About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot

About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

04 Mar 2024 at 02:01
Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Climate Change


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 04 Mar 2024 at 02:01 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-03-03

Rhymes JM, Evans D, Laudone G, et al (2024)

Biochar improves fertility in waste derived manufactured soils, but not resilience to climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01528-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We present a soil manufactured from waste materials, which could replace the use of peat and topsoil in plant production and reduce the pressure on natural soil resources. We tested the effect of the manufactured soil on ecosystem functions and microbial communities with and without plants present, and with and without biochar addition (Experiment 1). The resilience of the soil in response to drought and flooding, and also the effect of biochar was also tested (Experiment 2). Biochar increased soil C and N regardless of plant presence and negated the effect of the plant on soil peroxidase enzyme activity. The manufactured soil was largely resilient to drought, but not flooding, with negative impacts on microbial communities. Results indicate that biochar could improve soil properties, but not resilience to climatic perturbations. Results suggest that manufactured soils amended with biochar could offer a useful alternative to natural soil in many contexts.

RevDate: 2024-03-03

Carlson JM, Foley J, L Fang (2024)

Climate change on the brain: Neural correlates of climate anxiety.

Journal of anxiety disorders, 103:102848 pii:S0887-6185(24)00024-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is a global crisis impacting individuals' mental health. Climate anxiety is an emerging area of interest within popular culture and the scientific community. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms underlying climate anxiety. We provide evidence that climate anxiety is related to gray matter volume in the midcingulate cortex as well as its level of functional connectivity with the insula cortex. These neuroanatomical and neurofunctional features of climate anxiety are involved in identifying and anticipating potential threats within the environment and preparing an appropriate action response to such threats. These neural correlates align with those observed in anxiety disorders. Yet, climate anxiety itself as well as the neural correlates of climate anxiety were related to pro-environmental behavior. This may suggest that the midcingulate and insula are part of a network linked to an adaptive aspect of climate anxiety in motivating behavioral engagement.

RevDate: 2024-03-03

de Souza SS, Bruce KHR, da Costa JC, et al (2024)

Effects of climate change and mixtures of pesticides on the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum.

The Science of the total environment, 922:171379 pii:S0048-9697(24)01519-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Several studies highlighted the complexity of mixing pesticides present in Amazonian aquatic environments today. There is evidence that indicates that ongoing climate change can alter the pattern of pesticide use, increasing the concentration and frequency of pesticide applications. It is known that the combination of thermal and chemical stress can induce interactive effects in aquatic biota, which accentuates cell and molecular damage. However, considering that the effects of climate change go beyond the increase in temperature the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate change scenarios proposed by 6 th IPCC report and a mixture of pesticides on the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The hypothesis of this study is that the negative effects will be accentuated by the combination of an extreme climate changes scenario and a mixture of pesticides. To test the hypothesis, juvenile tambaqui were exposed to a combination of four pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, carbendazim and atrazine) in two scenarios, one that simulates current environmental conditions and another that predicted the environmental scenario for the year 2100. Fish were subjected to the experimental conditions for 96 h. At the end of the experiment, samples of blood, gills, liver, brain, and muscle were obtained for hematological, genotoxic, biochemical, and histopathological analyses. The results demonstrate that environmentally realistic concentrations of pesticides, when mixed, can alter the biochemical responses of tambaqui. The extreme scenario promotes hematological adjustments, but impairs branchial antioxidant enzymes. There is an interaction between the mixture of pesticides and the extreme scenario, accentuating liver tissue damage, which demonstrates that even increased activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes were not sufficient to prevent liver damage.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Borge M, CJ Ellis (2024)

Interactions of moisture and light drive lichen growth and the response to climate change scenarios - experimental evidence for Lobaria pulmonaria.

Annals of botany pii:7618071 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is growing interest in the functional ecology of poikilohydric nonvascular photoautotrophs (NVPs), including 'cryptogamic' bryophytes and lichens. These organisms are structurally important in many ecosystems, contributing substantially to ecosystem function and services, while also being sensitive to climate change. Previous research has quantified the climate change response of poikilohydric NVPs using predictive bioclimatic models with standard climate variables including precipitation totals and temperature averages. This study aimed for an improved functional understanding of their climate change response based on their growth rate sensitivity to moisture and light.

METHODS: We conducted a 24-month experiment to monitor lichen hydration and growth. We accounted for two well-known features in the ecology of poikilohydric NVPs, and exemplified here for a structurally dominant lichen epiphyte, Lobaria pulmonaria: (i) sensitivity to multiple sources of atmospheric moisture including rain, condensed dew-formation and water vapour, and (ii) growth determined by the amount of time hydrated in the light, driving photosynthesis, referred to as the Iwet hypothesis.

KEY RESULTS: First, we found that even within an oceanic high-rainfall environment, lichen hydration was better explained by vapour pressure deficit (VPD) than precipitation totals. Second, growth at a monthly resolution was positively related to the amount of time spent hydrated in the light, and negatively related to the amount of time spent hydrated in the dark.

CONCLUSIONS: Using multimodel averaging to project growth models for an ensemble of future climate change scenarios, we demonstrated reduced net growth for L. pulmonaria by the late 21st Century, explained by extended climate dryness and lichen desiccation for periods when there is otherwise sufficient light to drive photosynthesis. The results further emphasise a key issue of photoperiodism when constructing functionally relevant models to understand the risk of climate change, especially for poikilohydric NVPs.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Sommer B, S von Querfurth (2024)

"In the end, the story of climate change was one of hope and redemption": ChatGPT's narrative on global warming.

Ambio [Epub ahead of print].

AI chatbots such as ChatGPT help people produce texts. According to media reporting, these texts are also used for educational purposes. Thus, AI influences people's knowledge and perception of current issues. This paper examines the narrative of ChatGPT's stories on climate change. Our explorative analysis reveals that ChatGPT's stories on climate change show a relatively uniform structure and similar content. Generally, the narrative is in line with scientific knowledge on climate change; the stories convey no significant misinformation. However, specific topics in current debates on global warming are conspicuously missing. According to the ChatGPT narrative, humans as a species are responsible for climate change and specific economic activities or actors associated with carbon emissions play no role. Analogously, the social structuration of vulnerability to climate impacts and issues of climate justice are hardly addressed. ChatGPT's narrative consists of de-politicized stories that are highly optimistic about technological progress.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Bottino MJ, Nobre P, Giarolla E, et al (2024)

Amazon savannization and climate change are projected to increase dry season length and temperature extremes over Brazil.

Scientific reports, 14(1):5131.

Land use change and atmospheric composition, two drivers of climate change, can interact to affect both local and remote climate regimes. Previous works have considered the effects of greenhouse gas buildup in the atmosphere and the effects of Amazon deforestation in atmospheric general circulation models. In this study, we investigate the impacts of the Brazilian Amazon savannization and global warming in a fully coupled ocean-land-sea ice-atmosphere model simulation. We find that both savannization and global warming individually lengthen the dry season and reduce annual rainfall over large tracts of South America. The combined effects of land use change and global warming resulted in a mean annual rainfall reduction of 44% and a dry season length increase of 69%, when averaged over the Amazon basin, relative to the control run. Modulation of inland moisture transport due to savannization shows the largest signal to explain the rainfall reduction and increase in dry season length over the Amazon and Central-West. The combined effects of savannization and global warming resulted in maximum daily temperature anomalies, reaching values of up to 14 °C above the current climatic conditions over the Amazon. Also, as a consequence of both climate drivers, both soil moisture and surface runoff decrease over most of the country, suggesting cascading negative future impacts on both agriculture production and hydroelectricity generation.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Lenton TM, Abrams JF, Bartsch A, et al (2024)

Publisher Correction: Remotely sensing potential climate change tipping points across scales.

Nature communications, 15(1):1917 pii:10.1038/s41467-024-45881-0.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Williams E, Funk C, Peterson P, et al (2024)

High resolution climate change observations and projections for the evaluation of heat-related extremes.

Scientific data, 11(1):261.

The Climate Hazards Center Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 climate projection dataset (CHC-CMIP6) was developed to support the analysis of climate-related hazards, including extreme humid heat and drought conditions, over the recent past and in the near-future. Global daily high resolution (0.05°) grids of the Climate Hazards InfraRed Temperature with Stations temperature product, the Climate Hazards InfraRed Precipitation with Stations precipitation product, and ERA5-derived relative humidity form the basis of the 1983-2016 historical record, from which daily Vapor Pressure Deficits (VPD) and maximum Wet Bulb Globe Temperatures (WBGTmax) were derived. Large CMIP6 ensembles from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 2-4.5 and SSP 5-8.5 scenarios were then used to develop high resolution daily 2030 and 2050 'delta' fields. These deltas were used to perturb the historical observations, thereby generating 0.05° 2030 and 2050 projections of daily precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and derived VPD and WBGTmax. Finally, monthly counts of frequency of extremes for each variable were derived for each time period.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Park EJ, Bae J, Kim J, et al (2024)

Reducing the carbon footprint of operating rooms through education on the effects of inhalation anesthetics on global warming: A retrospective study.

Medicine, 103(9):e37256.

Environmental concerns, especially global warming, have prompted efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Healthcare systems, including anesthesia practices, contribute to these emissions. Inhalation anesthetics have a significant environmental impact, with desflurane being the most concerning because of its high global warming potential. This study aimed to educate anesthesiologists on the environmental impact of inhalation anesthetics and assess changes in awareness and practice patterns, specifically reducing desflurane use. This study included data from patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia 1 month before and after education on the effects of inhalation anesthetics on global warming. The primary endpoint was a change in inhalational anesthetic use. Secondary endpoints included changes in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions, driving equivalent, and medical costs. After the education, desflurane use decreased by 50%, whereas sevoflurane use increased by 50%. This shift resulted in a reduction in the overall amount of inhalational anesthetics used. The total CO2e and driving-equivalent values decreased significantly. The cost per anesthesia case decreased, albeit to a lesser extent than expected. Education on the environmental impact of inhalation anesthetics has successfully altered anesthesiologists' practice patterns, leading to reduced desflurane usage. This change has resulted in decreased CO2e emissions and has had a positive effect on mitigating global warming. However, further research is required to assess the long-term impact of such education and the variability in practice patterns across different institutions.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Kenyon G (2024)

Remote First Nations communities face climate change pressures.

The Lancet. Microbe pii:S2666-5247(24)00048-X [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Cappelli F, Costantini V, D'Angeli M, et al (2024)

Local sources of vulnerability to climate change and armed conflicts in East Africa.

Journal of environmental management, 355:120403 pii:S0301-4797(24)00389-X [Epub ahead of print].

While socioeconomic and institutional factors are crucial in explaining the onset and evolution of conflicts, recent research suggests that climate change is a further indirect driver acting as a "threat multiplier". This paper focuses on the concept of vulnerability to both climate change and conflicts to explain why some locations are more likely to engage in armed conflicts than others in the presence of a similar level of exposure to climatic changes. In particular, by means of a Spatial Autoregressive Model, we identify a set of local-specific vulnerability factors that increase conflict risk in East Africa. We employ a georeferenced database with a resolution of 25 × 25 km, covering the period 1997-2016. Results from our analysis provide some interesting insights: first, climate change does not increase conflict risk per se, but only in the presence of pre-existing vulnerabilities. Second, resource access and socioeconomic factors play a key role in driving the climate-conflict nexus especially in urban areas. In particular, vulnerability is increased whenever power is not distributed in such a way as to ensure an equitable distribution of resources. Overall, our findings suggest that, by addressing vulnerability factors that prevent adaptive capacity and an equitable distribution of resources, societies may benefit in terms of both diminished conflict risk and alleviation of climate change impacts.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Backus GA, Clements CF, ML Baskett (2024)

Restoring spatiotemporal variability to enhance the capacity for dispersal-limited species to track climate change.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate refugia are areas where species can persist through climate change with little to no movement. Among the factors associated with climate refugia are high spatial heterogeneity, such that there is only a short distance between current and future optimal climates, as well as biotic or abiotic environmental factors that buffer against variability in time. However, these types of climate refugia may be declining due to anthropogenic homogenization of environments and degradation of environmental buffers. To quantify the potential for restoration of refugia-like environmental conditions to increase population persistence under climate change, we simulated a population's capacity to track their temperature over space and time given different levels of spatial and temporal variability in temperature. To determine how species traits affected the efficacy of restoring heterogeneity, we explored an array of values for species' dispersal ability, thermal tolerance, and fecundity. We found that species were more likely to persist in environments with higher spatial heterogeneity and lower environmental stochasticity. When simulating a management action that increased the spatial heterogeneity of a previously homogenized environment, species were more likely to persist through climate change, and population sizes were generally higher, but there was little effect with mild temperature change. The benefits of heterogeneity restoration were greatest for species with limited dispersal ability. In contrast, species with longer dispersal but lower fecundity were more likely to benefit from a reduction in environmental stochasticity than an increase in spatial heterogeneity. Our results suggest that restoring environments to refugia-like conditions could promote species' persistence under the influence of climate change in addition to conservation strategies such as assisted migration, corridors, and increased protection.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Grant A (2024)

The science of climate change and the effect of anaesthetic gas emissions.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Slingo JM, ME Slingo (2024)

The science of climate change and the effect of anaesthetic gas emissions: a reply.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Afzal F, Das A, S Chatterjee (2024)

Drawing the Linkage Between Women's Reproductive Health, Climate Change, Natural Disaster, and Climate-driven Migration: Focusing on Low- and Middle-income Countries - A Systematic Overview.

Indian journal of community medicine : official publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine, 49(1):28-38.

BACKGROUND: One of the most important aspects of women's well-being and welfare is RSH (reproductive and sexual health). Reproductive health is not an exception to the threat that CCC (climate change and climate crisis) poses to numerous facets of public health. Firstly, the present review seeks to identify the influence of climatic changes, natural disasters, and climate-driven migration on RSH. Secondly, to identify knowledge gaps regarding the same.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two databases (Scopus and PubMed) were scanned using Boolean operation. The literature search aimed to find records pertaining to topics of RSH and climate change. Using the PRISMA-ScR method, records were screened and shortlisted based on established inclusion criteria. This literature search was carried out in November 2022. In the shortlisted records, preference for the comprehensive review articles was given.

RESULTS: The present review is based on 38 records that collectively revealed that climate crisis and natural disasters have many negative impacts on female reproductive health. These effects are observed in different phases of life, ranging from teenage to menopause. The unique strength of the present review is that it draws a relationship between female reproductive health and the direct as well as indirect effects of the CCC. The available literature about LMICs is predominantly confined to drought, flood, and earthquake. Disasters like tsunamis, cyclones, and avalanches remain unexplored.

