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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 25 Sep 2020 at 01:54 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: "climate change"[TITLE] or "global warming"[TITLE] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2020-09-24

Pandey N, Rana D, Chandrakar G, et al (2020)

Role of climate change variables (standing water and rainfall) on dissipation of chlorantraniliprole from a simulated rice ecosystem.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 205:111324 pii:S0147-6513(20)31161-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is extensively used for rice pest management. Lack of information on the role of standing water and amount and timing of rainfall on CAP dissipation in rice ecosystem could hamper its prospective use. Present study was performed to investigate the effects of different water regimes (saturated, 5 and 10 cm standing water) and simulated rainfall (40 and 100 mm occurred at 4, 8 and 24 h after CAP application) on leaching, surface runoff and dissipation of CAP into components of rice ecosystem. The results showed highest concentration of CAP residues in soil and plant under saturated condition followed by 5 and 10 cm standing water conditions. Whereas, the highest concentration of CAP in leachates was detected under 10 cm standing water (12.19 ng mL-1). The results revealed large amount of leaching (21.99 ng mL-1) and surface runoff (42.25 ng mL-1) losses of CAP when 100 mm rainfall occurred at 4 h after pesticide application. The total quantity of CAP residues in soil and plant was highest when rainfall occurred at 24 h after pesticide application under both the rainfall amounts. Water stagnation and high intensity rainfall occurred shortly after pesticide application will contribute to pesticide loss to non-target sites through surface run-off and leaching. There will be less pesticide available in soil for plant uptake which may not be sufficient to kill the target organisms.

RevDate: 2020-09-24

Tagliabue A, Barrier N, Du Pontavice H, et al (2020)

An iron cycle cascade governs the response of equatorial Pacific ecosystems to climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Earth System Models project that global climate change will reduce ocean net primary production (NPP), upper trophic level biota biomass and potential fisheries catches in the future, especially in the eastern equatorial Pacific. However, projections from Earth System Models are undermined by poorly constrained assumptions regarding the biological cycling of iron, which is the main limiting resource for NPP over large parts of the ocean. In this study, we show that the climate change trends in NPP and the biomass of upper trophic levels are strongly affected by modifying assumptions associated with phytoplankton iron uptake. Using a suite of model experiments, we find 21st century climate change impacts on regional NPP range from -12.3% to +2.4% under a high emissions climate change scenario. This wide range arises from variations in the efficiency of iron retention in the upper ocean in the eastern equatorial Pacific across different scenarios of biological iron uptake, which affect the strength of regional iron limitation. Those scenarios where nitrogen limitation replaced iron limitation showed the largest projected NPP declines, while those where iron limitation was more resilient displayed little future change. All model scenarios have similar skill in reproducing past inter-annual variations in regional ocean NPP, largely due to limited change in the historical period. Ultimately, projections of end of century upper trophic level biomass change are altered by 50%-80% across all plausible scenarios. Overall, we find that uncertainties in the biological iron cycle cascade through open ocean pelagic ecosystems, from plankton to fish, affecting their evolution under climate change. This highlights additional challenges to developing effective conservation and fisheries management policies under climate change.

RevDate: 2020-09-24

El Amiri N, Abernethy P, Spence N, et al (2020)

Community of practice: an effective mechanism to strengthen capacity in climate change and health.

Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique pii:10.17269/s41997-020-00400-8 [Epub ahead of print].

SETTING: Climate change is one of the greatest threats to global health in the twenty-first century and has recently been declared a health emergency. The lack of effective dissemination of emerging evidence on climate change health risks, effects, and innovative interventions to health professionals presents one of the greatest challenges to climate action today.

INTERVENTION: To identify and address the knowledge gaps at the intersection of health and climate change, the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) established a Working Group on Climate Change and Health (WGCCH). WGCCH is evolving organically into a community of practice (CoP) that aims to elevate knowledge brokering on climate change and health and expand to global multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary realms.

OUTCOMES: To date, the WGCCH established a regular webinar series to share expert knowledge from around the world on intersections between climate change and health, developed short summaries on climate change impacts on broad health challenges, supported young professional training, and enhanced climate health research capacity and skills through collegial network development and other collaborative projects that emerged from CoP activities.

IMPLICATIONS: This paper proposes that WGCCH may serve as an example of an effective strategy to address the lack of opportunities for collaborative engagement and mutual learning between health researchers and practitioners, other disciplines, and the general public. Our experiences and lessons learned provide opportunities to learn from the growing pains and successes of an emerging climate change and health-focused CoP.

RevDate: 2020-09-24

Nesbitt J (2020)

Ancient agriculture and climate change on the north coast of Peru.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:2017725117 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2020-09-23

Pellegrino G, Mahmoudi M, AM Palermo (2020)

Pollen viability of Euro-Mediterranean orchids under different storage condition: the possible effects of climate change.

Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

The future impact of climate change and a warmer world is a matter of great concern and so we aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature on pollen viability and fruit set of Mediterranean orchids. The in vitro and controlled pollination experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of pollinia stored at lower and higher temperature to germinate and produce fruits and seeds containing embryos. All of the examined orchids showed that pollen stored at -20 °C remained fully viable for up to three years, reducing its percentage of germination from the fourth year onwards. Pollinia stored at higher temperature showed a drastic reduction of vitality after two days at 41-44 °C, while pollinia stored at 47-50 °C did not show pollen tube growth. The different level of pollen viability duration between examined orchids can be tied to their peculiar reproductive biology and pollination ecology. The germinability of pollinia stored at lower temperatures for long periods suggests that orchid pollinia can be conserved ex situ. On the contrary, higher temperature can have harmful effects on the vitality of pollen and consequently on the reproductive success of plants. To our knowledge, it is the first report demonstrating the effects of global change on orchid pollen, and on pollen ability to tolerate or not higher air temperature. Although vegetative reproduction can allow orchids to overcome a few consecutive warm years, higher temperatures for several consecutive years can have dramatic effects on reproductive success of orchids.

RevDate: 2020-09-23

Laidre KL, Atkinson SN, Regehr EV, et al (2020)

Transient benefits of climate change for a high-Arctic polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Kane Basin (KB) is one of the world's most northerly polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations, where bears have historically inhabited a mix of thick multiyear and annual sea ice year-round. Currently, KB is transitioning to a seasonally ice-free region because of climate change. This ecological shift has been hypothesized to benefit polar bears in the near-term due to thinner ice with increased biological production, although this has not been demonstrated empirically. We assess sea-ice changes in KB together with changes in polar bear movements, seasonal ranges, body condition, and reproductive metrics obtained from capture-recapture (physical and genetic) and satellite telemetry studies during two study periods (1993-1997 and 2012-2016). The annual cycle of sea-ice habitat in KB shifted from a year-round ice platform (~50% coverage in summer) in the 1990s to nearly complete melt-out in summer (<5% coverage) in the 2010s. The mean duration between sea-ice retreat and advance increased from 109 to 160 days (p = .004). Between the 1990s and 2010s, adult female (AF) seasonal ranges more than doubled in spring and summer and were significantly larger in all months. Body condition scores improved for all ages and both sexes. Mean litter sizes of cubs-of-the-year (C0s) and yearlings (C1s), and the number of C1s per AF, did not change between decades. The date of spring sea-ice retreat in the previous year was positively correlated with C1 litter size, suggesting smaller litters following years with earlier sea-ice breakup. Our study provides evidence for range expansion, improved body condition, and stable reproductive performance in the KB polar bear subpopulation. These changes, together with a likely increasing subpopulation abundance, may reflect the shift from thick, multiyear ice to thinner, seasonal ice with higher biological productivity. The duration of these benefits is unknown because, under unmitigated climate change, continued sea-ice loss is expected to eventually have negative demographic and ecological effects on all polar bears.

RevDate: 2020-09-23

Vineis P, Huybrechts I, Millett C, et al (2020)

Climate change and cancer: converging policies.

Molecular oncology [Epub ahead of print].

Intervening on risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (including cancer) in industrialized countries could achieve a reduction of between 30% and 40% of premature deaths. In the meantime, the need to intervene against the threat of climate change has become obvious. CO2 emissions must be reduced by 45% by the year 2030 and to zero by 2050 according to recent agreements. We propose an approach in which interventions are designed to prevent diseases and jointly mitigate climate change, the so-called cobenefits. The present article describes some examples of how climate change mitigation and cancer prevention could go hand in hand: tobacco control, food production, and transportation (air pollution). Many others can be identified. The advantage of the proposed approach is that both long-term (climate) and short-term (health) benefits can be accrued with appropriate intersectoral policies.

RevDate: 2020-09-23

Greever C, Ramirez-Aguilar K, J Connelly (2020)

Connections between laboratory research and climate change: what scientists and policy makers can do to reduce environmental impacts.

FEBS letters [Epub ahead of print].

Scientific research, with its myriad disciplines, global reach, and massive economic impact, moves society forward by illuminating new understandings of our planet, its organisms, and the human condition. While the scientific community and life science industry advance knowledge, this comes at a large environmental cost. Scientists across the globe are recognizing the need to be more efficient in their resource use and lab operations to avoid the negative impacts of the global research endeavor on our planet and its contributions to worsening human-caused climate change.

RevDate: 2020-09-23

Kirelli Y, S Arslankaya (2020)

Sentiment Analysis of Shared Tweets on Global Warming on Twitter with Data Mining Methods: A Case Study on Turkish Language.

Computational intelligence and neuroscience, 2020:1904172.

As the usage of social media has increased, the size of shared data has instantly surged and this has been an important source of research for environmental issues as it has been with popular topics. Sentiment analysis has been used to determine people's sensitivity and behavior in environmental issues. However, the analysis of Turkish texts has not been investigated much in literature. In this article, sentiment analysis of Turkish tweets about global warming and climate change is determined by machine learning methods. In this regard, by using algorithms that are determined by supervised methods (linear classifiers and probabilistic classifiers) with trained thirty thousand randomly selected Turkish tweets, sentiment intensity (positive, negative, and neutral) has been detected and algorithm performance ratios have been compared. This study also provides benchmarking results for future sentiment analysis studies on Turkish texts.

RevDate: 2020-09-22

Alford L, Louâpre P, Mougel F, et al (2020)

Measuring the evolutionary potential of a winter-active parasitic wasp to climate change.

Oecologia pii:10.1007/s00442-020-04761-2 [Epub ahead of print].

In temperate climates, as a consequence of warming winters, an increasing number of ectothermic species are remaining active throughout winter months instead of diapausing, rendering them increasingly vulnerable to unpredictable cold events. One species displaying a shift in overwintering strategy is the parasitoid wasp and biological control agent Aphidius avenae. The current study aimed to better understand the consequence of a changing overwintering strategy on the evolutionary potential of an insect population to adapt to the cold stress events, set to increase in frequency, even during milder winters. Using a parental half-sibling breeding design, narrow-sense heritability of the cold tolerance, morphology and longevity of A. avenae was estimated. The heritability of cold tolerance was estimated at 0.07 (CI95% = [0.00; 0.25]) for the Critical Thermal Minima (CTmin) and 0.11 (CI95% = [0.00; 0.34]) for chill coma temperature; estimates much lower than those obtained for morphological traits (tibia length 0.20 (CI95% = [0.03; 0.37]); head width 0.23 (CI95% = [0.09; 0.39]); wing surface area 0.28 (CI95% = [0.11; 0.47])), although comparable with the heritability estimate of 0.12 obtained for longevity (CI95% = [0.00; 0.25]). The heritability estimates obtained thus suggest that A. avenae possesses low adaptive potential against cold stress. If such estimates are indicative of the evolutionary potential of A. avenae cold tolerance, more emphasis may be placed on adaptive phenotypic plasticity at the individual level to persist in a changing climate, with potential implications for the biological control function they provide.

RevDate: 2020-09-22

Juhász O, Fürjes-Mikó Á, Tenyér A, et al (2020)

Consequences of Climate Change-Induced Habitat Conversions on Red Wood Ants in a Central European Mountain: A Case Study.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 10(9): pii:ani10091677.

The consequences of anthropogenic climate change are one of the major concerns of conservation biology. A cascade of negative effects is expected to affect various ecosystems, one of which is Central European coniferous forests and their unique biota. These coniferous forests are the primary habitat of many forest specialist species such as red wood ants. Climate change-induced rising of temperature allows trees to skip winter hibernation, making them more vulnerable to storms that cause wind felling, and in turn, promotes bark beetle infestations that results in unscheduled clear-cuttings. Red wood ants can also be exposed to such habitat changes. We investigated the effects of bark beetle-induced clear-cutting and the absence of coniferous trees on colonies of Formica polyctena, including a mixed-coniferous forest as a reference. Our aim was to investigate how these habitat features affect the nest characteristics and nesting habits of F. polyctena. Our results indicate that, in the absence of conifers, F. polyctena tend to use different alternatives for nest material, colony structure, and food sources. However, the vitality of F. polyctena colonies significantly decreased (smaller nest mound volumes). Our study highlights the ecological flexibility of this forest specialist and its potential to survive under extreme conditions.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Chen S, Bagrodia R, Pfeffer CC, et al (2020)

Anxiety and resilience in the face of natural disasters associated with climate change: A review and methodological critique.

Journal of anxiety disorders, 76:102297 pii:S0887-6185(20)30111-0 [Epub ahead of print].

In the past two decades, climate change-related natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts have become increasingly frequent and severe, impacting the emotional and psychological well-being of those who are directly or indirectly exposed to them. Despite great interest in understanding differences in anxiety and resilience in response to natural disasters, enthusiasm appears to outstrip empirical clarity, as there remains considerable ambiguity as to determinants of resilient or pathological outcomes following exposure to natural disasters. In addition, there are several major methodological limitations in climate change and related natural disaster research, including the use of univariate analyses, cross-sectional design, and retrospective measures. Keeping these limitations in mind, we first review literature examining the mental health outcomes of natural disasters. Findings suggest that, overall, resilience is more common than pathological outcomes. Second, we use a multi-dimensional framework of resilience to selectively review factors at the event, individual, as well as family and community levels that could help inform resilient or pathological outcomes. Finally, we consider key limitations and future directions for research and practice in the field of anxiety and resilience in response to climate disasters.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Goodman MK, Doyle J, N Farrell (2020)

Practising everyday climate cultures: understanding the cultural politics of climate change.

RevDate: 2020-09-20

Deuffic P, Garms M, He J, et al (2020)

Forest Dieback, a Tangible Proof of Climate Change? A Cross-Comparison of Forest Stakeholders' Perceptions and Strategies in the Mountain Forests of Europe and China.

Environmental management pii:10.1007/s00267-020-01363-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Forest dieback due to climate change poses a risk to mountain forests throughout the world, and has severe consequences in terms of lost ecosystem services for forest stakeholders. This contribution aims to analyze how forest stakeholders perceive forest dieback, and the way in which they adapt to it. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews in three mid-mountain case study areas in France, Germany, and China, enabling a cross-comparison of different settings affected by forest dieback. Results show that forest dieback is not a new phenomenon for stakeholders who consider that it has increased over the last few decades, due to rising temperatures and extreme weather events. In all survey areas, respondents consider forest dieback as tangible proof of climate change, identifying context-specific impacts with varying levels of severity. Cause-effect relationships are not easy to establish. Forest stakeholders are unable to determine whether climate change is a triggering or aggravating factor. For adaptive strategies, respondents can be grouped into three main profiles: proactive, reactive, and wait-and-see forest owners. These types of stakeholders differ in terms of their investment capacities, economic dependency, emotional attachment to forests, knowledge level, and capacity to obtain actionable information through participation in institutional networks.

RevDate: 2020-09-20

Peduzzi E, Baldi MG, Pisoni E, et al (2020)

Impacts of a climate change initiative on air pollutant emissions: Insights from the Covenant of Mayors.

Environment international, 145:106029 pii:S0160-4120(20)31984-X [Epub ahead of print].

The Covenant of Mayors (CoM) is a successful European initiative which encourages local authorities to be proactive in fighting climate change. Recently, it expanded to cover adaptation and energy access/poverty and became a global initiative. In this study we investigate an additional perspective: synergies and trade-offs between climate and air quality. Signatories pledge to reduce their Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and voluntarily report their emissions, energy consumption and the measures that they carry out to reach their goals. We develop a methodology to estimate air pollutant emissions corresponding to CO2 emissions CoM signatories report, using information they already submit and national estimates of air pollutant emission factors. The methodology is applied to over 1600 signatories in Europe, representing over 80 million inhabitants. Results show that, in general, signatories are reducing both types of emissions. However, there are also cases where emissions increase. We explore the reasons behind these changes and highlight the role of technological improvement. This work calls for an increased coherence between climate and air quality plans at the local scale and provides a first step and a tool to support signatories, even the smallest ones, to move in this direction.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Tol RSJ (2020)

The distributional impact of climate change.

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Poorer, hotter countries are more vulnerable to climate change and will experience more negative impacts. The pattern of vulnerability between countries is used to impute impacts for income deciles within countries, for administrative regions, and for grid cells. Almost three-quarters of people will face worse impacts than their country average. Between-country variation is larger than within-country variation for income deciles and regions, and about as large for grid cells. I here revisit earlier estimates of the economic impact of climate change and extend the analysis to impute the distribution of impacts within countries.

RevDate: 2020-09-19

Bi X, Li B, Zhang L, et al (2020)

Response of grassland productivity to climate change and anthropogenic activities in arid regions of Central Asia.

PeerJ, 8:e9797.

Background: Quantitative evaluations of the relative impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activity on grasslands are significant for understanding grassland degradation mechanisms and controlling degraded grasslands. However, our knowledge about the effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change on the grassland in a mountain basin system in arid regions of Central Asia is still subject to great uncertainties.

Methods: In this research, we have chosen the net primary productivity (NPP) as an index for revealing grassland dynamics processes. Moreover, the human appropriation of net primary production (NPPH), which was calculated as the potential NPP (NPPP) minus the actual NPP (NPPA), was applied to distinguish the relative influences of climate change and human activities on the grassland NPP variations in a mountain basin system of Central Asia from 2001-2015.

Results: The results indicated that the grassland NPPA showed an increasing trend (35.88%) that was smaller than the decreasing trend (64.12%). The respective contributions of human activity, climate change and the two together to the increase in the NPPA were 6.19%, 81.30% and 12.51%, respectively. Human activity was largely responsible for the decrease in the grassland NPPA, with the area experiencing human-induced decreases accounting for 98.21% of the total decreased area, which mainly occurred during spring/autumn pasture and winter pasture. Furthermore, the average grazing pressure index (GPI) values of summer pastures, spring/autumn pasture and winter pastures were 1.04, 3.03 and 1.83, respectively, from 2001-2015. In addition, negative correlations between the NPP and GPI occupied most of the research area (92.41%).

Discussion: Our results indicate that: (i) anthropogenic activities were the primary cause of the reduction in the grassland NPP, especially grazing activities. (ii) For areas where the grassland NPP has increased, precipitation was the dominant climatic factor over temperature in controlling the grassland NPP changes in the study area. (iii) The findings of the current research indicate that some measures should be taken to reduce livestock pressure, and artificial grasslands can be built along the Irtysh River and the Ulungur River to relieve grazing pressure on spring/autumn pastures and winter pastures. Our results could provide reliable information for grassland management and the prevention of grassland degradation in arid regions of Central Asia.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Searles Jones J (2019)

To solve climate change, remember the ocean.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Alemazkoor N, Rachunok B, Chavas DR, et al (2020)

Hurricane-induced power outage risk under climate change is primarily driven by the uncertainty in projections of future hurricane frequency.

Scientific reports, 10(1):15270 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-72207-z.

Nine in ten major outages in the US have been caused by hurricanes. Long-term outage risk is a function of climate change-triggered shifts in hurricane frequency and intensity; yet projections of both remain highly uncertain. However, outage risk models do not account for the epistemic uncertainties in physics-based hurricane projections under climate change, largely due to the extreme computational complexity. Instead they use simple probabilistic assumptions to model such uncertainties. Here, we propose a transparent and efficient framework to, for the first time, bridge the physics-based hurricane projections and intricate outage risk models. We find that uncertainty in projections of the frequency of weaker storms explains over 95% of the uncertainty in outage projections; thus, reducing this uncertainty will greatly improve outage risk management. We also show that the expected annual fraction of affected customers exhibits large variances, warranting the adoption of robust resilience investment strategies and climate-informed regulatory frameworks.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

You M, Y Ju (2020)

The Outrage Effect of Personal Stake, Familiarity, Effects on Children, and Fairness on Climate Change Risk Perception Moderated by Political Orientation.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(18): pii:ijerph17186722.

Outrage factors are perceived characteristics of risk that provoke emotional responses and influence risk perception. Although several studies examined how multiple influences affect climate change risk perception, outrage factors have not been comprehensively assessed in the context of climate change risk perception. Using an online survey in South Korea (n = 592), we investigated outrage factors associated with climate change risk perception and whether political orientation moderates these outrage effects. We considered 11 of 20 outrage factors: voluntariness, controllability, familiarity, fairness, uncertainty, delayed effects, effects on children, trust, reversibility, personal stake, and human vs. natural origin. Factors that overlapped with the selected outrage factors or those that were not relevant to climate change were excluded. The survey revealed that the climate change risk perception of an individual increased when they perceived climate change to be relevant to their personal lives, when they felt unfamiliar with climate change, when they thought climate change would have a severe impact on children, or when they thought climate change would have unequal consequences. Moreover, respondents who identified as political conservatives were subject to a greater outrage effect of personal stake for climate change. The implications of the outrage effect on climate change risk perception and the greater vulnerability of conservatives to outrage effect are discussed.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Halupka L, Czyż B, CM Macias Dominguez (2020)

The effect of climate change on laying dates, clutch size and productivity of Eurasian Coots Fulica atra.

International journal of biometeorology pii:10.1007/s00484-020-01972-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is affecting many living organisms; however, the responses of many of them remain unknown. In this paper, we present the results regarding the response of a bird species from the rallid family to the increased temperatures during the breeding season. We analysed the breeding data of Eurasian Coots nesting during 30 seasons between 1972 and 2019. During the study period, mean temperatures in April, the month when Coots start nesting, increased by 3.5 °C, and in months corresponding with the species breeding season by 2.6 °C. Breeding Coots advanced their earliest and median laying dates across the study period; however, the duration of their breeding season remained unchanged. We did not detect any significant temporal changes in clutch size, but clutches have become much more variable in size throughout the study period. Nest failures and production of offspring per nest did not change over the study period; however, the production of young per successful nest significantly declined. It is likely that this decline is the effect of mismatch between the period of food abundance (dipterans collected from water), and hatchling emergence, which is advanced due to change in climate. Future studies investigating the occurrence of dipteran resources at water bodies are needed to test this hypothesis.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Khan NA, Gao Q, Abid M, et al (2020)

Mapping farmers' vulnerability to climate change and its induced hazards: evidence from the rice-growing zones of Punjab, Pakistan.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-020-10758-4 [Epub ahead of print].

In developing countries like Pakistan, agriculture constitutes the primary source of support for the majority of rural and the adjacent urban population. Despite the large part it plays in the economy, it faces significant challenges caused by climate change, such as rising temperatures, floods, droughts, and yield losses. In Pakistan, rice, which is the second most essential food crop and livelihood source for the millions of farm households, is facing significant yield reduction due to climate change. It is pertinent to consider the vulnerabilities of farm households and related factors to create a climatic-resilient farming system. The current study is aimed at mapping the vulnerability of rice-growing communities of Punjab province while considering climatic challenges beyond temperatures and rainfall changes. The Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) was calculated for four rice-growing districts of Punjab province using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's three-indicator approach (sensitivity, exposition, and adaptive capacity). According to the results, farmers in the study area are highly vulnerable to climate change (CCVI 0.81). Specifically, the indices of vulnerability components showed that farmers have a high level of exposure (EVI 0.72) and susceptibility (SVI 0.59) to the climatic uncertainties with the least adaptive capacity (AVI 0.50). Further, the vulnerability analysis across different rice-growing regions showed that farmers, particularly in the low-yield region, are more vulnerable (EVI 0.73, SVI 0.61, AVI 0.49, CCVI 0.85) than the farmers in the high-yield region (EVI 0.71, SVI 0.58, AVI 0.51, CCVI 0.78). These findings imply that regional priority must be given despite the difference in farm performance to reduce production losses. Besides, climate-smart adaptation initiatives should be facilitated at the farm and regional levels through the implementation of appropriate policies and investment plans.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Berestycki H, Ducasse R, L Rossi (2020)

Influence of a road on a population in an ecological niche facing climate change.

Journal of mathematical biology pii:10.1007/s00285-020-01537-3 [Epub ahead of print].

We introduce a model designed to account for the influence of a line with fast diffusion-such as a road or another transport network-on the dynamics of a population in an ecological niche.This model consists of a system of coupled reaction-diffusion equations set on domains with different dimensions (line / plane). We first show that, in a stationary climate, the presence of the line is always deleterious and can even lead the population to extinction. Next, we consider the case where the niche is subject to a displacement, representing the effect of a climate change. We find that in such case the line with fast diffusion can help the population to persist. We also study several qualitative properties of this system. The analysis is based on a notion of generalized principal eigenvalue developed and studied by the authors (2019).

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Saladin B, Pellissier L, Graham CH, et al (2020)

Rapid climate change results in long-lasting spatial homogenization of phylogenetic diversity.

Nature communications, 11(1):4663 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-18343-6.

Scientific understanding of biodiversity dynamics, resulting from past climate oscillations and projections of future changes in biodiversity, has advanced over the past decade. Little is known about how these responses, past or future, are spatially connected. Analyzing the spatial variability in biodiversity provides insight into how climate change affects the accumulation of diversity across space. Here, we evaluate the spatial variation of phylogenetic diversity of European seed plants among neighboring sites and assess the effects of past rapid climate changes during the Quaternary on these patterns. Our work shows a marked homogenization in phylogenetic diversity across Central and Northern Europe linked to high climate change velocity and large distances to refugia. Our results suggest that the future projected loss in evolutionary heritage may be even more dramatic, as homogenization in response to rapid climate change has occurred among sites across large landscapes, leaving a legacy that has lasted for millennia.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Jordan CJ, AA Palmer (2020)

Virtual meetings: A critical step to address climate change.

Science advances, 6(38): pii:6/38/eabe5810.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Gudipati S, Zervos M, E Herc (2020)

Can the One Health Approach Save Us from the Emergence and Reemergence of Infectious Pathogens in the Era of Climate Change: Implications for Antimicrobial Resistance?.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9): pii:antibiotics9090599.

Climate change has become a controversial topic in today's media despite decades of warnings from climate scientists and has influenced human health significantly with the increasing prevalence of infectious pathogens and contribution to antimicrobial resistance. Elevated temperatures lead to rising sea and carbon dioxide levels, changing environments and interactions between humans and other species. These changes have led to the emergence and reemergence of infectious pathogens that have already developed significant antimicrobial resistance. Although these new infectious pathogens are alarming, we can still reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the era of climate change if we focus on One Health strategies. This approach aims at the simultaneous protection of humans, animals and environment from climate change and antimicrobial impacts. Once these relationships are better understood, these models can be created, but the support of our legislative and health system partnerships are critical to helping with strengthening education and awareness.

RevDate: 2020-09-16

Elsen PR, Monahan WB, Dougherty ER, et al (2020)

Keeping pace with climate change in global terrestrial protected areas.

Science advances, 6(25): pii:6/25/eaay0814.

Protected areas (PAs) are essential to biodiversity conservation, but their static boundaries may undermine their potential for protecting species under climate change. We assessed how the climatic conditions within global terrestrial PAs may change over time. By 2070, protection is expected to decline in cold and warm climates and increase in cool and hot climates over a wide range of precipitation. Most countries are expected to fail to protect >90% of their available climate at current levels. The evenness of climatic representation under protection-not the amount of area protected-positively influenced the retention of climatic conditions under protection. On average, protection retention would increase by ~118% if countries doubled their climatic representativeness under protection or by ~102% if countries collectively reduced emissions in accordance with global targets. Therefore, alongside adoption of mitigation policies, adaptation policies that improve the complementarity of climatic conditions within PAs will help countries safeguard biodiversity.

RevDate: 2020-09-16

Fleming W, Hayes AL, Crosman KM, et al (2020)

Indiscriminate, Irrelevant, and Sometimes Wrong: Causal Misconceptions about Climate Change.

Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis [Epub ahead of print].

Prior research demonstrates widespread persistence of beliefs about climate change causes and risks that are arguably misconceptions. They include believing pollution causes climate change, believing ozone depletion causes climate change, the combination of these two "green beliefs," referred to as environmental problems, and believing natural climate variation significantly contributes to current climate trends. Each of these causal beliefs has the potential to weaken or divert support away from effective climate change risk mitigation policies. To assess this potential, we explore the nature and prevalence of these beliefs in the United States with a national sample of interviews (N = 77) and two national surveys (N = 1,013, N = 1,820), and apply regression and mediation analyses to explore whether they explain any of the variation in individuals' concern or support for policy to mitigate climate change. Adherence to these beliefs-which reflect a variety of misconceptions illustrated in the interviews-differs by political ideology but is common, with over a third of interviewees mentioning one or more. Controlling for general knowledge, political ideology, and other factors, misconceptions about environmental problems are still associated directly with support for climate change policies. On average adherence to the belief that environmental problems cause climate change is associated with a 25% higher probability of policy support. In contrast, believing natural climate variability is a major recent cause of climate change is associated with a 7% lower probability of supporting climate policy, even after controlling for political ideology and other knowledge about climate change.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Inman EN, Hobbs RJ, Z Tsvuura (2020)

No safety net in the face of climate change: The case of pastoralists in Kunene Region, Namibia.

