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14 Nov 2022 at 02:06
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Bibliography on: Climate Change


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 02:06 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: "climate change"[TITLE] or "global warming"[TITLE] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-11-09

Anonymous (2022)

COP27 climate change conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 379:o2702.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Slater M, S Bartlett (2022)

10 things a doctor can do to combat climate change.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 379:o2650.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Mulcahy E (2022)

UK Health Alliance on Climate Change brings health professionals together to call for action.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 379:o2649.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Chowdhury S (2022)

Threatened species could be more vulnerable to climate change in tropical countries.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07089-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is a major threat impacting insects globally, yet the impact on tropical insects is largely unknown. Here, I assessed the climatic vulnerability of Bangladeshi butterflies (242 species). About 42 % of species could experience range contraction, and the impact could be significantly more severe among threatened species. Depending on Socio-Economic Pathways (ssps), the future climatic condition could be unsuitable for 2 (ssp126) - 34 % (ssp585) species. The mean elevation of the suitable habitat could increase by 238 %, and the situation could be more severe for the threatened butterflies. Further, 54 % of the realised niche of butterflies could be altered. Although there might be no significant association between the shift in habitat suitability along the elevational gradient, migratory species could experience a more significant shift than non-migrants. Overall, climate change could have a severe impact on Bangladeshi butterflies. To mitigate insect decline globally and meet the Post 2020 Biodiversity Framework targets, immediate detection of climate change impact on tropical insects and developing effective conservation strategies is essential.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Naddaf M (2022)

Climate change is costing trillions - and low-income countries are paying the price.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Jones N (2022)

Using hyrax latrines to investigate climate change.

Nature, 611(7935):418.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Klemm K, Cembella A, Clarke D, et al (2022)

Apparent biogeographical trends in Alexandrium blooms for northern Europe: identifying links to climate change and effective adaptive actions.

Harmful algae, 119:102335.

The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium Halim represents perhaps the most significant and intensively studied genus with respect to species diversity, life history strategies, toxigenicity, biogeographical distribution, and global magnitude and consequences harmful algal blooms (HABs). The socioeconomic impacts, environmental and human health risks, and mitigation strategies for toxigenic Alexandrium blooms have also been explored in recent years. Human adaptive actions based on future scenarios of bloom dynamics and shifts in biogeographical distribution under climate-change parameters remain under development and not yet implemented on a regional scale. In the CoCliME (Co-development of climate services for adaptation to changing marine ecosystems) project these issues were addressed with respect to past, current and anticipated future status of key HAB genera and expected benefits of enhanced monitoring. Data on the distribution and frequency of Alexandrium blooms related to paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) events from key CoCliME Case Study areas, comprising the North Sea and adjacent Kattegat-Skagerrak, Norwegian Sea, and Baltic Sea, and eastern North Atlantic marginal seas, were evaluated in a contemporary and historical context over the past several decades. The first evidence of possible biogeographical expansion of Alexandrium taxa into eastern Arctic gateways was provided from DNA barcoding signatures. Various key climate change indicators, such as salinity, temperature, and water-column stratification, relevant to Alexandrium bloom initiation and development were identified. The possible influence of changing variables on bloom dynamics, magnitude, frequency and spatial and temporal distribution were interpreted in the context of regional ocean climate models. These climate change impact indicators may play key roles in selecting for the occurrence and diversity of Alexandrium species within the broader microeukaryote communities. For example, shifts to higher temperature and lower salinity regimes predicted for the southern North Sea indicate the potential for increased Alexandrium blooms, currently absent from this area. Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of Alexandrium blooms and effects on fisheries and aquaculture resources and coastal ecosystem function are evaluated, and, where feasible, effective adaptation strategies are proposed herein as emerging climate services.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

He L, Guo J, Yang W, et al (2022)

Multifaceted responses of vegetation to average and extreme climate change over global drylands.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07042-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Average climatic events describe the occurrence of weather or climate at an average value, whereas extreme events are defined as events that exceed the upper or lower threshold value of statistical or observational average climatic events. This study investigated the impacts of both average climate change (ACC) (i.e., average precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration [PET]) and extreme climate change (ECC) (i.e., five precipitation and five temperature extremes) on dryland vegetation based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spatial divergences of ACC and ECC in affecting changes in NDVI over drylands were determined using the geographical detector model. In this study, the growth of vegetation in 40.29 % of global drylands was driven by average precipitation and this dominant effect also occurred in all the plant species, particularly shrubs. However, the sensitivity of grassland to average precipitation exceeded that of most of the woody vegetation. The average temperature and PET controlled 28.64 % and 31.07 % of the changes in NDVI, respectively. Precipitation extremes (except for consecutive dry days and consecutive wet days) and warm temperature extremes (WTE) had positive influences on dryland vegetation, and the effect of WTE on NDVI exceeded that of the remaining temperature extremes. Temperature extremes exerted more significant effects than precipitation extremes for changes in the grassland NDVI. In contrast, the variations in shrub NDVI were primarily dominated by precipitation extremes. We also found that the impacts of parts of average and extreme climatic factors on vegetation had changed over time. Furthermore, temperature extremes had far exceeded the average temperature in affecting vegetation growth at the spatial scale, and this action gradually intensified from 1982 to 2015. The influences of all precipitation extremes were weaker than those of the average precipitation. Those can offer scientific references for ecosystem protection in drylands.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Guihenneuc J, Ayraud-Thevenot S, Roschnik S, et al (2022)

Climate change and health care facilities: A risk analysis framework through a mapping review.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)02036-9 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Climate change (CC) has been identified as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. Although health care facilities (HCF) play a central role in the care of populations, there has been no comprehensive assessment of the impact of CC on HCF. The objective of our study was to highlight the components of HCFs affected by CC through a mapping review of the literature.

METHODS: To meet our objective, we first assessed the place of HCFs in relation to CC in the scientific literature and in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. Bibliometric data from the PubMed database were analyzed between 1979 and 2021 to assess the penetration of keywords on CC alone, and in relation to health and HCF in particular. Second, we analyzed the changes in HCF keywords in the IPCC reports. Finally, we conducted a mapping review in five databases, of the international scientific literature published between 1979 and 2019, and identified the components of HCF affected by CC using the Ishikawa diagram.

RESULTS: From the 2000s, the number of publications on CC and HCF increased gradually with 137 articles in 2005, and even more sharply since 2008 with 358 articles published and 813 in 2021. Even though CC is only recently present in the biomedical literature, all climatic events (warming and heatwaves, droughts, wildfires, storms, hurricanes and cyclones, floods and sea-level rise, and other indirect effects) have had an impact on at least one component of HCF.

CONCLUSION: HCFs are already impacted, in all their components, by CC. By enhancing our understanding of the impacts of CC on HCF, this work could contribute to the engagement of health professionals in the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions, thereby limiting the consequences of CC on patient care.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Deivanayagam TA, Selvarajah S, Hickel J, et al (2022)

Climate change, health, and discrimination: action towards racial justice.

Lancet (London, England) pii:S0140-6736(22)02182-1 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Woychik RP, Bianchi DW, Gibbons GH, et al (2022)

The NIH Climate Change and Health Initiative and Strategic Framework: addressing the threat of climate change to health.

Lancet (London, England) pii:S0140-6736(22)02163-8 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Sun GQ, Li L, Li J, et al (2022)

Impacts of climate change on vegetation pattern: Mathematical modeling and data analysis.

Physics of life reviews, 43:239-270 pii:S1571-0645(22)00065-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has become increasingly severe, threatening ecosystem stability and, in particular, biodiversity. As a typical indicator of ecosystem evolution, vegetation growth is inevitably affected by climate change, and therefore has a great potential to provide valuable information for addressing such ecosystem problems. However, the impacts of climate change on vegetation growth, especially the spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation, are still lacking of comprehensive exposition. To this end, this review systematically reveals the influences of climate change on vegetation dynamics in both time and space by dynamical modeling the interactions of meteorological elements and vegetation growth. Moreover, we characterize the long-term evolution trend of vegetation growth under climate change in some typical regions based on data analysis. This work is expected to lay a necessary foundation for systematically revealing the coupling effect of climate change on the ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bunbury MME, Petchey F, SH Bickler (2022)

A new chronology for the Māori settlement of Aotearoa (NZ) and the potential role of climate change in demographic developments.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(46):e2207609119.

Understanding the role of climate change, resource availability, and population growth in human mobility remains critically important in anthropology. Researching linkages between climate and demographic changes during the short settlement history of Aotearoa (New Zealand) requires temporal precision equivalent to the period of a single generation. However, current modeling approaches frequently use small terrestrial radiocarbon datasets, a practice that obscures past Māori population patterns and their connection to changing climate. Our systematic analysis of terrestrial and marine 14C ages has enabled robust assessments of the largest dataset yet collated from island contexts. This analysis has been made possible by the recent development of a temporal marine correction for southern Pacific waters, and our findings show the shortcomings of previous models. We demonstrate that human settlement in the mid to late 13th century AD is unambiguous. We highlight initial (AD 1250 to 1275) settlement in the North Island. The South Island was reached a decade later (AD 1280 to 1295), where the hunting of giant flightless moa commenced (AD 1300 to 1415), and the population grew rapidly. Population growth leveled off around AD 1340 and declined between AD 1380 and 1420, synchronous with the onset of the Little Ice Age and moa loss as an essential food source. The population continued to grow in the more economically stable north, where conditions for horticulture were optimal. The enhanced precision of this research afforded by the robust analysis of marine dates opens up unique opportunities to investigate interconnectivity in Polynesia and inform the patterns seen in other island contexts.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Akudo EO, PO Otaru (2022)

The influence of climate change on freshwater availability in the Sokoto Rima River Basin, Northwestern Nigeria.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(1):82 pii:10.1007/s10661-022-10686-5.

This research entailed the acquisition of long-term (1980-2020) meteorological data (rainfall, temperature, and runoff) which was used to compute the values for the mean annual, monthly, and seasonal hydro-climate variables to establish their trend and behavior. To substantiate if the patterns of runoff are in any way due to the changing climate, the meteorological data were subjected to non-parametric tests-Mann-Kendall (MK), Sen's slope estimator, Kendall tau, and partial correlation. MK trend test for runoff, rainfall, and temperature (on an annual and seasonal basis) revealed significant trends on an annual scale. Nevertheless, rainfall data did not exhibit any, observable trend on a seasonal scale. On both annual and seasonal scales, temperature values showed increasing trends. In the entire period considered (1980-2020), runoff also exhibited a remarkable increase in trend. Sen's estimator values ranged from - 0.04 to 3.23. The results of the Kendall tau correlation showed that runoff is positively correlated to rainfall (tau = 0.222), with a high confidence level (95%). Again, the partial correlation analysis of runoff and climatic variables for annual and seasonal timescale, results show that the runoff is significantly (rxy.z = 0.315) affected by both rainfall and temperature. It is therefore recommended that future research should utilize robust input-output models to determine the amount of water stress in the basin. As a sustainable management approach, artificial surface water reservoirs should be constructed to complement the available water from the Sokoto-Rima river and alleviate the water stress experienced by the population.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Biguino B, Haigh ID, Dias JM, et al (2022)

Climate change in estuarine systems: Patterns and gaps using a meta-analysis approach.

The Science of the total environment, 858(Pt 1):159742 pii:S0048-9697(22)06842-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Although regional studies and projections suggest the deterioration of estuaries as a consequence of climate change, it is still difficult to fully understand the importance of such changes in estuarine systems. This limitation is particularly important considering their high dynamism and the lack of temporally extended in situ databases with a good spatial coverage for these systems worldwide. Furthermore, contradictory patterns have been observed across the globe. Motivated by these issues, in this study we question the availability of in situ observational evidence of climate change in estuarine systems through a detailed meta-analysis of existing publications. A topic-related search considering the outputs of the Web of Science library was conducted in order to obtain a characterization of the existing studies on climate change in estuarine systems. Results confirmed that climate change has increasingly been studied since 2000 and that marine climate change constituted the focus of 9.69 % of those studies. From these, only 9.30 % encompassed estuarine studies and just 1.13 % used in situ observations from estuarine systems (i.e., 0.11 % of the total climate change publications). Reanalysis products were the most used tools to assess changes in estuarine systems and sea temperature was the most analyzed variable. These results highlight the need to further address such questions using in situ observational data and to implement long-term observatories to fully identify evidence of climate change in estuarine systems, supporting modelling approaches and promoting the development of effective mitigation plans.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Mirón IJ, Linares C, J Díaz (2022)

The influence of climate change on food production and food safety.

Environmental research, 216(Pt 3):114674 pii:S0013-9351(22)02001-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Food security and food safety are two concepts related to food risks. The majority of studies regarding climate change and food risks are related to the security of food provision. The objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge of the influence of climate change on food production and food safety. The literature search was carried out by specifying each area individually (crops, ranching, fishing, food safety, etc.), including the term "climate change" and other specific factors such as CO2, ozone, biotoxins, mortality, heat, etc.) The increase in carbon dioxide concentrations together with the increase in global temperatures theoretically produces greater yields in crops destined for human and animal consumption. However, the majority of studies have shown that crop yields are decreasing, due to the increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. Furthermore, these climate anomalies are irregularly distributed, with a greater impact on developing countries that have a lower capacity to address climate change. All of these factors result in greater uncertainty in terms of food provision and market speculation. An increase in average temperatures could lead to an increased risk of proliferation of micro-organisms that produce food-borne illnesses, such as salmonella and campylobacter. However, in developed countries with information systems that document the occurrence of these diseases over time, no clear trend has been determined, in part because of extensive food conservation controls.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Maganga T, C Conrad Suso (2022)

The impact of colonial and contemporary land policies on climate change adaptation in Zimbabwe's communal areas.

