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29 Sep 2023 at 01:59
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Bibliography on: Climate Change


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:59 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Jeon E, Jang S, Yeo JM, et al (2023)

Impact of Climate Change and Heat Stress on Milk Production in Korean Holstein Cows: A Large-Scale Data Analysis.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(18): pii:ani13182946.

This study investigated the effects of heat stress on milk production in Korean Holstein cows using large-scale data. Heat stress was assessed using the temperature-humidity index (THI). Weather records (2016 to 2020) were collected from 70 regional weather stations using an installed automated surface observing system (ASOS). A dataset of 2,094,436 milk production records from 215,276 Holstein cows obtained from the Dairy Cattle Genetic Improvement Center was analyzed. Stepwise selection was used to select the input variables, including the daily maximum THI (THI_max). Least-squares means were calculated for milk yield, fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), fat and protein yield, fat-to-protein ratio, solids not fat, and lactation persistency. Segmented linear regression analysis determined the break points (BPs) of the THI_max. Over the five years, heat stress exposure increased, particularly from May to September. This study identified BPs around THI_max of 80-82 for milk yield and FPCM. Similar patterns for other milk traits were observed, which significantly decreased beyond their respective BPs. These findings indicate that THI variations adversely affect milk yield and composition in dairy cows, highlighting the importance of appropriate feeding management strategies to ensure the optimal productivity of Holstein cows under varying climatic conditions.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Anonymous (2023)

Global warming is advancing the season for intense tropical cyclones.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Mateus-Rodríguez JF, Lahive F, Hadley P, et al (2023)

Effects of simulated climate change conditions of increased temperature and [CO2] on the early growth and physiology of the tropical tree crop, Theobroma cacao L.

Tree physiology pii:7284227 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite multiple studies of the impact of climate change on temperate tree species, experiments on tropical and economically important tree crops such as cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) are still limited. Here, we investigated the combined effects of increased temperature and [CO2] on the growth, photosynthesis, and development of juvenile plants of two contrasting cacao genotypes: SCA 6 and PA 107. The factorial growth chamber experiment combined two [CO2] treatments (410 and 700 ppm) and three day/night temperature regimes (control: 31/22°C, control+2.5°C: 33.5/24.5°C, and control+5.0°C: 36/27°C) at a constant vapour pressure deficit of 0.9 kPa. At elevated [CO2], final dry weight, total and individual leaf area increased in both genotypes, whilst duration for individual leaf expansion declined in PA 107. For both genotypes, elevated [CO2] also improved light-saturated net photosynthesis (Pn) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), whereas leaf transpiration (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) decreased. Under a constant low vapour pressure deficit, increasing temperatures above 31/22°C enhanced rates of Pn, E, gs, in both genotypes suggesting that photosynthesis responds positively to higher temperatures than previously reported for cacao. However, dry weight, total and individual leaf area declined with increases in temperature being more evident in SCA 6 than PA 107, suggesting the latter genotype was more tolerant to elevated temperature. Our results suggest that the combined effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature is likely to improve the early growth of high temperature-tolerant genotypes, while elevated [CO2] appeared to ameliorate the negative effects of increased temperatures on growth parameters on more sensitive material. The evident genotypic variation observed in this study, demonstrates scope to select and breed cacao varieties capable of adapting to future climate change scenarios.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Dalpadado P, Roxy MK, Arrigo KR, et al (2023)

Rapid climate change alters the environment and biological production of the Indian Ocean.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05969-7 [Epub ahead of print].

We synthesize and review the impacts of climate change on the physical, chemical, and biological environments of the Indian Ocean and discuss mitigating actions and knowledge gaps. The most recent climate scenarios identify with high certainty that the Indian Ocean (IO) is experiencing one of the fastest surface warming among the world's oceans. The area of surface waters of >28 °C (IO Warm Pool) has significantly increased during 2012-2021 by expanding into the northern-central basins. A significant decrease in pH and aragonite (building blocks of calcified organisms) levels in the IO was observed from 1981 to 2020 due to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. There are also signals of decreasing trends in primary productivity in the north, likely related to enhanced stratification and nutrient depletion. Further, the rapid warming of the IO will manifest more extreme weather conditions along its adjacent continents and oceans, including marine heat waves that are likely to reshape biodiversity. However, the impact of climate change beyond the unprecedented warming, increase in marine heat waves, expansion of the IO Warm Pool, and decrease in pH, remains uncertain for many other key variables in the IO including changes in salinity, oxygen, and net primary production. Understanding the response of these physical, chemical, and biological variables to climate change is vital to project future changes in regional fisheries and identify mitigation actions. We accordingly conclude by identifying knowledge gaps and recommending directions for sustainable fisheries and climate impact studies.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Jackson ST (2023)

Repurposing long-term ecological studies for climate change.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(41):e2314444120.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Pinchoff J, Regules R, Gomez-Ugarte AC, et al (2023)

Coping with climate change: The role of climate related stressors in affecting the mental health of young people in Mexico.

PLOS global public health, 3(9):e0002219 pii:PGPH-D-23-00852.

Young people today are predicted to experience more climate change related stressors and harms than the previous generation, yet they are often excluded from climate research, policy, and advocacy. Increasingly, this exposure is associated with experience of common mental health disorders (CMD). The VoCes-19 study collected surveys from 168,407 young people across Mexico (ages 15-24 years) through an innovative online platform, collecting information on various characteristics including CMD and experience of recent climate harms. Logistic regression models were fit to explore characteristics associated with CMD. Structural equation models were fit to explore pathways between exposure, feeling of concern about climate change, and a sense of agency (meaning the respondent felt they could help address the climate crisis) and how these relate to CMD. Of the respondents, 42% (n = 50,682) were categorized as experiencing CMD, higher among those who experienced a climate stressor (51%, n = 4,808) vs those not experiencing climate stressors (41%, n = 43,872). Adjusting for key demographic characteristics, exposure to any climate event increased the odds of CMD by 50% (Odd Ratio = 1.57; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.49, 1.64), highest for heatwaves. Specific climate impacts such as housing damage, loss of or inability to work, damage to family business, leaving school and physical health affected were adversely related to CMD, though for different climate hazards. More concern and less agency were related to CMD through different pathways, particularly for those exposed to recent events. Future research regarding the cumulative exposures to climate change, not just acute events but as an ongoing crisis, and various pathways that influence the mental health and well-being of young people must be clearly understood to develop programs and policies to protect the next generation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-28

Woodward A, Hinwood A, Bennett D, et al (2023)

Trees, Climate Change, and Health: An Urban Planning, Greening and Implementation Perspective.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(18):.

The In Conversation: Boundary, Spanners, Thinkers and Policy Actors Round Table Series provides a platform for researchers, policy actors, and implementation experts to elevate discussion on emerging issues, present new and upcoming research, and facilitate conversations around impacts and possible solutions. This brief report, on trees, climate change, and health, reflects a conversation between the authors of this paper, along with supporting literature. It explores the potential of green spaces and trees as a viable strategy to address climate change challenges and simultaneously improve population health, well-being, and health equity. In particular, it highlights the public health benefits of trees and green space, the challenges faced in urban areas, and opportunities for the protection, maintenance and regeneration of urban green space.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Zheng Y, Yuan C, Matsushita N, et al (2023)

Analysis of the distribution pattern of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum under climate change using the optimized MaxEnt model.

Ecology and evolution, 13(9):e10565.

Cenococcum geophilum (C. geophilum) is a widely distributed ectomycorrhizal fungus that plays a crucial role in forest ecosystems worldwide. However, the specific ecological factors influencing its global distribution and how climate change will affect its range are still relatively unknown. In this study, we used the MaxEnt model optimized with the kuenm package to simulate changes in the distribution pattern of C. geophilum from the Last Glacial Maximum to the future based on 164 global distribution records and 17 environmental variables and investigated the key environmental factors influencing its distribution. We employed the optimal parameter combination of RM = 4 and FC = QPH, resulting in a highly accurate predictive model. Our study clearly shows that the mean temperature of the coldest quarter and annual precipitation are the key environmental factors influencing the suitable habitats of C. geophilum. Currently, appropriate habitats of C. geophilum are mainly distributed in eastern Asia, west-central Europe, the western seaboard and eastern regions of North America, and southeastern Australia, covering a total area of approximately 36,578,300 km[2] globally. During the Last Glacial Maximum and the mid-Holocene, C. geophilum had a much smaller distribution area, being mainly concentrated in the Qinling-Huaihe Line region of China and eastern Peninsular Malaysia. As global warming continues, the future suitable habitat for C. geophilum is projected to shift northward, leading to an expected expansion of the suitable area from 9.21% to 21.02%. This study provides a theoretical foundation for global conservation efforts and biogeographic understanding of C. geophilum, offering new insights into its distribution patterns and evolutionary trends.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Gao L, X Cui (2023)

Climate change and food security: Plant science roles.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Junk I, Schmitt N, H Krehenwinkel (2023)

Tracking climate-change-induced biological invasions by metabarcoding archived natural eDNA samplers.

Current biology : CB, 33(18):R943-R944.

In a time of unprecedented environmental change, understanding the response of organisms and ecosystems to change is paramount[1]. However, our knowledge of anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems is limited by a lack of standardized retrospective biomonitoring data[2]. Here, we use a four-decade time series of archived blue mussels to trace spatiotemporal biodiversity change in coastal ecosystems. The filter-feeding mussels, which were initially collected for pollution monitoring, can serve as natural eDNA samplers, carrying an imprint of the surrounding aquatic community at the time of sampling[3]. By sequencing the preserved DNA, we characterize highly diverse mussel-associated communities and reconstruct the invasion trajectory of an invasive species, the barnacle Austrominius modestus. We quantitatively trace population growth of the invader to the detriment of native taxa and uncover repeated population collapses and reinvasions after cold winters. By providing highly resolved temporal data on community assembly and global warming-driven invasion processes, natural eDNA sampler time series overcome a critical shortfall in our understanding of biodiversity change in the Anthropocene.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Clerc C, Aumont O, L Bopp (2023)

Filter-feeding gelatinous macrozooplankton response to climate change and implications for benthic food supply and global carbon cycle.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

It is often suggested that gelatinous zooplankton may benefit from anthropogenic pressures of all kinds and in particular from climate change. Large pelagic tunicates, for example, are likely to be favored over other types of macrozooplankton due to their filter-feeding mode, which gives them access to small preys thought to be less affected by climate change than larger preys. In this study, we provide model-based estimate of potential community changes in macrozooplankton composition and estimate for the first time their effects on benthic food supply and on the ocean carbon cycle under two 21st-century climate-change scenarios. Forced with output from an Earth System Model climate projections, our ocean biogeochemical model simulates a large reduction in macrozooplankton biomass in response to anthropogenic climate change, but shows that gelatinous macrozooplankton are less affected than nongelatinous macrozooplankton, with global biomass declines estimated at -2.8% and -3.5%, respectively, for every 1°C of warming. The inclusion of gelatinous macrozooplankon in our ocean biogeochemical model has a limited effect on anthropogenic carbon uptake in the 21st century, but impacts the projected decline in particulate organic matter fluxes in the deep ocean. In subtropical oligotrophic gyres, where gelatinous zooplankton dominate macrozooplankton, the decline in the amount of organic matter reaching the seafloor is reduced by a factor of 2 when gelatinous macrozooplankton are considered (-17.5% vs. -29.7% when gelatinous macrozooplankton are not considered, all for 2100 under RCP8.5). The shift to gelatinous macrozooplankton in the future ocean therefore buffers the decline in deep carbon fluxes and should be taken into account when assessing potential changes in deep carbon storage and the risks that deep ecosystems may face when confronted with a decline in their food source.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Zhang Y, Jackson C, Darraj N, et al (2023)

Feasibility of Carbon Dioxide Storage Resource Use within Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios for the United States.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

To progress decarbonization in the United States, numerous techno-economic models that project CO2 storage deployment at annual injection rates of 0.3-1.7 Gt year[-1] by 2050 have been built. However, these models do not consider many geological, technical, or socio-economic factors that could impede the growth of geological storage resource use, and there is uncertainty about the feasibility of the resulting projections. Here, we evaluate storage scenarios across four major modeling efforts. We apply a growth modeling framework using logistic curves to analyze the feasibility of growth trajectories under constraints imposed by the associated storage resource availability. We show that storage resources are abundant, and resources of the Gulf Coast alone would be sufficient to meet national demand were it not for transport limitations. On the contrary, deployment trajectories require sustained average annual (exponential) growth at rates of >10% nationally for two of the three reports and between 3% and 20% regionally across four storage hubs projected in both reports with regional resolution. These rates are high relative to historical rates of growth in analogous large scale energy infrastructure in the United States. Projections for California appear to be particularly infeasible. Future modeling efforts should be constrained to more realistic deployment trajectories, which could be done with simple constraints from the type of modeling framework presented here.

RevDate: 2023-09-27
CmpDate: 2023-09-27

Laney E, Nkusi A, Herrera C, et al (2023)

Intersections of climate change, migration, and health: experiences of first-generation migrants from Latin America to the Atlanta-metropolitan area.

Global public health, 18(1):2261773.

Climate change is an important driver of migration, but little research exists on whether migrant communities in the U.S. identify climate change-related factors as reasons for migrating. In 2021, we conducted a multidisciplinary, collaborative project to better understand the nexus of climate change and immigrant health in the Atlanta area. This paper presents one arm of this collaboration that explored both the role of climate change in decisions to immigrate to Georgia and the ways that climate change intersects with other possible drivers of migration. First generation migrants from Latin America were recruited primarily through CPACS Cosmo Health Center and were invited to participate in an intake survey and an in-depth interview. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Findings suggest that while participants may not have explicitly identified climate change as a primary reason for migration, in both surveys and in-depth interviews, participants reported multiple and intersecting social, economic, political, and environmental factors that are directly or indirectly influenced by climate change and that are involved in their decisions to migrate. The narratives that emerged from in-depth interviews further contextualised survey data and elucidated the complex nexus of climate change, migration, and health.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Morineau C, Boulanger Y, Gachon P, et al (2023)

Climate change alone cannot explain boreal caribou range recession in Quebec since 1850.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

The contraction of species range is one of the most significant symptoms of biodiversity loss worldwide. While anthropogenic activities and habitat alteration are major threats for several species, climate change should also be considered. For species at risk, differentiating the effects of human disturbances and climate change on past and current range transformations is an important step towards improved conservation strategies. We paired historical range maps with global atmospheric reanalyses from different sources to assess the potential effects of recent climate change on the observed northward contraction of the range of boreal populations of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Quebec (Canada) since 1850. We quantified these effects by highlighting the discrepancies between different southern limits of the caribou's range (used as references) observed in the past and reconstitutions obtained through the hindcasting of the climate conditions within which caribou are currently found. Hindcasted southern limits moved ~105 km north over time under all reanalysis datasets, a trend drastically different from the ~620 km reported for observed southern limits since 1850. The differences in latitudinal shift through time between the observed and hindcasted southern limits of distribution suggest that caribou range recession should have been only 17% of what has been observed since 1850 if recent climate change had been the only disturbance driver. This relatively limited impact of climate reinforces the scientific consensus stating that caribou range recession in Quebec is mainly caused by anthropogenic drivers (i.e. logging, development of the road network, agriculture, urbanization) that have modified the structure and composition of the forest over the past 160 years, paving the way for habitat-mediated apparent competition and overharvesting. Our results also call for a reconsideration of past ranges in models aiming at projecting future distributions, especially for endangered species.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Lavin CP, Pauly D, Dimarchopoulou D, et al (2023)

Fishery catch is affected by geographic expansion, fishing down food webs and climate change in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

PeerJ, 11:e16070.

Historical fishing effort has resulted, in many parts of the ocean, in increasing catches of smaller, lower trophic level species once larger higher trophic level species have been depleted. Concurrently, changes in the geographic distribution of marine species have been observed as species track their thermal affinity in line with ocean warming. However, geographic shifts in fisheries, including to deeper waters, may conceal the phenomenon of fishing down the food web and effects of climate warming on fish stocks. Fisheries-catch weighted metrics such as the Mean Trophic Level (MTL) and Mean Temperature of the Catch (MTC) are used to investigate these phenomena, although apparent trends of these metrics can be masked by the aforementioned geographic expansion and deepening of fisheries catch across large areas and time periods. We investigated instances of both fishing down trophic levels and climate-driven changes in the geographic distribution of fished species in New Zealand waters from 1950-2019, using the MTL and MTC. Thereafter, we corrected for the masking effect of the geographic expansion of fisheries within these indices by using the Fishing-in-Balance (FiB) index and the adapted Mean Trophic Level (aMTL) index. Our results document the offshore expansion of fisheries across the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) from 1950-2019, as well as the pervasiveness of fishing down within nearshore fishing stock assemblages. We also revealed the warming of the MTC for pelagic-associated fisheries, trends that were otherwise masked by the depth- and geographic expansion of New Zealand fisheries across the study period.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Ryan SJ, Lippi CA, F Zermoglio (2023)

Correction: Shifting transmission risk for malaria in Africa with climate change: a framework for planning and intervention.

Malaria journal, 22(1):282.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Boos MD (2023)

Climate change and air pollution: Twin threats of burning fossil fuels with implications for the practice of dermatology.

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV, 37(10):1943-1944.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Khan AL (2023)

The phytomicrobiome: solving plant stress tolerance under climate change.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1219366.

With extraordinary global climate changes, increased episodes of extreme conditions result in continuous but complex interaction of environmental variables with plant life. Exploring natural phytomicrobiome species can provide a crucial resource of beneficial microbes that can improve plant growth and productivity through nutrient uptake, secondary metabolite production, and resistance against pathogenicity and abiotic stresses. The phytomicrobiome composition, diversity, and function strongly depend on the plant's genotype and climatic conditions. Currently, most studies have focused on elucidating microbial community abundance and diversity in the phytomicrobiome, covering bacterial communities. However, least is known about understanding the holistic phytomicrobiome composition and how they interact and function in stress conditions. This review identifies several gaps and essential questions that could enhance understanding of the complex interaction of microbiome, plant, and climate change. Utilizing eco-friendly approaches of naturally occurring synthetic microbial communities that enhance plant stress tolerance and leave fewer carbon-foot prints has been emphasized. However, understanding the mechanisms involved in stress signaling and responses by phytomicrobiome species under spatial and temporal climate changes is extremely important. Furthermore, the bacterial and fungal biome have been studied extensively, but the holistic interactome with archaea, viruses, oomycetes, protozoa, algae, and nematodes has seldom been studied. The inter-kingdom diversity, function, and potential role in improving environmental stress responses of plants are considerably important. In addition, much remains to be understood across organismal and ecosystem-level responses under dynamic and complex climate change conditions.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Chandler HC, Caruso NM, McLaughlin DL, et al (2023)

Forecasting the flooding dynamics of flatwoods salamander breeding wetlands under future climate change scenarios.

PeerJ, 11:e16050.

Ephemeral wetlands are globally important systems that are regulated by regular cycles of wetting and drying, which are primarily controlled by responses to relatively short-term weather events (e.g., precipitation and evapotranspiration). Climate change is predicted to have significant effects on many ephemeral wetland systems and the organisms that depend on them through altered filling or drying dates that impact hydroperiod. To examine the potential effects of climate change on pine flatwoods wetlands in the southeastern United States, we created statistical models describing wetland hydrologic regime using an approximately 8-year history of water level monitoring and a variety of climate data inputs. We then assessed how hydrology may change in the future by projecting models forward (2025-2100) under six future climate scenarios (three climate models each with two emission scenarios). We used the model results to assess future breeding conditions for the imperiled Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma bishopi), which breeds in many of the study wetlands. We found that models generally fit the data well and had good predictability across both training and testing data. Across all models and climate scenarios, there was substantial variation in the predicted suitability for flatwoods salamander reproduction. However, wetlands with longer hydroperiods tended to have fewer model iterations that predicted at least five consecutive years of reproductive failure (an important metric for population persistence). Understanding potential future risk to flatwoods salamander populations can be used to guide conservation and management actions for this imperiled species.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Leão CF, Lima Ribeiro MS, Moraes K, et al (2023)

Climate change and carnivores: shifts in the distribution and effectiveness of protected areas in the Amazon.

PeerJ, 11:e15887.

BACKGROUND: Carnivore mammals are animals vulnerable to human interference, such as climate change and deforestation. Their distribution and persistence are affected by such impacts, mainly in tropical regions such as the Amazon. Due to the importance of carnivores in the maintenance and functioning of the ecosystem, they are extremely important animals for conservation. We evaluated the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of carnivores in the Amazon using Species Distribution Models (SDMs). Do we seek to answer the following questions: (1) What is the effect of climate change on the distribution of carnivores in the Amazon? (2) Will carnivore species lose or gain representation within the Protected Areas (PAs) of the Amazon in the future?

METHODS: We evaluated the distribution area of 16 species of carnivores mammals in the Amazon, based on two future climate scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) for the year 2070. For the construction of the SDMs we used bioclimatic and vegetation cover variables (land type). Based on these models, we calculated the area loss and climate suitability of the species, as well as the effectiveness of the protected areas inserted in the Amazon. We estimated the effectiveness of PAs on the individual persistence of carnivores in the future, for this, we used the SDMs to perform the gap analysis. Finally, we analyze the effectiveness of PAs in protecting taxonomic richness in future scenarios.

RESULTS: The SDMs showed satisfactory predictive performance, with Jaccard values above 0.85 and AUC above 0.91 for all species. In the present and for the future climate scenarios, we observe a reduction of potencial distribution in both future scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), where five species will be negatively affected by climate change in the RCP 4.5 future scenario and eight in the RCP 8.5 scenario. The remaining species stay stable in terms of total area. All species in the study showed a loss of climatic suitability. Some species lost almost all climatic suitability in the RCP 8.5 scenario. According to the GAP analysis, all species are protected within the PAs both in the current scenario and in both future climate scenarios. From the null models, we found that in all climate scenarios, the PAs are not efficient in protecting species richness.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Incesu O, MA Yas (2023)

The relationship between nursing students' environmental literacy and awareness of Global Climate Change.

Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.) [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine the correlation between environmental literacy and levels of awareness of global climate change in nursing students.

DESIGN: The cross-sectional and correlational design.

SAMPLE: 476 undergraduate nursing students METHODS: Data were collected with The Personal Information Form, the Awareness Scale of University Students about Global Climate Change, and Environmental Literacy Scale for Adults in March 2023. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and linear regression analysis (stepwise method) were used to analyze the data.

RESULTS: The mean scores of the Environmental Literacy Scale and the Awareness Scale of University Students about Global Climate Change Scale were 87.31 ± 8.61 and 75.60 ± 14.86, respectively. A positive correlation was found between the awareness of global climate change and environmental literacy (p < 0.05). As participation in meetings on environmental problems, environmental concerns and awareness increased, awareness of global climate change increased.

CONCLUSIONS: Nursing students had high levels of awareness of global climate change and environmental literacy. The awareness of nursing students on climate change and their environmental literacy levels are highly important in protecting public health against the adverse effects of climate change and reducing climate change through effective resource management in health services in the future. It is recommended that integrate courses related to environment health to curriculum of nursing school and in-service training during healthcare. The study draws attention to the Sustainable Development Goals related to climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Queiros Q, McKenzie DJ, Dutto G, et al (2023)

Fish shrinking, energy balance and climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05937-5 [Epub ahead of print].

A decline in size is increasingly recognised as a major response by ectothermic species to global warming. Mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood but could include changes in energy balance of consumers, driven by declines in prey size coupled with increased energy demands due to warming. The sardine Sardina pilchardus is a prime example of animal shrinking, European populations of this planktivorous fish are undergoing profound decreases in body condition and adult size. This is apparently a bottom-up effect coincident with a shift towards increased reliance on smaller planktonic prey. We investigated the hypothesis that foraging on smaller prey would lead to increased rates of energy expenditure by sardines, and that such expenditures would be exacerbated by warming temperature. Using group respirometry we measured rates of energy expenditure indirectly, as oxygen uptake, by captive adult sardines offered food of two different sizes (0.2 or 1.2 mm items) when acclimated to two temperatures (16 °C or 21 °C). Energy expenditure during feeding on small items was tripled at 16 °C and doubled at 21 °C compared to large items, linked to a change in foraging mode between filter feeding on small or direct capture of large. This caused daily energy expenditure to increase by ~10 % at 16 °C and ~40 % at 21 °C on small items, compared to large items at 16 °C. These results support that declines in prey size coupled with warming could influence energy allocation towards life-history traits in wild populations. This bottom-up effect could partially explain the shrinking and declining condition of many small pelagic fish populations and may be contributing to the shrinking of other fish species throughout the marine food web. Understanding how declines in prey size can couple with warming to affect consumers is a crucial element of projecting the consequences for marine fauna of ongoing anthropogenic global change.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Bangelesa F, Pollinger F, Sponholz B, et al (2023)

Statistical-dynamical modeling of the maize yield response to future climate change in West, East and Central Africa using the regional climate model REMO.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05892-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Africa is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly in terms of its agriculture and crop production. The majority of climate models project a negative impact of future climate change on crop production, with maize being particularly vulnerable. However, the magnitude of this change remains uncertain. Therefore, it is important to reduce the uncertainties related to the anticipated changes to guide adaptation options. This study uses a combination of local and large-scale empirical orthogonal function (EOF) predictors as a novel approach to model the impacts of future climate change on crop yields in West, East and Central Africa. Here a cross-validated Bayesian model was developed using predictors derived from the regional climate model REMO for the period 1982-2100. On average, the combined local and large-scale EOF predictors explained around 28 % of maize yield variability from 1982 to 2016 of the entire study regions. Notably, climate predictors played a significant role in West Africa, explaining up to 51 % of the maize yield variability. Large-scale climate EOF predictors contributed most to the explained variance, reflecting the role of regional climate in future maize yield variability. Under a high-emissions scenario (RCP8.5), maize yield is projected to decrease over the entire study region by 20 % by the end of the century. However, a minor increase is projected in eastern Africa. This study highlights the importance of incorporating climate predictors at various scales into crop yield modeling. Furthermore, the findings will offer valuable guidance to decision-makers in shaping adaptation options.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Puchałka R, Paź-Dyderska S, Dylewski Ł, et al (2023)

Forest herb species with similar European geographic ranges may respond differently to climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05930-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Many phenological studies have shown that spring geophytes are very sensitive to climate change, responding by shifting flowering and fruiting dates. However, there is a gap in knowledge about climatic drivers of their distributions and range shifts under climate change. Here we aimed to estimate climate niche shifts for four widely distributed and common geophytes of the nemoral zone of Europe (Anemone nemorosa, Anemone ranunculoides, Convallaria majalis and Maianthemum bifolium) and to assess the threat level under various climate change scenarios. Using MaxEnt species distribution models and future climate change scenarios we found that the precipitation of the warmest quarter was the most important factor shaping their ranges. All species studied will experience more loss in the 2061-2080 period than in 2041-2060, and under more pessimistic scenarios. M. bifolium will experience the highest loss, followed by A. nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and the smallest for C. majalis. A. ranunculoides will gain the most, while M. bifolium will have the smallest potential range expansion. Studied species may respond differently to climate change despite similar current distributions and climatic variables affecting their potential distribution. Even slight differences in climatic niches could reduce the overlap of future ranges compared to present. We expect that due to high dependence on the warmest quarter precipitation, summer droughts in the future may be particularly severe for species that prefer moist soils. The lack of adaptation to long-distance migration and limited availability of appropriate soils may limit their migration and lead to a decline in biodiversity and changes in European forests.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Nassikas NJ, DR Gold (2023)