PloS one, 15(9):e0238982 pii:PONE-D-19-15768.

Over the past decade, pastoralists in Kunene Region, Namibia, have endured recurrent drought and flood events that have culminated in the loss of their primary form of livelihood-pastoralism. Most pastoralists are finding it difficult to sustain their livelihoods, and their communities have fallen into extreme poverty. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) approaches are increasingly acknowledged as having the potential to enhance the adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities. The first step is to develop an understanding of how affected communities live, their perceptions of and how they respond to climate change and the biophysical impacts of climate change in their communities. This study aims to collect this information in order to explore the use of EbA to help pastoralists adapt to climate change. We examined an isolated pastoral Himba community, to understand their perceptions, experiences and understanding of climate change and its related impacts on their livelihoods. A nested mixed-methods approach using structured interviews was employed to address the study objectives. Interview results revealed that pastoralists lack scientific knowledge of climate change, and they have no access to climate change information. Though pastoralists have coping and adaptation approaches at the community level (such as making gardens, fishing, etc.), these have become ineffective as climatic uncertainty and change persist. Furthermore, pastoralists no longer get benefits from the environment, such as food and fodder. Despite this, there are currently no biodiversity interventions at the community level to address the impacts of climate change. Pastoralists have indicated their adaptation needs, particularly the provision of water supply to grow food. This is an open avenue to explore EbA approaches, specifically ecological restoration, while still addressing the need of the pastoralists. There is an urgent need to develop new practical adaptation strategies, including restoration options that will strengthen their adaptive capacity.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Birrell JH, Shah AA, Hotaling S, et al (2020)

Insects in high-elevation streams: life in extreme environments imperiled by climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is altering conditions in high-elevation streams worldwide, with largely unknown effects on resident communities of aquatic insects. Here, we review the challenges of climate change for high-elevation aquatic insects and how they may respond, focusing on current gaps in knowledge. Understanding current effects and predicting future impacts will depend on progress in three areas. First, we need better descriptions of the multivariate physical challenges and interactions among challenges in high-elevation streams, which include low but rising temperatures, low oxygen supply and increasing oxygen demand, high and rising exposure to ultraviolet radiation, low ionic strength, and variable but shifting flow regimes. These factors are often studied in isolation even though they covary in nature and interact in space and time. Second, we need a better mechanistic understanding of how physical conditions in streams drive the performance of individual insects. Environment-performance links are mediated by physiology and behavior, which are poorly known in high-elevation taxa. Third, we need to define the scope and importance of potential responses across levels of biological organization. Short-term responses are defined by the tolerances of individuals, their capacities to perform adequately across a range of conditions, and behaviors used to exploit local, fine-scale variation in abiotic factors. Longer-term responses to climate change, however, may include individual plasticity and evolution of populations. Whether high-elevation aquatic insects can mitigate climatic risks via these pathways is largely unknown.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Rahman MS, Karamehic-Muratovic A, Baghbanzadeh M, et al (2020)

Climate change and dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bangladesh: a social media-based cross-sectional survey.

Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene pii:5905887 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Bangladesh experienced its worst dengue fever (DF) outbreak in 2019. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among university students in Bangladesh and significant factors associated with their prevention practices related to climate change and DF.

METHODS: A social media-based (Facebook) cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted and secondary data of reported DF cases in 2019 extracted. Logistic regression and spatial analysis were run to examine the data.

RESULTS: Of 1500 respondents, 76% believed that climate change can affect DF transmission. However, participants reported good climate change knowledge (76.7%), attitudes (87.9%) and practices (39.1%). The corresponding figures for DF were knowledge (47.9%), attitudes (80.3%) and practices (25.9%). Good knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with good climate change adaptation or mitigation practices (p<0.05). Good knowledge, attitudes and previous DF experiences were also found to be significantly associated with good DF prevention practices (p<0.001). There was no significant positive correlation between climate change and DF KAP scores and the number of DF cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study provide baseline data that can be used to promote educational campaigns and intervention programs focusing on climate change adaptation and mitigation and effective DF prevention strategies among various communities in Bangladesh and similar dengue-endemic countries.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Williams DS (2019)

How those researching adaptation to climate change might reduce their own carbon footprints.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Newbold T, Oppenheimer P, Etard A, et al (2020)

Tropical and Mediterranean biodiversity is disproportionately sensitive to land-use and climate change.

Nature ecology & evolution pii:10.1038/s41559-020-01303-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Global biodiversity is undergoing rapid declines, driven in large part by changes to land use and climate. Global models help us to understand the consequences of environmental changes for biodiversity, but tend to neglect important geographical variation in the sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. Here we test whether biodiversity responses to climate change and land-use change differ among biomes (geographical units that have marked differences in environment and species composition). We find the strongest negative responses to both pressures in tropical biomes and in the Mediterranean. A further analysis points towards similar underlying drivers for the sensitivity to each pressure: we find both greater reductions in species richness in the types of land use most disturbed by humans and more negative predicted responses to climate change in areas of lower climatic seasonality, and in areas where a greater proportion of species are near their upper temperature limit. Within the land most modified by humans, reductions in biodiversity were particularly large in regions where humans have come to dominate the land more recently. Our results will help to improve predictions of how biodiversity is likely to change with ongoing climatic and land-use changes, pointing toward particularly large declines in the tropics where much future agricultural expansion is expected to occur. This finding could help to inform the development of the post-2020 biodiversity framework, by highlighting the under-studied regions where biodiversity losses are likely to be greatest.

RevDate: 2020-09-16
CmpDate: 2020-09-16

Celis-Plá PSM, Moenne F, Rodríguez-Rojas F, et al (2020)

Antarctic intertidal macroalgae under predicted increased temperatures mediated by global climate change: Would they cope?.

The Science of the total environment, 740:140379.

The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the regions to be most affected by increase in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) mediated by Global Climate Change; indeed, most negative predictions imply an up to 6 °C increment by the end of the XXI century. Temperature is one of the most important factors mediating diversity and distribution of macroalgae, although there is still no consensus as to the likely effects of higher SSTs, especially for polar seaweeds. Some available information suggests that potential strategies to withstand future increases in SSTs will be founded upon the glutathione-ascorbate cycle and the induction of chaperone-functioning heat shock proteins (HSPs); however, their eventual role, even for general stress responses, is unclear. The intertidal green, brown and red macroalgae species Monostroma hariotii, Adenocystis utricularis and Pyropia endiviifolia, respectively, from King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula, were exposed to 2 °C (control) and 8 °C (climate change scenario) for up to 5 days (d). Photosynthetic activity (αETR and ETRmax, and EkETR), photoinhibition (Fv/Fm) and photoprotection processes (αNPQ, NPQmax, and EkNPQ) provided no evidence of negative ecophysiological effects. There were moderate increases in H2O2 production and levels of lipid peroxidation with temperature, results supported by stable levels of total glutathione and ascorbate pools, with mostly higher levels of reduced ascorbate and glutathione than oxidized forms in all species. Transcripts of P. endiviifolia indicated a general upregulation of all antioxidant enzymes and HSPs genes studied under warmer temperature, although with different levels of activation with time. This pioneering investigation exploring different levels of biological organization, suggested that Antarctic intertidal macroalgae may be able to withstand future rise in SSTs, probably slightly altering their latitudinal distribution and/or range of thermal tolerance, by exhibiting robust glutathione-ascorbate production and recycling, as well as the induction of associated antioxidant enzymatic machinery and the syntheses of HSPs.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Pastor-Paz J, Noy I, Sin I, et al (2020)

Projecting the effect of climate change on residential property damages caused by extreme weather events.

Journal of environmental management, 276:111012 pii:S0301-4797(20)30940-3 [Epub ahead of print].

New Zealand's public insurer for natural hazards, the Earthquake Commission (EQC), provides residential insurance for some weather-related damage. Climate change and the expected increase in intensity and frequency of extreme weather-related events are likely to translate into higher damages and thus an additional financial liability for the EQC. We project future insured damages from extreme precipitation events associated with future projected climatic change. We first estimate the empirical relationship between extreme precipitation events and the EQC's weather-related insurance claims based on a complete dataset of all claims from 2000 to 2017. We then use this estimated relationship, together with climate projections based on future greenhouse gases concentration scenarios from six different dynamically downscaled Regional Climate Models, to predict the impact of future extreme precipitation events on EQC liabilities for different time horizons up to the year 2100. Our results show predicted adverse impacts that vary over time and space. The percent change between projected and past damages-the climate change signal-ranges between an increase of 7%-8% in liabilities for the period 2020 to 2040, and between 9% and 25% higher for the period 2080 to 2100. We also provide detail caveats as towhy these quantities might be mis-estimated. The projected increase in the public insurer's liabilities could also be used to inform private insurers, regulators, and policymakers who are assessing the future performance of both the public and private insurers that cover weatherrelated.

RevDate: 2020-09-14

Sudarmana A, J Kelly (2020)

Climate change and the spread of disease: An illustrative case of the first Australian invasive non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae infection in a newborn.

RevDate: 2020-09-13

Zhang R, Weinbauer MG, P Peduzzi (2020)

Aquatic Viruses and Climate Change.

Current issues in molecular biology, 41:357-380 pii:v41/357 [Epub ahead of print].

The viral component in aquatic systems clearly needs to be incorporated into future ocean and inland water climate models. Viruses have the potential to influence carbon and nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems significantly. Changing climate likely has both direct and indirect influence on virus-mediated processes, among them an impact on food webs, biogeochemical cycles and on the overall metabolic performance of whole ecosystems. Here we synthesise current knowledge on potential climate-related consequences for viral assemblages, virus-host interactions and virus functions, and in turn, viral processes contributing to climate change. There is a need to increase the accuracy of predictions of climate change impacts on virus- driven processes, particularly of those linked to biological production and biogeochemical cycles. Comprehension of the relationships between microbial/viral processes and global phenomena is essential to predict the influence on as well as the response of the biosphere to global change.

RevDate: 2020-09-13

Calheiros T, Pereira MG, JP Nunes (2020)

Assessing impacts of future climate change on extreme fire weather and pyro-regions in Iberian Peninsula.

The Science of the total environment, 754:142233 pii:S0048-9697(20)35762-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Weather conditions play an important role in wildfire activity. In many regions, future climate could lead to different fire weather, with impacts on the ignition, behaviour, and suppression of wildfires, which may, therefore, force new fire regimes. This study aimed to assess the evolution of fire weather indices and the Number of Extreme Days (NED) in the context of climate change. We estimated the impact of these changes on monthly Normalized Burnt Area (NBA) and in the spatial distribution of Pyro-Regions (PR), using a recently identified relationship between NED and NBA intra-annual patterns. The components of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (CFFWIS) in the Iberian Peninsula were analysed for present-day conditions and future climate scenarios, using daily data from ERA-Interim (1980-2014) and an ensemble of simulations from 11 EURO-CORDEX high spatial resolution models, for two future periods (2041-2070 and 2071-2100) and scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Results suggest a significant increase in future fire weather risk, especially in late spring and early autumn, and also in southern and eastern Iberian Peninsula. NED is expected to strongly increase in summer months in the four PRs, but also to decrease in March and April in the northwestern and southwestern PR. This could change the spatial distribution of PRs, with a general northwards movement: the northern PR is expected to disappear except north of the Cantabrian Mountains, being replaced by the northwestern PR; the southwestern PR is expected to grow and occupy part of the area currently in the northwestern PR; and a new PR could appear in parts of the current eastern PR. These PR changes follow the projected modifications in the major climate regions. Results suggest different fire regimes in the future, with higher fire weather risk, and a longer and harsher fire season.

RevDate: 2020-09-14

Jennings N, Fecht D, S De Matteis (2020)

Mapping the co-benefits of climate change action to issues of public concern in the UK: a narrative review.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 4(9):e424-e433.

To avoid a 1·5°C rise in global temperatures above preindustrial levels, the next phase of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will need to be comparatively rapid. Linking the co-benefits of climate action to wider issues that the public are concerned about can help decision makers to prioritise decarbonisation options that increase the chance of public support for such changes, while ensuring that a just transition is delivered. We identified key issues of concern to the UK public by use of Ipsos MORI public opinion data from 2007 to 2020 and used these data to guide a narrative review of academic and grey literature on the co-benefits of climate change action for the UK. Correspondence with civil servants, third sector organisations, and relevant academics allowed us to identify omissions and to ensure policy relevance of the recommendations. This evidence-based Review of the various co-benefits of climate change action for the UK identifies four main areas: health and the National Health Service; security; economy and unemployment; and poverty, housing, and inequality. Associated trade-offs are also discussed. City-level and regional-level governments are particularly well placed to incorporate co-benefits into their decision making because it is at this scale that co-benefits most clearly manifest, and where interventions can have the most immediate effects.

RevDate: 2020-09-16

Mordecai EA, Ryan SJ, Caldwell JM, et al (2020)

Climate change could shift disease burden from malaria to arboviruses in Africa.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 4(9):e416-e423.

Malaria is a long-standing public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue and chikungunya cause an under-recognised burden of disease. Many human and environmental drivers affect the dynamics of vector-borne diseases. In this Personal View, we argue that the direct effects of warming temperatures are likely to promote greater environmental suitability for dengue and other arbovirus transmission by Aedes aegypti and reduce suitability for malaria transmission by Anopheles gambiae. Environmentally driven changes in disease dynamics will be complex and multifaceted, but given that current public efforts are targeted to malaria control, we highlight Ae aegypti and dengue, chikungunya, and other arboviruses as potential emerging public health threats in sub-Saharan Africa.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Mousavi A, Ardalan A, Takian A, et al (2020)

Health system plan for implementation of Paris agreement on climate change (COP 21): a qualitative study in Iran.

BMC public health, 20(1):1388.

BACKGROUND: Ensuring public health is crucial in any policy debate on climate change. Paris Agreement on climate change is a global contract, through which countries have committed themselves to a public health treaty. The agreement has laid the foundation for mitigation and adaptation. This study was conducted to provide an evidence-based framework for policy-making in the health system of Iran in order to reduce the adverse effects of climate change on public health and to increase the adaptation of the health system as a result.