CONCLUSION: From the available literature, it is quite evident that CCC has an adverse effect on a woman's reproductive life as well as a bearing on future generations' health. Filling these knowledge gaps is pivotal for designing more effective disaster and health policies. Policymakers should take into consideration these detrimental effects while designing health schemes and policies for females.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Opačić N, Radman S, Dujmović M, et al (2024)

Boosting nutritional quality of Urtica dioica L. to resist climate change.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1331327.

INTRODUCTION: More than ever, traditional agricultural practices need a shift towards more resilient, sustainable, modern and adaptable practices that benefit the health of the planet and people. Today's consumers are constantly on the lookout for novel, highly nutritious foods that have a positive impact on their overall health and well-being. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is gaining recognition not only as a popular medicinal plant, but also as a desirable green leafy vegetable rich in phytonutrients. As it is difficult and even expensive to control the quality standards of wild-collected plants, the implementation of sustainable cultivation methods, especially hydroponics, with effective greenhouse management could be a possible solution to obtain a standardized product with high nutritional value. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four nutrient solutions differing in the content of macro- and micronutrients (especially nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron) and two consecutive cuts on the number of leaves, yield, nitrate and mineral content and the content of specialized metabolites of stinging nettle from a floating hydroponic system.

METHODS: Nettle plants were cultivated in a hydroponic system using the floating hydroponics technique. The two-factorial experiment was performed with nutrient solution and consecutive cuts as factors.

RESULTS: The highest yield (2.49 kg/m2) was achieved after the 1st cut with plants cultivated in the nutrient solution with higher nutrient concentration. All tested nutrient solutions resulted in high levels of minerals and bioactive compounds in the plant material (ascorbic acid content of 102.30 mg/100 g fw and total phenolics content of 465.92 mg GAE/100 g fw), confirming floating hydroponics as a sustainable approach for cultivating nettle with enhanced nutritional value and antioxidant potential.

CONCLUSION: It is important to highlight that the nutrient solution with the lowest nutrient composition yielded the highest concentrations of calcium (5.54%) and iron (180.67 mg/kg dw). Furthermore, it exhibited elevated levels of specific phenolic compounds, including caffeoylmaleic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, naringin, and rutin trihydrate. Notably, this solution demonstrated the lowest nitrate content (4225.33 mg/kg fw) in the plant material. Therefore, it can be recommended as a preferable formulation for hydroponic nettle cultivation.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Talukder B, Schubert JE, Tofighi M, et al (2024)

Complex adaptive systems-based framework for modeling the health impacts of climate change.

The journal of climate change and health, 15:100292.

INTRODUCTION: Climate change is a global phenomenon with far-reaching consequences, and its impact on human health is a growing concern. The intricate interplay of various factors makes it challenging to accurately predict and understand the implications of climate change on human well-being. Conventional methodologies have limitations in comprehensively addressing the complexity and nonlinearity inherent in the relationships between climate change and health outcomes.

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this paper is to develop a robust theoretical framework that can effectively analyze and interpret the intricate web of variables influencing the human health impacts of climate change. By doing so, we aim to overcome the limitations of conventional approaches and provide a more nuanced understanding of the complex relationships involved. Furthermore, we seek to explore practical applications of this theoretical framework to enhance our ability to predict, mitigate, and adapt to the diverse health challenges posed by a changing climate.

METHODS: Addressing the challenges outlined in the objectives, this study introduces the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework, acknowledging its significance in capturing the nuanced dynamics of health effects linked to climate change. The research utilizes a blend of field observations, expert interviews, key informant interviews, and an extensive literature review to shape the development of the CAS framework.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The proposed CAS framework categorizes findings into six key sub-systems: ecological services, extreme weather, infectious diseases, food security, disaster risk management, and clinical public health. The study employs agent-based modeling, using causal loop diagrams (CLDs) tailored for each CAS sub-system. A set of identified variables is incorporated into predictive modeling to enhance the understanding of health outcomes within the CAS framework. Through a combination of theoretical development and practical application, this paper aspires to contribute valuable insights to the interdisciplinary field of climate change and health. Integrating agent-based modeling and CLDs enhances the predictive capabilities required for effective health outcome analysis in the context of climate change.

CONCLUSION: This paper serves as a valuable resource for policymakers, researchers, and public health professionals by employing a CAS framework to understand and assess the complex network of health impacts associated with climate change. It offers insights into effective strategies for safeguarding human health amidst current and future climate challenges.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Quattrocchi G, Christensen E, Sinerchia M, et al (2023)

Aerobic metabolic scope mapping of an invasive fish species with global warming.

Conservation physiology, 11(1):coad094 pii:coad094.

Climate change will exacerbate the negative effects associated with the introduction of non-indigenous species in marine ecosystems. Predicting the spread of invasive species in relation to environmental warming is therefore a fundamental task in ecology and conservation. The Baltic Sea is currently threatened by several local stressors and the highest increase in sea surface temperature of the world's large marine ecosystems. These new thermal conditions can further favour the spreading of the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), a fish of Ponto-Caspian origin, currently well established in the southern and central parts of the Baltic Sea. This study aims to assess the thermal habitat suitability of the round goby in the Baltic Sea considering the past and future conditions. The study combines sightings records with known physiological models of aerobic performance and sea surface temperatures. Physiological models read these temperatures, at sighting times and locations, to determine their effects on the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS) of the fish, a measure of its energetic potential in relation to environmental conditions. The geographical mapping of the AMS was used to describe the changes in habitat suitability during the past 3 decades and for climatic predictions (until 2100) showing that the favourable thermal habitat in the Baltic Sea has increased during the past 32 years and will continue to do so in all the applied climate model predictions. Particularly, the predicted new thermal conditions do not cause any reduction in the AMS of round goby populations, while the wintertime cold ranges are likely expected to preserve substantial areas from invasion. The results of this research can guide future monitoring programs increasing the chance to detect this invader in novel areas.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Ghosh AK, Azan A, Basu G, et al (2024)

Building Climate Change into Medical Education: A Society of General Internal Medicine Position Statement.

Journal of general internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Building expertise in climate and planetary health among healthcare professionals cannot come with greater urgency as the threats from climate change become increasingly apparent. Current and future healthcare professionals-particularly internists-will increasingly need to understand the interconnectedness of natural systems and human health to better serve their patients longitudinally. Despite this, few national medical societies and accreditation bodies espouse frameworks for climate change and planetary health-related education at the undergraduate (UME), graduate (GME), and continuing (CME) medical education level. As a community of medical educators with an enduring interest in climate change and planetary health, the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) recognizes the need to explicitly define structured educational opportunities and core competencies in both UME and GME as well as pathways for faculty development. In this position statement, we build from the related SGIM Climate and Health position statement, and review and synthesize existing position statements made by US-based medical societies and accreditation bodies that focus on climate change and planetary health-related medical education, identify gaps using Bloom's Hierarchy, and provide recommendations on behalf of SGIM regarding the development of climate and planetary health curricula development. Identified gaps include (1) limited systematic approach to climate and planetary health medical education at all levels; (2) minimal emphasis on learner-driven approaches; (3) limited focus on physician and learner well-being; and (4) limited role for health equity and climate justice. Recommendations include a call to relevant accreditation bodies to explicitly include climate change and planetary health as a competency, extend the structural competency framework to climate change and planetary health to build climate justice, proactively include learners in curricular development and teaching, and ensure resources and support to design and implement climate and planetary health-focused education that includes well-being and resiliency.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Cox PM, Williamson MS, Friedlingstein P, et al (2024)

Emergent constraints on carbon budgets as a function of global warming.

Nature communications, 15(1):1885.

Earth System Models (ESMs) continue to diagnose a wide range of carbon budgets for each level of global warming. Here, we present emergent constraints on the carbon budget as a function of global warming, which combine the available ESM historical simulations and future projections for a range of scenarios, with observational estimates of global warming and anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the present day. We estimate mean and likely ranges for cumulative carbon budgets for the Paris targets of 1.5 °C and 2 °C of global warming of 812 [691, 933] PgC and 1048 [881, 1216] PgC, which are more than 10% larger than the ensemble mean values from the CMIP6 models. The linearity between cumulative emissions and global warming is found to be maintained at least until 4 °C, and is consistent with an effective Transient Climate Response to Emissions (eTCRE) of 2.1 [1.8, 2.6] °C/1000PgC, from a global warming of 1.2 °C onwards.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Heckman RW, Pereira CG, Aspinwall MJ, et al (2024)

Physiological Responses of C4 Perennial Bioenergy Grasses to Climate Change: Causes, Consequences, and Constraints.

Annual review of plant biology [Epub ahead of print].

C4 perennial bioenergy grasses are an economically and ecologically important group whose responses to climate change will be important to the future bioeconomy. These grasses are highly productive and frequently possess large geographic ranges and broad environmental tolerances, which may contribute to the evolution of ecotypes that differ in physiological acclimation capacity and the evolution of distinct functional strategies. C4 perennial bioenergy grasses are predicted to thrive under climate change-C4 photosynthesis likely evolved to enhance photosynthetic efficiency under stressful conditions of low [CO2], high temperature, and drought-although few studies have examined how these species will respond to combined stresses or to extremes of temperature and precipitation. Important targets for C4 perennial bioenergy production in a changing world, such as sustainability and resilience, can benefit from combining knowledge of C4 physiology with recent advances in crop improvement, especially genomic selection. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology, Volume 75 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Li D, Wang X, Jiang K, et al (2024)

The impact of climate change and the conservation of the keystone Asian honeybee using niche models and systematic prioritization.

Journal of economic entomology pii:7616713 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming has seriously disturbed the Earth's ecosystems, and in this context, Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) has experienced a dramatic decline in recent decades. Here, we examined both direct and indirect effects of climate change on A. cerana through ecological niche modeling of A. cerana, and its disease pathogens (i.e., Chinese sacbrood virus and Melissococcus plutonius) and enemies (i.e., Galleria mellonella and Vespa mandarinia). Ecological niche modeling predicts that climate change will increase the potential suitability of A. cerana, but it will also cause some of the original habitat areas to become unsuitable. Outbreak risks of Chinese sacbrood disease and European Foulbrood will increase dramatically, while those of G. mellonella and V. mandarinia will decrease only slightly. Thus, climate change will produce an unfavorable situation for even maintaining some A. cerana populations in China in the future. Genetic structure analyses showed that the A. cerana population from Hainan Island had significant genetic differentiation from that of the mainland, and there was almost no gene flow between the 2, suggesting that urgent measures are needed to protect the unique genetic resources there. Through taking an integrated planning technique with the Marxan approach, we optimized conservation planning, and identified potential nature reserves (mainly in western Sichuan and southern Tibet) for conservation of A. cerana populations. Our results can provide insights into the potential impact of climate change on A. cerana, and will help to promote the conservation of the keystone honeybee in China and the long-term sustainability of its ecosystem services.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Absalan F, Hatam F, Prévost M, et al (2024)

Climate change and future water demand: Implications for chlorine and trihalomethanes management in water distribution systems.

Journal of environmental management, 355:120470 pii:S0301-4797(24)00456-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The global change in surface water quality calls for increased preparedness of drinking water utilities. The increasing frequency of extreme climatic events combined with global warming can impact source and treated water characteristics such as temperature and natural organic matter. On the other hand, water saving policies in response to water and energy crisis in some countries can aggravate the situation by increasing the water residence time in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). This study investigates the individual and combined effect of increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC), increased temperature, and reduced water demand on fate and transport of chlorine and trihalomethanes (THMs) within a full-scale DWDS in Canada. Chlorine and THM prediction models were calibrated with laboratory experiments and implemented in EPANET-MATLAB toolkit for prediction in the DWDS under different combinations of DOC, temperature, and demand. The duration of low chlorine residuals (<0.2 mg/L) and high THM (>80 μg/L) periods within a day in each scenario was reported using a reliability index. Low-reliability zones prone to microbial regrowth or high THM exposure were then delineated geographically on the city DWDS. Results revealed that water demand reduction primarily affects chlorine availability, with less concern for THM formation. The reduction in nodal chlorine reliability was gradual with rising temperature and DOC of the treated water and reducing water demand. Nodal THM reliability remained unchanged until certain thresholds were reached, i.e., temperature >25 °C for waters with DOC <1.52 mg/L, and DOC >2.2 mg/L for waters with temperature = 17 °C. At these critical thresholds, an abrupt network-wide THM exceedance of 80 μg/L occurred. Under higher DOC and temperature levels in future, employing the proposed approach revealed that increasing the applied chlorine dosage (which is a conventional method used to ensure sufficient chlorine coverage) results in elevated exposure toTHMs and is not recommended. This approach aids water utilities in assessing the effectiveness of different intervention measures to solve water quality problems, identify site-specific thresholds leading to major decreases in system reliability, and integrate climate adaptation into water safety management.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Singh AP, De K, Uniyal VP, et al (2024)

Unveiling of climate change-driven decline of suitable habitat for Himalayan bumblebees.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4983.

Insect pollinators, especially bumblebees are rapidly declining from their natural habitat in the mountain and temperate regions of the world due to climate change and other anthropogenic activities. We still lack reliable information about the current and future habitat conditions of bumblebees in the Himalaya. In this study, we used the maximum entropy algorithm for SDM to look at current and future (in 2050 and 2070) suitable habitats for bumblebees in the Himalaya. We found that the habitat conditions in the Himalayan mountain range do not have a very promising future as suitable habitat for most species will decrease over the next 50 years. By 2050, less than 10% of the Himalayan area will remain a suitable habitat for about 72% of species, and by 2070 this number will be raised to 75%. During this time period, the existing suitable habitat of bumblebees will be declined but some species will find new suitable habitat which clearly indicates possibility of habitat range shift by Himalayan bumblebees. Overall, about 15% of the Himalayan region is currently highly suitable for bumblebees, which should be considered as priority areas for the conservation of these pollinators. Since suitable habitats for bumblebees lie between several countries, nations that share international borders in the Himalayan region should have international agreements for comprehensive pollinator diversity conservation to protect these indispensable ecosystem service providers.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Mewes L, Tuitjer L, P Dirksmeier (2024)

Exploring the variances of climate change opinions in Germany at a fine-grained local scale.

Nature communications, 15(1):1867.

How and why climate change opinions vary within countries at a small geographic scale is rarely investigated. Previous research has focused on public opinions at the individual or national level, leaving local differences within countries and their underlying factors largely unexplored. The lack of research at subnational levels is problematic, as adaptation and mitigation policies depend on collective support and action involving multiple stakeholders at the local scale. It is thus crucial to identify geographic differences in climate change opinions and to unravel their determinants at a fine-grained local scale. We examine public CCOs across 4,667 municipalities in Germany by relying on a representative survey of households. Here we show substantial and systematic differences in public climate change opinions across locations that manifest between urban vs. rural and prospering vs. declining areas. Besides these geographic features, more complex historical and cultural differences between places play an important role.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Rajabalinejad A, Nozari N, BR Badr (2024)

The effect of climate change on agricultural production in Iran.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 83:e277383 pii:S1519-69842023000101084.