Climate change is a health crisis with opportunities for healthcare action: A focus on healthcare providers, patients with asthma and allergic immune diseases, their families and neighbors.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(23)01192-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has increased the frequency of extreme weather events and compounded natural disasters. Heat, wildfires, flooding and pollen are already threatening public health and disproportionately affecting individuals in susceptible situations and vulnerable locations. In this special issue of JACI, we address what is known and not known about the biologic as well as clinical upstream and downstream effects of climate change on asthma and allergy development and exacerbation. We present potential actions individuals can take at the family, neighborhood, community, healthcare system, national and international levels to build climate resilience, to protect their own health and the health and welfare of others. We emphasize the importance of actions and policies that are context specific and just. We emphasize the need for the healthcare system, which contributes between 3-5% of global greenhouse gas emissions, to reduce its carbon footprint and build resiliency. Healthcare providers play a pivotal role in helping policymakers understand the effects of climate on the health of our patients. There is still a window to avoid the most serious effects of climate change on human health and our planet.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Kinney PL, Ge B, Sampath V, et al (2023)

Health-based strategies for overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation and mitigation.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(23)01191-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change poses an unequivocal threat to the respiratory health of current and future generations. Human activities-largely through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs)-are driving rising global temperatures. Without a concerted effort to mitigate GHG emissions or adapt to the effects of a changing climate, each increment of warming increases the risk of climate hazards (e.g. heat waves, floods, and droughts) that that can adversely affect allergy and immunological diseases. For instance, wildfires, which release large quantities of the air pollutant PM2.5, occur with greater intensity, frequency, and duration in a hotter climate. This elevates the risk of PM2.5-associated respiratory outcomes such as allergy and asthma. Fortunately, many mitigation and adaptation strategies can be applied to limit the impacts of global warming. Adaptation strategies, ranging from promotions of behavioral changes to infrastructural improvements, have been effectively deployed to increase resilience and alleviate adverse health effects. Mitigation strategies aimed at reducing GHG emissions can not only address the problem at the source, but also provide numerous direct health co-benefits. Although it is possible to limit the impacts of climate change, urgent and sustained action must be taken now. The health and scientific community can play a key role in promoting and implementing climate action to ensure a more sustainable and healthy future.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Nayak SK, JR Nandimandalam (2023)

Impacts of climate change and coastal salinization on the environmental risk of heavy metal contamination along the odisha coast, India.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01979-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change-mediated rise in sea level and storm surges, along with indiscriminate exploitation of groundwater along populous coastal regions have led to seawater intrusion. Studies on groundwater salinization and heavy metal contamination trends are limited. Present study investigated the heavy metal contamination, associated risks and provided initial information on the impacts of groundwater salinization on heavy metals along the coastal plains of Odisha, India. Total 50 groundwater samples (25 each in post- and pre-monsoon) were collected and analysed. Concentrations of Fe (44%), Mn (44%), As (4%) and Al (4%) in post-monsoon and Fe (32%), Mn (32%), As (4%), B (8%) and Ni (16%) in pre-monsoon exceeded Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) drinking water limits. High concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Sr, Mn, B, Ba, Li, Ni and Co) and high EC (>3000 μS/cm) indicated that the groundwater-seawater mixing process has enhanced the leaching and ion exchange of metallic ions in central part of the study area. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested leaching process, seawater intrusion and agricultural practices as the main heavy metal sources in the groundwater. 4% of samples in post- and 16% in pre-monsoon represented high heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Pollution indices indicated the central and south-central regions are highly polluted due to saline water intrusion and high agricultural activities. Ecological risks in the groundwater systems found low (ERI <110) in both seasons. Children population found more susceptible to health risks than adults. Hazard index (HI > 1) has shown significant non-carcinogenic risks where Fe, Mn, As, B, Li and Co are the potential contributors. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR >1.0E-03) has suggested high carcinogenic risks, where As and Ni are the major contributors. The study concluded that groundwater salinization could increase the heavy metal content and associated risks. This would help policymakers to take appropriate measures for sustainable coastal groundwater management.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Cardenas A, Fadadu R, S Bunyavanich (2023)

Climate change and epigenetic biomarkers in allergic and airway diseases.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(23)01190-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Human epigenetic variation is associated with both environmental exposures and allergic diseases and can potentially serve as a biomarker connecting climate change with allergy and airway diseases. In this narrative review, we summarize recent human epigenetic studies examining exposure to temperature, precipitation, extreme weather events, and malnutrition to discuss findings as they relate to allergic and airway diseases. Temperature has been the most widely studied exposure, with the studies implicating both short-term and long-term exposure with epigenetic alterations and epigenetic aging. Few studies have examined natural disasters or extreme weather events. The studies available have reported differential DNA methylation of multiple genes and pathways, some of which were previously associated with asthma or allergy. Few studies have integrated climate-related events, epigenetic biomarkers, and allergic disease together. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed along with the collection of target tissues beyond blood samples, such as nasal and skin cells. Finally, global collaboration to increase diverse representation of study participants, particularly those most affected by climate injustice, and strengthen replication, validation, and harmonization of measurements will be needed to elucidate the impact of climate change on the human epigenome.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Cao K, Liu X, Fu Q, et al (2023)

Dynamic and harmonious allocation of irrigation water resources under climate change: A SWAT-based multi-objective nonlinear framework.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05848-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Efficient allocation of water resources in irrigation districts can alleviate regional water shortages and promote sustainable irrigated agriculture development. However, existing research on water resource allocation in irrigation districts does not address the lack of coordination within the "diversion-delivery-irrigation" chain for multiple water sources and users in a changing environment. Hence, poor water supply and demand matching, low efficiency and poor climate change responses pose challenges for efficient water resource allocation in irrigation districts. Therefore, this study couples the SWAT runoff simulation model with a multiobjective nonlinear programming model and proposes a weather-driven dynamic and optimal allocation model for multiple water sources. This model accounts for fluctuations in water supply and fine-tunes the allocation of water resources to different water sources, different channels and different crop fertility periods in the irrigation area. The model is designed to achieve synergistic improvements in water supply and demand, economic efficiency, equity in water distribution and efficiency in water use. The model was applied to the Qindeli Irrigation District in Heilongjiang Province. The results show that an increase in water supply at the head of the channel promotes a synergistic increase in economic efficiency and water supply and demand matching. This model can improve water use efficiency under water scarcity by reasonably optimizing the water use structure of the irrigation district. Compared with the traditional irrigation method, the optimized model saves 4 % of water and increases yield by 399 kg/ha, economic efficiency by 0.2 yuan per cubic meter of water, water use efficiency by 9 %, and water supply and demand matching by >80 % at all stages of fertility. The model ensures that water resources are allocated in an equitable manner at all levels.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2023)

Air pollution, climate change, and lung health in Europe.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Ran WW, Luo GM, Zhao YQ, et al (2023)

Climate change may drive the distribution of tribe Zyginelline pests in China and the Indo-China Peninsula shift towards higher latitude river-mountain systems.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Tribe Zyginelline leafhoppers can transmit plant viruses and are important pests that affect agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry, causing serious economic losses. The potential distribution patterns of Zyginellini will change under climate change. Therefore, the best-performing random forest and maximum entropy models among 12 commonly used ecological niche models, alongside an ensemble model, were selected to predict the changes in habitat suitability distribution of Zyginellini under current and future climate scenarios [represented by two Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), namely SSP126 and SSP585, for three periods (2050s, 2070s, and 2090s)] in China and the Indo-China Peninsula for the first time.

RESULTS: The results revealed that the distribution of Zyginellini was mainly dominated by min temperature of coldest month. Under current and future climate scenarios, Zyginellini was mostly distributed southeast of the 400 mm equivalent precipitation line in China, and Vietnam. Under the future SSP126 scenario, the alert areas will mainly be concentrated in Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Anhui, and Hebei in China, alongside Myanmar and Thailand in the Indo-China Peninsula. Meanwhile, in the SSP585 scenario, the alert areas in China will increase, whereas there will be little change in the Indo-China Peninsula. Interestingly, from the current to the future, the cores of Zyginelline distribution occurred around rivers and mountains, and shifted from Guizhou along the Yuanjiang River system to higher latitudes in Hunan.

CONCLUSION: Zyginellini prefers higher latitude river-mountain systems under climate change. Our results will contribute to effective pest control strategies and biogeographical research for Zyginellini alongside other Cicadellidae insects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Ju Q, Shen T, Zhao W, et al (2023)

Simulation and prediction of changes in maximum freeze depth in the source region of the Yellow River under climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05763-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) is located at the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), which is completely covered by frozen ground. Due to relatively higher temperatures, the frozen ground in the SRYR is particularly fragile and susceptible to the impacts of global climate change. This study discusses the maximum freeze depth (MFD) of frozen ground in the SRYR, including analysis of measured data at the stations, comparison of simulation models, and projection of future changes. The MFD of frozen ground recorded at nine meteorological stations within the SRYR ranged from a few tens of centimeters to more than two meters. The decreasing trend of MFD was recorded except for a few stations from 1997 to 2017, with a maximum rate of -22.8 cm/10a. The decreasing rate of MFD for the whole SRYR from 1997 to 2017 is -10.8 cm/10a. Furthermore, we assessed the performance of three simulation methods: Stefan equation, multiple linear regression, and BP neural network predicting the MFD using the measured data. The Stefan equation exhibited limited accuracy in simulating the MFD, while the BP neural network demonstrated remarkable performance, with a correlation coefficient R of 0.949. In addition, we evaluated the applicability of different global climate models (GCMs) in the SRYR, identified the optimal model, and combined it with the BP neural network model to predict future MFD change. Among the five climate models, the BCC-CSM2-MR model and ensemble model fit the measured precipitation and air temperature well. The projected results based on the BCC-CSM2-MR model and ensemble model indicate that the MFD of different stations in the SRYR and the whole region will still tend to decrease in the future. Our results contribute to understanding the response of cold region frozen ground to climate change and provide available data.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Anonymous (2023)

Climate Change Archive.

The journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 53(3):226.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Liu Y, Cai W, Lin X, et al (2023)

Nonlinear El Niño impacts on the global economy under climate change.

Nature communications, 14(1):5887.

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a consequential climate phenomenon affecting global extreme weather events often with largescale socioeconomic impacts. To what extent the impact affects the macroeconomy, how long the impact lasts, and how the impact may change in a warming climate are important questions for the field. Using a smooth nonlinear climate-economy model fitted with historical data, here we find a damaging impact from an El Niño which increases for a further three years after initial shock, amounting to multi-trillion US dollars in economic loss; we attribute a loss of US$2.1 T and US$3.9 T globally to the 1997-98 and 2015-16 extreme El Niño events, far greater than that based on tangible losses. We find impacts from La Niña are asymmetric and weaker, and estimate a gain of only US$0.06 T from the 1998-99 extreme La Niña event. Under climate change, economic loss grows exponentially with increased ENSO variability. Under a high-emission scenario, increased ENSO variability causes an additional median loss of US$33 T to the global economy at a 3% discount rate aggregated over the remainder of the 21st century. Thus, exacerbated economic damage from changing ENSO in a warming climate should be considered in assessments of mitigation strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Reed Dunnick N (2023)

Communication, Cost, and Climate Change.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Carew MT, Keogh M, Gliksohn A, et al (2023)

Unprotected: the consequences of climate change for the health of persons with albinism.

BMJ global health, 8(9):.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Jiménez-Bonilla A, Rodríguez-Rodríguez M, Yanes JL, et al (2023)

Hydrological modelling and evolution of lakes and playa-lakes in southern Spain constrained by geology, human management and climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05810-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hydrological functioning of wetlands must to be improved. We perform a 22-years hydrological modelling of seven playa-lakes located in a semi-arid region of southern Spain, including dry and wet periods. To do that, we applied a hydrological balance model to reconstruct past lake water levels. In addition, we investigated the hydrochemistry of the water, the basin bathymetry, and the geological setting of the watersheds, acquiring new lithology and active structures data. Once the models were constrained, scenarios considering increases on temperature and human management were implemented, and discussed. The water balance is simplified to precipitation (water input) and basin discharge (evapotranspiration), as the lakes are disconnected from groundwater because of the low-permeability substrate. In addition, unlike in previous studies, we add overflows to the modelling. The results of the model agree with actual lake water monitoring data (R[2] > 0.8). We observed that the hydroperiods of some of these lakes vary from permanent lakes to ephemeral, depending strongly on the basin bathymetry. Lakes with steeply margins show longer hydroperiods, whilst it is shorter for low-lying floor playa-lakes. In addition, we observed that steeply lake margins respond to active faults and/or lithological changes. To forecast the effects of climate change on the lake hydroperiods, we applied a 1 °C increase in average temperature in our hydrological modelling. The hydroperiod is significantly reduced for ephemeral playa-lakes, whilst is barely affected in permanent lakes. Moreover, we detected the high sensitivity of ephemeral playa-lakes to the anthropogenic management, including siltation, plant colonization and changes on watershed surface.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Engloner AI, Vargha M, Kós P, et al (2023)

Planktonic and epilithic prokaryota community compositions in a large temperate river reflect climate change related seasonal shifts.

PloS one, 18(9):e0292057.

In freshwaters, microbial communities are of outstanding importance both from ecological and public health perspectives, however, they are threatened by the impact of global warming. To reveal how different prokaryotic communities in a large temperate river respond to environment conditions related to climate change, the present study provides the first detailed insight into the composition and spatial and year-round temporal variations of planktonic and epilithic prokaryotic community. Microbial diversity was studied using high-throughput next generation amplicon sequencing. Sampling was carried out monthly in the midstream and the littoral zone of the Danube, upstream and downstream from a large urban area. Result demonstrated that river habitats predominantly determine the taxonomic composition of the microbiota; diverse and well-differentiated microbial communities developed in water and epilithon, with higher variance in the latter. The composition of bacterioplankton clearly followed the prolongation of the summer resulting from climate change, while the epilithon community was less responsive. Rising water temperatures was associated with increased abundances of many taxa (such as phylum Actinobacteria, class Gammaproteobacteria and orders Synechococcales, Alteromonadales, Chitinophagales, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales and Xanthomonadales), and the composition of the microbiota also reflected changes of several further environmental factors (such as turbidity, TOC, electric conductivity, pH and the concentration of phosphate, sulphate, nitrate, total nitrogen and the dissolved oxygen). The results indicate that shift in microbial community responding to changing environment may be of crucial importance in the decomposition of organic compounds (including pollutants and xenobiotics), the transformation and accumulation of heavy metals and the occurrence of pathogens or antimicrobial resistant organisms.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Davidson EA, Semrau JD, Nguyen NK, et al (2023)

Improved scientific knowledge of methanogenesis and methanotrophy needed to slow climate change during the next 30 years.

Owing to the high radiative forcing and short atmospheric residence time of methane, abatement of methane emissions offers a crucial opportunity for effective, rapid slowing of climate change. Here, we report on a colloquium jointly sponsored by the American Society for Microbiology and the American Geophysical Union, where 35 national and international experts from academia, the private sector, and government met to review understanding of the microbial processes of methanogenesis and methanotrophy. The colloquium addressed how advanced knowledge of the microbiology of methane production and consumption could inform waste management, including landfills and composts, and three areas of agricultural management: enteric emissions from ruminant livestock, manure management, and rice cultivation. Support for both basic and applied research in microbiology and its applications is urgently needed to accelerate the realization of the large potential for these near-term solutions to counteract climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Liang S, Zhong Q, Zhou H, et al (2023)

Double-edged sword of technological progress to climate change depends on positioning in global value chains.

PNAS nexus, 2(9):pgad288.

Technological progress (TP) is a double-edged sword to global climate change. This study for the first time reveals rebound and mitigation effects of efficiency-related TP in global value chains (GVCs) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The integrated effects of TP depend on the positioning of sectors in GVCs. The cost-saving TP in upstream sectors would stimulate downstream demand. This produces stronger rebound effects than mitigation potentials and leads to global GHG emission increments (e.g. TP in the gas sector of China and petroleum and coal products sector of South Korea). In contrast, sectors located in the trailing end of GVCs have greater potentials for GHG emission mitigation through TP, mainly due to the reduction of upstream inputs. (e.g. the construction sector of China and dwelling sector of the United States). Global GHG emissions and production outputs can be either a trade-off or a win-win relationship on account of TP than rebound effects, because TP in different sectors could possibly increase or decrease the emission intensity of GVCs. This study could recognize the most productive spots for GHG emission mitigation through efficiency-related TP. It provides a new perspective for international cooperation to promote global GHG emission mitigation.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Tian J, Zheng X, Y Sun (2023)

Fostering public climate change discussions from a social interaction perspective.

Frontiers in psychology, 14:1258150.

Public discussions on climate change, as a form of social interaction, are widely recognized as effective tools for promoting collective action. However, there is limited research on examining the factors that influence climate change discussions from a social interaction perspective. In the present study, we conducted a large sample (N = 1,169) survey to investigate personal (such as self-efficacy and personal response efficacy) and others' (such as perceived others' response efficacy and social norms) factors influencing climate change discussions from a social interaction perspective. The results showed that (i) for people with high climate change perceptions, personal response efficacy, self-efficacy, and social norms have positive effects on climate change discussions, but the effect of perceived others' response efficacy on climate change discussion is not significant; (ii) for people with low climate change perceptions, self-efficacy and social norms have positive effects on climate change discussions, but the effects of personal response efficacy and perceived others' response efficacy on climate change discussion are not significant; (iii) irrespective of individuals' high or low perceptions of climate change, social norm remains the most important predictor of climate change discussions. These findings make valuable contributions to the theoretical literature and intervention efforts regarding climate change discussions from a social interaction perspective.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Bassullu C, A Sanchez-Paus Díaz (2023)

Open Foris Collect Earth: a remote sensing sampling survey of Azerbaijan to support climate change reporting in the land use, land use change, and forestry.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(10):1236.

Land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF) are critical in climate change mitigation. Producing or collecting activity data for LULUCF is essential in developing national greenhouse gas inventories, national communications, biennial update reports, and nationally determined contributions to meet international commitments under climate change. Collect Earth is a free, publicly accessible software for monitoring dynamics between all land use classes: forestlands, croplands, grasslands, wetlands, settlements, and other lands. Collect Earth supports countries in monitoring the trends in land use and land cover over time by applying a sample-based approach and generating reliable, high-quality, consistent, accurate, transparent, robust, comparable, and complete activity data through augmented visual interpretation for climate change reporting. This article reports forest extent estimates in Azerbaijan, analyzing 7782 0.5-ha sampling units through an augmented visual interpretation of very high spatial and temporal resolution images on the Google Earth platform. The results revealed that in 2016, tree cover existed in 31.9% of total land, equal to 2,751,167 ha and 1,301,188 ha or 15.1% of the total land, with a 5.4% sampling error covered by forests. The estimate is 15 to 25% higher than the previous estimates, equal to 169,418 to 260,888 ha of forest that was never reported in previous studies.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Obeng-Nyarkoh PI (2023)

Climate change and infectious diseases through the lens of race and racism.

Explore (New York, N.Y.) pii:S1550-8307(23)00183-0 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Shen Y, Xu L, Guo H, et al (2023)

Mitigating the adverse effect of warming on rice canopy and rhizosphere microbial community by nitrogen application: An approach to counteract future climate change for rice.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05778-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The adverse impact of climate change on crop production continues to increase, necessitating the development of suitable strategies to mitigate these effects and improve food security. Several studies have revealed how global warming negatively impacts the grain-filling stage of rice and that this effect could be mitigated by nitrogen; however, the impact of nitrogen application on rice canopy and rhizosphere microbial communities remains unclear. We conducted a study using an open-field warming system. Results showed that warming influenced rice canopy by decreasing aboveground biomass and harvest index, whereas nitrogen application had positive effect on rice production under warming conditions by increasing the plant nitrogen content, biomass, harvest index and soil fertilities. Moreover, soil ammonium nitrogen (NH4[+]-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3[-]-N) contents were significantly decreased under warming, which were higher after nitrogen application. Notably, warming and nitrogen fertilizer caused 19 % (P < 0.01) and 7 % (P < 0.05) variations, respectively, in the β diversity of the microbial community, respectively. The impact of warming was significant on NH4[+]-N-related microorganisms; however, this impact was weakened by nitrogen application for microbes in the rhizosphere. This study demonstrated that enhanced nitrogen fertilizer can alleviate the adverse impact of warming by weakening its effects on rhizosphere microbes, improving soil fertility, promoting rice nitrogen uptake, and increasing the aboveground biomass and harvest index. These findings provide an important theoretical basis for developing practical, responsive cultivation strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Lettrich MD, Asaro MJ, Borggaard DL, et al (2023)

Vulnerability to climate change of United States marine mammal stocks in the western North Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean.

PloS one, 18(9):e0290643 pii:PONE-D-23-05946.

Climate change and climate variability are affecting marine mammal species and these impacts are projected to continue in the coming decades. Vulnerability assessments provide a framework for evaluating climate impacts over a broad range of species using currently available information. We conducted a trait-based climate vulnerability assessment using expert elicitation for 108 marine mammal stocks and stock groups in the western North Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Our approach combined the exposure (projected change in environmental conditions) and sensitivity (ability to tolerate and adapt to changing conditions) of marine mammal stocks to estimate vulnerability to climate change, and categorize stocks with a vulnerability index. The climate vulnerability score was very high for 44% (n = 47) of these stocks, high for 29% (n = 31), moderate for 20% (n = 22), and low for 7% (n = 8). The majority of stocks (n = 78; 72%) scored very high exposure, whereas 24% (n = 26) scored high, and 4% (n = 4) scored moderate. The sensitivity score was very high for 33% (n = 36) of these stocks, high for 18% (n = 19), moderate for 34% (n = 37), and low for 15% (n = 16). Vulnerability results were summarized for stocks in five taxonomic groups: pinnipeds (n = 4; 25% high, 75% moderate), mysticetes (n = 7; 29% very high, 57% high, 14% moderate), ziphiids (n = 8; 13% very high, 50% high, 38% moderate), delphinids (n = 84; 52% very high, 23% high, 15% moderate, 10% low), and other odontocetes (n = 5; 60% high, 40% moderate). Factors including temperature, ocean pH, and dissolved oxygen were the primary drivers of high climate exposure, with effects mediated through prey and habitat parameters. We quantified sources of uncertainty by bootstrapping vulnerability scores, conducting leave-one-out analyses of individual attributes and individual scorers, and through scoring data quality for each attribute. These results provide information for researchers, managers, and the public on marine mammal responses to climate change to enhance the development of more effective marine mammal management, restoration, and conservation activities that address current and future environmental variation and biological responses due to climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Crane K, Li L, Subramanian P, et al (2022)

Climate Change and Mental Health: A Review of Empirical Evidence, Mechanisms and Implications.

Atmosphere, 13(12):.

Anthropogenic climate change is an existential threat whose influences continue to increase in severity. It is pivotal to understand the implications of climate change and their effects on mental health. This integrative review aims to summarize the relevant evidence examining the harm climate change may have on mental health, suggest potential mechanisms and discuss implications. Empirical evidence has begun to indicate that negative mental health outcomes are a relevant and notable consequence of climate change. Specifically, these negative outcomes range from increased rates of psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder to higher measures of suicide, aggression and crime. Potential mechanisms are thought to include neuroinflammatory responses to stress, maladaptive serotonergic receptors and detrimental effects on one's own physical health, as well as the community wellbeing. While climate change and mental health are salient areas of research, the evidence examining an association is limited. Therefore, further work should be conducted to delineate exact pathways of action to explain the mediators and mechanisms of the interaction between climate change and mental health.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Felton A, Belyazid S, Eggers J, et al (2023)

Publisher Correction: Climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies for production forests: Trade-offs, synergies, and uncertainties in biodiversity and ecosystem services delivery in Northern Europe.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Maline G, DS Goldfarb (2023)

Climate change and kidney stones.

Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Kidney stones affect an increasing proportion of the population. We suggest that these trends are in part influenced by exposure to higher temperatures as a result of climate change and urbanization. The changing epidemiology of kidney stones is a topic worthy of discussion due to the economic and healthcare burden the condition poses as well as the quality-of-life disruption faced by individuals with kidney stones.

RECENT FINDINGS: The relationship between heat and kidney stones is well supported. Exposure to high temperatures has been shown to increase risk for stone development within a short time frame. Effects are modified by factors such as sex, comorbid conditions, and population vulnerability and adaptability. Urban heat islands (UHIs) likely exaggerate the effect of increasing global surface temperature. The concentration of UHIs often coincides with historic redlining practices in the United States, potentially contributing to observed disparities in kidney health among minoritized populations. As global surface temperature increases and urbanization trends continue, a greater proportion of the world's population is exposed to significant temperature extremes each year, leading to the expectation that kidney stone prevalence will continue to increase.

SUMMARY: This work describes the effect of increasing global surface temperature as a result of climate change on kidney stone disease and kidney health. These effects may result in further perpetuation of significant kidney stone related social disparities. We suggest strategies to mitigate the effects of heat exposure on stone formation.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Gillingham P, CD Thomas (2023)

Protected areas do already act as steppingstones for species responding to climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Sharma A, Smyth L, Jian H, et al (2023)

Are we teaching the health impacts of climate change in a clinically relevant way? A systematic narrative review of biomechanism-focused climate change learning outcomes in medical curricula.

Medical teacher [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Introducing biomedical approaches to the health impacts of climate change can improve medical student engagement with relevant climate-related issues, improve the development of medical schemas, and minimise displacement into crowded medical curricula. This paper aims to systematically review the medical education curricula related to climate change, with a particular focus on systems-based biomechanisms for the health impacts of climate change. We do this to provide a clear agenda for further development of learning outcomes (LOs) in this area to maximize the clinical applicability of this knowledge.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA; Liberati et al. 2009) guidelines for both the published and grey literature. Five databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, ERIC, Open Access Thesis and Dissertation, and Proquest Global Dissertation and Theses) were searched for works published between 2011 and June 2023. Full texts that contained LOs were the main inclusion criteria for the final review. Descriptive and content extraction guided the final narrative synthesis.

RESULTS: Analysis indicated that biomechanism-related LOs represented about 25% of each published LO set, on average. These outcomes were primarily at the "understand" level of Bloom's taxonomy and were spread across a range of body systems and climate-change aspects. Infectious diseases and extreme heat were strong focuses. Authorship analysis indicated that the majority of these sets of published LOs are from Western contexts and authored by researchers and educators with medical and population health qualifications.

CONCLUSIONS: Biomechanism-focused teaching about the health impacts of climate change is relatively rare in published curricula. Of the available sets of LOs, the majority are sourced from Western authors and are focused on a fairly circumscribed set of biomedical topics. There is scope to both broaden and deepen curriculum in this area, and we would recommend the field prioritise collaboration with medical educators from the Global South, where the effects of climate change are already the most acutely felt.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Cole JC, Gillis AJ, van der Linden S, et al (2023)

Social Psychological Perspectives on Political Polarization: Insights and Implications for Climate Change.

Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science [Epub ahead of print].

Political polarization is a barrier to enacting policy solutions to global issues. Social psychology has a rich history of studying polarization, and there is an important opportunity to define and refine its contributions to the present political realities. We do so in the context of one of the most pressing modern issues: climate change. We synthesize the literature on political polarization and its applications to climate change, and we propose lines of further research and intervention design. We focus on polarization in the United States, examining other countries when literature was available. The polarization literature emphasizes two types of mechanisms of political polarization: (1) individual-level psychological processes related to political ideology and (2) group-level psychological processes related to partisan identification. Interventions that address group-level processes can be more effective than those that address individual-level processes. Accordingly, we emphasize the promise of interventions leveraging superordinate identities, correcting misperceived norms, and having trusted leaders communicate about climate change. Behavioral interventions like these that are grounded in scientific research are one of our most promising tools to achieve the behavioral wedge that we need to address climate change and to make progress on other policy issues.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Holzmann KL, Walls RL, JJ Wiens (2023)

Accelerating local extinction associated with very recent climate change.

Ecology letters [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has already caused local extinction in many plants and animals, based on surveys spanning many decades. As climate change accelerates, the pace of these extinctions may also accelerate, potentially leading to large-scale, species-level extinctions. We tested this hypothesis in a montane lizard. We resurveyed 18 mountain ranges in 2021-2022 after only ~7 years. We found rates of local extinction among the fastest ever recorded, which have tripled in the past ~7 years relative to the preceding ~42 years. Further, climate change generated local extinction in ~7 years similar to that seen in other organisms over ~70 years. Yet, contrary to expectations, populations at two of the hottest sites survived. We found that genomic data helped predict which populations survived and which went extinct. Overall, we show the increasing risk to biodiversity posed by accelerating climate change and the opportunity to study its effects over surprisingly brief timescales.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Pisor A, Lansing JS, K Magargal (2023)

Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1889):20220390.

There is global consensus that we must immediately prioritize climate change adaptation-change in response to or anticipation of risks from climate change. Some researchers and policymakers urge 'transformative change', a complete break from past practices, yet report having little data on whether new practices reduce the risks communities face, even over the short term. However, researchers have some leads: human communities have long generated solutions to changing climate, and scientists who study culture have examples of effective and persistent solutions. This theme issue discusses cultural adaptation to climate change, and in this paper, we review how processes of biological adaptation, including innovation, modification, selective retention and transmission, shape the landscapes decision-makers care about-from which solutions emerge in communities, to the spread of effective adaptations, to regional or global collective action. We introduce a comprehensive portal of data and models on cultural adaptation to climate change, and we outline ways forward. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture'.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Clark Barrett H, J Armstrong (2023)

Climate change adaptation and the back of the invisible hand.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1889):20220406.

A good deal of contemporary work in cultural evolutionary theory focuses on the adaptive significance of culture. In this paper, we make the case that scientifically accurate and politically feasible responses to the climate crisis require a complex understanding of human cultural practices of niche construction that moves beyond the adaptive significance of culture. We develop this thesis in two related ways. First, we argue that cumulative cultural practices of niche construction can generate stable equilibria and runaway selection processes that result in long-term existential risks within and across cultural groups. We dub this the back of the invisible hand. Second, we argue that the ability of cultural groups to innovate technological solutions to environmental problems is highly constrained in ways that are exacerbated by sustained intergroup conflict, inequality and by inherently unpredictable cascades in climate change and human migration patterns. After developing these theoretical points about human cultural practices of niche construction in detail, we conclude our discussion with some tentative practical suggestions about the way that cultural evolutionary history can more fruitfully be used in efforts to remit the climate crisis and contribute to sustainable practices of human climate change adaptation. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture'.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Turner MA, Singleton AL, Harris MJ, et al (2023)

Minority-group incubators and majority-group reservoirs support the diffusion of climate change adaptations.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1889):20220401.

Successful climate change adaptation depends on the spread and maintenance of adaptive behaviours. Current theory suggests that the heterogeneity of metapopulation structure can help adaptations diffuse throughout a population. In this paper, we develop an agent-based model of the spread of adaptations in populations with minority-majority metapopulation structure, where subpopulations learn more or less frequently from their own group compared to the other group. In our simulations, minority-majority-structured populations with moderate degrees of in-group preference better spread and maintained an adaptation compared to populations with more equal-sized groups and weak homophily. Minority groups act as incubators for an adaptation, while majority groups act as reservoirs for an adaptation once it has spread widely. This means that adaptations diffuse throughout populations better when minority groups start out knowing an adaptation, as Indigenous populations often do, while cohesion among majority groups further promotes adaptation diffusion. Our work advances the goal of this theme issue by developing new theoretical insights and demonstrating the utility of cultural evolutionary theory and methods as important tools in the nascent science of culture that climate change adaptation needs. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture'.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Scheinsohn V, Muñoz AS, M Mondini (2023)

Climate change and long-term human behaviour in the Neotropics: an archaeological view from the Global South.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1889):20220403.

In this paper, we argue for the inclusion of archaeology in discussions about how humans have contributed to and dealt with climate change, especially in the long term. We suggest Niche Construction Theory as a suitable framework to that end. In order to take into account both human and environmental variability, we also advocate for a situated perspective that includes the Global South as a source of knowledge production, and the Neotropics as a relevant case study to consider. To illustrate this, we review the mid-Holocene Hypsithermal period in the southern Puna and continental Patagonia, both in southern South America, by assessing the challenges posed by this climate period and the archaeological signatures of the time from a Niche Construction Theory perspective. Finally, we emphasize the importance of these considerations for policymaking. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture'.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Waring TM, Niles MT, Kling MM, et al (2023)

Operationalizing cultural adaptation to climate change: contemporary examples from United States agriculture.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1889):20220397.

It has been proposed that climate adaptation research can benefit from an evolutionary approach. But related empirical research is lacking. We advance the evolutionary study of climate adaptation with two case studies from contemporary United States agriculture. First, we define 'cultural adaptation to climate change' as a mechanistic process of population-level cultural change. We argue this definition enables rigorous comparisons, yields testable hypotheses from mathematical theory and distinguishes adaptive change, non-adaptive change and desirable policy outcomes. Next, we develop an operational approach to identify 'cultural adaptation to climate change' based on established empirical criteria. We apply this approach to data on crop choices and the use of cover crops between 2008 and 2021 from the United States. We find evidence that crop choices are adapting to local trends in two separate climate variables in some regions of the USA. But evidence suggests that cover cropping may be adapting more to the economic environment than climatic conditions. Further research is needed to characterize the process of cultural adaptation, particularly the routes and mechanisms of cultural transmission. Furthermore, climate adaptation policy could benefit from research on factors that differentiate regions exhibiting adaptive trends in crop choice from those that do not. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture'.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Magargal K, Wilson K, Chee S, et al (2023)

The impacts of climate change, energy policy and traditional ecological practices on future firewood availability for Diné (Navajo) People.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1889):20220394.

Local-scale human-environment relationships are fundamental to energy sovereignty, and in many contexts, Indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK) is integral to such relationships. For example, Tribal leaders in southwestern USA identify firewood harvested from local woodlands as vital. For Diné people, firewood is central to cultural and physical survival and offers a reliable fuel for energy embedded in local ecological systems. However, there are two acute problems: first, climate change-induced drought will diminish local sources of firewood; second, policies aimed at reducing reliance on greenhouse-gas-emitting energy sources may limit alternatives like coal for home use, thereby increasing firewood demand to unsustainable levels. We develop an agent-based model trained with ecological and community-generated ethnographic data to assess the future of firewood availability under varying climate, demand and IEK scenarios. We find that the long-term sustainability of Indigenous firewood harvesting is maximized under low-emissions and low-to-moderate demand scenarios when harvesters adhere to IEK guidance. Results show how Indigenous ecological practices and resulting ecological legacies maintain resilient socio-environmental systems. Insights offered focus on creating energy equity for Indigenous people and broad lessons about how Indigenous knowledge is integral for adapting to climate change. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture'.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Kramer KL, JV Hackman (2023)

Small-scale farmer responses to the double exposure of climate change and market integration.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1889):20220396.

Anthropologists have long studied how small-scale societies manage climate variation. Here, we investigate how Yucatec Maya subsistence farmers respond to climate stress, and the ways in which market integration may enhance or disturb response stategies. Using information on harvest returns, climate perceptions, household economics and helping networks, modelling results show that as farmers rely more on market inputs (e.g. seed, tractors, fertilizer) for a successful yield, the reasons given for a bad harvest shift from climate variables to access to quality inputs. We also find that social and economic diversification is key to mediating a household's experience of climate and market shocks. The Maya are astute stewards of climate knowledge, and have effective social and economic means to mitigate potential fluctuations in food availability. In the transition from a subsistence to a market integrated economy, these traditional strategies become strained. Reliance on market inputs forges a more rigid food production system that conflicts with the diversity and flexibility on which traditional strategies depend to manage climate variation. Moving forward, the best policies would be those that facilitate maintaining an equal footing in both a subsistence maize economy, while incorporating new market opportunities. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture'.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Hillemann F, Beheim BA, E Ready (2023)

Socio-economic predictors of Inuit hunting choices and their implications for climate change adaptation.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1889):20220395.

In the Arctic, seasonal variation in the accessibility of the land, sea ice and open waters influences which resources can be harvested safely and efficiently. Climate stressors are also increasingly affecting access to subsistence resources. Within Inuit communities, people differ in their involvement with subsistence activities, but little is known about how engagement in the cash economy (time and money available) and other socio-economic factors shape the food production choices of Inuit harvesters, and their ability to adapt to rapid ecological change. We analyse 281 foraging trips involving 23 Inuit harvesters from Kangiqsujuaq, Nunavik, Canada using a Bayesian approach modelling both patch choice and within-patch success. Gender and income predict Inuit harvest strategies: while men, especially men from low-income households, often visit patches with a relatively low success probability, women and high-income hunters generally have a higher propensity to choose low-risk patches. Inland hunting, marine hunting and fishing differ in the required equipment and effort, and hunters may have to shift their subsistence activities if certain patches become less profitable or less safe owing to high costs of transportation or climate change (e.g. navigate larger areas inland instead of targeting seals on the sea ice). Our finding that household income predicts patch choice suggests that the capacity to maintain access to country foods depends on engagement with the cash economy. This article is part of the theme issue 'Climate change adaptation needs a science of culture'.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Feng H, Kang P, Deng Z, et al (2023)

The impact of climate change and human activities to vegetation carbon sequestration variation in Sichuan and Chongqing.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01942-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Exploring the vegetation carbon cycle and the factors influencing vegetation carbon sequestration in areas with complex plateau-basin topography and fragile ecosystems is crucial. In this study, spatial and temporal characteristics of carbon sequestration by vegetation in Sichuan and Chongqing from 2010 to 2020 and the influencing factors were investigated through simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) using the modified Carnegie-Ames-Stanford approach (CASA) and the Thornthwaite Memorial (TM) model and using chemical equations of photochemical reactions. The results indicated that: The spatial distribution of carbon sequestration capacity (CSC) trends showed an increase in the east (the most prominent increased trend along the mountainous areas of the basin) and a decrease in the west (western Sichuan plateau). Differences exist in the impact factors of CSC in different regions. In the basin margins and mountainous areas, where the proportion of forests was high, a combination of climate change and human activities contributed to the increase in CSC. The relatively warm and humid meteorological conditions in the hinterland of the basin were more conducive to the increase in CSC, and climate change also affected the region more significantly. In contrast, in the relatively high altitude of western Sichuan, controlled human activities were the key to improving CSC. The results of the study contribute to the understanding of the basic theory of vegetation carbon cycle in areas with complex plateau-basin topography and fragile ecosystems, as well as to provide suggestions for ecological shelter construction and ecological restoration in the upper Yangtze River.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Garzke J, Forster I, Graham C, et al (2023)

Future climate change-related decreases in food quality may affect juvenile Chinook salmon growth and survival.

Marine environmental research, 191:106171 pii:S0141-1136(23)00299-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change is projected to raise global temperatures by 3.3-5.7 °C by 2100, resulting in changes in species composition, abundance, and nutritional quality of organisms at the base of the marine food web. Predicted increases in prey availability and reductions in prey nutritional quality under climate warming in certain marine systems are expected to impact higher trophic levels, such as fish and humans. There is limited knowledge of the interplay between food quantity and quality under warming, specifically when food availability is high, but quality is low. Here, we conducted an experiment assessing the effects of food quality (fatty acid composition and ratios) on juvenile Chinook salmon's (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) body and nutritional condition, specifically focusing on RNA:DNA ratio, Fulton's K, growth, mortality and their fatty acid composition. Experimental diets represented three different climate change scenarios with 1) a present-day diet (Euphausia pacifica), 2) a control diet (commercial aquaculture diet), and 3) a predicted Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) worst-case scenario diet with low essential fatty acid concentrations (IPCC SSP5-8.5). We tested how growth rates, RNA:DNA ratio, Fulton's K index, fatty acid composition and mortality rates in juvenile Chinook salmon compared across diet treatments. Fatty acids were incorporated into the salmon muscle at varying rates but, on average, reflected dietary concentrations. High dietary concentrations of DHA, EPA and high DHA:EPA ratios, under the control and present-day diets, increased fish growth and condition. In contrast, low concentrations of DHA and EPA and low DHA:EPA ratios in the diets under climate change scenario were not compensated for by increased food quantity. This result highlights the importance of considering food quality when assessing fish response to changing ocean conditions.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Valente S, Moro S, Di Lorenzo M, et al (2023)

Mediterranean fish communities are struggling to adapt to global warming. Evidence from the western coast of Italy.

Marine environmental research, 191:106176 pii:S0141-1136(23)00304-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has significant impacts on marine ecosystems, resulting in disruptions in biological interactions, shifts in community composition, and changes in the physiology of fish and other marine organisms. In this study conducted in the central Mediterranean Sea, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC) was employed as an indicator to investigate the climatological factors influencing the fish community. The MTC, which utilizes species-preferred temperatures, was calculated using bottom temperature (BT) data weighted against scientific catches. The estimated MTC increasing rates were 0.01 °C year[-1] for the entire community, 0.017 °C year[-1] for the shelf break, and 0.004 °C year[-1] for the continental slope assemblage. We found that MTC is increasing at a lower rate compared to BT, suggesting a progressive under-adaptation of the fish community that seems not fully able to keep up with the ongoing pace of warming. The study identified sea surface temperature and bottom temperature as key drivers of changes in fish community composition. Notably, the fish community composition exhibited drastic changes over the studied period, and we suggest that the MTC can be a useful index to monitor such changes within the context of the EU's climate change adaptation strategy.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Parks SA, Holsinger LM, Abatzoglou JT, et al (2023)

Response to concerns raised about the likelihood of protected areas serving as steppingstones for species responding to climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Marshall M (2023)

Libya floods: how climate change intensified the death and devastation.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Manyukwe C (2023)

I train farmers to use plant science in the fight against climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Zhang X, Mahmoud SH, Wang H, et al (2023)

Predicting stormwater nitrogen loads from a cold-region urban catchment in year 2050 under the impacts of climate change and urban densification.

Water research, 245:120576 pii:S0043-1354(23)01016-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Urban stormwater is a primary source of pollution for receiving water, but there is a shortage of studies on pollutant loads from urban catchments in cold regions. In this study, we coupled a build-up and wash-off model (in Mike Urban) with a climate change model to assess the impacts of climate change and urban densification on stormwater nitrogen loads (TN, TKN, NOx-N, and TAN) in an urban catchment in Canada. We calibrated and validated the Mike Urban model against observed event mean concentrations and nitrogen loads from 2010 to 2016. Results show that the nitrogen loads were mainly governed by rainfall intensity, rainfall duration, and antecedent dry days. Future precipitation data were downscaled using the Global Climate Models (GCMs), and three different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 2.5, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5) were used. Modeling results show that the TN, TKN, NOx-N, and TAN loads in 2050 will increase by 28.5 - 45.2% from May to September under RCP 2.5 compared to those from 2010 to 2016, by 34.6 - 49.9% under RCP 4.5, and by 39.4 - 53.5% under RCP 8.5. The increase of our projected TN load (from 1.33 to 2.93 kg·N/ha) is similar or slightly higher than the limited studies in other urban catchments. This study provides a reference for predicting stormwater nitrogen loads in urban catchments in cold regions.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Zhang Y, Waldhoff S, Wise M, et al (2023)

Agriculture, bioenergy, and water implications of constrained cereal trade and climate change impacts.

PloS one, 18(9):e0291577.

International trade increases connections and dependencies between countries, weaving a network of global supply chains. Agricultural commodity trade has implications for crop producers, consumers, crop prices, water and land uses, and other human systems. Interconnections among these systems are not always easy to observe when external impacts penetrate across multiple sectors. To better understand the interactions of non-linear and globally coupled agricultural-bioenergy-water systems under the broader economy, we introduce systematic perturbations in two dimensions, one human (restrictions on agricultural trade) and the other physical (climate impacts on crop yields). We explore these independently and in combination to distinguish the consequences of individual perturbation and interactive effects in long-term projections. We show that most regions experience larger changes in cereal consumption due to cereal import dependency constraints than due to the impacts of climate change on agricultural yields. In the scenario where all regions ensure an import dependency ratio of zero, the global trade of cereals decreases ~50% in 2050 compared to the baseline, with smaller decreases in cereal production and consumption (4%). The changes in trade also impact water and bioenergy: global irrigation water consumption increases 3% and corn ethanol production decreases 7% in 2050. Climate change results in rising domestic prices and declining consumption of cereal crops in general, while the import dependency constraint exacerbates the situation in regions which import more cereals in the baseline. The individual and interactive effects of trade perturbations and climate change vary greatly across regions, which are also affected by the regional ability to increase agricultural production through intensification or extensification.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Ahmed AS, Bekele A, Kasso M, et al (2023)

Impact of climate change on the distribution and predicted habitat suitability of two fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus and Epomophorus labiatus) in Ethiopia: Implications for conservation.

Ecology and evolution, 13(9):e10481.

Fruit bats serve as crucial bioindicators, seed dispersers, pollinators, and contributors to food security within ecosystems. However, their population and distribution were threatened by climate change and anthropogenic pressures. Understanding the impacts of these pressures through mapping distribution and habitat suitability is crucial for identifying high-priority areas and implementing effective conservation and management plans. We predicted the distribution and extent of habitat suitability for Rousettus aegyptiacus and Epomophorus labiatus under climate change scenarios using average predictions from four different algorithms to produce an ensemble model. Seasonal precipitation, population index, land-use land cover, vegetation, and the mean temperature of the driest quarter majorly contributed to the predicted habitat suitability for both species. The current predicted sizes of suitable habitats for R. aegyptiacus and E. labiatus were varied, on average 60,271.4 and 85,176.1 km[2], respectively. The change in species range size for R. aegyptiacus showed gains in suitable areas of 24.4% and 22.8% in 2050 and 2070, respectively. However, for E. labiatus, suitable areas decreased by 0.95% and 2% in 2050 and 2070, respectively. The range size change of suitable areas between 2050 and 2070 for R. aegyptiacus and E. labiatus shows losses of 1.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The predicted maps indicate that the midlands and highlands of southern and eastern Ethiopia harbor highly suitable areas for both species. In contrast, the areas in the northern and central highlands are fragmented. The current model findings show that climate change and anthropogenic pressures have notable impacts on the geographic ranges of two species. Moreover, the predicted suitable habitats for both species are found both within and outside of their historical ranges, which has important implications for conservation efforts. Our ensemble predictions are vital for identifying high-priority areas for fruit bat species conservation efforts and management to mitigate climate change and anthropogenic pressures.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Lamers KP, Nilsson JÅ, Nicolaus M, et al (2023)

Adaptation to climate change through dispersal and inherited timing in an avian migrant.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Many organisms fail to adjust their phenology sufficiently to climate change. Studies have concentrated on adaptive responses within localities, but little is known about how latitudinal dispersal enhances evolutionary potential. Rapid adaptation is expected if dispersers from lower latitudes have improved synchrony to northern conditions, thereby gain fitness and introduce genotypes on which selection acts. Here we provide experimental evidence that dispersal in an avian migrant enables rapid evolutionary adaptation. We translocated Dutch female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and eggs to Sweden, where breeding phenology is ~15 days later. Translocated females bred earlier, and their fitness was 2.5 times higher than local Swedish flycatchers. We show that between-population variation in timing traits is highly heritable, and hence immigration of southern genotypes promotes the necessary evolutionary response. We conclude that studies on adaptation to large-scale environmental change should not just focus on plasticity and evolution based on standing genetic variation but should also include phenotype-habitat matching through dispersal as a viable route to adjust.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Kolanowska M (2023)

Future distribution of the epiphytic leafless orchid (Dendrophylax lindenii), its pollinators and phorophytes evaluated using niche modelling and three different climate change projections.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15242.

The identification of future refugia for endangered species from the effects of global warming is crucial for improving their conservation. Because climate-driven shifts in ranges and local extinctions can result in a spatial mismatch with their symbiotic organisms, however, it is important to incorporate in niche modelling the ecological partners of the species studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate change on the distribution of suitable niches for the ghost orchid (Dendrophylax lindenii) and its phorophytes and pollinators. Thus, its five species of host trees and three pollen vectors were included in the analysis. Climatic preferences of all the species studied were evaluated. The modelling was based on three different climate change projections and four Shared Socio-economic Pathway trajectories. All the species analysed are characterized by narrow temperature tolerances, which with global warming are likely to result in local extinctions and range shifts. D. lindenii is likely to be subjected to a significant loss of suitable niches, but within a reduced geographical range, both host trees and pollen vectors will be available in the future. Future conservation of this orchid should focus on areas that are likely be suitable for it and its ecological partners.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Majeed H, Iftikhar T, Ahmad K, et al (2023)

Bulk industrial production of sustainable cellulosic printing fabric using agricultural waste to reduce the impact of climate change.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 253(Pt 3):126885 pii:S0141-8130(23)03782-0 [Epub ahead of print].

In this research paper, a novel process was developed for reactive printing of cotton fabric, with the objective of producing a high-quality printed fabric that is sustainable, eco-friendly, and low-cost which will ultimately reduce the impact of climate change. The study incorporated substituted tamarind polysaccharide (STP) obtained from agricultural waste, trichloro-ethanoic acid (TCEA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) in the reactive printing paste. Tamarind starch was extracted from the seeds having 72 % yield, and substitution was performed to use it as a thickener in the printing paste. The conventional printing system was formulated with sodium alginate, urea, and sodium bicarbonate at dose levels of 2 %, 15 %, and 2.5 %, respectively, while the modified recipe was formulated with STP and TCEA at 5 % and 3 % dose levels, respectively along with varying doses of PEG-400 (0 %, 1 %, and 2 %) in novel prints. Various factors such as shade comparison, penetration, staining on the white ground, washing, rubbing, light and perspiration fastness, sharpness of edges, and fabric hardness were evaluated for all the recipes. The study demonstrated that the optimal outcomes were obtained with a 2 % PEG-400 dose level. This study represents a significant contribution to sustainable textile production, as tamarind agriculture waste was used as a raw material, which is an environmentally friendly alternative of sodium alginate that reduces the wastewater load. Additionally, PEG-400 was utilized as a nitrogen-free solubilizing moisture management substitution of urea for printing, while TCEA dissociated at high temperature to make alkaline pH during curing of the printed fabric to replace sodium bicarbonate. This research is a novel contribution to the printing industry, as these three constituents have not been previously used together other than this research group, in the history of reactive printing.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Liu Z, Ma C, Li X, et al (2023)

Aquatic environment impacts of floating photovoltaic and implications for climate change challenges.

Journal of environmental management, 346:118851 pii:S0301-4797(23)01639-0 [Epub ahead of print].

With the aggravation of global warming and the increasing demand for energy, the development of renewable energy is imminent. Floating photovoltaic (FPV) is a new form of renewable energy generation. However, the impact of FPV on the aquatic environment is still unclear. By long-term empirical monitoring and data analysis, this paper reveals the shading effect of large-scale FPV power station on aquatic environment for the first time. The results show that: (1) Compared with the non-photovoltaic (NP) zone, FPV only significantly reduces the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the photovoltaic (P) zone. (2) The concentration of chlorophyll a, nitrate nitrogen and total phosphorus increase, while pH and ammonia nitrogen decrease. FPV only causes an effect of the same order of magnitude as the initial concentration, and has no significant adverse effects on the nutritional status of the water body at a coverage ratio less than 50%. (3) FPV has a cooling effect on the water body during the daytime and a thermal insulation effect at night, with the most pronounced impact on peak water temperature (Tw). The heating and cooling process of Tw in P zone usually lags behind the NP zone by 1-3 h. The diurnal fluctuation and vertical difference of Tw as well as the stability of water body are reduced under the shading of FPV, alleviating the influence of climate change on Tw and water body stratification. (4) If 10% of the water area larger than 1 km[2] in China are used to develop FPV, more than 900 million tons of CO2 emissions can be reduced, and about 5 billion m[3] water can be saved, which is significant in the context of climate change. In general, this paper provides a reference for the future aquatic environmental impact assessment of FPV and the formulation of related policies.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Gil-Tapetado D, López-Collar D, Gómez JF, et al (2023)

Climate change as a driver of insect invasions: Dispersal patterns of a dragonfly species colonizing a new region.

PloS one, 18(9):e0291270.

The dragonfly Trithemis kirbyi Sélys, 1891 recently colonized Western Europe from North Africa. Since its first record in the Iberian Peninsula in 2007, the species has been spreading northward and has become naturally established in the central and eastern Iberian Peninsula, the Balearic Islands and southern France. Despite its worldwide distribution, its rapid colonization of the western Mediterranean area occurred only very recently. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) whether the species' colonization of the western Mediterranean is related to climate change and rising temperatures, specifically the summer warming peaks that have occurred in the last decade, (2) which climatic variables have most influenced its distribution and dispersal, and (3) its potential future dispersal and colonization capacity towards the eastern Mediterranean. We found that the dispersal and recent establishment of T. kirbyi in southwestern Europe strongly depends on increasing temperatures, particularly summer temperature peaks, which has allowed this species to disperse farther and more effectively than during years with average summer temperatures. The most important variable in the suitability models is the minimum temperature of the coldest month, which, in recent decades, has become less of a limiting factor for ectotherms. According to the models, suitable areas for the species are currently found throughout the eastern Mediterranean parts of Europe, and it is likely that it can naturally colonize these areas as it did in the Iberian Peninsula. Trithemis kirbyi is a model of how climate change and observed rising temperatures have turned previously inhospitable regions into suitable areas for exotic species, which may successfully colonize them naturally if they can reach these promising lands on their own. However, this study serves as a warning that such species can also colonize these new regions with a little help from unsuspecting means, which are often responsible for the increasingly common presence of invasive, noxious taxa in Europe.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

Stafford AM, Walton AL, RM Gonzalez-Guarda (2023)

Growing Up in an Era of Storms and Stress-Promoting Hope Among Adolescents in the Face of Climate Change.

JAMA health forum, 4(9):e233834 pii:2809753.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

Etzel RA, SY Bhave (2023)

The Health Effects of Climate Change on Children: Pediatricians Must Be Part of the Solution.

Indian pediatrics, 60(9):714-718.

Climate change is already impacting children's health in a variety of ways. Indian children are among the most severely affected; they are experiencing respiratory illnesses from air pollution, heat-related illnesses, malnutrition, vector- and water-borne diseases; and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder from weather disasters. There is a need to increase awareness and capacity building among paediatricians for understanding the impact of climate change on the health of children and educating parents about preventive measures. Detailed environmental history taking will help to identify risk factors. To address climate change issues, professional paediatric associations should increase their advocacy with government agencies. It is essential to ask policymakers to immediately reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing the burning of coal and other fossil fuels and moving to renewable energy sources such as solar and wind will reduce India's carbon emissions and decrease environmental illness among children. The pediatricians of India should declare that climate change is a child health emergency.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

Kinjawadekar U (2023)

Impact of Climate Change on Child Health - A Cause for Concern!.

Indian pediatrics, 60(9):699-700.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Zhang X, Qi Y, Liu F, et al (2023)

Enhancing daily streamflow simulation using the coupled SWAT-BiLSTM approach for climate change impact assessment in Hai-River Basin.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15169.

Against the backdrop of accelerated global climate change and urbanization, the frequency and severity of flood disasters have been increasing. In recent years, influenced by climate change, the Hai-River Basin (HRB) has experienced multiple large-scale flood disasters. During the widespread extraordinary flood event from July 28th to August 1st, 2023, eight rivers witnessed their largest floods on record. These events caused significant damage and impact on economic and social development. The development of hydrological models with better performance can help researchers understand the impacts of climate change, provide risk information on different disaster events within watersheds, support decision-makers in formulating adaptive measures, urban planning, and improve flood defense mechanisms to address the ever-changing climate environment. This study examines the potential for enhancing streamflow simulation accuracy in the HRB located in Northeast China by combining the physically-based hydrological model with the data-driven model. Three hybrid models, SWAT-D-BiLSTM, SWAT-C-BiLSTM and SWAT-C-BiLSTM with SinoLC-1, were constructed in this study, in which SWAT was used as a transfer function to simulate the base flow and quick flow generation process based on weather data and spatial features, and BiLSTM was used to directly predict the streamflow according to the base flow and quick flow. In the SWAT-C-BiLSTM model, SWAT parameters with P values less than 0.4 in each hydrological station-controlled watershed were calibrated, while the SWAT-D-BiLSTM model did not undergo calibration. Additionally, this study utilizes both 30 m resolution land use and land cover (LULC) map and the first 1 m resolution LULC map SinoLC-1 as input data for the models to explore the impact on streamflow simulation performance. Among five models, the NSE of SWAT-C-BiLSTM with SinoLC-1 reached 0.93 and the R[2] reached 0.95 during the calibration period, and both of them stayed at 0.92 even in the validation period, while the NSE and R[2] of the other four models were all below 0.90 in the validation period. The potential impact of climate change on streamflow in the HRB was evaluated by using predicted data from five global climate models from CMIP6 as input for the best-performing SWAT-C-BiLSTM with SinoLC-1. The results indicate that climate change exacerbates the uneven distribution of streamflow in the HRB, particularly during the concentrated heavy rainfall months of July and August. It is projected that the monthly streamflow in these two months will increase by 34% and 49% respectively in the middle of this century. Furthermore, it is expected that the annual streamflow will increase by 5.6% to 9.1% during the mid-century and by 6.7% to 9.3% by the end of the century. Both average streamflow and peak streamflow are likely to significantly increase, raising concerns about more frequent urban flooding in the capital economic region within the HRB.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Jaber SM, Abu-Allaban MM, R Sengupta (2023)

Spatial and temporal patterns of indicators of climate change and variability in the Arab world in the past four decades.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15145.

A comprehensive assessment of the spatial and temporal patterns of the most common indicators of climate change and variability in the Arab world in the past four decades was carried out. Monthly maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation amount data for the period 1980-2018 were obtained from the CHELSA project with a resolution of 1 km[2], which is suitable for detecting local geographic variations in climatic patterns. This data was analyzed using a seasonal-Kendall metric, followed by Sen's slope analysis. The findings indicate that almost all areas of the Arab world are getting hotter. Maximum air temperatures increased by magnitudes varying from 0.027 to 0.714 °C/decade with a mean of 0.318 °C/decade while minimum air temperatures increased by magnitudes varying from 0.030 to 0.800 °C/decade with a mean of 0.356 °C/decade. Most of the Arab world did not exhibit clear increasing or decreasing precipitation trends. The remaining areas showed either decreasing or increasing precipitation trends. Decreasing trends varied from -0.001 to -1.825 kg m[-2]/decade with a mean of -0.163 kg m[-2]/decade, while increasing trends varied from 0.001 to 4.286 kg m[-2]/decade with a mean of 0.366 kg m[-2]/decade. We also analyzed country-wise data and identified areas of most vulnerability in the Arab world.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Li Y, Ding F, Hao M, et al (2023)

The implications for potential marginal land resources of cassava across worldwide under climate change challenges.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15177.

The demand for energy plants is foreseen to grow as worldwide energy and climate policies promote the use of bioenergy for climate change mitigation. To avoid competing with food production, it's critical to assess future changes in marginal land availability for energy plant development. Using a machine learning method, boosted regression tree, this study modeled potential marginal land resources suitable for cassava under current and different climate change scenarios, based on cassava occurrence records and environmental covariates. The findings revealed that, currently, over 80% of the 1357.24 Mha of available marginal land for cassava cultivation is distributed in Africa and South America. Under three climate change scenarios, by 2030, worldwide suitable marginal land resources were predicted to grow by 39.71Mha, 66.21 Mha, and 39.31Mha for the RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively; by 2050, the potential marginal land suitable for cassava will increase by 38.98Mha, 83.02 Mha, and 55.43Mha, respectively; by 2080, the global marginal land resources were estimated to rise by 40.82 Mha, 99.74 Mha, and 21.87 Mha from now, respectively. Our results highlight the impacts of climate change on potential marginal land resources of cassava across worldwide, which provide the basis for assessing bioenergy potential in the future.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Pérez-López AV, Lim SD, JC Cushman (2023)

Tissue succulence in plants: Carrying water for climate change.

Journal of plant physiology, 289:154081 pii:S0176-1617(23)00175-X [Epub ahead of print].

Tissue succulence in plants involves the storage of water in one or more organs or tissues to assist in maintaining water potentials on daily or seasonal time scales. This drought-avoidance or drought-resistance strategy allows plants to occupy diverse environments including arid regions, regions with rocky soils, epiphytic habitats, and saline soils. Climate-resilient strategies are of increasing interest in the context of the global climate crisis, which is leading to hotter and drier conditions in many regions throughout the globe. Here, we describe a short history of succulent plants, the basic concepts of tissue succulence, the anatomical diversity of succulent morphologies and associated adaptive traits, the evolutionary, phylogenetic, and biogeographical diversity of succulent plants, extinction risks to succulents due to poaching from their natural environments, and the myriad uses and applications of economically important succulent species and the products derived from them. Lastly, we discuss current prospects for engineering tissue succulence to improve salinity and drought tolerance in crops.

RevDate: 2023-09-14
CmpDate: 2023-09-14

Perry WB (2023)

The cold sting of climate change and its effect on the march of invasive fishes.

Journal of fish biology, 103(3):459.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Chartrand SM, Jellinek AM, Kukko A, et al (2023)

High Arctic channel incision modulated by climate change and the emergence of polygonal ground.

Nature communications, 14(1):5297.

Stream networks in Arctic and high-elevation regions underlain by frozen ground (i.e., permafrost) are expanding and developing in response to accelerating global warming, and intensifying summertime climate variability. The underlying processes governing landscape dissection in these environments are varied, complex and challenging to unravel due to air-temperature-regulated feedbacks and shifts to new erosional regimes as climate change progresses. Here we use multiple sources of environmental information and physical models to reconstruct and understand a 60-year history of landscape-scale channelization and evolution of the Muskox Valley, Axel Heiberg Island. A time series of air photographs indicates that freeze-thaw-related polygon fields can form rapidly, over decadal time scales. Supporting numerical simulations show that the presence of polygons can control how surface runoff is routed through the landscape, exerting a basic control on channelization, which is sensitive to the timing, duration and magnitude of hydrograph events, as well as seasonal air temperature trends. These results collectively highlight that the occurrence and dynamics of polygon fields modulate channel network establishment in permafrost-rich settings undergoing changes related to a warming climate.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Xu WB, LY Rao (2023)

[Impacts of Land Use and Climate Change on Ecosystem Services in Agro-pastoral Ecotone].

Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 44(9):5114-5124.

Land use and climate change are the most important factors driving the change in ecosystem services (ESs). It is critical to understand the mechanisms behind such changes for improving ESs. However, there is still a lack of accurate understanding of change and dominant influencing factors of ESs in the agro-pastoral ecotone. This study took Naiman Banner, a typical farming pastoral ecotone in China, as the case study area. Based on the InVEST model, the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) were used to calculate water yield, soil retention, and windbreak and sand-fixing in Naiman Banner in 2005 and 2015. Finally, the impacts of land use and climate change on these three ecosystem services were analyzed by using contribution rate formula, Pearson correlation coefficient, and geodetector methods. The results indicate that:① from 2005 to 2015, water yield and soil retention in Naiman Banner showed an overall upward trend, increasing by 22.41% and 6.74%, respectively, and windbreak and sand-fixing decreased by 66.24%. ② The change in water yield and windbreak and sand-fixing was mainly affected by climate change, and the change in soil retention was mainly affected by land use change. ③ Actual evapotranspiration change and land use change were the main factors affecting the spatial differentiation of water yield, with the explanatory powers of 94.50% and 50.05%, respectively. The main factors influencing the spatial differentiation of windbreak and sand-fixing were actual evapotranspiration change and land desertification degree, with the explanatory power of 19.84% and 16.15%, respectively. ④ The correlation of ESs in Naiman Banner was weak, and only windbreak and sand-fixing and water yield showed a weak significant synergy. Based on the results, we recommend that managers increase the proportion of grassland in sandy areas, implement closed management in pastoral areas, and introduce drip irrigation and other water-saving technologies in farmland, and ecological protection should continue to be given priority in city.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Junttila V, Minunno F, Peltoniemi M, et al (2023)

Correction to: Quantification of forest carbon flux and stock uncertainties under climate change and their use in regionally explicit decision making: Case study in Finland.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Muhammad A, S Noor (2023)

Climate Change, COVID-19, And Flood Disasters In Pakistan.

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 73(8):1754.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Blattner CE, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Frölicher TL, et al (2023)

How science bolstered a key European climate-change case.

Nature, 621(7978):255-257.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Sidun NM, JL Gibbons (2023)

Women, girls, and climate change: Human rights, vulnerabilities, and opportunities.

International journal of psychology : Journal international de psychologie [Epub ahead of print].

Our world faces potentially catastrophic climate change that can damage human health in multiple ways. The impact of climate change is uneven, disproportionately affecting the lives and livelihoods of women and girls. This conceptual article compiles evidence for a model that argues that climate change has more detrimental consequences for women than men because of women's precarity (unequal power) and corporal (physical) vulnerability. Climate change challenges the human rights of women and girls, triggering displacement, interrupted education, food and water scarcity, economic instability, mental and physical health challenges, reproductive injustice, gender-based violence, exploitation and human trafficking. Women are effective and essential change agents; their empowerment can directly contravene or mitigate climate change and also break the links between climate change and its negative consequences for women and girls. Gender-sensitive responses to the effects of climate change are imperative. Women's empowerment will further human rights and achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

RevDate: 2023-09-12
CmpDate: 2023-09-12

Xia ZY, Su J, Yin HW, et al (2023)

Temporal and spatial patterns of habitat of Nipponia nippon in China under the background of climate change.

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 34(6):1467-1473.

Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) is one of the endangered species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature. It is of great significance to pay attention to the changes of its suitable habitat in the context of climate change. Based on the geographical distribution data of crested ibis, the MaxEnt model was used to predict the suitable habitat of crested ibis under current scenario and future climate change. The results showed that the prediction accuracy of MaxEnt model was high, with an AUC value of 0.989. The minimum temperature of the coldest month, the mean temperature of the coldest quarter, and the mean annual rainfall were the dominant environmental factors affecting the habitat of crested ibis. Under current climate scenario, the area of moderately and highly suitable area of Chinese crested ibis was 10.65×10[4] km[2], mainly distributed in Shaanxi, Sichuan, Hubei, Henan, and Gansu. In the future, the suitable habitat area of crested ibis would increase significantly under climate change, mainly distributed in Anhui, Chongqing, Guizhou, Jiangsu, Hunan, Shandong, Shaanxi, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Yunnan, Liaoning, and Fujian. In the SSP126 scenario from 2041 to 2060, the suitable habitat area of crested ibis would reach the maximum, being 139.53×10[4] km[2] higher than that of the current climate scenario, accounting for 19.6% of the land area. This study could provide a basis for policy making on the conservation of crested ibis under global climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Sheather J, Littler K, Singh JA, et al (2023)

Ethics, climate change and health - a landscape review.

Wellcome open research, 8:343.

Anthropogenic climate change is unequivocal, and many of its physical health impacts have been identified, although further research is required into the mental health and wellbeing effects of climate change. There is a lack of understanding of the importance of ethics in policy-responses to health and climate change which is also linked to the lack of specific action-guiding ethical resources for researchers and practitioners. There is a marked paucity of ethically-informed health input into economic policy-responses to climate change-an area of important future work. The interaction between health, climate change and ethics is technically and theoretically complex and work in this area is fragmentary, unfocussed, and underdeveloped. Research and reflection on climate and health is fragmented and plagued by disciplinary silos and exponentially increasing literature means that the field cannot be synthesised using conventional methods. Reviewing the literature in these fields is therefore methodologically challenging. Although many of the normative challenges in responding to climate change have been identified, available theoretical approaches are insufficiently robust, and this may be linked to the lack of action-guiding support for practitioners. There is a lack of ethical reflection on research into climate change responses. Low-HDI (Human Development Index) countries are under-represented in research and publication both in the health-impacts of climate change, and normative reflection on health and climate change policy. There is a noticeable lack of ethical commentary on a range of key topics in the environmental health literature including population, pollution, transport, energy, food, and water use. Serious work is required to synthesise the principles governing policy responses to health and climate change, particularly in relation to value conflicts between the human and non-human world and the challenges presented by questions of intergenerational justice.

RevDate: 2023-09-12
CmpDate: 2023-09-12

Liao Q, Fielding R, Lam WWT, et al (2023)

Climate change beliefs, perceptions of climate change-related health risk, and responses to heat-related risks among Hong Kong adults: abridged secondary publication.

Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi, 29 Suppl 4(4):16-17.

RevDate: 2023-09-10

Zhu Q, Wang F, Yi Q, et al (2023)

Modeling soybean cultivation suitability in China and its future trends in climate change scenarios.

Journal of environmental management, 345:118934 pii:S0301-4797(23)01722-X [Epub ahead of print].

Soybean is an important source of oil and vegetable protein and plays a key role in agricultural production and economy. A suitability evaluation of soybean cultivation is important for identifying potential soybean planting areas. Based on the raster data of soybean harvest ratio (FSHA) and climate-soil-topography-socio-economy environmental factors, we used MaxEnt to simulate the soybean planting suitability and potential distribution in China and the future trends of soybean cultivation under climate change. Three shared socio-economic paths (SSPs) that set up in the future climate section were considered, including SSP126 (sustainable path), SSP245 (intermediate path), and SSP585 (fossil fuel dominated development path). The result shows that the suitability of soybean cultivation was primarily influenced by elevation, precipitation of warmest quarter, capacity of the clay fraction, slope, portion of primary industry, topsoil gravel content, mean diurnal temperature range and accumulated temperature ≥10 °C. High-suitability and moderate-suitability area are respectively 26.51 Mha and 41.93 Mha in China. High-suitability areas for soybean are mainly concentrated in the Northeast Plain, the North China Plain and the northern parts of the middle and lower Yangtze River plain. There were many provinces with high soybean planting potential but low development degrees, including Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Tianjin, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Hubei and Shaanxi. From 2021 to 2060, the total area highly and moderately suitable for soybean cultivation is projected to increase first and then decrease under both SSP126 and SSP245 scenarios. However, it shows a continued upward trend under SSP585, the rising part accounting for more than 10% in the base of historical data. Specifically, under SSP585, the suitability grade in most parts of Northeast China (eastern Inner Mongolia, northern Heilongjiang and western Jilin and Liaoning) will have a general promotion, opposite to the result under SSP126. Moreover, parts of southwest China (Yunnan, Chongqing, northern Guizhou and eastern Sichuan) may be more suitable for soybean cultivation in both scenarios. This study provides a practical reference for current and future soybean planting layout and relative countermeasures.

RevDate: 2023-09-10

Gurriaran L, Tanaka K, Takahashi K, et al (2023)

How climate change may shift power demand in Japan: Insights from data-driven analysis.

Journal of environmental management, 345:118799 pii:S0301-4797(23)01587-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The impact of climate change on power demand in Japan and its related CO2 emissions is a matter of concern for the Japanese authorities and power companies as it may have consequences on the power grid, but is also of global importance as Japan is a significant contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we trained random forest models against daily power data in ten Japanese regions and for different types of power generation to project changes in future power production and its carbon intensity. We used climate variables, heat stress indices, and one variable for the level of human activities. We then used the models trained from the present-day period to estimate the future power demand, carbon intensity, and pertaining CO2 emissions over the period 2020-2100 under three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) scenarios (SSP126, SSP370, and SSP585). The impact of climate change on CO2 emissions via power generation shows seasonal and regional disparities. In cold regions, a decrease in power demand during winter under future warming leads to an overall decrease in power demand over the year. In contrast, the decrease in winter power demand in hot regions can be overcompensated by an increase in summer power demand due to more frequent hot days, resulting in an overall annual increase. From our regional models, power demand is projected to increase the most in most Japanese regions in May, June, September, and October rather than in the middle of summer, as found in previous studies. This increase could result in regular power outages during those months as the power grid could become particularly tense. Overall, we observed that power demand in regions with extreme climates is more sensitive to global warming than in temperate regions. The impact of climate change on power demand induces a net annual decrease in CO2 emissions in all regions except for Okinawa, in which power demand strongly increases during the summer, resulting in a net annual increase in CO2 emissions. However, climate change's impact on carbon intensity may reverse the trend in some regions (Shikoku, Tohoku). Additionally, we assessed the relative impacts of socioeconomic factors such as population, GDP, and environmental policies on CO2 emissions. When combined with these factors, we found that the climate change effect is more important than when considered individually and significantly impacts total CO2 emissions under SSP585. The contrasting results observed in the warm and cold regions of Japan can offer valuable insight into the potential future variations in energy demand and resulting CO2 emissions on a global scale.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Sharma BR, Kuttippurath J, VK Patel (2023)

A gradual increase of aerosol pollution in the third pole during the past four decades: Implication for regional climate change.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01909-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We analyse the long-term (1980-2020) changes in aerosols over the Third Pole (TP) and assess the changes in radiative forcing (RF) using satellite, ground-based and reanalysis data. The annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) varies from 0.06 to 0.24, with the highest values of around 0.2 in the north and southwest TP, which are dominated by dust from Taklimakan and Thar deserts, respectively. However, Organic Carbon (OC), Black Carbon (BC) and sulphate aerosols have significant contribution to the total AOD in the south and east TP. High amounts of dust are observed in spring and summer, but BC in winter. Trajectory analysis reveals that the air mass originated from East and South Asia carries BC and OC, whereas the air from South Asia, Central Asia and Middle East brings dust to TP. Significant positive trends in AOD is found in TP, with high values of about 0.002/yr in the eastern and southern TP. There is a gradual increase in BC and OC concentrations during 1980-2020, but the change from 2000 is phenomenal. The RF at the top of the atmosphere varies from -10 to 2 W/m[2] in TP, and high positive RF of about 2 W/m[2] is estimated in Pamir, Karakoram and Nyainquentanglha mountains, where the massive glacier mass exists. The RF has increased in much of TP during recent decades (2001-2020) with respect to previous decades (1981-2000), which can be due to the rise in BC and dust during the latter period. Therefore, the positive trend in BC and its associated change in RF can amplify the regional warming, and thus, the melting of glaciers or ice in TP. This is a great concern as it is directly connected to the water security of many South Asian countries.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Picetti R, Juel R, Milner J, et al (2023)

Effects on child and adolescent health of climate change mitigation policies: A systematic review of modelling studies.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01906-0 [Epub ahead of print].

There is a growing body of modelling evidence that demonstrates the potential for immediate and substantial benefits to adult health from greenhouse gas mitigation actions, but the effects on the health of younger age groups is largely unknown. We conducted a systematic review to identify the available published evidence of the modelled effects on child and adolescent health (≤18 years of age) of greenhouse gas mitigation. We searched six databases of peer-reviewed studies published between January 1, 1990 and July 27, 2022, screened 27,282 original papers and included 23 eligible papers. All included studies were set in high- and middle-income countries; and all studies modelled the effects of interventions that could mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. Most of the available evidence suggests positive benefits for child and adolescent respiratory health from greenhouse gas mitigation actions that simultaneously reduce air pollution (specifically PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide). We found scant evidence on child and adolescent health from regions more vulnerable to climate change, or on mitigation interventions that could affect exposures other than air pollution.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Sözener ZÇ, Treffeisen ER, Öztürk BÖ, et al (2023)

Global warming and implications for epithelial barrier disruption and respiratory and dermatologic allergic diseases.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(23)01115-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming has direct and indirect effects, as well as short- and long-term impacts on the respiratory and skin barriers. Extreme temperature directly affects the airway epithelial barrier by disrupting the structural proteins and by triggering airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. It enhances tidal volume and respiratory rate by affecting the thermoregulatory system, causing specific airway resistance and reflex bronchoconstriction via activation of bronchopulmonary vagal C-fibers and upregulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 and TRPV4. Heat shock proteins are activated under heat stress and contribute to both epithelial barrier dysfunction and airway inflammation. Accordingly, the frequency and severity of allergic rhinitis and asthma have been increasing. Heat activates TRPV3 in keratinocytes causing the secretion of inflammatory mediators and eventually pruritus. Exposure to air pollutants alters the expression of genes that control skin barrier integrity and triggers an immune response, increasing the incidence and prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD). There is evidence that extreme temperature, heavy rains and floods, air pollution and wildfires increase AD flares. In this narrative review, focused on the last 3 years of literature, we explore the effects of global warming on respiratory and skin barrier and their clinical consequences.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Thompson C, Bacha L, Paz PHC, et al (2023)

Collapse of scallop Nodipecten nodosus production in the tropical Southeast Brazil as a possible consequence of global warming and water pollution.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05498-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Mollusc rearing is a relevant global socioeconomic activity. However, this activity has faced severe problems in the last years in southeast Brazil. The mariculture scallop production dropped from 51,2 tons in 2016 to 10,2 tons in 2022 in the Baia da Ilha Grande (BIG; Rio de Janeiro). However, the possible causes of this collapse are unknown. This study aimed to analyze decadal trends of water quality in Nodipecten nodosus spat and adult production in BIG. We also performed physical-chemical and biological water quality analyses of three scallop farms and two nearby locations at BIG in 2022 to evaluate possible environmental stressors and risks. Scallop spat production dropped drastically in the last five years (2018-2022: mean ± stdev: 0.47 ± 0.45 million). Spat production was higher in colder waters and during peaks of Chlorophyll a in the last 13 years. Reduction of Chlorophyll a coincided with decreasing spat production in the last five years. Warmer periods (>27 °C) of the year may hamper scallop development. Counts of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Vibrios) and Escherichia coli were significantly higher in warmer periods which may further reduce scallop productivity. Shotgun metagenomics of seawater samples from the five studied corroborated these culture-based counts. Vibrios and fecal indicator bacteria metagenomic sequences were abundant across the entire study area throughout 2022. The results of this study suggest the collapse of scallop mariculture is the result of a synergistic negative effect of global warming and poor seawater quality.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Zhao S, Liu M, Tao M, et al (2023)

The role of satellite remote sensing in mitigating and adapting to global climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05445-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has critical adverse impacts on human society and poses severe challenges to global sustainable development. Information on essential climate variables (ECVs) that reflects the substantial changes that have occurred on Earth is critical for assessing the influence of climate change. Satellite remote sensing (SRS) technology has led to a new era of observations and provides multiscale information on ECVs that is independent of in situ measurements and model simulations. This enhances our understanding of climate change from space and supports policy-making in combating climate change. However, it remains challenging to remotely retrieve ECVs due to the complexity of the climate system. We provide an update on the studies on the role of SRS in climate change research, specifically in monitoring and quantifying ECVs in the atmosphere (greenhouse gases, clouds and aerosols), ocean (sea surface temperature, sea ice melt and sea level rise, ocean currents and mesoscale eddies, phytoplankton and ocean productivity), and terrestrial ecosystems (land use and land cover change and carbon flux, water resource and hydrological hazards, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and terrestrial gross primary production). The benefits and challenges of applying SRS in climate change studies are also examined and discussed. This work will help us apply SRS and recommend future SRS studies to mitigate and adapt to global climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Liu Y, Lin Z, Wang Z, et al (2023)

Discriminating the impacts of vegetation greening and climate change on the changes in evapotranspiration and transpiration fraction over the Yellow River Basin.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05551-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Evapotranspiration (ET) is a vital parameter in terrestrial water-energy cycles. The transpiration fraction (TF) is defined as the ratio of transpiration (T) to evapotranspiration (ET), representing the contribution rate of vegetation transpiration to ecosystem ET. Quantifying the relative contributions of vegetation and climate change on the ET and TF dynamic is of great significance to better understand the water budget between the land and atmosphere. Here, we chose Yellow River Basin (YRB) as the study area and analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of ET, T, and TF from 1982 to 2015 using the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model. Meanwhile, the relative contributions of vegetation and climate change to ET, T and TF change were quantified. Model evaluation showed that the PT-JPL model performs well in the simulation of ET and T. During 1982-2015, the average annual ET, T, and TF increased at a rate of 3.20 mm/a, 0.77 mm/a and 0.003/a over the YRB during 1982-2015, respectively. The regions with significant increases in ET, T and TF almost covered the whole study area except for the upper reaches of the YRB. Vegetation greening was the main factor for the increase of ET and TF in the YRB and enhanced ET and TF at a rate of 0.72 mm/a and 0.57/a, respectively, which mainly observed in the entire Loess Plateau region (over 50 % of the study area). Precipitation (PRE) was also the dominated factor contributing to the increase in ET and TF, and temperature (TEM) showed a positive correlation with the changes in ET and TF in the most areas of YRB, which jointly dominated ET changes in the upper reaches of the YRB and TF changes in the southern part of the basin. Except for the total effects, leaf area index (LAI) also indirectly promoted ET changes by affecting PRE, TEM and relative humidity (RH). While wind speed (WS) and radiation (RAD) had a relatively weak regulatory effect on the changes in ET and TF. These findings were helpful for regional water resources management and formulating water resources-sustainable vegetation restoration strategies for local government.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Seastedt H, K Nadeau (2023)

Factors by which Global Warming Worsens Allergic Disease.

Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology pii:S1081-1206(23)01219-X [Epub ahead of print].

Increased use of fossil fuels has led to global warming with concomitant increases in the severity and frequency of extreme weather events such as wildfires and sand and dust storms. These changes have led to increases in air pollutants such as particulate matter and greenhouse gases. Global warming is also associated with increases in pollen season length and pollen concentration. Particulate matter, greenhouse gases, and pollen synergistically increase incidence and severity of allergic diseases. Other indirect factors such as droughts, flooding, thunderstorms, heat waves, water pollution, human migration, deforestation, loss of green space, and decreasing biodiversity (including microbial diversity) also affect incidence and severity of allergic disease. Global warming and extreme weather events are expected to increase in the coming decades, and further increases in allergic diseases are expected, exacerbating the already high health care burden associated with these diseases. There is an urgent need to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change to improve human health. Human health and planetary health are connected and the concept of One Health, which is an integrated, unifying approach to balance and optimize the health of people, animals and the environment needs to be emphasized. Clinicians are trusted members of the community and they need to take a strong leadership role in educating patients on climate change and its adverse effects on human health. They also need to advocate for policy changes that decrease use of fossil fuels and increase biodiversity and green space to enable a healthier and more sustainable future.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )