany, using an automated preconcentration procedure that is both time- and cost-efficient. Anthropogenic gadolinium concentrations in Berlin's tap water increased on average 30-fold between 2009 and 2021. However, the tap water composition responded quickly to the reduced number of MRI scans during the COVID-19 pandemic, and some districts show a decrease from 2016 to 2021. Since climate change causes groundwater levels to decline in many regions, this needs to be mitigated by artificial groundwater recharge with surface water. This will inevitably lead to an increase in WWDS in potable water, which can be cost-efficiently monitored using anthropogenic gadolinium as tracer.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Abdullah MA, Chuah LF, Abdullah SB, et al (2024)

From Port to Planet: Assessing NO2 Pollution and Climate Change Effects in Maritime Zones.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)01233-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The growing effects of climate change on Malaysia's coastal ecology heighten worries about air pollution, specifically caused by urbanization and industrial activity in the maritime sector. Trucks and vessels are particularly noteworthy for their substantial contribution to gas emissions, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which is the primary gas released in port areas. The application of advanced analysis techniques was spurred by the air pollution resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels such as fuel oil, natural gas, and gasoline in vessels. The study utilized satellite photos captured by the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on the Sentinel-5P satellite to evaluate the levels of NO2 gas pollution in Malaysia's port areas and exclusive economic zone. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, unrestricted gas emissions led to persistently high levels of NO2 in the analyzed areas. Nevertheless, the temporary cessation of marine industry operations caused by the pandemic, along with the halting of vessels to prevent the spread of COVID-19, resulted in a noticeable decrease in NO2 gas pollution. In light of these favourable advancements, it is imperative to emphasize the need for continuous investigation and collaborative endeavours to further alleviate air contamination in Malaysian port regions, while simultaneously acknowledging the wider consequences of climate change on the coastal ecology. The study underscores the interdependence of air pollution, maritime activities, and climate change. It emphasizes the need for comprehensive strategies that tackle both immediate environmental issues and the long-term sustainability and resilience of coastal ecosystems in the context of global climate challenges.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Luo W, Sun C, Yang S, et al (2024)

Contrasting range changes and drivers of four forest foundation species under future climate change in China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03931-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Forest foundation species, vital for shaping community structure and dynamics through non-trophic level interactions, are key to forest succession and sustainability. Despite their ecological importance, the habitat ranges of these species in China and their responses to future climate change remain unclear. Our study employed the optimal MaxEnt model to assess the range shifts and their essential drivers of four typical forest foundation species from three climatic zones in China under climate scenarios, including Acer tegmentosum, Acer pseudo-sieboldianum (temperate zone), Quercus glandulifera (subtropical zone), and Ficus hispida (tropical zone). The optimal MaxEnt model exhibited high evaluation indices (AUC values > 0.90) for the four foundation species, indicating excellent predictive performance. Currently, we observed that A. tegmentosum and A. pseudo-sieboldianum are predominantly inhabited temperate forest areas in northeastern China, Q. glandulifera is primarily concentrated in subtropical forests in southeastern China, and F. hispida is mainly distributed across the tropical forests in southern China. Climate factors, particularly temperature, emerged as the primary environmental factors influencing the potential range of forest foundation species. Moreover, precipitation strongly influenced the potential range of A. tegmentosum and A. pseudo-sieboldianum, while elevation exhibited a greater impact on the range of Q. glandulifera and F. hispida. Under future climate scenarios, suitable areas for A. tegmentosum and A. pseudo-sieboldianum tend to expand southward, F. hispida tends to expand northward, while Q. glandulifera exhibited a tendency to contract towards the center. This study advances our understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest foundation species in China under climate change, providing critical insights for conservation efforts and sustainable forest management practices.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Gong J, Wang K, Zeng J, et al (2024)

Climate change dominates the interannual variation of carbon export efficiency in each season in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during 1998-2011.

Marine environmental research, 199:106564 pii:S0141-1136(24)00225-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Carbon export efficiency is a key indicator of the capacity of biological pump, but the controlling mechanism of the efficiency remains unclear. Our findings revealed that interannual variations in seasonal carbon export efficiency are determined by direct factors including riverine nutrient fluxes, stratification, residence time. These direct factors are finally attributed to two indirect factors (human activities and climate change). We quantified the absolute contributions of direct and indirect factors to carbon export efficiency. The results showed that the carbon export efficiency in the northern Gulf of Mexico in spring (summer; autumn; winter) was driven by human activities, which accounted for an absolute contribution of 16.02% (7.20%; 4.00%; 8.49%, respectively) through riverine nutrient fluxes, and by climate change, which accounted for an absolute contribution of 33.51% (21.43%; 25.73%; 15.80%, respectively) through stratification and water residence time. Moreover, carbon export efficiency could be predicted by MEI of 8 months earlier.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Tran TN, Tapas MR, Do SK, et al (2024)

Investigating the impacts of climate change on hydroclimatic extremes in the Tar-Pamlico River basin, North Carolina.