METHODS: This is a qualitative study. We first used Delphi method to extract the components of Paris Agreement on climate change that were related to the functions and policymaking of health system in Iran. Twenty-three experts in health and climate change were identified purposefully and through snowball sampling as participants in Delphi. Data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire. We used SPSS software version 25 for data analysis based on the descriptive indices including the mean, the percentage of consensus above 75%, and the Kendall coordination coefficient.

RESULTS: Seventy-nine components classified within nine categories were extracted. The most important examples of the implementation of Paris Agreement on climate change in the health system of Iran were: participation in the formulation of strategies for mitigation and adaptation, identifying vulnerable groups, assessing vulnerability, increasing the capacity of health services delivery during extreme events, using early warning systems, using new technologies to increase the adaptation, evaluation of interventions, financial support, increasing the number of researches, increasing the knowledge and skills of staff, and finally public awareness.

CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based policy-making is pivotal to develop effective programs to control the health effects of climate change. This research provided policy translation and customization of micro and macro provisions of Paris Agreement on climate change, in line with the political context of health system in Iran. Our finding will pave the ground, we envisage, for further steps towards capacity building and enhancement of resiliency of the health system, adaptation interventions, and evaluation, identification of barriers and facilitators for adaptation and decreasing the adverse health effects caused by the climate change, in Iran and perhaps beyond.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Brodie G, Holland E, N'Yeurt AR, et al (2020)

Seagrasses and seagrass habitats in Pacific small island developing states: Potential loss of benefits via human disturbance and climate change.

Marine pollution bulletin, 160:111573 pii:S0025-326X(20)30691-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Seagrasses provide a wide range of services including food provision, water purification and coastal protection. Pacific small island developing states (PSIDS) have limited natural resources, challenging economies and a need for marine science research. Seagrasses occur in eleven PSIDS and nations are likely to benefit in different ways depending on habitat health, habitat cover and location, and species presence. Globally seagrass habitats are declining as a result of anthropogenic impacts including climate change and in PSIDS pressure on already stressed coastal ecosystems, will likely threaten seagrass survival particularly close to expanding urban settlements. Improved coastal and urban planning at local, national and regional scales is needed to reduce human impacts on vulnerable coastal areas. Research is required to generate knowledge-based solutions to support effective coastal management and protection of the existing seagrass habitats, including strenghened documentation the socio-economic and environmental services they provide. For PSIDS, protection of seagrass service benefits requires six priority actions: seagrass habitat mapping, regulation of coastal and upstream development, identification of specific threats at vulnerable locations, a critique of cost-effective restoration options, research devoted to seagrass studies and more explicit policy development.

RevDate: 2020-09-11

Schiller JH, Averbuch SD, CD Berg (2020)

Why Oncologists Should Care About Climate Change.

RevDate: 2020-09-11

Harker-Schuch I, Lade S, Mills F, et al (2020)

Opinions of 12 to 13-year-olds in Austria and Australia on the concern, cause and imminence of climate change.

Ambio pii:10.1007/s13280-020-01356-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Early adolescence (12-13 years old) is a critical but under-researched demographic for the formation of attitudes related to climate change. We address this important area by exploring adolescent views about climate change. This paper presents opinions collected from surveys of 463 1st-year secondary school students (12-13 years old) in public secondary schools in inner-urban centres in Austria and Australia on whether climate change is (1) something about which to worry, (2) caused by humans and (3) happening now. Eligible respondents in both countries showed similar levels of agreement that climate change was probably or definitely something we should (1) worry about (84.6% Austria, 89.1% Australia), which is significantly higher than either country's adult population. Eligible respondents agreed that climate change probably or definitely is (2) caused by humans (75.6% Austria, 83.6% Australia) and that climate change is probably or definitely something that is (3) happening now (73.1% Austria, 87.5% Australia). Their response differed from the respective adult populations, but in opposite directions. Our results suggest that socio-cultural worldview may not have as much influence on this age group as it does on the respective adult populations and suggests that this age group would be receptive and ready for climate science education and engagement initiatives.

RevDate: 2020-09-14

Gutiérrez-Gamboa G, Zheng W, F Martínez de Toda (2020)

Strategies in the vineyard establishment to face global warming in viticulture: A mini review.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

Different technological solutions are developing in the wine industry to mitigate the negative effects of the current global warming to mainly achieve wines with a lower alcohol content. These proposed solutions mostly act at the oenological level and are focused on intervening on the raw material to be transformed, that is, on reducing the concentration of sugar in the must using filtration techniques or also on wine dealcoholizing by physical processes. These techniques are intended to offer solutions and respond to new consumer expectations, but they may be considered artificial to be widely accepted. In this way, viticultural strategies may offer a naturally solution to obtain grapes with low sugar content, maximizing their quality by delaying ripening. This mini-review overviewed the viticultural strategies that can be applied in the establishment of the vineyard, that is, when it comes to planting of a new vineyard, such as vineyard altitude, latitude, orientation and slope as well as rootstock, variety, clone, training system and row orientation and slope with the aim to mitigate the negative effects of climate change on grape and wine quality and to delay grape maturation. Finally, we proposed a ponderation of the strategies discussed to contextualize its importance to face global warming in viticulture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Witze A (2020)

The Arctic is burning like never before - and that's bad news for climate change.

Nature, 585(7825):336-337.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Xu X, Wang L, Sun M, et al (2020)

Climate change vulnerability assessment for smallholder farmers in China: An extended framework.

Journal of environmental management, 276:111315 pii:S0301-4797(20)31238-X [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change brings uncertainty and challenges to achieving sustainable development goals. The dually vulnerable regions in terms of the environment and economy are facing substantial threats from climate change; particularly, smallholder farmers who heavily rely on natural ecosystems in these regions are being the most affected. Paying attention to the vulnerability assessment of these regions is conducive to precisely improving the ability of their people to cope with climate change. This study aimed to construct an extended framework of climate change vulnerability assessment at the household level by combining the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change vulnerability assessment framework with the sustainable livelihood framework. Four typical regions with different climatic and geographical conditions in China, including the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (marked as AOHAN, representing the type of grassland, similarly hereinafter), Qinghai Province (HYMH, plateau), Yunnan Province (YLNL, mountain), and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (NNQZ, coastal zone), were selected to apply the framework. In total, 29 villages from these four regions were selected at random, and 360 face-to-face interviews were conducted in selected villages based on a pretested questionnaire. The results show that AOHAN had the greatest vulnerability, as well as the highest exposure level among the four regions, which was also the major source of differences in vulnerability. Further analysis shows that although the sensitivity and adaptive capacity showed relatively small differences, the sources of sensitivity and adaptation strategies were quite different among the four regions. In terms of sensitivity, YLNL had the highest level of sensitivity in housing, water, and livestock, and AOHAN assumed the highest sensitivity in land. The advantages and disadvantages in terms of adaptive capacity also varied widely among the four regions. More specifically, AOHAN had a balanced adaptive capacity; YLNL largely relied on the advantages in social and human capitals to compensate for the disadvantage in physical capital; and the strengths in physical and financial capitals are the main sources of adaptive capacities for NNQZ and HYMH, respectively. In general, the vulnerability assessment framework proposed in this study provides guidelines for vulnerability assessments at the household level in the face of climate change. In addition, heterogeneous measures to cope with the threats of climate change should be put forward precisely, based on the climatic, geographical and socioeconomic characteristics of each region.

RevDate: 2020-09-10

Fulton CA, Huff Hartz KE, Fuller NW, et al (2020)

Fitness costs of pesticide resistance in Hyalella azteca under future climate change scenarios.

The Science of the total environment, 753:141945 pii:S0048-9697(20)35474-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change continues to cause alterations in environmental conditions which can be detrimental to aquatic ecosystem health. The development of pesticide resistance in organisms such as Hyalella azteca can lead to increased susceptibility to environmental change. This research provides a robust assessment of the effects of alterations in salinity on the fitness of H. azteca. Full-life cycle bioassays were conducted with non-resistant and pyrethroid-resistant H. azteca cultured under two salinity conditions representing a rise from freshwater control (0.2 psu) to increased salinity due to salt-water intrusion, reduced snowpack and evaporative enrichment (6.0 psu). Additionally, the upper thermal tolerance was defined for each population at each salinity. Pyrethroid-resistant H. azteca exhibited reduced thermal tolerance; however, they produced more offspring per female than non-resistant animals. Compared to the low salinity water, both non-resistant and pyrethroid-resistant H. azteca produced more offspring, grew larger (based on dry mass), and produced larger offspring in elevated salinity, although pyrethroid-resistant animals had lower survival and lipid levels. This study provides fundamental information about the fitness potential of H. azteca in a changing climate, suggesting advantages for non-resistant animals under future climate scenarios. In addition, this research further supports the need to consider the effects of global climate change when conducting risk assessment of contaminants of concern, as well as the contribution of contaminants when investigating climate change impacts on populations, as exposure may contribute to niche contraction.

RevDate: 2020-09-16

Albertini DF (2020)

Climate change and the morphing of human ARTs.

Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics, 37(9):2051-2052.

RevDate: 2020-09-10

Philipsborn RP, Sheffield P, White A, et al (2020)

Climate Change and the Practice of Medicine: Essentials for Resident Education.

Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges [Epub ahead of print].

Despite calls for including content on climate change and its effect on health in curricula across the spectrum of medical education, no widely used resource exists to guide residency training programs in this effort. This lack of resources poses challenges for training program leaders seeking to incorporate evidence-based climate and health content into their curricula. Climate change increases risks of heat-related illness, infections, asthma, mental health disorders, poor perinatal outcomes, adverse experiences from trauma and displacement, and other harms. More numerous and increasingly dangerous natural disasters caused by climate change impair delivery of care by disrupting supply chains and compromising power supplies. Graduating trainees face a knowledge gap in understanding, managing, and mitigating these many-faceted consequences of climate change, which-expected to intensify in coming decades-will influence both the health of their patients and the health care they deliver. In this article, the authors propose a framework of climate change and health educational content for residents, including how climate change (1) harms health, (2) necessitates adaptation in clinical practice, and (3) undermines health care delivery. The authors propose not only learning objectives linked to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education core competencies for resident education, but also learning formats and assessment strategies in each content area. They also present opportunities for implementation of climate and health education in residency training programs. Including this content in residency education will better prepare doctors to deliver anticipatory guidance to at-risk patients, manage those experiencing climate-related health effects, and reduce care disruptions during climate-driven extreme weather events.

RevDate: 2020-09-13

Cao YN, Zhu SS, Chen J, et al (2020)

Genomic insights into historical population dynamics, local adaptation, and climate change vulnerability of the East Asian Tertiary relict Euptelea (Eupteleaceae).

Evolutionary applications, 13(8):2038-2055.

The warm-temperate and subtropical climate zones of East Asia are a hotspot of plant species richness and endemism, including a noticeable number of species-poor Tertiary relict tree genera. However, little is understood about when East Asian Tertiary relict plants diversified, how they responded demographically to past environmental change, and to what extent their current genomic composition (and adaptive capacity) might mitigate the effects of global warming. Here, we obtained genomic (RAD-SNP) data for 171 samples from two extant species of Euptelea in China (24 E. pleiosperma populations) and Japan (11 E. polyandra populations) to elucidate their divergence and demographic histories, genome-wide associations with current environmental variables, and genomic vulnerability to future climate change. Our results indicate that Late Miocene changes in climate and/or sea level promoted species divergence, whereas Late Pliocene uplifting in southwest China likely fostered lineage divergence within E. pleiosperma. Its subsequent range expansion into central/east (CE) China bears genomic signatures of climate-driven selection, yet extant CE populations are predicted to be most vulnerable to future climate change. For E. polyandra, geography was the only significant predictor of genomic variation. Our findings indicate a profound impact of Late Neogene geological and climate change on the evolutionary history of Euptelea, with much stronger signals of local adaptation left in China than in Japan. This study deepens our understanding of the complex evolutionary forces that influence the distribution of genetic variation of Tertiary relict trees, and provides insights into their susceptibility to global change and potential for adaptive responses. Our results lay the groundwork for future conservation and restoration programs for Euptelea.

RevDate: 2020-09-10

Kolanowska M, Rewicz A, P Baranow (2020)

Ecological niche modeling of the pantropical orchid Polystachya concreta (Orchidaceae) and its response to climate change.

Scientific reports, 10(1):14801 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-71732-1.

Climate is the dominant control factor on the spatial distribution of organisms on a global scale and global warming is predicted to become a major cause of species extinctions. In our study ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to estimate the effect of projected future climate changes on the pantropical orchid Polystacha concreta as well as to reconstruct changes in the distribution of the suitable climatic niches of this species since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The study revealed small differences in the niches occupied by populations of P. concreta recorded in various continents; however, these alterations will become more significant in regard to future climatic change. While losses of suitable habitats of the studied orchid will occur in the Americas and Africa, global warming will be favorable for Asian populations. Our study suggests a significant loss of niches since the LGM which indicates that the currently observed loss of habitats is not only the result of human activity but also of natural changes of the Earth's climate. From the obtained models we identified the areas that will be the most resistant regarding the modifications caused by climate change.

RevDate: 2020-09-15
CmpDate: 2020-09-15

Campbell H, Ledet J, Poore AGB, et al (2020)

Thermal tolerance in the amphipod Sunamphitoe parmerong from a global warming hotspot, acclimatory carryover effects within generation.

Marine environmental research, 160:105048.

The thermal response of the amphipod Sunamphitoe parmerong was contrasted between unacclimated 'wild' and acclimated populations. Brooding females were allocated to 17 °C or 23 °C treatments and their progeny developed to adulthood at the same temperature. Tolerance to acute thermal challenge (26-36 °C) was determined. The 17 °C and 23 °C acclimated S. parmerong had a 0.45 and 0.64 risk of death compared to the unacclimated individuals. The upper lethal temperature (LT50) was 27.4 °C for the unacclimated group and 29.6 °C and 30.4 °C for the 17 °C and 23 °C acclimated groups, respectively. Acclimation shifted their LT50 by 2.2 °C and 3 °C, respectively. The wild population exhibited high variability in thermal tolerance, potentially due to their environmental history and greater diversity of genotypes. After acclimation S. parmerong had decreased variability in thermal tolerance and that of the 23 °C group shifted by 1 °C compared with the 17 °C group. These results indicate developmental phenotypic plasticity or differential survival of resilient progeny as potential mechanisms to facilitate persistence in a warming ocean.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Chausson A, Turner B, Seddon D, et al (2020)

Mapping the effectiveness of nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Nature-based solutions (NbS) to climate change currently have considerable political traction. However, national intentions to deploy NbS have yet to be fully translated into evidence-based targets and action on the ground. To enable NbS policy and practice to be better informed by science, we produced the first global systematic map of evidence on the effectiveness of nature-based interventions for addressing the impacts of climate change and hydrometeorological hazards on people. Most of the interventions in natural or semi-natural ecosystems were reported to have ameliorated adverse climate impacts. Conversely, interventions involving created ecosystems (e.g., afforestation) were associated with trade-offs; such studies primarily reported reduced soil erosion or increased vegetation cover but lower water availability, although this evidence was geographically restricted. Overall, studies reported more synergies than trade-offs between reduced climate impacts and broader ecological, social, and climate change mitigation outcomes. In addition, nature-based interventions were most often shown to be as effective or more so than alternative interventions for addressing climate impacts. However, there were substantial gaps in the evidence base. Notably, there were few studies of the cost-effectiveness of interventions compared to alternatives and few integrated assessments considering broader social and ecological outcomes. There was also a bias in evidence toward the Global North, despite communities in the Global South being generally more vulnerable to climate impacts. To build resilience to climate change worldwide, it is imperative that we protect and harness the benefits that nature can provide, which can only be done effectively if informed by a strengthened evidence base.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Doran EMB, Zia A, Hurley SE, et al (2020)

Social-psychological determinants of farmer intention to adopt nutrient best management practices: Implications for resilient adaptation to climate change.

Journal of environmental management, 276:111304 pii:S0301-4797(20)31228-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Successful adaptation to global climate change and enhancement of agricultural watersheds' resilience requires widespread use of Nutrient Best Management Practices (NBMPs) by farms of all sizes. In the US, adoption of many NBMP practices is voluntary and insufficient to achieve local and downstream conservation objectives. Despite evidence that both social-psychological factors and socio-economic factors influence farmer decision-making, very few studies of farmers' decision-making related to NBMP adoption combine these two factor groups in a theoretically rigorous way. To better understand farmers' management decisions, we test the social-psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to determine the relative influence of attitudes, perceived social norms, and perceived behavioral control on adoption of nine NBMPs. A survey was designed by the research team and implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA-NASS) in 2013, and replicated in 2016, on a stratified sample of 129 farmers (including panel data on 56 farmers). Farmers were located in the Missisquoi, and Lamoille River watersheds of the Lake Champlain Basin in the Northeast region of the United States. Survey responses revealed variation in past adoption of NBMPs was sensitive to practice type and farm size. We developed nine weighted structural equation models to test endogenous (social-psychological) and exogenous (policy, economic and demographic) predictors of farmer intention to adopt NBMPs. We found that perceived behavioral control had the largest effect size and strongest statistical significance on the farmers' expressed intentions to adopt NBMPs in the future. For a subset of NBMPs, perceived social norms and farmer attitudes toward these NBMPs were each also significant drivers of intention to adopt individual practices. Among the exogenous variables, we found that large farm size, college education, and having a conservation easement all had a positive influence on farmers' intention to adopt NBMPs. This study suggests that for widespread adoption of NBMPs, environmental managers, policy makers, and program developers should be attentive to farmers' perceived behavioral control, and support the design and execution of outreach and technical assistance programs that build on drivers of farmers' decision making.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Negi HS, Kumar A, Kanda N, et al (2020)

Status of glaciers and climate change of East Karakoram in early twenty-first century.

The Science of the total environment, 753:141914 pii:S0048-9697(20)35443-7 [Epub ahead of print].

This study aims to assess the glaciers change status in Shyok basin, East Karakoram in terms of area and mass balance, and to ascertain if glaciers in this part of Karakoram also display similar anomaly like central or western counterparts. The spatio-temporal monitoring of glaciers during the time frame of 24 years (1990/2000/2014) suggests major percentage of stable glaciers and insignificant retreat in the total glaciated area. The percentage of retreating glaciers has increased after year 2000. Area change analysis of glaciers having size >1 km2 (569 glaciers) suggests the number of fluctuated glaciers have substantially increased i.e. overall 56% glaciers remained stable, 35% retreated and 9% advanced during 1990-2014. The geodetic based findings using SRTM-C (2000) and Cartosat-1 (2010/2011/2014) stereo-imageries for 201 glaciers suggest the mass loss at the rate of -0.10 ± 0.07 m w.e. a-1. To better apprehend the status of glaciers changes in the region, climatic studies using in-situ observations as well as reanalysis dataset (ERA-I) were also undertaken of past 30 years. Therefore, this study is also a maiden attempt to ascertain if along with Karakoram anomaly, a climatic anomaly exists in the Eastern parts of Karakoram or not. A long term field collected snow-meteorological data of East Karakoram region suggests overall warming trend in annual temperature and no trend for snowfall during 1985-2015. The statistically significant increased rates of warming and decreased snowfall after year 2000 support the spatial variations in glaciers of East Karakoram and marginal mass loss. The observations of the marginal mass loss along with warming temperatures indicate that no Karakoram or climatic anomaly is existent over the East Karakoram region. Our study further refutes the prevalence of the elevation-dependent warming (EDW) over East Karakoram region vis-à-vis North-West Himalayan ranges. The impact of hiatus in global warming was also not observed over studied region.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Caby J, Ziane Y, E Lamarque (2020)

The determinants of voluntary climate change disclosure commitment and quality in the banking industry.

Technological forecasting and social change, 161:120282.

Banks are both impacted by climate change and crucial for the implementation of sound practices and behaviors to combat climate change. The aim of this research is to identify the determinants of banks' voluntary climate change disclosure and the quality of that disclosure. Using data on 117 banks from 40 developed and developed countries around the world, we use ordinary least square regression and multivariate logit analysis to show that country-level and bank-level characteristics are much better predictors of bank commitment to voluntary carbon disclosure initiatives and environmental scores than they are of carbon disclosure quality. Banks want to project themselves as good citizens when they are located in a developed and environmentally friendly country, profitable, less risky, and subject to multiple-listing constraints. However, the picture is unclear when it comes to the implementation of rigorous carbon disclosure. This study extends the current state of knowledge on the impacts of size and country-level characteristics on carbon disclosure, finding that size and national context are not independent of carbon disclosure.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Oti JO, Kabo-Bah AT, E Ofosu (2020)

Hydrologic response to climate change in the Densu River Basin in Ghana.

Heliyon, 6(8):e04722.

Climate change continues to pose a threat to the sustainability of water resources. Global warming can have several effects on the water resources and water demands in the Densu River Basin especially household water use and agriculture use among several others. However, the extents to which the hydrology of the Densu River Basin is will be altered in the future remains unknown. In this research, the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP21) system was used to study the impacts of future climate change on water resources in the Densu River Basin. Future climate data (rainfall and temperature) for the period 2051-2080 was generated from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute's climate models (ICHEC-EC-EARTH and RCA4) for RCP4.5 scenario under CORDEX experiment. The results of the study indicate that the Densu River Basin will experience a temperature increase by 8.23% and a 17% reduction in rainfall resulting in 58.3% reduction in water resources in the area. The climate change impact analysis indicates a reduction in the river streamflow due to decrease in rainfall. It is recommended that future research on climate change adaptation for water management in the Densu River Basin should be conducted.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Onofri L, PALD Nunes (2020)

Economic valuation for policy support in the context of ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change: An indicator, integrated based approach.

Heliyon, 6(8):e04650.

Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) includes a set of natural capital-based measures to adapt to climate change. UN Environment has called for measuring EbA costs and benefits before promoting the adoption of such a policy. Within such policy input, the paper objective is twofold. It first performs a critical survey of economic and valuation studies that measure the costs and benefits of undertaking EBA measures. It then proposes an integrated valuation approach, based on a set of 54 economic indicators that include ecological aspects and encompass the technical, financial and academic difficulties to perform thorough cost-benefit exercises, by providing policymakers with simple, though rigorous evidence.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Felver TB (2020)

How can Azerbaijan meet its Paris Agreement commitments: assessing the effectiveness of climate change-related energy policy options using LEAP modeling.

Heliyon, 6(8):e04697 pii:e04697.

Azerbaijan has committed to cut GHG emissions by 35% by 2030 under the Paris Agreement. By applying LEAP, a well-regarded forecasting model based on inventories defined under the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), GHG emissions projections are modeled in three scenarios: a without measures (WOM) scenario or business-as-usual, which assumes no change to current behavior, a with existing measures (WEM) scenario, which takes into account currently planned measures in Azerbaijan, and an EU policy scenario, which mirrors the existing mitigation measures of the European Union. The WOM scenario of total GHG emissions from the energy sector indicates that from 2010 to 2030, total emissions will increase by 67% in Azerbaijan. In the WEM scenario, forecasted GHG emissions are only 29.7% lower than the base year and still above the nation's Paris Agreement commitment. In the EU policy scenario, projected GHG emissions are 37.2% lower than the base year. Therefore, current mitigation measures are insufficient for Azerbaijan to meet its commitments to the Paris Agreement, and stronger measures than currently planned are necessary. Because of its status as a developing nation with limited resources, Azerbaijan must have funding from developed nations promised under the Paris Agreement to transition towards a less carbon-heavy economy.

RevDate: 2020-09-14
CmpDate: 2020-09-14

Jha SK, Negi AK, Alatalo JM, et al (2020)

Assessment of climate change pattern in the Pauri Garhwal of the Western Himalayan Region: based on climate parameters and perceptions of forest-dependent communities.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 192(10):632 pii:10.1007/s10661-020-08575-w.

This study assessed the climate change in Pauri district, Uttarakhand, India, a region highly vulnerable to climate change with potentially high loss of livelihoods and lives. The scale of change in the district's climate was analyzed using meteorological station data (1901-2000) and grid data (1985-2015). Perceptions of climate change among forest-dependent communities in three altitude zones (< 1200 m asl (zone A); 1200-1800 m asl (zone B), and > 1800 m asl (zone C)) in the study region were surveyed with respect to 14 climate-specific indicators. Annual mean, maximum, and minimum temperature of seasonal data indicated increasing trends except monsoon. Percentage cloud cover showed an increase, of approximately 3%, while diurnal temperature displayed decreasing trends. Rainfall in the district showed a decreasing trend, with more than 50% of years 1985-2015 receiving less rainfall than the annual average. More than 90% of respondents in zones A and B, and around 65-70% respondents in zone C, reported changes in climate parameters. These findings confirm the long-term observable changes in climate in the region and demonstrate the utility of station data, grid data, and surveys of local communities' perceptions when analyzing climate change. The analysis provided important clues about the nature of climate changes in the district. The results can be used to reduce the gap between bottom-up understanding and top-down policies and to formulate precautionary and ongoing site-specific adaptation practices for communities in different altitude zones in the study region, leading to effective and efficient mitigation of climate change impacts.

RevDate: 2020-09-10

Patil M, KJ Jeffery (2020)

What does climate change mean for occupational health professionals?.

Occupational medicine (Oxford, England), 70(6):386-388.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Schiermeier Q (2019)

False statements about climate change trip people up.

RevDate: 2020-09-14
CmpDate: 2020-09-14

Hu X, Fan H, Cai M, et al (2020)

A less cloudy picture of the inter-model spread in future global warming projections.

Nature communications, 11(1):4472 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-18227-9.

Model warming projections, forced by increasing greenhouse gases, have a large inter-model spread in both their geographical warming patterns and global mean values. The inter-model warming pattern spread (WPS) limits our ability to foresee the severity of regional impacts on nature and society. This paper focuses on uncovering the feedbacks responsible for the WPS. Here, we identify two dominant WPS modes whose global mean values also explain 98.7% of the global warming spread (GWS). We show that the ice-albedo feedback spread explains uncertainties in polar regions while the water vapor feedback spread explains uncertainties elsewhere. Other processes, including the cloud feedback, contribute less to the WPS as their spreads tend to cancel each other out in a model-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that the WPS and GWS could be significantly reduced by narrowing the inter-model spreads of ice-albedo and water vapor feedbacks, and better understanding the spatial coupling between feedbacks.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Byrd B, Richards SL, Runkle JD, et al (2020)

Vector-borne Diseases and Climate Change: North Carolina's Policy Should Promote Regional Resilience.

North Carolina medical journal, 81(5):324-330.

Emerging and endemic vector-borne diseases remain significant causes of morbidity and economic burden in North Carolina. Effective policies must promote climate change resilience through public health preparedness at local and regional scales to proactively address the diverse environmental, climatic, and demographic factors amplifying vector-borne disease risk.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Kearney GD, L Garzon (2020)

Calor Extremo: On the Frontlines of Climate Change with North Carolina Farmworkers.

North Carolina medical journal, 81(5):311-314.

Increasingly hotter temperatures threaten the environment and pose serious risks to human health. From contending with damaged crops and loss of work due to extreme weather to working in life-threateningly hot and humid temperatures, agricultural farmworkers are on the front lines of this harsh reality.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Mevy JP, Loriod B, Liu X, et al (2020)

Response of Downy Oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) to Climate Change: Transcriptome Assembly, Differential Gene Analysis and Targeted Metabolomics.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9): pii:plants9091149.

Global change scenarios in the Mediterranean basin predict a precipitation reduction within the coming hundred years. Therefore, increased drought will affect forests both in terms of adaptive ecology and ecosystemic services. However, how vegetation might adapt to drought is poorly understood. In this report, four years of climate change was simulated by excluding 35% of precipitation above a downy oak forest. RNASeq data allowed us to assemble a genome-guided transcriptome. This led to the identification of differentially expressed features, which was supported by the characterization of target metabolites using a metabolomics approach. We provided 2.5 Tb of RNASeq data and the assembly of the first genome guided transcriptome of Quercus pubescens. Up to 5724 differentially expressed transcripts were obtained; 42 involved in plant response to drought. Transcript set enrichment analysis showed that drought induces an increase in oxidative pressure that is mitigated by the upregulation of ubiquitin-like protein protease, ferrochelatase, oxaloacetate decarboxylase and oxo-acid-lyase activities. Furthermore, the downregulation of auxin biosynthesis and transport, carbohydrate storage metabolism were observed as well as the concomitant accumulation of metabolites, such as oxalic acid, malate and isocitrate. Our data suggest that early metabolic changes in the resistance of Q. pubescens to drought involve a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle shunt through the glyoxylate pathway, galactose metabolism by reducing carbohydrate storage and increased proteolytic activity.

RevDate: 2020-09-08

Fair KR, Anand M, CT Bauch (2020)

Spatial structure in protected forest-grassland mosaics: Exploring futures under climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

In mosaic ecosystems, multiple land types coexist as alternative stable states exhibiting distinct spatial patterns. Forest-grassland mosaics are ecologically valuable, due to their high species richness. However, anthropogenic disturbances threaten these ecosystems. Designating protected areas is one approach to preserving natural mosaics. Such work must account for climate change, yet there are few spatially explicit models of mosaics under climate change that can predict its effects. We construct a spatially explicit simulation model for a natural forest-grassland mosaic, parameterized for Southern Brazil. Using this model, we investigate how the spatial structure of these systems is altered under climate change and other disturbance regimes. By including local spatial interactions and fire-mediated forest recruitment, our model reproduces important spatial features of protected real-world mosaics, including the number of forest patches and overall forest cover. Multiple concurrent changes in environmental conditions have greater impacts on tree cover and spatial structure in simulated mosaics than single changes. This sensitivity reflects the narrow range of conditions under which simulated mosaics persist and emphasizes their vulnerability. Our model predicts that, in protected mosaics, climate change impacts on the fire-mediated threshold to recruitment will likely result in substantial increases in forest cover under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, with potential for mosaic loss over a broad range of initial forest cover levels. Forest cover trajectories are similar until 2150, when cover increases under RCP 8.5 outpace those under RCP 2.6. Mosaics that persist under RCP 8.5 may experience structural alterations at the patch and landscape level. Our simple model predicts several realistic aspects of spatial structure as well as plausible responses to likely regional climate shifts. Hence, further model development could provide a useful tool when building strategies for protecting these ecosystems, by informing site selection for conservation areas that will be favourable to forest-grassland mosaics under future climates.

RevDate: 2020-09-11

Santidrián Tomillo P, JR Spotila (2020)

Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in Sea Turtles in the Context of Climate Change: Uncovering the Adaptive Significance.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

The adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in reptiles remains unknown decades after TSD was first identified in this group. Concurrently, there is growing concern about the effect that rising temperatures may have on species with TSD, potentially producing extremely biased sex ratios or offspring of only one sex. The current state-of the-art in TSD research on sea turtles is reviewed here and, against current paradigm, it is proposed that TSD provides an advantage under warming climates. By means of coadaptation between early survival and sex ratios, sea turtles are able to maintain populations. When offspring survival declines at high temperatures, the sex that increases future fecundity (females) is produced, increasing resilience to climate warming. TSD could have helped reptiles to survive mass extinctions in the past via this model. Flaws in research on sex determination in sea turtles are also identified and it is suggested that the development of new techniques will revolutionize the field.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Zanmassou YC, Al-Hassan RM, Mensah-Bonsu A, et al (2020)

Assessment of smallholder farmers' adaptive capacity to climate change: Use of a mixed weighting scheme.

Journal of environmental management, 276:111275 pii:S0301-4797(20)31199-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Weighting scheme definition represents an important step in assessment of adaptive capacity to climate change with indicator approach since it defines the trade-offs among indicators or components and can be source of uncertainty. This study aims to assess smallholder farmers' adaptive capacity to climate change by using a mixed weighting scheme that reflect farmers' perceived importance of adaptive capacity components to inform policy makers. To achieve that objective, the sustainable livelihood framework was adopted and indicator approach was used for the assessment. The mixed weighting scheme were defined by using both equal weights and experts judgement methods during the assessment process. The mixed weighting scheme index is compared to the case where equal weights are applied in the assessment process and an uncertainty analysis was performed on relative standard deviation through a Monte Carlo simulation. Primary Data were collected from 450 farmers in two communities in northern Benin with a structured questionnaire and through focus groups discussion. The results show that smallholder farmers in both communities do not have the same perceived importance of adaptive capacity components. The index scores show that farmers have in majority low adaptive capacity. When weighted product aggregation method is used, there is more uncertainty related to the index computed with the mixed weighting scheme, but it leads to the same characterisation when compared with the index computed with the equal weights. It is recommended that mixed weighting scheme should be preferred for the assessment of adaptive capacity and weighted product aggregation method should be used.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Hrabok M, Delorme A, VIO Agyapong (2020)

Threats to Mental Health and Well-Being Associated with Climate Change.

Journal of anxiety disorders, 76:102295 pii:S0887-6185(20)30109-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is a contributor to extreme weather events and natural disasters. The mental health effects of climate change are multifaceted, with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression predominant. This paper aims to describe the impact of climate change on mental health conditions, including risk and protective factors related to the expression of mental health conditions post-disaster, as well as a discussion of our local experience with a devastating wildfire to our region within Canada. The risk of the development of mental health conditions post-disaster is not equally distributed; research has consistently demonstrated that specific risk factors (e.g., gender, socioeconomic status and education, pre-existing mental health symptomatology), are associated with increased vulnerability to mental health conditions following natural disasters. There are multiple strategies that must be undertaken by communities to enhance adjustment and coping post-disaster, including improved access to care, inter-agency cooperation, enhanced community resiliency, and adequate preparation.

RevDate: 2020-09-08

Liu J, Potter T, S Zahner (2020)

Policy brief on climate change and mental health/well-being.

Nursing outlook, 68(4):517-522.

Climate change has a significant global impact on individuals' mental health and well-being. However, global health systems are inadequately prepared to address this issue. Studies indicate that climate events such as floods, droughts, tornados, earthquakes, and fires not only exacerbate chronic mental illness, but also impact well-being causing anxiety, stress, and in the worst case, suicide. The World Health Organization estimates that 12.6 million preventable deaths per year can be attributed to environmental factors, all of which are exacerbated by climate change, and an additional 250,000 deaths per year are projected between 2030 and 2050. Nurses must advocate for research, education, and policies that support disaster-resilient infrastructure and human services that allow communities across the globe to effectively mitigate the impact of climate change on human health.

RevDate: 2020-09-07

Khoury S, DA Coomes (2020)

Resilience of Spanish forests to recent droughts and climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

A widespread increase in forest cover is underway in northern Mediterranean forests because of land abandonment and decreased wood demand, but the resilience of these successional forests to climate change remains unresolved. Here we use 18-year time series of canopy greenness derived from satellite imagery (NDVI) to evaluate the impacts of climate change on Spain's forests. Specifically, we analyzed how NDVI was influenced by the climatic water balance (i.e. Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI), using monthly time-series extracted from 3,100 pixels of forest, categorized into ten forest types. The forests increased in leaf area index by 0.01 per year on average (from 1.7 in 2000 to 1.9 in 2017) but there was enormous variation among years related to climatic water balance. Forest types varied in response to drought events: those dominated by drought-avoiding species showed strong covariance between greenness and SPEI, while those dominated by drought-tolerant species showed weak covariance. Native forests usually recovered more than 80% of greenness within the 18 months and the remainder within 5 years, but plantations of Eucalyptus were less resilient. Management to increase the resilience of forests-a key goal of forestry in the Mediterranean region-appears to have had a positive effect: canopy greenness within protected forests was more resilient to drought than within non-protected forests. In conclusion, many of Spain's successional forests have been resilient to drought over the past 18 years, from the perspective of space. Future studies will need to combine remote sensing with field-based analyses of physiological tolerances and mortality processes to understand how Mediterranean forests will respond to the rapid climate change predicted for this region in the coming decades.

RevDate: 2020-09-07

Haris SM, Mustafa FB, RN Raja Ariffin (2020)

Systematic Literature Review of Climate Change Governance Activities of Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations in Southeast Asia.

Environmental management pii:10.1007/s00267-020-01355-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental nongovernmental organizations (ENGOs) are considered key players for engendering good climate change governance to address both climate change and sustainable development. The participation of ENGOs in climate change governance occurs in a four-phase policy cycle. They include (1) identification of policy options, (2) policy formulation, (3) policy implementation, and (4) policy monitoring and evaluation. The ENGOs, however, have been criticized for their lack of effectiveness, and their roles in tackling climate change remain unclear. To date, the study on the roles and activities of Southeast Asian ENGOs in climate change governance has been under-researched. This study, therefore, applies a systematic literature review of 19 published articles from Scopus and Web of Science-indexed journal to understand the current state of the Southeast Asian ENGOs participation in climate change governance based on the four-phase policy cycle. The findings show that the ENGOs in Southeast Asia are involved directly and indirectly in climate change governance. They are significant actors in the implementation of the climate change policy, but they play a minimal role in the formulation of said policy. It implies that they could also be a vital partner to the government in the climate change governance process as they can bring effective policy improvements. Lastly, this review will recommend future avenues of research for scholars.

RevDate: 2020-09-06

Nagai S, Saitoh TM, H Morimoto (2020)

Does global warming decrease the correlation between cherry blossom flowering date and latitude in Japan?.

International journal of biometeorology pii:10.1007/s00484-020-02004-w [Epub ahead of print].

In Japan, the geographical distribution of the first date of flowering (FFD) of Yoshino cherry trees (Cerasus ×yedoensis) in 2020, a year when temperatures were mild during the previous December and March, was different from the average FFD, which progresses northward along a latitudinal gradient. We hypothesized that global warming may have changed the average geographical pattern of the FFD. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between the observed FFD and latitude at 42 sites during the period 1953-2020. We found that the correlation between FFD and latitude had decreased since 1980. This decrease may have been caused by a rise of temperatures in winter that delayed dormancy release and the subsequent FFD in areas where the annual mean temperature is high. Our results suggest that the correlation between FFD and latitude will decrease further as the climate warms in the future.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Zhang H, Huo S, Yeager KM, et al (2020)

Sedimentary DNA record of eukaryotic algal and cyanobacterial communities in a shallow Lake driven by human activities and climate change.

The Science of the total environment, 753:141985 pii:S0048-9697(20)35514-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Global freshwater lakes are changing due to human activities and climate change. Unfortunately, sufficient long-term monitoring is lacking for most lakes. However, lake sedimentary archives can extend the instrumental record and reveal historical environmental trends. In particular, sedimentary DNA analysis of lacustrine sediment cores can aid the reconstruction of past trends in eukaryotic algal and cyanobacterial communities, as was conducted in this study for Lake Chaohu in China. The results presented here indicate that the construction of the Chaohu Dam in 1963 is associated with decreased richness of eukaryotic algal and cyanobacterial communities. Several groups, including the eukaryotic algal taxa, Chlorophyceae, and cyanobacterial groups like Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Planktothricoides, Cyanobium, Pseudanabaena, and Synechococcus, increased in abundance following inferred historical nutrient enrichment. Nutrient concentrations and hydrologic conditions were further implicated as the dominant controls on communities based on Random Forest and generalized additive modeling statistical analyses. In particular, significant increases in lake hydraulic residence times after the construction of the Chaohu Dam were significantly associated with altered biological community structures. Further, phosphorus enrichment was positively associated with increased richness and diversity of these communities following the 1980s. In addition, effects from increased atmospheric temperatures on eukaryotic algal and cyanobacterial communities were apparent. Here, high-throughput sequencing analysis of sedimentary DNA allowed the inference of long-term biodiversity dynamics of Lake Chaohu. These results underscore the important impacts of anthropogenic activities and climate change on aquatic ecosystems at the decadal scale.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Theusme C, Avendaño-Reyes L, Macías-Cruz U, et al (2020)

Climate change vulnerability of confined livestock systems predicted using bioclimatic indexes in an arid region of México.

The Science of the total environment, 751:141779 pii:S0048-9697(20)35308-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is a major world-wide challenge to livestock production because food security is likely to be compromised by increased heat stress of the animals. The objective of this study was to characterize, using bioclimatic indexes, two livestock regions located in an arid zone of México, and to use this information to predict the impact of global warming on animal production systems of these regions located in the state of Baja California (México). A 5-year database (i.e., 2011 to 2015) consisting of about one million data points from two zones (i.e., coast, valley) from four meteorological stations in the north of Baja California were used. Bioclimatic indexes were constructed for the four types of livestock production systems most common in this region, being: dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, pigs. The temperature-humidity index (THI) thresholds used to classify heat stress were determined and scaled for each livestock species as: THIbeef and THIpig 74 units; THImilk 72 units; and THIsheep 23 units. Statistical differences between indices were detected (P < 0.01) during summer for the valley and coast zones as (THIbeef = 72.9 and 51.8; THImilk = 80.6 and 67.4; THIpigs = 83.9 and 65.2; THIsheep = 29.5 and 20.1 units). Coast zone weather did not suggest vulnerability of livestock production systems to heat stress at any time of the year, but heat stress risk during summer for valley zone dairy cattle, sheep and pigs was classified as severe, but lower for feedlot cattle. Prediction models showed significant adjustment just in the coastal zone for THImilk, THIsheep, and THIsheep, suggesting more impact of global warming during summer in the coastal zone. Use of management strategies to reduce heat load of domestic animals during summer in northern Baja California is essential to maintain their productivity, with more emphasis in the valley zone.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Del Buono D (2020)

Can biostimulants be used to mitigate the effect of anthropogenic climate change on agriculture? It is time to respond.

The Science of the total environment, 751:141763 pii:S0048-9697(20)35292-X [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic climate change, namely climate alterations induced by human activities, is causing some issues to agricultural systems for their vulnerability to extreme events. Forecasts predict a global population increase in the near years that will exacerbate this situation, elevating the global demand for food. It will pose severe concerns in terms of natural resource usage and availability. Agriculture is one of the anthropogenic activities that will be more affected in the future. Climate extremes menace to affect the quantity and quality of crop production severely. Drought, water and soil salinity are considered among the most problematic factors that anthropogenic climate change will increase. This complex and worrying scenario requires the urgent implementation of sustainable measures which are capable of improving crop yield and quality, fostering the robustness and resilience of cropping systems. Among the more current methodology, the use of natural plant biostimulants (PBs) has been proposed to improve plant resistance to abiotic environmental stresses. The advantage of using these substances is due to their effectiveness in improving crop productivity and quality. Therefore, in this review, the most recent researches dealing with the use of natural PBs for improving plant resistance to drought and salinity, in an anthropogenic climate change scenario, have been reported and critically discussed.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Guo H, Wang R, Garfin GM, et al (2020)

Rice drought risk assessment under climate change: Based on physical vulnerability a quantitative assessment method.

The Science of the total environment, 751:141481 pii:S0048-9697(20)35010-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Drought is the most serious natural disaster causing severe damage to agriculture. Drought impacts on rice (Oryza sativa) production present a major threat to future global food security. In this paper, the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to simulate the growth of rice, in different periods (short-term (2019-2039), medium-term (2040-2069), long-term (2070-2099)), based on multiple Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. Drought intensity and rice physical vulnerability curves were assessed, based on the output parameters of EPIC, to evaluate global rice yield risk, due to drought. The results show that the average expected loss rate of global rice yield may reach 13.1% (±0.4%) in the future. The high-risk area of rice drought is mainly located in the north of 30°N. The fluctuation of rice drought risk and the proportion of increased risk areas will increase significantly. About 77.6% of the changes in rice drought risk are explained by variations in shortwave radiation (r = 0.88). Projections show that the average value of daily shortwave radiation increases by 1 W/m2 during the rice growth period, accompanied by an expected rice yield loss rate of about 12.7%. The rice drought risk methods presented in this paper provide plausible estimates of forecasting future drought risk under climate change, and address challenges of sparse data; we believe these methods can be applied to decisions for reducing drought-related crop losses and ensuring global food security.

RevDate: 2020-09-14

Middleton J, Cunsolo A, Jones-Bitton A, et al (2020)

"We're people of the snow:" Weather, climate change, and Inuit mental wellness.

Social science & medicine (1982), 262:113137.

Rapid environmental change due to climate change impacts Inuit mental wellness by altering the relationships between people, place, livelihoods, and culture. Little is known, however, about how fluctuations in weather contribute to the experience of place and the connection to mental wellness in Inuit communities. This study aimed to characterize the importance of changes in weather among Inuit, and how these changes influence mental health and wellness in the context of climate change. Data were drawn from a community-driven and Inuit-led study in the Nunatsiavut region of Labrador, Canada. In-depth interviews (n = 116 people) were conducted between November 2012 to May 2013 in the five Nunatsiavut communities. Qualitative data were thematically analyzed using a constant comparative method. Results indicated that weather impacted mental wellness through three key pathways: 1) shaping daily lived experiences including connection to place and other determinants of wellbeing; 2) altering mood and emotion on a transient basis; and 3) seasonally influencing individual and community health and wellbeing. These results demonstrate the immediate role weather has in shaping mental wellness in Nunatsiavut. In turn, this understanding of the climate-mental wellness relationship points to multiple pathways for action on climate adaptation policy and programming, and underscores the need for more culturally-specific and place-based investigations to appropriately respond to the mental health impacts of climate change.

RevDate: 2020-09-07

Almeida-Silva J, Campos DF, VMF Almeida-Val (2020)

Metabolic adjustment of Pyrrhulina aff. brevis exposed to different climate change scenarios.

Journal of thermal biology, 92:102657.

The increases in CO2 concentrations and, consequently, temperature due to climate change are predicted to intensify. Understanding the physiological responses of Pyrrhulina aff. brevis to the climatic scenarios proposed by the IPCC (2014) for the next 100 years is of fundamental importance to determine its susceptibility. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the predicted climatic scenarios for the year 2100 on the metabolic adjustments of P. aff. brevis . Specifically, the rate of oxygen uptake, electron transport system capacity, glycogen and lactate content and the role of Na+K+-ATPases and H+-ATPase were evaluated. P. aff. brevis individuals were exposed for 15 days to the simulated climatic scenarios in climate scenario rooms, where temperature and CO2 in the air were controlled. Two rooms were used to simulate the climatic scenarios predicted by the IPCC (2014): moderate (RCP 6; 2.5 °C and 400 μatm CO2 above current levels) and extreme (RCP 8.5; 4.5 °C and 900 μatm CO2 above current levels), in addition to the "control room" that represents the current scenario. There was an increase in the metabolic rate (MO2) in the animals acclimated to the climate change scenarios (RCP 6 and RCP 8.5) compared to the current scenario. These responses showed a typical effect of temperature on energy demand in relation to the increase in temperature and CO2. Our data showed an increase in O2 consumption (MO2), lactate levels and H+-ATPase activity of the animals acclimated to the moderate and extreme climate change scenarios. Such adjustments presented a clear metabolic imbalance, an alteration that may imply challenges for survival, growth, distribution and reproduction in the face of the expected environmental changes for the year 2100.

RevDate: 2020-09-08
CmpDate: 2020-09-08

Mafi-Gholami D, Jaafari A, Zenner EK, et al (2020)

Vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change: Thirty-year trend analysis and prospective prediction for the coastal regions of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

The Science of the total environment, 741:140305.

This study relates changes in social vulnerability of 20 counties on the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf (PG) and the Gulf of Oman (GO) over a 30-year period (1988-2017) to changing socio-economic conditions and environmental (climate) hazard. Social vulnerability in 2030, 2040 and 2050 is predicted based on the RCP8.5 climate change scenario that projects drought intensities and rising sea levels. Social vulnerability was based on the three dimensions of sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity using 18 socio-economic and five climate indicators identified by experts. All but one indicator related very strongly to the dimension it sought to represent. Despite improvements in adaptive capacity over time, social vulnerability increased between 1988 and 2017 and rates of change accelerated after change point years that occurred between 1998 and 2002 in most counties. Extrapolating past changes of each indicator over time enabled forecasts of social vulnerability in the future. While social variability decreased between 2017 and 2030, it increased again between 2030 and 2050. The lowest future social vulnerability is expected along the eastern PG coast, the greatest along the western PG and the GO. The worsening of socio-economic indicators contributed to increased sensitivity, and increased drought intensities plus the expected rise in sea levels will lead to social vulnerabilities in 2050 comparable to present levels. Between 1.4 and 1.7 M people will live in areas that are likely submerged by water in the future. About 80% of these people live in six counties with variable social vulnerabilities. While counties with lower social variabilities might be better able to cope with the challenges posed by climate change, adaptation programs to enhance the resilience of the residents in these and the remaining counties along the PG and the GO need to be implemented soon to avoid uncontrolled mass migration of millions of people from the region.

RevDate: 2020-09-08
CmpDate: 2020-09-08

Zou Q, Cui P, Jiang H, et al (2020)

Analysis of regional river blocking by debris flows in response to climate change.

The Science of the total environment, 741:140262.

The river-blocking effects of debris flows have become common in numerous catchments in response to climate and environmental changes, and these effects have caused multiple, overlapping, and interconnected chain reactions that have led to huge losses in alpine regions. Considering this issue, this article developed a quantitative method for the regional river-blocking hazard assessment of debris flows by analyzing the in-depth relations among river-blocking hazard formation processes, factors and evolution mechanisms. Taking the debris flows in the Parlung Zangbo Basin in China as a case study, a multidimensional analysis was performed to analyze the characteristics of the hazard sequence and its relationship with climate change, including changes in temperature and precipitation. Accordingly, a new step toward a more comprehensive hazard assessment is proposed by establishing both a model and a system for regional river-blocking hazard assessment to analyze the debris flow evolution processes and environmental dynamics. Specifically, the sources of loose material were quantitatively estimated by establishing mathematical models based on the geometrical characteristics of diverse moraines, and the debris flow runoff was scientifically determined by focusing on the analysis of moraine sources, the brittleness index of the sediment mass and the geomorphological connectivity. Next, through coupling with the hydrodynamic conditions of debris flows and river flows, methods were established to determine the blocking degree of debris flow hazards at the regional scale. Validated by a field study and a remote-sensing interpretation of actual debris flows, a debris-flow-induced river-blocking hazard map was obtained, and the assessment results were in accordance with the actual disaster situation. The analysis shows that the distribution of zones with high to very high levels of river blocking is closely correlated with the topographic characteristics and actual disaster sequences of debris flows. These findings suggest that the assessment results provide scientific support for engineering planning and hazard prevention in climate-sensitive areas; thus, the presented method may serve as pertinent guidance for regional river-blocking hazard assessments of debris flows in the Parlung Zangbo Basin and beyond.

RevDate: 2020-09-04

Poudyal NC, Joshi O, Hodges DG, et al (2020)

Climate change, risk perception, and protection motivation among high-altitude residents of the Mt. Everest region in Nepal.

Ambio pii:10.1007/s13280-020-01369-x [Epub ahead of print].

Mountain ecosystems are considered vulnerable to early impacts of climate change. Whether and how local residents of these areas perceive these changes, however, remain under-studied questions. By conducting a household survey in the Khumbu region of Nepal, this study assessed local residents' experience-based perception of changes in climate trends and patterns, perceived risk, and attitudes towards climate issues. Multivariate cluster analysis based on residents' climate change beliefs revealed three segments: "Cautious," "Disengaged," and "Alarmed." A comparison of these segments along key psychosocial constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) revealed significant inter-segment differences in residents' perception of severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and response cost associated with engaging in mitigating behavior. Results shed light on how residents of high elevation areas that are considered to be exposed to early impacts of climate change perceive the risk and intend to respond. These findings could also assist stakeholders working in other similar mountain ecosystems in understanding vulnerability and in working towards climate readiness.

RevDate: 2020-09-05

Yin R, Kardol P, Thakur MP, et al (2020)

Soil functional biodiversity and biological quality under threat: intensive land use outweighs climate change.

Soil biology & biochemistry, 147:.

Climate change and land use intensification are the two most common global change drivers of biodiversity loss. Like other organisms, the soil meso-fauna are expected to modify their functional diversity and composition in response to climate and land use changes. Here, we investigated the functional responses of Collembola, one of the most abundant and ecologically important groups of soil invertebrates. This study was conducted at the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF) in central Germany, where we tested the effects of climate (ambient vs. 'future' as projected for this region for the years between 2070 and 2100), land use (conventional farming, organic farming, intensively-used meadow, extensively-used meadow, and extensively-used pasture), and their interactions on the functional diversity (FD), community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (life-history, morphology), and functional composition of Collembola, as well as the Soil Biological Quality-Collembola (QBS-c) index. We found that land use was overwhelmingly the dominant driver of shifts in functional diversity, functional traits, and functional composition of Collembola, and of shifts in soil biological quality. These significant land use effects were mainly due to the differences between the two main land use types, i.e. cropland vs. grasslands. Specifically, Collembola functional biodiversity and soil biological quality were significantly lower in croplands than grasslands. However, no interactive effect of climate × land use was found in this study, suggesting that land use effects on Collembola were independent of the climate change scenario. Overall, our study shows that functional responses of Collembola are highly vulnerable to land use intensification under both climate scenarios. We conclude that land use changes reduce functional biodiversity and biological quality of soil.

RevDate: 2020-09-04

Jordan CJ, AA Palmer (2020)

Correction: ACNP efforts toward reducing climate change.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

RevDate: 2020-09-07
CmpDate: 2020-09-07

Saez de Bikuña K, Garcia R, Dias AC, et al (2020)

Global warming implications from increased forest biomass utilization for bioenergy in a supply-constrained context.

Journal of environmental management, 263:110292.

This article analyzes different forest management strategies to meet the increasing demand of biomass for bioenergy and assesses the resulting global warming implications. Applied to maritime pine forest plantations in Portugal, the assessed strategies are: full harvest of residues (FULL); sustainable and proactive management (SMART); expansion of forest plantations on abandoned farmland (EXP); and biomass import (IMP). A dynamic CO2 inventory was obtained for each scenario using a parametric stand-level C-flux model adapted to Portuguese conditions, which was then extended to the landscape-level and coupled to a dynamic climate model. The time-adjusted absolute global warming potential (AGWP) was then calculated at both stand and landscape levels, considering the timing of all CO2 emissions and uptakes (both fossil and biogenic). To test the robustness of the findings, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results show that, in a supply-constrained context like Portugal, SMART and EXP management strategies can provide important global warming mitigation benefits (GWPbio < 0), although their supply-response is slow (long-term strategies). On the other hand, FULL and IMP management strategies show moderate to null AGWP reduction potential (0 < GWPbio < 1), while involving other possible risks (e.g., exacerbated soil erosion, nutrient depletion or uncertain impacts abroad), but their supply-response is fast (short-term strategies). National forest regulations and energy policies should be revised to address the drawbacks related to all management strategies and to unleash the multiple environmental benefits they can provide in the short- and long-term.

RevDate: 2020-09-04

Lee K, J Barnett (2020)

'Will polar bears melt?' A qualitative analysis of children's questions about climate change.

Public understanding of science (Bristol, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change poses a grave threat to future generations, yet relatively little research examines children's understandings of the issue. This study examines the questions children ask about climate change - rather than their answers to adults' questions - exploring whether their questions suggest they view climate change as psychologically proximal or distant. Children aged 10-12 from 14 UK schools took part in an online event, asking scientists questions in a 'climate zone'. The questions were analysed using thematic analysis. The themes related to the nature and reality of climate change, its causes, impacts, and solutions. Participants seemed most exercised about the future impacts of and ways of ameliorating climate change, with some questions evoking science-fiction disaster imagery. The contents of participants' questions elucidated the ways in which they position climate change as both a proximal and distant phenomenon.

RevDate: 2020-09-04

Wufu A, Wang H, Chen Y, et al (2020)

Lake water volume fluctuations in response to climate change in Xinjiang, China from 2002 to 2018.

PeerJ, 8:e9683.

Climate change has a global impact on the water cycle and its spatial patterns, and these impacts are more pronounced in eco-fragile regions. Arid regions are significantly affected by human activities like farming, and climate change, which influences lake water volumes, especially in different latitudes. This study integrates radar altimetry data from 2002 to 2018 with optical remote sensing images to analyze changes in the lake areas, levels, and volumes at different altitudes in Xinjiang, China. We analyzed changes in lake volumes in March, June, and October and studied their causes. The results showed large changes in the surface areas, levels, and volumes of lakes at different altitudes. During 2002-2010, the lakes in low- and medium-altitude areas were shrinking but lakes in high altitude areas were expanding. Monthly analysis revealed more diversified results: the lake water levels and volumes tended to decrease in March (-0.10 m/year, 37.55×108 m3) and increase in June (0.03 m/year, 3.48×108 m3) and October (0.04 m/year, 26.90×108 m3). The time series lake water volume data was reconstructed for 2011 to 2018 based on the empirical model and the total lake water volume showed a slightly increasing trend during this period (71.35×108 m3). We hypothesized that changes in lake water at high altitudes were influenced by temperature-induced glacial snow melt and lake water in low- to medium-altitude areas was most influenced by human activities like agricultural irrigation practices.

RevDate: 2020-09-04

Stephen C, J Wade (2020)

Missing in action: Sustainable climate change adaptation evidence for animal health.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 61(9):966-970.

Health impacts of climate change are now inevitable. The objective of this study was to see if animal health climate change adaptation was a subject of scholarly inquiry, advice, or discussion and if there was an evidence base from which to make adaptation recommendations. A scoping review of English-language literature over the past 10 years was undertaken and the top findings related to animal health adaptation and climate change were inventoried on Google. Documents found in the search focussed predominantly on hypothesizing what hazards might occur with climate change, describing their spread or proposing possible impacts. Scant evidence was found of scholarship related to sustainable animal health climate change adaptation planning or action. Investment and attention to adaptation planning and research are needed to increase confidence in climate change recommendations in the face of continuing uncertainty about the breadth of effects on animal health and the best actions to take in preparing and responding to them.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Cai W, Ng B, Geng T, et al (2020)

Butterfly effect and a self-modulating El Niño response to global warming.

Nature, 585(7823):68-73.

El Niño and La Niña, collectively referred to as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), are not only highly consequential1-6 but also strongly nonlinear7-14. For example, the maximum warm anomalies of El Niño, which occur in the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean, are larger than the maximum cold anomalies of La Niña, which are centred in the equatorial central Pacific Ocean7-9. The associated atmospheric nonlinear thermal damping cools the equatorial Pacific during El Niño but warms it during La Niña15,16. Under greenhouse warming, climate models project an increase in the frequency of strong El Niño and La Niña events, but the change differs vastly across models17, which is partially attributed to internal variability18-23. Here we show that like a butterfly effect24, an infinitesimal random perturbation to identical initial conditions induces vastly different initial ENSO variability, which systematically affects its response to greenhouse warming a century later. In experiments with higher initial variability, a greater cumulative oceanic heat loss from ENSO thermal damping reduces stratification of the upper equatorial Pacific Ocean, leading to a smaller increase in ENSO variability under subsquent greenhouse warming. This self-modulating mechanism operates in two large ensembles generated using two different models, each commencing from identical initial conditions but with a butterfly perturbation24,25; it also operates in a large ensemble generated with another model commencing from different initial conditions25,26 and across climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project27,28. Thus, if the greenhouse-warming-induced increase in ENSO variability29 is initially suppressed by internal variability, future ENSO variability is likely to be enhanced, and vice versa. This self-modulation linking ENSO variability across time presents a different perspective for understanding the dynamics of ENSO variability on multiple timescales in a changing climate.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Galluzzi G, Seyoum A, Halewood M, et al (2020)

The Role of Genetic Resources in Breeding for Climate Change: The Case of Public Breeding Programmes in Eighteen Developing Countries.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(9): pii:plants9091129.

The role of plant breeding in adapting crops to climate changes that affect food production in developing countries is recognized as extremely important and urgent, alongside other agronomic, socio-economic and policy adaptation pathways. To enhance plant breeders' capacity to respond to climate challenges, it is acknowledged that they need to be able to access and use as much genetic diversity as they can get. Through an analysis of data from a global survey, we explore if and how public breeders in selected developing countries are responding to climate challenges through a renewed or innovative use of plant genetic resources, particularly in terms of types of material incorporated into their breeding work as well as sources of such germplasm. It also looks at the possible limitations breeders encounter in their efforts towards exploring diversity for adaptation. Breeders are clearly considering climate challenges. In general, their efforts are aimed at intensifying their breeding work on traits that they were already working on before climate change was so widely discussed. Similarly, the kinds of germplasm they use, and the sources from which they obtain it, do not appear to have changed significantly over the course of recent years. The main challenges breeders faced in accessing germplasm were linked to administrative/legal factors, particularly related to obtaining genetic resources across national borders. They also underscore technical challenges such as a lack of appropriate technologies to exploit germplasm sets such as crop wild relatives and landraces. Addressing these limitations will be crucial to fully enhance the role of public sector breeders in helping to adapt vulnerable agricultural systems to the challenges of climate change.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Awuor L, Meldrum R, EN Liberda (2020)

Institutional Engagement Practices as Barriers to Public Health Capacity in Climate Change Policy Discourse: Lessons from the Canadian Province of Ontario.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(17): pii:ijerph17176338.

Public health engagement in the communication, discussion, and development of climate change policies is essential for climate change policy decisions and discourse. This study examines how the existing governance approaches impact, enable, or constrain the inclusion, participation, and deliberation of public health stakeholders in the climate change policy discourse. Using the case study of the Canadian Province of Ontario, we conducted semi-structured, key informant interviews of public health (11) and non-public health (13) participants engaged in climate change policies in the province. The study results reveal that engagement and partnerships on climate change policies occurred within and across public health and non-public health organizations in Ontario. These engagements impacted public health's roles, decisions, mandate, and capacities beyond the climate change discourse; enabled access to funds, expertise, and new stakeholders; built relationships for future engagements; supported knowledge sharing, generation, and creation; and advanced public health interests in political platforms and decision making. However, public health's participation and deliberation were constrained by a fragmented sectoral approach, a lack of holistic inter-organizational structures and process, political and bureaucratic influences, irregular and unestablished communication channels for public health integration, and identities and culture focused on functions, mandates, biased ideologies, and a lack of clear commitment to engage public health. We conclude by providing practical approaches for integrating public health into climate change discourse and policymaking processes and advancing public health partnerships and collaborative opportunities.

RevDate: 2020-09-02

Rahmasary AN, Koop Steven HA, J van Leeuwen Cornelis (2020)

Assessing Bandung's governance challenges of water, waste and climate change. Lessons from urban Indonesia.

Integrated environmental assessment and management [Epub ahead of print].

This study assesses the gaps, opportunities and priorities of Bandung in managing its water and waste challenges. The City Blueprint Approach is used to identify pressures, to measure the city's Integrated Water Resources Management performance, and to assess its governance. Based on the analyses of Bandung four topics are discussed in more detail: (a) the transferability of the lessons from Bandung, (b) the challenges of solid waste management in Indonesian cities, (c) community-based sanitation, and d) implications for informal settlements. The assessment reveals that Bandung's basic water services are largely met but flood risks are high and waste water treatment is poorly covered leading to large scale pollution. This is amplified by extensive land use change and poor solid waste collection and treatment as waste is almost completely dumped in landfills. Proper solid waste handling will reduce landfills dependency. Slum areas are disproportionately affected by climate-related hazards and continuously under-recognized in the discussion of cities' risk and vulnerability while its dwellers are the most vulnerable members of the society. Bandung has started with slum area legalization which provides slum dwellers with legal security that protects their right to live as well as access to basic public infrastructures. Inadequate monitoring and uncoordinated financial source allocations are among the governance gaps. Governance is reactive and community involvement is low. Yet, Bandung exhibits characteristics of a collaborative city with potential to maximize its cross-stakeholder learning with supportive leadership. Bandung and other cities in Indonesia face multi-level governance gaps. Bandung is recommended to expand the co-operation of private, civil and public actors, to implement network governance and decentralized management approaches focusing on improving the implementing capacity, better monitoring, co-creation and, better exploration of the options for financial support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Boatman TG, Upton GJG, Lawson T, et al (2020)

Projected expansion of Trichodesmium's geographical distribution and increase in growth potential in response to climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Estimates of marine N2 fixation range from 52 to 73 Tg N/year, of which we calculate up to 84% is from Trichodesmium based on previous measurements of nifH gene abundance and our new model of Trichodesmium growth. Here, we assess the likely effects of four major climate change-related abiotic factors on the spatiotemporal distribution and growth potential of Trichodesmium for the last glacial maximum (LGM), the present (2006-2015) and the end of this century (2100) by mapping our model of Trichodesmium growth onto inferred global surface ocean fields of pCO2 , temperature, light and Fe. We conclude that growth rate was severely limited by low pCO2 at the LGM, that current pCO2 levels do not significantly limit Trichodesmium growth and thus, the potential for enhanced growth from future increases in CO2 is small. We also found that the area of the ocean where sea surface temperatures (SST) are within Trichodesmium's thermal niche increased by 32% from the LGM to present, but further increases in SST due to continued global warming will reduce this area by 9%. However, the range reduction at the equator is likely to be offset by enhanced growth associated with expansion of regions with optimal or near optimal Fe and light availability. Between now and 2100, the ocean area of optimal SST and irradiance is projected to increase by 7%, and the ocean area of optimal SST, irradiance and iron is projected to increase by 173%. Given the major contribution of this keystone species to annual N2 fixation and thus pelagic ecology, biogeochemistry and CO2 sequestration, the projected increase in the geographical range for optimal growth could provide a negative feedback to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Luter HM, Andersen M, Versteegen E, et al (2020)

Cross-generational effects of climate change on the microbiome of a photosynthetic sponge.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Coral reefs are facing increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification. Sponges have been proposed as possible winners in the face of climate change; however, little is known about the mechanisms underpinning their predicted tolerance. Here we assessed whether microbiome-mediated cross-generational acclimatization could enable the photosynthetic sponge Carteriospongia foliascens to survive under future climate scenarios. To achieve this, we first established the potential for vertical (cross-generational) transmission of symbionts. Sixty-four amplicon sequence variants accounting for >90% of the total C. foliascens microbial community were present across adult, larval and juvenile life stages, showing that a large proportion of the microbiome is vertically acquired and maintained. When C. foliascens were exposed to climate scenarios projected for 2050 and 2100, the host remained visibly unaffected (i.e. no necrosis/bleaching) and the overall microbiome was not significantly different amongst treatments in adult tissue, the respective larvae or recruits transplanted amongst climate treatments. However, indicator species analysis revealed that parental exposure to future climate scenarios altered the presence and abundance of a small suite of microbial taxa in the recruits, thereby revealing the potential for microbiome-mediated cross-generational acclimatization through both symbiont shuffling and symbiont switching within a vertically acquired microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Vandvik V, Skarpaas O, Klanderud K, et al (2020)

Biotic rescaling reveals importance of species interactions for variation in biodiversity responses to climate change.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(37):22858-22865.

Generality in understanding biodiversity responses to climate change has been hampered by substantial variation in the rates and even directions of response to a given change in climate. We propose that such context dependencies can be clarified by rescaling climate gradients in terms of the underlying biological processes, with biotic interactions as a particularly important process. We tested this rescaling approach in a replicated field experiment where entire montane grassland communities were transplanted in the direction of expected temperature and/or precipitation change. In line with earlier work, we found considerable variation across sites in community dynamics in response to climate change. However, these complex context dependencies could be substantially reduced or eliminated by rescaling climate drivers in terms of proxies of plant-plant interactions. Specifically, bryophytes limited colonization by new species into local communities, whereas the cover of those colonists, along with bryophytes, were the primary drivers of local extinctions. These specific interactions are relatively understudied, suggesting important directions for future work in similar systems. More generally, the success of our approach in explaining and simplifying landscape-level variation in climate change responses suggests that developing and testing proxies for relevant underlying processes could be a fruitful direction for building more general models of biodiversity response to climate change.

RevDate: 2020-08-31

Zhu H, Xiong X, Ao H, et al (2020)

Cladophora reblooming after half a century: effect of climate change-induced increases in the water level of the largest lake in Tibetan Plateau.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-020-10386-y [Epub ahead of print].

Massive Cladophora growth was reported half a century ago around Birds Island in Qinghai Lake, and in 2015, Cladophora populations have rebloomed and have formed green "meadows," with areas up to thousands of hectares. The present study investigated the distribution and biomass of Cladophora in Qinghai Lake and found that two key factors contribute to Cladophora blooming. First, recent climate change, especially increased precipitation, has induced the expansion of the lake's area, and the submerged grassland around Birds Island has provided a plethora of grass stems on which Cladophora can attach and twine. In addition, the submerged grasslands are covered with less than 1 m of water, which allows enough sunlight to support the growth of Cladophora on available substrates. Second, the submerged grassland may function as a key source of nutrients, especially phosphate. A large number of migratory birds live in these area for very long times, which lead to higher phosphorus content due to the accumulated birds dropping. Thus, the high phosphate level further exacerbates the massive growth. Future studies should investigate the functions of Cladophora in the nutrient cycling of submerged areas, and the improvement of methods for removing Cladophora biomass.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Fathy R, M Rosenbach (2020)

Climate Change and Inpatient Dermatology.

Current dermatology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose of Review: Climate change represents a major existential threat facing the global community, and it has already begun to affect human health in a multitude of ways. This review highlights and discusses the implications that climate change has already had and is expected to have for inpatient dermatologists.

Recent Findings: There are a variety of conditions affected by climate changes. The distribution and frequencies of infectious diseases and their vectors are changing in line with variations in climate conditions. Increased temperatures have already been associated with exacerbation of existing skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and recent evidence suggests that higher temperatures will also magnify the effects of harmful ultraviolet radiation. Extreme weather events that result from climate change are followed by an array of dermatologic conditions that may be unusual for the given location. Inpatient dermatologists should be prepared to manage these potentially unfamiliar dermatologic consequences of climate change.

Summary: Climate change will have widespread effects on the medical field, and inpatient dermatologists will be faced with their own unique set of challenges and practice variations. Practitioners should be familiar with the ongoing and predicted effects of climate change in their locations so that they can readily identify and treat associated conditions, and they should adjust their practice to reduce their carbon footprint and serve as a model for patients to do the same.

RevDate: 2020-09-07

Cherng ST, Cangemi I, Trostle JA, et al (2019)

Social cohesion and passive adaptation in relation to climate change and disease.

Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions, 58:.

Climate change affects biophysical processes related to the transmission of many infectious diseases, with potentially adverse consequences for the health of communities. While our knowledge of biophysical associations between meteorological factors and disease is steadily improving, our understanding of the social processes that shape adaptation to environmental perturbations lags behind. Using computational modeling methods, we explore the ways in which social cohesion can affect adaptation of disease prevention strategies when communities are exposed to different environmental scenarios that influence transmission pathways for diseases such as diarrhea. We developed an agent-based model in which household agents can choose between two behavioral strategies that offer different levels of protection against environmentally mediated disease transmission. One behavioral strategy is initially set as more protective, leading households to adopt it widely, but its efficacy is sensitive to variable weather conditions and stressors such as floods or droughts that modify the disease transmission system. The efficacy of the second strategy is initially moderate relative to the first and is insensitive to environmental changes. We examined how social cohesion (defined as average number of household social network connections) influences health outcomes when households attempt to identify an optimal strategy by copying the behaviors of socially connected neighbors who seem to have adapted successfully in the past. Our simulation experiments suggest that high-cohesion communities are able to rapidly disseminate the initially optimal behavioral strategy compared to low-cohesion communities. This rapid and pervasive change, however, decreases behavioral diversity; i.e., once a high cohesion community settles on a strategy, most or all households adopt that behavior. Following environmental changes that reduce the efficacy of the initially optimal strategy, rendering it suboptimal relative to the alternative strategy, high-cohesion communities can fail to adapt. As a result, despite faring better early in the course of computational experiments, high-cohesion communities may ultimately experience worse outcomes. In the face of uncertainty in predicting future environmental stressors due to climate change, strategies to improve effective adaptation to optimal disease prevention strategies should balance between intervention efforts that promote protective behaviors based on current scientific understanding and the need to guard against the crystallization of inflexible norms. Developing generalizable models allows us to integrate a wide range of theories multiple datasets pertaining to the relationship between social mechanisms and adaptation, which can provide further understanding of future climate change impacts. Models such as the one we present can generate hypotheses about the mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of adaptation events and suggest specific points of measurement to assess the impact of these mechanisms. They can be incorporated as modules within predictive simulations for specific socio-ecological contexts.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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