Jamba (Potchefstroom, South Africa), 14(1):1311 pii:JAMBA-14-1311.

The main aim of this article was to examine the impact of colonial and contemporary development policies on climate change adaptation among communal farmers in Zimbabwe. As such, the objective was to document and better understand how the legacy of colonialism, coupled with the current climate change impacts is making adaptation a serious challenge for farmers in particular regions of the country. This study was conducted in Zimbabwe's Buhera Rural District (Ward 30) and Chipinge Rural District (Ward 11). Data collection involved the use of individual household interviews, with the use of a snowball sampling method, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and direct observation in the field. It was found that the lack of income diversity opportunities has further exposed several livelihoods to climate change and compromised their abilities to respond and recover under periods of climatic stress. It was ascertained that the adaptation challenges experienced by African farmers were brought about by the colonial land system that evicted them from their customary lands and allocated them land in poor agroecological regions that fail to support production. The authors argue that climate change adaptation challenges in communal areas should be understood from a colonial and historical development perspective that led to the establishment of communal farming zones. There is also a need to understand climate vulnerability in the context of post-independence development strategies that have led to the underdevelopment of peasant agriculture and reduced farmers' ability to adapt to climate change.

Contribution: Climate change adaptation policies should recognise the country's colonial and historical legacy that has led to poverty and other livelihood challenges in communal areas. By acknowledging this, policymakers are better positioned to understand the structural issues making adaptation difficult, and they could intervene by proposing context-specific adaptation strategies that meet the needs of communal farmers.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Lee EY, Kim YB, Goo S, et al (2023)

Physical activity in the era of climate change and COVID-19 pandemic: Results from the South Korea's 2022 Report Card on physical activity for children and adolescents.

Journal of exercise science and fitness, 21(1):26-33.

Background: With intensifying air pollutant levels and the COVID-19 pandemic, physical inactivity of South Korean children and adolescents may be threatened. Therefore, monitoring and surveillance of physical activity (PA) and relevant indicators are important for policy making pertaining to health promotion. Report Card is a third comprehensive evaluation of PA-related behaviors among and the sources of influence for South Korean children and adolescents.

Purpose: To provide the outcome of the South Korea's 2022 Report Card on PA for children and adolescents.

Methods: Based on a variety of sources including national surveys collected pre- and during-COVID-19 and information collected from government webpages, 11 indicators were graded by a committee of experts informed by the best available evidence. Data from during-COVID-19 were available for Overall PA, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep and considered together in generating the overall grades.

Results: Grades were assigned to behavioral indicators (Overall PA: D-; Active Transportation: B+; Sedentary Behavior: D; Sleep: F) and sources of Influence (Family and Peers: C-; School: A; Community and Environment: B-; Government: A). Organized Sport and PA, Active Play, and Physical Fitness could not be graded due to the lack of data. The results largely indicated that children and adolescents show unfavorable behavioral grades even with favorable grades observed for the sources of influence indicators. Trivial differences were observed pre- and during-pandemic for Overall PA (≥60 min of MVPA for ≥4 d/wk: 20.8% vs 19.9%) and Sleep (met age-specific recommendation: 14.1% vs 15.0%); however, a marked increase in Sedentary Behavior was observed (≤2 h/d screen time: 28.8% vs 20.1%). A stark weekday vs weekend difference was observed in sleep duration. In terms of PA related sources of influence, high accessibility to PA facilities (81.1%) and high satisfaction of neighborhood public transit (74.6%) and safety (80.7%) were well reflected in our Active Transportation grade (B+). Nonetheless, perception of green environments including outdoor air quality (44.0%), noise (39.6%) and green space (56.5%) showed lower scores, suggesting that new barriers to active lifestyles are emerging for South Korean children and adolescents. Gender differences were also observed for overall PA (≥60 min of MVPA for ≥4 d/wk: 29.1% for boys vs 11.3% for girls) and sleep (met age-specific recommendations: 17.3% for boys vs 11.4% for girls), but not for sedentary behavior (≤2 h/d screen time: 26.4% for boys and 24.9% for girls).

Conclusions: Government and school policies/programs and the built environment are, in general, conducive to physically active lifestyles for South Korean children and adolescents; however, behavioural indicators received poor grades except for Active Transportation. A thorough evaluation of policies/programs at government, local, and school levels is needed to ensure that the efforts to have PA-enhancing infrastructure and systems are actually being translated into the behavior of children and adolescents in South Korea. Furthermore, improving PA surveillance, monitoring, and advocacy to ultimately establish healthy lifestyle patterns among children and adolescents is a top priority.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Speed JDM, Evankow AM, Petersen TK, et al (2022)

A regionally coherent ecological fingerprint of climate change, evidenced from natural history collections.

Ecology and evolution, 12(11):e9471 pii:ECE39471.

Climate change has dramatic impacts on ecological systems, affecting a range of ecological factors including phenology, species abundance, diversity, and distribution. The breadth of climate change impacts on ecological systems leads to the occurrence of fingerprints of climate change. However, climate fingerprints are usually identified across broad geographical scales and are potentially influenced by publication biases. In this study, we used natural history collections spanning over 250 years, to quantify a range of ecological responses to climate change, including phenology, abundance, diversity, and distributions, across a range of taxa, including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, and fungi, within a single region, Central Norway. We tested the hypotheses that ecological responses to climate change are apparent and coherent at a regional scale, that longer time series show stronger trends over time and in relation to temperature, and that ecological responses change in trajectory at the same time as shifts in temperature. We identified a clear regional coherence in climate signal, with decreasing abundances of limnic zooplankton (on average by 7691 individuals m-3 °C-1) and boreal forest breeding birds (on average by 1.94 territories km-2 °C-1), and earlier plant flowering phenology (on average 2 days °C-1) for every degree of temperature increase. In contrast, regional-scale species distributions and species diversity were largely stable. Surprisingly, the effect size of ecological response did not increase with study duration, and shifts in responses did not occur at the same time as shifts in temperature. This may be as the long-term studies include both periods of warming and temperature stability, and that ecological responses lag behind warming. Our findings demonstrate a regional climate fingerprint across a long timescale. We contend that natural history collections provide a unique window on a broad spectrum of ecological responses at timescales beyond most ecological monitoring programs. Natural history collections are thus an essential source for long-term ecological research.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bhupenchandra I, Chongtham SK, Devi EL, et al (2022)

Role of biostimulants in mitigating the effects of climate change on crop performance.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:967665.

Climate change is a critical yield-limiting factor that has threatened the entire global crop production system in the present scenario. The use of biostimulants in agriculture has shown tremendous potential in combating climate change-induced stresses such as drought, salinity, temperature stress, etc. Biostimulants are organic compounds, microbes, or amalgamation of both that could regulate plant growth behavior through molecular alteration and physiological, biochemical, and anatomical modulations. Their nature is diverse due to the varying composition of bioactive compounds, and they function through various modes of action. To generate a successful biostimulatory action on crops under different parameters, a multi-omics approach would be beneficial to identify or predict its outcome comprehensively. The 'omics' approach has greatly helped us to understand the mode of action of biostimulants on plants at cellular levels. Biostimulants acting as a messenger in signal transduction resembling phytohormones and other chemical compounds and their cross-talk in various abiotic stresses help us design future crop management under changing climate, thus, sustaining food security with finite natural resources. This review article elucidates the strategic potential and prospects of biostimulants in mitigating the adverse impacts of harsh environmental conditions on plants.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Halawy SA, Osman AI, Nasr M, et al (2022)

Mg-O-F Nanocomposite Catalysts Defend against Global Warming via the Efficient, Dynamic, and Rapid Capture of CO2 at Different Temperatures under Ambient Pressure.

ACS omega, 7(43):38856-38868.

The utilization of Mg-O-F prepared from Mg(OH)2 mixed with different wt % of F in the form of (NH4F·HF), calcined at 400 and 500 °C, for efficient capture of CO2 is studied herein in a dynamic mode. Two different temperatures were applied using a slow rate of 20 mL·min-1 (100%) of CO2 passing through each sample for only 1 h. Using the thermogravimetry (TG)-temperature-programed desorption (TPD) technique, the captured amounts of CO2 at 5 °C were determined to be in the range of (39.6-103.9) and (28.9-82.1) mgCO2 ·g-1 for samples of Mg(OH)2 mixed with 20-50% F and calcined at 400 and 500 °C, respectively, whereas, at 30 °C, the capacity of CO2 captured is slightly decreased to be in the range of (32.2-89.4) and (20.9-55.5) mgCO2 ·g-1, respectively. The thermal decomposition of all prepared mixtures herein was examined by TG analysis. The obtained samples calcined at 400 and 500 °C were characterized by X-ray diffraction and surface area and porosity measurements. The total number of surface basic sites and their distribution over all samples was demonstrated using TG- and differential scanning calorimetry-TPD techniques using pyrrole as a probe molecule. Values of (ΔH) enthalpy changes corresponding to the desorption steps of CO2 were calculated for the most active adsorbent in this study, that is, Mg(OH)2 + 20% F, at 400 and 500 °C. This study's findings will inspire the simple preparation and economical design of nanocomposite CO2 sorbents for climate change mitigation under ambient conditions.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kumar P, Singh S, Pranaw K, et al (2022)

Bioinoculants as mitigators of multiple stresses: A ray of hope for agriculture in the darkness of climate change.

Heliyon, 8(11):e11269 pii:S2405-8440(22)02557-9.

Plant encounters various biotic and abiotic stresses, that affect agricultural productivity and reduce farmer's income especially under changing global climate. These environmental stresses can advance plant senescence by inducing osmotic stress, nutrient stress, hormonal imbalance, production of oxygen radicals, and ion toxicity, etc. Additionally, these stresses are not limited to plant health but also deteriorate soil health by affecting the microbial diversity of soil. To tackle this global delinquent of agriculture, several methods are suggested to ameliorate the negative effect of different types of stresses, the application of beneficial microorganisms or bioinoculants is one of them. Beneficial microorganisms that are used as bioinoculants not only facilitate plant growth by fulfilling the nutrient requirements but also assist the plant to withstand these stresses. These microorganisms produce certain chemicals such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, phytohormones, antioxidants, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), siderophores, antibiotics, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), etc. which help the plants to mitigate various stresses. Besides, these microbes also activate plant defence responses. Thus, these bioinoculants can effectively replace chemical inputs to supplement nutrient requirements and mitigation of multiple stresses in plants.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Lawal O (2022)

COVID-19 risks and systemic gaps in Nigeria: resilience building lessons for pandemic and climate change management.

SN social sciences, 2(11):247.

Pandemics alter a lot of human activities and the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020 was no exception. The COVID-19 pandemic, like climate change, has far-reaching consequences that transcend geographical boundaries. The COVID-19-induced disruptions were global and rapid and so are emerging climate change impacts which are slow on set. The consequent closure of businesses and public facilities translated to economic grounding which invariably took a toll on people. The extensive impact across various facets of society highlights the complex interrelationship often overlooked by most people. Although most African countries escaped the wrath of the disease, the lessons from the pandemic must be learnt and mainstreamed into managing the impacts of climate change. This paper attempts to draw lessons from recent developments and gaps experienced in the handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria and how improvements can be made in managing climate change. The analysis identified gaps in the management of COVID-19 in Nigeria. These gaps are evident in the current management of climate change impact and mitigation. The paper highlighted lessons from the pandemic in Nigeria that are vital in the management of climate change. The paper identified supply chain resilience and circularity, overhauling of health insurance programmes, diversification for growth, reorientation of priorities, and the building of agile and responsive institutions as practical approaches to mainstream lessons from the pandemic for climate change impact management. Furthermore, adequate investment in preparedness, risk education, research and development, and integrated data infrastructure is vital to ensure the lessons become part of the consciousness of the people.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Zielinski C (2022)

COP27 climate change conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

General psychiatry, 35(5):e100962 pii:gpsych-2022-100962.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Carignan A, Valiquette L, KB Laupland (2019)

Impact of climate change on emerging infectious diseases: Implications for Canada.

Journal of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada = Journal officiel de l'Association pour la microbiologie medicale et l'infectiologie Canada, 4(2):55-59.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Shokri M, Cozzoli F, Vignes F, et al (2022)

Metabolic rate and climate change across latitudes: evidence of mass-dependent responses in aquatic amphipods.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:280993 [Epub ahead of print].

Predictions of individual responses to climate change are often based on the assumption that temperature affects individuals' metabolism independently of their body mass. However, empirical evidence indicates that interactive effects exist. Here, we investigated the response of individual Standard Metabolic Rate (SMR) to annual temperature range and forecasted temperature rises of 0.6-1.2°C above the current maxima, under the conservative climate change scenario IPCC-RCP2.6. As a model organism we used the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis, collected across latitudes along the western coast of the Adriatic Sea down to the southernmost limit of the species' distributional range, with individuals varying in body mass (0.4-13.57mg). Overall, we found that the effect of temperature on SMR is mass-dependent. Within the annual temperature range, the mass-specific SMR of small/young individuals increased with temperature at a greater rate (activation energy: E=0.48 eV) than large/old ones (E=0.29 eV), with a higher metabolic level for high-latitude than low-latitude populations. However, under the forecasted climate conditions, the large individuals' mass-specific SMR responded differently across latitudes. Unlike the higher-latitude population, whose mass-specific SMR increased in response to the forecasted climate change across all size classes, in the lower-latitude populations, this increase was not seen in large individuals. The larger/older conspecifics at lower latitudes could therefore be the first to experience the negative impacts of warming on metabolism-related processes. Although the ecological collapse of such a basic trophic level (aquatic amphipods) due to climate change would have profound consequences for population ecology, the risk is significantly mitigated by phenotypic and genotypic adaptation.

RevDate: 2022-11-06

Perazzolli M, Vicelli B, Antonielli L, et al (2022)

Simulated global warming affects endophytic bacterial and fungal communities of Antarctic pearlwort leaves and some bacterial isolates support plant growth at low temperatures.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18839.

Antarctica is one of the most stressful environments for plant life and the Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis) is adapted to the hostile conditions. Plant-associated microorganisms can contribute to plant survival in cold environments, but scarce information is available on the taxonomic structure and functional roles of C. quitensis-associated microbial communities. This study aimed at evaluating the possible impacts of climate warming on the taxonomic structure of C. quitensis endophytes and at investigating the contribution of culturable bacterial endophytes to plant growth at low temperatures. The culture-independent analysis revealed changes in the taxonomic structure of bacterial and fungal communities according to plant growth conditions, such as the collection site and the presence of open-top chambers (OTCs), which can simulate global warming. Plants grown inside OTCs showed lower microbial richness and higher relative abundances of biomarker bacterial genera (Allorhizobium-Neorhizobium-Pararhizobium-Rhizobium, Aeromicrobium, Aureimonas, Hymenobacter, Novosphingobium, Pedobacter, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas) and fungal genera (Alternaria, Cistella, and Vishniacozyma) compared to plants collected from open areas (OA), as a possible response to global warming simulated by OTCs. Culturable psychrotolerant bacteria of C. quitensis were able to endophytically colonize tomato seedlings and promote shoot growth at low temperatures, suggesting their potential contribution to plant tolerance to cold conditions.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Panda KC, Singh RM, Singh VK, et al (2022)

Impact of climate change induced future rainfall variation on dynamics of arid-humid zone transition in the western province of India.

Journal of environmental management, 325(Pt B):116646 pii:S0301-4797(22)02219-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The transition of the Earth's climate from one zone to another is one of the major causes behind biodiversity loss, rural-urban migration, and increasing food crises. The rising rate of arid-humid zone transition due to climate change has been substantially visible in the last few decades. However, the precise quantification of the climate change-induced rainfall variation on the climate zone transition still remained a challenge. To solve the issue, the Representative Grid Location-Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (RGL-MARS) downscaling algorithm was coupled with the Koppen climate classification scheme to project future changes in various climate zones for the study area. It was observed that the performance of the model was better for the humid clusters compared to the arid clusters. It was noticed that, by the end of the 21st century, the arid region would increase marginally and the humid region would rise by 24.28-36.09% for the western province of India. In contrast, the area of the semi-arid and semi-humid regions would decline for the study area. It was observed that there would be an extensive conversion of semi-humid to humid zone in the peripheral region of the Arabian sea due to the strengthening of land-sea thermal contrast caused by climate change. Similarly, semi-arid to arid zone conversion would also increase due to the inflow of dry air from the Arabian region. The current research would be helpful for the researchers and policymakers to take appropriate measures to reduce the rate of climate zone transition, thereby developing the socioeconomic status of the rural and urban populations.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Fan X, J Hu (2022)

Early arrivals: heatwaves of climate change can also influence preterm births and their surviva.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Anonymous (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

The damage to Africa should be of supreme concern to all nations. This is partly for moral reasons. It is highly unjust that the most impacted nations have contributed the least to global cumulative emissions, which are driving the climate crisis and its increasingly severe effects. North America and Europe have contributed 62% of carbon dioxide emissions since the Industrial Revolution, whereas Africa has contributed only 3% (14).

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Zhang X, Ci X, Hu J, et al (2022)

Riparian areas as a conservation priority under climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06979-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Identifying climatic refugia is important for long-term conservation planning under climate change. Riparian areas have the potential to provide climatic refugia for wildlife, but literature remains limited, especially for plants. This study was conducted with the purpose of identifying climatic refugia of plant biodiversity in the portion of the Mekong River Basin located in Xishuangbanna, China. We first predicted the current and future (2050s and 2070s) potential distribution of 50 threatened woody species in Xishuangbanna by using an ensemble of small models, then stacked the predictions for individual species to derive spatial biodiversity patterns within each 10 × 10 km grid cell. We then identified the top 17 % of the areas for spatial biodiversity patterns as biodiversity hotspots, with climatic refugia defined as areas that remained as biodiversity hotspots over time. Stepwise regression and linear correlation were applied to analyze the environmental correlations with spatial biodiversity patterns and the relationships between climatic refugia and river distribution, respectively. Our results showed potential upward and northward shifts in threatened woody species, with range contractions and expansions predicted. The spatial biodiversity patterns shift from southeast to northwest, and were influenced by temperature, precipitation, and elevation heterogeneity. Climatic refugia under climate change were related closely to river distribution in Xishuangbanna, with riparian areas identified that could provide climatic refugia. These refugial zones are recommended as priority conservation areas for mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity. Our study confirmed that riparian areas could act as climatic refugia for plants and emphasizes the conservation prioritization of riparian areas within river basins for protecting biodiversity under climate change.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Garcés-Pastor S, Coissac E, Lavergne S, et al (2022)

High resolution ancient sedimentary DNA shows that alpine plant diversity is associated with human land use and climate change.

Nature communications, 13(1):6559.

The European Alps are highly rich in species, but their future may be threatened by ongoing changes in human land use and climate. Here, we reconstructed vegetation, temperature, human impact and livestock over the past ~12,000 years from Lake Sulsseewli, based on sedimentary ancient plant and mammal DNA, pollen, spores, chironomids, and microcharcoal. We assembled a highly-complete local DNA reference library (PhyloAlps, 3923 plant taxa), and used this to obtain an exceptionally rich sedaDNA record of 366 plant taxa. Vegetation mainly responded to climate during the early Holocene, while human activity had an additional influence on vegetation from 6 ka onwards. Land-use shifted from episodic grazing during the Neolithic and Bronze Age to agropastoralism in the Middle Ages. Associated human deforestation allowed the coexistence of plant species typically found at different elevational belts, leading to levels of plant richness that characterise the current high diversity of this region. Our findings indicate a positive association between low intensity agropastoral activities and precipitation with the maintenance of the unique subalpine and alpine plant diversity of the European Alps.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Stranges S, I Luginaah (2022)

Nutrition and health: Time for a paradigm shift for climate change.

Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD pii:S0939-4753(22)00406-9 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Jia X, You G, McKenzie S, et al (2022)

Inter-annual variations of vegetation dynamics to climate change in Ordos, Inner Mongolia, China.

PloS one, 17(11):e0264263 pii:PONE-D-21-22245.

To reveal the characteristics of climate change and the controlling factors for vegetation dynamics in the Ordos, Inner Mongolia, China, 34 years (1982-2015) of regional climate variables and vegetation dynamics were investigated. The results show that: Annual mean air temperature (TMP) significantly increased with a linear slope of 0.473°C/10yr. Annual precipitation (PRE) had a non-significant positive trend nearly 5 times lower than the trend of potential evapotranspiration (PET). The average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) computed for the region was found to show a significant positive trend (6.131×10-4/yr). However, all climate variables displayed non-significant correlations with NDVI at annual scale. The reduction of desert and the increase of grassland over the past decades were accountable for the increased NDVI. Principal components analysis revealed that the regional climate change can be characterized as changes in temperature, humidity and the availability of radiant energy. Based on principal components regression coefficients, NDVI was mostly sensitive to humidity component, followed by growing season warmth (WMI). Spatially, 93.1% of the pixels displayed positive trend and 61.8% of the pixels displayed significant change over the past decades. Both principal regression analysis and partial correlation analysis revealed that NDVI in eastern part of Ordos was sensitive to TMP, whereas, NDVI in southern and western areas of Ordos displayed the high sensitivity to combined effects of PRE and cloud coverage (CLD). Partial correlation analyses also revealed that TMX was a surrogate for aridity, TMN was a representative of humidity, and temperature variations below the threshold of 5°C (CDI) were less important than WMI. We conclude that regional climate change can be characterized by warming and increased aridity. The significant positive trend of regional NDVI and the non-significant correlations between NDVI and climate variables at annual scale suggests the hidden role of the human activities.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 climate change conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

The Veterinary record, 191(9):e2422.

Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Cheruiyot SJ, Kimanthi M, Shabani JS, et al (2022)

Climate change poses a threat to nutrition and food security in Kilifi County, Kenya.

African journal of primary health care & family medicine, 14(1):e1-e4.

Over the last decades, increased emission of greenhouse gases has led to hot weather extremes, heavy precipitation and worsening of agricultural and ecological droughts. Although Africa's contribution to climate change is minimal, the continent is especially vulnerable to its effects. This report aims to describe the effect of climate change leading to drought in Kilifi County, Kenya, and the communities' experiences of this effect on food availability. During their community rotation, residents from a university in Nairobi, Kenya, evaluated changes in weather patterns and nutrition indicators in Kilifi County and conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members and health care stakeholders to explore challenges in access to adequate nutrition and possible local solutions. Kilifi County has one of the highest rates of undernutrition in Kenya, with one in five under-5 children being underweight. County data showed that rainfall in the last 4 years has become increasingly unpredictable, resulting in reduced household milk production, one of the indicators of nutrition security. Three major themes emerged from the FGDs: lack of food variety, collapse of drought mitigating projects and increasing poverty levels. Possible solutions to these problems include promoting alternatives to the current diet that are culturally sensitive and adaptable to recent climate changes, ensuring continuity of agricultural and financial support projects and improved local leadership and governance.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

Danish medical journal, 69(11): pii:A205132.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Kespohl S, Riebesehl J, Grüner J, et al (2022)

Impact of climate change on wood and woodworkers-Cryptostroma corticale (sooty bark disease): A risk factor for trees and exposed employees.

Frontiers in public health, 10:973686.

Climate changes have promoted an increased fungal infection of maple trees with Cryptostroma corticale, the causative agent of sooty bark disease. The hosts of C. corticale are maples, and since the early 2000s the fungus has been appearing more frequently in European forests, due to the droughts and hot summers of recent years. Infestation by C. corticale discolors the wood and makes it unusable for further processing, which leads to considerable economic damage in the timber industry. Therefore, the occurrence and spread of sooty bark disease raise serious problems. In addition to forestry and economic problems, the conidiospores of C. corticale can also cause health problems in exposed wood workers and they can trigger hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Since the spores, which are deposited over the entire area under the bark of infected trees, can spread during processing, exposed workers must take special precautions to protect themselves against exposure. If an occupational disease is nevertheless suspected following exposure to C. corticale, valid diagnostics are required to confirm possible HP and derive appropriate therapies and exposure reduction or avoidance. Diagnosis of HP is based on several criteria, one of them is the detection of specific IgG in patient's serum against the potentially triggering antigens, in this case C. corticale antigens. To produce a diagnostic tool to measure C. corticale specific IgG, which is not commercially available so far, spores and mycelial material from ITS-sequenced strains of C. corticale was prepared and analyzed. These biochemically characterized extracts of spore and mycelial antigens were biotinylated and coupled to Streptavidin-ImmunoCAPs. To validate these diagnostic test tools the first step is to measure the concentration of C. corticale specific IgG in sera of healthy non-exposed and healthy exposed subjects to establish cut-off values. Suitable participants were recruited and the individual exposure to C. corticale and symptoms experienced during or after working with infected maple trees were recorded using questionnaires. Finally, diagnostic tools for serological testing in suspected cases of HP by C. corticale were created and evaluated. The following article provides recommendations for the treatment and disposal of infected damaged wood and for occupational health protection procedures. Secondly, the diagnosis of HP induced by exposure to C. corticale as an occupational disease is described including the verification of newly developed serological test tools for antigens of C. corticale.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Wigand ME, Timmermann C, Scherp A, et al (2022)

Climate Change, Pollution, Deforestation, and Mental Health: Research Trends, Gaps, and Ethical Considerations.

GeoHealth, 6(11):e2022GH000632 pii:GH2372.

Climate change, pollution, and deforestation have a negative impact on global mental health. There is an environmental justice dimension to this challenge as wealthy people and high-income countries are major contributors to climate change and pollution, while poor people and low-income countries are heavily affected by the consequences. Using state-of-the art data mining, we analyzed and visualized the global research landscape on mental health, climate change, pollution and deforestation over a 15-year period. Metadata of papers were exported from PubMed®, and both relevance and relatedness of terms in different time frames were computed using VOSviewer. Co-occurrence graphs were used to visualize results. The development of exemplary terms over time was plotted separately. The number of research papers on mental health and environmental challenges is growing in a linear fashion. Major topics are climate change, chemical pollution, including psychiatric medication in wastewater, and neurobiological effects. Research on specific psychiatric syndromes and diseases, particularly on their ethical and social aspects is less prominent. There is a growing body of research literature on links between mental health, climate change, pollution, and deforestation. This research provides a graphic overview to mental healthcare professionals and political stakeholders. Social and ethical aspects of the climate change-mental health link have been neglected, and more research is needed.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Miara MD, Negadi M, Tabak S, et al (2022)

Climate Change Impacts Can Be Differentially Perceived Across Time Scales: A Study Among the Tuareg of the Algerian Sahara.

GeoHealth, 6(11):e2022GH000620 pii:GH2375.

As an Indigenous community of Algeria and the broader Sahel, the Tuareg hold unique ecological knowledge, which might contribute to broader models of place-based climate change impacts. Between January and April 2019, we carried out semi-structured interviews (N = 23) and focus group discussions (N = 3) in five villages of the province of Illizi, Algeria, to document the local Tuareg community's timeline and ecological calendar, both of which are instruments used to understand place-based reports of climate change impacts. The livelihoods of the Tuareg of Illizi are finely tuned to climate variability as reflected in changes reported in the cadence of events in their ecological calendar (marked by cyclical climatic and religious events). Participants reported rain and temperature irregularities and severe drought events, which have impacted their pastoral and semi-pastoral livelihoods. These reports are aligned with scientifically measured climate observations and predictions. Paradoxically, although participants recall with detail the climatic disasters that happened in the region over the last century, the Tuareg do not explicitly report decadal trends in the frequency of extreme events. The differential perception of climate change impacts across scales can have important implications for undertaking climate change adaptation measures.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Habib-Ur-Rahman M, Ahmad A, Raza A, et al (2022)

Impact of climate change on agricultural production; Issues, challenges, and opportunities in Asia.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:925548.

Agricultural production is under threat due to climate change in food insecure regions, especially in Asian countries. Various climate-driven extremes, i.e., drought, heat waves, erratic and intense rainfall patterns, storms, floods, and emerging insect pests have adversely affected the livelihood of the farmers. Future climatic predictions showed a significant increase in temperature, and erratic rainfall with higher intensity while variability exists in climatic patterns for climate extremes prediction. For mid-century (2040-2069), it is projected that there will be a rise of 2.8°C in maximum temperature and a 2.2°C in minimum temperature in Pakistan. To respond to the adverse effects of climate change scenarios, there is a need to optimize the climate-smart and resilient agricultural practices and technology for sustainable productivity. Therefore, a case study was carried out to quantify climate change effects on rice and wheat crops and to develop adaptation strategies for the rice-wheat cropping system during the mid-century (2040-2069) as these two crops have significant contributions to food production. For the quantification of adverse impacts of climate change in farmer fields, a multidisciplinary approach consisted of five climate models (GCMs), two crop models (DSSAT and APSIM) and an economic model [Trade-off Analysis, Minimum Data Model Approach (TOAMD)] was used in this case study. DSSAT predicted that there would be a yield reduction of 15.2% in rice and 14.1% in wheat and APSIM showed that there would be a yield reduction of 17.2% in rice and 12% in wheat. Adaptation technology, by modification in crop management like sowing time and density, nitrogen, and irrigation application have the potential to enhance the overall productivity and profitability of the rice-wheat cropping system under climate change scenarios. Moreover, this paper reviews current literature regarding adverse climate change impacts on agricultural productivity, associated main issues, challenges, and opportunities for sustainable productivity of agriculture to ensure food security in Asia. Flowing opportunities such as altering sowing time and planting density of crops, crop rotation with legumes, agroforestry, mixed livestock systems, climate resilient plants, livestock and fish breeds, farming of monogastric livestock, early warning systems and decision support systems, carbon sequestration, climate, water, energy, and soil smart technologies, and promotion of biodiversity have the potential to reduce the negative effects of climate change.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Giosuè A, Recanati F, Calabrese I, et al (2022)

Good for the heart, good for the Earth: proposal of a dietary pattern able to optimize cardiovascular disease prevention and mitigate climate change.

Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD pii:S0939-4753(22)00327-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human and planetary health are inextricably interconnected through food systems. Food choices account for 50% of all deaths for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) - the leading cause of death in Europe - and food systems generate up to 37% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a systematic revision of meta-analyses of prospective studies exploring the association between individual foods/food groups and the incidence of CVD, we identified a dietary pattern able to optimize CVD prevention.. This dietary pattern was compared to the current diet of the European population. The nutritional adequacy of both diets was evaluated according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommended nutrient intake for the adult population, and their environmental impact was evaluated in terms of carbon footprint (CF). As compared to the current diet, the desirable diet includes higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, wholegrains, low glycemic index (GI) cereals, nuts, legumes and fish, and lower amounts of beef, butter, high GI cereals or potatoes and sugar. The diet here identified provides appropriate intakes of all nutrients and matches better than the current Europeans' one the EFSA requirements. Furthermore, the CF of the proposed diet is 48.6% lower than that of the current Europeans' diet.

CONCLUSION: The transition toward a dietary pattern designed to optimize CVD prevention would improve the nutritional profile of the habitual diet in Europe and, at the same time, contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing the GHG emissions linked to food consumption almost by half.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Zhou L, He C, Kim H, et al (2022)

The burden of heat-related stroke mortality under climate change scenarios in 22 East Asian cities.

Environment international, 170:107602 pii:S0160-4120(22)00529-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in East Asia. Owing to the aging population and high prevalence of stroke, East Asia might suffer a disproportionately heavy burden of stroke under the changing climate. However, the evidence relevant is still limited in this area.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stroke mortality risk due to heat exposure in East Asia and predict its burden under various future climate change scenarios.

METHODS: We conducted a multi-center observational study and collected data from 22 representative cities in three main East Asian countries (i.e., China, Japan, and South Korea) from 1972 to 2015. The two-stage time-series analyses were applied to estimate the effects of heat on stroke mortality at the regional and country level. We further projected the burden of heat-related stroke mortality using 10 global climate models (GCMs) under four shared socioeconomic pathway and representative concentration pathway (SSP-RCP) scenarios, including SSP1-RCP1.9, SSP1-RCP2.6, SSP2-RCP4.5, and SSP5-RCP8.5 scenarios.

RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 287,579 stroke deaths were collected during the warm season. Heat was significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke mortality. Overall, compared with the 2010 s, the heat-related attributable fraction (AF) was projected to increase in the 2090 s, with increments ranging from 0.8 % to 7.5 % across various climate change scenarios. The heat-related AF was projected to reach 11.9 % (95 % empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 6.1 %, 17.5 %) in the 2090 s under the SSP5-RCP8.5 scenario in China, while the corresponding estimates were 6.6 % (95 % eCI: 2.5 %, 11.0 %) and 5.1 % (95 % eCI: 1.2 %, 9.1 %) for Japan and South Korea, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Climate change will exacerbate the burden of heat-related stroke mortality but with considerable geographical heterogeneity in East Asia.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Xu X, Huang A, Belle E, et al (2022)

Protected areas provide thermal buffer against climate change.

Science advances, 8(44):eabo0119.

Climate change is pushing temperatures beyond the thermal tolerance of many species. Whether protected areas (PAs) can serve as climate change refugia for biodiversity has not yet been explored. We find that PAs of natural (seminatural) vegetation effectively cool the land surface temperature, particularly the daily maximum temperature in the tropics, and reduce diurnal and seasonal temperature ranges in boreal and temperate regions, as compared to nonprotected areas that are often disturbed or converted to various land uses. Moreover, protected forests slow the rate of warming more at higher latitudes. The warming rate in protected boreal forests is up to 20% lower than in their surroundings, which is particularly important for species in the boreal where warming is more pronounced. The fact that nonprotected areas with the same type of vegetation as PAs show reduced warming buffer capacity highlights the importance of conservation to stabilize the local climate and safeguard biodiversity.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Pappaioanou M, TR Kane (2022)

Addressing the urgent health challenges of climate change and ecosystem degradation from a One Health perspective: what can veterinarians contribute?.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association [Epub ahead of print].

Since the field of One Health was introduced in the early 2000s, veterinary medicine has provided leadership in working with other disciplines and sectors to identify effective, sustainable solutions to complex health problems that are shared by humans, animals, and the environment. Human-induced climate change has accelerated since the Industrial Age, resulting in serious adverse human, animal, and environmental health consequences. We summarize several drivers of climate change and ecosystem degradation connected to veterinary medicine. Building on previous studies and observations of others, we propose a set of urgent and actionable recommendations for individual veterinarians and the veterinary profession to mitigate and adapt to the health risks posed by climate change and ecosystem degradation at community, local, state, national, and international levels. In addition, we call for emphasizing the foundational relationship between climate change and ecosystem health to human, animal, and environmental health; integrating environmental health, climate change, and the diagnosis and treatment of climate-related adverse health outcomes into veterinary medical education and research; and providing ever-greater national and global leadership and participation by the veterinary medical profession to confront the causes and health consequences of human-induced climate change and ecosystem degradation, working in collaboration with other health professions, disciplines, and sectors.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Dayton L, Balaban A, Scherkoske M, et al (2022)

Family Communication About Climate Change in the United States.

Journal of prevention (2022) [Epub ahead of print].

Family discussions about climate change are a critical factor influencing children's climate change perceptions and behaviors. Yet, there is limited research on family communication about climate change in the US. Drawing from an online longitudinal sample, 214 parents reported on their 336 children. Descriptive statistics examined engagement in family climate change communication. Children's climate change concerns and parents' interest in engaging in conversations about climate change were assessed by the child's age. Logistic models examined how recent family climate change communication was associated with parents' perceived roles and barriers to engaging in conversations. Most parents (68%) were interested in talking to their children about climate change; of those expressing interest, only 46% reported recent communication. Parents reported that older children were more concerned about climate change than younger children (0-5 years: 21%; 6-11 years: 43%; 12-17 years: 56%), but no differences were identified in parents' interest in communicating with their children by the child's age. Recent family climate change communication was significantly associated with not knowing what to say and parents' perception that their role was to support their children in action. Study findings suggest a significant opportunity to involve families in climate change communication. Parents may benefit from training resources, especially those tailored to children's age, to help them communicate with their children about climate change. Strategies that engage parents and children in activism activities together are also needed.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Durfort A, Mariani G, Tulloch V, et al (2022)

Recovery of carbon benefits by overharvested baleen whale populations is threatened by climate change.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1986):20220375.

Despite the importance of marine megafauna on ecosystem functioning, their contribution to the oceanic carbon cycle is still poorly known. Here, we explored the role of baleen whales in the biological carbon pump across the southern hemisphere based on the historical and forecasted abundance of five baleen whale species. We modelled whale-mediated carbon sequestration through the sinking of their carcasses after natural death. We provide the first temporal dynamics of this carbon pump from 1890 to 2100, considering both the effects of exploitation and climate change on whale populations. We reveal that at their pre-exploitation abundance, the five species of southern whales could sequester 4.0 × 105 tonnes of carbon per year (tC yr-1). This estimate dropped to 0.6 × 105 tC yr-1 by 1972 following commercial whaling. However, with the projected restoration of whale populations under a RCP8.5 climate scenario, the sequestration would reach 1.7 × 105 tC yr-1 by 2100, while without climate change, recovered whale populations could sequester nearly twice as much (3.2 × 105 tC yr-1) by 2100. This highlights the persistence of whaling damages on whale populations and associated services as well as the predicted harmful impacts of climate change on whale ecosystem services.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Moein Taghavi H, S Eldeeb (2022)

The Adverse Effects of Climate Change on Congenital Birth Defects.

International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Conry J, S Robson (2022)

Climate change and women's health: turning leadership into action.

International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Young SE, Khoshnaw LJ, RJ Johnson (2022)

Climate and the Nephrologist: The Intersection of Climate Change, Kidney Disease, and Clinical Care.

Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN pii:CJN.08530722 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is upon us, and it will have a major effect on both kidney disease and the nephrology practice. But the converse is also true: our treatment of kidney disease has an effect on the climate. Much attention has focused on how rising temperatures can lead to acute and CKD and health exacerbations in patients with established kidney disease. Climate change is also associated with rising air pollution from wildfires and industrial wastes and infectious diseases associated with flooding and changing habitats, all of which heighten the risk of acute and CKD. Less well recognized or understood are the ways nephrology practices, in turn, contribute to still more climate change. Hemodialysis, although lifesaving, can be associated with marked water usage (up to 600 L per dialysis session), energy usage (with one 4-hour session averaging as much as one fifth of the total energy consumed by a household per day), and large clinical wastes (with hemodialysis accounting for one third of total clinical medicine-associated waste). Of note, >90% of dialysis occurs in highly affluent countries, whereas dialysis is much less available in the poorer countries where climate change is having the highest effect on kidney disease. We conclude that not only do nephrologists need to prepare for the rise in climate-associated kidney disease, they must also urgently develop more climate-friendly methods of managing patients with kidney disease.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Omosa E, Bett B, B Kiage (2022)

Climate change and Rift Valley fever disease outbreak: implications for the food environment of pastoralists.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 6 Suppl 1:S17.

BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever disease affects both livestock and humans. Variations in rainfall patterns have contributed to more frequent intense floods which favour the vector mosquito and associated Rift Valley fever outbreaks. Pastoralists living on poor rangelands depend on livestock for food and livelihood. Rift Valley fever outbreak control and management measures such as quarantine and trade bans of livestock and associated products disrupt the food systems in pastoralist settings. This contributes to poor food availability, access, and affordability leading to poor food choice and consumption, and potential negative nutrition, especially in women of reproductive age (WRA) and children younger than 5 years. Evidence on the effects of Rift Valley fever outbreaks on the food environment and nutrition security is scarce. This study analysed the effect of Rift Valley fever outbreak on various domains of the food environment to inform future Rift Valley fever outbreak response, to be comprehensive, and to consider nutrition.

METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study done in pastoralist Isiolo County, Kenya, purposively selected owing to a Rift Valley fever outbreak in 2020. A cross-sectional household survey (n=767), focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews were done. Data on 24-h dietary recall and dietary practices was collected and analysed by means of the NutriSurvey tool and NVivo software for qualitative data.

FINDINGS: Mortality in sheep, goat, and cattle was 40·2%; 52·8%, and 19·6% respectively; about 70-92% households depended on income from livestock sales. Livestock sales reduced; food prices increased; flesh-meat consumption declined from 19·7% to 14·2% before and during Rift Valley fever outbreak. Only 23·6% of the WRA achieved the minimum dietary diversity score; about 55% of the children consumed insufficient energy, protein, and vitamin A.

INTERPRETATION: Future Rift Valley fever responses need to consider nutrition because the disease and mortality reduce livestock productivity and associated foods, while Rift Valley fever control measures reduce food access and income, and raise food prices, which contribute to purchase and consumption of inadequate, cheap, and less nutritious foods with potentially negative nutrition outcomes.

FUNDING: The United States Agency for International Development and the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

Anatolian journal of cardiology, 26(11):799-801.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Erol Ç (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference Editorial, TAVI, SGLT2 inhibitors….

Anatolian journal of cardiology, 26(11):798.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Salami RK (2022)

A letter in the Lancet of June 2020¹ claimed the COVID-19 pandemic teaches lessons we must embrace to overcome two additional existential threats: nuclear war and global warming. What lessons can we learn from the global response to COVID-19 that could help the world address future threats such as climate change or the proliferation of nuclear weapons? ¹Muller and Nathan.

Medicine, conflict, and survival [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Weinert M, Kröncke I, Meyer J, et al (2022)

Benthic ecosystem functioning under climate change: modelling the bioturbation potential for benthic key species in the southern North Sea.

PeerJ, 10:e14105 pii:14105.

Climate change affects the marine environment on many levels with profound consequences for numerous biological, chemical, and physical processes. Benthic bioturbation is one of the most relevant and significant processes for benthic-pelagic coupling and biogeochemical fluxes in marine sediments, such as the uptake, transport, and remineralisation of organic carbon. However, only little is known about how climate change affects the distribution and intensity of benthic bioturbation of a shallow temperate shelf sea system such as the southern North Sea. In this study, we modelled and projected changes in bioturbation potential (BPp) under a continuous global warming scenario for seven southern North Sea key bioturbators: Abra alba, Amphiura filiformis, Callianassa subterranea, Echinocardium cordatum, Goniada maculata, Nephtys hombergii, and Nucula nitidosa. Spatial changes in species bioturbation intensity are simulated for the years 2050 and 2099 based on one species distribution model per species driven by bottom temperature and salinity changes using the IPCC SRES scenario A1B. Local mean bottom temperature was projected to increase between 0.15 and 5.4 °C, while mean bottom salinity was projected to moderately decrease by 1.7. Our results show that the considered benthic species are strongly influenced by the temperature increase. Although the total BP remained rather constant in the southern North Sea, the BPp for four out of seven species was projected to increase, mainly due to a simultaneous northward range expansion, while the BPp in the core area of the southern North Sea declined for the same species. Bioturbation of the most important species, Amphiura filiformis and Echinocardium cordatum, showed no substantial change in the spatial distribution, but over time. The BPp of E. cordatum remained almost constant until 2099, while the BPp of A. filiformis decreased by 41%. The northward expansion of some species and the decline of most species in the south led to a change of relative contribution to bioturbation in the southern North Sea. These results indicate that some of the selected key bioturbators in the southern North Sea might partly compensate the decrease in bioturbation by others. But especially in the depositional areas where bioturbation plays a specifically important role for ecosystem functioning, bioturbation potential declined until 2099, which might affect the biochemical cycling in sediments of some areas of the southern North Sea.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Pathak H (2022)

Impact, adaptation, and mitigation of climate change in Indian agriculture.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(1):52.

Climate change poses serious risks to Indian agriculture as half of the agricultural land of the country is rainfed. Climate change affects crop yield, soil processes, water availability, and pest dynamics. Several adaptation strategies such as heat- and water stress-tolerant crop varieties, stress-tolerant new crops, improved agronomic management practices, improved water use efficiency, conservation agriculture practices and improved pest management, improved weather forecasts, and other climate services are in place to minimize the climatic risks. The agriculture sector contributes 14% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) from the country. Mitigation of GHG emission from agriculture can be achieved by changing land-use management practices and enhancing input-use efficiency. Experiments in India showed that methane emission from lowland rice fields can be reduced by 40-50% with alternate wetting and drying (AWD), growing shorter duration varieties, and using neem-coated urea according to soil health card (SHC) and leaf color chart (LCC). Dry direct-seeding of rice, which does not require continuous soil submergence, can reduce methane emission by 70-75%. Sequestration of carbon (C) in agricultural soil can be promoted with the application of organic manure, crop residues, and balanced nutrients. India has taken several proactive steps for addressing the issues of climate change in agriculture. Recently, it has also committed for reducing GHG emission intensity by 45% by 2030 and achieving net zero emission by 2070. The paper discusses the major impacts of climate change, potential adaptation, and mitigation options and the initiatives of Govt. of India in making Indian agriculture climate-smart.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Hart EH, Christofides SR, Davies TE, et al (2022)

Author Correction: Forage grass growth under future climate change scenarios affects fermentation and ruminant efficiency.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18329 pii:10.1038/s41598-022-21958-y.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

Turkish thoracic journal, 23(6):366-368.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

Turkish archives of pediatrics, 57(6):575-577.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Katz M (2022)

"Have a Nice Day" Engaging with Climate Change: Psychoanalytic and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Edited by WeintrobeSally. New York: Routledge, 2012, xxiv + 256 pp., $180.00 hardcover, $62.95 paperback. Psychological Roots of the Climate Crisis: Neoliberal Exceptionalism and the Culture of Uncare. By WeintrobeSally. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021, xii + 332 pp., $120.00 hardcover, $29.95 paperback.

Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 70(5):989-998.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Ferrari GN, Leal GCL, Thom de Souza RC, et al (2022)

Impact of climate change on occupational health and safety: A review of methodological approaches.

Work (Reading, Mass.) pii:WOR211303 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The working population is exposed daily to unavoidable climatic conditions due to their occupational settings. Effects of the weather such as rain, heat, and air pollution may increase the risk of diseases, injuries, accidents, and even death during labor.

OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to summarize the impacts of climate change on workers' health, safety and performance, identifying the risks, affected workplaces and the range of methodological approaches used to assess this problem.

METHODS: A thorough systematic mapping was conducted in seven scientific international databases: Emerald, IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus, SpringerLink, and Web of Science. Three research questions guided the extraction process resulting in 170 articles regarding the impacts of climate change on occupational health and safety.

RESULTS: We found an accentuated trend in observational studies applying primary and secondary data collection. Many studies focused on the association between rising temperatures and occupational hazards, mainly in outdoor working settings such as agriculture. The variation of temperature was the most investigated impact of climate change.

CONCLUSIONS: We established a knowledge base on how to explore the impacts of climate change on workers' well-being and health. Researchers and policymakers benefit from this review, which explores the suitable methods found in the literature and highlights the most recurring risks and their consequences to occupational health and safety.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Knight J (2022)

Scientists' warning of the impacts of climate change on mountains.

PeerJ, 10:e14253 pii:14253.

Mountains are highly diverse in areal extent, geological and climatic context, ecosystems and human activity. As such, mountain environments worldwide are particularly sensitive to the effects of anthropogenic climate change (global warming) as a result of their unique heat balance properties and the presence of climatically-sensitive snow, ice, permafrost and ecosystems. Consequently, mountain systems-in particular cryospheric ones-are currently undergoing unprecedented changes in the Anthropocene. This study identifies and discusses four of the major properties of mountains upon which anthropogenic climate change can impact, and indeed is already doing so. These properties are: the changing mountain cryosphere of glaciers and permafrost; mountain hazards and risk; mountain ecosystems and their services; and mountain communities and infrastructure. It is notable that changes in these different mountain properties do not follow a predictable trajectory of evolution in response to anthropogenic climate change. This demonstrates that different elements of mountain systems exhibit different sensitivities to forcing. The interconnections between these different properties highlight that mountains should be considered as integrated biophysical systems, of which human activity is part. Interrelationships between these mountain properties are discussed through a model of mountain socio-biophysical systems, which provides a framework for examining climate impacts and vulnerabilities. Managing the risks associated with ongoing climate change in mountains requires an integrated approach to climate change impacts monitoring and management.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

LeDuc SD, Clark CM, Phelan J, et al (2022)

Nitrogen and sulfur deposition reductions projected to partially restore forest soil conditions in the US Northeast, while understory composition continues to shift with future climate change.

Water, air, and soil pollution, 233(376):1-26.

Human activities have dramatically increased nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition, altering forest ecosystem function and structure. Anticipating how changes in deposition and climate impact forests can inform decisions regarding these environmental stressors. Here, we used a dynamic soil-vegetation model (ForSAFE-Veg) to simulate responses to future scenarios of atmospheric deposition and climate change across 23 Northeastern hardwood stands. Specifically, we simulated soil percent base saturation, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), nitrate (NO3 -) leaching, and understory composition under 13 interacting deposition and climate change scenarios to the year 2100, including anticipated deposition reductions under the Clean Air Act (CAA) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-projected climate futures. Overall, deposition affected soil responses more than climate did. Soils recovered to historic conditions only when future deposition returned to pre-industrial levels, although anticipated CAA deposition reductions led to a partial recovery of percent base saturation (60 to 72%) and ANC (65 to 71%) compared to historic values. CAA reductions also limited NO3 - leaching to 30 to 66% above historic levels, while current levels of deposition resulted in NO3 - leaching 150 to 207% above historic values. In contrast to soils, understory vegetation was affected strongly by both deposition and climate. Vegetation shifted away from historic and current assemblages with increasing deposition and climate change. Anticipated CAA reductions could maintain current assemblages under current climate conditions or slow community shifts under increased future changes in temperature and precipitation. Overall, our results can inform decision makers on how these dual stressors interact to affect forest health, and the efficacy of deposition reductions under a changing climate.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Valizadeh M, A Khoorani (2022)

The impact of climate change on the outdoor tourism with a focus on the outdoor tourism climate index (OTCI) in Hormozgan province, Iran.

Theoretical and applied climatology pii:4248 [Epub ahead of print].

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of climate change on the climate condition of outdoor tourists in Hormozgan province, Iran, through Outdoor Tourism Climate Index (OTCI). For this purpose, the data pertaining to 7 weather stations as well as 2 global climate models (GCMs) under 2.6 and 8.5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) were applied. GCMs were statistically downscaled by the change factor (CF) approach. The findings illuminated that, based on OTCI, December, January, February, and March were regarded as the optimal months for the outdoor tourism activities. Nevertheless, for the concerned months, the range of OTCI score in twenty-first century is changing from 2 to - 12 regarding the base period (1980-2010). Mostly, the changes in OTCI score is predicted to occur at March, April, May, October, and November, whereas June would record the least. Moreover, Hajiabad and Kish stations in the North and South of the under-study area would encounter the most and least changes, respectively, in the future.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Hassan S, Cuevas Garcia-Dorado S, Belesova K, et al (2021)

A protocol for analysing the effects on health and greenhouse gas emissions of implemented climate change mitigation actions.

Wellcome open research, 6:111.

Background: It is crucial to understand the benefits to human health from decarbonisation to galvanise action among decision makers. Most of our existing evidence comes from modelling studies and little is known about the extent to which the health co-benefits of climate change mitigation actions are realised upon implementation. We aim to analyse evidence from mitigation actions that have been implemented across a range of sectors and scales, to identify those that can improve and sustain health, while accelerating progress towards a zero-carbon economy. Objectives: To understand the implementation process of actions and the role of key actors; explain the contextual elements influencing these actions; summarise what effects, both positive and negative, planned and unplanned they may have on emissions of greenhouse gases and health; and to summarise environmental, social, or economic co-benefits. Data: We will review evidence collected through partnership with existing data holders and an open call for evidence. We will also conduct a hand search of reference lists from systematic reviews and websites of organisations relevant to climate change mitigation. Screening: Screening will be done by two reviewers according to a pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Analysis: We will identify gaps where implementation or evaluation of implementation of mitigation actions is lacking. We will synthesise the findings to describe how actions were implemented and how they achieved results in different contexts, identifying potential barriers and facilitators to their design, implementation, and uptake. We will also synthesise their effect on health outcomes and other co-benefits. Quantitative synthesis will depend on the heterogeneity of outcomes and metrics. Conclusions: Findings will be used to identify lessons that can be learned from successful and unsuccessful mitigation actions, to make inferences on replicability, scalability, and transferability and will contribute to the development of frameworks that can be used by policy makers.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Hossain B, Shi G, Ajiang C, et al (2022)

Climate change induced human displacement in Bangladesh: Implications on the livelihood of displaced riverine island dwellers and their adaptation strategies.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:964648.

In Bangladesh, many people are being displaced in riverine island (char) areas every year due to climate change and its associated natural catastrophes. This study intends to investigate the impact of climate change on internally displaced char people's lives and livelihoods along with local adaptation strategies and hindrances to the coping mechanism. Data have been collected from 280 internally displaced households in two sub-districts. A mixed-method approach has been considered combined with qualitative and quantitative methods. The results disclose that frequent flooding, riverbank erosion, and crop loss are the leading causes for relocation, and social relations are impeded in the new place of residence. Increasing summer and winter temperatures, recurrent flooding, severity of riverbank erosion, and expanding disease outbreaks are also important indicators of climate change identified by displaced people, which are consistent with observed data. This study also reveals that almost all households come across severe livelihood issues like food shortage, unemployment and income loss, and housing and sanitation problems due to the changing climate associated with disasters in the former and present places. In response to this, the displaced people acclimatize applying numerous adaptation strategies in order to boost the livelihood resilience against climate change. However, fragile housing, financial conditions, and lack of own land are still the highest impediments to the sustainability of adaptation. Therefore, along with the government, several organizations should implement a dynamic resettlement project through appropriate scrutiny to eradicate the livelihood complications of internally displaced people.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Munuera J, E Burguière (2022)

Can we tackle climate change by behavioral hacking of the dopaminergic system?.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 16:996955.

Climate change is an undeniable fact that will certainly affect millions of people in the following decades. Despite this danger threatening our economies, wellbeing and our lives in general, there is a lack of immediate response at both the institutional and individual level. How can it be that the human brain cannot interpret this threat and act against it to avoid the immense negative consequences that may ensue? Here we argue that this paradox could be explained by the fact that some key brain mechanisms are potentially poorly tuned to take action against a threat that would take full effect only in the long-term. We present neuro-behavioral evidence in favor of this proposal and discuss the role of the dopaminergic (DA) system in learning accurate prediction of the value of an outcome, and its consequences regarding the climate issue. We discuss how this system discounts the value of delayed outcomes and, consequently, does not favor action against the climate crisis. Finally, according to this framework, we suggest that this view may be reconsidered and, on the contrary, that the DA reinforcement learning system could be a powerful ally if adapted to short-term incentives which promote climate-friendly behaviors. Additionally, the DA system interacts with multiple brain systems, in particular those related to higher cognitive functions, which can adjust its functions depending on psychological, social, or other complex contextual information. Thus, we propose several generic action plans that could help to hack these neuro-behavioral processes to promote climate-friendly actions.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Sahani M, Othman H, Kwan SC, et al (2022)

Impacts of climate change and environmental degradation on children in Malaysia.

Frontiers in public health, 10:909779.

The impacts of climate change and degradation are increasingly felt in Malaysia. While everyone is vulnerable to these impacts, the health and wellbeing of children are disproportionately affected. We carried out a study composed of two major components. The first component is an environmental epidemiology study comprised of three sub-studies: (i) a global climate model (GCM) simulating specific health-sector climate indices; (ii) a time-series study to estimate the risk of childhood respiratory disease attributable to ambient air pollution; and (iii) a case-crossover study to identify the association between haze and under-five mortality in Malaysia. The GCM found that Malaysia has been experiencing increasing rainfall intensity over the years, leading to increased incidences of other weather-related events. The time-series study revealed that air quality has worsened, while air pollution and haze have been linked to an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases among children. Although no clear association between haze and under-five mortality was found in the case-crossover study, the lag patterns suggested that health effects could be more acute if haze occurred over a longer duration and at a higher intensity. The second component consists of three community surveys on marginalized children conducted (i) among the island community of Pulau Gaya, Sabah; (ii) among the indigenous Temiar tribe in Pos Kuala Mu, Perak; and (iii) among an urban poor community (B40) in PPR Sg. Bonus, Kuala Lumpur. The community surveys are cross-sectional studies employing a socio-ecological approach using a standardized questionnaire. The community surveys revealed how children adapt to climate change and environmental degradation. An integrated model was established that consolidates our overall research processes and demonstrates the crucial interconnections between environmental challenges exacerbated by climate change. It is recommended that Malaysian schools adopt a climate-smart approach to education to instill awareness of the impending climate change and its cascading impact on children's health from early school age.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Singh P, Kaur S, Baabdullah AM, et al (2022)

Is #SDG13 Trending Online? Insights from Climate Change Discussions on Twitter.

Information systems frontiers : a journal of research and innovation pii:10348 [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic activities over the past few decades have led to increased vulnerability of environmental and ecological stability on this planet. Accelerated climate change is one such subset of the environmental problems that threatens the very existence of humankind in twenty first century. Governments, United Nations (UN) and other humanitarian agencies across the globe have developed and devised strategies for climate action that requires grater public awareness and actions. Social media has played a vital role in information dissemination and raising public awareness of climate change in the digital era. To this aid, an upsurge has been documented in recent times regarding discussions over climate change with #SDG13 (Sustainable Development Goals) at its epicenter. Following the principles of Actor Network Theory (ANT) we analyzed a large volume of Twitter data to understand general citizens' perception and attitude towards climate change. Our findings unveil people's opinion on causes and concerns related to barriers of adopting a more sustainable consumption and lifestyle practice. There is also a growing apathy towards sluggish government actions that makes little difference. People were also found to exchange innovative concepts and measures towards mitigating the effects of climate change.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Yu R, Torres N, Tanner JD, et al (2022)

Adapting wine grape production to climate change through canopy architecture manipulation and irrigation in warm climates.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1015574.

Grape growing regions are facing constant warming of the growing season temperature as well as limitations on ground water pumping used for irrigating to overcome water deficits. Trellis systems are utilized to optimize grapevine production, physiology, and berry chemistry. This study aimed to compare 6 trellis systems with 3 levels of applied water amounts based on different replacements of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) in two consecutive seasons. The treatments included a vertical shoot position (VSP), two modified VSPs (VSP60 and VSP80), a single high wire (SH), a high quadrilateral (HQ), and a Guyot pruned VSP (GY) combined with 25%, 50%, and 100% ETc water replacement. The SH had greater yields, whereas HQ was slower to reach full production potential. At harvest in both years, the accumulation of anthocyanin derivatives was enhanced in SH, whereas VSPs decreased them. As crown porosity increased (mostly VSPs), berry flavonol concentration and likewise molar % of quercetin in berries increased. Conversely, as leaf area increased, total flavonol concentration and molar % of quercetin decreased, indicating a preferential arrangement of leaf area along the canopy for overexposure of grape berry with VSP types. The irrigation treatments revealed linear trends for components of yield, where greater applied water resulted in larger berry size and likewise greater yield. 25% ETc was able to increase berry anthocyanin and flavonol concentrations. Overall, this study evidenced the efficiency of trellis systems for optimizing production and berry composition in Californian climate, also, the feasibility of using flavonols as the indicator of canopy architecture.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Burnham JP, Betz F, Lautz R, et al (2022)

Air exchanges, climate change, and severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Results from a survey of the Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network (SRN).

Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE, 2(1):e40 pii:S2732494X21002564.

In this cross-sectional survey, we assessed knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding operating room air-change rates, climate change, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic implications. Climate change and healthcare pollution were considered problematic. Respondents checked air exchange rates for COVID-19 and ∼25% increased them. Respondents had difficulty completing questions concerning hospital heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Singh AB, P Kumar (2022)

Climate change and allergic diseases: An overview.

Frontiers in allergy, 3:964987.

Climate change has been regarded as a threat to the human species on the earth. Greenhouse gasses are leading to increased temperatures on Earth besides impacting the humanity. These atmospheric conditions have shown to alter the release pattern of pollens and can change the timing and magnitude of pollen release with flowering plants. As pollen is responsible for respiratory allergies in humans, so climate change can adversely affect human health in susceptible individuals. In this review, we highlight the association between climate change, increased prevalence and severity of asthma, and related allergic diseases. Increased air pollution can alter the production of local and regional pollen. This altered pattern depends on bioclimatic parameters. As simulated with a pollen-release model and future bioclimatic data, warmer temperatures lead to an increased pollen count in some specific locations and for longer periods. Thus, anticipation of a future allergic disease burden can help public health agencies in planning to develop strategies in mitigating the unprecedented health challenges expected in future years.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Barrere-Cain R (2022)

Intersectional community-centered climate change curriculum is needed in health professional education.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Niu J, Qin W, Wang L, et al (2022)

Climate change impact on photovoltaic power potential in China based on CMIP6 models.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06876-0 [Epub ahead of print].

China has the largest worldwide cumulative installed photovoltaic (PV) capacity, which is expected to be 1300 GW in 2050. Industrial production, population explosion and fossil fuel combustion would reduce the surface solar radiation that could be received by PV panels. However, it is still a problem to explore the integrated effects of socio-economic and air pollutant emissions on PV power potential in China. In this study, climate change impact on PV power potential in 2023-2100 were assessed using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) model, combining Shared Socio-economic Pathway (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The validation results with ground-based surface solar radiation measurements collected from 17 China Meteorological Administration (CMA) stations showed that the Meteorological Research Institute Earth System Model version 2-0 (MRI-ESM2-0) attained a better performance with mean correlation coefficients (R), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.85, 35.80 Wm-2 and 29.37 Wm-2, respectively. Then, the MRI-ESM2-0 model was selected to analyze the spatial and temporal variations in PV power potential. PV power potential decreased significantly in SSP585 ranging from 192.71 Wm-2 to 189.96 Wm-2 in 2023-2100 corresponding to the growing resource intensity and fossil fuel dependency. In contrast, if China continues on the path of sustainable and low-carbon development and keeps temperature rise to about 1.5 °C by 2100, PV power potential will increase by 1.36-5.90 Wm-2. Meanwhile, the effects of climatological factors on PV power potential were analyzed by Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method. Results indicated that surface solar radiation had the highest contribution of >50 %, and the contribution of aerosols and cloud cover was about 20 %. This study is conducive to the full utilization of solar resources and has important implications for the future formulation of solar energy policy in China.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Shen F, Yang L, Zhang L, et al (2022)

Quantifying the direct effects of long-term dynamic land use intensity on vegetation change and its interacted effects with economic development and climate change in jiangsu, China.

Journal of environmental management, 325(Pt B):116562 pii:S0301-4797(22)02135-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Vegetation change reflects sensitive responses of ecosystem environment to global climate change as well as land use. It is well known that land use type and its transformation affect vegetation change. However, how the changes in land use intensity (LUI) within different land use types impact vegetation and the interactions with other drivers remain poorly understood. We measured the LUI of Jiangsu Province, China, within the main land use types in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2018 by combining remote sensing-based land use data with representative county scale economic and social indicators. Structural equation models (SEMs) were built to quantify the influences of long term LUI on vegetation change interacting with economic development, climate change and topographical conditions in transformed land, cropland, rural settlements and urbanized land, respectively. Seventy percent of significant vegetation change existed in non-transformed land use types. Although the area with a vegetation greening trend is larger than that with a vegetation browning trend, the vegetation browning areas is prominent in urbanized lands and some croplands in south basins. The constructed SEMs suggested the dominant negative effect of fast economic development regardless of land use types, while LUI played important and different direct and indirect effects on affecting vegetation change significantly interacting with economic development and climate change in different land use types. The LUI increasing led a vegetation greening in cropland, and stronger than climate warming with both positive direct and indirect effects for influencing climate change. The LUI change took negative effects on vegetation change in rural and urban areas, while a positive indirect effect of LUI increasing in urbanized land signaled the positive results of human managements. We then provided some land use-specific suggestions on basin scale for land management in Jiangsu. Our results highlight the necessity of long-term LUI quantification and promote the understanding of its effects on vegetation change interacted with other drivers within different land use types. This can be very helpful for sustainable land use and managements in regions with fast economic development.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Xiong J, Zheng Y, Zhang J, et al (2022)

Impact of climate change on coastal water quality and its interaction with pollution prevention efforts.

Journal of environmental management, 325(Pt B):116557 pii:S0301-4797(22)02130-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The impact of climate change on nearshore coastal water quality and its interaction with pollution prevention efforts (e.g., the development of green and gray water infrastructure) still lack systematic investigation. This study performed a holistic analysis of the impact of climate change on the salinity and concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll a (Chl.a) in Shenzhen Bay between Shenzhen and Hong Kong, the two most developed megacities in South China, based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality modeling. The major study findings were as follows. First, Chl.a was the most sensitive parameter, and its bay-wide average concentration in 2100 was predicted to be approximately 13% and 46% higher than those in 2015 under mild and rapid climate change scenarios, respectively. Second, sea level rise was found to be a major driver of all four water quality parameters, while temperature and radiation mainly influenced Chl.a and precipitation mainly influenced nutrients. Third, water quality responses to climate change were highly heterogeneous over the bay. Even under a mild climate change scenario, the highest location-specific changes (2100 vs. 2015) in salinity and TN, TP and Chl.a concentrations were projected to be approximately 21%, 19%, 25%, and 65%, respectively. Fourth, changes in seasonal variation due to climate change may lead to an enhanced ecological risk of algal blooms. Finally, the effect of reducing TN and TP concentrations by proposed water infrastructure development was found to be significantly weakened (nearly 40% and 20% for TN and TP, respectively, under a mild climate change scenario), while the negative effect (i.e., increase in the Chl.a concentration) was notably accelerated. Regional cooperation is critical for protecting the water quality of the bay, particularly under climate change. The insights obtained in this study are applicable to other coastal water zones around the world with similar socioeconomic backgrounds and climatic conditions.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Picornell A, Smith M, J Rojo (2022)

Climate change related phenological decoupling in species belonging to the Betulaceae family.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

Betulaceae species are anemophilous, and allergens from their pollen are a major cause of respiratory allergies in temperate areas where they are widely distributed. It is expected that, due to the strong influence of temperature on Betulaceae phenology, global warming will impact both the distribution and phenology of these species during the coming decades. This study examines potential decoupling of flowering and leafing phenophases in Betulaceae species (i.e. Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Corylus avellana) over long-term (1951-2015) and as shorter (15-year) periods. Phenological phases for flowering and leaf unfolding of Betulaceae species from the Pan-European Phenology (PEP725) database were examined along with maximum and minimum daily temperature data for the periods September-October-November (SON), December-January-February (DJF) and March-April-May (MAM). Significant increases in temperature since 1951 have been recorded in the relevant chilling and forcing periods. Both flowering and leaf unfolding phenophases are advancing, but flowering is advancing faster than leaf unfolding. This is increasing the time between phenophases, although analysis of 15-year periods shows that the pattern of change was not constant. The results presented here represent the most comprehensive analysis of flowering and leaf unfolding phenophases of Betulaceae species using the PEP725 database to date. It is expected that these changes to Betulaceae phenology will continue and that global warming-related phenological decoupling will increase plant stress in Betulaceae populations in central Europe.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Putra AR, Yen JDL, A Fournier-Level (2022)

Forecasting trait responses in novel environments to aid seed provenancing under climate change.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Revegetation projects face the major challenge of sourcing optimal plant material. This is often done with limited information about plant performance and increasingly requires factoring resilience to climate change. Functional traits can be used as quantitative indices of plant performance and guide seed provenancing, but trait values expected under novel conditions are often unknown. To support climate-resilient provenancing efforts, we develop a trait prediction model that integrates the effect of genetic variation with fine-scale temperature variation. We train our model on multiple field plantings of Arabidopsis thaliana and predict two relevant fitness traits - days-to-bolting and fecundity - across the species' European range. Prediction accuracy was high for days-to-bolting and moderate for fecundity, with the majority of trait variation explained by temperature differences between plantings. Projection under future climate predicted a decline in fecundity, although this response was heterogeneous across the range. In response, we identified novel genotypes that could be introduced to genetically offset the fitness decay. Our study highlights the value of predictive models to aid seed provenancing and improve the success of revegetation projects.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 climate change conference: Urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

Journal of medical imaging and radiation sciences pii:S1939-8654(22)00567-7 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Romanello M, Di Napoli C, Drummond P, et al (2022)

The 2022 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: health at the mercy of fossil fuels.

Lancet (London, England) pii:S0140-6736(22)01540-9 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Baxter L, McGowan CR, Smiley S, et al (2022)

The relationship between climate change, health, and the humanitarian response.

Lancet (London, England) pii:S0140-6736(22)01991-2 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-10-28

van Daalen KR, Romanello M, Rocklöv J, et al (2022)

The 2022 Europe report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: towards a climate resilient future.

The Lancet. Public health pii:S2468-2667(22)00197-9 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Guillén L, Pascacio-Villafán C, Osorio-Paz I, et al (2022)

Coping with global warming: Adult thermal thresholds in four pestiferous Anastrepha species determined under experimental laboratory conditions and development/survival times of immatures and adults under natural field conditions.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:991923.

Climate change, particularly global warming, is disturbing biological processes in unexpected ways and forcing us to re-study/reanalyze the effects of varying temperatures, among them extreme ones, on insect functional traits such as lifespan and fecundity/fertility. Here we experimentally tested, under both laboratory and field conditions, the effects of an extreme range of temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 45 °C, and the naturally varying conditions experienced in the field), on survivorship/lifespan, fecundity, and fertility of four pestiferous fruit fly species exhibiting contrasting life histories and belonging to two phylogenetic groups within the genus Anastrepha: A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina. In the field, we also measured the length of the entire life cycle (egg to adult), and in one species (A. ludens), the effect on the latter of the host plant (mango and grapefruit). Under laboratory conditions, none of the adults, independent of species, could survive a single day when exposed to a constant temperature of 45 °C, but A. striata and A. serpentina females/males survived at the highly contrasting temperatures of 5 and 40 °C at least 7 days. Maximum longevity was achieved in all species at 15 °C (375, 225, 175 and 160 days in A. ludens, A. serpentina, A. striata and A. obliqua females, respectively). Anastrepha ludens layed many eggs until late in life (368 days) at 15 °C, but none eclosed. Eclosion was only observed in all species at 20 and 30 °C. Under natural conditions, flies lived ca. 100 days less than in the laboratory at 15 °C, likely due to the physiological cost of dealing with the highly varying environmental patterns over 24 h (minimum and maximum temperatures and relative humidity of ca. 10-40 °C, and 22-100%, respectively). In the case of A. ludens, the immature's developmental time was shorter in mango, but adult survival was longer than in grapefruit. We discuss our results considering the physiological processes regulating the traits measured and tie them to the increasing problem of global warming and its hidden effects on the physiology of insects, as well as the ecological and pest management implications.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Mayekar HV, Ramkumar DK, Garg D, et al (2022)

Clinal variation as a tool to understand climate change.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:880728.

Clines are observable gradients that reflect continuous change in biological traits of species across geographical ranges. Clinal gradients could vary at geographic scales (latitude and altitude). Since clinal variations represent active genomic responses at the population level they (clines) provide an immense power to address questions related to climatic change. With the fast pace of climate change i.e. warming, populations are also likely to exhibit rapid responses; at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. We seek to understand how clinal variation could be used to anticipate climatic responses using Drosophila, a pervasively used inter-disciplinary model system owing to its molecular repertoire. The genomic information coupled with the phenotypic variation greatly facilitates our understanding of the Drosophilidae response to climate change. We discuss traits associated with clinal variation at the phenotypic level as well as their underlying genetic regulators. Given prevailing climatic conditions and future projections for climate change, clines could emerge as monitoring tools to track the cross-talk between climatic variables and organisms.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Monserrat M, Comeau S, Verdura J, et al (2022)

Climate change and species facilitation affect the recruitment of macroalgal marine forests.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18103.

Marine forests are shrinking globally due to several anthropogenic impacts including climate change. Forest-forming macroalgae, such as Cystoseira s.l. species, can be particularly sensitive to environmental conditions (e.g. temperature increase, pollution or sedimentation), especially during early life stages. However, not much is known about their response to the interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and acidification (OA). These drivers can also affect the performance and survival of crustose coralline algae, which are associated understory species likely playing a role in the recruitment of later successional species such as forest-forming macroalgae. We tested the interactive effects of elevated temperature, low pH and species facilitation on the recruitment of Cystoseira compressa. We demonstrate that the interactive effects of OW and OA negatively affect the recruitment of C. compressa and its associated coralline algae Neogoniolithon brassica-florida. The density of recruits was lower under the combinations OW and OA, while the size was negatively affected by the temperature increase but positively affected by the low pH. The results from this study show that the interactive effects of climate change and the presence of crustose coralline algae can have a negative impact on the recruitment of Cystoseira s.l. species. While new restoration techniques recently opened the door to marine forest restoration, our results show that the interactions of multiple drivers and species interactions have to be considered to achieve long-term population sustainability.

RevDate: 2022-10-28
CmpDate: 2022-10-28

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke, 142(15): pii:22-0605.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Guo X, Mao X, Yu W, et al (2022)

A field incubation approach to evaluate the depth dependence of soil biogeochemical responses to climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Soil biogeochemical processes may present depth-dependent responses to climate change, due to vertical environmental gradients (e.g., thermal and moisture regimes, and the quantity and quality of soil organic matter) along soil profile. However, it is a grand challenge to distinguish such depth dependence under field conditions. Here we present an innovative, cost-effective and simple approach of field incubation of intact soil cores to explore such depth dependence. The approach adopts field incubation of two sets of intact soil cores: one incubated right-side up (i.e., non-inverted), and another upside down (i.e., inverted). This inversion keeps soil intact but changes the depth of the soil layer of same depth origin. Combining reciprocal translocation experiments to generate natural climate shift, we applied this incubation approach along a 2,200 m elevational mountainous transect in southeast Tibetan Plateau. We measured soil respiration (Rs) from non-inverted and inverted cores of 1 m deep, respectively, which were exchanged among and incubated at different elevations. The results indicated that Rs responds significantly (p < 0.05) to translocation-induced climate shifts, but this response is depth-independent. As the incubation proceeds, Rs from both non-inverted and inverted cores become more sensitive to climate shifts, indicating higher vulnerability of persistent soil organic matter (SOM) to climate change than labile components, if labile substrates are assumed to be depleted with the proceeding of incubation. These results show in situ evidence that whole-profile SOM mineralization is sensitive to climate change regardless of the depth location. Together with measurements of vertical physiochemical conditions, the inversion experiment can serve as an experimental platform to elucidate the depth dependence of the response of soil biogeochemical processes to climate change.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent Action Needed for Africa and the World Wealthy Nations Must Step up Support for Africa and Vulnerable Countries in Addressing Past, Present and Future Impacts of Climate Change.

International journal of health policy and management, 11(10):1983-1985.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Večeřová K, Oravec M, Puranik S, et al (2022)

Single and interactive effects of variables associated with climate change on wheat metabolome.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1002561.

One of the key challenges linked with future food and nutritional security is to evaluate the interactive effect of climate variables on plants' growth, fitness, and yield parameters. These interactions may lead to unique shifts in the morphological, physiological, gene expression, or metabolite accumulation patterns, leading to an adaptation response that is specific to future climate scenarios. To understand such changes, we exposed spring wheat to 7 regimes (3 single and 4 combined climate treatments) composed of elevated temperature, the enhanced concentration of CO2, and progressive drought stress corresponding to the predicted climate of the year 2100. The physiological and metabolic responses were then compared with the current climate represented by the year 2020. We found that the elevated CO2 (eC) mitigated some of the effects of elevated temperature (eT) on physiological performance and metabolism. The metabolite profiling of leaves revealed 44 key metabolites, including saccharides, amino acids, and phenolics, accumulating contrastingly under individual regimes. These metabolites belong to the central metabolic pathways that are essential for cellular energy, production of biosynthetic pathways precursors, and oxidative balance. The interaction of eC alleviated the negative effect of eT possibly by maintaining the rate of carbon fixation and accumulation of key metabolites and intermediates linked with the Krebs cycle and synthesis of phenolics. Our study for the first time revealed the influence of a specific climate factor on the accumulation of metabolic compounds in wheat. The current work could assist in the understanding and development of climate resilient wheat by utilizing the identified metabolites as breeding targets for food and nutritional security.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Narvaez G, Giraldo LF, Bressan M, et al (2022)

The impact of climate change on photovoltaic power potential in Southwestern Colombia.

Heliyon, 8(10):e11122 pii:S2405-8440(22)02410-0.

In this paper, we present the first study of the long-term climate-change impact on photovoltaic power potential in Nariño, Colombia. In this region, more than half of the territory does not have a constant electricity supply, but it has great potential for solutions with renewable energy sources. Based on the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX), we assess the change in photovoltaic power potential towards the end of this century, considering two climate change scenarios, one optimistic and the other pessimistic. Our results suggest that changes in photovoltaic power potential, by the end of the century, will have a maximum decrease of around 2.49% in the central zone of Nariño, with some non-affected areas, and a maximum increase of 2.52% on the southeastern side with respect to the pessimistic climate change scenario.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Diédhiou I, Ramírez-Tobias HM, Fortanelli-Martinez J, et al (2022)

Maize Intercropping in the Traditional "Milpa" System. Physiological, Morphological, and Agronomical Parameters under Induced Warming: Evidence of related Effect of Climate Change in San Luis Potosí (Mexico).