The issue of climate change caused by global warming has become a major concern and challenge around the world, requiring comprehensive countermeasures. Agriculture is the most affected part of climate change and Iran's agriculture economy is at risk because of hot and dry and damages due global climate changes. This study investigates the effects of climatic variables temperature, such as precipitation, carbon and dioxide emission on total crop production in Iran from 1971 to 2020 using a fully modified conventional least squares econometric model (FMOLS). Chemical fertilizer and crop area variables, as well as fixed capital in agricultural have machinery, also been used as indicators of technology. The results showed that all variables had a significant effect on production. The average annual temperature and total annual rainfall its had an inverse U-shaped relationship with production, and were significant. Fertilizer and crop area variables had a positive effect, while CO2 had a negative relationship on total crop production in Iran. The findings of this study can be used to provide strategic plans for policymakers in the face of climate change. It is suggested that the government invest more in the mechanization of the agricultural sector and provide facilities and credits with priority given to farmers' education and the use of temperature-resistant varieties, and also act regionally against climate change.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Wang H, Liu J, Klaar M, et al (2024)

Anthropogenic climate change has influenced global river flow seasonality.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 383(6686):1009-1014.

Riverine ecosystems have adapted to natural discharge variations across seasons. However, evidence suggesting that climate change has already impacted magnitudes of river flow seasonality is limited to local studies, mainly focusing on changes of mean or extreme flows. This study introduces the use of apportionment entropy as a robust measure to assess flow-volume nonuniformity across seasons, enabling a global analysis. We found that ~21% of long-term river gauging stations exhibit significant alterations in seasonal flow distributions, but two-thirds of these are unrelated to trends in annual mean discharge. By combining a data-driven runoff reconstruction with state-of-the-art hydrological simulations, we identified a discernible weakening of river flow seasonality in northern high latitudes (above 50°N), a phenomenon directly linked to anthropogenic climate forcing.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Ortega MA, Cayuela L, Griffith DM, et al (2024)

Climate change increases threat to plant diversity in tropical forests of Central America and southern Mexico.

PloS one, 19(2):e0297840 pii:PONE-D-23-22272.

Global biodiversity is negatively affected by anthropogenic climate change. As species distributions shift due to increasing temperatures and precipitation fluctuations, many species face the risk of extinction. In this study, we explore the expected trend for plant species distributions in Central America and southern Mexico under two alternative Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) portraying moderate (RCP4.5) and severe (RCP8.5) increases in greenhouse gas emissions, combined with two species dispersal assumptions (limited and unlimited), for the 2061-2080 climate forecast. Using an ensemble approach employing three techniques to generate species distribution models, we classified 1924 plant species from the region's (sub)tropical forests according to IUCN Red List categories. To infer the spatial and taxonomic distribution of species' vulnerability under each scenario, we calculated the proportion of species in a threat category (Vulnerable, Endangered, Critically Endangered) at a pixel resolution of 30 arc seconds and by family. Our results show a high proportion (58-67%) of threatened species among the four experimental scenarios, with the highest proportion under RCP8.5 and limited dispersal. Threatened species were concentrated in montane areas and avoided lowland areas where conditions are likely to be increasingly inhospitable. Annual precipitation and diurnal temperature range were the main drivers of species' relative vulnerability. Our approach identifies strategic montane areas and taxa of conservation concern that merit urgent inclusion in management plans to improve climatic resilience in the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot. Such information is necessary to develop policies that prioritize vulnerable elements and mitigate threats to biodiversity under climate change.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Lokmic-Tomkins Z, Friel G, Rodríguez DEC, et al (2024)

Why COP28 outcomes matter: insights on addressing climate change, fossil fuels, and global health resilience.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Rezza G (2024)

Climate change and the spread of Aedes mosquito-borne viruses in Europe.

Pathogens and global health [Epub ahead of print].

Several outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue occurred on Mediterranean coasts during the hot season in the last two decades. Aedes albopictus was the vector involved in all the events. As a consequence of climate change, the 'Tiger' mosquito is now spreading through central Europe, and in the summer of 2023, for the first time, mosquito control measures were implemented in Paris to prevent autochthonous transmission of dengue. Rapid changes in the distribution of tropical disease vectors need to be taken into account in future risk assessment activities.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Li L, Pang YZ, Sun GQ, et al (2024)

Impact of Climate Change on Vegetation Patterns in Altay Prefecture, China.

Mathematical medicine and biology : a journal of the IMA pii:7616119 [Epub ahead of print].

Altay Prefecture, a typical arid region in northwestern China, has experienced the climate transition from warming-drying to warming-wetting since 1980s and has attracted widespread attention. Nonetheless, it is still unclear how climate change has influenced the distribution of vegetation in this region. In this paper, a reaction-diffusion model of the climate-vegetation system is proposed to study the impact of climate change (precipitation, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration) on vegetation patterns in Altay Prefecture. Our results indicate that the tendency of vegetation growth in Altay Prefecture improved gradually from 1985 to 2010. Under the current climate conditions, the increase of precipitation results in the change of vegetation pattern structures, and eventually vegetation coverage tends to be uniform. Moreover, we found that there exists an optimal temperature where the spot vegetation pattern structure remains stable. Furthermore, the increase in carbon dioxide concentration induces vegetation pattern transition. Based on four climate change scenarios of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), we used the power law range (PLR) to predict the optimal scenario for the sustainable development of the vegetation ecosystem in Altay Prefecture.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Wan Y, Chen S, Liu J, et al (2024)

Brownfield-related studies in the context of climate change: A comprehensive review and future prospects.

Heliyon, 10(4):e25784.

The global climate change events are expected to augment the vulnerability of persistent organic pollutants within the global brownfield areas to a certain extent, consequently heightening the risk crises faced by these brownfields amidst the backdrop of global environmental changes. However, studies addressing brownfield risks from the perspective of climate change have received limited attention. Nonetheless, the detrimental consequences of brownfield risks are intrinsically linked to strategies for mitigating and adapting to sustainable urban development, emphasizing the critical importance of their far-reaching implications. This relevance extends to concerns about environmental quality, safety, health risks, and the efficacy of chosen regeneration strategies, including potential secondary pollution risks. This comprehensive review systematically surveys pertinent articles published between 1998 and 2023. A selective analysis was conducted on 133 articles chosen for their thematic relevance. The findings reveal that: (1) Under the backdrop of the climate change process, brownfield restoration is necessitated to provide scientific and precise guidance. The integration of brownfield considerations with the dynamics of climate change has progressively evolved into a unified framework, gradually shaping a research paradigm characterized by "comprehensive + multi-scale + quantitative" methodologies; (2) Research themes coalesce into five prominent clusters: "Aggregation of Brownfield Problem Analysis", "Precision Enhancement of Brownfield Identification through Information Technology", "Diversification of Brownfield Reutilization Assessment", "Process-Oriented Approaches to Brownfield Restoration Strategies", and "Expansion of Ecological Service Functions in Brownfield Contexts"; (3) Application methodologies encompass five key facets: "Temporal and Spatial Distribution Patterns of Pollutants", "Mechanisms and Correlations of Pollution Effects", "Evaluation of Pollution Risks", "Assessment of Brownfield Restoration Strategies", and "Integration of Brownfield Regeneration with Spatial Planning". Future brownfield research from the climate change perspective is poised to reflect characteristics such as "High-Precision Prediction, Comprehensive Dimensionality, Full-Cycle Evaluation, Low-Risk Exposure, and Commitment to Sustainable Development".

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Kempf M (2024)

A dataset to model Levantine landcover and land-use change connected to climate change, the Arab Spring and COVID-19.

Data in brief, 53:110198.

The Levant is highly vulnerable to climate change and experiences prolonged heat waves that have led to societal crises and population displacement. In addition, the region has been impacted by further socio-political turmoil at least since 2010, including the Syrian civil war and currently the escalation of the so-called Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, which strained neighbouring countries like Jordan due to the influx of Syrian refugees and increases population vulnerability to governmental decision-making. Jordan, in particular, has seen rapid population growth and significant changes in land-use and infrastructure, leading to over-exploitation of the landscape through irrigation and unregulated construction activity. This article uses climate data, satellite imagery, and land cover information in a multicomponent trend analysis to illustrate the substantial increase in construction activity and to highlight the intricate relationship between climate change predictions and current socio-political development in the Levant. The analyses were performed using annual and seasonal composites of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) datasets with a spatial resolution of 250 m compared to climate indices of the GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) Noah Land Surface Model L4 dataset for the period 2001-2023. Surface reflectance and climatic parameters were then evaluated on the basis of socio-cultural factors, such as population dynamics, governmental decision-making, water withdrawal regulations, and built-up change as a result of large-scale migration processes. All analyses were conducted using R-software and can be reproduced and replicated using the code and the data provided in this article and the repository.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Squires E, Whiting L, J Petty (2024)

Effects of climate change on the health of children and young people.

Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) pii:e12308 [Epub ahead of print].

The effects of climate change, such as air pollution and extreme heat events, can adversely affect the physical and mental health of children and young people at all ages. This article explores the effects of climate change on children and young people's development and explains the effects of air pollution and heatwaves on their health. The article also discusses how children and young people are knowledgeable and concerned about the effects of climate change and can offer new perspectives on addressing these effects. Finally, the authors consider the role of nurses in raising awareness of the adverse effects of climate change on children's health, incorporating climate change in their practice and promoting opportunities for children's involvement in healthcare decision-making, strategies and policy development.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

John L, Shekede MD, Gwitira I, et al (2024)

Modelling climate change impacts on the spatial distribution of anthrax in Zimbabwe.

BMC public health, 24(1):632.

BACKGROUND: In Zimbabwe, anthrax is endemic with outbreaks being reported almost annually in livestock, wildlife, and humans over the past 40 years. Accurate modelling of its spatial distribution is key in formulating effective control strategies. In this study, an Ensemble Species Distribution Model was used to model the current and future distribution of anthrax occurrence in Zimbabwe.

METHODS: Bioclimatic variables derived from the Beijing Climate Centre Climate System Model were used to model the disease. Collinearity testing was conducted on the 19 bioclimatic variables and elevation to remove redundancy. Variables that had no collinearity were used for anthrax habitat suitability modelling. Two future climate change scenarios for different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP), RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were used. Model evaluation was done using true skill, Kappa statistics and receiver operating characteristics.

RESULTS: The results showed that under current bioclimatic conditions, eastern and western districts of Zimbabwe were modelled as highly suitable, central districts moderately suitable and southern parts marginally suitable for anthrax occurrence. Future predictions demonstrated that the suitable (8%) and highly suitable (7%) areas for anthrax occurrence would increase under RCP4.5 scenario. In contrast, a respective decrease (11%) and marginal increase (0.6%) of suitable and highly suitable areas for anthrax occurrence were predicted under the RCP8.5 scenario. The percentage contribution of the predictors varied for the different scenarios; Bio6 and Bio18 for the current scenario, Bio2, Bio4 and Bio9 for the RCP4.5 and Bio3 and Bio15 for the RCP8.5 scenarios.

CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that areas currently suitable for anthrax should be targeted for surveillance and prevention. The predicted future anthrax distribution can be used to guide and prioritise surveillance and control activities and optimise allocation of limited resources. In the marginally to moderately suitable areas, effective disease surveillance systems and awareness need to be put in place for early detection of outbreaks. Targeted vaccinations and other control measures including collaborative 'One Health' strategies need to be implemented in the predicted highly suitable areas. In the southern part where a high decrease in suitability was predicted, continued monitoring would be necessary to detect incursions early.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Fernández S, Arce G, García-Alaminos Á, et al (2024)

Climate change as a veiled driver of migration in Bangladesh and Ghana.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01349-4 [Epub ahead of print].

People living in deltaic areas in developing countries are especially prone to suffer the effects from natural disasters due to their geographical and economic structure. Climate change is contributing to an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events affecting the environmental conditions of deltas, threatening the socioeconomic development of people and, eventually, triggering migration as an adaptation strategy. Climate change will likely contribute to worsening environmental stress in deltas, and understanding the relations between climate change, environmental impacts, socioeconomic conditions, and migration is emerging as a key element for planning climate adaptation. In this study, we use data from migration surveys and econometric techniques to analyse the extent to which environmental impacts affect individual migration decision-making in two delta regions in Bangladesh and Ghana. The results show that, in both deltas, climatic shocks that negatively affect economic security are significant drivers of migration, although the surveyed households do not identify environmental pressures as the root cause of the displacement. Furthermore, environmental impacts affecting food security and crop and livestock production are also significant as events inducing people to migrate, but only in Ghana. We also find that suffering from environmental stress can intensify or reduce the effects of socioeconomic drivers. In this sense, adverse climatic shocks may not only have a direct impact on migration but may also condition migration decisions indirectly through the occupation, the education, or the marital status of the person. We conclude that although climate change and related environmental pressures are not perceived as key drivers of migration, they affect migration decisions through indirect channels (e.g., reducing economic security or reinforcing the effect of socioeconomic drivers).

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Gurung K, Field KJ, Batterman SA, et al (2024)

Geographic range of plants drives long-term climate change.

Nature communications, 15(1):1805.

Long computation times in vegetation and climate models hamper our ability to evaluate the potentially powerful role of plants on weathering and carbon sequestration over the Phanerozoic Eon. Simulated vegetation over deep time is often homogenous, and disregards the spatial distribution of plants and the impact of local climatic variables on plant function. Here we couple a fast vegetation model (FLORA) to a spatially-resolved long-term climate-biogeochemical model (SCION), to assess links between plant geographical range, the long-term carbon cycle and climate. Model results show lower rates of carbon fixation and up to double the previously predicted atmospheric CO2 concentration due to a limited plant geographical range over the arid Pangea supercontinent. The Mesozoic dispersion of the continents increases modelled plant geographical range from 65% to > 90%, amplifying global CO2 removal, consistent with geological data. We demonstrate that plant geographical range likely exerted a major, under-explored control on long-term climate change.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Alibudbud RC (2023)

Climate change and mental health in the Philippines.

BJPsych international, 20(2):44-46.

The mental health repercussions of the climate crisis are observed annually in the Philippines, one of the world's most climate-vulnerable countries. This paper explores these repercussions by examining the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan. It shows that mental health problems persisted beyond the typhoon's immediate aftermath among a large number of survivors. Since the mental health system was fragile, the affected community improved their mental health services through the help of local and international non-governmental organisations. Nonetheless, several challenges must be addressed as the country faces the climate crisis.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Kaya AA, Aydin A, G Bağcivan (2023)

Climate change in Türkiye and its impact on oncology nurses.

