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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Mar 2023 at 01:58 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-03-29

Liu J, Dong H, Li M, et al (2023)

Projecting the excess mortality due to heatwave and its characteristics under climate change, population and adaptation scenarios.

International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 250:114157 pii:S1438-4639(23)00048-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Heatwaves have significant adverse effects on human health. The frequency, duration, and intensity of heatwaves are projected to increase dramatically, in the context of global warming. However, there are few comprehensive assessments of the health impact of heatwaves considering different definitions, and their characteristics under climate change scenarios.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare future excess mortality related to heatwaves among different definitions under climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in China and further explore the mortality burden associated with heatwave characteristics.

METHODS: Daily data during 2010-2019 were collected in Guangzhou, China. We adopted nine common heatwave definitions and applied quasi-Poisson models to estimate the effects of heatwaves and their characteristics' impact on mortality. We then projected the excess mortality associated with heatwaves and their characteristics concerning climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios.

RESULTS: The relative risks of the nine common heatwave definitions ranged from 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.10) to 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.35). Heatwave-related excess mortality will consistently increase in the future decades considering multiple heatwave definitions, with more rapidly increasing rates under the Shared Socioeconomic Path5-8.5 and non-adaptability scenarios. Regarding heatwave characteristics, the intensity is the main factor involved in the threat of heatwaves. The increasing trend of characteristic-related mortality burden is similar to that of heatwaves, and the mortality burden caused by the duration of the heatwaves was the largest among all characteristics.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a comprehensive picture of the impact of heatwaves and their characteristics on public health under various climate change scenarios, population changes, and adaptive assumptions. The results may provide important public health implications for policymakers in planning climate change adaptation and mitigation policies, and implementing specific plans.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Qiao H, J Zhang (2023)

Enhancing global thinking can reduce the misconception of accumulation: A potential way to mitigate climate change.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and global warming have long been attention and concern all over the world. However, there is always a debate about when and to what degree to take action like reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Recently, researchers found that the public has misconceptions about climate dynamics, which might be a reason for people do not support prompt mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The core problem of misconceptions is the stock-flow (SF) problem, which refers to the difficulty of inferring the behavior of a stock variable given information regarding its inflows and outflows. We elaborated on the idea that global thinking is beneficial for comprehending SF problems and proposed that global thinking enhancing display based on highlighting the areas of difference could be a possible way to shift one's thinking process to the right one, which was proved by two studies. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Khatib AN (2023)

Climate Change and Travel: Harmonizing to Abate Impact.

Current infectious disease reports, 25(4):77-85.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With climate change being the single biggest health threat facing humanity, this review aims to identify the climate-sensitive health risks to the traveler and to recognize the role that travel plays in contributing to the detrimental effects of climate change. With this understanding, adaptations for transformational action can be made.

RECENT FINDINGS: Travel and tourism, including transportation, food consumption, and accommodation, is responsible for a large percentage of the world's carbon emissions which is contributing to the climate change crisis at an alarming rate. Climate change is a health emergency that is resulting in a rise of significant health impacts to the traveler including increased heat illnesses; food-, water-, and vector-borne diseases; and increasing risk of exposure to emerging infectious diseases. Patterns of future travel and destination choices are likely to change due to climactic factors such as temperature and extreme weather events, forced migration, degradation, and disappearance of popular and natural tourist destinations.

SUMMARY: Global warming is and will continue to alter the landscape of travel medicine with expansion of transmission seasons and geographic ranges of disease, increased risk of infections and harmful marine toxins, and introduction of emerging infections to naïve populations. This will have implications for pre-travel counseling in assessing risk and discussing the environmental influences on travel. Travelers and stakeholders should be engaged in a dialogue to understand their "climate footprint," to innovate sustainable solutions, and be empowered to make immediate, conscientious, and responsible choices to abate the impact of breaching critical temperature thresholds.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Zhang HT, WT Wang (2023)

Prediction of the Potential Distribution of the Endangered Species Meconopsis punicea Maxim under Future Climate Change Based on Four Species Distribution Models.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:plants12061376.

Climate change increases the extinction risk of species, and studying the impact of climate change on endangered species is of great significance to biodiversity conservation. In this study, the endangered plant Meconopsis punicea Maxim (M. punicea) was selected as the research object. Four species distribution models (SDMs): the generalized linear model, the generalized boosted regression tree model, random forest and flexible discriminant analysis were applied to predict the potential distribution of M. punicea under current and future climates scenarios. Among them, two emission scenarios of sharing socio-economic pathways (SSPs; i.e., SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5) and two global circulation models (GCMs) were considered for future climate conditions. Our results showed that temperature seasonality, mean temperature of coldest quarter, precipitation seasonality and precipitation of warmest quarter were the most important factors shaping the potential distribution of M. punicea. The prediction of the four SDMs consistently indicated that the current potential distribution area of M. punicea is concentrated between 29.02° N-39.06° N and 91.40° E-105.89° E. Under future climate change, the potential distribution of M. punicea will expand from the southeast to the northwest, and the expansion area under SSP5-8.5 would be wider than that under SSP2-4.5. In addition, there were significant differences in the potential distribution of M. punicea predicted by different SDMs, with slight differences caused by GCMs and emission scenarios. Our study suggests using agreement results from different SDMs as the basis for developing conservation strategies to improve reliability.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Pineda M, M Barón (2023)

Assessment of Black Rot in Oilseed Rape Grown under Climate Change Conditions Using Biochemical Methods and Computer Vision.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:plants12061322.

Global warming is a challenge for plants and pathogens, involving profound changes in the physiology of both contenders to adapt to the new environmental conditions and to succeed in their interaction. Studies have been conducted on the behavior of oilseed rape plants and two races (1 and 4) of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and their interaction to anticipate our response in the possible future climate. Symptoms caused by both races of Xcc were very similar to each other under any climatic condition assayed, although the bacterial count from infected leaves differed for each race. Climate change caused an earlier onset of Xcc symptoms by at least 3 days, linked to oxidative stress and a change in pigment composition. Xcc infection aggravated the leaf senescence already induced by climate change. To identify Xcc-infected plants early under any climatic condition, four classifying algorithms were trained with parameters obtained from the images of green fluorescence, two vegetation indices and thermography recorded on Xcc-symptomless leaves. Classification accuracies were above 0.85 out of 1.0 in all cases, with k-nearest neighbor analysis and support vector machines performing best under the tested climatic conditions.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Miranda-Apodaca J, Artetxe U, Aguado I, et al (2023)

Stress Response to Climate Change and Postharvest Handling in Two Differently Pigmented Lettuce Genotypes: Impact on Alternaria alternata Invasion and Mycotoxin Production.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:plants12061304.

Many species of Alternaria are important pathogens that cause plant diseases and postharvest rots. They lead to significant economic losses in agriculture and affect human and animal health due to their capacity to produce mycotoxins. Therefore, it is necessary to study the factors that can result in an increase in A. alternata. In this study, we discuss the mechanism by which phenol content protects from A. alternata, since the red oak leaf cultivar (containing higher phenols) showed lower invasion than the green one, Batavia, and no mycotoxin production. A climate change scenario enhanced fungal growth in the most susceptible cultivar, green lettuce, likely because elevated temperature and CO2 levels decrease plant N content, modifying the C/N ratio. Finally, while the abundance of the fungi was maintained at similar levels after keeping the lettuces for four days at 4 °C, this postharvest handling triggered TeA and TEN mycotoxin synthesis, but only in the green cultivar. Therefore, the results demonstrated that invasion and mycotoxin production are cultivar- and temperature-dependent. Further research should be directed to search for resistant cultivars and effective postharvest strategies to reduce the toxicological risk and economic losses related to this fungus, which are expected to increase in a climate change scenario.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Khan H, Mamrutha HM, Mishra CN, et al (2023)

Harnessing High Yield Potential in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Climate Change Scenario.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:plants12061271.

Wheat is a major staple food crop for food security in India and South Asia. The current rate (0.8-1.2%) of genetic gain in wheat is significantly shorter than the 2.4% needed to meet future demand. The changing climate and increased yield loss due to factors such as terminal heat stress necessitate the need for climate-resilient practices to sustain wheat production. At ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research in Karnal, Haryana, India, a new High Yield Potential Trial (HYPT) was conceptualized and subsequently conducted at six locations in the highly productive North Western Plain Zone (NWPZ). An attempt was made to harness higher wheat yields through the best pipeline genotypes suitable for early sowing and modified agronomic practices to explore the feasibility of a new approach that is profitable to farmers. The modified agronomic practices included like early sowing, application of 150% recommended dose of fertilizers, and two sprays of growth regulators (Chlormaquate chloride and Tebuconazole) to prevent lodging. The mean yield in the HYPT was 19.4% superior compared to the best trials conducted during the normal sowing time. A highly positive and significant correlation of grain yield with grain filling duration (0.51), biomass (0.73), harvest index (0.75), normalized difference vegetation Index (0.27), chlorophyll content index (0.32), and 1000-grain weight (0.62) was observed. An increased return of USD 201.95/ha was realized in the HYPT when compared to normal sowing conditions. This study proves that new integrated practices have the potential to provide the best profitable yields in wheat in the context of climate change.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Torres E, García-Fernández A, Iñigo D, et al (2023)

Facilitated Adaptation as A Conservation Tool in the Present Climate Change Context: A Methodological Guide.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:plants12061258.

Climate change poses a novel threat to biodiversity that urgently requires the development of adequate conservation strategies. Living organisms respond to environmental change by migrating to locations where their ecological niche is preserved or by adapting to the new environment. While the first response has been used to develop, discuss and implement the strategy of assisted migration, facilitated adaptation is only beginning to be considered as a potential approach. Here, we present a review of the conceptual framework for facilitated adaptation, integrating advances and methodologies from different disciplines. Briefly, facilitated adaptation involves a population reinforcement that introduces beneficial alleles to enable the evolutionary adaptation of a focal population to pressing environmental conditions. To this purpose, we propose two methodological approaches. The first one (called pre-existing adaptation approach) is based on using pre-adapted genotypes existing in the focal population, in other populations, or even in closely related species. The second approach (called de novo adaptation approach) aims to generate new pre-adapted genotypes from the diversity present in the species through artificial selection. For each approach, we present a stage-by-stage procedure, with some techniques that can be used for its implementation. The associated risks and difficulties of each approach are also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Abou Kamar M, Aliane N, Elbestawi I, et al (2023)

Are Coastal Hotels Ready for Climate Change? The Case of Alexandria, Egypt.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20065143.

Climate change casts a shadow on the tourism industry in Egypt in general, and on coastal hotels in particular, as the coastal areas of Egypt have been classified as the most vulnerable to climate change in the Middle East. As such, mitigating the negative impacts and threats of climate change requires an assessment of the vulnerability of coastal hotels and the extent to which adaptation measures are applied. Accordingly, this study applied a hybrid methodology to achieve three main objectives. First, to evaluate Alexandria's vulnerability to future climate change (at the destination level) by analyzing the recent climatic trends and expected scenarios. Second, to assess the vulnerability of Alexandria's coastal hotels to climate change (sector level) using satellite images, aerial mapping, remote sensing, and geographic information systems (GIS). Third, to explore how coastal hotels are adapting to the risks of climate change using the four business-focused adaptation measures (i.e., technical, managerial, policies, and awareness-raising). The findings of the study revealed and confirmed that the hotel sector in Alexandria is threatened by sea level rise (SLR). Four hotels are at risk of inundation, and the extent of hotels at risk will increase with future scenarios of SLR. On the other hand, the results of examining the adaptation measures of 36 hotels indicated that the scope of the adaptation measures differed significantly between hotels due to factors such as hotel category, size, duration of operation, and EMS status, but overall, the scope of application was more comprehensive and varied than expected. Technical adaptation measures were the most common and applied by the majority of hotels in Alexandria. The results of this study should help figure out what adaptation measures coastal hotels should take and show policymakers where they should focus their adaptation efforts.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Ratwatte P, Wehling H, Phalkey R, et al (2023)

Prioritising Climate Change Mitigation Behaviours and Exploring Public Health Co-Benefits: A Delphi Study.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20065094.

Climate change requires urgent action; however, it can be challenging to identify individual-level behaviours that should be prioritised for maximum impact. The study aimed to prioritise climate change mitigation behaviours according to their impacts on climate change and public health, and to identify associated barriers and facilitators-exploring the impact of observed behaviour shifts associated with COVID-19 in the UK. A three-round Delphi study and expert workshop were conducted: An expert panel rated mitigation behaviours impacted by COVID-19 in relation to their importance regarding health impacts and climate change mitigation using a five-point Likert scale. Consensus on the importance of target behaviours was determined by interquartile ranges. In total, seven target behaviours were prioritised: installing double/triple glazing; installing cavity wall insulation; installing solid wall insulation; moving away from meat/emission heavy diets; reducing the number of cars per household; walking shorter journeys; and reducing day/weekend leisure car journeys. Barriers related to the costs associated with performing behaviours and a lack of complementary policy-regulated subsidies. The target behaviours are consistent with recommendations from previous research. To ensure public uptake, interventions should address behavioural facilitators and barriers, dovetail climate change mitigation with health co-benefits and account for the long-term impacts of COVID-19 on these behaviours.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Li Y, Qin X, Jin Z, et al (2023)

Future Projection of Extreme Precipitation Indices over the Qilian Mountains under Global Warming.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20064961.