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:life12101589.

Warmer temperatures predicted as a result of climate change will have an impact on milpa. An experiment was carried out with induced passive heat with the objective of simulating the increase in temperature on the physiological, morphological, and yield parameters of milpa from different climates of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Two different environments, Open-top chambers (OTC) and control, and three milpas, from warm-dry, temperate, and hot and humid climates, were studied. A total of 12 experimental units of 13.13 m2 were used in the random design, with a factorial arrangement of 2 × 3 and two replications. Abiotic variables (minimum, maximum, and mean daily temperatures and accumulated heat units) were determined and compared between the two environments and confirmed that the OTC increased the abiotic variables. The growth and development parameters increased under the warming effect. Furthermore, the milpa from hot and humid climate was the least affected. In contrast, the warming considerably delayed yield parameters. The squash suffered the most, while the bean benefited the most. The warming affected the chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange differently for each crop. However, at an early stage, the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (qN) for bean and maize were reduced, while at a late stage, they were Fv/Fm, photochemical quenching (qP), and qN for maize; stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of the squash were improved under the warming treatments. In conclusion, the warming delayed the yield and photosynthetic parameters, while growth and development benefited. The milpa systems were differently affected by warming.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Jabakhanji SB, Arnold SR, Aunan K, et al (2022)

Public Health Measures to Address the Impact of Climate Change on Population Health-Proceedings from a Stakeholder Workshop.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(20): pii:ijerph192013665.

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization identified climate change as the 21st century's biggest health threat. This study aimed to identify the current knowledge base, evidence gaps, and implications for climate action and health policymaking to address the health impact of climate change, including in the most underserved groups.

METHODS: The Horizon-funded project ENBEL ('Enhancing Belmont Research Action to support EU policy making on climate change and health') organised a workshop at the 2021-European Public Health conference. Following presentations of mitigation and adaptation strategies, seven international researchers and public health experts participated in a panel discussion linking climate change and health. Two researchers transcribed and thematically analysed the panel discussion recording.

RESULTS: Four themes were identified: (1) 'Evidence is key' in leading the climate debate, (2) the need for 'messaging about health for policymaking and behaviour change' including health co-benefits of climate action, (3) existing 'inequalities between and within countries', and (4) 'insufficient resources and funding' to implement national health adaptation plans and facilitate evidence generation and climate action, particularly in vulnerable populations.

CONCLUSION: More capacity is needed to monitor health effects and inequities, evaluate adaptation and mitigation interventions, address current under-representations of low- or middle-income countries, and translate research into effective policymaking.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Sargent K, Mollard J, Henley SF, et al (2022)

Predicting Transmission Suitability of Mosquito-Borne Diseases under Climate Change to Underpin Decision Making.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(20): pii:ijerph192013656.

The risk of the mosquito-borne diseases malaria, dengue fever and Zika virus is expected to shift both temporally and spatially under climate change. As climate change projections continue to improve, our ability to predict these shifts is also enhanced. This paper predicts transmission suitability for these mosquito-borne diseases, which are three of the most significant, using the most up-to-date climate change projections. Using a mechanistic methodology, areas that are newly suitable and those where people are most at risk of transmission under the best- and worst-case climate change scenarios have been identified. The results show that although transmission suitability is expected to decrease overall for malaria, some areas will become newly suitable, putting naïve populations at risk. In contrast, transmission suitability for dengue fever and Zika virus is expected to increase both in duration and geographical extent. Although transmission suitability is expected to increase in temperate zones for a few months of the year, suitability remains focused in the tropics. The highest transmission suitability in tropical regions is likely to exacerbate the intense existing vulnerability of these populations, especially children, to the multiple consequences of climate change, and their severe lack of resources and agency to cope with these impacts and pressures. As these changes in transmission suitability are amplified under the worst-case climate change scenario, this paper makes the case in support of enhanced and more urgent efforts to mitigate climate change than has been achieved to date. By presenting consistent data on the climate-driven spread of multiple mosquito-borne diseases, our work provides more holistic information to underpin prevention and control planning and decision making at national and regional levels.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Vo MV, Ebi KL, Busch Isaksen TM, et al (2022)

Addressing Capacity Constraints of Rural Local Health Departments to Support Climate Change Adaptation: Action Is Needed Now.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(20): pii:ijerph192013651.

Looming climate change health impacts among rural communities will require a robust health system response. To reduce health inequities and promote climate justice, rural local health departments (LHDs) must be adequately resourced and supported to engage in climate change mitigation and adaptation policy and program development and implementation. In the United States, small local tax bases, overreliance on revenue from fee-based services, and limited federal funding to support climate change and health programming, have left rural LHDs with limited and inflexible human, financial, and political capital to support engagement in local climate change activities. Because of the urgent demands stemming from climate change, additional investments and supports are needed to rapidly build the capacity and capability of rural LHDs. Federal and state approaches to public health funding should consider the unique climate change and health risks of rural communities. Further, cross-jurisdictional shared service arrangements and state-level support to build rural LHDs' technical capacity, and research on local impacts and culturally appropriate solutions, must be prioritized.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Karuga FF, Szmyd B, Petroniec K, et al (2022)

The Causes and Role of Antinatalism in Poland in the Context of Climate Change, Obstetric Care, and Mental Health.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(20): pii:ijerph192013575.

Antinatalism is an umbrella term for numerous moral dilemmas associated with procreation. In the past few years, the deterioration of environmental conditions, social difficulties, global worsening of people's mental health, and pandemics have induced discussion about antinatalism. Therefore, we aimed to characterize antinatalists in the Polish population in terms of the frequency and description of the main reasons behind this phenomenon. The cross-sectional study was performed in the Polish population. An online, four-part survey was performed between 19 and 25 January 2022. The study group comprised 1240 respondents. Antinatalists (n = 472, 38%) were defined as people who do not have children and want to be childless in the future, whereas pronatalists (n = 768, 62%) consisted of people who want to have offspring in the future and/or already have children. The opinion that climate change is a significant reason not to have a child appeared twice as often among antinatalists. Additionally, the performed binary logistic regression model highlighted the importance of the fear of climate change as an independent factor facilitating an antinatalistic attitude. Regarding females, the following factors discouraging them from having a child were observed: fear of child's congenital diseases, pregnancy complications, dissatisfaction with medical services, and fear of exacerbation of maternal chronic diseases. Anxiety, depression, and stress were not found to be statistically different between pro- and antinatalist groups. However, further analysis revealed that female antinatalists were significantly more depressive and anxious. Our study helps us to understand why, as mentioned beforehand, around 38% of respondents prefer to stay childless. In conclusion, antinatalism views have become relatively prevalent in society, and its reasons include environmental antinatalism and medical factors, including depression and anxiety. However, better access to medical services and changes in climate politics were not found to be significant factors in encouraging society to decide to have offspring.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Bongioanni P, Del Carratore R, Dolciotti C, et al (2022)

Effects of Global Warming on Patients with Dementia, Motor Neuron or Parkinson's Diseases: A Comparison among Cortical and Subcortical Disorders.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(20): pii:ijerph192013429.

Exposure to global warming can be dangerous for health and can lead to an increase in the prevalence of neurological diseases worldwide. Such an effect is more evident in populations that are less prepared to cope with enhanced environmental temperatures. In this work, we extend our previous research on the link between climate change and Parkinson's disease (PD) to also include Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias (AD/D) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Motor Neuron Diseases (ALS/MND). One hundred and eighty-four world countries were clustered into four groups according to their climate indices (warming and annual average temperature). Variations between 1990 and 2016 in the diseases' indices (prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years) and climate indices for the four clusters were analyzed. Unlike our previous work on PD, we did not find any significant correlation between warming and epidemiological indices for AD/D and ALS/MND patients. A significantly lower increment in prevalence in countries with higher temperatures was found for ALS/MND patients. It can be argued that the discordant findings between AD/D or ALS/MND and PD might be related to the different features of the neuronal types involved and the pathophysiology of thermoregulation. The neurons of AD/D and ALS/MND patients are less vulnerable to heat-related degeneration effects than PD patients. PD patients' substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), which are constitutively frailer due to their morphology and function, fall down under an overwhelming oxidative stress caused by climate warming.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Li K, Cai B, Z Wang (2022)

Accessing the Climate Change Impacts in China through a Literature Mapping.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(20): pii:ijerph192013411.

In the 21st century, carbon dioxide emissions have led to adverse climate changes; meanwhile, the impact of climate change has imposed challenges worldwide, particularly in developing countries, and China is one of the most affected countries. Assessing the impact of climate change requires handling a large amount of data in the literature comprehensively. In this study, a text-based classification method and literature mapping were used to process the massive literature and map it according to its location. A total of 39,339 Chinese academic studies and 36,584 Chinese master's and doctoral theses, from 2000 to 2022, with evidence of the impact of climate change were extracted from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Our results show that the literature on climate change impacts has exploded during the last decades. This indicates that increasing attention to the intensified impact of climate change in China has been paid. More importantly, by mapping the geolocation of the literature into spatial grid data, our results show that over 36.09% of the land area shows clear evidence of climate change. Those areas contribute to 89.29% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and comprise 85.06% of the population in China. Furthermore, the studies we collected on the climate change impacts showed a huge spatial heterogeneity. The hotspot areas of research were generally located in developed regions, such as the BTH urban agglomeration and Yangtze River Economic Zone, major agricultural production areas such as Shandong and Henan, and ecologically fragile regions including Yunnan, Xinjiang, and Inner Mongolia. Considering the imbalance spatially of the evidence of climate change can help in a better understanding of the challenges in China imposed by climate change. Appraising the evidence of climate change is of great significance for adapting to climate change, which is closely related to the natural ecosystem services and human health. This study will provide policy implications for coping with climatic events and guide future research.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Wu R, Guan JY, Wu JG, et al (2022)

Predictions Based on Different Climate Change Scenarios: The Habitat of Typical Locust Species Is Shrinking in Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, China.

Insects, 13(10): pii:insects13100942.

Climate change, especially climate extremes, can increase the uncertainty of locust outbreaks. The Italian locust (Calliptamus italicus (Linnaeus, 1758)), Asian migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratoria Linnaeus, 1758), and Siberian locust (Gomphocerus sibiricus (Linnaeus, 1767)) are common pests widely distributed in the semidesert grasslands of Central Asia and its surrounding regions. Predicting the geographic distribution changes and future habitats of locusts in the context of climate warming is essential to effectively prevent large and sudden locust outbreaks. In this study, the optimized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model, employing a combination of climatic, soil, and topographic factors, was used to predict the potential fitness areas of typical locusts in the 2030s and 2050s, assuming four shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP126, SSP245, SSP370, and SSP585) in the CMIP6 model. Modeling results showed that the mean area under the curve (AUC) and true statistical skill (TSS) of the MaxEnt model reached 0.933 and 0.7651, respectively, indicating that the model exhibited good prediction performance. Our results showed that soil surface sand content, slope, mean precipitation during the hottest season, and precipitation seasonality were the key environmental variables affecting locust distribution in the region. The three locust species were mainly distributed in the upstream region of the Irtysh River, the Alatao Mountain region, the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains, around Sayram Lake, the eastern part of the Alakol Lake region, the Tekes River region, the western part of Ulungur Lake, the Ili River, and the upstream region of the Tarim River. According to several climate projections, the area of potential habitat for the three most common locust species will decrease by 3.9 × 104-4.6 × 104 km2 by the 2030s and by 6.4 × 104-10.6 × 104 km2 by the 2050s. As the climate becomes more extreme, the suitable area will shrink, but the highly suitable area will expand; thus, the risk of infestation should be taken seriously. Our study present a timely investigation to add to extensive literature currently appearing regarding the myriad ways climate change may affect species. While this naturally details a limited range of taxa, methods and potential impacts may be more broadly applicable to other locust species.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Borges FO, Lopes VM, Amorim A, et al (2022)

Projecting Future Climate Change-Mediated Impacts in Three Paralytic Shellfish Toxins-Producing Dinoflagellate Species.

Biology, 11(10): pii:biology11101424.

Toxin-producing microalgae present a significant environmental risk for ecosystems and human societies when they reach concentrations that affect other aquatic organisms or human health. Harmful algal blooms (HAB) have been linked to mass wildlife die-offs and human food poisoning episodes, and climate change has the potential to alter the frequency, magnitude, and geographical extent of such events. Thus, a framework of species distribution models (SDMs), employing MaxEnt modeling, was used to project changes in habitat suitability and distribution of three key paralytic shellfish toxin (PST)-producing dinoflagellate species (i.e., Alexandrium catenella, A. minutum, and Gymnodinium catenatum), up to 2050 and 2100, across four representative concentration pathway scenarios (RCP-2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5; CMIP5). Despite slightly different responses at the regional level, the global habitat suitability has decreased for all the species, leading to an overall contraction in their tropical and sub-tropical ranges, while considerable expansions are projected in higher latitudes, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, suggesting poleward distributional shifts. Such trends were exacerbated with increasing RCP severity. Yet, further research is required, with a greater assemblage of environmental predictors and improved occurrence datasets, to gain a more holistic understanding of the potential impacts of climate change on PST-producing species.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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