Ecancermedicalscience, 17:1623.

Climate change threatens human life and health by negatively affecting the basic components of health such as clean air, safe drinking water, nutritious food supply, and safe shelter. Türkiye is a country that is largely exposed to climate change with its cosmopolitan location, which is a bridge between Asia and Europe. Due to climate change, serious effects are seen in all sectors from energy to agriculture, from the economy to health. Climate change is defined as the most important global health threat of the next century, and the problems it brings are seen as the most important pressure factor for the life opportunities of future generations. Food and fresh water availability, rising sea levels, abnormal weather events, migration, and diseases are thought to affect human health. A multidisciplinary approach is required to adapt to climate change's health effects and reduce its negative health effects. In addition, it is predicted that diseases that are about to disappear will re-emerge and become threats. It is thought that as a result of the contamination of food and water resources with the changing ecosystem, some infections will increase and society will face them. Nurses are both affected by climate change and its effects on public health. Nurses who remain in this situation have a great role in providing effective awareness for raising public awareness. In recent years, oncology clinics have not been affected by fire, earthquakes, and pandemics in our country. In this respect, it can be stated that the health service in Turkish oncology clinics is carried out uninterruptedly and by experts in the field. We learned during the pandemic that the whole world is unprepared for the future effects of climate change. In this direction, nurses should think about solutions for the problems related to climate change in the future.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Samba VL, Mezgebu E, Habtes H, et al (2023)

Climate change and oncology nursing: the African perspective.

Ecancermedicalscience, 17:1621.

Climate change is impacting the lives of millions around the world and exacerbating existing challenges in healthcare globally. Although Africa contributes only 2%-3% of global greenhouse gas emissions, it suffers a disproportionate share of the environmental impact. High-income countries dominate the global discourse on climate change, while their continued utilisation of extractive policies exacerbates climate hazards and impacts economies in regions not responsible for the damage. Cancer is on the rise and constitutes a significant public health burden in low- and middle-income countries, yet little is known about the impact of climate change on oncology nursing on the African continent. To address the ways that climate change is exacerbating existing challenges and adding new difficulties for oncology care, it is essential that the expertise of professionals working in settings that are most impacted by the threats of climate change is amplified if climate crisis risks are to be effectively mitigated. Seven African oncology nurses from across sub-Saharan Africa were reflexively interviewed by voice over internet protocol (VOIP) in English to learn about their understanding of climate change and experiences with its impact on nursing care. Using a conceptual framework to map the impact of climate change on health and considering the vulnerability and social capacity of patients with cancer, our findings show how existing challenges to oncology nursing care are exacerbated by climate change on the continent. Food insecurity, national economic dependency on the agricultural sector, economic inequality, social vulnerability and isolation, transportation challenges, and the immunocompromised status of patients with cancer are all key concerns for oncology nurses in this context. We also present the nurses' specific recommendations for governments, hospital authorities, and oncology nurses regarding climate change mitigation, adaptation, and event response strategies. With this work, we aim to lay a foundation for further investigation and action to mitigate the oncoming challenges of climate disaster for oncology nurses across sub-Saharan Africa and the patients and families they care for.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Hawaamdah J, M Fowler (2023)

The impact of climate change on cancer nursing in Palestine.

Ecancermedicalscience, 17:ed129.

Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Palestine, with many cancers diagnosed at a late stage. In contrast to the developed world, two thirds of cancer diagnoses occur between the ages of 15 and 64, moreover, 10% of all cancer diagnoses occur in children under the age of 10 (compared to 0.05% of all new cancer diagnoses in the UK). Cancer nursing as a speciality in Palestine is newly established in the last 5 years; partly helped by the introduction of the Higher Diploma in Cancer and Palliative Care Nursing, and more recently the delivery of the first intake of the Master of Science in Cancer and Palliative Care Nursing at Bethlehem University. There are many challenges faced by cancer patients and nurses in Palestine; there is only one facility in the West Bank that delivers radiotherapy, 2 PET-CT scanners for the whole of the West Bank, with no PET-CT or radiotherapy facilities in Gaza. There are 2 haematology units in the West Bank that perform autologous stem cell transplants for adults and any haematology patient (adult or child) requiring an allogeneic stem cell/bone marrow transplant has to be referred to neighbouring Israel or Jordan. Climate change might have both a direct and indirect impact on the growth of cancers and on cancer treatment and oncology nurses. Over the last 150 years the planet has warmed by over one degree Celsius resulting in disastrous consequences for the environment. Nurses make up the largest number of the healthcare workforce and are ideally placed to have a positive impact on the global warming crisis due to their leadership roles as well as their work in health promotion. They equally do a lot to help cancer patients to deal with its effects and often care for patients from marginalised groups. It is important for nurses to take the lead and move immediately to make health systems more resistant to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Arias NM, Durán ÁAA, Lozano MYR, et al (2023)

Climate change and cancer: an oncology nurse perspective in two Colombian regions.

Ecancermedicalscience, 17:1620.

Given the lack of publications and public policies addressing the relationship between climate change and cancer care in Colombia, we present an exploration of the perspectives and communication practices of a group of nurses from Valle del Cauca and Antioquia. We provide a context based on the available literature on climate change and general health then provide an overview of cancer in the country. Next, we present how oncology nurses have incorporated information about strategies their patients can use to mitigate the effects of climate change on their health. We highlight the centrality of patient-centered communication using a framework from the US National Cancer Institute) and the fundamental role nurses have in patients' experiences throughout their treatment. We conclude with the need to investigate oncology nurse communication practices in other Colombian hospitals, with consideration of culture, cancer stigma, barriers to care and other factors that may influence successful climate change mitigation and to better understand how other Latin American oncology nurses are addressing this serious challenge.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Tanay MA, Quiambao-Udan J, Soriano O, et al (2023)

Filipino nurses' experiences and perceptions of the impact of climate change on healthcare delivery and cancer care in the Philippines: a qualitative exploratory survey.

Ecancermedicalscience, 17:1622.

BACKGROUND: Because of its geographical location, the Philippines is vulnerable to the effects of climate change and almost all types of natural hazards such as typhoons, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the Philippines and is one of the major public health concerns. Little is known about how climate change affects cancer services in the Philippines. As the biggest workforce in most institutions, having awareness and knowledge about disaster preparedness and management among nurses can help in reducing the devastating effects of natural disasters on health services. Thus, it is important to understand Filipino nurses' experiences and perception of the impact of climate change on healthcare delivery and cancer care in the Philippines.

AIM: This study explored Filipino nurses' experiences and perception of the impact of climate change on healthcare delivery and cancer care in the Philippines.

METHODS: This is a descriptive qualitative exploratory study. Participants were recruited using the snowballing technique and completed an online survey. Forty-six nurses who were working in Luzon, Philippines at the time of the data collection were included in the analysis. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.

FINDINGS: Three themes were identified, namely: (1) effects of climate change causing disruption and delay in provision of patient care, (2) impact of climate change on nurses and a deep sense of duty, and (3) perceived impact on patients with cancer.

CONCLUSION: Our study findings contribute to the existing literature that focuses on the impact of climate change-related events such as typhoons and floods on healthcare services and nursing staff. Several areas of cancer care are also impacted, particularly delays in treatment such as chemotherapy. Despite the challenges, the nurses in our study demonstrated a deep sense of commitment in carrying out their roles.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Chen K, de Schrijver E, Sivaraj S, et al (2024)

Impact of population aging on future temperature-related mortality at different global warming levels.

Nature communications, 15(1):1796.

Older adults are generally amongst the most vulnerable to heat and cold. While temperature-related health impacts are projected to increase with global warming, the influence of population aging on these trends remains unclear. Here we show that at 1.5 °C, 2 °C, and 3 °C of global warming, heat-related mortality in 800 locations across 50 countries/areas will increase by 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5%, respectively; among which 1 in 5 to 1 in 4 heat-related deaths can be attributed to population aging. Despite a projected decrease in cold-related mortality due to progressive warming alone, population aging will mostly counteract this trend, leading to a net increase in cold-related mortality by 0.1%-0.4% at 1.5-3 °C global warming. Our findings indicate that population aging constitutes a crucial driver for future heat- and cold-related deaths, with increasing mortality burden for both heat and cold due to the aging population.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Ibrahim AE, Salem HA, A Abdelhalim (2024)

Environmental implications of three Pleurotus strain growths for water remediation in the perspective of climate change in New Egyptian Delta.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Recently, the integrated different interdisciplinary studies derived the environmental solutions of the climate change impacts (e.g., cultivation, wastewater treatment, and managing groundwater resources) (Mesalhy et al. 2020, and Gobashy et al. 2021). Thus, this paper focused on the application of bioremediation to maximize the use of wastewater for new reclamation areas in the Northwest Egyptian desert (New Egyptian Delta (NED). In the NED project, the drainage water samples collected from Nile Delta drains will provide the main unconventional water resources for irrigation through the new Hammam canal. Therefore, three Pleurotus strains were grown moderately on two natural media, the first containing Salvia L. (sage) extract (MDA) and the second containing Thymus vulgaris L. (origanum thymus Kuntze, Thymus collinus Salisb) (TDA) extract replacing potato infusions in standard PDA. Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin; Kummer) strain records the highest growth among the three tested fungi on modified media. PO records 4.49 and 4.41 cm on (MDA) and (TDA), respectively. There is a marked decrease in the majority of heavy metal concentrations on sterile drainage water amended with PD broth and inoculated with three tested Pleurotus strains individually. At the end of the incubation period, Pleurotus ostereatus which expressed in abbreviation (PO) are more efficient in the removal of Al, Co, Cr, and Ni by 53.15, 95.87, 58.47, and 85.07%; respectively. Pleurorotus pulmonarius (Fr.) which symbolized (PP) is more potent in the removal of Cd, Si, Sn, Sr, and V by 70.37, 56.59, 41.19, 52.78, and 96.24%; respectively. Pleurotus floridanus (NZOR) which indicated as (PF) is actively over the former species in the removal of Ba, Fe, and Mo by 87.84, 46.67, and 97.34%; respectively. Cu, Mn, Pb, As, and Se could not be detected as the control sample recorded measurements below 0.009 mg L[-1]. An unexpected increase in Zn among the different treatments was detected from 05.04 to 07.01%.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Canaday FT, Georas SN, DP Croft (2024)

Examining the impact of air pollution, climate change, and social determinants of health on asthma and environmental justice.

Current opinion in pulmonary medicine pii:00063198-990000000-00152 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss the current literature examining the impact air pollution and climate change has on asthma onset, control, and exacerbation. This review also addresses the risk of exposure to specific disproportionately affected communities, highlighting health disparities in exposure and asthma outcomes.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shifted from highlighting the associations between asthma exacerbations and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Studies are now focused on confirming the association of asthma incidence from these same exposures. Many studies have linked particulate matter to adverse asthma outcomes, however, the pollutant exposures that pose the greatest risk and the effect of natural disasters fueled by climate change are under current study. Some studies have observed that the true burden that pollutant exposures have on asthma outcomes occurs at the intersection of exposure and vulnerability. Future studies in this area will address social determinants of health, societal factors such as redlining and other systemic racism practices.

SUMMARY: Although decades of research support the causal link between gaseous and particulate air pollution and the exacerbation of preexisting asthma, recent studies suggest air pollution can cause incident (new onset) asthma. Studies have started to focus on the underlying drivers of poor outcomes in asthma. Many of the structural impediments to high quality asthma care at the society level (e.g. poverty, redlining, systemic racism) also are risk factors for worsened climate events and air pollution exposure. The individuals in these disproportionately affected groups are doubly affected by worsened exposure and worsened access to care for the resultant asthma exacerbations or incident asthma. More research is needed to understand the specific climate and air pollution mitigation efforts where disproportionately affected communities would derive the most benefit.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Mehlenbacher AR, Doody S, Eckert C, et al (2024)

Prolepsis and Rendering Futures in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Reports.

Written communication, 41(2):352-377.

Rhetorical figures of speech provide important analytical frames to chart how arguments operate within genres and within genre ecologies. Varieties of the figure prolepsis allow for the rendering of future time or fact in the present, which can be a powerful rhetorical inducement toward social and political action. In this article, we examine how anticipatory arguments drawn from complex data shape a key genre for public and policy-facing work on the climate crisis-the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Synthesis Report's (SYR) Statement for Policy Makers (SPM). We examine how the rhetorical figure of prolepsis operates within this genre to understand the anticipatory arguments and logics emerging from the synthesis of scientific findings and their reporting. Pairing figural studies and Rhetorical Genre Studies, we further offer an approach to investigate how these patterned operations of language might intersect in their rhetorical workings.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Liu S, Zhou Z, Liu J, et al (2024)

Impact of climate change on water quality evolution in cold regions using a water-heat-nitrogen processes coupled model.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Cold regions are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Thus, evaluating the response of water quality evolution to climate change in cold regions is vital for formulating adaptive countermeasures for pollution control under changing climatic conditions. Taking the Songhua River Basin (SRB) in Northeast China as the target area, we designed a water-heat-nitrogen coupled model based on the principle of water and energy transfer and nitrogen cycle processes model (WEP-N) in cold regions. The impact of climate change on pollution load and water quality was analyzed during the freezing, thawing, and non-freeze-thaw periods by taking the sudden change point (1998) of precipitation and runoff evolution in the SRB as the cut-off. The ammonia nitrogen load at Jiamusi station, the outlet control station in the SRB, was decreased by 1502.9 t in the change period (1999-2018) over the base period (1956-1998), with a - 9.2% decrease due to climate change. Compared to the ammonia nitrogen load during the base period, the ammonia nitrogen load decreased by - 171.3, - 506.9, and - 824.8 t during the freezing, thawing, and non-freeze-thaw periods, respectively, while the coefficient of variation showed an increasing trend during three periods, especially during the freezing and thawing periods. However, the water quality changes differed among periods owing to varying runoff during the year. Meanwhile, increasing runoff and decreasing ammonia nitrogen load improved water quality at Jiamusi station during the freezing period. During the thawing and non-freeze-thaw period, the water quality deteriorated due to the decrease in runoff more than the decrease in ammonia nitrogen load. Hence, the impact of climate change on water quality during thawing and non-freeze-thaw periods should be monitored to potentially offset the human influence on pollution control. The difference in the rate of change of the proportion of Class IV water between the two models with or without the soil freeze-thaw mechanism was 15.9%. The result shows that the application of a model that does not consider the freeze-thaw mechanism might slightly exaggerate the impact of climate change on water quality.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Conradi T, Eggli U, Kreft H, et al (2024)