The Qilian Mountains are a climate-sensitive area in northwest China, and extreme precipitation events have an important impact on its ecological environment. Therefore, considering the global warming scenario, it is highly important to project the extreme precipitation indices over the Qilian Mountains in the future. This study is based on three CMIP6 models (CESM2, EC-Earth3, and KACE-1-0-G). A bias correction algorithm (QDM) was used to correct the precipitation outputs of the models. The eight extreme precipitation indices over the Qilian Mountains during the historical period and in the future were calculated using meteorological software (ClimPACT2), and the performance of the CMIP6 models to simulate the extreme precipitation indices of the Qilian Mountains in the historical period was evaluated. Results revealed that: (1) The corrected CMIP6 models could simulate the changes in extreme precipitation indices over the Qilian Mountains in the historical period relatively well, and the corrected CESM2 displayed better simulation as compared to the other two CMIP6 models. The CMIP6 models performed well while simulating R10mm (CC is higher than 0.71) and PRCPTOT (CC is higher than 0.84). (2) The changes in the eight extreme precipitation indices were greater with the enhancement of the SSP scenario. The growth rate of precipitation in the Qilian Mountains during the 21st century under SSP585 is significantly higher than the other two SSP scenarios. The increment of precipitation in the Qilian Mountains mainly comes from the increase in heavy precipitation. (3) The Qilian Mountains will become wetter in the 21st century, especially in the central and eastern regions. The largest increase in precipitation intensity will be observed in the western Qilian Mountains. Additionally, total precipitation will also increase in the middle and end of the 21st century under SSP585. Furthermore, the precipitation increment of the Qilian Mountains will increase with the altitude in the middle and end of the 21st century. This study aims to provide a reference for the changes in extreme precipitation events, glacier mass balance, and water resources in the Qilian Mountains during the 21st century.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Tarinc A, Ergun GS, Aytekin A, et al (2023)

Effect of Climate Change Belief and the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) on Eco-Tourism Attitudes of Tourists: Moderator Role of Green Self-Identity.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20064967.

This research has been conducted to determine the effect of tourists' beliefs of climate change on the NEP and ecotourism attitudes. In addition to this purpose, the moderator role of green self-identity in the effect of the NEP on ecological attitudes has also been examined. The research data were obtained from the tourists visiting the Alanya destination, which is one of the centers that attract the most tourists in Turkey. When the results of the research were examined, it could be determined that the belief in climate change is effective on all dimensions of the NEP, and similarly, all dimensions of the NEP have also affected the tourists' ecological attitude. Further, green self-identity has a moderator role in the effect of ecocentric and anthropocentric sub-dimensions on eco-tourism attitudes. As a consequence of the findings, a number of theoretical and practical implications have been developed for sector managers, destination management organizations, and academicians.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Nakamura S, Abanokova K, Dang HH, et al (2023)

Is Climate Change Slowing the Urban Escalator Out of Poverty? Evidence from Chile, Colombia, and Indonesia.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20064865.

While urbanization has great potential to facilitate poverty reduction, climate shocks represent a looming threat to such upward mobility. This paper empirically analyzes the effects of climatic risks on the function of urban agglomerations to support poor households' escape from poverty. Combining household surveys with climatic datasets, our analyses of Chile, Colombia, and Indonesia find that households in large metropolitan areas are more likely to escape from poverty, indicating better access to economic opportunities in those areas. However, climate shocks such as extreme rainfalls and high flood risks significantly reduce upward mobility, thus offsetting such benefits of urban agglomerations. The findings underscore the need to enhance resilience among the urban poor to allow them to fully utilize the benefits of urban agglomerations.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Comi M, Becot F, C Bendixsen (2023)

Automation, Climate Change, and the Future of Farm Work: Cross-Disciplinary Lessons for Studying Dynamic Changes in Agricultural Health and Safety.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20064778.

In this review, we first assess the state of agricultural health and safety research as it pertains to the dynamic challenges facing automating agriculture on a warming planet. Then, we turn to social science fields such as rural sociology, science and technology studies, and environmental studies to leverage relevant insights on the introduction of new technologies, environmental risks, and associated workplace hazards. Increased rates of automation in agriculture alongside new risks associated with climate change create the need for anticipatory governance and adaptive research to study novel mechanisms of worker health and safety. The use of the PRISMA framework led to the 137 articles for our review. We identify three themes in the literature on agricultural health and safety: (1) adoption outcomes, (2) discrete cases of health risks, and (3) an emphasis on care and wellbeing in literature on dairy automation Our review led to the identification of research gaps, noting that current research (a) tends to examine these forces separately, instead of together, (b) has not made robust examination of these forces as socially embedded, and (c) has hesitated to examine the broad, transferable themes for how these forces work across industries. In response to these gaps, we suggest that attention to outside disciplines may provide agricultural health and safety research with a toolset to examine needed inquiry into the multiplicity of experiences of rural stakeholders, the industry specific problems arising from automation and climate change, and the socially embedded aspects of agricultural work in the future.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Shrikhande SS, Merten S, Cambaco O, et al (2023)

"Climate Change and Health?": Knowledge and Perceptions among Key Stakeholders in Puducherry, India.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20064703.

Climate change has far-reaching impacts on human health, with low- and middle-income countries, including India, being particularly vulnerable. While there have been several advances in the policy space with the development of adaptation plans, little remains known about how stakeholders who are central to the strengthening and implementation of these plans perceive this topic. We conducted a qualitative study employing key interviews with 16 medical doctors, researchers, environmentalists and government officials working on the climate change agenda from Puducherry, India. The findings were analysed using the framework method, with data-driven thematic analysis. We elucidated that despite elaborating the direct and indirect impacts of climate change on health, there remains a perceived gap in education and knowledge about the topic among participants. Knowledge of the public health burden and vulnerabilities influenced the perceived health risks from climate change, with some level of scepticism on the impacts on non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases. There was also a felt need for multi-level awareness and intervention programmes targeting all societal levels along with stakeholder recommendations to fill these gaps. The findings of this study should be taken into consideration for strengthening the region's climate change and health adaptation policy. In light of limited research on this topic, our study provides an improved understanding of how key stakeholders perceive the impacts of climate change on health in India.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Hou P, Deng X, Wang J, et al (2023)

Fertilization and Global Warming Impact on Paddy CH4 Emissions.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20064680.

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the influence of experimental warming and fertilization on rice yield and paddy methane emissions.

METHODS: A free-air temperature increase system was used for the experimental warming treatment (ET), while the control treatment used ambient temperature (AC). Each treatment contained two fertilization strategies, (i) normal fertilization with N, P and K fertilizers (CN) and (ii) without N fertilizer input (CK).

RESULTS: The yield was remarkably dictated by fertilization (p < 0.01), but not warming. Its value with CN treatment increased by 76.24% compared to CK. Also, the interactive effect of warming and fertilization on CH4 emissions was insignificant. The seasonal emissions from warming increased by 36.93% compared to AC, while the values under CN treatment increased by 79.92% compared to CK. Accordingly, the ET-CN treatment obtained the highest CH4 emissions (178.08 kg ha[-1]), notably higher than the other treatments. Also, the results showed that soil fertility is the main driver affecting CH4 emissions rather than soil microorganisms.

CONCLUSIONS: Fertilization aggravates the increasing effect of warming on paddy methane emissions. It is a daunting task to optimize fertilization to ensure yield and reduce methane emissions amid global warming.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Adekanmbi T, Wang X, Basheer S, et al (2023)

Assessing Future Climate Change Impacts on Potato Yields - A Case Study for Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(6): pii:foods12061176.

Crop yields are adversely affected by climate change; therefore, it is crucial to develop climate adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts of increasing climate variability on the agriculture system to ensure food security. As one of the largest potato-producing provinces in Canada, Prince Edward Island (PEI) has recently experienced significant instability in potato production. PEI's local farmers and stakeholders are extremely concerned about the prospects for the future of potato farming industries in the context of climate change. This study aims to use the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) potato model to simulate future potato yields under the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) climate scenarios (including SSP1-1.9, SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5). The study evaluates the combined effects of changing climatic conditions at local scales (i.e., warming temperature and changing precipitation patterns) and increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere. The results indicate future significant declines in potato yield in PEI under the current farming practices. In particular, under the high-emission scenarios (e.g., SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5), the potato yield in PEI would decline by 48% and 60% in the 2070s and by 63% and 80% by 2090s; even under the low-emission scenarios (i.e., SSP1-1.9 and SSP1-2.6), the potato yield in PEI would still decline by 6-10%. This implies that it is important to develop effective climate adaptation measures (e.g., adjusting farming practices and introducing supplemental irrigation plans) to ensure the long-term sustainability of potato production in PEI.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Wang BX, Zhu L, Ma G, et al (2023)

Current and Potential Future Global Distribution of the Raisin Moth Cadra figulilella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under Two Different Climate Change Scenarios.

Biology, 12(3): pii:biology12030435.

Global trade facilitates the introduction of invasive species that can cause irreversible damage to agriculture and the environment, as well as stored food products. The raisin moth (Cadra figulilella) is an invasive pest that poses a significant threat to fruits and dried foods. Climate change may exacerbate this threat by expanding moth's distribution to new areas. In this study, we used CLIMEX and MaxEnt niche modeling tools to assess the potential global distribution of the raisin moth under current and future climate change scenarios. Our models projected that the area of suitable distribution for the raisin moth could increase by up to 36.37% by the end of this century under high emission scenario. We also found that excessive precipitation decreased the probability of raisin moth establishment and that the optimum temperature range for the species during the wettest quarter of the year was 0-18 °C. These findings highlight the need for future research to utilize a combined modeling approach to predict the distribution of the raisin moth under current and future climate conditions more accurately. Our results could be used for environmental risk assessments, as well as to inform international trade decisions and negotiations on phytosanitary measures with regards to this invasive species.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Seidel L, Broman E, Nilsson E, et al (2023)

Climate change-related warming reduces thermal sensitivity and modifies metabolic activity of coastal benthic bacterial communities.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Besides long-term average temperature increases, climate change is projected to result in a higher frequency of marine heatwaves. Coastal zones are some of the most productive and vulnerable ecosystems, with many stretches already under anthropogenic pressure. Microorganisms in coastal areas are central to marine energy and nutrient cycling and therefore, it is important to understand how climate change will alter these ecosystems. Using a long-term heated bay (warmed for 50 years) in comparison with an unaffected adjacent control bay and an experimental short-term thermal (9 days at 6-35 °C) incubation experiment, this study provides new insights into how coastal benthic water and surface sediment bacterial communities respond to temperature change. Benthic bacterial communities in the two bays reacted differently to temperature increases with productivity in the heated bay having a broader thermal tolerance compared with that in the control bay. Furthermore, the transcriptional analysis showed that the heated bay benthic bacteria had higher transcript numbers related to energy metabolism and stress compared to the control bay, while short-term elevated temperatures in the control bay incubation experiment induced a transcript response resembling that observed in the heated bay field conditions. In contrast, a reciprocal response was not observed for the heated bay community RNA transcripts exposed to lower temperatures indicating a potential tipping point in community response may have been reached. In summary, long-term warming modulates the performance, productivity, and resilience of bacterial communities in response to warming.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Salvador Costa MJ, Melo P, Azeiteiro U, et al (2023)

Nursing Interventions to Reduce Health Risks from Climate Change Impact in Urban Areas: A Scoping Review Protocol.

Nursing reports (Pavia, Italy), 13(1):496-505 pii:nursrep13010045.

Considering that the public health sector has been considered as a key stakeholder in climate action, it seems important to understand what interventions are carried out globally by trusted professionals such as nurses engaged in health promotion and environmental health in optimizing the health of individuals, families, and communities toward the dissemination of lifestyle decarbonization and guidance on healthier climate-related choices. The objective of this review was to understand the extent and type of evidence related to the community-based interventions of nurses that are being led or have been implemented thus far with the aim of reducing the health risks from climate change impact in urban areas. The present protocol follows the JBI methodological framework. Databases to be searched include PubMed, MEDLINE complete, CINAHL, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine). Hand searched references were also considered for inclusion. This review will include quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods studies from 2008 onwards. Systematic reviews, text, opinion papers, and the gray literature in English and Portuguese were also considered. Mapping the nurse led interventions or those that have been implemented thus far in urban areas may lead to further reviews that may help identify the best practices and gaps within the field. The results are presented in tabular format alongside a narrative summary.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Yu XT, Yang FL, Da W, et al (2023)

Species Richness of Papilionidae Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) in the Hengduan Mountains and Its Future Shifts under Climate Change.

Insects, 14(3): pii:insects14030259.

The family of Papilionidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) is a group of butterflies with high ecological and conservation value. The Hengduan Mountains (HMDs) in Southwest China is an important diversity centre for these butterflies. However, the spatial distribution pattern and the climate vulnerability of Papilionidae butterflies in the HDMs remain unknown to date. The lack of such knowledge has already become an obstacle in formulating effective butterfly conservation strategies. The present research compiled a 59-species dataset with 1938 occurrence points. The Maxent model was applied to analyse the spatial pattern of species richness in subfamilies Parnassiinae and Papilioninae, as well as to predict the response under the influence of climate change. The spatial pattern of both subfamilies in the HDMs has obvious elevation prevalence, with Parnassiinae concentrated in the subalpine to alpine areas (2500-5500 m) in western Sichuan, northwestern Yunnan and eastern Tibet, while Papilioninae is concentrated in the low- to medium-elevation areas (1500-3500 m) in the river valleys of western Yunnan and western Sichuan. Under the influence of climate change, both subfamilies would exhibit northward and upward range shifts. The majority of Parnassiinae species would experience drastic habitat contraction, resulting in lower species richness across the HDMs. In contrast, most Papilioninae species would experience habitat expansion, and the species richness would also increase significantly. The findings of this research should provide new insights and a clue for butterfly diversity and climatic vulnerability in southwestern China. Future conservation efforts should be focused on species with habitat contraction, narrow-ranged distribution and endemicity with both in situ and ex situ measures, especially in protected areas. Commercialised collecting targeting these species must also be regulated by future legislation.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Cordeiro GD, S Dötterl (2023)

Floral Scents in Bee-Pollinated Buckwheat and Oilseed Rape under a Global Warming Scenario.

Insects, 14(3): pii:insects14030242.

Many wild plants and crops are pollinated by insects, which often use floral scents to locate their host plants. The production and emission of floral scents are temperature-dependent; however, little is known about how global warming affects scent emissions and the attraction of pollinators. We used a combination of chemical analytical and electrophysiological approaches to quantify the influence of a global warming scenario (+5 °C in this century) on the floral scent emissions of two important crop species, i.e., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus), and to test whether compounds that are potentially different between the treatments can be detected by their bee pollinators (Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris). We found that only buckwheat was affected by increased temperatures. Independent of temperature, the scent of oilseed rape was dominated by p-anisaldehyde and linalool, with no differences in relative scent composition and the total amount of scent. Buckwheat emitted 2.4 ng of scent per flower and hour at optimal temperatures, dominated by 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (46%) and linalool (10%), and at warmer temperatures threefold less scent (0.7 ng/flower/hour), with increased contributions of 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (73%) to the total scent and linalool and other compounds being absent. The antennae of the pollinators responded to various buckwheat floral scent compounds, among them compounds that disappeared at increased temperatures or were affected in their (relative) amounts. Our results highlight that increased temperatures differentially affect floral scent emissions of crop plants and that, in buckwheat, the temperature-induced changes in floral scent emissions affect the olfactory perception of the flowers by bees. Future studies should test whether these differences in olfactory perception translate into different attractiveness of buckwheat flowers to bees.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Gameiro F, Ferreira P, M Faria (2023)

Association between Social and Emotional Competencies and Quality of Life in the Context of War, Pandemic and Climate Change.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 13(3): pii:bs13030249.

The present context, with an ongoing pandemic situation, war and climate change, seems to play a critical role in both the peoples' perception of their quality of life, and the acquisition and development of social and emotional competencies. In this study, our goal was to assess the relationship between social and emotional competencies and peoples' quality of life in a Portuguese sample. Participants were 1139 individuals living in Portugal, aged between 16 and 85 years old, who were mostly (73%) female. An online protocol for data acquisition was used, which included sociodemographic characterization, the Portuguese version of the scale of Social and Emotional Competencies (SEC-Q) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BRIEF). Correlation analysis and a canonical correlation were performed, with results showing a high association between the dimensions of social and emotional competencies and peoples' quality of life. Two significant canonical roots were extracted, and the results show that the first is characterized by internal factors, linking psychological health and self-management and motivation, and the second root evidences the external factors, linking social relations and environment with social awareness and pro-social behavior.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Yadav A, SE Pacheco (2023)

Prebirth effects of climate change on children's respiratory health.

Current opinion in pediatrics pii:00008480-990000000-00084 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date, there is no evidence that humanity will implement appropriate mitigation measures to avoid the catastrophic impact of climate change on the planet and human health. Vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children will be the most affected. This review highlights epidemiologic data on climate change-related prenatal environmental exposures affecting the fetus and children's respiratory health.

RECENT FINDINGS: Research on outcomes of prenatal exposure to climate change-related environmental changes and pediatric pulmonary health is limited. In addition to adverse pregnancy outcomes known to affect lung development, changes in lung function, increased prevalence of wheezing, atopy, and respiratory infections have been associated with prenatal exposure to increased temperatures, air pollution, and maternal stress. The mechanisms behind these changes are ill-defined, although oxidative stress, impaired placental functioning, and epigenetic modifications have been observed. However, the long-term impact of these changes remains unknown.

SUMMARY: The detrimental impact of the climate crisis on pediatric respiratory health begins before birth, highlighting the inherent vulnerability of pregnant women and children. Research and advocacy, along with mitigation and adaptation measures, must be implemented to protect pregnant women and children, the most affected but the least responsible for the climate crisis.

RevDate: 2023-03-27
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Zhang X, Zhou T, Zhang W, et al (2023)

Increased impact of heat domes on 2021-like heat extremes in North America under global warming.

Nature communications, 14(1):1690.

During summer 2021, Western North America (WNA) experienced an unprecedented heatwave with record-breaking high temperatures associated with a strong anomalous high-pressure system, i.e., a heat dome. Here, we use a flow analog method and find that the heat dome over the WNA can explain half of the magnitude of the anomalous temperature. The intensities of hot extremes associated with similar heat dome-like atmospheric circulations increase faster than background global warming in both historical change and future projection. Such relationship between hot extremes and mean temperature can be partly explained by soil moisture-atmosphere feedback. The probability of 2021-like heat extremes is projected to increase due to the background warming, the enhanced soil moisture-atmosphere feedback and the weak but still significantly increased probability of the heat dome-like circulation. The population exposure to such heat extremes will also increase. Limiting global warming to 1.5 °C instead of 2 °C (3 °C) would lead to an avoided impact of 53% (89%) of the increase in population exposure to 2021-like heat extremes under the RCP8.5-SSP5 scenario.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Haq C, Iroku-Malize T, Edgoose J, et al (2023)

Climate Change as a Threat to Health: Family Medicine Call to Action and Response.

Annals of family medicine, 21(2):195-197.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Taylor L (2023)

Dengue and chikungunya cases surge as climate change spreads arboviral diseases to new regions.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 380:p717.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Dorić V, Ivković M, Baranov V, et al (2023)

Extreme freshwater discharge events exacerbated by climate change influence the structure and functional response of the chironomid community in a biodiversity hotspot.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01729-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change is expected to exacerbate extreme discharge events in freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of changes in precipitation volume and snow cover duration. Chironomid midges were used as a model organism in this study because of their small size and short life cycles, which enable fast colonization of new habitats and great resilience. This resilience is often expressed in easy recolonization after an extreme event. Chironomid samples together with physico-chemical water measurements were collected for 14 years, between 2007 and 2020, in a karst tufa barrier that is part of the Plitvice Lakes National Park in Croatia. More than 13,000 individuals belonging to >90 taxa were collected. Mean annual water temperature increased by 0.1 °C during this period. Multiple change-point analysis revealed three main periods by discharge patterns: the first one from January 2007 to June 2010, the second from July 2010 to March 2013, characterised by extreme low discharge, and the third from April 2013 to December 2020, characterised by an increase in extreme peak discharge values. Based on multilevel pattern analysis, indicator species of the first and the third discharge period were detected. The ecological preferences of these species indicate an environmental change related to the changes in discharge. Along with species composition, functional composition has changed with the abundance of passive filtrators, shredders and predators increasing over time. Species richness and abundance did not change over the period of observation, thus emphasizing the importance of species-level identification in detecting the earliest community response to change that would otherwise be overlooked.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Lamine EB, Schickele A, Guidetti P, et al (2023)

Redistribution of fisheries catch potential in Mediterranean and North European waters under climate change scenarios.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01673-X [Epub ahead of print].

The Mediterranean Sea is a hotspot of global warming where key commercial species, such as demersal and pelagic fishes, and cephalopods, could experience abrupt distribution shifts in the near future. However, the extent to which these range shifts may impact fisheries catch potential remains poorly understood at the scale of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs). Here, we evaluated the projected changes in Mediterranean fisheries catches potential, by target fishing gears, under different climate scenarios throughout the 21st century. We show that the future Mediterranean maximum catch potential may decrease considerably by the end of the century under high emission scenarios in South Eastern Mediterranean countries. These projected decreases range between -20 to -75 % for catch by pelagic trawl and seine, -50 to -75 % for fixed nets and traps and exceed -75 % for benthic trawl. In contrast, fixed nets and traps, and benthic trawl fisheries may experience an increase in their catch potential in the North and Celtic seas, while future catches by pelagic trawl and seine may decrease in the same areas. We show that a high emission scenario may considerably amplify the future redistribution of fisheries catch potential across European Seas, thus highlighting the need to limit global warming. Our projections at the manageable scale of EEZ and the quantification of climate-induced impacts on a large part of the Mediterranean and European fisheries is therefore a first, and considerable step toward the development of climate mitigation and adaptations strategies for the fisheries sector.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Santos A, Gómez-Espinoza O, Núñez-Montero K, et al (2023)

Measuring the effect of climate change in Antarctic microbial communities: toward novel experimental approaches.

Current opinion in biotechnology, 81:102918 pii:S0958-1669(23)00028-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The Antarctic continent is undergoing a rapid warming, affecting microbial communities throughout its ecosystems. This continent is a natural laboratory for studying the effect of climate change, however, assessing the microbial communities' responses to environmental changes is challenging from a methodological point of view. We suggest novel experimental designs, including multivariable assessments that apply multiomics methods in combination with continuous environmental data recording and new warming simulation systems. Moreover, we propose that climate change studies in Antarctica should consider three main objectives, including descriptive studies, short-term temporary adaptation studies, and long-term adaptive evolution studies. This will help us to understand and manage the effects of climate change on the Earth.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Ozgul A, Fichtel C, Paniw M, et al (2023)

Destabilizing effect of climate change on the persistence of a short-lived primate.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(14):e2214244120.

Seasonal tropical environments are among those regions that are the most affected by shifts in temperature and rainfall regimes under climate change, with potentially severe consequences for wildlife population persistence. This persistence is ultimately determined by complex demographic responses to multiple climatic drivers, yet these complexities have been little explored in tropical mammals. We use long-term, individual-based demographic data (1994 to 2020) from a short-lived primate in western Madagascar, the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), to investigate the demographic drivers of population persistence under observed shifts in seasonal temperature and rainfall. While rainfall during the wet season has been declining over the years, dry season temperatures have been increasing, with these trends projected to continue. These environmental changes resulted in lower survival and higher recruitment rates over time for gray mouse lemurs. Although the contrasting changes have prevented the study population from collapsing, the resulting increase in life-history speed has destabilized an otherwise stable population. Population projections under more recent rainfall and temperature levels predict an increase in population fluctuations and a corresponding increase in the extinction risk over the next five decades. Our analyses show that a relatively short-lived mammal with high reproductive output, representing a life history that is expected to closely track changes in its environment, can nonetheless be threatened by climate change.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Liang Z, Sun L, Tian Z, et al (2023)

Increase in grain production potential of China under climate change.

PNAS nexus, 2(3):pgad057.

The rapid growth of China's demand for grains is expected to continue in the coming decades, largely as a result of the increasing feed demand to produce protein-rich food. This leads to a great concern on future supply potentials of Chinese agriculture under climate change and the extent of China's dependence on world food markets. While the existing literature in both agronomy and climate economics indicates a dominance of the adverse impacts of climate change on rice, wheat, and maize yields, there is a lack of study to assess changes in multi-cropping opportunities induced by climate change. Multi-cropping benefits crop production by harvesting more than once per year from a given plot. To address this important gap, we established a procedure within the agro-ecological zones (AEZ) modeling framework to assess future spatial shifts of multi-cropping conditions. The assessment was based on an ensemble of five general circulation models under four representative concentration pathway scenarios in the phase five of coupled model inter-comparison project and accounted for the water scarcity constraints. The results show significant northward extensions of single-, double-, and triple-cropping zones in the future which would provide good opportunities for crop-rotation-based adaptation. The increasing multi-cropping opportunities would be able to boost the annual grain production potential by an average scale of 89(±49) Mt at the current irrigation efficiency and 143(±46) Mt at the modernized irrigation efficiency with improvement between the baseline (1981-2010) and the mid-21st century (2041-2070).

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Mathers A, Fan S, Z Austin (2023)

Climate change at a crossroads: Embedding environmental sustainability into the core of pharmacy education.

Canadian pharmacists journal : CPJ = Revue des pharmaciens du Canada : RPC, 156(2):55-59.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

McDonnell TC, Clark CM, Reinds GJ, et al (2022)

Modeled Vegetation Community Trajectories: Effects from Climate Change, Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, and Soil Acidification Recovery.

Environmental advances, 9:1-13.

Forest understory plant communities in the United States harbor most of the vegetation diversity of forests and are often sensitive to changes in climate and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N). As temperature increases from human-caused climate change and soils recover from long term atmospheric deposition of N and sulfur (S), it is unclear how these important ecosystem components will respond. We used the newly developed US-PROPS model - based on species response functions for over 1,500 species - to evaluate the potential impacts of atmospheric N deposition and climate change on species occurrence probability for a case study in the forested ecosystems of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), an iconic park in the southeastern United States. We evaluated six future scenarios from various combinations of two potential recoveries of soil pH (no change, +0.5 pH units) and three climate futures (no change, +1.5, +3.0 deg C). Species critical loads (CLs) of N deposition and projected responses for each scenario were determined. Critical loads were estimated to be low (< 2 kg N/ha/yr) to protect all species under current and expected future conditions across broad regions of GRSM and these CLs were exceeded at large spatial extents among scenarios. Northern hardwood, yellow pine, and chestnut oak forests were among the most N-sensitive vegetation map classes found within GRSM. Potential future air temperature conditions generally led to decreases in the maximum occurrence probability for species. Therefore, CLs were considered "unattainable" in these situations because the specified level of protection used for CL determination (i.e., maximum occurrence probability under ambient conditions) was not attainable. Although some species showed decreases in maximum occurrence probability with simulated increases in soil pH, most species were favored by increased pH. The importance of our study is rooted in the methodology described here for establishing regional CLs and for evaluating future conditions, which is transferable to other national parks in the U.S. and in Europe where the original PROPS model was developed.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Marcus H, Hanna L, Tait P, et al (2023)

Climate change and the public health imperative for supporting migration as adaptation.

Journal of migration and health, 7:100174.

In an era of accelerating global climate change, human mobility has reached unprecedented levels. While it is acknowledged that many cases of human migration in the context of climate change are forced or involuntary, particularly where adaptation measures have failed to achieve sufficient resiliency of communities against impending slow- and sudden-onset disasters. There are also many cases where migration is, itself, a voluntary adaptive measure to secure otherwise unattainable physical safety and life-sustaining resources. It is in these cases that migration can be viewed as adaptation. Under the right policy conditions, it is possible for such adaptive migration to save countless lives. Moreover, it can achieve remarkable health and well-being gains for otherwise vulnerable communities residing on environmentally degrading lands and disproportionately suffering from the health impacts of climate change. While several activists have spoken loudly on the topic of climate migration, emphasizing the human rights imperative for supportive global policy action, the public health community has not been equally vocal nor unanimous in its stance. This paper, a product of the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) Environmental Health Working Group, aims to rectify this gap, by analyzing adaptive climate migration through a public health lens. In doing so, it argues that creating an enabling environment for adaptive climate migration is not just a human rights imperative, but also a public health one. This argument is supported by evidence demonstrating how creating such an enabling environment can synergistically support the fulfillment of key public health services and functions, as outlined under the internationally endorsed Global Charter for the Public's Health of the WFPHA.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Ling Z, Shi Z, Gu S, et al (2023)

Corrigendum: Impact of climate change and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation expansion on reference evapotranspiration in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1157058.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2022.830519.].

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Le Mouël C, Forslund A, Marty P, et al (2023)

Can the Middle East-North Africa region mitigate the rise of its food import dependency under climate change?.

Regional environmental change, 23(2):52.

UNLABELLED: The dependence on imports of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region for its food needs has increased steadily since the early 1960s, from 10% to about 40%. This import dependence could continue to rise in coming decades due to the projected MENA population growth and the expected negative impacts of climate change on the region's natural resources and agricultural performances. To what extent the food import dependency of the MENA region will continue to increase up to 2050 and how the region could mitigate its rising reliance on food imports is both a key question for the region itself and a crucial geopolitical issue for the world as a whole. In this paper, we use a biomass balance model to assess the level of the food import dependency of the MENA region in 2050 resulting from six scenarios. We show that under current trends and severe impacts of climate change the food import dependency of the MENA would continue to rise and reach 50% in 2050. Maghreb would be particularly affected becoming dependent on imports for almost 70% of its food needs. Adopting a Mediterranean diet, reaching faster productivity growth in agriculture or reducing waste and loss along the food chain would contribute to decelerate the rise of the MENA's food import dependency. However, only the combination of these three options could significantly offset the increased import dependency in the most affected sub-regions: Maghreb, the Middle and the Near East. In all scenarios, Turkey strengthens its position as a net exporter of agricultural products.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10113-023-02045-y.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Omodara OD, Ige OA, Oluwasola O, et al (2023)

Factors influencing cassava farmers' choice of climate change adaption practices and its effect on cassava productivity in Nigeria.

Heliyon, 9(3):e14563.

This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing choice of climate change adaptation practices and the effects of these practices on cassava productivity in Nigeria. Using a multi-stage sampling technique, structured questionnaire was used to survey 100 cassava farmers. The result was analyzed with a multivariate probit and generalized linear regression models. The result showed male dominance (78%) in cassava farming and the mean age of the cassava farmers was 45.46 ± 9.36 years. About 66% of the farmers belonged to cooperative associations and 67% had access to credit facilities. The multivariate model revealed that age of farmers, gender, education qualification, primary occupation, total income, membership of cooperative associations, farming objectives, farming experience, access to extension visit, access to credit, type of land ownership, farm size and climatic conditions significantly influenced choice of climate change adaptation practices among cassava farmers. The generalized linear model identified farming system, multiple crop types/improved crop varieties used, crop diversification, organic manuring, multiple planting dates, use of alternate fallowing, education and credit access to significantly affect cassava productivity. The study concluded that, eco-friendly methods for adapting to climate change increase cassava productivity. Thus, cassava farmers should be trained on the use of best climate change adaptation practices that can boost cassava productivity. In order to practice climate smart farming, it is important to stress the usage of organic manure and alternate fallowing.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Ray Biswas R, A Rahman (2023)

Adaptation to climate change: A study on regional climate change adaptation policy and practice framework.

Journal of environmental management, 336:117666.

Although planning and policy instruments are important for climate change adaptation, the implementation of these measures is critical for success. This paper studies different climate change adaptation strategies by analysing the measures adopted by stakeholders in charge of government policy development and implementation to minimise the impacts of climate change in the northern tropical region of Queensland, Australia. Local government organisations are responsible for taking a leading role in climate change adaptation. State and commonwealth government agencies are primarily responsible for developing climate transition policies and guidelines, as well as providing limited financial aid to help support the local government. Interviews were conducted with local government practitioners identified from different local government authorities in the study region. Although all the government bodies made some progress in developing better climate change adaptation policies, the interview participants identified that a lot more needs to be done, especially in implementation, including devising and the application of relevant action plans, economic assessments, stakeholder participations and engagement. From a local government practitioners' viewpoint, both the water sector and local economy will face the highest immediate impacts if climate change adaptation actions are not adequately implemented at local government level in the study region. There are currently no notable legal bindings to address climate change risks in the region. In addition, financial liability assessments due to climate risks and cost-share mechanisms among different levels of stakeholders and government authorities to face and prepare for climate change impacts hardly exist. Although the interview respondents recognise their high importance. As there are uncertainties in the achievements of climate change adaptation plans, from a local government practitioners' standpoint, the local authorities should take appropriate actions to integrate adaptation and mitigation works to face and prepare for climate risks rather than focusing only on adaptation. The respondents informed that some work has been done to identify flood prone areas and a few policy documents exist that accommodate sea level rise in planning practice, but these are done in fragments with no holistic implementation, monitoring or evaluation plans put in place.

RevDate: 2023-03-26

Xiong Y, Mo S, Wu H, et al (2023)

Influence of human activities and climate change on wetland landscape pattern-A review.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01731-X [Epub ahead of print].

Wetlands (rivers, lakes, swamps, etc.) are biodiversity hotspots, providing habitats for biota on the earth. In recent years, wetlands have been significantly affected by human activities and climate change, and wetland ecosystems have become one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world. There have been many studies on the impact of human activities and climate change on wetland landscapes, but there is still a lack of relevant reviews. This article summarizes the research on the impact of global human activities and climate change on wetland landscape patterns (vegetation distribution, etc.) from 1996 to 2021. Human activities such as dam construction, urbanization, and grazing will significantly affect the wetland landscape. Generally, dam construction and urbanization are generally believed to harm wetland vegetation, but appropriate human behaviors such as tillage benefit wetland plants' growth on reclaimed land. Prescribed fires in non-inundation periods are one of the ways to increase the vegetation coverage and diversity of wetlands. In addition, some ecological restoration projects have a positive impact on wetland vegetation (quantity, richness, etc.). Under climatic conditions, extreme floods and droughts are likely to change the wetland landscape pattern, and excessively high and low water levels will restrict plants. At the same time, the invasion of alien vegetation will inhibit the growth of native vegetation in the wetland. In an environment of global warming, rising temperatures may be a "double-edged sword" for alpine and higher latitude wetland plants. This review will help researchers better understand the impact of human activities and climate change on wetland landscape patterns and suggests avenues for future studies.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Morais H, Arenas F, Cruzeiro C, et al (2023)

Combined effects of climate change and environmentally relevant mixtures of endocrine disrupting compounds on the fitness and gonads' maturation dynamics of Nucella lapillus (Gastropoda).

Marine pollution bulletin, 190:114841 pii:S0025-326X(23)00272-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Coastal areas are affected by multiple stressors like climate change and endocrine disruptors (EDCs). In the laboratory, we investigated the combined effects of increased temperature and EDCs (drospirenone and mercury) on the fitness and gonads' maturation dynamics of the marine gastropod Nucella lapillus for 21 days. Survival was negatively affected by all the stressors alone, while, in combination, a synergistic negative effect was observed. Both chemicals, as single factors, did not cause any effect on the maturation stage of ovaries and testis. However, in the presence of a higher temperature, it was clear a delay in the maturation stage of the ovaries, but not in the testis, suggesting a higher negative impact of the stressors in females than in males. In summary, drospirenone caused a low negative impact in aquatic species, like gastropods, but in combination with other EDCs and/or increased temperature can be a matter of concern.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Ratter-Rieck JM, Roden M, C Herder (2023)

Diabetes and climate change: current evidence and implications for people with diabetes, clinicians and policy stakeholders.

Diabetologia [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change will be a major challenge for the world's health systems in the coming decades. Elevated temperatures and increasing frequencies of heat waves, wildfires, heavy precipitation and other weather extremes can affect health in many ways, especially if chronic diseases are already present. Impaired responses to heat stress, including compromised vasodilation and sweating, diabetes-related comorbidities, insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation make people with diabetes particularly vulnerable to environmental risk factors, such as extreme weather events and air pollution. Additionally, multiple pathogens show an increased rate of transmission under conditions of climate change and people with diabetes have an altered immune system, which increases the risk for a worse course of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarise recent studies on the impact of climate-change-associated risk for people with diabetes and discuss which individuals may be specifically prone to these risk conditions due to their clinical features. Knowledge of such high-risk groups will help to develop and implement tailored prevention and management strategies to mitigate the detrimental effect of climate change on the health of people with diabetes.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Liu H, Huang X, Guo X, et al (2023)

Climate change and Aedes albopictus risks in China: current impact and future projection.

Infectious diseases of poverty, 12(1):26.

BACKGROUND: Future distribution of dengue risk is usually predicted based on predicted climate changes using general circulation models (GCMs). However, it is difficult to validate the GCM results and assess the uncertainty of the predictions. The observed changes in climate may be very different from the GCM results. We aim to utilize trends in observed climate dynamics to predict future risks of Aedes albopictus in China.

METHODS: We collected Ae. albopictus surveillance data and observed climate records from 80 meteorological stations from 1970 to 2021. We analyzed the trends in climate change in China and made predictions on future climate for the years 2050 and 2080 based on trend analyses. We analyzed the relationship between climatic variables and the prevalence of Ae. albopictus in different months/seasons. We built a classification tree model (based on the average of 999 runs of classification and regression tree analyses) to predict the monthly/seasonal Ae. albopictus distribution based on the average climate from 1970 to 2000 and assessed the contributions of different climatic variables to the Ae. albopictus distribution. Using these models, we projected the future distributions of Ae. albopictus for 2050 and 2080.

RESULTS: The study included Ae. albopictus surveillance from 259 sites in China found that winter to early spring (November-February) temperatures were strongly correlated with Ae. albopictus prevalence (prediction accuracy ranges 93.0-98.8%)-the higher the temperature the higher the prevalence, while precipitation in summer (June-September) was important predictor for Ae. albopictus prevalence. The machine learning tree models predicted the current prevalence of Ae. albopictus with high levels of agreement (accuracy > 90% and Kappa agreement > 80% for all 12 months). Overall, winter temperature contributed the most to Ae. albopictus distribution, followed by summer precipitation. An increase in temperature was observed from 1970 to 2021 in most places in China, and annual change rates varied substantially from -0.22 ºC/year to 0.58 ºC/year among sites, with the largest increase in temperature occurring from February to April (an annual increase of 1.4-4.7 ºC in monthly mean, 0.6-4.0 ºC in monthly minimum, and 1.3-4.3 ºC in monthly maximum temperature) and the smallest in November and December. Temperature increases were lower in the tropics/subtropics (1.5-2.3 ºC from February-April) compared to the high-latitude areas (2.6-4.6 ºC from February-April). The projected temperatures in 2050 and 2080 by this study were approximately 1-1.5 °C higher than those projected by GCMs. The estimated current Ae. albopictus risk distribution had a northern boundary of north-central China and the southern edge of northeastern China, with a risk period of June-September. The projected future Ae. albopictus risks in 2050 and 2080 cover nearly all of China, with an expanded risk period of April-October. The current at-risk population was estimated to be 960 million and the future at-risk population was projected to be 1.2 billion.

CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of climate change in China is likely to surpass GCM predictions. Future dengue risks will expand to cover nearly all of China if current climate trends continue.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Martínez-Megías C, Mentzel S, Fuentes-Edfuf Y, et al (2023)

Influence of climate change and pesticide use practices on the ecological risks of pesticides in a protected Mediterranean wetland: A Bayesian network approach.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01636-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Pollution by agricultural pesticides is one of the most important pressures affecting Mediterranean coastal wetlands. Pesticide risks are expected to be influenced by climate change, which will result in an increase of temperatures and a decrease in annual precipitation. On the other hand, pesticide dosages are expected to change given the increase in pest resistance and the implementation of environmental policies like the European ´Farm-to-Fork` strategy, which aims for a 50 % reduction in pesticide usage by 2030. The influence of climate change and pesticide use practices on the ecological risks of pesticides needs to be evaluated making use of realistic environmental scenarios. This study investigates how different climate change and pesticide use practices affect the ecological risks of pesticides in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain), a protected Mediterranean coastal wetland. We performed a probabilistic risk assessment for nine pesticides applied in rice production using three climatic scenarios (for the years 2008, 2050 and 2100), three pesticide dosage regimes (the recommended dose, and 50 % increase and 50 % decrease), and their combinations. The scenarios were used to simulate pesticide exposure concentrations in the water column of the rice paddies using the RICEWQ model. Pesticide effects were characterized using acute and chronic Species Sensitivity Distributions built with toxicity data for aquatic organisms. Risk quotients were calculated as probability distributions making use of Bayesian networks. Our results show that future climate projections will influence exposure concentrations for some of the studied pesticides, yielding higher dissipation and lower exposure in scenarios dominated by an increase of temperatures, and higher exposure peaks in scenarios where heavy precipitation events occur right after pesticide application. Our case study shows that pesticides such as azoxystrobin, difenoconazole and MCPA are posing unacceptable ecological risks for aquatic organisms, and that the implementation of the ´Farm-to-Fork` strategy is crucial to reduce them.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Campos EVR, Pereira ADES, Aleksieienko I, et al (2023)

Encapsulated plant growth regulators and associative microorganisms: nature-based solutions to mitigate the effects of climate change on plants.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology pii:S0168-9452(23)00105-X [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past decades, the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global average temperature have been increasing, and this trend is projected to soon become more severe. This scenario of climate change intensifies abiotic stress factors (such as drought, flooding, salinity, and ultraviolet radiation) that threaten forest and associated ecosystems as well as crop production. These factors can negatively affect plant growth and development with a consequent reduction in plant biomass accumulation and yield, in addition to increasing plant susceptibility to biotic stresses. Recently, biostimulants have become a hotspot as an effective and sustainable alternative to alleviate the negative effects of stresses on plants. However, the majority of biostimulants have poor stability under environmental conditions, which leads to premature degradation, shortening their biological activity. To solve these bottlenecks, micro- and nano-based formulations containing biostimulant molecules and/or microorganisms are gaining attention, as they demonstrate several advantages over their conventional formulations. In this review, we focus on the encapsulation of plant growth regulators and plant associative microorganisms as a strategy to boost their application for plant protection against abiotic stresses. We also address the potential limitations and challenges faced for the implementation of this technology, as well as possibilities regarding future research.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Wardrope A, M Reuber (2023)

Seizure disorders and climate change: Everyone's problem.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Deivanayagam TA, RE Osborne (2023)

Breaking free from tunnel vision for climate change and health.

PLOS global public health, 3(3):e0001684.

Climate change is widely recognised as the greatest threat to public health this century, but 'climate change and health' often refers to a narrow and limited focus on emissions, and the impacts of the climate crisis, rather than a holistic assessment of economic structures and systems of oppression. This tunnel vision misses key aspects of the climate change and health intersection, such as the enforcers of planetary destruction such as the military, police, and trade, and can also lead down dangerous alleyways such as 'net' zero, overpopulation arguments and green extractivism. Tunnel vision also limits health to the absence of the disease at the individual level, rather than sickness or health within systems themselves. Conceptualising health as political, ecological, and collective is essential for tackling the root causes of health injustice. Alternative economic paradigms can offer possibilities for fairer ecological futures that prioritise health and wellbeing. Examples such as degrowth, doughnut economics and ecosocialism, and their relationship with health, are described. The importance of reparations in various forms, to repair previous and ongoing harm, are discussed. Breaking free from tunnel vision is not simply an intellectual endeavour, but a practice. Moving towards new paradigms requires movement building and cultivating radical imagination. The review highlights lessons which can be learnt from abolitionist movements and progressive political struggles across the world. This review provides ideas and examples of how to break free from tunnel vision for climate change and health by highlighting and analysing the work of multiple organisations who are working towards social and economic transformation. Key considerations for the health community are provided, including working in solidarity with others, prioritising community-led solutions, and using our voice, skills, and capacity to address the structural diagnosis-colonial capitalism.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Agrawal P, Post LA, Glover J, et al (2023)

The interrelationship between food security, climate change, and gender-based violence: A scoping review with system dynamics modeling.

PLOS global public health, 3(2):e0000300.

Gender-based violence (GBV) is a global public health and human rights problem that is exacerbated by social and environmental stressors for a multitude of interpersonal, cultural, and economic reasons. Through sudden disruptions in the microclimate of a region, climate shocks often have a negative impact on food security, which correlates with increases in GBV. Associations between the various combinations of GBV, climate change, and food insecurity have been documented in the growing international literature, but questions remain about these associations that require further clarification. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 provides insight through a real time demonstration into these interactions. This review of the global literature examines the interplay between GBV, climate change, and food insecurity-including recent literature regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. This review covers original research studies employing both quantitative and qualitative methodology, those that conducted secondary analyses of existing data sources and perspective pieces derived from observed evidence. An additional analytic layer of system dynamics modeling allowed for the integration of findings from the scoping review and discovery of additional insights into the interplay between disasters, food insecurity, and GBV. Findings from this review suggest that the development and adaptation of evidence-based, focused interventions and policies to reduce the effects of climate shocks and bolster food security may ultimately decrease GBV prevalence and impact.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Kruger SE, Lorah PA, KW Okamoto (2022)

Mapping climate change's impact on cholera infection risk in Bangladesh.

PLOS global public health, 2(10):e0000711.

Several studies have investigated how Vibrio cholerae infection risk changes with increased rainfall, temperature, and water pH levels for coastal Bangladesh, which experiences seasonal surges in cholera infections associated with heavy rainfall events. While coastal environmental conditions are understood to influence V. cholerae propagation within brackish waters and transmission to and within human populations, it remains unknown how changing climate regimes impact the risk for cholera infection throughout Bangladesh. To address this, we developed a random forest species distribution model to predict the occurrence probability of cholera incidence within Bangladesh for 2015 and 2050. We developed a random forest model trained on cholera incidence data and spatial environmental raster data to be predicted to environmental data for the year of training (2015) and 2050. From our model's predictions, we generated risk maps for cholera occurrence for 2015 and 2050. Our best-fitting model predicted cholera occurrence given elevation and distance to water. Generally, we find that regions within every district in Bangladesh experience an increase in infection risk from 2015 to 2050. We also find that although cells of high risk cluster along the coastline predominantly in 2015, by 2050 high-risk areas expand from the coast inland, conglomerating around surface waters across Bangladesh, reaching all but the northwestern-most district. Mapping the geographic distribution of cholera infections given projected environmental conditions provides a valuable tool for guiding proactive public health policy tailored to areas most at risk of future disease outbreaks.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Bellizzi S, Popescu C, Panu Napodano CM, et al (2023)

Global health, climate change and migration: The need for recognition of "climate refugees".

Journal of global health, 13:03011.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Meng F, Hong S, Wang J, et al (2023)

Climate change increases carbon allocation to leaves in early leaf green-up.

Ecology letters [Epub ahead of print].

Global greening, characterized by an increase in leaf area index (LAI), implies an increase in foliar carbon (C). Whether this increase in foliar C under climate change is due to higher photosynthesis or to higher allocation of C to leaves remains unknown. Here, we explored the trends in foliar C accumulation and allocation during leaf green-up from 2000 to 2017 using satellite-derived LAI and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) across the Northern Hemisphere. The accumulation of foliar C accelerated in the early green-up period due to both increased photosynthesis and higher foliar C allocation driven by climate change. In the late stage of green-up, however, we detected decreasing trends in foliar C accumulation and foliar C allocation. Such stage-dependent trends in the accumulation and allocation of foliar C are not represented in current terrestrial biosphere models. Our results highlight that a better representation of C allocation should be incorporated into models.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Shehzad K (2023)

Extreme flood in Pakistan: Is Pakistan paying the cost of climate change? A short communication.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01591-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming is one of the foremost causes of changes in climate patterns around the world. Pakistan is among the top ten countries affected by global warming. Today, Pakistan is facing severe consequences of global warming in the form of an extreme flood. It affected 33 million people, destroyed 1.5 million homes, and caused $2.3 billion in crop damage. It has also damaged more than 2000 km of roads, cutting off connectivity to provinces and major cities. Thus, inflation in Pakistan has reached its highest level, i.e. 26 % - 27 %, and a severe food crisis is not far away. Recently, Pakistan noted a record temperature of 40 °C in several territories, notably 51 °C in Jacobabad. The study reported that high temperatures, melting glaciers, heavy monsoon rains, government inattention, and poor governance are the key reasons of this severe flood. Moreover, in 2080, the average temperature in Pakistan is predicted to increase by 4.38 degrees Celsius. The study suggested that Supply of cheap seeds and fertilizers to farmers, maintenance of water supply infrastructure, availability of food and medicines through domestic and foreign assistance, and reduction of electricity rates and taxes in flood-affected areas can be the solution to stop this crisis. Similarly, building dams, investing in technology and training, and educating the general public about environmental change should be included in the long-term goals to avoid future disasters.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Kirton CA (2023)

Climate Change Is a Threat to Public Health.

The American journal of nursing, 123(4):7.

Nurses must be part of the solution.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Palmucci DN, A Ferraris (2023)

Climate change inaction: Cognitive bias influencing managers' decision making on environmental sustainability choices. The role of empathy and morality with the need of an integrated and comprehensive perspective.

Frontiers in psychology, 14:1130059.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Sousa M, Rodrigues S, Pretti C, et al (2023)

A forecast effects of climate change and anthropogenic compounds in Gambusia holbrooki: ecotoxicological effects of salinity and metformin.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 258:106494 pii:S0166-445X(23)00097-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to global warming and extreme weather events, estuarine and coastal ecosystems are facing sudden fluctuations in salinity. These ecosystems are also threatened by organic and inorganic compounds that increase water pollution. Metformin is an antidiabetic drug commonly used by patients with type-2 diabetes, and an increase in environmental concentration has been recorded. To better understand the impacts of these two stressors on aquatic organisms, this study assessed: 1) the acute (96 h) ecotoxicological effects (antioxidant and biotransformation capacity, oxidative damage, energetic reserves, and protein content, neurotoxicity) induced by a range of metformin concentrations in Gambusia holbrooki under different salinities (17, 24, 31 expressed as Practical Salinity Units - PSU); and 2) the same endpoints after chronic exposure (28 d) under a range of metformin concentrations at a salinity of 17. The results obtained from the acute exposure showed interactions between salinity and metformin in G. holbrooki superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, body protein, and glycogen (GLY) contents. The results revealed that an increase in salinity can modulate the response of G. holbrooki to metformin. Chronically exposed organisms showed that metformin led to a significant decrease in SOD activity at most of the tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 10 µg/L). In addition, glutathione S-transferases increased and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased significantly at concentrations of metformin of 5 and 10 at the µg/L, respectively. Therefore, overall, metformin can lead to potential oxidative stress in G. holbrooki the highest metformin concentrations tested and the GLY content in G. holbrooki increased after exposure to metformin concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 μg/L. Published studies have already shown that metformin alone can lead to oxidative damage in aquatic species, endangering the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, additional ecotoxicological studies should be performed to characterize if other metformin concentrations combined with salinity, or other climate change-related factors, might impact non-target species. Standard toxicity bioassays may not be predictive of actual pollutants (e.g. metformin) toxicity under variable environmental conditions, and the investigation of a wider range of exposure conditions could improve the accuracy of chemical risk assessments.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Osuolale O (2023)

Precursor to Dengue: Projecting Effects of Climate Change on Mosquito Density in Southeast Asia.

Environmental health perspectives, 131(3):34002.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Ouyang X, Kristensen E, Zimmer M, et al (2023)

Response of macrophyte litter decomposition in global blue carbon ecosystems to climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Blue carbon ecosystems (BCEs) are important nature-based solutions for climate change-mitigation. However, current debates question the reliability and contribution of BCEs under future climatic-scenarios. The answer to this question depends on ecosystem processes driving carbon-sequestration and -storage, such as primary production and decomposition, and their future rates. We performed a global meta-analysis on litter decomposition rate constants (k) in BCEs and predicted changes in carbon release from 309 studies. The relationships between k and climatic factors were examined by extracting remote-sensing data on air temperature, sea-surface temperature and precipitation aligning to the decomposition time of each experiment. We constructed global numerical models of litter decomposition to forecast k and carbon release under different scenarios. The current k averages at 27±3×10[-2] day[-1] for macroalgae were higher than for seagrasses (1.7±0.2×10[-2] day[-1]), mangroves (1.6±0.1×10[-2] day[-1]) and tidal marshes (5.9±0.5×10[-3] day[-1]). Macrophyte k increased with both air temperature and precipitation in intertidal BCEs and with sea surface temperature for subtidal seagrasses. Above a temperature threshold for vascular plant litter at ~25°C and ~20°C for macroalgae, k drastically increased with increasing temperature. However, the direct effect of high temperatures on k are obscured by other factors in field experiments compared with laboratory experiments. We defined "fundamental" and "realized" temperature response to explain this effect. Based on relationships for realized temperature response, we predict that proportions of decomposed litter will increase by 0.9-5% and 4.7-28.8% by 2100 under low- (2[0] C) and high-warming conditions (4[0] C) compared to 2020, respectively. Net litter carbon sinks in BCEs will increase due to higher increase in litter C production than in decomposition by 2100 compared to 2020 under RCP 8.5. We highlight that BCEs will play an increasingly important role in future climate change-mitigation. Our findings can be leveraged for blue carbon accounting under future climate change scenarios.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Wise J (2023)

Climate change: Window to act is closing rapidly, warn scientists.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 380:p674.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

McDermott-Levy R, Pennea E, C Moore (2023)

Protecting Children's Health: Asthma and Climate Change.

MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing [Epub ahead of print].

Children are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Their lungs are developing, making children with asthma especially susceptible to temperature extremes, variations in precipitation, poor air quality, and changes in pollen and flora. Structural and social determinants of health, such as racism and poverty, that disproportionately affect children of color are linked to higher rates of asthma and negative effects of climate change. These factors lead to increased absences from school and social activities, loss of work for caregivers, and increased health care costs, thus negatively affecting children, their families, and the greater community. Nurses must support caregivers and children to link climate change to asthma care, be involved in health education; climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and policies; and develop the evidence to address climate change and asthma strategies. We address the impacts of climate change on children with asthma and nursing adaptation responses.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Bergquist M, Thiel M, Goldberg MH, et al (2023)

Field interventions for climate change mitigation behaviors: A second-order meta-analysis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(13):e2214851120.

Behavioral change is essential to mitigate climate change. To advance current knowledge, we synthesize research on interventions aiming to promote climate change mitigation behaviors in field settings. In a preregistered second-order meta-analysis, we assess the overall effect of 10 meta-analyses, incorporating a total of 430 primary studies. In addition, we assess subgroup analyses for six types of interventions, five behaviors, and three publication bias adjustments. Results showed that climate change mitigation interventions were generally effective (dunadjusted = 0.31, 95% CI [0.30, 0.32]). A follow-up analysis using only unique primary studies, adjusted for publication bias, provides a more conservative overall estimate (d = 0.18, 95% CI [0.13, 0.24]). This translates into a mean treatment effect of 7 percentage points. Furthermore, in a subsample of adequately powered large-scale interventions (n > 9,000, k = 32), the effect was adjusted downward to approximately 2 percentage points. This discrepancy might be because large-scale interventions often target nonvoluntary participants by less direct techniques (e.g., "home energy reports") while small-scale interventions often target voluntary participants by more direct techniques (e.g., face-to-face interactions). Subgroup analyses showed that interventions based on social comparisons or financial incentives were the most effective, while education or feedback was the least effective. These results provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art summary of climate change mitigation interventions, guiding both future research and practice.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Cornwall CE, Comeau S, Donner SD, et al (2023)

Coral adaptive capacity insufficient to halt global transition of coral reefs into net erosion under climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Projecting the effects of climate change on net reef calcium carbonate production is critical to understanding the future impacts on ecosystem function, but prior estimates have not included corals' natural adaptive capacity to such change. Here we estimate how the ability of symbionts to evolve tolerance to heat stress, or for coral hosts to shuffle to favourable symbionts, and their combination, may influence responses to the combined impacts of ocean warming and acidification under three representative concentration pathway (RCP) emissions scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). We show that symbiont evolution and shuffling, both individually and when combined, favours persistent positive net reef calcium carbonate production. However, our projections of future net calcium carbonate production (NCCP) under climate change vary both spatially and by RCP. For example, 19%-35% of modelled coral reefs are still projected to have net positive NCCP by 2050 if symbionts can evolve increased thermal tolerance, depending on the RCP. Without symbiont adaptive capacity, the number of coral reefs with positive NCCP drops to 9%-13% by 2050. Accounting for both symbiont evolution and shuffling, we project median positive NCPP of coral reefs will still occur under low greenhouse emissions (RCP2.6) in the Indian Ocean, and even under moderate emissions (RCP4.5) in the Pacific Ocean. However, adaptive capacity will be insufficient to halt the transition of coral reefs globally into erosion by 2050 under severe emissions scenarios (RCP8.5).

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Ortego J, Espelta JM, Armenteras D, et al (2023)

Demographic and spatially-explicit landscape genomic analyses in a tropical oak reveal the impacts of late Quaternary climate change on Andean montane forests.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Tropical Andes are one of the most important biodiversity hotspots on earth, yet our understanding on how their biotas have responded to Quaternary climatic oscillations is extraordinarily limited and the alternative models proposed to explain their demographic dynamics have been seldom formally evaluated. Here, we test the hypothesis that the interplay between the spatial configuration of geographical barriers to dispersal and elevational displacements driven by Quaternary cooling-warming cycles have shaped the demographic trajectories of montane oak forests (Quercus humboldtii) from the Colombian Andes. Specifically, we integrate genomic data and environmental niche modelling at fine temporal resolution to test competing spatially-explicit demographic and coalescent models, including scenarios considering (i) isotropic gene flow through the landscape, (ii) the hypothetical impact of contemporary barriers to dispersal (i.e., inter-Andean valleys), and (ii) distributional shifts of montane oak forests from the Last Glacial Maximum to present. Although our data revealed a marked genetic fragmentation of montane oak forests, statistical support for isolation-with-migration models indicate that geographically separated populations from the different Andean Cordilleras regularly exchange gene flow. Accordingly, spatiotemporally-explicit demographic analyses supported a model of flickering connectivity, with scenarios considering isotropic gene flow or currently unsuitable habitats as persistent barriers to dispersal providing a comparatively worse fit to empirical genomic data. Overall, these results emphasize the role of landscape heterogeneity on shaping spatial patterns of genomic variation in montane oak forests, rejecting the hypothesis of genetic continuity and supporting a significant impact of Quaternary climatic oscillations on their demographic trajectories.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Liu C, Chen RJ, HD Kan (2023)

[Progress and future perspective of epidemiological research of air pollution and climate change in the context of achieving carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals].

Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi, 44(3):353-359.

Climate change is the great health challenge for human beings in the 21[st] century. Air pollution is also an important public health problem worldwide. China announced the climate commitment to achieve carbon peaking by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060. Achieving these goals would not only have far-reaching effects on air pollution control and climate change, but also improve the population health in China. Air pollution and climate change epidemiology are important aspects of environmental epidemiology. In this paper, we discuss the current status and future development of epidemiological research of air pollution and climate change in the context of achieving carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals to provide ideas and suggestions for environmental and health studies in the future.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Lai W, Shi C, Wen G, et al (2023)

Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of the relict plant Shaniodendron subaequale.

Heliyon, 9(3):e14402.

Shaniodendron subeaqualis is a tertiary relict plant unique to China. This species has high greening, ecological, and scientific research value, and has been listed as a national I-level key protected plant. Clarifying the main climatic factors restricting the geographical distribution of S. subeaqualis and predicting the potential geographical distribution pattern of this species can provide a scientific basis for the protection of the germplasm resources of this rare species. Based on 104 S. subeaqualis natural distribution records and 9 climate factors, the MaxEnt software was used to predict the potential suitable areas of S. subeaqualis in different periods (LGM, MH, Current, SSP245-2050s, SSP245-2090s, SSP585-2050s, SSP585-2090s). The results showed that the contemporary AUC predicted by MaxEnt is 0.996, with high simulation accuracy; Precipitation in the driest season (Bio17), the average temperature in the coldest season (Bio11) are main factors affecting the distribution of S. subeaqualis. At present, the suitable area of S. subeaqualis is mainly distributed in Jiangsu, Anhui, and Zhejiang province, with a total area of 11.575 × 10[4] km[2], of which the high suitable area is 1.424 × 10[4] km[2] and the medium suitable area is 3.826 × 10[4] km[2]. In the LGM, the area of S. subeaqualis was roughly similar to that of the contemporary period, but there was a southward migration phenomenon in some areas, such as the suitable area in the south of Zhejiang. In order to avoid the influence of ice age, S. subeaqualis moved to nearby refuge places, such as Dabie Mountain area of Anhui province, the west of Tianmu Mountain area of Zhejiang province and mountain area of Jiangsu province. In the MH, the suitable area for S. subeaqualis was reduced and moved northward to a small extent. In the future period, the suitable range of S. subeaqualis will not change greatly, but the overall degree of fragmentation will intensify. If effective measures are not taken, it is bound to bring severe challenges to the survival of S. subeaqualis. In order to protect S. subeaqualis germplasm resources more effectively, it is suggested to dynamically monitor the existing S. subeaqualis population and take various measures actively to reduce the negative effects of climate change on S. subeaqualis.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Sisodiya SM (2023)

Climate change and the brain.

Brain : a journal of neurology pii:7072614 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Lalmalsawma P, Balasubramani K, James MM, et al (2023)

Malaria hotspots and climate change trends in the hyper-endemic malaria settings of Mizoram along the India-Bangladesh borders.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4538.

India has made tremendous progress in reducing malaria mortality and morbidity in the last decade. Mizoram State in North-East India is one of the few malaria-endemic regions where malaria transmission has continued to remain high. As Mizoram shares international borders with Bangladesh and Myanmar, malaria control in this region is critical for malaria elimination efforts in all the three countries. For identifying hotspots for targeted intervention, malaria data from 385 public health sub-centers across Mizoram were analyzed in the Geographic Information System. Almost all the sub-centers reporting high Annual Parasite Index (> 10) are located in Mizoram's districts that border Bangladesh. Getis-Ord Gi* statistic shows most of the sub-centers located along the Bangladesh border in the Lawngtlai and Lunglei districts to be the malaria hotspots. The hotspots also extended into the Mamit and Siaha districts, especially along the borders of Lawngtlai and Lunglei. Analysis of terrain, climatic, and land use/land cover datasets obtained from the Global Modelling and Assimilation Office and satellite images show Mizoram's western part (Lawngtlai, Lunglei, and Mamit districts) to experience similar topographic and climatic conditions as the bordering Rangamati district in the Chittagong division of Bangladesh. Climatic trends in this region from 1981 to 2021, estimated by the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimates, show an increasing trend in minimum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and the associated shift of climatic pattern (temperate to tropical monsoon) could facilitate malaria transmission. The quasi-Poisson regression model estimates a strong association (p < 0.001) between total malaria cases, temperature range, and elevation. The Kruskal-Wallis H test shows a statistically significant association between malaria cases and forest classes (p < 0.001). A regional coordination and strategic plan are required to eliminate malaria from this hyper-endemic malaria region of North-East India.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Haugen T, Prichardo P, Hellums R, et al (2023)

Climate Change and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has illustrated that global events can have a profound impact on our health systems. While the pandemic is unprecedented, it does underscore the need to prepare for future global health concerns. Climate change is a looming threat with significant consequences for otolaryngologists and our patients. In this commentary, we discuss the need to assess our preparedness for climate change as well as the importance of reflecting on our responsibility to minimize our footprint.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Sun Y, Bao Q, F Taghizadeh-Hesary (2023)

Green finance, renewable energy development, and climate change: evidence from regions of China.

Humanities & social sciences communications, 10(1):107.

In this study, using data from 2010 to 2021, and by utilizing the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology (STIRPAT) theory, and system generalized method of moments, the effect of green financing and deployment of renewable energy on carbon dioxide emissions in China and its provinces were analyzed. The results show that green financing reduces environmental pollution at the country level. Moreover, with a 1% increase in renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission can be expected to decrease by 0.103%. It also demonstrates that green financing has a statistically significant coefficient only in provinces located in the eastern and western regions. Chinese policymakers should incentive policies for provinces in the eastern region of China in order to have a cleaner environment. The central region should be under supportive and pressure policies to move faster along the path to sustainable development.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Beckmann-Wübbelt A, Türk L, Almeida I, et al (2023)

Climate change adaptation measures conflicted with the recreational demands on city forests during COVID-19 pandemic.

npj urban sustainability, 3(1):17.

Recurrent droughts in southwest Germany threaten the city and community-owned forests (CCF). At the same time, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the demand for recreation in CCF of southwest Germany. We interviewed stakeholders from different interest groups to critically analyze their opinion on how the high recreation demand on CCF due to the pandemic can be ensured along with implementing climate change adaptation measures in CCF in Karlsruhe, Germany. We found that stakeholders particularly highlighted the importance of the recreational function of the CCF during the pandemic. However, the behavior of visitors was criticized by the stakeholders. We showed that demand for the recreational use of CCF conflicted with climate change adaptation measures such as sanitary and forest restoration actions, creating a dilemma among stakeholders. Therefore, enhancing citizens' knowledge of forests' recreation functions and the need for climate change adaptation through communication and education should be prioritized.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Conrad K (2023)

The Era of Climate Change Medicine-Challenges to Health Care Systems.

The Ochsner journal, 23(1):7-8.

RevDate: 2023-03-19

Xu W, Jiang J, Lin HY, et al (2023)

Assessment of the impact of climate change on endangered conifer tree species by considering climate and soil dual suitability and interspecific competition.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01338-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change results in the habitat loss of many conifer tree species and jeopardizes species biodiversity and forest ecological functions. Delineating suitable habitats for tree species via climate niche model (CNM) is widely used to predict the impact of climate change and develop conservation and management strategies. However, the robustness of CNM is broadly debated as it usually does not consider soil and competition factors. Here we developed a new approach to combine soil variables with CNM and evaluate interspecific competition potential in the niche overlapping areas. We used an endangered conifer species - Chamaecyparis formosensis (red cypress) - as a case study to predict the impact of climate change. We developed a novel approach to integrate the climate niche model and soil niche model predictions and considered interspecific competition to predict the impacts of climate change on tree species. Our results show that the suitable habitat for red cypress would decrease significantly in the future with an additional threat from the competition of an oak tree species. Our approach and results may represent significant implications in making conservation strategies and evaluating the impacts of climate change, and providing the direction of the refinement of the ecological niche model.

RevDate: 2023-03-19

Vo TPT, Ngo HH, Guo W, et al (2023)

Influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on climate change summit negotiations from the climate governance perspective.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01552-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruptions to the world since 2020, with over 647 million confirmed cases and 6.7 million reported deaths as of January 2023. Despite its far-reaching impact, the effects of COVID-19 on the progress of global climate change negotiations have yet to be thoroughly evaluated. This discussion paper conducts an examination of COVID-19's impact on climate change actions at global, national, and local levels through a comprehensive review of existing literature. This analysis reveals that the pandemic has resulted in delays in implementing climate policies and altered priorities from climate action to the pandemic response. Despite these setbacks, the pandemic has also presented opportunities for accelerating the transition to a low-carbon economy. The interplay between these outcomes and the different levels of governance will play a crucial role in determining the success or failure of future climate change negotiations.

RevDate: 2023-03-19

Garcia-Bustos V, Cabañero-Navalon MD, Ruiz-Gaitán AC, et al (2023)

Climate change, animals, and Candida auris: insights into the ecological niche of a new species from a one health approach.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(23)00132-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: One of the most puzzling traits of Candida auris is the recent simultaneous and independent emergence of five genetically distinct clades on three continents. Global warming has been proposed as a contributing factor for this emergence due to C. auris high thermotolerance compared to phylogenetically close Candida species. This hypothesis postulates that climate change induced an environmental ancestor to become pathogenic through thermal adaptation and was then globally disseminated by an intermediate host.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to compile the current knowledge on the emergence and ecological environmental niches of C. auris, and highlight the potential role of animals in transmission.

SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from May 2022 to January 2023.

CONTENT: We discuss the up-to-date data on the ecological niches of this fungus and its mechanisms of emergence, transmission cycle in nature, and worldwide dissemination. We highlight the possibility of an originally intermediate host possibly related to marine or freshwater ecosystems on the basis of recent molecular and microbiological evidence from a One Health perspective. The consequences of harmful human impacts on the environment in the raise of new fungal pathogenic species such as C. auris are also analysed and compared to other animal precedents.

IMPLICATIONS: The present knowledge can prompt the generation of new evidence on the ecological reservoirs of C. auris and its original mechanisms of environmental or interspecies transmission. Further research on the highlighted gaps will help to understand the importance of the relationships between human, animal, and ecosystem health, as factors involved in the raise and spread of emerging fungal pathogenic species.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Gumuła-Kawęcka A, Jaworska-Szulc B, Szymkiewicz A, et al (2023)

Impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in shallow young glacial aquifers in northern Poland.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01520-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We investigated the influence of climate change in the period 1951-2020 on shallow aquifers in the Brda and Wda outwash plains (Pomeranian Region, Northern Poland). There was a significant temperature rise (0.3 °C/10 years), which accelerated after 1980 (0.66 °C/10 years). Precipitation became increasingly irregular - extremely rainy years occurred right after or before extremely dry years, and intensive rainfall events became more frequent after 2000. The groundwater level decreased over the last 20 years, even though the average annual precipitation was higher than in the previous 50 years. We carried out numerical simulations of water flow in representative soil profiles for the years 1970-2020 using the HYDRUS-1D model, developed and calibrated during our earlier work at an experimental site in the Brda outwash plain (Gumuła-Kawęcka et al., 2022). We used a relationship between the water head and flux at the bottom of the soil profiles (the third-type boundary condition) to reproduce groundwater table fluctuations caused by recharge variability in time. The calculated daily recharge showed a decreasing linear trend for the last 20 years (0.05-0.06 mm d[-1]/10 years), and dropping trends in water table level and soil water content in the entire profile of vadose zone. Field tracer experiments were performed to estimate impact of extremely rain events on water flux in vadose zone. The results suggest that tracer travel times are strongly determined by water content in the unsaturated zone which is determined by precipitation amount in span of weeks, rather than extremely high precipitation events.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Baustian MM, Liu B, Moss LC, et al (2023)

Climate change mitigation potential of Louisiana's coastal area: Current estimates and future projections.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Coastal habitats can play an important role in climate change mitigation. As Louisiana implements its climate action plan and the restoration and risk reduction projects outlined in its 2017 Louisiana Coastal Master Plan, it is critical to consider potential greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in coastal habitats. This study estimated the potential climate mitigation role of existing, converted, and restored coastal habitats for years 2005, 2020, 2025, 2030, and 2050, which align with the Governor of Louisiana's GHG reduction targets. An analytical framework was developed that considered 1) available scientific data on net ecosystem carbon balance fluxes per habitat and 2) habitat areas projected from modeling efforts used for the 2017 Louisiana Coastal Master Plan to estimate the net GHG flux of coastal area. The coastal area was estimated as net GHG sinks of -38.4 ± 10.6 and - 43.2 ± 12.0 Tg CO2 equivalents (CO2 e) in 2005 and 2020, respectively. The coastal area was projected to remain a net GHG sink in 2025 and 2030, both with and without implementation of Coastal Master Plan projects (means ranged from -25.3 to -34.2 Tg CO2 e). By 2050, with model-projected wetland loss and conversion of coastal habitats to open water due to coastal erosion and relative sea level rise, Louisiana's coastal area was projected to become a net source of greenhouse gas emissions both with and without the Coastal Master Plan projects. However, at year 2050, Louisiana Coastal Master Plan project implementation was projected to avoid the release of +8.8 ± 1.3 Tg CO2 e compared to an alternative with no action. Reduction in current and future stressors to coastal habitats, including impacts from sea level rise, as well as the implementation of restoration projects could help to ensure coastal areas remain a natural climate solution.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Colelli FP, Wing IS, E Cian (2023)

Air-conditioning adoption and electricity demand highlight climate change mitigation-adaptation tradeoffs.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4413.

We elucidate mid-century climate change impacts on electricity demand accounting for endogenous adoption of residential air-conditioning (AC) in affluent, cooler countries in Europe, and in poorer, hotter states in India. By 2050, in a high-warming scenario (SSP585) AC prevalence grows twofold in Europe and fourfold in India, reaching around 40% in both regions. We document a mitigation-adaptation tradeoff: AC expansion reduces daily heat exposures by 150 million and 3.8 billion person degree-days (PDDs), but increases annual electricity demand by 34 TWh and 168 TWh in Europe and India, respectively (corresponding to 2% and 15% of today's consumption). The increase in adoption and use of AC would result in an additional 130 MMTCO2, of which 120 MMTCO2 in India alone, if the additional electricity generated were produced with today's power mix. The tradeoff varies geographically and across income groups: a one PDD reduction in heat exposure in Europe versus India necessitates five times more electricity (0.53 kWh vs 0.1 kWh) and two times more emissions (0.16 kgCO[Formula: see text] vs 0.09 kgCO[Formula: see text]), on average. The decomposition of demand drivers offers important insights on how such tradeoff can be moderated through policies promoting technology-based and behavioral-based adaptation strategies.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Camacho AM, Perotto-Baldivieso HL, Tanner EP, et al (2023)

The broad scale impact of climate change on planning aerial wildlife surveys with drone-based thermal cameras.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4455.

Helicopters used for aerial wildlife surveys are expensive, dangerous and time consuming. Drones and thermal infrared cameras can detect wildlife, though the ability to detect individuals is dependent on weather conditions. While we have a good understanding of local weather conditions, we do not have a broad-scale assessment of ambient temperature to plan drone wildlife surveys. Climate change will affect our ability to conduct thermal surveys in the future. Our objective was to determine optimal annual and daily time periods to conduct surveys. We present a case study in Texas, (United States of America [USA]) where we acquired and compared average monthly temperature data from 1990 to 2019, hourly temperature data from 2010 to 2019 and projected monthly temperature data from 2021 to 2040 to identify areas where surveys would detect a commonly studied ungulate (white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus]) during sunny or cloudy conditions. Mean temperatures increased when comparing the 1990-2019 to 2010-2019 periods. Mean temperatures above the maximum ambient temperature in which white-tailed deer can be detected increased in 72, 10, 10, and 24 of the 254 Texas counties in June, July, August, and September, respectively. Future climate projections indicate that temperatures above the maximum ambient temperature in which white-tailed deer can be detected will increase in 32, 12, 15, and 47 counties in June, July, August, and September, respectively when comparing 2010-2019 with 2021-2040. This analysis can assist planning, and scheduling thermal drone wildlife surveys across the year and combined with daily data can be efficient to plan drone flights.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Rodway GW (2023)

Climate Change in and Around the High Ranges of Asia: Consequences for Human Health.

Wilderness & environmental medicine, 34(1):1-2.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Li Q (2023)

Green financing role on climate change-supportive architectural design development: directions for green architectural designs.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of the study is to study the role of green financing in developing climate change supportive architectural design development to shift the modern world towards the idea of green architectural designs. Thus, the research estimated the nexus among green financing, green architectural development, and climate change mitigation by using the unit root analysis technique, co-integration analysis technique, bound-test estimates, auto-regressive distributive lag-error correction modeling (ARDL-ECM) technique to predict different short-run and long-run relationships, and robustness analysis technique. Following the previous study, modeling green financing index and green architectural design index are used to measure the variables. The findings of the study confirmed that green financing has significant role in supporting the climate change induction in architectural design development both in short run and long run. Moreover, green financing supports in promoting green architectural designs. By this, the viability of green financing in climate change that induces architecturally designed building is confirmed. Correspondingly, empirical results have shown that green financing contributes in climate change with 0.66, green infrastructure development with 0.72, and economic development with 0.31. While in long-run, green financing role in changing inside of climate of the architectural design is 0.74, supports in green infrastructure development with 0.67, and holds the 0.29 percent potential of contributing in economic development. These findings are robust with the 0.74 value of F-statistics, 1.89 value of t-statistics, and 110 value of Narayan standard estimate. In last, the study suggested way forward for stakeholders to promote green architectural designs to achieve SDG 8, SDG 11, and SDG 13.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Turner G, de'Donato F, Kovats S, et al (2022)

Implementation of adaptation to climate change in public health in Europe: qualitative thematic analysis.

Lancet (London, England), 400 Suppl 1:S81.

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, climate change policies are emerging across Europe. Policies addressing adaptation (adjusting the effects of climate change on public health) are being implemented after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to identify issues in climate adaptation implementation for public health and understand the health implications from responses after COVID-19.

METHODS: Key informant interviews were undertaken with decision makers in international, national, and local governments across 20 European countries (Norway, England, Cyprus, Spain, Ireland, Finland, Lithuania, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Latvia, Italy, Estonia, Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Hungary, Denmark, and Scotland). A WHO stakeholder analytical framework was followed for developing the interview themes. Participants were recruited if based in European governments, working in public or environmental health, and involved in climate adaptation policy. Participants were recruited through known networks and geographical coverage was obtained (eight per European region). An interview schedule with key themes (barriers, public health agenda, levers, networks, evidence needs, and COVID-19 recovery) was used. Interviews were conducted online, recorded, transcribed, and analysed through Nvivo.

FINDINGS: 32 interviews were completed between June and October, 2021; four international stakeholders, five national-level decision makers, 23 city-level decision makers or network representatives. Most reported inadequate resources for health adaptation implementation (funding, training, and personnel) and the marginal role of health in climate adaptation policy. A key reported challenge was limited departmental cross-collaboration across governance levels, because city-level stakeholders were less aware of the public health role in climate change policy. COVID-19 recovery strategies were not perceived as opportunistic for future adaptation. However, several respondents identified benefits for health system resilience, for example improved emergency planning and disaster management.

INTERPRETATION: Across Europe, there is varied progress in the implementation of climate change and health adaptation. Providing appropriate resource, inter-departmental collaboration, knowledge mobilisation, and multi-level governance support will facilitate climate and health policy implementation. Overcoming these barriers and learning from COVID-19 through strengthened emergency planning and responses to climate events can strengthen UK public health system resilience and beyond.

FUNDING: This project has received part-funding from the Enhancing Belmont Research Action to support EU policy making on climate change and health project, which is part of the EU's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement number 101003966). The research was part-funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Environmental Change and Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in partnership with Public Health England, the Met Office, and University College London (grant number PHSEZT6210). The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, the Department of Health and Social Care or PHE.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Bethke K, Kropidłowska K, Stepnowski P, et al (2023)

Review of warming and acidification effects to the ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms in the era of climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01445-6 [Epub ahead of print].

An increase in the temperature and the acidification of the aquatic environment are among the many consequences of global warming. Climate change can also negatively affect aquatic organisms indirectly, by altering the toxicity of pollutants. Models of climate change impacts on the distribution, fate and ecotoxicity of persistent pollutants are now available. For pharmaceuticals, however, as new environmental pollutants, there are no predictions on this issue. Therefore, this paper organizes the existing knowledge on the effects of temperature, pH and both stressors combined on the toxicity of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. Besides lethal toxicity, the molecular, physiological and behavioral biomarkers of sub-lethal stress were also assessed. Both acute and chronic toxicity, as well as bioaccumulation, were found to be affected. The direction and magnitude of these changes depend on the specific pharmaceutical, as well as the organism and conditions involved. Unfortunately, the response of organisms was enhanced by combined stressors. We compare the findings with those known for persistent organic pollutants, for which the pH has a relatively low effect on toxicity. The acid-base constant of molecules, as assumed, have an effect on the toxicity change with pH modulation. Studies with bivalves have been were overrepresented, while too little attention was paid to producers. Furthermore, the limited number of pharmaceuticals have been tested, and metabolites skipped altogether. Generally, the effects of warming and acidification were rather indicated than explored, and much more attention needs to be given to the ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals in climate change conditions.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

García-Portela L, D Maraun (2023)

Overstating the effects of anthropogenic climate change? A critical assessment of attribution methods in climate science.

European journal for philosophy of science, 13(1):17.

Climate scientists have proposed two methods to link extreme weather events and anthropogenic climate forcing: the probabilistic and the storyline approach. Proponents of the first approach have raised the criticism that the storyline approach could be overstating the role of anthropogenic climate change. This issue has important implications because, in certain contexts, decision-makers might seek to avoid information that overstates the effects of anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we explore two research questions. First, whether and to what extent the storyline approach overstates the effects of anthropogenic climate change. Second, whether the objections offered against the storyline approach constitute good reasons to prefer the probabilistic approach. Concerning the first question, we show that the storyline approach does not necessarily overstate the effects of climate change, and particularly not for the reasons offered by proponents of the probabilistic approach. Concerning the second question, we show, independently, that the probabilistic approach faces the same or very similar objections to those raised against the storyline approach due to the lack of robustness of climate models and the way events are commonly defined when applying the probabilistic approach. These results suggest that these objections might not constitute good reasons to prefer the probabilistic approach over the storyline approach.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Huang P, Zheng XT, Li X, et al (2023)

More complex interactions: Continuing progress in understanding the dynamics of regional climate change under a warming climate.

Innovation (Cambridge (Mass.)), 4(2):100398.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Schneider A, Atar D, S Agewall (2023)

RESPONSE: Climate Change and Health: Challenges, Opportunities, and the Need for Action.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 81(11):1130-1132.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Khraishah H, Ganatra S, SG Al-Kindi (2023)

Climate Change, Environmental Pollution, and the Role of Cardiologists of the Future.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 81(11):1127-1132.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Jurgilevich A, Käyhkö J, Räsänen A, et al (2023)

Factors influencing vulnerability to climate change-related health impacts in cities - A conceptual framework.

Environment international, 173:107837 pii:S0160-4120(23)00110-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change will have adverse impacts on human health, which are amplified in cities. For these impacts, there are direct, indirect, and deferred pathways. The first category is well-studied, while indirect and deferred impacts are not well-understood. Moreover, the factors moderating the impacts have received little attention, although understanding these factors is critical for adaptation. We developed a conceptual framework that shows the pathways of climate impacts on human health, focusing specifically on the factors of urban environment moderating the emergence and severity of these health impacts. Based on the framework and literature review, we illustrate the mechanisms of direct, indirect, and deferred health impact occurrence and the factors that exacerbate or alleviate the severity of these impacts, thus presenting valuable insights for anticipatory adaptation. We conclude that an integrated systemic approach to preventing health risks from climate change can provide co-benefits for adaptation and address multiple health risks. Such an approach should be mainstreamed horizontally to all sectors of urban planning and should account for the spatiotemporal aspects of policy and planning decisions and city complexity.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Sales LP, MM Pires (2023)

Identifying climate change refugia for South American biodiversity.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Refugia-based conservation strategies offer long-term effectiveness and minimize uncertainty on strategies for climate change adaptation. Here, we use distribution modelling to identify climate change refugia for 617 terrestrial mammals and quantify the role of protected areas in safeguarding these zones across South America. Moist tropical forests located in high-elevation areas with complex topography concentrated the highest local diversity of species refugia, although regionally important refugia centers were also found elsewhere. Andean Amazon forests were revealed as "Anthropocene museums", hosting climate change refugia for more than half the continental species' pool and up to 87 species locally (17×17 km[2] grid cell). The highland zones of the Southern Atlantic Forest also included megadiverse refugia, safeguarding up to 76 species per cell. Almost half of the species that may find refugia in the Atlantic Forest will do so in a single region - the Serra do Mar and Serra do Espinhaço. Most of the refugia highlighted here, however, are not covered by protected areas, which may shelter less than 6% of the total area of climate change refugia, leaving 129 to 237 species with no refugia inside the territorial limits of protected areas of any kind. Those results reveal a dismal scenario on the level of refugia protection in some of the most biodiverse regions of the world. Nonetheless, because refugia areas tend to be located in high-elevation, topographically complex and remote areas, with lower economic pressure, formally protecting them may require a comparatively modest investment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Ferguson T, Curtis R, Fraysse F, et al (2023)

Weather associations with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep patterns of Australian adults: a longitudinal study with implications for climate change.

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 20(1):30.

BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important influence on how time is allocated to sleep, sedentary behaviour and physical activity across the 24-h day. Extremes of weather (very hot, cold, windy or wet) can create undesirable, unsafe outdoor environments for exercise or active transport, impact the comfort of sleeping environments, and increase time indoors. This 13-month prospective cohort study explored associations between weather and 24-h movement behaviour patterns.

METHODS: Three hundred sixty-eight adults (mean age 40.2 years, SD 5.9, 56.8% female) from Adelaide, Australia, wore Fitbit Charge 3 activity trackers 24 h a day for 13 months with minute-by-minute data on sleep, sedentary behaviour, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) collected remotely. Daily weather data included temperature, rainfall, wind, cloud and sunshine. Multi-level mixed-effects linear regression analyses (one model per outcome) were used.

RESULTS: Ninety thousand eight hundred one days of data were analysed. Sleep was negatively associated with minimum temperature (-12 min/day change across minimum temperature range of 31.2 °C, p = 0.001). Sedentary behaviour was positively associated with minimum temperature (+ 12 min/day, range = 31.2 oC, p = 0.006) and wind speed (+ 10 min/day, range = 36.7 km/h, p< 0.001), and negatively associated with sunshine (-17 min/day, range = 13.9 h, p < 0.001). LPA was positively associated with minimum temperature (+ 11 min/day, range = 31.2 °C, p = 0.002), cloud cover (+ 4 min/day, range = 8 eighths, p = 0.008) and sunshine (+ 17 min/day, range = 13.9 h, p < 0.001), and negatively associated with wind speed (-8 min/day, range = 36.7 km/h, p < 0.001). MVPA was positively associated with sunshine (+ 3 min/day, range = 13.9 h, p < 0.001) and negatively associated with minimum temperature (-13 min/day, range = 31.2 oC, p < 0.001), rainfall (-3 min/day, range = 33.2 mm, p = 0.006) and wind speed (-4 min/day, range = 36.7 km/h, p < 0.001). For maximum temperature, a significant (p < 0.05) curvilinear association was observed with sleep (half-U) and physical activity (inverted-U), where the decrease in sleep duration appeared to slow around 23 °C, LPA peaked at 31 oC and MVPA at 27 °C.

CONCLUSIONS: Generally, adults tended to be less active and more sedentary during extremes of weather and sleep less as temperatures rise. These findings have the potential to inform the timing and content of positive movement behaviour messaging and interventions.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was prospectively registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12619001430123).

RevDate: 2023-03-15

DeAngelo J, Saenz BT, Arzeno-Soltero IB, et al (2023)

Author Correction: Economic and biophysical limits to seaweed farming for climate change mitigation.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Del Ponte A, Masiliūnas A, N Lim (2023)

Information about historical emissions drives the division of climate change mitigation costs.

Nature communications, 14(1):1408.

Despite worsening climate change, the international community still disagrees on how to divide the costs of mitigation between developing countries and developed countries, which emitted the bulk of historical carbon emissions. We study this issue using an economic experiment. Specifically, we test how information about historical emissions influences how much participants pay for climate change mitigation. In a four-player game, participants are assigned to lead two fictional countries as members of either the first or the second generation. The first generation produces wealth at the expense of greater carbon emissions. The second generation inherits their predecessor's wealth and negotiates how to split the climate change mitigation costs. Here we show that when the second generation knows that the previous generation created the current wealth and mitigation costs, participants whose predecessor generated more carbon emissions offered to pay more, whereas the successors of low-carbon emitters offered to pay less.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Dunne H, Jones A, M Okorie (2023)

Combatting climate change using education and training in pharmacology and therapeutics.

British journal of clinical pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

The climate crisis has implications for the physical and mental health of people worldwide, while, paradoxically, healthcare itself contributes significant greenhouse gas emissions. Healthcare professionals need to be prepared to both mitigate the impacts of climate change and also manage the health effects of the climate crisis. Widespread adoption of sustainable healthcare models is required, with sustainability-driven improvements in clinical pharmacology intrinsically linked to this. Recognizing that education and training are essential steps to equip medical professionals with the knowledge to face the unprecedented challenges that the climate crisis presents, here, with reference to pharmacology and therapeutics, we discuss how the theme of Education for Sustainable Healthcare (ESH) can be integrated into undergraduate and postgraduate teaching programmes and how barriers to successful implementation can be tackled. We support the use of the Principles of Sustainable Clinical Practice as a framework to guide educational interventions and draw upon examples of our own practice at Brighton and Sussex Medical School where ESH has become a core component of medical education in our undergraduate curriculum.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Weber D, McGrail RK, Carlisle AE, et al (2023)

Climate change alters slug abundance but not herbivory in a temperate grassland.

PloS one, 18(3):e0283128 pii:PONE-D-22-24545.

Climate change will significantly impact the world's ecosystems, in part by altering species interactions and ecological processes, such as herbivory and plant community dynamics, which may impact forage quality and ecosystem production. Yet relatively few field experimental manipulations assessing all of these parameters have been performed to date. To help fill this knowledge gap, we evaluated the effects of increased temperature (+3°C day and night, year-round) and precipitation (+30% of mean annual rainfall) on slug herbivory and abundance and plant community dynamics biweekly in a pasture located in central Kentucky, U.S.A. Warming increased slug abundance once during the winter, likely due to improving conditions for foraging, whereas warming reduced slug abundance at times in late spring, mid-summer, and early fall (from 62-95% reduction depending on month). We found that warming and increased precipitation did not significantly modify slug herbivory at our site, despite altering slug abundance and affecting plant community composition and forage quality. Climate change will alter seasonal patterns of slug abundance through both direct effects on slug biology and indirect effects mediated by changes in the plant community, suggesting that pasture management practices may have to adapt.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

D'Amato G, M D'Amato (2023)

Climate change, air pollution, pollen allergy and extreme atmospheric events.

Current opinion in pediatrics pii:00008480-990000000-00080 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Respiratory allergy correlates strictly with air pollution and climate change. Due to climate change, the atmospheric content of trigger factors such as pollens and moulds increase and induce rhinitis and asthma in sensitized patients with IgE-mediated allergic reactions.Pollen allergy is frequently used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and allergic respiratory diseases. Pollen allergens trigger the release of immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory mediators and accelerate the onset of sensitization to respiratory allergens in predisposed children and adults. Lightning storms during pollen seasons can exacerbate respiratory allergy and asthma not only in adults but also in children with pollinosis. In this study, we have focalized the trigger (chemical and biologic) factors of outdoor air pollution.

RECENT FINDINGS: Environmental pollution and climate change have harmful effects on human health, particularly on respiratory system, with frequent impact on social systems.Climate change is characterized by physic meteorological events inducing increase of production and emission of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Allergenic plants produce more pollen as a response to high atmospheric levels of CO2. Climate change also affects extreme atmospheric events such as heat waves, droughts, thunderstorms, floods, cyclones and hurricanes. These climate events, in particular thunderstorms during pollen seasons, can increase the intensity of asthma attacks in pollinosis patients.

SUMMARY: Climate change has important effects on the start and pathogenetic aspects of hypersensitivity of pollen allergy. Climate change causes an increase in the production of pollen and a change in the aspects increasing their allergenic properties. Through the effects of climate change, plant growth can be altered so that the new pollen produced are modified affecting more the human health. The need for public education and adoption of governmental measures to prevent environmental pollution and climate change are urgent. Efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, chemical and biologic contributors to air pollution are of critical importance. Extreme weather phenomena such as thunderstorms can trigger exacerbations of asthma attacks and need to be prevented with a correct information and therapy.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Brennan MM, Herlihy A, Kelly S, et al (2023)

Treat Climate Change like the Public Health Emergency it is.

Irish medical journal, 116(No.1):4.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Petrescu-Mag RM, Petrescu DC, Ivan A, et al (2023)

An intergenerational reading of climate change-health concern nexus: a qualitative study of the Millennials' and Gen Z participants' perceptions.

BMC public health, 23(1):484.

BACKGROUND: The study of climate change through a generational lens is meaningful when one considers the distinct attitudes, behaviors, values, and motivations of each generation. Individuals born between 1980 and 1999, referred to as the Millennial Generation (Millennials) and individuals born up to five years before or after 2000, referred to as Generation Z (Gen Z), may differ widely in their views, values, attitudes, and behaviors. This may lead to conflicts between these two cohorts. As Gen Z enters the labor market, their first-level supervisors will be, in many cases, the Millennials, who may view the topic of climate change-health concern nexus very differently than their Gen Z subordinates. Considering the perspectives of each generation may offer insights on how to engage them to act in an environmentally responsible way to counteract climate change effects.

OBJECTIVE: The study reveals similarities and differences in how Millennials and Gen Z perceive the climate change-health concern nexus, which illuminates the understanding of the potential generational conflicts and the critical points where intervention is needed.

METHOD: Interview data from 41 participants were analyzed via thematic analysis using the Quirkos software program. Reporting is in accordance with the COREQ guidelines.

RESULTS: The interview questions elicited responses related to five dimensions: (i) Views of individual and community health; (ii) Knowledge around climate change; (iii) Perceived health impact; (iv) Attitudes towards climate change; (v) Behaviors related to climate change. The findings revealed a set of commonalities and differences in understanding the climate change-health concern nexus between the participants representative of each of the generations examined. One main result is that while most interviewees perceived changes in summer and winter temperatures, they failed to articulate how climate change affected their health.

CONCLUSION: Thematic analysis revealed that the commonalities of views outweigh the differences between the two generations. A relevant remark is that participants can be described rather as "observers" than "players" since they do not tend to see themselves (through their behavior and their contribution) as active participants in the goal to fight climate change. Consequently, both generations undergo what Stephen Gardiner [1] called "intergenerational buck-passing."

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Bagambilana FR, WM Rugumamu (2023)

Determinants of Farmers' Adaptation Intent And Adoption of Adaptation Strategies To Climate Change And Variability In Mwanga District, Tanzania.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

Pegged on Protection Motivation Theory, a modified socio-cognitive model of private adaptation to climate change and variability was deployed in order to provide a better understanding of the determinants of small-scale farmers' adaptation intent and adoption of adaptation strategies in semi-arid lowlands of Mwanga District. In this regard, adaptation was conceptualized as a two-step process encompassing farmers' perceptions that climate was changing and farmers' response to changes. Basing on a pragmatic philosophy, a cross-sectional sequential explanatory mixed methods research design was deployed. During the first step-process, categorical data were collected through administration of a closed-ended survey questionnaire to 328 household heads. Binary and proportional odds logistic regressions were run through IBM SPSS (Version 20) in order to analyze categorical data for testing nine (9) null hypotheses. Statistically significant results were established when p values were < 0.05 at 95% confidence intervals. During the second step-process, qualitative data were generated through focus group discussions with 30 participants, in-depth interviews with 16 key informants, and participant observations and subjected to iterative thematic content analysis. The findings revealed that income, village's geographical location, farming system, membership to farmer-based group, competitive price for produce, credit, age, education, and extension service positively influenced farmers' adoption of adaptation strategies while workforce and perceived risk of rain on crop yields negatively influenced farmers' adoption of adaptation strategies. Thus, it was concluded that farmers' adaptation intent and adoption of adaptation strategies in the study area were largely explained by objective adaptive capacity rather than cognitive factors.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Mi C, Ma L, Yang M, et al (2023)

Global Protected Areas as refuges for amphibians and reptiles under climate change.

Nature communications, 14(1):1389.

Protected Areas (PAs) are the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. Here, we collated distributional data for >14,000 (~70% of) species of amphibians and reptiles (herpetofauna) to perform a global assessment of the conservation effectiveness of PAs using species distribution models. Our analyses reveal that >91% of herpetofauna species are currently distributed in PAs, and that this proportion will remain unaltered under future climate change. Indeed, loss of species' distributional ranges will be lower inside PAs than outside them. Therefore, the proportion of effectively protected species is predicted to increase. However, over 7.8% of species currently occur outside PAs, and large spatial conservation gaps remain, mainly across tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, and across non-high-income countries. We also predict that more than 300 amphibian and 500 reptile species may go extinct under climate change over the course of the ongoing century. Our study highlights the importance of PAs in providing herpetofauna with refuge from climate change, and suggests ways to optimize PAs to better conserve biodiversity worldwide.

RevDate: 2023-03-13
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Jouberton A, Miles ES, Shaw TE, et al (2023)

Reply to Yang et al.: Global warming and black carbon simultaneously lead to glacier mass decline over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(12):e2301467120.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Gaston SA, Singh R, CL Jackson (2023)

The Need to Study the Role of Sleep in Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation, and Resiliency Strategies across the Life Course.

Sleep pii:7076720 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Choi SH, Beer J, A Charrow (2023)

Climate change and the displaced person: how vectors and climate are changing the landscape of infectious diseases among displaced and migrant populations.

BACKGROUND: As the climate crisis grows, so does the global burden of displacement. Displacement, whether a direct or indirect consequence of natural disaster, can lead to dire health sequelae. Skin health is no exception to this, with dermatologic disease being a leading concern reported by those who care for displaced persons. Health professionals who provide dermatologic care for displaced persons benefit from understanding how climate change impacts the global profile of infectious agents.

METHODS: This review was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Search terms included climate change, displaced person, internally displaced person, and refugee, as well as searches of infectious disease dermatology and the specific diseases of interest. Case reports, case series, reviews, and original research articles were included in this review. Non-English studies were not included.

RESULTS: In this manuscript several key infectious agents were identified, and we discuss the skin manifestations and impact of climate change on cutaneous leishmaniasis, dengue, chikungunya, zika, malaria, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, cholera, and varicella zoster.

CONCLUSIONS: Climate change plays a significant role in the challenges faced by displaced persons, including their skin health. Among the many consequences of climate change is its altering of the ecological profile of infectious agents and vectors that impact displaced persons. Being familiar with this impact can improve dermatologic care for this vulnerable population.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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