Journal of environmental management, 363:121375 pii:S0301-4797(24)01361-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Evaluating the forthcoming impacts of climate change is important for formulating efficient and flexible approaches to water resource management. General Circulation Models (GCMs) are primary tools that enable scientists to study both past and potential future climate changes, as well as their impacts on policies and actions. In this work, we quantify the future projected impacts of hydroclimatic extremes on the coastal, risk-prone Tar-Pamlico River basin in North Carolina using GCMs from the Sixth International Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). These models incorporate projected future societal development scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways, SSPs) as defined in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6). Specifically, we have utilized historical residential expansion data, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool Plus (SWAT+), the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), and the Interquartile Range (IQR) method for analyzing extremes from 2024 to 2100. Our findings include: (1) a trend toward wetter conditions is identified with an increase in flood events toward 2100; (2) projected increases in the severity of flood peaks are found, quantified by a rise of 21% compared to the 2000-2020 period; (3) downstream regions are forecast to experience severe droughts up to 2044; and (4) low-lying and coastal regions are found as particularly susceptible to higher flood peaks and more frequent drought events between 2045 and 2100. This work provides valuable insights into the anticipated shifts in natural disaster patterns and supports decision-makers and authorities in promoting adaptive strategies and sustainable policies to address challenges posed by future climate changes in the Tar-Pamlico region and throughout the state of North Carolina, United States.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Krawczyk R, Osyczka P, Siebielec G, et al (2024)

Fires in the face of climate change: Indicators of fire disturbance in heath areas - Inference from military training lands.

Journal of environmental management, 363:121373 pii:S0301-4797(24)01359-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming significantly affects the frequency and intensity of wildfires in many fire-prone areas of the world and fire disturbance regimes are changing rapidly. Alongside this, controlled burning is often considered or implemented as an alternative method for nature protection. Here, we studied the post-fire secondary succession in dry heath habitat located in military training grounds to recognise the impact of fire on the effectiveness and rate of ecosystem recovery. We focus particularly on identifying indicator species for a given successional phase of Central European dry heath habitats and assessing their value for dating the last fire disturbance. The research involved 60 vegetation patches (plots of 25 m[2]), which were assigned to four post-fire age classes, namely: 1-5 years (Class A), 6-10 years (Class B), 11-15 years (Class C), and >15 years (Class D). In each study plot, species diversity and coverage of lichens, bryophytes and vascular plants were examined in addition to the physicochemical properties of the soil substrate. Cryptogams and vascular plants clearly differ in terms of the secondary succession pattern; specific sets of cryptogams correspond well to particular post-fire classes and are therefore good determinants of the post-fire succession stage. Spontaneous succession of plant vegetation eventually leads to complete recovery of the heath in a relatively short time. Nevertheless, great vegetation dynamics in the first years after a fire disturbance may result in seemingly different directions of succession. Post-fire classes did not differ noticeably in terms of soil properties, it follows that the effects of fire on soil conditions are negligible; though, a significant upward trend was observed for exchangeable form of K throughout the succession process. Our results indicate that sporadic fires reduce the undesirable overgrowth of heathlands or psamophilous grasslands and generally have a little negative side-effect on the ecosystem. The revealed succession patterns and defined sets of species characteristic for subsequent post-fire age classes are applicable to dating fire disturbances, regardless of whether the fire was planned or spontaneous.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Félix-Burruel RE, Larios E, González EJ, et al (2024)

Population decline of the saguaro cactus throughout its distribution is associated with climate change.

Annals of botany pii:7690007 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate change is a global phenomenon species are experiencing, which in arid regions will translate into more frequent and intense drought. The Sonoran Desert is becoming hotter and drier, and many organisms are rapidly changing in abundance and distribution. These population attributes directly depend on the dynamics of the population, which in turn depends on the vital rates of its individuals; yet few studies have documented the effects of climate change on the population dynamics of keystone species such as the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). Although saguaros have traits that enable them to withstand present environmental conditions, climate change could make them vulnerable if forced beyond their tolerance limits.

METHODS: We evaluated the effect of climate change on 13 saguaro populations spanning most of the species' distribution range. Using field data from 2014 to 2016, we built an integral projection model (IPM) describing the environmentally-explicit dynamics of the populations. We used this IPM, along with projections of two climate change and one no-change scenarios, to predict population sizes (N) and growth rates (λ) from 2017 to 2099 and compared these scenarios to demonstrate the effect of climate change on saguaro's future.

KEY RESULTS: We found that all populations will decline, mainly due to future increases in drought, mostly hindering recruitment. However, the decline will be differential across populations, since those located near the coast will be affected by harsher drought events than those located further inland.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that climate change and its associated increase in drought pose a significant threat to the saguaro cactus populations in the Sonoran Desert. Our findings indicate that the recruitment of saguaros, vital for establishing new individuals, is particularly vulnerable to intensifying drought conditions. Importantly, regional climate trends will have different impacts on saguaro populations across their distribution range.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Badger MS (2024)

The Intersection of Geriatrics, Climate Change, and Wilderness Medicine: Education is Critical.

Wilderness & environmental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

According to the US Census, for the first time in history, older adults are projected to exceed the number of children by 2035. These seniors are headed to the outdoors in increasing numbers and face unique risks. They benefit from careful pre-event evaluation planning to maintain their health in wilderness environments. Climate change is affecting all of us, but seniors are considered an especially vulnerable group. This vulnerability needs to be addressed not only when older adults head into the wilderness but also when the wilderness "comes to them" in areas where wilderness medicine and disaster medicine overlap. Education of both providers and patients is vital. This article aims to discuss the special needs of older adults/seniors /elders (defined as those over 65 unless otherwise indicated) in the wilderness as well as the vulnerability of older adults to climate change, both during planned wilderness activities and when the wilderness "comes to them" because of climate change, and to identify opportunities for education and adaptation of patients and education of physicians and wilderness and disaster responders to care for these older patients. The PubMed and Google Scholar Database search engines were utilized to review relevant English language publications between 2000 and 2023 that addressed individuals over 65 and explored the overlap of geriatrics (aged over 65), wilderness and disaster medicine, and climate change and create a perspective summary. Because of increased numbers of older adults heading into the wilderness for outdoor activities or having wilderness thrust upon them due to climate change, cross training of all specialties including the fields of emergency, geriatrics, wilderness medicine, and disaster medicine is needed in collaboration with other organizations and search and rescue. Response agencies must recognize that training in wilderness medicine provides a background for practitioners working in dangerous and remote settings and ought to seek out individuals with such skills when placing responders in the field. Climate change is making these intersections and the need for this education more urgent with time.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Dinh NTT, Tran J, M Hensher (2024)

Measuring and valuing the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation: a scoping review.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 8(6):e402-e409.

Despite growing interest in the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation actions, there is little recent evidence on the appropriateness of the measurement techniques being used to estimate them. We did a scoping review to identify the different approaches that have been used to measure and value health co-benefits in the climate change mitigation literature. We searched three databases (EBSCOhost, Web of Science, and MEDLINE Ovid) to identify relevant papers published between 2010 and 2023, and identified 267 studies that met our inclusion criteria to be included in the review. We found that health co-benefit studies are more typically published in the environmental science literature than in health journals. Despite calls going back many years for greater standardisation in methods, we found a highly diverse set of health measures and valuation approaches still in use. The majority of studies (232 [87%]) measured only near-term health co-benefits from reduced air pollution, and only 13 (5%) studies incorporated the longer term health benefits from mitigating the future health harms of climate change. Just over half the studies included monetary valuation of health co-benefits, using a variety of valuation approaches. Public and planetary health researchers, epidemiologists, and health economists should seek to engage more actively with those undertaking research in health co-benefits. This would allow consideration of how best to reconcile differing perspectives and techniques, how to achieve better standardisation of measurement and valuation, and how to extend the generally narrow focus of current health co-benefit studies to become more holistic and comprehensive.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Garfin DR, G Wong-Parodi (2024)

Climate change anxiety, hurricane exposure, and climate change actions and attitudes: results from a representative, probability-based survey of US Gulf Coast residents.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 8(6):e378-e390.

BACKGROUND: Exposure to climate change-related threats (eg, hurricanes) has been associated with mental health symptoms, including post-traumatic stress symptoms. Yet it is unclear whether climate change anxiety, which is understudied in representative samples, is a specific mental health threat, action motivator, or both, particularly in populations exposed to climate-change related disasters. We sought to examine the associations between exposure to hurricanes, climate change anxiety, and climate change actions and attitudes in a representative sample of US Gulf Coast residents.

METHODS: This study used data from a 5-year, representative, prospectively assessed, probability-based, longitudinal cohort sample of residents in Texas and Florida (USA) exposed to exogenous catastrophic hurricanes rated category 3 or greater. Participants were adults aged 18 years and older and were initially recruited from the Ipsos KnowledgePanel in the 60 h before Hurricane Irma (Sept 8-11, 2017). Relationships between climate change anxiety, hurricane exposure, hurricane-related post-traumatic stress symptoms, general functional impairment, and climate change-related individual-level actions (eg, eating a plant-based diet and driving more fuel efficient cars) and collective-level actions (eg, petition signing and donating money) and climate change action attitudes were evaluated using structural equation modelling.

FINDINGS: The final survey was completed by 1479 individuals (787 [53·2%] women and 692 [46·8%] men). Two climate change anxiety subscales (cognitive-emotional impairment and perceived experience of climate change) were confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Mean values were low for both climate change anxiety subscales: cognitive-emotional impairment (mean 1·31 [SD 0·63], range 1-5) and perceived climate change experience (mean 1·67 [SD 0·89], range 1-5); these subscales differentially predicted outcomes. The cognitive-emotional impairment subscale did not significantly correlate with actions or attitudes; its relationship with general functional impairment was attenuated by co-occurring hurricane-related post-traumatic stress symptoms, which were highly correlated with general functional impairment in all three models (all p<0·0001). The perceived climate change experience subscale correlated with climate change attitudes (b=0·57, 95% CI 0·47-0·66; p<0·0001), individual-level actions (b=0·34, 0·21-0·47; p<0·0001), and collective-level actions (b=0·22, 0·10-0·33; p=0·0002), but was not significantly associated with general functional impairment in any of the final models. Hurricane exposure correlated with climate change-related individual-level (b=0·26, 0·10-0·42; p=0·0011) and collective-level (b=0·41, 0·26-0·56; p<0·0001) actions.

INTERPRETATION: Expanded treatment for post-traumatic stress symptoms after disasters could help address climate change-related psychological distress; experiences with climate change and natural hazards could be inflection points to motivate action.

FUNDING: National Science Foundation and the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Lau SSS, Fong JWL, van Rijsbergen N, et al (2024)

Emotional responses and psychological health among young people amid climate change, Fukushima's radioactive water release, and wars in Ukraine and the Middle East, and the mediating roles of media exposure and nature connectedness: a cross-national analysis.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 8(6):e365-e377.

BACKGROUND: New global crises are emerging, while existing global crises remain unabated. Coping with climate change, the radioactive water released into the Pacific Ocean subsequent to the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, and the wars in Ukraine and the Middle East (hereafter referred to as the wars) as individual crises can negatively affect the psychological health of young people, but little is known about the compounded impact of multiple crises. We aimed to examine: (1) the emotional responses of young people towards each individual crisis, (2) how aggregate levels of emotional engagement in global crises might pose different potential trajectories in psychological health, and (3) the protective or exacerbating role of media exposure and nature connectedness as mediators on psychological health outcomes of young people.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-national online survey among young people (aged 18-29 years) from China, Portugal, South Africa, the USA, and the UK. We adopted stratified purposive sampling and distributed the survey using online platforms (www.wenjuan.com and www.prolific.com). Individuals were eligible for inclusion in our analysis if they were literate in Chinese or English and had no mental disorders diagnosed within the past 12 months. Participants were asked questions on their demographic characteristics and time spent on social media, including proportion of time exposed to media pertaining to global crises of interest, and they completed surveys based on validated scales that measure depression, anxiety, stress, and wellbeing, as well as emotional responses to each global crisis and nature relatedness. We assessed the survey results using descriptive statistics, ANOVA tests, cluster analysis for individual emotional responses, and structural equation modelling for the aggregate measure of emotional engagement towards individual global crises.

FINDINGS: Between Oct 20 and Nov 3, 2023, 2579 individuals participated in the survey, of whom 400 participants from each country (200 male and 200 female participants) were included in our analysis (mean age 24·36 years [SD 2·86]). The mean emotional engagement varied between the global crises of interest (on a scale from 0 to 68, where 0 indicates no emotional response and 68 indicates strong emotional responses across 17 different emotions; wars: 32·42 [SD 14·57]; climate change: 28·79 [14·17]; radioactive water: 21·26 [16·08]), and emotional engagement also varied by country; for instance, for respondents from China, mean emotional engagement in radioactive water was relatively high (39·15 [10·72]) compared with the other countries, and for respondents from the USA, engagement with the wars was relatively low (29·45 [15·78]). We found significant variations in the level of emotional engagement between different crises, with distinct emotional profiles observed among individual countries. To assess the role of media exposure and nature connectedness on psychological outcomes, using structural equation modelling, we constructed a multi-country model comprising Portugal, South Africa, the USA, and the UK, and a standalone model for China. These models elucidated associations between emotional engagement and psychological distress and wellbeing, explaining substantial portions of the variance in both. Notably, while greater emotional engagement in the ecological crises (ie, climate change and radioactive water) generally predicted worse psychological health outcomes, we found the direction of effect for war crises to have positive outcomes for mental health in the standalone China model. Additionally, we found that media exposure mediated the negative effect of wars on psychological distress in the multi-country model, and positive psychological wellbeing in the standalone China model. Moreover, nature connectedness emerged as a potent mediator, effectively mitigating the adverse mental health effects of emotional engagement with some crises, such as radioactive water and climate change.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings offer valuable insights into the nuanced dynamics of emotional engagement in global crises and its implications for mental health outcomes among young people across diverse global contexts. Further research is needed to understand the contribution of ongoing and new global crises towards a compounded negative future outlook on young people's mental health to identify effective communication and intervention strategies that can mitigate the effect of this global challenge.

FUNDING: Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, China.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Guihenneuc J, Cambien G, Blanc-Petitjean P, et al (2024)

Knowledge, behaviours, practices, and expectations regarding climate change and environmental sustainability among health workers in France: a multicentre, cross-sectional study.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 8(6):e353-e364.

BACKGROUND: Faced with climate change, hospitals are confronted with a dual challenge. On one hand, they need to embark on a far-reaching ecological transformation to reduce their contribution to greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts; on the other hand, they need to limit the effects of climate change on their activities. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge, behaviours, practices, and expectations of health workers in French hospitals regarding climate change and environmental sustainability.

METHODS: This multicentre, cross-sectional study was carried out in six French hospitals from June 1, 2021 to Dec 31, 2022. All health workers at the hospitals were eligible to participate and were recruited through internal publicity. We designed a structured questionnaire consisting of five parts: participant characteristics, knowledge and perceptions of climate change, pro-environmental behaviours, practices concerning environmental sustainability actions, and expectations. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to evaluate associations between the knowledge, behaviours, and practices of health workers and the characteristics of the health workers and hospitals.

FINDINGS: Of 57 034 health workers across the six hospitals, 4552 (8·0%) participated in the study. Of those for whom gender data were available, 3518 (78·2%) participants were women and 979 (21·8%) were men. Participants considered energy consumption (71·0%) and waste and discharges related to medical activities (55·6%) and non-medical activities (50·2%) to be the three activities with the greatest environmental impact. On a scale of 1 (not a priority) to 10 (high priority), the median rating attributed by the participants to the commitment of their hospitals to ecological transformation was 5·0 (IQR 3·0-6·0). 1079 (23·7%) of 4552 participants had already initiated at least one environmental sustainability action in their hospital. Barriers reported by participants to the implementation of environmental sustainability-related projects were the lack of dedicated time (40·4%), hierarchical support (32·5%), methodological support (28·9%), and access to training (23·7%). The presence of a sustainable development steering committee, especially one with more than 5 years of activity, was positively associated with health workers feeling better informed about the ecological transformation of their hospital (adjusted odds ratio 1·78 [95% CI 1·29-2·45]), having better knowledge of the environmental impacts of their hospital (1·83 [1·32-2·53]), and initiating a larger number of environmental sustainability actions (1·74 [1·33-2·29]).

INTERPRETATION: We showed that health workers in French hospitals seem to be committed to the ecological transformation of their workplaces, and identified some drivers and barriers to further support these essential transformations. There is an urgent need to bolster training for all health workers, enhance structural frameworks within hospitals, and encourage future interdisciplinary research on the vulnerability of health-care facilities to climate change.

FUNDING: The University Hospital of Poitiers.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Sorcher R, Ochieng Arunda M, Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and Climate Change Consultation Group (2024)

Key considerations for research into how climate change affects sexual and reproductive health and rights.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 8(6):e347-e348.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Peden AE, Chisholm S, Meddings DR, et al (2024)

Drowning and disasters: climate change priorities.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 8(6):e345-e346.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Vospernik S, Vigren C, Morin X, et al (2024)

Can mixing Quercus robur and Quercus petraea with Pinus sylvestris compensate for productivity losses due to climate change?.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03489-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The climate change scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, with a representative concentration pathway for stabilization of radiative forcing of 4.5 W m[-2] and 8.5 W m[-2] by 2100, respectively, predict an increase in temperature of 1-4.5° Celsius for Europe and a simultaneous shift in precipitation patterns leading to increased drought frequency and severity. The negative consequences of such changes on tree growth on dry sites or at the dry end of a tree species distribution are well-known, but rarely quantified across large gradients. In this study, the growth of Quercus robur and Quercus petraea (Q. spp.) and Pinus sylvestris in pure and mixed stands was predicted for a historical scenario and the two climate change scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 using the individual tree growth model PrognAus. Predictions were made along an ecological gradient ranging from current mean annual temperatures of 5.5-11.4 °C and with mean annual precipitation sums of 586-929 mm. Initial data for the simulation consisted of 23 triplets established in pure and mixed stands of Q. spp. and P. sylvestris. After doing the simulations until 2100, we fitted a linear mixed model using the predicted volume in the year 2100 as response variable to describe the general trends in the simulation results. Productivity decreased for both Q. spp. and P. sylvestris with increasing temperature, and more so, for the warmer sites of the gradient. P. sylvestris is the more productive tree species in the current climate scenario, but the competitive advantage shifts to Q. spp., which is capable to endure very high negative water potentials, for the more severe climate change scenario. The Q. spp.-P. sylvestris mixture presents an intermediate resilience to increased scenario severity. Enrichment of P. sylvestris stands by creating mixtures with Q. spp., but not the opposite, might be a right silvicultural adaptive strategy, especially at lower latitudes. Tree species mixing can only partly compensate productivity losses due to climate change. This may, however, be possible in combination with other silvicultural adaptation strategies, such as thinning and uneven-aged management.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Mayekar HV, S Rajpurohit (2024)

No single rescue recipe: genome complexities modulate insect response to climate change.

Current opinion in insect science pii:S2214-5745(24)00062-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Declines in insect populations have gained formidable attention. Given their crucial role in the ecosystem, causes of declining insect populations must be investigated. However, the insect clade has been associated with low extinction and high diversification rates. It is unlikely that insects underwent mass extinctions in the past. However, the current climate change could make insect populations vulnerable to extinction. We propose genome size (GS) and transposable elements (TE) to be rough estimates to assess extinction risk. Specifically larger GS and/ or proliferating TE numbers are associated with adaptation in rapid climate change scenarios. We speculate unstable, stressful environmental conditions strongly associate with GS and TE expansion which further correlate with adaptations. Alternately, stressful conditions trigger TE bursts which are not purged in smaller populations. GE and TE could be indicators of small effective populations in the wild likely experiencing bottlenecks and hence demand assessment for extinction risk.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Zangerl KE, Hoernke K, Andreas M, et al (2024)

Child health prioritisation in national adaptation policies on climate change: a policy document analysis across 160 countries.

The Lancet. Child & adolescent health pii:S2352-4642(24)00084-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Integration of child-specific adaptation measures into health policies is imperative given children's heightened susceptibility to the health impacts of climate change. Using a document analysis method, we examined 160 national adaptation policies for inclusion of child-relevant measures and identified 19 child health-related adaptation domains. 44 (28%) of 160 countries' policies that were analysed failed to include any domains, 49 (31%) included at least one child-related domain, 62 (39%) included between two and six domains, and five (3%) included at least seven domains. Predominant domains among child-specific adaptation measures included education and awareness raising, followed by community engagement and nutrition. No country addressed children's direct needs in the domain of mental health. National adaptation policies tend towards overly simple conceptualisations of children across four major lenses: age, social role, gender, and agency. Limited inclusion of child-specific measures in national adaptation policies suggests insufficient recognition of and action on children's susceptibility to climate change effects.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Meng F, Felton AJ, Mao J, et al (2024)

Consistent time allocation fraction to vegetation green-up versus senescence across northern ecosystems despite recent climate change.

Science advances, 10(23):eadn2487.

Extended growing season lengths under climatic warming suggest increased time for plant growth. However, research has focused on climatic impacts to the timing or duration of distinct phenological events. Comparatively little is known about impacts to the relative time allocation to distinct phenological events, for example, the proportion of time dedicated to leaf growth versus senescence. We use multiple satellite and ground-based observations to show that, despite recent climate change during 2001 to 2020, the ratio of time allocated to vegetation green-up over senescence has remained stable [1.27 (± 0.92)] across more than 83% of northern ecosystems. This stability is independent of changes in growing season lengths and is caused by widespread positive relationships among vegetation phenological events; longer vegetation green-up results in longer vegetation senescence. These empirical observations were also partly reproduced by 13 dynamic global vegetation models. Our work demonstrates an intrinsic biotic control to vegetation phenology that could explain the timing of vegetation senescence under climate change.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Martyn-Nemeth P, LL Hayman (2024)

Climate Change and Cardiovascular Health.

The Journal of cardiovascular nursing, 39(4):305-306.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Gini G, Piggott-McKellar A, Wiegel H, et al (2024)

Navigating tensions in climate change-related planned relocation.

Ambio [Epub ahead of print].

The planned relocation of communities away from areas of climate-related risk has emerged as a critical strategy to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Empirical examples from around the world show, however, that such relocations often lead to poor outcomes for affected communities. To address this challenge, and contribute to developing guidelines for just and sustainable relocation processes, this paper calls attention to three fundamental tensions in planned relocation processes: (1) conceptualizations of risk and habitability; (2) community consultation and ownership; and (3) siloed policy frameworks and funding mechanisms. Drawing on the collective experience of 29 researchers, policymakers and practitioners from around the world working on planned relocations in the context of a changing climate, we provide strategies for collectively and collaboratively acknowledging and navigating these tensions among actors at all levels, to foster more equitable and sustainable relocation processes and outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Pearson H (2024)

What's the best way to tackle climate change? An 'evidence bank' could help scientists find answers.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Vidal C, C Latkin (2024)

Views of Psychiatrists and Psychiatry Trainees on Climate Change: Distress, Training Needs, and Envisioned Role.

Academic psychiatry : the journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence demonstrates that climate change has effects on mental health. Given the magnitude of climate change's health consequences, mitigation and adaptation will require massive societal changes and the involvement of individuals and professional organizations. The aim of this research was to assess the views of psychiatrists and psychiatrists-in-training about climate change and its effects on health, perceived barriers to discussing climate change in their clinical, teaching, research, and advocacy work, personal preparedness for climate action, and expected roles of their professional organizations.

METHODS: The authors administered an online anonymous survey to members of two mid-Atlantic professional psychiatric organizations. Measures included an adaptation of The International Climate and Health Survey and demographic and career characteristics. Descriptive statistics for categorical variables were conducted.

RESULTS: The majority of the 67 participants who completed the survey were White and senior in their career, and almost all were clinicians. Most were concerned about climate change and its mental health effects on patients and supported their organizations' engagement in activities related to this topic. Barriers to engagement in climate change action included lack of time and believing it would not make a difference.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a desire of psychiatrists involved in teaching, research, and clinical work to address climate change and a need for training. These findings highlight the need for preparedness as newer generations face more disasters related to climate change, and experience psychological distress related to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

MacDonald JS, Lutscher F, Y Bourgault (2024)

Climate change fluctuations can increase population abundance and range size.

Ecology letters, 27(6):e14453.

Climate change threatens many species by a poleward/upward movement of their thermal niche. While we know that faster movement has stronger impacts, little is known on how fluctuations of niche movement affect population outcomes. Environmental fluctuations often affect populations negatively, but theory and experiments have revealed some positive effects. We study how fluctuations around the average speed of the niche impact a species' persistence, abundance and realized niche width under climate change. We find that the outcome depends on how fluctuations manifest and what the relative time scale of population growth and climate fluctuations are. When populations are close to extinction with the average speed, fluctuations around this average accelerate population decline. However, populations not yet close to extinction can increase in abundance and/or realized niche width from such fluctuations. Long-lived species increase more when their niche size remains constant, short-lived species increase more when their niche size varies.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Kolanowska M, Rewicz A, S Nowak (2024)

Can global warming be beneficial for Arctic-alpine orchid species? Outcomes from ecological niche modeling for Chamorchis alpina (L.) Rich. (Orchidaceae).

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03763-X [Epub ahead of print].

The disjunct Arctic-alpine plants that persist on isolated mountain sites at the limits of their geographical range are particularly sensitive indicators of climate change effects. Here, we investigated a remarkably fragile plant, the smallest orchid in Europe, Chamorchis alpina. The ecological niche modeling (ENM) approach was employed not only to verify the shift in the range of the studied orchid but also to evaluate the future overlap between this plant population and its pollen vectors, Dasytes alpigradus, Formica lemani and Leptothorax acervorum. Our analyses showed that the bioclimatic preferences of the northern (Scandinavian) populations differed from those of the southern populations located in the Alps and Carpathians. Surprisingly, both C. alpina groups will expand their potential ranges under the SSP2-4.5 climate change scenario, and additional suitable niches will become available for the northern group under the SSP3-7.0 scenario. The Scandinavian populations will face significant habitat loss (36 %) in the SSP5-8.5 projection. The southern group will lose suitable niches under both the SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios (33 % and 58 %, respectively). For all pollinators of C. alpina, global warming will be favorable, and all three species will expand their potential ranges under all analyzed climate change scenarios. Our research suggests that a "middle of the road" scenario of climate change (SSP2-4.5), which assumes that socioeconomic factors follow historical trends, will not be harmful to the studied orchid or possibly other elements of Arctic-alpine flora, but all other scenarios that predict increases in CO2 emissions will result in a decreases in the coverage of suitable C. alpina niches, especially in the alpine region. At the same time, an overall expansion of alpine dwarf orchid pollen vectors is predicted, so even within a reduced geographical range, the orchid population will be able to reproduce sexually.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Keleş Özgenç E, O Uzun (2024)

Impacts of land use/land cover and climate change on landscape sensitivity in Tunca River sub-basin: Use in spatial planning and sectoral decision processes.

Journal of environmental management, 363:121372 pii:S0301-4797(24)01358-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Managing landscape change is increasingly challenging due to rapid anthropogenic shifts. A delicate balance must be struck between the environment and change to ensure landscapes can withstand these impacts. This study conducted in the Tunca River sub-basin of Edirne province, aims to assess landscape sensitivity by examining the influence of land use/land cover (LULC) and climate change on landscape function processes. For this purpose, a methodology was developed based on ecosystem services to determine landscape sensitivity. The results revealed a LULC transformation that could lead to a 60% reduction in forest areas and a 5% and 20% increase in urban and irrigated agricultural areas, respectively. Water and erosion emerged as the most affected landscape function processes. Future scenarios from 2050 to 2070 indicate noteworthy changes in landscape sensitivity, showing an increase in sensitivity in the upper regions of the basin. The study identified high sensitivity in forested areas, moderate sensitivity in agricultural zones, and low sensitivity in micro-basins near residential areas. Protection and improvement strategies are recommended for areas with high and moderate sensitivity, while use-oriented strategies are suggested for those with low sensitivity. This study also establishes a scientific foundation for guiding the protection and management of ecologically sensitive basin areas, offering insights into the effects of landscape change processes at the micro-basin level in connection with climate change models.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Abeles SR, Kline A, P Lee (2024)

Climate change and resilience for antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention.

Current opinion in infectious diseases pii:00001432-990000000-00155 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers recent research regarding the challenges posed by climate change within the areas of antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention, and ways to build resiliency in these fields.

RECENT FINDINGS: Infectious disease patterns are changing as microbes adapt to climate change and changing environmental factors. Capacity for testing and treating infectious diseases is challenged by newly emerging diseases, which exacerbate challenges to antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention.Antimicrobial resistance is accelerated due to environmental factors including air pollution, plastic pollution, and chemicals used in food systems, which are all impacted by climate change.Climate change places infection prevention practices at risk in many ways including from major weather events, increased risk of epidemics, and societal disruptions causing conditions that can overwhelm health systems. Researchers are building resilience by advancing rapid diagnostics and disease modeling, and identifying highly reliable versus low efficiency interventions.

SUMMARY: Climate change and associated major weather and socioeconomic events will place significant strain on healthcare facilities. Work being done to advance rapid diagnostics, build supply chain resilience, improve predictive disease modeling and surveillance, and identify high reliability versus low yield interventions will help build resiliency in antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention for escalating challenges due to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Ke C, Gong LX, Geng Y, et al (2024)

Patterns and correlates of potential range shifts of bat species in China in the context of climate change.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change may diminish biodiversity; thus, it is urgent to predict how species' ranges may shift in the future by integrating multiple factors involving more taxa. Bats are particularly sensitive to climate change due to their high surface-to-volume ratio. However, few studies have considered geographic variables associated with roost availability and even fewer have linked the distributions of bats to their thermoregulation and energy regulation traits. We used species distribution models to predict the potential distributions of 12 bat species in China under current and future greenhouse gas emission scenarios (SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5) and examined factors that could affect species' range shifts, including climatic, geographic, habitat, and human activity variables and wing surface-to-mass ratio (S-MR). The results suggest that Ia io, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and Rhinolophus rex should be given the highest priority for conservation in future climate conservation strategies. Most species were predicted to move northward, except for I. io and R. rex, which moved southward. Temperature seasonality, distance to forest, and distance to karst or cave were the main environmental factors affecting the potential distributions of bats. We found significant relationships between S-MR and geographic distribution, current potential distribution, and future potential distribution in the 2050s. Our work highlights the importance of analyzing range shifts of species with multifactorial approaches, especially for species traits related to thermoregulation and energy regulation, to provide targeted conservation strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Chen X, Tian F, Tao L, et al (2024)

The response rules to maintain social stability facing the climate change in ming dynasty.

Heliyon, 10(11):e31696.

Studying the mechanisms by which climate change interacted with human societies during the historical period can provide historical insights and cultural roots for climate policy building in the region. In this study, we constructed Stability-Robustness-Resilience Model (SSR model) and used the TOPSIS method (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and the entropy weight method to assess the change processes of robustness, resilience, and stability of Ming's society in response to climate threats. We have also compared three extreme droughts that occurred in different periods of social robustness-resilience combinations by using the SRR model. The results are as follows. (1) The stability of the Ming society was high in YongLe - HongZhi period (1402-1505 CE), when both social robustness and resilience were higher than the average level of Ming Dynasty (0.5611 for the former and 0.4215 for the latter), but there was a significant decline in social stability in TianShun period (1457-1464 CE). In ZhengDe - ChongZhen period (1506-1644 CE), the stability of Ming society gradually decreased, and it rebounded shortly in the LongQing-WanLi period (1506-1620 CE). (2) The high stability benefited from higher socio-economic levels, better government finance levels, larger national food reserves, safer social environments (high robustness), and higher levels of ruling class governance and risk response (high resilience); whereas insecure social environment induced by war, declining socio-economic levels and government finance levels were the main reasons for the decline in society's stability. (3)The ChengHua and WanLi droughts both happened at a time with high social robustness, so although their meteorological anomalies were severe, their impact on society was small. While the JiaJing drought happened at a time with low social robustness and resilience, so although the meteorological anomaly was relatively weak, it resulted in a more severe social consequence than the other two events.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Stevens M, Israel A, Nusselder A, et al (2024)

Drawing a line from CO2 emissions to health-evaluation of medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards climate change and health following a novel serious game: a mixed-methods study.

BMC medical education, 24(1):626.

BACKGROUND: Education is urgently needed to equip medical students with knowledge, values and skills to promote planetary health. However, the current literature offers little insight into evidence-based approaches and best practices. In response to this pressing need, a novel serious game was introduced into the medical curriculum at Erasmus Medical Center in 2023. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students after they had played a serious game that addresses climate change and health.

METHODS: In accordance with a mixed-methods design, quantitative data were collected using pre- and post-intervention surveys. Differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Focus group discussions were held after the game and thematically analysed.

RESULTS: One hundred forty-five students (38.6% of the entire cohort) played the game, of which 59 students completed the pre- and post-intervention surveys. After the game, self-reported knowledge increased. Regarding objective knowledge, an increase in the proportion of students who answered one of the two questions correctly was observed, while the proportion of correct responses decreased for the other question. Student's responses to two out of five attitude questions were significantly more positive. The proportion of students who recognized the importance of climate change education, to inform patients and society about the health impacts of climate change, increased. Moreover, survey results indicated a significant increase in climate worry subsequent to the game. Eleven students participated in the focus group discussions. Thematic analysis highlighted participants' reflections on the roles and responsibilities in climate change and health, along with their realisation of the tools for action that climate and health co-benefits provide. Another significant aspect was the importance participants placed on learning alongside peers with diverse attitudes. Additionally, participants appreciated the tangible overview of climate change and health provided by the serious game.

CONCLUSIONS: Our novel serious game addressed an important gap in the medical curriculum. The game can enable medical students to cultivate the necessary knowledge and attitudes to promote health in times of a climate crisis. The accompanying climate worry needs attention through the empowerment of students' agency to foster change.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Abebe DM, Mengistie DT, AA Mekonen (2024)

The influence of climate change on the sesame yield in North Gondar, North Ethiopia: Application Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) time series model.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):506.

Sesame is a major annual oil crop that is grown practically everywhere in tropical and subtropical Asia, as well as Africa, for its very nutritious and tasty seeds. Rising temperatures, droughts, floods, desertification, and weather all have a significant impact on agricultural production, particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to examine the influence of climate change on the sesame yield in North Gondar, North Ethiopia, by using the autoregressive distributed Lag (ARDL) time series model. This study employed climate data from the Bahirdar Agrometeorological Center and secondary data on sesame production from the Ethiopian Statistical Service, spanning 36 years, from 1987 to 2023. Autoregressive Distributed LAG (ARDL) includes diagnostic tests for both short- and long-term autoregressive models. The results for the long-run and short-run elastic coefficients show a significant positive association between temperatures and sesame yield. Sesame yield and rainfall have a significant negative long-run and short-run relationship in North Gondar, North Ethiopia. ARDL results confirm that temperature and rainfall have significant effects on sesame productivity. Temperature had a considerable favorable effect on sesamen production, but rainfall had a negative effect in North Gondar, Ethiopia. Based on the evidence acquired from our study, we made several policy recommendations and suggestions to government officials, policymakers, new technologies, researchers, policy development planners, and other stakeholders in order to develop or implement new technology to halt its production and direct adaptation measures in light of the certainty of global warming and the characteristics of climate-dependent agricultural production.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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