Reassessment of the risks of climate change for terrestrial ecosystems.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Forecasting the risks of climate change for species and ecosystems is necessary for developing targeted conservation strategies. Previous risk assessments mapped the exposure of the global land surface to changes in climate. However, this procedure is unlikely to robustly identify priority areas for conservation actions because nonlinear physiological responses and colimitation processes ensure that ecological changes will not map perfectly to the forecast climatic changes. Here, we combine ecophysiological growth models of 135,153 vascular plant species and plant growth-form information to transform ambient and future climatologies into phytoclimates, which describe the ability of climates to support the plant growth forms that characterize terrestrial ecosystems. We forecast that 33% to 68% of the global land surface will experience a significant change in phytoclimate by 2070 under representative concentration pathways RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5, respectively. Phytoclimates without present-day analogue are forecast to emerge on 0.3-2.2% of the land surface and 0.1-1.3% of currently realized phytoclimates are forecast to disappear. Notably, the geographic pattern of change, disappearance and novelty of phytoclimates differs markedly from the pattern of analogous trends in climates detected by previous studies, thereby defining new priorities for conservation actions and highlighting the limits of using untransformed climate change exposure indices in ecological risk assessments. Our findings suggest that a profound transformation of the biosphere is underway and emphasize the need for a timely adaptation of biodiversity management practices.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Taylor L (2024)

Dengue fever: Brazil rushes out vaccine as climate change fuels unprecedented surge.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 384:q483.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Kumar A, Mushtaq M, Kumar P, et al (2024)

Insights into flowering mechanisms in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) amidst climate change: An exploration of genetic and epigenetic factors.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects pii:S0304-4165(24)00036-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) holds a prominent position among global temperate fruit crops, with flowering playing a crucial role in both production and breeding. This review delves into the intricate mechanisms governing apple flowering amidst the backdrop of climate change, acknowledging the profound influence of external and internal factors on biennial bearing, flower bud quality, and ultimately, fruit quality. Notably, the challenge faced in major apple production regions is not an inadequacy of flowers but an excess, leading to compromised fruit quality necessitating thinning practices. Climate change exacerbates these challenges, rendering apple trees more susceptible to crop failure due to unusual weather events, such as reduced winter snowfall, early spring cold weather, and hailstorms during flowering and fruit setting. Altered climatic conditions, exemplified by increased spring warming coupled with sub-freezing temperatures, negatively impact developing flower buds and decrease overall crop production. Furthermore, changing winter conditions affect chilling accumulation, disrupting flower development and synchronicity. Although the physiological perception of apple flowering has been reviewed in the past, the genetic, epigenetic, and multi-omics regulatory mechanisms governing floral induction and flowering are still rarely discussed in the case of apple flowering. This article comprehensively reviews the latest literature encompassing all aspects of apple flowering, aiming to broaden our understanding and address flowering challenges while also laying a solid foundation for future research in developing cultivars that are ideally adapted to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Moore MP, Nalley SE, D Hamadah (2024)

An evolutionary innovation for mating facilitates ecological niche expansion and buffers species against climate change.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(10):e2313371121.

One of the drivers of life's diversification has been the emergence of "evolutionary innovations": The evolution of traits that grant access to underused ecological niches. Since ecological interactions can occur separately from mating, mating-related traits have not traditionally been considered factors in niche evolution. However, in order to persist in their environment, animals need to successfully mate just as much as they need to survive. Innovations that facilitate mating activity may therefore be an overlooked determinant of species' ecological limits. Here, we show that species' historical niches and responses to contemporary climate change are shaped by an innovation involved in mating-a waxy, ultra-violet-reflective pruinescence produced by male dragonflies. Physiological experiments in two species demonstrate that pruinescence reduces heating and water loss. Phylogenetic analyses show that pruinescence is gained after taxa begin adopting a thermohydrically stressful mating behavior. Further comparative analyses reveal that pruinose species are more likely to breed in exposed, open-canopy microhabitats. Biogeographic analyses uncover that pruinose species occupy warmer and drier regions in North America. Citizen-science observations of Pachydiplax longipennis suggest that the extent of pruinescence can be optimized to match the local conditions. Finally, temporal analyses indicate that pruinose species have been buffered against contemporary climate change. Overall, these historical and contemporary patterns show that successful mating can shape species' niche limits in the same way as growth and survival.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Bevan J, Blyth R, Russel B, et al (2023)

Climate change and sustainability teaching in UK medical education - a national audit.

Future healthcare journal, 10(Suppl 3):138-139.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Fragnière Y, Champoud L, Küffer N, et al (2024)

Cliff-edge forests: Xerothermic hotspots of local biodiversity and models for future climate change.

Global change biology, 30(2):e17196.

Cliffs are remarkable environments that enable the existence of microclimates. These small, isolated sites, decoupled from the regional macroclimate, play a significant role in maintaining species biodiversity, particularly in topographically homogeneous landscapes. Our study investigated the microclimate of south-exposed forests situated at the edge of sandstone cliffs in the western part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin in Switzerland and its role in local forest community composition. Using direct measurements from data loggers, as well as vegetation analyses, it was possible to quantify the microclimate of the cliff-edge forests and compare it with that of the surrounding forests. Our results highlighted the significant xerothermic and more variable nature of the cliff-edge forest microclimate, with a mean soil temperature up to 3.72°C warmer in the summer, higher annual (+28%) and daily (+250%) amplitudes of soil temperature, which frequently expose vegetation to extreme temperatures, and an 83% higher soil drying rate. These differences have a distinct influence on forest communities: cliff-edge forests are significantly different from surrounding forests. The site particularities of cliff edges support the presence of locally rare species and forest types, particularly of Scots pine. Cliff edges must therefore be considered microrefugia with a high conservation value for both xerothermic species and flora adapted to more continental climates. Moreover, the microclimate of cliff-edge forests could resemble the future climate in many ways. We argue that these small areas, which are already experiencing the future climate, can be seen as natural laboratories to better answer the following question: what will our forests look like in a few decades with accelerated climate change?

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Terasaki Hart DE, IJ Wang (2024)

Genomic architecture controls multivariate adaptation to climate change.

Global change biology, 30(2):e17179.

As climate change advances, environmental gradients may decouple, generating novel multivariate environments that stress wild populations. A commonly invoked mechanism of evolutionary rescue is adaptive gene flow tracking climate shifts, but gene flow from populations inhabiting similar conditions on one environmental axis could cause maladaptive introgression when populations are adapted to different environmental variables that do not shift together. Genomic architecture can play an important role in determining the effectiveness and relative magnitudes of adaptive gene flow and in situ adaptation. This may have direct consequences for how species respond to climate change but is often overlooked. Here, we simulated microevolutionary responses to environmental change under scenarios defined by variation in the polygenicity, linkage, and genetic redundancy of two independent traits, one of which is adapted to a gradient that shifts under climate change. We used these simulations to examine how genomic architecture influences evolutionary outcomes under climate change. We found that climate-tracking (up-gradient) gene flow, though present in all scenarios, was strongly constrained under scenarios of lower linkage and higher polygenicity and redundancy, suggesting in situ adaptation as the predominant mechanism of evolutionary rescue under these conditions. We also found that high polygenicity caused increased maladaptation and demographic decline, a concerning result given that many climate-adapted traits may be polygenic. Finally, in scenarios with high redundancy, we observed increased adaptive capacity. This finding adds to the growing recognition of the importance of redundancy in mediating in situ adaptive capacity and suggests opportunities for better understanding the climatic vulnerability of real populations.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Vanalli C, Mari L, Casagrandi R, et al (2024)

Helminth ecological requirements shape the impact of climate change on the hazard of infection.

Ecology letters, 27(2):e14386.

Outbreaks and spread of infectious diseases are often associated with seasonality and environmental changes, including global warming. Free-living stages of soil-transmitted helminths are highly susceptible to climatic drivers; however, how multiple climatic variables affect helminth species, and the long-term consequences of these interactions, is poorly understood. We used experiments on nine trichostrongylid species of herbivores to develop a temperature- and humidity-dependent model of infection hazard, which was then implemented at the European scale under climate change scenarios. Intestinal and stomach helminths exhibited contrasting climatic responses, with the former group strongly affected by temperature while the latter primarily impacted by humidity. Among the demographic traits, larval survival heavily modulated the infection hazard. According to the specific climatic responses of the two groups, climate change is expected to generate differences in the seasonal and spatial shifts of the infection hazard and group co-circulation. In the future, an intensification of these trends could create new opportunities for species range expansion and co-occurrence at European central-northern latitudes.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Datta P, Datta R, Lewis K, et al (2024)

Youth response to climate change: Learning from Indigenous land-based camp at the Northern Saskatchewan Indigenous Communities, Canada.

Explore (New York, N.Y.) pii:S1550-8307(24)00031-4 [Epub ahead of print].

This paper represents Youth's involvement in land-based learning in Indigenous culture camps (LLICP) in a powerful and innovative approach to addressing the pressing global issue of climate change. Following Indigenist and relational approaches, we (Indigenous and non-Indigenous youth and educators) explore the critical aspects of this initiative, highlighting its significance and potential impact. Indigenous communities have long held a deep connection with the land and possess traditional knowledge that is invaluable in combating climate change. The LLICP initiative involves organizing cultural camps designed for youth from diverse backgrounds to learn from Indigenous elders and community leaders about the vital relationship between the environment and Indigenous cultures. The LLICP provides a unique opportunity for young people to engage with Indigenous wisdom, traditional practices, and land-based teachings. Through Indigenous elders and knowledge-keepers guidelines, we learned a holistic understanding of sustainable living, biodiversity conservation, and the importance of preserving ecosystems. Our learning helped us, particularly our youths, to become proactive stewards of the environment and advocates for climate action. The LLICP fosters cross-cultural understanding and collaboration, encouraging a sense of unity among youths. The LLICP inspires innovative solutions to climate-related challenges and empowers youth to take leadership roles in their communities, advocating for sustainable policies and practices. The LLICP offers a powerful means of engaging young people in the fight against climate change while respecting and honoring Indigenous knowledge and heritage. It is a promising step towards a more sustainable and resilient future for all.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Saygin H, Tilkili B, Karniyarik S, et al (2024)

Culture dependent analysis of bacterial activity, biofilm-formation and oxidative stress of seawater with the contamination of microplastics under climate change consideration.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01242-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Temperature changes due to climate change and microplastic contamination are worldwide concerns, creating various problems in the marine environment. Therefore, this study was carried out to discover the impact of different temperature of seawater exposed to different types of plastic materials on culture dependent bacterial responses and oxidative characteristics. Seawater was exposed to microplastics obtained from various plastic materials at different temperature (-18, +4, +20, and +35 °C) for seven days. Then microplastics were removed from the suspension and microplastic-exposed seawater samples were analyzed for bacterial activity, biofilm formation and oxidative characteristics (antioxidant, catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase) using Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the activity and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were affected through oxidative stress by catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase due to the microplastic deformation by temperature changes. This study confirms that temperature changes as a result of climate change might influence microplastic degradation and their contamination impact in seawater in terms of bacterial metabolic and oxidation reactions.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Regev S, Carmel Y, Schlabing D, et al (2024)

Climate change impact on sub-tropical lakes ecosystem - Lake Kinneret as a case study.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01302-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is anticipated to alter lake ecosystems by affecting water quality, potentially resulting in loss of ecosystem services. Subtropical lakes have high temperatures to begin with and are expected to exhibit higher temperatures all year round which might affect the thermal structure and ecological processes in a different manner than lakes in temperate zones. In this study the ecosystem response of the sub-tropical Lake Kinneret to climate change was explored using lake ecosystem models. Projection reliability was increased by using a weather generator and ensemble modelling, confronting uncertainty of both climate projections and lake models. The study included running two 1D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical models over one thousand realizations of two gradual temperature increase scenarios that span over 49 years. Our predictions show that an increase in air temperature would have subtle effects on stratification properties but may result in considerable changes to biogeochemical processes. Water temperature rise would cause a reduction in dissolved oxygen. Both of these changes would produce elevated phosphate and lowered ammonium concentrations. In turn, these changes are predicted to modify the phytoplankton community, expressed chiefly in increased cyanobacteria blooms at the expense of green phytoplankton and dinoflagellates; these changes may culminate in overall reduction of primary production. Identification of these trends would not be possible without the use of many realizations of climate scenarios. The use of ensemble modelling increased prediction reliability and highlighted elements of uncertainty. Though we use Lake Kinneret, the patterns identified most likely indicate processes that are expected in sub-tropical lakes in general.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Bagcchi S (2024)

Climate change recognised in World malaria report 2023.

The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 24(3):e157.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Stilita G, F Charlson (2024)

Keeping Sane in a Changing Climate: Assessing Psychologists' Preparedness, Exposure to Climate-Health Impacts, Willingness to Act on Climate Change, and Barriers to Effective Action.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 21(2): pii:ijerph21020218.

Evidence of the impact of climate change on mental health is growing rapidly, and healthcare professionals are being called to be active participants in protecting the population's health. Yet, little is known about psychologists' understanding of climate-health impacts and their role in mitigation actions. We surveyed Australian psychologists (N = 59) to examine preparedness in identifying and managing the impact of climate change on mental health, exposure to climate-health impacts, willingness to act, and barriers to acting on climate change. Data was analysed through descriptive and associative methods. We found that participants are not prepared to identify and manage mental health presentations related to climate change, and they are not engaged in climate change mitigation. We identified that a lack of knowledge of climate-health impacts and tackling and mitigation strategies, in addition to ethical concerns, were the main barriers to engagement with communication and advocacy. With the impacts of climate change on mental health expected to soar, there is a clear and urgent need to prepare the psychological workforce to address this public health issue by establishing professional education programs and reframing climate change as a health crisis.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Neves JMM, Belo VS, Catita CMS, et al (2024)

Modeling of Human Rabies Cases in Brazil in Different Future Global Warming Scenarios.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 21(2): pii:ijerph21020212.

Bat species have been observed to have the potential to expand their distribution in response to climate change, thereby influencing shifts in the spatial distribution and population dynamics of human rabies cases. In this study, we applied an ensemble niche modeling approach to project climatic suitability under different future global warming scenarios for human rabies cases in Brazil, and assessed the impact on the probability of emergence of new cases. We obtained notification records of human rabies cases in all Brazilian cities from January 2001 to August 2023, as reported by the State and Municipal Health Departments. The current and future climate data were sourced from a digital repository on the WorldClim website. The future bioclimatic variables provided were downscaled climate projections from CMIP6 (a global model ensemble) and extracted from the regionalized climate model HadGEM3-GC31-LL for three future socioeconomic scenarios over four periods (2021-2100). Seven statistical algorithms (MAXENT, MARS, RF, FDA, CTA, GAM, and GLM) were selected for modeling human rabies. Temperature seasonality was the bioclimatic variable with the highest relative contribution to both current and future consensus models. Future scenario modeling for human rabies indicated a trend of changes in the areas of occurrence, maintaining the current pace of global warming, population growth, socioeconomic instability, and the loss of natural areas. In Brazil, there are areas with a higher likelihood of climatic factors contributing to the emergence of cases. When assessing future scenarios, a change in the local climatic suitability is observed that may lead to a reduction or increase in cases, depending on the region.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Teshome M (2024)

Charting the systemic and cascading impacts of climate change on marine food systems and human health.

BMJ global health, 8(Suppl 3): pii:bmjgh-2023-014638.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Mumoli N, Evangelista I, Capra C, et al (2024)

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease: An emerging climate-change related sneaky syndrome.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Giacoletti A, Bosch-Belmar M, Mangano MC, et al (2024)

Predicting the effect of fouling organisms and climate change on integrated shellfish aquaculture.

Marine pollution bulletin, 201:116167 pii:S0025-326X(24)00144-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Aquaculture industry represents a continuously growing sector playing a fundamental role in pursuing United Nation's goals. Increasing sea-surface temperatures, the growth of encrusting species and current cage cleaning practices proved to affect the productivity of commercial species. Here, through a Dynamic Energy Budget application under two different IPCC scenarios, we investigate the long-term effects of Pennaria disticha fragments' on Mytilus galloprovincialis' functional traits as a result of cage cleaning practices. While Climate-Change did not exert a marked effect on mussels' Life-History traits, the simulated effect of cage cleanings highlighted a positive effect on total weight, fecundity and time to commercial size. West-Mediterranean emerged as the most affected sector, with Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey between the top-affected countries. These outcomes confirm the reliability of a DEB-approach in projecting at different spatial and temporal scale eco-physiological results, avoiding the limitation of short-term studies and the difficulties of long-term ones.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Siiba A, Kangmennaang J, Baatiema L, et al (2024)

The relationship between climate change, globalization and non-communicable diseases in Africa: A systematic review.

PloS one, 19(2):e0297393.

Climate change and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are considered the 21st Century's major health and development challenges. Both pose a disproportionate burden on low- and middle-income countries that are unprepared to cope with their synergistic effects. These two challenges pose risks for achieving many of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and are both impacted by globalization through different pathways. While there are important insights on how climate change and or globalization impact NCDs in the general literature, comprehensive research that explores the influence of climate change and or globalization on NCDs is limited, particularly in the context of Africa. This review documents the pathways through which climate change and or globalization influence NCDs in Africa. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in eight electronic databases-Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Global Health Library, Science Direct, Medline, ProQuest, and Google Scholar. A total of 13864 studies were identified. Studies that were identified from more than one of the databases were automatically removed as duplicates (n = 9649). Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a total of 27 studies were eventually included in the final review. We found that the impacts of climate change and or globalization on NCDs act through three potential pathways: reduction in food production and nutrition, urbanization and transformation of food systems. Our review contributes to the existing literature by providing insights into the impact of climate change and or globalization on human health. We believe that our findings will help enlighten policy makers working on these pathways to facilitate the development of effective policy and public health interventions to mitigate the effects of climate change and globalization on the rising burden of NCDs and goal 3 of the SDG, in particular.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Zhao Q, Li H, Chen C, et al (2024)

Potential Global Distribution of Paracoccus marginatus, under Climate Change Conditions, Using MaxEnt.

Insects, 15(2): pii:insects15020098.

The papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus, is an invasive pest species found all over the world. It is native to Mexico and Central America, but is now present in more than 50 countries and regions, seriously threatening the economic viability of the agricultural and forestry industry. In the current study, the global potential distribution of P. marginatus was predicted under current and future climatic conditions using MaxEnt. The results of the model assessment indicated that the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC-AUC) was 0.949, while the TSS value was 0.820. The results also showed that the three variables with the greatest impact on the model were min temperature of coldest month (bio6), precipitation of wettest month (bio13), and precipitation of coldest quarter (bio19), with corresponding contributions of 46.8%, 31.1%, and 13.1%, respectively. The results indicated that the highly suitable areas were mainly located in tropical and subtropical regions, including South America, southern North America, Central America, Central Africa, Australia, the Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. Under four climate scenarios in the 2050s and 2070s, the area of suitability will change very little. Moreover, the results showed that the area of suitable areas in 2070s increased under all four climate scenarios compared to the current climate. In contrast, the area of suitable habitat increases from the current to the 2050s under the SSP370 and SSP585 climate scenarios. The current study could provide a reference framework for the future control and management of papaya mealybug and other invasive species.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Daunoras J, Kačergius A, R Gudiukaitė (2024)

Role of Soil Microbiota Enzymes in Soil Health and Activity Changes Depending on Climate Change and the Type of Soil Ecosystem.

Biology, 13(2): pii:biology13020085.

The extracellular enzymes secreted by soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in the decomposition of organic matter and the global cycles of carbon (C), phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N), also serving as indicators of soil health and fertility. Current research is extensively analyzing these microbial populations and enzyme activities in diverse soil ecosystems and climatic regions, such as forests, grasslands, tropics, arctic regions and deserts. Climate change, global warming, and intensive agriculture are altering soil enzyme activities. Yet, few reviews have thoroughly explored the key enzymes required for soil fertility and the effects of abiotic factors on their functionality. A comprehensive review is thus essential to better understand the role of soil microbial enzymes in C, P, and N cycles, and their response to climate changes, soil ecosystems, organic farming, and fertilization. Studies indicate that the soil temperature, moisture, water content, pH, substrate availability, and average annual temperature and precipitation significantly impact enzyme activities. Additionally, climate change has shown ambiguous effects on these activities, causing both reductions and enhancements in enzyme catalytic functions.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Marczak M, Wierzba M, Kossowski B, et al (2024)

Emotional responses to climate change in Norway and Ireland: a validation of the Inventory of Climate Emotions (ICE) in two European countries and an inspection of its nomological span.

Frontiers in psychology, 15:1211272.

There is an increasing research interest in emotional responses to climate change and their role in climate action and psycho-social impacts of climate change. At the same time, emotional experience of climate change is multidimensional and influenced by a variety of factors, including the local cultural context. Here, we contribute to the scientific debate about this topic with original quality-controlled data from the general populations in Norway (N = 491) and Ireland (N = 485). We investigate the cross-cultural validity and the nomological span of eight distinct emotional responses to climate change - climate anger, climate contempt, climate enthusiasm, climate powerlessness, climate guilt, climate isolation, climate anxiety, and climate sorrow - measured using the recently introduced Inventory of Climate Emotions. We first validate the 8-factor structure of the Norwegian and English language versions of the ICE. Subsequently, we demonstrate a high degree of cross-cultural measurement invariance for these eight climate emotions. Finally, we explore the relationships between these emotional responses and a range of theoretically relevant variables. In this final step, we show that climate emotions are differentially linked to climate change perceptions, support for mitigation policies, socio-demographic factors, feelings of loneliness and alienation, environmental activism, and the willingness to prioritize the natural environment over one's immediate self-interests. Some of these links are also differentiated by the cultural context. This research presents further evidence for the structural, cross-cultural, and concurrent validity of climate emotions as postulated in the ICE framework. Moreover, it provides tools in the form of validated Norwegian and English language versions of the ICE, the complete R code for the validation analysis, as well as an informed basis for cross-cultural research on emotional responses to climate change.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Biresselioglu ME, Savas ZF, Demir MH, et al (2023)

Tackling climate change at the city level: insights from Lighthouse Cities' climate mitigation efforts.

Frontiers in psychology, 14:1308040.

INTRODUCTION: The link between lifestyles and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions has prioritized climate mitigation strategies of cities worldwide. As cities have increasingly generated GHG emissions by their industrial and transportation activities, their role in climate mitigation has gained prominence. Cities' climate mitigation policies to reduce the GHG intensity of their residents' daily lives are one of their significant efforts to tackle climate change. Lighthouse Cities (LCs), in particular, have emerged as remarkable actors in promoting lifestyle changes for their residents.

METHODS: This study examines climate mitigation strategies of LCs of Climate CAMPAIGNers project, including Baku, Vilnius, Lahti, Izmir, Trujillo, Athens, Linz, Milan, Cape Town, Dublin, and Skopelos, addressing lifestyle changes by conducting an expert survey in 11 LCs involving 89 respondents. The findings of the expert survey are comparatively analyzed across 11 LCs.

RESULTS: The results show that experts form Lighthouse Cities identify increasing awareness and information provision as a significant component of climate mitigation policies. Concerning lifestyle changes, strategies toward energy efficiency and sustainable mobility are highlighted as the primary areas to be prioritized.

DISCUSSION: This study enhances the understanding of cities' capacity to reduce their residents' GHG emissions. The findings can be utilized to identify and tailor policies for supporting the Lighthouse Cities in their climate change mitigation efforts and provide pointers for selecting the lifestyle changes that can be promoted and prioritized in Lighthouse Cities.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Sinore T, F Wang (2024)

Impact of climate change on agriculture and adaptation strategies in Ethiopia: A meta-analysis.

Heliyon, 10(4):e26103 pii:S2405-8440(24)02134-0.

Ethiopia is a rainfall-based agricultural country that is susceptible to the impacts of climate change and risk. Floods and droughts, which happen more frequently and intensely, significantly and negatively influence agricultural production. The objective of the meta-analysis is to identify impacts on various sectors, adaptation strategies, and the challenges of climate change in the Ethiopian context. Twenty-three peer-reviewed articles were identified from ScienceDirect and Web of Science, followed by PRISMA guidelines, and analyzed using Stata version 13. The results reveal that climate change negatively impacts agriculture (by changing crop suitability, phenology, and productivity), the environment, and society, resulting from shifting temperature and rainfall patterns. Temperature variations, patterns of precipitation, and severe weather conditions have profound implications for agricultural productivity, water resources, ecosystems, and human well-being, which are multifaceted and interlinked. In addition, the reviewed articles informed us that farmers have used different coping strategies in response to climate change, such as soil and water conservation, agroforestry practices, integrated soil fertility management, small-scale irrigation, the application of improved crop varieties, the use of improved livestock, mixed cropping, early and late planting, and the practice of income-generating activities. The random effects meta-regression result shows that effective implementation of the above-mentioned practices reduces the risk of climate change in different sectors. The assessment also points out many challenges to the realization of these approaches, such as the lack of financing, institutional support, insufficient stakeholder involvement, ecological and sociocultural factors, and limited access to weather information. The meta-analysis concludes that addressing challenges requires holistic and integrated approaches that encompass adaptation strategies, sustainable land and water management, and social resilience-building to help the resilience of Ethiopian communities and ecosystems in the face of a changing climate.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Muhia J, Rethlefsen ML, Rossington B, et al (2024)

Health journal coverage of climate change and health: a bibliometric study.

BMJ global health, 9(2): pii:bmjgh-2023-014498.

OBJECTIVES: To find what proportion of a broad set of health journals have published on climate change and health, how many articles they have published, and when they first published on the subject.

DESIGN: Bibliometric study.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted electronic searches in Ovid MEDLINE ALL for articles about climate change and human health published from 1860 to 31 December 2022 in 330 health journals. There were no limits by language or publication type. Results were independently screened by two raters for article eligibility.

RESULTS: After screening there were 2932 eligible articles published across 253 of the 330 journals between 1947 and 2022; most (2795/2932; 95%) were published in English. A few journals published articles in the early 90s, but there has been a rapid increase since about 2006. We were unable to categorise the types of publication but estimate that fewer than half are research papers. While articles were published in journals in 39 countries, two-thirds (1929/2932; 66%) were published in a journal published in the UK or the USA. Almost a quarter (77/330; 23%) of the journals published no eligible articles, and almost three-quarters (241/330; 73%) published five articles or fewer. The publication of joint editorials in over 200 journals in 2021 and 2022 boosted the number of journals publishing something on climate change and health. A third of the (112/330; 34%) journals in our sample published at least one of the joint editorials, and almost a third of those (32/112; 29%) were publishing on climate change and health for the first time.

CONCLUSIONS: Health journals are rapidly increasing the amount they publish on climate change and health, but despite climate change being the major threat to global health many journals had until recently published little or nothing. A joint editorial published in multiple journals increased coverage, and for many journals it was the first thing they published on climate change and health.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Araos M, M Wolfe (2024)

The climate missing: identifying bodies and preventing disappearances linked to climate change.

BMJ global health, 9(2): pii:bmjgh-2023-014767.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Dobor L, Baldo M, Bílek L, et al (2024)

The interacting effect of climate change and herbivory can trigger large-scale transformations of European temperate forests.

Global change biology, 30(2):e17194.

In many regions of Europe, large wild herbivores alter forest community composition through their foraging preferences, hinder the forest's natural adaptive responses to climate change, and reduce ecosystem resilience. We investigated a widespread European forest type, a mixed forest dominated by Picea abies, which has recently experienced an unprecedented level of disturbance across the continent. Using the forest landscape model iLand, we investigated the combined effect of climate change and herbivory on forest structure, composition, and carbon and identified conditions leading to ecosystem transitions on a 300-year timescale. Eight climate change scenarios, driven by Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5, combined with three levels of regeneration browsing, were tested. We found that the persistence of the current level of browsing pressure impedes adaptive changes in community composition and sustains the presence of the vulnerable yet less palatable P. abies. These development trajectories were tortuous, characterized by a high disturbance intensity. On the contrary, reduced herbivory initiated a transformation towards the naturally dominant broadleaved species that was associated with an increased forest carbon and a considerably reduced disturbance. The conditions of RCP4.5 combined with high and moderate browsing levels preserved the forest within its reference range of variability, defining the actual boundaries of resilience. The remaining combinations of browsing and climate change led to ecosystem transitions. Under RCP4.5 with browsing effects excluded, the new equilibrium conditions were achieved within 120 years, whereas the stabilization was delayed by 50-100 years under RCP8.5 with higher browsing intensities. We conclude that forests dominated by P. abies are prone to transitions driven by climate change. However, reducing herbivory can set the forest on a stable and predictable trajectory, whereas sustaining the current browsing levels can lead to heightened disturbance activity, extended transition times, and high variability in the target conditions.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Grossman D (2024)

Scientists under arrest: the researchers taking action over climate change.

Nature, 626(8000):710-712.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Lamacova A, Ledvinka O, Bohdalkova L, et al (2024)

Response of spring yield dynamics to climate change across altitude gradient and varied hydrogeological conditions.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01221-X [Epub ahead of print].

Springs offer insights into groundwater dynamics. Long-term monitoring of spring yields can reflect the response of groundwater storage to climate change. We analyzed the yield trends of 136 springs across 18 hydrogeological regions in Czechia from 1971 to 2020. The trend-free pre-whitening Mann-Kendall test and linear mixed-effects models were used to assess environmental impacts on spring yields. Overall, 71 % of the springs showed no long-term trends, 28 % exhibited decreasing trends, and 1.5 % showed increasing trends in annual spring yields. Altitude has been demonstrated as a contributing factor influencing spring responses to climate change. Lowland springs (<300 m a.s.l.) exhibited the highest proportion of decreasing annual trends (41 %), while uplands (300-600 m a.s.l.) and highlands (>600 m a.s.l.) showed declines in 26 % and 25 % of springs, respectively. Moreover, highlands recorded a 7 % yield increase, indicating a complex interplay between altitude and spring response to climatic factors. A strong positive correlation was found between precipitation and yields (p < 0.01), whereas temperature increases negatively affected spring yields (p < 0.01). The interaction between temperature changes and region transmissivity highlighted the vulnerability of springs in low-transmissivity regions, predominantly those in crystalline and flysch bedrock areas, to climatic shifts. Generally, these regions have lower spring yields compared to the high-transmissivity areas of the Cretaceous basins. Although these lower-yield regions are not used as a primary water source for large areas, unlike regions with high-transmissivity bedrock, they provide water resources for local supply. Analysis of annual spring maxima frequencies revealed a shift in the culmination of maxima occurrences from April to March, with a significant decrease in April (p < 0.05) and May (p < 0.1) and an increase in March (p < 0.05), suggesting a change in spring yield seasonality. The 2015-2020 drought significantly accelerated declining spring yield trends across hydrogeological regions.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Cramer H (2024)

The Health Impacts of Climate Change: Can Whole Health Help Us Cope?.

Journal of integrative and complementary medicine, 30(2):93-94.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Jia C, Cao Q, Wang Z, et al (2024)

Climate change affects the spread of typhoid pathogens.

Microbial biotechnology, 17(2):e14417.

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi). Syndromes in patients vary from asymptomatic carriers to severe or death outcomes, which are frequently reported in African and Southeast Asian countries. It is one of the most common waterborne transmission agents, whose transmission is likely impacted by climate change. Here, we claimed the evidence and consequences of climate-related foodborne and waterborne diseases have increased and provided possible mitigations against Typhoidal Salmonella dissemination.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Budin-Ljøsne I, Nordeng Z, Schwarze PE, et al (2024)

Linking climate change adaptation and public health: perspectives of Norwegian policymakers.

Scandinavian journal of public health [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To explore the perspectives of selected Norwegian climate and health policymakers working at national and municipality level regarding how health is accounted for in climate change adaptation plans.

METHODS: Semi-structured digital interviews were conducted with representatives from eight municipalities participating in a national network for climate change adaptation, one political unit and five national public administrations working in climate, health, environment, preparedness, and civil protection.

RESULTS: Municipalities coordinate the development of climate change adaptation plans with support from key national actors. Although municipalities were experienced in preparing for extreme climate events and securing infrastructure, limited consideration was given to health in the climate change adaptation work. Such integration was hindered by lack of resources and knowledge regarding what to do, and lack of collaboration between municipality sectors. To connect climate change adaptation and health better, the representatives suggested providing evidence-based information regarding health impacts of climate change, developing concrete tools including warning systems, and implementing regional, national, and international projects to map the impact of climate change and raise capacity. The representatives called for more stringent national guidelines for the integration of health in climate change adaptation, and pinpointed that lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic will enable municipalities to be better prepared and more adaptable in the future.

CONCLUSIONS: Governmental authorities should provide more concrete guidance regarding the integration of health in climate change adaptation plans. Public health authorities have a central role to play in supporting such endeavours.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Laimighofer J, H Formayer (2024)

Climate change contribution to the 2023 autumn temperature records in Vienna.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4213.

Global monthly mean temperature continuously broke records in the year 2023 since June till October. This also happened widespread at September and October in Austria, but monthly temperature records on a local scale, such as in the mid latitudes like Austria, show less persistence than global or continental averages. This makes the autumn temperature extremes in Vienna (Austria) even more striking. Considering the compound occurrence of such an event at actual climate results in a return period of 324 years, which makes it extraordinary itself. Considering climate change, the compound event of two consecutive extreme high temperature records in autumn 2023 yields return periods of about 10,000 years until the second half of the twentieth century, which partly exceeds the length of the Holocene. Focusing on moderate compound extremes of the last 10 years (2014-2023), these reach return periods of 100 years up to 1960, but are now likely to happen every 15 years. Compound extremes in summer (July and August) present a higher decrease of the return period in Vienna over the last 250 years, possible leading to even more severe impacts on ecosystems and society.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Enriquez-Urzelai U, L Gvoždík (2024)

Impacts of behaviour and acclimation of metabolic rate on energetics in sheltered ectotherms: a climate change perspective.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 291(2017):20232152.

Many ectothermic organisms counter harsh abiotic conditions by seeking refuge in underground retreats. Variations in soil hydrothermal properties within these retreats may impact their energy budget, survival and population dynamics. This makes retreat site choice a critical yet understudied component of their strategies for coping with climate change. We used a mechanistic modelling approach to explore the implications of behavioural adjustments and seasonal acclimation of metabolic rate on retreat depth and the energy budget of ectotherms, considering both current and future climate conditions. We used a temperate amphibian, the alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris), as a model species. Our simulations predict an interactive influence of different thermo- and hydroregulatory strategies on the vertical positioning of individuals in underground refuges. The adoption of a particular strategy largely determines the impact of climate change on retreat site choice. Additionally, we found that, given the behavioural thermoregulation/hydroregulation and metabolic acclimation patterns considered, behaviour within the retreat has a greater impact on ectotherm energetics than acclimation of metabolic rate under different climate change scenarios. We conclude that further empirical research aimed at determining ectotherm behavioural strategies during both surface activity and inactivity is needed to understand their population dynamics and species viability under climate change.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Franke A, Beemelmanns A, JJ Miest (2024)

Are fish immunocompetent enough to face climate change?.

Biology letters, 20(2):20230346.

Ongoing climate change has already been associated with increased disease outbreaks in wild and farmed fish. Here, we evaluate the current knowledge of climate change-related ecoimmunology in teleosts with a focus on temperature, hypoxia, salinity and acidification before exploring interactive effects of multiple stressors. Our literature review reveals that acute and chronic changes in temperature and dissolved oxygen can compromise fish immunity which can lead to increased disease susceptibility. Moreover, temperature and hypoxia have already been shown to enhance the infectivity of certain pathogens/parasites and to accelerate disease progression. Too few studies exist that have focussed on acidification, but direct immune effects seem to be limited while salinity studies have led to contrasting results. Likewise, multi-stressor experiments essential for unravelling the interactions of simultaneously changing environmental factors are still scarce. This ultimately impedes our ability to estimate to what extent climate change will hamper fish immunity. Our review about epigenetic regulation mechanisms highlights the acclimation potential of the fish immune response to changing environments. However, due to the limited number of epigenetic studies, overarching conclusions cannot be drawn. Finally, we provide an outlook on how to better estimate the effects of realistic climate change scenarios in future immune studies in fish.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Dong WS, Ismailluddin A, Yun LS, et al (2024)

The impact of climate change on coastal erosion in Southeast Asia and the compelling need to establish robust adaptation strategies.

Heliyon, 10(4):e25609.

Climate change alters the climate condition and ocean environment, leading to accelerated coastal erosion and a shift in the coastline shape. From previous studies, Southeast Asia's coastal region is suffering from severe coastal erosion. It is most sensitive and vulnerable to climate change, has broad and densely populated coastlines, and is under ecological pressure. Efforts to systematically review these studies are still insufficient despite many studies on the climate change linked to coastal erosion, the correlation between coastal erosion and coastal communities, and the adaptative measures to address these issues and their effectiveness in Southeast Asia. Therefore, by analyzing the existing literature, the purpose of this review was to bridge the knowledge gap and identify the link between climate change and coastal erosion in Southeast Asia in terms of sea-level rise, storm surge, and monsoon patterns. The RepOrting standards for Systematic Evidence Syntheses (ROSES) guided the study protocol, including articles from the Scopus and Dimension databases. There were five main themes considered: 1) climate change impact, 2) contributing factors to coastal erosion, 3) coastal erosion impact on coastal communities, 4) adaptation measure and 5) effectiveness of adaptation measure using thematical analysis. Subsequently, nine sub-themes were produced from the themes. Generally, in Southeast Asia, coastal erosion was reflected by the rising sea level. Throughout reviewing past literature, an interesting result was explored. Storm surges also had the potential to affect coastal erosion due to alterations of the atmospheric system and seasonal monsoon as the result of climate change. Meanwhile, an assessment of current erosion control strategies in relation to the relative hydrodynamic trend was required to avoid the failure of defence structures and the resulting danger to coastal communities. Systematically reviewing the existing literature was critical, hence it could significantly contribute to the body of knowledge. It provides valuable information for interested parties, such as authorities, the public, researchers, and environmentalists, while comprehending existing adaptation practices. This kind of review could strategize adaptation and natural resource management in line with coastal communities' needs, abilities, and capabilities in response to environmental and other change forms.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Acosta-Motos JR, Franco-Navarro JD, Gómez-Bellot MJ, et al (2024)

Editorial: Crop resistance mechanisms to alleviate climate change-related stress.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1368573.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Ahdoot S, Baum CR, Cataletto MB, et al (2024)

Climate Change and Children's Health: Building a Healthy Future for Every Child.

Pediatrics pii:196647 [Epub ahead of print].

The warming of our planet matters to every child. Driven by fossil fuel-generated greenhouse gas emissions, climate conditions stable since the founding of modern pediatrics in the mid-nineteenth century have shifted, and old certainties are falling away. Children's physical and mental health are threatened by climate change through its effects on temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather; ecological disruption; and community disruption. These impacts expose and amplify existing inequities and create unprecedented intergenerational injustice. Fossil fuel extraction and combustion cause harm today and reach centuries into the future, jeopardizing the health, safety, and prosperity of today's children and future generations. Appreciating the unique vulnerability of their patients, pediatricians have become leading health advocates for climate actions necessary to protect all living and future children. Policies that reduce reliance on fossil fuels and promote cleaner air, facilitate walking and bicycling, encourage more sustainable diets, increase access to nature, and develop more connected communities lead to immediate gains in child health and equity, and build a foundation for generations of children to thrive.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Ahdoot S, Baum CR, Cataletto MB, et al (2024)

Climate Change and Children's Health: Building a Healthy Future for Every Child.

Pediatrics pii:196648 [Epub ahead of print].

Observed changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, sea level, and extreme weather are destabilizing major determinants of human health. Children are at higher risk of climate-related health burdens than adults because of their unique behavior patterns; developing organ systems and physiology; greater exposure to air, food, and water contaminants per unit of body weight; and dependence on caregivers. Climate change harms children through numerous pathways, including air pollution, heat exposure, floods and hurricanes, food insecurity and nutrition, changing epidemiology of infections, and mental health harms. As the planet continues to warm, climate change's impacts will worsen, threatening to define the health and welfare of children at every stage of their lives. Children who already bear higher burden of disease because of living in low-wealth households and communities, lack of access to high quality education, and experiencing racism and other forms of unjust discrimination bear greater risk of suffering from climate change hazards. Climate change solutions, advanced through collaborative work of pediatricians, health systems, communities, corporations, and governments lead to immediate gains in child health and equity and build a foundation for generations of children to thrive. This technical report reviews the nature of climate change and its associated child health effects and supports the recommendations in the accompanying policy statement on climate change and children's health.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Pratt C, Mahdi Z, A El Hanandeh (2024)

'Climate Healing Stones': Common Minerals Offer Substantial Climate Change Mitigation Potential.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

This review proposes that mineral-based greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation could be developed into a substantial climate change abatement tool. This proposal was evaluated via three objectives: (1) synthesise literature studies documenting the effectiveness of geological minerals at mitigating GHG emissions; (2) quantify, via meta-analysis, GHG magnitudes that could be abated by minerals factoring-in the carbon footprint of the approach; and (3) estimate the global availability of relevant minerals. Several minerals have been effectively harnessed across multiple sectors-including agriculture, waste management and coal mining-to mitigate carbon dioxide/CO2 (e.g., olivine), methane/CH4 (e.g., allophane, gypsum) and nitrous oxide/N2O (e.g., vermiculite) emissions. High surface area minerals offer substantial promise to protect soil carbon, albeit their potential impact here is difficult to quantify. Although mineral-based N2O reduction strategies can achieve gross emission reduction, their application generates a net carbon emission due to prohibitively large mineral quantities needed. By contrast, mineral-based technologies could abate ~9% and 11% of global CO2 and CH4 anthropogenic emissions, respectively. These estimates conservatively only consider options which offer additional benefits to climate change mitigation (e.g., nutrient supply to agricultural landscapes, and safety controls in landfill operations). This multi-benefit aspect is important due to the reluctance to invest in stand-alone GHG mitigation technologies. Minerals that exhibit high GHG mitigation potential are globally abundant. However, their application towards a dedicated global GHG mitigation initiative would entail significant escalation of their current production rates. A detailed cost-benefit analysis and environmental and social footprint assessment is needed to ascertain the strategy's scale-up potential.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Silva T, Lopes A, Vasconcelos J, et al (2024)

Thermal stress and comfort assessment in urban areas using Copernicus Climate Change Service Era 5 reanalysis and collected microclimatic data.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

In this initial study of a research project, this paper seeks to understand the thermal conditions in the cities of Lisbon and Munich, specifically focusing on Urban Heat Island intensity and on thermal comfort using the Universal Thermal Climate Index modeling data at the Local Climate Zone scale. Based on these datasets, Munich has exhibited more unfavourable thermal conditions than Lisbon. In terms of UHII, both cities have shown that low, medium, and high rise compact urban areas and bare rock or paved areas have the highest values, while sparsely built areas have the lowest. These results differ from the UTCI, which indicates that in Lisbon and Munich, these sparsely built areas as well as areas with low plants and vegetation are the most uncomfortable. In Munich, the population was exposed to very strong heat stress, while Lisbon experienced strong heat stress conditions. Conversely, low, medium, and high rise compact urban areas and densely wooded areas in Munich, and scattered trees areas and large low-rise urban areas in Lisbon, have demonstrated the lowest monthly mean and average maximum values. These results will be further explored in future studies in the city of Lisbon and cross-checked with data obtained from roving missions. This will enable a more detailed temporal and local analysis.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Qiao H, Peterson AT, Myers CE, et al (2024)

Ecological niche conservatism spurs diversification in response to climate change.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Lengthy debate has surrounded the theoretical and empirical science of whether climatic niche evolution is related to increased or decreased rates of biological diversification. Because species can persist for thousands to millions of years, these questions cross broad scales of time and space. Thus, short-term experiments may not provide comprehensive understanding of the system, leading to the emergence of contrasting opinions: niche evolution may increase diversity by allowing species to explore and colonize new geographic areas across which they could speciate; or, niche conservatism might augment biodiversity by supporting isolation of populations that may then undergo allopatric speciation. Here, we use a simulation approach to test how biological diversification responds to different rates and modes of niche evolution. We find that niche conservatism promotes biological diversification, whereas labile niches-whether adapting to the conditions available or changing randomly-generally led to slower diversification rates. These novel results provide a framework for understanding how Earth-life interactions produced such a diverse biota.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Tchonkouang RD, Onyeaka H, H Nkoutchou (2024)

Assessing the vulnerability of food supply chains to climate change-induced disruptions.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01186-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is one of the most significant challenges worldwide. There is strong evidence from research that climate change will impact several food chain-related elements such as agricultural output, incomes, prices, food access, food quality, and food safety. This scoping review seeks to outline the state of knowledge of the food supply chain's vulnerability to climate change and to identify existing literature that may guide future research, policy, and decision-making aimed at enhancing the resilience of the food supply chain. A total of 1526 publications were identified using the SCOPUS database, of which 67 were selected for the present study. The vulnerability assessment methods as well as the adaptation and resilience measures that have been employed to alleviate the impact of climate change in the food supply chain were discussed. The results revealed a growing number of publications providing evidence of the weakening of the food supply chain due to climate change and extreme weather events. Our assessment demonstrated the need to broaden research into the entire food supply chain and various forms of climatic variability because most studies have concentrated on the relationships between climatic fluctuations (especially extreme rainfall, temperatures, and drought) and production. A lack of knowledge about the effects of climate change on the food supply chain and the underlying socio-economic consequences could result in underperformance or failure of the food supply chain.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Liu B, Liu Z, Li C, et al (2024)

Geographical distribution and ecological niche dynamics of Crassostrea sikamea (Amemiya, 1928) in China's coastal regions under climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01200-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change drives species redistribution, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem heterogeneity. The Kumamoto oyster, Crassostrea sikamea (Amemiya, 1928), one of the most promising aquaculture species because of its delayed reproductive timing, was once prevalent in southern China. In this study, an ensemble species distribution model was employed to analyze the distribution range shift and ecological niche dynamics of C. sikamea along China's coastline under the current and future climate scenarios (RCP 2.6-8.5 covering 2050s and 2100s). The model results indicated that the current habitat distribution for C. sikamea consists of a continuous stretch extending from the coastlines of Hainan Province to the northern shores of Jiangsu Province. By the 2050s, the distribution range will stabilize at its southern end along the coast of Hainan Province, while expanding northward to cover the coastal areas of Shandong Province, showing a more dramatic trend of contraction in the south and invasion in the north by the 2100s. In RCP8.5, the southern end retracts to the coasts of Guangdong, whereas the northern end covers all of China's coastal areas north of 34°N. C. sikamea can maintain relatively stable ecological niche characteristics, while it may occupy different ecological niche spaces under future climate conditions. Significant niche expansion will occur in lower temperature. We concluded C. sikamea habitats are susceptible to climate change. The rapid northward expansion of C. sikamea may open new possibilities for oyster farming in China, but it will also have important consequences for the ecological balance and biodiversity of receiving areas. It's imperative that we closely examine and strategize to address these repercussions for a win-win situation.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Gaudreau C, Guillaumie L, Jobin É, et al (2024)

Nurses and Climate Change: A Narrative Review of Nursing Associations' Recommendations for Integrating Climate Change Mitigation Strategies.

The Canadian journal of nursing research = Revue canadienne de recherche en sciences infirmieres [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, climate change is the greatest challenge of the twenty-first century. It is already affecting the health of many Canadians through extreme heat, wildfires and the expansion of zoonotic diseases. As trusted professionals, nurses are in favourable position to take action on climate change.

PURPOSE: To document the recommendations issued by Quebec, Canadian, American and international nursing associations regarding nursing practices that address climate change or environmental issues.

METHODS: This narrative review was conducted by establishing a list of environmental and general nursing associations in the geographical areas of interest through Google searches as well as by retrieving documents about climate change or environmental issues published by these organizations on their websites. Data related to the documents' characteristics and recommended nursing roles were then extracted.

RESULTS: The review identified 13 nurses' organizations and 20 documents describing 37 recommendations for nurses in seven socioecological areas: individual, patient-focused, workplace, nursing associations, public health organizations, political and education.

CONCLUSIONS: There is a gap between the breadth of roles that nurses may be called upon to play in addressing climate change and the degree to which relevant organizations are prepared to create the required conditions for them to do so. Several lessons emerged, including that the urgency of the climate crisis requires clear guidelines on how nurses can integrate climate change and its resultant health concerns into practice through nurses' associations, education and bottom-up nursing innovations. Funding is required for such initiatives, which must also prioritize health inequalities.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Thanekar U, Sacks G, Ruffini O, et al (2024)

Local government stakeholders' perceptions of potential policy actions to influence both climate change and healthy eating in Victoria: A qualitative study.

Health promotion journal of Australia : official journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals [Epub ahead of print].

ISSUE ADDRESSED: Climate change is a defining public health issue of the 21st century. Food systems are drivers of diet-related disease burden, and account for 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Local governments play a crucial role in improving both the healthiness and environmental sustainability of food systems, but the potential for their actions to simultaneously address these two issues is unclear. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of Australian local government stakeholders regarding policy actions simultaneously addressing healthy eating and climate change, and the influences on policy adoption.

METHODS: We conducted 11 in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders from four local governments in Victoria, Australia. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. We applied Multiple Streams Theory (MST) 'problem', 'politics and 'policy' domains to explain policy adoption influences at the local government level.

RESULTS: Key influences on local government action aligned with MST elements of 'problem' (e.g., local government's existing risk reports as drivers for climate change action), 'policy' (e.g., budgetary constraints) and 'politics' (e.g., local government executive agenda). We found limited evidence of coherent policy action in the areas of community gardens, food procurement and urban land use.

CONCLUSION: Barriers to further action, such as resource constraints and competing priorities, could be overcome by better tailoring policy action areas to community needs, with the help of external partnerships and local government executive support. SO WHAT?: This study demonstrates that Victorian local stakeholders believe they are well-positioned to implement feasible and coherent interventions that address both healthy eating and climate.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Beggs PJ (2024)

Thunderstorm Asthma and Climate Change.

JAMA pii:2815452 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Roy P, Pal SC, Chakrabortty R, et al (2024)

Climate change and geo-environmental factors influencing desertification: a critical review.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The problem of desertification (DSF) is one of the most severe environmental disasters which influence the overall condition of the environment. In Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit on Environment and Development (1922), DSF is defined as arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid induced LD and that is adopted at the UNEP's Nairobi ad hoc meeting in 1977. It has been seen that there is no variability in the trend of long-term rainfall, but the change has been found in the variability of temperature (avg. temp. 0-5 °C). There is no proof that the air pollution brought on by CO2 and other warming gases is the cause of this rise, which seems to be partially caused by urbanization. The two types of driving factors in DSF-CC (climate change) along with anthropogenic influences-must be compared in order to work and take action to stop DSF from spreading. The proportional contributions of human activity and CC to DSF have been extensively evaluated in this work from "qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative" perspectives. In this study, we have tried to connect the drives of desertification to desertification-induced migration due to loss of biodiversity and agriculture failure. The authors discovered that several of the issues from the earlier studies persisted. The policy-makers should follow the proper SLM (soil and land management) through using the land. The afforestation with social forestry and consciousness among the people can reduce the spreading of the desertification (Badapalli et al. 2023). The green wall is also playing an important role to reduce the desertification. For instance, it was clear that assessments were subjective; they could not be readily replicated, and they always relied on administrative areas rather than being taken and displayed in a continuous space. This research is trying to fulfill the mentioned research gap with the help of the existing literatures related to this field.

RevDate: 2024-02-19

Xie L, Wu X, Li X, et al (2024)

Impacts of climate change and host plant availability on the potential distribution of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) in China.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel) are favored by consumers because of its delicious taste and unique fragrance. Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) is a main pest that severely harms Chinese chives and other Liliaceae's production. Climate change may change the future distribution of B. odoriphaga in China. In this study, the CLIMEX was employed to project the potential distribution of B. odoriphaga in China, based on China's historical climate data (1987-2016) and forecast climate data (2021-2100).

RESULTS: Bradysia odoriphaga distributed mainly between 19.8° N-48.3° N and 74.8° E-134.3° E, accounting for 73.25% of the total mainland area of China under historical climate conditions. Among them, the favorable and highly favorable habitats accounted for 30.64% of the total potential distribution. Under future climate conditions, B. odoriphaga will be distributed mainly between 19.8° N-49.3° N and 73.8° E-134.3° E, accounting for 84.89% of China's total mainland area. Among them, the favorable and highly favorable habitats will account for 35.23% of the total potential distribution, indicating an increase in the degree of fitness. Areas with relatively appropriate temperature and humidity will be more suitable for the survival of B. odoriphaga. Temperature was a more important determinant of the climatic suitability of the pest B. odoriphaga than humidity. Host plants (Liliaceae) availability also had impact on climate suitability in some regions.

CONCLUSIONS: These projected potential distributions will provide supportive information for monitoring and early forecasting of pest outbreaks, and to reduce future economic and ecological losses. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Rubio-Casal AE, MFM Ibrahim (2024)

Editorial: Physiological traits and stress detection in crops during global climate change: availability and sustainable use of water resources.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1371044.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Torales J, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Ventriglio A, et al (2023)

The CAPE (Compassion, Assertive Action, Pragmatism, and Evidence) vulnerability index - Second Edition: Putting mental health into foreign policy to address globalization, conflict, climate change, and natural disasters.

Industrial psychiatry journal, 32(Suppl 1):S15-S31.

BACKGROUND: The CAPE Vulnerability Index serves as a worldwide foreign policy indicator that implies which countries should get assistance first. It provides an evidence-based, well-structured, and well-reasoned strategy for employing aid in bilateral arrangements with mental health as a basis.

OBJECTIVE: The second edition of the CAPE VI has been developed to identify which nations should get priority foreign aid.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We considered various indices or measures at the country level reflecting the average national health status or factors influencing public health. To make our choice, we used 26 internationally accessible and verified indicators. For the study, we have scored the countries according to these indices and prioritized those with the worst scores.

RESULTS: The CAPE Vulnerability Index is based on the number of times a country is ranked among the low-scoring nations. It is based on nine parameters and is an independent measure even though there may be a correlation with similar indices such as life expectancy, disability-adjusted life years(DALYs), physician numbers, and gross domestic product(GDP).

CONCLUSION: We concluded that low-scoring countries were fragile or failed states, such as nations where governments lack complete oversight or power, are often oppressive and corrupt, have allegations of violations of human rights, or are marked by political turmoil in different forms, drawbacks from severe environmental damage, severe impoverishment, inequalities, cultural and racial divisions, cannot supply fundamental amenities, are victims of terrorism, and so on. To address these essential problems impacting fragile nations, administrations, aid donors, local organizations, mental health specialists, and associations should collaborate.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Kowalcyk M, S Dorevitch (2024)

A Framework for Evaluating Local Adaptive Capacity to Health Impacts of Climate Change: Use of Kenya's County-Level Integrated Development Plans.

Annals of global health, 90(1):15.

BACKGROUND: Health National Adaptation Plans were developed to increase the capacity of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to adapt to the impacts of climate change on the health sector. Climate and its health impacts vary locally, yet frameworks for evaluating the adaptive capacity of health systems on the subnational scale are lacking. In Kenya, counties prepare county integrated development plans (CIDPs), which contain information that might support evaluations of the extent to which counties are planning climate change adaptation for health.

OBJECTIVES: To develop and apply a framework for evaluating CIDPs to assess the extent to which Kenya's counties are addressing the health sector's adaptive capacity to climate change.

METHODS: CIDPs were analyzed based on the extent to which they addressed climate change in their description of county health status, whether health is noted in their descriptions of climate change, and whether they mention plans for developing climate and health programs. Based on these and other data points, composite climate and health adaptation (CHA) scores were calculated. Associations between CHA scores and poverty rates were analyzed.

FINDINGS: CHA scores varied widely and were not associated with county-level poverty. Nearly all CIDPs noted climate change, approximately half mentioned health in the context of climate change and only 16 (34%) noted one or more specific climate-sensitive health conditions. Twelve (25%) had plans for a sub-program in both adaptive capacity and environmental health. Among the 24 counties with plans to develop climate-related programs in health programs, all specified capacity building, and 20% specified integrating health into disaster risk reduction.

CONCLUSION: Analyses of county planning documents provide insights into the extent to which the impacts of climate change on health are being addressed at the subnational level in Kenya. This approach may support governments elsewhere in evaluating climate change adaptation for health by subnational governments.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Crino OL, Bonduriansky R, Martin LB, et al (2024)

A conceptual framework for understanding stress-induced physiological and transgenerational effects on population responses to climate change.

Evolution letters, 8(1):161-171.

Organisms are experiencing higher average temperatures and greater temperature variability because of anthropogenic climate change. Some populations respond to changes in temperature by shifting their ranges or adjusting their phenotypes via plasticity and/or evolution, while others go extinct. Predicting how populations will respond to temperature changes is challenging because extreme and unpredictable climate changes will exert novel selective pressures. For this reason, there is a need to understand the physiological mechanisms that regulate organismal responses to temperature changes. In vertebrates, glucocorticoid hormones mediate physiological and behavioral responses to environmental stressors and thus are likely to play an important role in how vertebrates respond to global temperature changes. Glucocorticoids have cascading effects that influence the phenotype and fitness of individuals, and some of these effects can be transmitted to offspring via trans- or intergenerational effects. Consequently, glucocorticoid-mediated responses could affect populations and could even be a powerful driver of rapid evolutionary change. Here, we present a conceptual framework that outlines how temperature changes due to global climate change could affect population persistence via glucocorticoid responses within and across generations (via epigenetic modifications). We briefly review glucocorticoid physiology, the interactions between environmental temperatures and glucocorticoid responses, and the phenotypic consequences of glucocorticoid responses within and across generations. We then discuss possible hypotheses for how glucocorticoid-mediated phenotypic effects might impact fitness and population persistence via evolutionary change. Finally, we pose pressing questions to guide future research. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underpin the responses of vertebrates to elevated temperatures will help predict population-level responses to the changing climates we are experiencing.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

963 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226


E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )