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20 Jul 2024 at 01:58
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Bibliography on: Urolithiasis


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 20 Jul 2024 at 01:58 Created: 


Some mineral solutes precipitate to form crystals in urine; these crystals may aggregate and grow to macroscopic size, at which time they are known as uroliths (calculi or stones). Mechanisms involved in stone formation are incompletely understood in dogs and cats. Regardless of the underlying mechanism(s), uroliths are not produced unless sufficiently high urine concentrations of urolith-forming constituents exist and transit time of crystals within the urinary tract is prolonged. Clinical signs associated with urolithiasis are seldom caused by microscopic crystals. However, formation of macroscopic uroliths in the lower urinary tract that interfere with the flow of urine and/or irritate the mucosal surface often results in dysuria, hematuria, and stranguria. Urethral obstruction is common in male dogs and cats. It may occur suddenly or may develop throughout days or weeks. Initially, the animal may frequently attempt to urinate and produce only a fine stream, a few drops, or nothing. Animals may also exhibit extreme pain manifested by crying out when attempting to urinate. Complete obstruction causes uremia within 36–48 hr, which leads to depression, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, coma, and death within ~72 hr.

NOTE: Urethral obstruction is an emergency condition, and treatment should begin immediately.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( (canine OR feline) AND (urolithiasis) ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-07-02
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Park J, Lee SG, Jeong SM, et al (2024)

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the urinary bladder in a dog.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 65(7):643-648.

An 8-year-old castrated male Maltese dog was presented with a urinary bladder mass, urolithiasis, and hematuria. A solitary, pedunculated, intraluminal mass on the caudodorsal wall was identified with extensive irregular bladder wall thickening, and the mass was surgically removed. Postoperative histopathology demonstrated a submucosal lesion comprising spindle cells with marked inflammatory cell infiltration, without malignant changes. Immunohistochemical staining revealed vimentin and desmin positivity in the mass. An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) was definitively diagnosed. No recurrence was observed during a 43-month follow-up period. Although IMTs are rare in dogs, they should be considered a differential diagnosis for mass-like urinary bladder lesions accompanying a chronic inflammatory disease process. Key clinical message: Canine IMT should be included in the differential diagnoses of bladder masses, especially when dogs exhibit chronic irritation and inflammation.

RevDate: 2024-06-27

Joubran P, Roux FA, Serino M, et al (2024)

Gut and Urinary Microbiota in Cats with Kidney Stones.

Microorganisms, 12(6): pii:microorganisms12061098.

Upper urinary tract urolithiasis is an emerging disease in cats, with 98% of kidney stones composed of calcium oxalate. In humans, disturbances in the intestinal and urinary microbiota are suspected to contribute to the formation of calcium oxalate stones. We hypothesized that similar mechanisms may be at play in cats. This study examines the intestinal and urinary microbiota of nine cats with kidney stones compared to nine healthy cats before, during, and after treatment with the antibiotic cefovecin, a cephalosporin. Initially, cats with kidney stones displayed a less diverse intestinal microbiota. Antibiotic treatment reduced microbiota diversity in both groups. The absence of specific intestinal bacteria could lead to a loss of the functions these bacteria perform, such as oxalate degradation, which may contribute to the formation of calcium oxalate stones. This study confirms the presence of a distinct urobiome in cats with kidney stones, characterized by greater richness and diversity compared to healthy cats. These findings highlight the potential of microbiota modulation as a strategy to prevent renal lithiasis in cats.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Furbish A, Allinder M, Austin G, et al (2024)

First analytical confirmation of drug-induced crystal nephropathy in felines caused by GS-441524, the active metabolite of Remdesivir.

Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 247:116248.

GS-441524 is an adenosine nucleoside antiviral demonstrating significant efficacy in the treatment of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), an otherwise fatal illness, resulting from infection with feline coronavirus. However, following the emergence of COVID-19, veterinary development was halted, and Gilead pursued clinical development of a GS-441524 pro-drug, resulting in the approval of Remdesivir under an FDA emergency use authorization. Despite lack of regulatory approval, GS-441524 is available without a prescription through various unlicensed online distributors and is commonly purchased by pet owners for the treatment of FIP. Herein, we report data obtained from the analytical characterization of two feline renal calculi, demonstrating the propensity for GS-441524 to cause renal toxicity through drug-induced crystal nephropathy in vivo. As definitive diagnosis of drug-induced crystal nephropathy requires confirmation of the lithogenic material to accurately attribute a mechanism of toxicity, renal stone composition and crystalline matrix were characterized using ultra-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA), ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This work serves to provide the first analytical confirmation of GS-441524-induced crystal nephropathy in an effort to support toxicologic identification of adverse renal effects caused by administration of GS-441524 or any pro-drug thereof.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Pritchard EC, Haase B, Wall MJ, et al (2024)

Xanthinuria in a familial group of Munchkin cats and an unrelated domestic shorthair cat.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 26(5):1098612X241241408.

CASE SERIES SUMMARY: Four confirmed cases of xanthinuria in cats, and one suspected case based on pedigree analysis, were identified. Clinical presentations varied and included haematuria, pollakiuria, dysuria, and urethral and ureteral obstruction. All cats had upper urinary tract uroliths. Diagnosis was obtained through infrared mass spectrometry of uroliths or urine. Clinical signs commenced at 3-8 months of age and reduced in all cats in the medium to long term after the introduction of a protein-restricted diet. Four cats were castrated males and one was a spayed female. Cases consisted of four Munchkin pedigree cats and one unrelated domestic shorthair cat. All four affected Munchkin pedigree cats were related, with three cases full siblings and the fourth case a half-sibling. No connection to the Munchkin pedigree could be established for the domestic shorthair cat. A candidate causative genetic variant (XDH p.A681V) proposed for this cat was excluded in the Munchkin family.

All affected cats presented diagnostic challenges and routine urinalysis was insufficient to obtain a diagnosis. Cases of feline xanthinuria may be underdiagnosed due to situations where uroliths cannot be retrieved for analysis and there is an inability to make a diagnosis using crystal morphology alone on routine urinalysis. Metabolic screening of urine may provide an effective mechanism to confirm xanthinuria in suspected cases where uroliths are inaccessible or absent. In this case series, male cats were more common. Their anatomy may increase the risk of lower urinary tract signs and urethral obstruction developing secondary to xanthine urolithiasis. A protein-restricted diet appears to reduce clinical signs as part of long-term management.

PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Four closely related Munchkin cats and one domestic shorthair cat were found with a suspected genetic disease causing high levels of xanthine in their urine. The case series looks at similarities and differences in their clinical signs, as well as difficulties experienced in obtaining a correct diagnosis. All cats had upper urinary tract stones and required metabolic testing of the stones or urine to diagnose. All cats were young when their clinical signs started and were on a high-protein diet. Four cats were desexed males and one was a desexed female. A genetic variant that may have caused the disease in the domestic shorthair cat was ruled out in the Munchkin family. Cases of high xanthine levels in feline urine may be underdiagnosed as the stones may not be accessed for testing. In this case series, male cats were more common. Their anatomy may increase the risk of lower urinary tract signs. A protein-restricted diet appears to reduce clinical signs as part of long-term management.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-29

Mulyani GT, Pramono AB, TW Pangestiningsih (2024)

Diagnosis and treatment of urolithiasis in a Toy Poodle dog.

Open veterinary journal, 14(3):937-940.

BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis in dogs is a disorder of the urinary tract caused by the development of crystals. These crystals are composed of minerals such as phosphates, oxalates, urates, cystine, carbonates, and silica. It can be fatal if the diagnosis and treatment are inaccurate. This report aims to report a case of urolithiasis in a Toy Poodle dog.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2-year-old male Toy Poodle dog weighing 4.2 kg with black hair, and having trouble urinating was presented to Prof. Soeparwi Animal Hospital, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. The dog is examined physically and, in the laboratory, diagnosed and continued with operative therapy. The history and physical examination revealed that the dog had been experiencing hematuria, stranguria, and oliguria for 2 months, with the last few days accompanied by decreased appetite. The dog exhibited decreased skin turgor, a capillary refill time (CRT) of less than 2 seconds, signs of pain and distress during urination, and palpation of distended urinary vesicles. Ultrasound scans revealed uroliths in the urinary vesica, which were identified by an acoustic shadow. Blood tests indicated a decrease in hematocrit and erythrocytes along with an increase in leukocytes. Urolithiasis was diagnosed in the case dog based on anamnesis, physical examination, hematological examination, and ultrasonography. Subsequently, a cystotomy was performed, and uroliths located in urinary vesicles were removed. The dog received ceftriaxone injections at 15 mg/kg body weight and vitamin B-complex injections at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight for 5 days. Four days post-surgery, the case dog was able to successfully urinate and pass clean urine.

CONCLUSION: The Toy Poodle dog was diagnosed with silica urolithiasis in the urinary vesicles and the urolith is quite large. Cystotomy was performed to remove the urolith. Postoperative care were included the administration of antibiotics and vitamins to facilitate the healing process. The condition of the Poodle toy dog improved.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Gloor C, Schweighauser A, Rytz U, et al (2024)

Placement of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass in a Miniature Pinscher with presumed xanthine urolithiasis as a result of allopurinol treatment.

Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde, 166(4):207-215.

This case report describes the long-term success of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass device in a dog for treatment of a ureteral obstruction. The suspected xanthine urolithiasis was secondary to treatment with allopurinol for leishmaniasis. The dog presented initially with lethargy, anuria and abdominal pain. Mild azotemia was found on biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral ureteral obstruction. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass was subsequently placed using a standard surgical technique. The dog recovered uneventfully and the azotemia resolved within days. Follow-up examinations were performed every trimester for over three years and no complications like obstruction of the bypass tubes, urinary tract infection or azotemia were recognized during this follow-up period. Allopurinol was replaced with domperidone as long-term treatment against Leishmaniasis which resulted in a mild increase of the leishmania serum antibody titer. The subcutaneous ureteral bypass placement was successful and safe in this dog and is a valuable alternative in cases of ureteral obstruction also in dogs.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Sanz CR, Sarquis J, Ángeles Daza M, et al (2024)

Exploring the impact of epidemiological and clinical factors on the progression of canine leishmaniosis by statistical and whole genome analyses: from breed predisposition to comorbidities.

International journal for parasitology pii:S0020-7519(24)00058-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Canine leishmaniosis (CanL), caused by Leishmania infantum, is a complex disease of growing importance in Europe. Clinical manifestations result from the down-modulation of the host immune response through multiple host-parasite interactions. Although several factors might influence CanL progression, this is the first known study evaluating risk factors for its different clinical stages in a large referral hospital population (n=35.669) from an endemic area, over a 20 year period. Genome-wide scans for selection signatures were also conducted to explore the genomic component of clinical susceptibility to L. infantum infection. The prevalence of CanL was 3.2% (16.7% stage I; 43.6% stage II; 32.1% stage III; 7.6% stage IV). Dog breed (crossbreed), bodyweight (<10 kg), living conditions (indoors), regular deworming treatment, and being vaccinated against Leishmania significantly decreased the transmission risk and the risk for developing severe clinical forms. Conversely, the detection of comorbidities was associated with advanced clinical forms, particularly chronic kidney disease, neoplasia, cryptorchidism, infectious tracheobronchitis and urate urolithiasis, although those did not impact the clinical outcome. Significant associations between an increased risk of severe clinical stages and findings in the anamnesis (renal or skin-related manifestations) and physical examination (ocular findings) were also detected, highlighting their diagnostic value in referred cases of CanL. Sixteen breeds were found to be significantly more susceptible to developing severe stages of leishmaniosis (e.g. Great Dane, Rottweiler, English Springer Spaniel, Boxer, American Staffordshire Terrier, Golden Retriever), while 20 breeds displayed a clinical resistantance phenotype and, thus, are more likely to mount an efficient immune response against L. infantum (e.g. Pointer, Samoyed, Spanish Mastiff, Spanish Greyhound, English Setter, Siberian Husky). Genomic analyses of these breeds retrieved 12 regions under selection, 63 candidate genes and pinpointed multiple biological pathways such as the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response, which could play a critical role in clinical susceptibility to L. infantum infection.

RevDate: 2024-02-01

Xu C, Yang Y, Shao Z, et al (2024)

Candidate urinary biomarkers show promise for distinguishing between calcium oxalate versus struvite urolithiasis in dogs.

American journal of veterinary research [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways affected in dogs with struvite and calcium oxalate urolithiasis compared to healthy dogs. To explore the candidate urinary biomarkers to distinguish dogs with struvite and calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

ANIMALS: 13 dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis, 7 dogs with struvite urolithiasis, and 13 healthy dogs were recruited between September 2021 and January 2023.

METHODS: Metabolomic profiles were analyzed from urine samples using UPLC-MS MS. According to the variable importance in the projection (> 1) and correlation coefficient (P < .05) obtained by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, the differential metabolites were screened. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database was used to identify the metabolic pathways involved.

RESULTS: Compared to healthy dogs, those with calcium oxalate urolithiasis exhibited distinct metabolites primarily associated with phenylalanine metabolism, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide metabolic pathways. Conversely, dogs with struvite urolithiasis demonstrated variations in metabolites mainly linked to tryptophan metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolic pathways. Between calcium oxalate and struvite groups, pyocyanin, glycylprolylarginine, traumatin, cysteinyl-leucine, and 8-hydroxydodecylcarnitine are candidate urinary biomarkers.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our findings provide an in-depth analysis of metabolic perturbations associated with calcium oxalate and struvite urolithiasis in dogs. We also identified candidate urinary biomarkers distinguishing between dogs with calcium oxalate and struvite urolithiasis, which can be subsequently validated to assist in stone diagnosis and guide treatment choices.

RevDate: 2024-01-11
CmpDate: 2024-01-11

Stavroulaki EM, Ortega C, Lawlor A, et al (2024)

Trends in urolith composition and factors associated with different urolith types in dogs from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2020.

The Journal of small animal practice, 65(1):30-38.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in urolith trends and factors associated with different urolith types in dogs from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2020.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A laboratory database was searched for canine urolith submissions between 2010 and 2020. Trends in urolith composition between 2014 and 2020, and associations between patient characteristics with each urolith type were evaluated.

RESULTS: A total of 1162 submissions were included. Struvite (39.0%), calcium oxalate (27.8%) and compound (10.2%) were the most prevalent uroliths. Calcium oxalate urolith (CaOx) incidence significantly increased from 27.8% to 31.2% and that of struvite significantly decreased from 41.7% to 33.0% between 2014 and 2020. Struvite uroliths were overrepresented among females compared to males (odds ratio 8.7, 95% confidence interval 6.6 to 11.5). Males (odds ratio 9.6, 95% confidence interval 6.9 to 13.3) and dogs >7 years of age (odds ratio 4.1, 95%, confidence interval 3.0 to 5.4) were more likely to have CaOx while males (odds ratio 9.6, 95% confidence interval 5.3 to 17.8) and dogs ≤7 year of age, purine uroliths (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 5.0). Incidence was higher in bichon frise (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.4) and Yorkshire terrier (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 4.1) for CaOx and higher in shih-tzu for compound uroliths (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.7) compared to the remaining reported breeds.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Factors associated with different uroliths were similar to the ones previously reported. Proportion of CaOx submissions increased and that of struvite decreased over the study period which was in agreement with the changes identified in other European countries.

RevDate: 2023-12-12

Reynolds BS, Chetboul V, Elliott J, et al (2023)

Long-term safety of dietary salt: A 5-year ProspEctive rAndomized bliNded and controlled stUdy in healThy aged cats (PEANUT study).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: High-salt diets promote urine dilution and decrease urolithiasis risk.

OBJECTIVE: Prospectively evaluate the safety of chronic high dietary salt intake (randomized controlled trial).

ANIMALS: Twenty research colony neutered, healthy aged cats (11.5 years [10.0-11.6], median [interquartile range]).

METHODS: Healthy cats were randomized to control or high-salt dry diets (sodium: 1.02 ± 0.16 [mean, SD] and 3.26 ± 0.30 g/Mcal metabolizable energy [ME], respectively; chloride: 2.26 ± 0.33 and 5.71 ± 0.28 g/Mcal ME, respectively), fed for up to 60 months. Assessments included CBC, plasma biochemistry, urinalysis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), blood pressure, renal and cardiac (conventional Doppler and 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler) imaging, annually. Cats that died or were euthanized underwent necropsy. Diet effects over time were evaluated with linear mixed models.

RESULTS: Follow-up duration (median [Interquartile range]) was similar between the control (38.7 months [28.6-48.2]) and high-salt group (51.4 months [45.7-59.0]). Diet had no significant effect on changes in GFR, blood pressure, plasma creatinine concentration, end-diastolic left ventricular (LV) wall thicknesses, LV internal diameters, LV systolic function, left atrial size, or systolic and diastolic Doppler variables. One control cat developed hypertension. One high-salt group cat developed persistent azotemia. Serial plasma biochemistry and urine specific gravity suggested early chronic kidney disease in 4 nonazotemic cats (2 per group), consistent with necropsy findings.

In healthy aged cats, a commercial veterinary diet containing 3.26 ± 0.30 g/Mcal ME sodium was safe with regard to renal and cardiac function for up to 5 years.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Allinder M, Tynan B, Martin C, et al (2023)

Uroliths composed of antiviral compound GS-441524 in 2 cats undergoing treatment for feline infectious peritonitis.

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) historically has been a fatal disease in cats. Recent unlicensed use of antiviral medication has been shown to markedly improve survival of this infection. An 8-month-old female spayed domestic short-haired cat undergoing treatment for presumptive FIP with the antiviral nucleoside analog GS-441524 developed acute progressive azotemia. Abdominal ultrasound examination identified multifocal urolithiasis including renal, ureteral, and cystic calculi. Unilateral ureteral obstruction progressed to suspected bilateral ureteral obstruction and subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) was performed along with urolith removal and submission for analysis. A 2-year-old male neutered domestic medium-haired cat undergoing treatment for confirmed FIP with GS-441524 developed dysuria (weak urine stream, urinary incontinence, and difficulty expressing the urinary bladder). This cat also was diagnosed sonographically with multifocal urolithiasis requiring temporary tube cystostomy after cystotomy and urolith removal. In both cases, initial urolith analysis showed unidentified material. Additional testing confirmed the calculi in both cats to be 98% consistent with GS-441524. Additional clinical studies are required to determine best screening practices for cats presented for urolithiasis during treatment with GS-441524.

RevDate: 2023-11-15

Naeverdal TV, Midtgård JE, Llarena AK, et al (2023)

A retrospective study on epidemiology and management of canine cystine uroliths in one part of Norway from 2015 to 2020.

Acta veterinaria Scandinavica, 65(1):47.

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract problems are a common complaint in small animal medicine and urolithiasis is considered to be an important cause of urinary tract disease in dogs. In this study the main aim was to investigate whether the occurrence of cystine urolithiasis increased during a five-year period. A second aim was to evaluate possible risk-factors as breed, age and gender. This study also evaluated how urine specific gravity, pH and level of cystine in urine responded to preventive strategies. Medical records of dogs with urolithiasis presented at nine Norwegian animal clinics and one animal hospital between 2015 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS: The incidence of cystine uroliths increased significantly during the five study years (R[2] = 0.72, P = 0.0199). Dogs with cystine uroliths were significantly younger (5.0 years (n = 84, 95% CI [4.4-5.6])) when they were diagnosed with cystine uroliths compared to dogs with other types of uroliths (8.1 years (n = 255, 95% CI[7.8-8.5]) P < < 0.0001). Cystine levels in urine were increased in 93% of the dogs with cystine urolithiasis. Cystinuria decreased significantly after neutering (P < 0.0001). Breeds most commonly affected with cystine urolithiasis in this study were Staffordshire bull terrier, Danish Swedish farmdog and Chihuahua.

CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study supports a suggested genetic basis for cystine urolithiasis as described in previous studies. Neutering is considered an important part of preventing reoccurrence since cystine values decreased significantly after neutering.

RevDate: 2023-11-02
CmpDate: 2023-11-02

Labelle O, Penninck D, Butty EM, et al (2023)

Pseudomembranous cystitis in cats with presumed or confirmed mineralization: A retrospective study of 26 cases (2016-2021).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 37(5):1806-1814.

BACKGROUND: Pseudomembranous cystitis (PMC) in cats is a recognized disease, but concurrent mineralization is reported rarely and its outcome is poorly described.

HYPOTHESIS AND OBJECTIVES: Describe a population of cats with PMC and the prevalence of concurrent mineralization.

ANIMALS: Twenty-six cats with PMC.

METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed (January 2016 to December 2021). Cats with an ultrasound diagnosis of PMC were included. Clinicopathologic results, imaging, treatment, and outcome were reviewed.

RESULTS: All cats were male and 21 (80%) were diagnosed with urethral obstruction (UO). Five cats (23.8%) had positive urine culture (Staphylococcus felis, 3/5; Proteus mirabilis, 2/5) with a median urine pH of 8 (range, 6-9). All cats had ultrasonographic changes suggestive of mineralization. On ultrasound examination, 10 cats (38.5%) had pseudomembranes with acoustic shadowing suggestive of mineralization, 15 (57.7%) had changes indicative of ulceration, and 8 (31%) had changes compatible with of a urachal anomaly. Twenty-two cats received medical treatment, 4 underwent surgery (3 percutaneous cystolithotomy, 1 cystotomy). Twenty cats (77%) survived to discharge. Follow-up ultrasound examination indicated resolution of PMC in 6/7 cats, 4 had persistent hyperechoic bladder lining. Five of 12 cats with follow-up had a relapse of lower urinary tract signs.

Pseudomembranous cystitis was diagnosed mainly in male cats with UO and imaging findings suggestive of mineralization were present in all cases. Frequent negative urine culture suggests a different etiology than encrusting cystitis related to urease-positive bacteria. Good outcomes can be achieved with medical management.

RevDate: 2023-10-19

Igreja IA, Lourenço AL, Vernooij JCM, et al (2023)

Effects of two commercial diets and two supplements on urinary pH in dogs.

Veterinary medicine and science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Urinary pH manipulation by therapeutic foods or supplements is part of the treatment for urolithiasis. The effectiveness of these diets and supplements should be studied to determine which of these strategies is most effective.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of the oral supplementation of potassium citrate, an ammonium chloride solution (Urical) and two dry therapeutic foods-Hill's® Prescription Diet® u/d® Canine (u/d diet) and Royal Canin® Urinary S/O dog (S/O diet)-on a dog's urinary pH at different time points over 8 h.

ANIMALS: Seven healthy adult male research beagle dogs.

METHODS: A prospective interventional study lasting 31 days. The dogs either received a supplement (potassium citrate or rical) with a dry adult maintenance diet (control diet) or the therapeutic diet (u/d diet or S/O diet). Each treatment had a duration of 2-5 days, with 2- to 4-day washout periods in between. Urinary pH measurements were performed every 2 h between 07h00 and 15h00, with the food being given at 07h00 and 15h00, right after urine collection. The pH measurements obtained in each of the four treatments were compared to control (same dogs fed the control diet exclusively).

RESULTS: When compared to the control diet at the same time points, biologically relevant changes in urinary pH (defined as ≥0.5) were: increase with potassium citrate at 7h00 and 13h00; increase with u/d diet at 9h00, 13h00, and 15h00; decrease with S/O diet at 9h00 and 11h00; Urical did not have a detectable effect on urinary pH.

The present study confirms that therapeutic foods S/O and u/d, and potassium citrate supplement affected acid-base balance in healthy adult male beagle dogs, with the tested diets being more effective than the administered doses of the tested supplements at influencing urinary pH.

RevDate: 2023-10-14

Kaempfle M, Bergmann M, Koelle P, et al (2023)

High Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis and Description of Purine Content of Diets Suitable for Dogs with Leishmania Infection during Allopurinol Treatment-A Pilot Trial.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(19): pii:ani13193060.

Reducing the alimentary purine intake contributes to the prevention of purine (especially xanthine) urolith formation, a common adverse effect of allopurinol treatment in dogs with Leishmania infections. Analyses of the purine content are not required in order to advertise a diet as low in purine. Due to different analytical methods, data provided on purine content are barely comparable. The aim of this study was to investigate the total purine content of 12 different dog diets. For this, the purine bases adenine, guanine, xanthine, and hypoxanthine were determined by standardised high performance liquid chromatography in commercially available urinary diets (n = 4), kidney diets (n = 2), low protein diets (n = 3), 1 vegan diet, 1 regular diet for healthy adult dogs, and 1 homemade low purine diet. Total purine amounts ranged between 10.2 and 90.9 mg/100 g of dry matter. The daily purine intake calculated for a 20 kg standard dog with the analysed diets ranged between 21.9 and 174.7 mg. The lowest daily purine intakes were achieved by 2 urinary urate diets, followed by the homemade diet. Differences in the purine content of commercially available diets need to be considered. Awareness has to be raised when selecting diets for dogs with Leishmania infections during allopurinol treatment in order to minimise the risk of urolith formation.

RevDate: 2023-10-06

Watanabe M, Ando R, Sugisawa R, et al (2023)

A novel in vivo model of ureteral fibrosis induced by calcium oxalate beads in C57BL/6J mice.

Urolithiasis, 51(1):119.

The global incidence of ureteroliths in humans is increasing, particularly posing a problem in developed countries. The most common stone type is calcium oxalate, which is associated with a high recurrence rate. In veterinary medicine, stones are the most common cause of ureteral obstruction in cats, accounting for 72-87% of cases. In cats, stones cause irreversible ureteral damage, necessitating stone treatment as well as ureteral therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying the ureteral damage caused by stones remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to create a mouse model suitable for studying the ureteral fibrosis caused by oxalate stones by artificially embedding calcium oxalate in the ureter. Pathological tissue analysis was used to compare normal ureters without ligation and ureters with sham or oxalate bead implantation. The ureters of the sham and oxalate bead groups showed granulation tissue formation, transitional epithelium exfoliation, and densely packed connective tissue in the proprietary and muscle layer regions. Particularly in the oxalate bead group, infiltration of degenerated neutrophils, presence of foreign body giant cells, and hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium were observed. The proportion of fibrosis was higher in the oxalate group than in the sham group. Overall, this mouse model created using oxalate bead implantation has the potential to efficiently induce ureteral obstruction. This mouse model is expected to be used for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of ureteral fibrosis and evaluating therapeutic drugs in future.

RevDate: 2023-10-06

Ji Y, Hwang G, Lee SJ, et al (2023)

A deep learning model for automated kidney calculi detection on non-contrast computed tomography scans in dogs.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1236579.

Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common urinary disorders in dogs. Although a majority of kidney calculi are non-obstructive and are likely to be asymptomatic, they can lead to parenchymal loss and obstruction as they progress. Thus, early diagnosis of kidney calculi is important for patient monitoring and better prognosis. However, detecting kidney calculi and monitoring changes in the sizes of the calculi from computed tomography (CT) images is time-consuming for clinicians. This study, in a first of its kind, aims to develop a deep learning model for automatic kidney calculi detection using pre-contrast CT images of dogs. A total of 34,655 transverseimage slices obtained from 76 dogs with kidney calculi were used to develop the deep learning model. Because of the differences in kidney location and calculi sizes in dogs compared to humans, several processing methods were used. The first stage of the models, based on the Attention U-Net (AttUNet), was designed to detect the kidney for the coarse feature map. Five different models-AttUNet, UTNet, TransUNet, SwinUNet, and RBCANet-were used in the second stage to detect the calculi in the kidneys, and the performance of the models was evaluated. Compared with a previously developed model, all the models developed in this study yielded better dice similarity coefficients (DSCs) for the automatic segmentation of the kidney. To detect kidney calculi, RBCANet and SwinUNet yielded the best DSC, which was 0.74. In conclusion, the deep learning model developed in this study can be useful for the automated detection of kidney calculi.

RevDate: 2023-09-14
CmpDate: 2023-09-14

DeBow P, Auger M, Fazio C, et al (2023)

The most common types of uroliths larger than 1 mm are readily visible and accurately measured in an in vitro setting mimicking the canine abdomen using digital radiography.

Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association, 64(5):806-812.

Abdominal radiography is an important diagnostic to detect uroliths. Cystine and urate uroliths were historically characterized as nonmineral opaque on survey radiographs. However, recent research and clinical observations indicate that pure urate and cystine uroliths may be detected with digital radiography. The primary purpose of this prospective, in vitro, diagnostic accuracy study was to determine the sensitivity of digital radiography in detecting cystoliths of varying size and composition. Forty canine uroliths of pure composition (10 each of calcium oxalate, struvite, cystine, and urate), acquired from Minnesota Urolith Center and ranging from 1 to 10 mm, were placed in phantoms of three various sizes and radiographed. The radiographs, including three sets of each urolith separately, were evaluated by three blinded radiologists on two separate occasions. Evaluation included presence or absence of urolith, number of uroliths, and maximum diameter of the urolith(s). For all four types of uroliths and all readers, the specificity and PPV were 100% with an associated very high sensitivity (94.4%-98.9%) and NPV (94.8%-98.9%). Calcium oxalate uroliths were the most accurately measured and struvite were the least accurately measured when compared with the gross measurement. Smaller uroliths were more accurately measured than larger uroliths. Uroliths placed in smaller bladder phantoms were more accurately measured than in larger bladder phantoms. Though accurate measurement of uroliths is complicated by and dependent on numerous variables, our results reveal that urate and cystine uroliths are visualized on digital radiography making them a relevant differential diagnosis when seen clinically.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Maxwell AD, Kim GW, Furrow E, et al (2023)

Development of a burst wave lithotripsy system for noninvasive fragmentation of ureteroliths in pet cats.

BMC veterinary research, 19(1):141.

BACKGROUND: Upper urinary tract stones are increasingly prevalent in pet cats and are difficult to manage. Surgical procedures to address obstructing ureteroliths have short- and long-term complications, and medical therapies (e.g., fluid diuresis and smooth muscle relaxants) are infrequently effective. Burst wave lithotripsy is a non-invasive, ultrasound-guided, handheld focused ultrasound technology to disintegrate urinary stones, which is now undergoing human clinical trials in awake unanesthetized subjects.

RESULTS: In this study, we designed and performed in vitro testing of a modified burst wave lithotripsy system to noninvasively fragment stones in cats. The design accounted for differences in anatomic scale, acoustic window, skin-to-stone depth, and stone size. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a benchtop model using 35 natural calcium oxalate monohydrate stones from cats. In an initial experiment, burst wave lithotripsy was performed using peak ultrasound pressures of 7.3 (n = 10), 8.0 (n = 5), or 8.9 MPa (n = 10) for up to 30 min. Fourteen of 25 stones fragmented to < 1 mm within the 30 min. In a second experiment, burst wave lithotripsy was performed using a second transducer and peak ultrasound pressure of 8.0 MPa (n = 10) for up to 50 min. In the second experiment, 9 of 10 stones fragmented to < 1 mm within the 50 min. Across both experiments, an average of 73-97% of stone mass could be reduced to fragments < 1 mm. A third experiment found negligible injury with in vivo exposure of kidneys and ureters in a porcine animal model.

CONCLUSIONS: These data support further evaluation of burst wave lithotripsy as a noninvasive intervention for obstructing ureteroliths in cats.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Er Y, Fick ME, E Long Mays (2023)

Case report: Utility, complications, and short-term outcomes in three dogs managed with percutaneous pigtail cystostomy catheters for urethral obstruction.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1200406.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the utility, complications, and short-term outcomes of three dogs managed with percutaneous pigtail cystostomy catheters placed in the emergency room (ER).

CASE SUMMARY: Three dogs were presented separately to the ER for unalleviated mechanical urethral obstruction secondary to urolithiasis and urethral neoplasia. Retrograde urinary catheterization and urohydropulsion were not successful after multiple attempts. Percutaneous pigtail cystostomy catheters were placed under sedation to achieve temporary urinary diversion, and were successful in two of the three dogs. Complications encountered include mild abdominal effusion, unsuccessful placement resulting in hemorrhagic abdominal effusion, steatitis, abdominal pain, and kinking of the catheter. The two dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis were discharged from the hospital, and the dog diagnosed with urethral neoplasia was humanely euthanized due to poor prognosis.

When successful, the placement of pigtail cystostomy catheters allowed for temporary urinary diversion until definitive treatment could be performed and were well tolerated. Short-term outcomes were good. Complications arising from this procedure were common and increased morbidity. The risk of unsuccessful catheter placement may be increased when the procedure is performed in an over conditioned patient or by an inexperienced operator. Careful case selection and risk-benefit analysis should be considered before attempting this procedure. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the ideal technique, incidence of complications, and outcomes of this procedure.

RevDate: 2023-08-10

Kerley JB, Tart KM, Rendahl A, et al (2023)

Retrospective evaluation of the incidence of presumed feline urethral obstruction during a prepandemic year compared to a pandemic year.

Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001) [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the incidence of urethral obstruction (UO) in male cats.

DESIGN: Retrospective study.

SETTING: One veterinary university teaching hospital and 6 private practice veterinary specialty and emergency centers.

ANIMALS: A total of 24,937 total feline cases presenting to the emergency room (ER) between March 2019 and March 2021.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Out of 24,937 total cases, 1793 male cats met the inclusion criteria for diagnosis of UO. Of those, 327 cases were identified in which an additional diagnosis of either urolithiasis or neoplasia was made and were therefore excluded. The remaining 1466 UO cases were presumed to be idiopathic urethral obstruction (iUO) caused by feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) alone. Of those, 637 cats presented during the prepandemic year and 829 cats presented during the pandemic year.

KEY FINDINGS: Incidence of presumptive iUO increased by 30% during the COVID-19 pandemic. Total feline emergency caseload increased by 38%. iUO accounted for 6.08% and 5.73% of total feline emergency cases during the prepandemic and pandemic years, respectively.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The reported increase in incidence of feline UO is likely due to the increase in overall emergency feline caseload.

RevDate: 2023-06-19

Anthony RM, Davidson S, MacLeay JM, et al (2023)

Comparison of two software programs used to determine the relative supersaturation of urine ions.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1146945.

INTRODUCTION: Relative supersaturation (RSS) values for urine crystals are a measure of the risk of urinary stone formation and have been shown to be lowered in foods shown to aid in the management of urolithiasis. In order to calculate RSS in pets, computer programs have been developed to calculate RSS and aid in the understanding of stone formation in veterinary medicine. However, some older programs have not been updated for use in animals, and the specific coefficients used are not publically available. One of the first RSS programs was developed in BASIC computer language and published in 1985 which was called EQUIL2. The EQUIL2 program was updated to a compiled version compatible with a PC platform. However, the formulas could not be read or altered.

METHODS: This study evaluates a new program with known coefficients to the original EQUIL2 program. The RSS values of the two programs were compared through a t-test, calculating the r[2] from correlation analysis, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, and by a Bland-Altman analysis of outputs from the two programs using urine samples from healthy dogs and cats.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results show that for both magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium oxalate, the RSS values of the original program could be calculated from the new programs RSS values. Although the actual RSS values were different (as might be expected through the use of the updated coefficients and different thermodynamic stability constants in the calculations) the results were highly correlated, finding elevations and reductions in RSS proportionally in the same urine samples. The current work creates a foundation for using the modernized program to calculate RSS and provides a shared method for understanding the risk of struvite and calcium oxalate stone formation.

RevDate: 2023-06-01
CmpDate: 2023-06-01

Merindol I, Vachon C, Juette T, et al (2023)

Benign ureteral obstruction in cats: Outcome with medical management.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 37(3):1047-1058.

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available regarding the outcome of medical management (MM) of benign ureteral obstruction in cats (BUO).

HYPOTHESIS: Describe clinical characteristics and outcome of MM of BUO.

ANIMALS: Seventy-two client-owned cats with 103 obstructed kidneys.

METHODS: Medical records of cats diagnosed with BUO between 2010 and 2021 that received >72 hours of MM were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical data, treatment, and outcome were reviewed. Outcome was classified as success, partial success, or failure based on ultrasound findings. Factors associated with outcome were assessed.

RESULTS: Seventy-two cats with 103 obstructed kidneys were enrolled. The causes of obstruction were uroliths in 73% (75/103), strictures in 13.5% (14/103), and pyonephrosis in 13.5% (14/103) of affected kidneys. Median serum creatinine concentration at presentation was 4.01 mg/dL (range, 1.30-21.3 mg/dL). Outcome after MM was considered a success in 30% (31/103), partial success in 13% (13/103), and failure in 57% (59/103) of kidneys. Success was reported in 23% (17/75) of kidneys with uroliths, 50% (7/14) with pyonephrosis, and 50% (7/14) with strictures. Median time to a successful outcome was 16 days (range, 3-115 days). Distal and smaller uroliths (median length, 1.85 mm) were significantly associated with success (P = .05 and P = .01, respectively). Median survival times were 1188 days (range, 60-1700 days), 518 days (range, 7-1812 days), and 234 days (range, 4-3494 days) for success, partial success, and failure, respectively.

We found a higher success rate for MM of BUO than previously reported. Smaller distal uroliths (<1-2 mm) were more likely to pass.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Burger NC, Devriendt N, Serrano G, et al (2023)

Dogs with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts that have persistent shunting after surgery have a higher prevalence of urolithiasis.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To report the presence of urolithiasis in dogs long-term after gradual attenuation of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (cEHPSS).

ANIMALS: 25 client-owned dogs that underwent gradual attenuation of a cEHPSS, of which 19 had a closed cEHPSS and 6 developed multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (MAPSS) following surgery.

PROCEDURES: A retrospective study with prospective follow-up was performed. Dogs that underwent cEHPSS surgery and had their postoperative cEHPSS status determined by transsplenic portal scintigraphy or CT angiography 3 months postoperatively were prospectively contacted and invited for a long-term follow-up visit (a minimum of 6 months postoperatively). Retrospective data were collected, and during the prospective follow-up visit a thorough history, blood tests and urinalysis, and ultrasonography of the urinary tract were performed to assess the presence of urinary signs and urolithiasis.

RESULTS: Of 25 included dogs, 1 of 19 (5%) dogs with closed cEHPSS and 4 of 6 (67%) dogs with MAPSS had urolithiasis at long-term follow-up. Three (50%) dogs with MAPSS developed new uroliths. Long-term, dogs with closed cEHPSS that initially presented with and without urolithiasis had significantly less urolithiasis compared to dogs with MAPSS (P = .013 and P = .010, respectively). In the 4 dogs with closed cEHPSS that initially presented with nephrolithiasis, nephroliths became smaller or were no longer visible at the long-term follow-up visit.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dogs that developed MAPSS following cEHPSS surgery are at greater risk of urolithiasis compared to those with closed cEHPSS. Furthermore, ammonium urate uroliths might dissolve if portosystemic shunting ceases to exist.

RevDate: 2023-05-07

Ungerer GN, Liaw CW, Potretzke AM, et al (2023)

Examination of nutritional factors associated with urolithiasis risk in plant based meat alternatives marketed to children and infants.

Journal of pediatric urology pii:S1477-5131(23)00146-8 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The global prevalence of pediatric nephrolithiasis continues to rise amidst increased sodium and animal protein intake. Plant-based meat alternatives (PBMAs) have recently gained popularity due to health benefits, environmental sustainability, and increased retail availability. PBMAs have the potential to reduce the adverse metabolic impact of animal protein on kidney stone formation. We analyzed PBMAs targeted to children to characterize potential lithogenic risk vs animal protein.

METHODS: We performed a dietary assessment using a sample of PBMAs marketed to or commonly consumed by children and commercially available at national retailers. Nutrient profiles for PBMAs were compiled from US Department of Agriculture databases and compared to animal protein sources using standardized serving sizes. We also analyzed nutrient profiles for plant-based infant formulas against typical dairy protein-based formulas. Primary protein sources were identified using verified ingredient lists. Oxalate content was extrapolated from dietary data sources.

RESULTS: A total of 41 PBMAs were analyzed: chicken (N = 18), hot dogs (N = 3), meatballs (N = 5), fish (N = 10), and infant formula (N = 5). Most products (76%) contained a high-oxalate ingredient as the primary protein source (soy, wheat, or almond). Average oxalate content per serving was substantially higher in these products (soy 11.6 mg, wheat 3.8 mg, almond 10.2 mg) vs animal protein (negligible oxalate). PBMAs containing pea protein (24%) had lower average oxalate (0.11 mg). Most PBMAs averaged up to six times more calcium and three times more sodium per serving compared to their respective animal proteins. Protein content was similar for most categories.

CONCLUSIONS: Three-quarters of the examined plant-based meat products for children and infants contain high-oxalate protein sources. Coupled with higher per-serving sodium and calcium amounts, our findings raise questions about possible lithogenic risk in some PBMAs, and further studies are needed to assess the relationship between PBMAs and nephrolithiasis.

RevDate: 2023-04-29

Harris ASM, Bartges JW, TD Moyers (2023)

d,l-Methionine in combination with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid successfully dissolves spontaneously occurring infection-induced struvite urocystoliths in dogs: a pilot study.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of a urinary acidifier (d,l-methionine [Methio-Form]) and an antimicrobial agent (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid [Clavamox]) without changing diet for dissolving infection-induced struvite urocystoliths in dogs.

ANIMALS: 14 dogs were recruited for this prospective study; 11 completed it and 3 dogs withdrew due to inability of the owners to administer the treatment (n = 2) or refusal of treatment by the dog (1).

PROCEDURES: All dogs were administered d,l-methionine (approx initial dose of 75 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (22 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) based on urine culture and sensitivity. Urine pH, urinalysis, urine culture, venous blood gas and serum biochemical analysis, and lateral survey abdominal radiographic images were evaluated initially and every 4 weeks until urolith dissolution (success) or lack of change in size and/or shape of urocystoliths on 2 consecutive reevaluation points (failure) occurred.

RESULTS: Uroliths dissolved in 8 of 11 dogs in a median of 2 months (range, 1 to 4 months) with a final effective dosage of d,l-methionine of approximately 100 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours. In 3 dogs, uroliths failed to dissolve and were removed surgically; they contained variable amounts of calcium oxalate. No adverse events occurred.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Infection-induced struvite urolithiasis is 1 of the 2 most common minerals occurring in canine uroliths. Results of this study supported the use of d,l-methionine and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid without changing diet for dissolution of infection-induced struvite urocystoliths in dogs.

RevDate: 2023-04-13

Coffey EL, Gomez AM, Ericsson AC, et al (2023)

The impact of urine collection method on canine urinary microbiota detection: a cross-sectional study.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):101.

BACKGROUND: The urinary tract harbors unique microbial communities that play important roles in urogenital health and disease. Dogs naturally suffer from several of the same urological disorders as humans (e.g., urinary tract infections, neoplasia, urolithiasis) and represent a valuable translational model for studying the role of urinary microbiota in various disease states. Urine collection technique represents a critical component of urinary microbiota research study design. However, the impact of collection method on the characterization of the canine urinary microbiota remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether urine collection technique alters the microbial populations detected in canine urine samples. Urine was collected from asymptomatic dogs by both cystocentesis and midstream voiding. Microbial DNA was isolated from each sample and submitted for amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene, followed by analyses to compare microbial diversity and composition between urine collection techniques.

RESULTS: Samples collected via midstream voiding exhibited significantly higher sequence read counts (P = .036) and observed richness (P = .0024) than cystocentesis urine. Bray Curtis and Unweighted UniFrac measures of beta diversity showed distinct differences in microbial composition by collection method (P = .0050, R[2] = 0.06 and P = .010, R[2] = 0.07, respectively). Seven taxa were identified as differentially abundant between groups. Pasteurellaceae, Haemophilus, Friedmanniella, two variants of Streptococcus, and Fusobacterium were over-represented in voided urine, while a greater abundance of Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia characterized cystocentesis samples. Analyses were performed at five thresholds for minimum sequence depth and using three data normalization strategies to validate results; patterns of alpha and beta diversity remained consistent regardless of minimum read count requirements or normalization method.

CONCLUSION: Microbial composition differs in canine urine samples collected via cystocentesis as compared to those collected via midstream voiding. Future researchers should select a single urine collection method based on the biological question of interest when designing canine urinary microbiota studies. Additionally, the authors suggest caution when interpreting results across studies that did not utilize identical urine collection methods.

RevDate: 2023-04-11
CmpDate: 2023-04-11

Noonin C, Itsaranawet T, V Thongboonkerd (2023)

Calcium oxalate crystal-induced secretome derived from proximal tubular cells, not that from distal tubular cells, induces renal fibroblast activation.

European journal of medical research, 28(1):150.

BACKGROUND: Kidney stone disease (KSD) is commonly accompanied with renal fibrosis, characterized by accumulation and reorganization of extracellular matrix (ECM). During fibrogenesis, resident renal fibroblasts are activated to become myofibroblasts that actively produce ECM. However, such fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation in KSD remained unclear. Our present study thus examined effects of secreted products (secretome) derived from proximal (HK-2) vs. distal (MDCK) renal tubular cells exposed to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals on activation of renal fibroblasts (BHK-21).

METHODS: HK-2 and MDCK cells were treated with 100 µg/ml COM crystals under serum-free condition for 16 h. In parallel, the cells maintained in serum-free medium without COM treatment served as the control. Secretome derived from culture supernatant of each sample was mixed (1:1) with fresh serum-free medium and then used for BHK-21 culture for another 24 h.

RESULTS: Analyses revealed that COM-treated-HK-2 secretome significantly induced proliferation, caused morphological changes, increased spindle index, and upregulated fibroblast-activation markers (F-actin, α-SMA and fibronectin) in BHK-21 cells. However, COM-treated-MDCK secretome had no significant effects on these BHK-21 parameters. Moreover, level of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a profibrotic factor, significantly increased in the COM-treated-HK-2 secretome but not in the COM-treated-MDCK secretome.

CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate, for the first time, that proximal and distal tubular epithelial cells exposed to COM crystals send different messages to resident renal fibroblasts. Only the secretome derived from proximal tubular cells, not that from the distal cells, induces renal fibroblast activation after their exposure to COM crystals. Such differential effects are partly due to TGF-β1 secretion, which is induced by COM crystals only in proximal tubular cells.

RevDate: 2023-03-31
CmpDate: 2023-03-31

Geddes RF, Davison LJ, Elliott J, et al (2023)

Risk factors for upper urinary tract uroliths and ureteral obstruction in cats under referral veterinary care in the United Kingdom.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 37(2):567-577.

BACKGROUND: Cats presenting with upper urinary tract uroliths (UUTUs) and ureteral obstruction ("obstructive UUTU") are typically younger than cats with idiopathic CKD that often have incidental nephroliths.

HYPOTHESIS: Cats with upper urinary tract urolith have 2 clinical phenotypes; a more aggressive phenotype at risk of obstructive UUTU at a young age and a more benign phenotype in older cats, with reduced risk of obstructive UUTU.

OBJECTIVES: Identify risk factors for UUTU and for obstructive UUTU.

ANIMALS: Eleven thousand four hundred thirty-one cats were referred for care over 10 years; 521 (4.6%) with UUTU.

METHODS: Retrospective VetCompass observational cross-sectional study. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to identify risk factors for a diagnosis of UUTU vs no UUTU and additionally, obstructive UUTU vs nonobstructive UUTU.

RESULTS: Risk factors for UUTU included female sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.9; P < .001), British shorthair, Burmese, Persian, Ragdoll or Tonkinese (vs non-purebred ORs 1.92-3.31; P < .001) breed and being ≥4 years (ORs 2.1-3.9; P < .001). Risk factors for obstructive UUTU were female sex (OR 1.8, CI 1.2-2.6; P = .002), having bilateral uroliths (OR 2.0, CI 1.4-2.9; P = .002) and age, with the odds of obstructive UUTU increasing as age at diagnosis of UUTU decreased (≥12 years, reference category; 8-11.9 years, OR 2.7, CI 1.6-4.5; 4-7.9 years, OR 4.1, CI 2.5-7.0; 0-3.9 years, OR 4.3, CI 2.2-8.6; P < 0.001).

Cats diagnosed with UUTU at a younger age have a more aggressive phenotype with higher risk of obstructive UUTU compared to cats over 12 years of age diagnosed with UUTU.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Fitzwilliams T, Wolff-Sneedorff JL, Fredholm M, et al (2023)

Evaluation of the value of genetic testing for cystinuria in the Danish population of English bulldogs.

Animal genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Cystinuria is a genetic disease that can lead to cystine urolith formation. The English bulldog is the dog breed most frequently affected. In this breed, three missense mutations have been suggested to be associated with cystinuria: c.568A>G and c.2086A>G in SLC3A1 and c.649G>A in SLC7A9. In this study, the occurrence of these three mutations in the Danish population of English bulldogs was investigated. Seventy-one English bulldogs were genotyped using TaqMan assays. The dogs' owners were given questionnaires concerning the medical histories of their dogs. Allele frequencies of 0.40, 0.40, and 0.52 were found for the mutant alleles in the three loci: c.568A>G, c.2086A>G, and c.649G>A, respectively. For both mutations in SLC3A1, a statistically significant association was found between cystinuria and homozygosity for the G allele among male, English bulldogs. For the mutation in SLC7A9, there was no statistically significant association between homozygosity for the mutant allele and cystinuria. Due to high allele frequencies, limited genetic diversity, continued uncertainty about the genetic background of cystinuria, and more severe health problems in the breed, selection based on genetic testing for the mutations in SLC3A1 cannot be recommended in the Danish population of English bulldogs. However, results of the genetic test may be used as a guide to recommend prophylactic treatment.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Pritchard E, Samaha G, Mizzi K, et al (2023)

Candidate causative variant for xanthinuria in a Domestic Shorthair cat.

Animal genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Xanthinuria is a clinically significant form of urolithiasis in cats with poor clinical outcomes and limited treatment options. In humans, xanthinuria has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, with variants in xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MOCOS) responsible for cases. While causative genetic variants have not been identified in the domestic cat, a recessive mode of inheritance has been suggested. DNA was extracted from EDTA-stabilised blood obtained from a Domestic Shorthair cat with clinically confirmed xanthinuria. Whole-genome sequencing and variant assessment in XDH and MOCOS identified XDH:c.2042C>T (XDH:p.(A681V)) as a candidate causative variant for xanthinuria in this cat. The variant is located in a highly conserved part of the molybdenum-pterin co-factor domain, responsible for catalysing the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and uric acid. Variants in this domain of XDH have been shown to disrupt enzyme function and to cause xanthinuria in other species. When assessed in the wider cat population, the variant had an allele frequency of 15.8%, with 0.9% of the animals assessed homozygous for the alternative allele. Cats diagnosed with xanthinuria should be tested for this variant to validate its clinical relevance in the wider population.

RevDate: 2023-03-23
CmpDate: 2023-03-23

Casali CI, Pescio LG, Sendyk DE, et al (2023)

Dynamics of differentiated-renal epithelial cell monolayer after calcium oxalate injury: The role of cyclooxygenase-2.

Life sciences, 319:121544.

AIMS: Calcium oxalate (Oxa), constituent of most common kidney stones, damages renal tubular epithelial cells leading to kidney disease. Most in vitro studies designed to evaluate how Oxa exerts its harmful effects were performed in proliferative or confluent non-differentiated renal epithelial cultures; none of them considered physiological hyperosmolarity of renal medullary interstitium. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) has been associated to Oxa deleterious actions; however, up to now, it is not clear how COX2 acts. In this work, we proposed an in vitro experimental system resembling renal differentiated-epithelial cells that compose medullary tubular structures which were grown and maintained in a physiological hyperosmolar environment and evaluated whether COX2 → PGE2 axis (COX2 considered a cytoprotective protein for renal cells) induces Oxa damage or epithelial restitution.

MAIN METHODS: MDCK cells were differentiated with NaCl hyperosmolar medium for 72 h where cells acquired the typical apical and basolateral membrane domains and a primary cilium. Then, cultures were treated with 1.5 mM Oxa for 24, 48, and 72 h to evaluate epithelial monolayer restitution dynamics and COX2-PGE2 effect.

KEY FINDINGS: Oxa completely turned the differentiated phenotype into mesenchymal one (epithelial-mesenchymal transition). Such effect was partially and totally reverted after 48 and 72 h, respectively. Oxa damage was even deeper when COX2 was blocked by NS398. PGE2 addition restituted the differentiated-epithelial phenotype in a time and concentration dependence.

SIGNIFICANCE: This work presents an experimental system that approaches in vitro to in vivo renal epithelial studies and, more important, warns about NSAIDS use in patients suffering from kidney stones.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Jiang P, Okhunov Z, Afyouni AS, et al (2023)

Comparison of Superpulse Thulium Fiber Laser vs Holmium Laser for Ablation of Renal Calculi in an In Vivo Porcine Model.

Journal of endourology, 37(3):335-340.

Introduction and Objectives: We sought to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of the superpulse thulium fiber laser (sTFL to the holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Ho:YAG] laser for ureteroscopic "dusting" of implanted renal stones in an in vivo porcine model. Methods: Twenty-four porcine kidneys (12 juvenile female Yorkshire pigs) were randomized to Ho:YAG or sTFL treatment groups. Canine calcium oxalate stones were scanned with computed tomography to calculate stone volume and stone density; the stones were randomized and implanted into each renal pelvis via an open pyelotomy. In all trials, a 14F, 35 cm ureteral access sheath was placed. With a 9.9F dual lumen flexible ureteroscope, laser lithotripsy was performed using dusting settings: Ho:YAG 200 μm laser fiber at 16 W (0.4 J, 40 Hz) or sTFL 200 μm laser fiber at 16 W (0.2 J, 80 Hz). Lithotripsy continued until no fragments over 1 mm were observed. No stone basketing was performed. Throughout the procedures, intrarenal and renal pelvis temperatures were measured using two percutaneously positioned K-type thermocouples, one in the upper pole calyx and one in the renal pelvis. After the lithotripsy, the ureteropelvic junction was occluded, the kidneys were bivalved, and all residual fragments were collected, dried, weighed, and then measured with an optical laser particle sizer. Results: Implanted stones were similar in volume and density in both groups. Intraoperative collecting system temperatures were similar for both groups (all <44°C). Compared to Ho:YAG, sTFL ablated stones faster (9 vs 27 minutes, p < 0.001) with less energy expenditure (8 vs 26 kJ, p < 0.001), and a greater stone clearance rate (73% vs 45%, p = 0.001). After sTFL lithotripsy, 77% of the remaining fragments were ≤1 mm vs 17% of fragments ≤1 mm after Ho:YAG treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In an in vivo porcine kidney, using dusting settings, sTFL lithotripsy resulted in shorter ablation times, higher stone clearance rates, and markedly smaller stone fragments than Ho:YAG lithotripsy.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Victor PP, Narayanaswamy R, Kadry S, et al (2023)

Identification of novel inhibitor against human phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase from phytochemicals of Citrus sinensis peel extract by in vitro and in silico approach.

Biotechnology and applied biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Kidney stone is a major global menace that demands research on nonsurgical treatment involving biological compounds for the benefit of the patients. Among the biological extracts, citric acid is traditionally used to dissolve kidney stones. The current research focuses on evaluating the in vitro anti-urolithiatic activity and in silico study of ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensis (ECS) peel against c: phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (PCYT). The diuretic activity was evaluated using in vitro model against the synthesized calcium oxalate crystals and cytotoxicity study in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines. The phytochemicals were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The interaction mechanism was studied using computational docking studies to confirm their involvement in the dissolution of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Further molecular properties, drug-likeness, ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and toxicity analysis were followed for the ligands using software tools. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 6-octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, acetate (citronellyl acetate), 3',5'-dimethoxyacetophenone, and ethyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside showed good binding affinities against PCYT. Moreover, the docking studies showed the ligand 3',5'-dimethoxyacetophenone has the highest binding energy (-6.68 kcal/mol) for human CTP. The present investigation concludes that these compounds of C. sinensis peel extract compounds are responsible as novel inhibitors against human CTP and extend their use in the pharmaceutical drug development process.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Khan A, AH Gilani (2023)

An insight investigation to the antiurolithic activity of Trachyspermum ammi using the in vitro and in vivo experiments.

Urolithiasis, 51(1):43.

The crude extract of Trachyspermum ammi seeds (Ta.Cr) was studied for its antiurolithic activity using the in vivo and in vitro experiments. In the in vivo experiments, Ta.Cr treatment showed a diuretic activity at the dose of 30 and 100 mg/kg and exhibited curative effect in male hyperoxaluric Wistar rats, which received 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) in drinking water given for 3 weeks, with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for initial three days. In the in vitro experiments, Ta.Cr delayed the slopes of nucleation and inhibited the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner like that of potassium citrate. Ta.Cr also inhibited DPPH free radicals like standard antioxidant drug butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and significantly reduced cell toxicity and LDH release in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 µg/cm[2]) crystals. In isolated rabbit urinary bladder strips, Ta.Cr relaxed high K[+] (80 mM) and CCh (1 µM)-induced contractions, showing antispasmodic activity. The findings of this study suggest that the antiurolithic activity of crude extract of Trachyspermum ammi seeds may be mediated by a number of mechanisms, including a diuretic, an inhibitor of CaOx crystal aggregation, an antioxidant, renal epithelial cell protection, and an antispasmodic, thus, showing the therapeutic potential in urolithiasis, for which there is no viable non-invasive option in modern medicine.

RevDate: 2023-02-17

Aubrecht AM, JP Lulich (2023)

Resolution of urethral obstruction using temporary urethral stents in two female cats.

JFMS open reports, 9(1):20551169221149677.

CASE SUMMARY: The management of urethral obstructions is well documented in male cats but is less established for females. These cases describe two female cats that presented with non-dissolvable urocystoliths. Urocystoliths were removed by laser lithotripsy and basket retrieval. Following urolith removal, urethral obstruction occurred in both cats. Both cats were successfully managed using temporary urethral stents in lieu of indwelling urethral catheters permitting outpatient, spontaneous recovery of the urethra.

Use of temporary urethral stents has not been described in cats. These novel stents are constructed from materials available in most veterinary facilities, placed without advanced imaging and reside entirely within the urethra and vestibule. Temporary stents are used to bypass urethral disease, facilitating outpatient recovery, and are easily removed when no longer needed. For these reasons, temporary stents are a cost-efficient alternative to permanent stents or indwelling urinary catheters attached to closed urine-collection systems.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Ortega CJ, Stavroulaki EM, Lawlor A, et al (2023)

Retrospective analysis of 131 feline uroliths from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (2010-2020).

Irish veterinary journal, 76(1):2.

BACKGROUND: The proportions of different urolith types have not been investigated in cats from the Republic of Ireland (ROI) and Northern Ireland (NI) previously. The objective of this study was to investigate the proportions of different feline urolith types submitted to Minnesota Urolith Center from the ROI and NI from 2010 to 2020. An additional aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors associated with each urolith type in cats in this geographic area.

RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-one uroliths were submitted for the studied period with 44.3% being struvite, 43.5% calcium oxalate and 7.6% compound. Only 11 uroliths were submitted in the first 4 years. The number of submissions increased after 2015, peaking in 2019 with 25 submissions. Due to low numbers no conclusions could be made about changes in incidence of urolith types over time. Cats ≤7 years of age were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with struvite uroliths (OR, 2.87 [1.37-6.06]; p = 0.007) while cats ≥7 years of age with calcium oxalate uroliths (OR, 2.67, [1.29-5.37], p = 0.004).

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first epidemiologic study of urolithiasis from cats in the ROI and NI. The most prevalent types of uroliths in our study population were struvite and calcium oxalate. Due to the low number of urolith submissions, changes in the incidence of different uroliths could not be accurately determined. Increasing age was associated with calcium oxalate formation while younger cats were more commonly diagnosed with struvite urolithiasis which can be medically dissolved. Therefore, urolith dissolution is more likely to be successful in young cats than older cats.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Chamsuwan S, Buranakarl C, Angkanaporn K, et al (2022)

A urinary proteomic study in hypercalciuric dogs with and without calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Veterinary world, 15(12):2937-2944.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypercalciuria is an important predisposing factor commonly found in humans and dogs with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis. Calcium oxalate crystals can induce an inflammatory reaction that subsequently produces several proteins that have an inhibitory or stimulatory effect on stone formation. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in urinary proteomic profiles between hypercalciuric CaOx stone dogs and hypercalciuric stone-free dogs (CaOx stone and control groups, respectively).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven dogs with hypercalciuric CaOx urolithiasis and breed-, sex-, and aged-matched controls with hypercalciuria were included in the study. Serum and urine samples were obtained from all dogs to analyze electrolytes. Urinary proteomic profiles were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences between groups.

RESULTS: Forty-nine urinary proteins were identified in the stone-free and CaOx stone groups, whereas 19 and 6 proteins were unique in the CaOx stone and stone-free groups, respectively. The urinary thrombomodulin level was significantly higher in the CaOx stone group (relative ratio = 1.8, p < 0.01) than in the stone-free group.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that urinary proteomic profiles may be used as a candidate biomarker for urinary tract injury in CaOx urolithiasis in dogs.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Broughton SE, O'Neill DG, Syme HM, et al (2023)

Ionized hypercalcemia in 238 cats from a referral hospital population (2009-2019).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Ionized calcium concentration ([iCa]) is more sensitive for detecting calcium disturbances than serum total calcium concentration but literature on ionized hypercalcemia in cats is limited. Urolithiasis is a possible adverse consequence of hypercalcemia.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical details of diagnoses associated with ionized hypercalcemia in cats and association with urolithiasis.

ANIMALS: Cats (238) seen between 2009 and 2019 at a referral hospital with [iCa] above the normal reference interval.

METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study. Signalment, serum biochemical and imaging findings were reviewed for cats with ionized hypercalcemia considered to be clinically relevant (>1.41 mmol/L). Data were summarized by cause of hypercalcemia (i.e., diagnosis).

RESULTS: Diagnoses for the 238 cats with [iCa] >1.41 mmol/L included: acute kidney injury (AKI; 13%), malignancy-associated (10.1%), idiopathic hypercalcemia (IHC; 10.1%), chronic kidney disease/renal diet-associated (8.4%), iatrogenic (5.5%), primary hyperparathyroidism (2.1%), vitamin D toxicity (2.1%) and granulomatous disease (1.7%). In 112 cases (47.1%), no cause for ionized hypercalcemia could be determined (n = 95), hypercalcemia was transient (n = 12), or the cat was juvenile (<1 year; n = 5). Urolithiasis was identified in 83.3% of AKI, 72.7% of iatrogenic, 61.1% of CKD/renal diet-associated and 50% of IHC cases that were imaged (<50% for other diagnoses). Diagnoses with a high proportion of concurrent total hypercalcemia included primary hyperparathyroidism (100%), vitamin D toxicity (100%), malignancy-associated (71.4%), granulomatous disease (66.7%) and IHC (65.2%).

Ionized hypercalcemia was most commonly associated with kidney diseases, neoplasia or IHC. The proportion of urolithiasis cases varied by diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-01-03

Clark H, Lasarev M, M Wood (2023)

Risk factors of enterococcal bacteriuria in cats: A retrospective study.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 64(1):40-44.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if factors associated with urothelial damage and inflammation, including urinary catheterization, urinary obstruction, and urolithiasis are associated with the presence of enterococcal bacteriuria in cats.

ANIMALS: Thirty-one cats with Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria and 31 cats with Escherichia coli bacteriuria.

PROCEDURE: A retrospective case-control study with cases and controls identified by records search for Enterococcus spp. (case) and E. coli (control) bacteriuria from August 1, 2014 to July 31, 2019. Cases and controls were balanced with respect to average age. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate and test whether the odds of having Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria (instead of E. coli) were associated with the presence of any characteristic.

RESULTS: Urinary catheterization, urinary obstruction, and urolithiasis were not observed more often in Enterococcus cases versus E. coli controls (19% versus 25%, P = 0.543; 19% versus 32%, P = 0.244; and 16% versus 16%, P = 1, respectively). Signs of lower urinary tract disease were significantly less common in Enterococcus cases than in E. coli controls (OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.83, P = 0.02). Hematuria was significantly less common in cases than controls (P = 0.048).

CONCLUSION: No association was identified between urinary catheterization, urolithiasis, or any other comorbidities (hyperthyroidism, chronic kidney disease) and enterococcal bacteriuria in cats.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Unlike in humans and dogs, urothelial damage and inflammation caused by factors such as urinary catheterization and urolithiasis may not be the mechanism for enterococcal bacteriuria in cats.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Shin PT, K Aoki (2022)

Successful conservative management in a dog with substantial urinary bladder ischemia.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 63(12):1193-1197.

A 7-year-old spayed female pug dog was brought to the veterinary college with a severely and diffusely ischemic urinary bladder secondary to obstructive uroliths in the lower urinary tract. Cystotomy was performed to remove the uroliths and the ischemic bladder was managed with conservative treatment. A recheck abdominal ultrasound 4.5 mo after surgery revealed an abdominal mass that was associated with the urinary bladder. An exploratory laparotomy and partial cystectomy were performed. Histopathology of the mass showed granulomatous inflammation centered on necrotic tissue. The dog recovered well, and long-term prognosis is good. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first veterinary case report describing conservative management of an ischemic urinary bladder. An uncommon complication following cystotomy and the relevant imaging findings is also described. The positive outcome for the dog demonstrated that conservative management may serve as an option for treatment of substantial ischemia of the urinary bladder.

RevDate: 2022-11-23
CmpDate: 2022-11-23

Weinekötter J, Gurtner C, Protschka M, et al (2022)

Tissue S100/calgranulin expression and blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in dogs with lower urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

BMC veterinary research, 18(1):412.

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common neoplasm of the canine lower urinary tract, affecting approximately 2% of dogs. Elderly female patients of certain breeds are predisposed, and clinical signs of UC can easily be confused with urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Diagnosis and treatment are challenging given the lack of disease-specific markers and treatments. The S100A8/A9 complex and S100A12 protein are Ca[2+]-binding proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system and have shown promise as urinary screening markers for UC. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can also aid in distinguishing certain neoplastic from inflammatory conditions. Our study aimed to evaluate the tissue expression of S100/calgranulins and the blood NLR in dogs with UC. Urinary bladder and/or urethral tissue samples from dogs with UC (n = 10), non-neoplastic inflammatory lesions (NNUTD; n = 6), and no histologic changes (n = 11) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Blood NLRs were analyzed in dogs with UC (n = 22) or NNUTD (n = 26).

RESULTS: Tissue S100A12-positive cell counts were significantly higher in dogs with lower urinary tract disease than healthy controls (P = 0.0267 for UC, P = 0.0049 for NNUTD), with no significant difference between UC and NNUTD patients. Tissue S100A8/A9-positivity appeared to be higher with NNUTD than UC, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The S100A8/A9[+]-to-S100A12[+] ratio was significantly decreased in neoplastic and inflamed lower urinary tract tissue compared to histologically normal specimens (P = 0.0062 for UC, P = 0.0030 for NNUTD). NLRs were significantly higher in dogs with UC than in dogs with NNUTD, and a cut-off NLR of ≤ 2.83 distinguished UC from NNUTD with 41% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Higher NLRs were also associated with a poor overall survival time (P = 0.0417).

CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that the S100/calgranulins play a role in the immune response to inflammatory and neoplastic lower urinary tract diseases in dogs, but the tissue expression of these proteins appears to differ from their concentrations reported in urine samples. Further investigations of the S100/calgranulin pathways in UC and their potential as diagnostic or prognostic tools and potential therapeutic targets are warranted. The NLR as a routinely available marker might be a useful surrogate to distinguish UC from inflammatory conditions.

RevDate: 2022-11-21
CmpDate: 2022-11-21

Uttamamul N, Suksawat M, Phetcharaburanin J, et al (2022)

1H NMR metabolic profiling of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from canine uroliths.

PloS one, 17(11):e0277808.

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a urease-producing bacteria which is a major cause of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) urolithiasis in canine. A positive urolith culture is an important risk factor for MAP urolithiasis in canine. The mechanism underlying the metabolic changes of S. pseudintermedius after crystallization in artificial urine (AU) needs more defined baseline metabolic information. Therefore, we extensively investigated the metabolic changes of S. pseudintermedius extensively after crystallization in AU. A high urease activity and positive biofilm formation strain, entitled the S. pseudintermedius (SPMAP09) strain, was isolated from canine MAP uroliths, and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics. The molecular mechanism-specific metabolic phenotypes were clearly observed after crystallization in AU at day 3. The crystals induced by SPMAP09 were also confirmed and the major chemical composition identified as struvite. Interestingly, our findings demonstrated that a total of 11 identified metabolites were significantly changed. The levels of formate, homocarnosine, tyrosine, cis-aconitate, glycolate, ethyl malonate, valine and acetate level were significantly higher, accompanied with decreased levels of inosine, glucose, and threonine at day 3 compared with the initial time-point (day 0). In addition, our results exhibited that the glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism was significantly related to the SPMAP09 strain at day 3 in AU. Thus, metabolic changes of the SPMAP09 strain after crystallization in AU potentially helps to explain the preliminary molecular mechanism for the crystals induced by S. pseudintermedius.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Tabbì M, Rifici C, Cicero L, et al (2022)

Nontraumatic Paraureteral Urinoma in a Cat with Urolithiasis.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(21):.

Urinoma is an encapsulated collection of urine due to a disruption in the collection system of the urinary tract. This condition is rarely reported in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and diagnostic findings of a well-encapsulated paraureteral urinoma associated with urinary tract stones in a critical feline patient. The ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed a well-defined collection of anechoic fluid containing the left kidney in the retroperitoneal space, while the radiographic examination revealed a loss of soft tissue contrast in the lumbar region. Both techniques confirmed the presence of stones in the bladder. Following the ultrasound-guided drainage of the lesion, the nature of the fluid was also confirmed to be urine. Due to the worsening of the cat's health, to better define the extent and genesis of the lesion, a positive contrast radiographic study was performed by means of an ultrasound-guided percutaneous injection of a contrast medium into the lesion, which highlighted a wide and homogeneous radiopaque area in the left retroperitoneal space. These findings were confirmed with a postmortem examination, corroborating the diagnostic suspicion of urinoma. The percutaneous contrast inoculation performed in this critically ill patient plays a role in the diagnostic process to reach a final diagnosis in cases in which the patient's clinical condition does not allow for performing an excretory positive contrast study.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Hadpech S, Peerapen P, V Thongboonkerd (2022)

Alpha-tubulin relocalization is involved in calcium oxalate-induced tight junction disruption in renal epithelial cells.

Chemico-biological interactions, 368:110236.

Microtubule (MT) is associated with tight junction (TJ) structure and function. While calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) commonly causes TJ disruption, its effects on MT remain unknown. This study thus addressed the involvement of a major MT protein, α-tubulin, in COM-induced TJ disruption. Protein-protein interactions analysis demonstrated that α-tubulin directly interacted with a TJ protein, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). MDCK renal cells were polarized and incubated with COM crystals for 48 h. Western blotting showed that COM reduced ZO-1, but not α-tubulin, level. Immunofluorescence staining revealed COM-induced relocalization of α-tubulin from apical membranes to cytoplasm and ZO-1 disruption at cell borders. COM also mediated progressive fall of epithelial barrier function, represented by transepithelial resistance (TER), which reached the lowest at 12-h till the end of crystal exposure. Pretreatment of the cells with docetaxel, the MT/tubulin stabilizer, completely prevented such α-tubulin relocalization, ZO-1 disruption/down-regulation, and TER reduction. These data indicate that α-tubulin relocalization is involved in COM-induced TJ disruption in renal epithelial cells.

RevDate: 2022-12-03
CmpDate: 2022-12-01

Job C, Lecavalier J, Dunn M, et al (2022)

Comparison of percutaneous cystolithotomy and open cystotomy for removal of urethral and bladder uroliths in dogs: Retrospective study of 81 cases (2014-2018).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 36(6):2063-2070.

OBJECTIVE: Compare percutaneous cystolithotomy (PCCL) and open cystotomy (OC) for removal of bladder and urethral uroliths.

DESIGN: Retrospective study.

ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs and cats that underwent PCCL (n = 41) or OC (n = 40) between January 1, 2014 and February 28, 2018 at a referral center.

METHODS: Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent a PCCL or an OC were reviewed. History, signalment, physical examination, diagnostic tests, length of the procedure and anesthesia, complications, and duration of hospitalization were recorded.

RESULTS: A total 17 cats (PCCL = 10; OC = 7) and 64 dogs (PCCL = 31; OC = 33) were included. There was no significant difference, regardless of species, in the mean surgical time (45 min [24-160 min] and 48.5 min [15-122 min] with P = .54 in dogs, P = .65 in cats) nor mean duration of anesthesia (90 min [50-120 min] and 98 min [54-223 min] with P = .87 in dogs, P = .08 in cats) in the PCCL and OC groups respectively. Number of uroliths did not affect duration of surgery in either group. Complete urolith removal was achieved in 98% of dogs and cats in both groups. The median hospitalization time was significantly shorter in the PCCL group for dogs (11.3 hours [range 4 to 51.3] in the PCCL vs 56.6 hours [range 7.3 to 96] in the OC group; P < .001) but did not differ for cats (24.5 hours [range 8.3 to 30] in the PCCL vs 56.6 hours [range 10.1 to 193.2] in the OC group; P = .08).

Bladder urolith removal by PCCL procedure is no longer than OC. Further studies are needed to compare the pain related to procedure between PCCL and OC.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Park J, Jang K, Jo HM, et al (2022)

Laparoscopic attenuation of a congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a dog-a thin-film banding for splenophrenic shunt: A case report.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 9:918153.

A 6-year-old castrated male Shih-Tzu dog weighing 6. 5 kg presented with chief complaints of pollakiuria and urine dribbling. He had a history of urolithiasis for 3 years, which was confirmed by the presence of ammonium urate in the urinary stone analysis, performed 2 years prior to the presentation. Blood examination showed high values of fasting ammonia, post-prandial bile acid, and low blood urea nitrogen. Microhepatica and urolithiasis were identified on plain radiography and ultrasonography. A computed tomography angiography demonstrated a shunting vessel, diameter up to 9.6 mm, originated from the splenic vein, and linked with the phrenic vein. A surgical attenuation with a thin-film banding was performed under laparoscopic visualization. Left triangular ligament was incised, and one stay suture was placed to the stomach to expose the vessel. The shunting vessel was dissected before it entered the diaphragm, and a thin-film band was applied around the vessel. The patient recovered uneventfully without post-attenuation neurologic signs. Portal vein diameter increased with time, and complete closure of the shunting vessel was identified on computed tomography angiography performed at 14 months after attenuation. The patient was doing well for 31 months after surgery without protein restriction. This is a report of laparoscopic attenuation for splenophrenic type of canine congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt with a favorable outcome using thin-film banding.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-11

Waite LA, Hahn AM, Sturgeon GL, et al (2022)


Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 53(3):578-582.

This article summarizes urinary stone submissions from foxes in human care to the Minnesota Urolith Center over 40 years. A previous report documented the analysis of uroliths from foxes that were submitted between 1981 and 2007.[13] New data compiled from 2008 to 2021 included an additional 38 stones submitted from foxes, totaling 65 fox urolith submissions from 1981 to 2021. Struvite and cystine uroliths were most common, with the remainder comprised of calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, compound, mixed, or miscellaneous material. Most stones were submitted from male foxes. Seventy-two percent of the stones were urocystoliths, and from 2010 to 2021, most stones were diagnosed antemortem and removed surgically. More than half of the stones were submitted from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda). Urolithiasis in foxes may be an underrecognized condition, and data from this study suggest that clinicians should consider routine urinalysis and diagnostic imaging as part of the preventive medicine program for fox species, especially red foxes and fennec foxes.

RevDate: 2022-12-03
CmpDate: 2022-12-01

Kurtz M, Desquilbet L, Maire J, et al (2022)

Alendronate treatment in cats with persistent ionized hypercalcemia: A retrospective cohort study of 20 cases.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 36(6):1921-1930.

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available concerning treatment of ionized hypercalcemia in cats.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Describe clinical findings in a cohort of cats with persistent ionized hypercalcemia and evaluate long-term tolerance and efficacy of alendronate in these patients.

ANIMALS: Twenty cats with persistent ionized hypercalcemia of undetermined origin, presented for routine or referral consultation at the teaching hospital of Maisons-Alfort (France).

METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Cats were divided into Group 1 (cats that received alendronate as well as other treatments, n = 11) and Group 2 (cats that did not receive alendronate, n = 9). Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard models) was conducted to compare time to selected outcomes.

RESULTS: Azotemia was present in 15 cats (75%). Alendronate treatment was administered and well tolerated during the entire follow-up period (median, 9.5 months; interquartile range [IQR], 6.3; 27) in all cats from Group 1, except in 1 cat that developed severe hypophosphatemia, prompting treatment discontinuation. Univariate analysis determined that alendronate treatment was significantly associated with shorter time to reach a 15% decrease in ionized calcium concentration (iCa) from baseline during follow-up (119 days vs median not reached, P = .02). This association was no longer significant after adjustment for age and initial iCa.

Alendronate overall was well tolerated with chronic use in this cohort, and can be considered a treatment option for persistent ionized hypercalcemia in cats.

RevDate: 2022-10-31
CmpDate: 2022-10-31

Wesson JA, Zenka R, Lulich J, et al (2022)

Comparison of cat and human calcium oxalate monohydrate kidney stone matrix proteomes.

Urolithiasis, 50(6):653-664.

Despite its critical nature, the role of matrix in calcium oxalate stone formation is poorly understood. The wide diversity of proteins comprising matrix has contributed to the ambiguity. This study compares the protein distributions measured by mass spectrometry in human calcium oxalate stone matrix to that observed in cat stone matrix, because cats share many clinical characteristics of their stone disease with humans. The observed protein distributions were analyzed in the context of a recent model based on the aggregation of strongly anionic and strongly cationic proteins which includes selective adsorption of other proteins based on total charge. Matrix protein distributions shared many common features between species, including enrichment of both strongly anionic and strongly cationic proteins, increased total charge in matrix proteins compared to urine proteins, and a high degree of similarity of prominent strongly anionic proteins in the matrix of both species. However, there was weaker overlap of the specific dominant proteins in other regions of the net charge distribution. Collectively, these observations support the conceptual model where the strongly anionic proteins associate most strongly with the calcium oxalate crystal surfaces, while the other proteins associate with the strongly anionic proteins through non-specific, charge interactions with each other to create stones. Also, cats appear to be the best animal model of human stone disease identified to date based on these similarities.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-26

Faria LA, Meirelles AÉWB, Froes TR, et al (2022)

Comparison of radiographic methods for detecting radiolucent uroliths in dogs.

PloS one, 17(9):e0274087.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare positive cystography techniques at 5%, 10%, and 20%, as well as three different double-contrast protocols for detecting radiolucent uroliths with a diameter of less than 3.0 mm in dogs. Six cadavers were used, one was selected at random to represent the negative control, and the others were submitted to urolith implantation in the bladder by urethral catheter. Three radiology professionals blindly accessed ventrodorsal and -lateral projections of each test. Contrast at 20% showed greater diagnostic sensitivity, but with greater difficulty identifying the number and size of the uroliths. Consequently, double-contrast techniques are better and should be used for diagnostic and therapeutic planning. Sensitivity and specificity tests demonstrated that positive 5% cystography and different concentrations of double contrast obtained better results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, due to the presence of a greater amount of artifacts in the 5% cystography, it is suggested that double contrast is used for this purpose, especially with the removal of contrast excess (protocol 2).

RevDate: 2022-10-12
CmpDate: 2022-10-03

Bruwier A, Godart B, Gatel L, et al (2022)

Computed tomographic assessment of retrograde urohydropropulsion in male dogs and prediction of stone composition using Hounsfield unit in dogs and cats.

Journal of veterinary science, 23(5):e65.

BACKGROUND: Persistent uroliths after a cystotomy in dogs are a common cause of surgical failure.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the following: the success rate of retrograde urohydropropulsion in male dogs using non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), whether the CT mean beam attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (mHU) measured in vivo could predict the urolithiasis composition and whether the selected reconstruction kernel may influence the measured mHU.

METHODS: All dogs and cats that presented with lower urinary tract uroliths and had a non-enhanced CT preceding surgery were included. In male dogs, CT was performed after retrograde urohydropropulsion to detect the remaining urethral calculi. The percentage and location of persistent calculi were recorded. The images were reconstructed using three kernels, from smooth to ultrasharp, and the calculi mHU were measured.

RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were included in the study. The success rate of retrograde urohydropropulsion in the 45 male dogs was 55.6% and 86.7% at the first and second attempts, respectively. The predominant components of the calculi were cystine (20), struvite (15), calcium oxalate (8), and urate (7). The convolution kernel influenced the mHU values (p < 0.05). The difference in mHU regarding the calculus composition was better assessed using the smoother kernel. A mHU greater than 1,000 HU was predictive of calcium oxalate calculi.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-enhanced CT is useful for controlling the success of retrograde urohydropropulsion. The mHU could allow a prediction of the calculus composition, particularly for calcium oxalate, which may help determine the therapeutic strategy.

RevDate: 2022-08-23
CmpDate: 2022-08-16

Jewell DE, Tavener SK, Hollar RL, et al (2022)

Metabolomic changes in cats with renal disease and calcium oxalate uroliths.

Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society, 18(8):68.

INTRODUCTION: There is a significant incidence of cats with renal disease (RD) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney uroliths in domesticated cats. Foods which aid in the management of these diseases may be enhanced through understanding the underlying metabolomic changes.

OBJECTIVE: Assess the metabolomic profile with a view to identifying metabolomic targets which could aid in the management of renal disease and CaOx uroliths.

METHOD: This is a retrospective investigation of 42 cats: 19 healthy kidney controls, 11 with RD, and 12 that formed CaOx nephroliths. Cats were evaluated as adults (2 through 7 years) and at the end of life for plasma metabolomics, body composition, and markers of renal dysfunction. Kidney sections were assessed by Pizzolato stain at the end of life for detection of CaOx crystals. CaOx stone presence was also assessed by analysis of stones removed from the kidney at the end of life.

RESULTS: There were 791 metabolites identified with 91 having significant (p < 0.05, q < 0.1) changes between groups. Many changes in metabolite concentrations could be explained by the loss of renal function being most acute in the cats with RD while the cats with CaOx stones were intermediate between control and RD (e.g., urea, creatinine, pseudouridine, dimethylarginines). However, the concentrations of some metabolites differentiated RD from CaOx stone forming cats. These were either increased in the RD cats (e.g., cystathionine, dodecanedioate, 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl) uridine, 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine) or comparatively increased in the CaOx stone forming cats (phenylpyruvate, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, alpha-ketobutyrate, retinal).

CONCLUSIONS: The metabolomic changes show specific metabolites which respond generally to both renal diseases while the metabolomic profile still differentiates cats with RD and cats with CaOx uroliths.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Ichii O, Oyamada K, Mizukawa H, et al (2022)

Ureteral morphology and pathology during urolithiasis in cats.

Research in veterinary science, 151:10-20.

Cats exhibit high susceptibility to urinary organ-related diseases. We investigated the healthy ureter morphologies and compared these with ureters that were surgically resected distal to a urolithiasis obstruction in cats. Healthy ureters (total length 9.88 ± 0.38 cm) developed adventitia composed of collagen fibers (ADCF), containing a longitudinal muscular layer, toward the distal segment. The healthy ureter was the smallest in the middle segment (4.71-6.90 cm from the urinary bladder) with significantly decreased luminal and submucosal areas compared to those in the proximal segment. Diseased cats exhibited a high incidence of calcium oxalate urolithiasis with renal dysfunction, regardless of age, sex, and body size. Diseased ureters showed increased perimeters, inflammation, and decreased nerves in ADCF. Collagen fibers were increased in the submucosal area, intermuscular spaces, and ADCF, particularly near the obstructed lesion. The mean resected ureter length was 5.66 ± 0.49 cm, suggesting a high obstruction risk in the middle segment. The middle segment also increased the cross-sectional area of the ureter and ADCF, regardless of the distance from the obstructed lesion. The ureters in several cases either lacked the transitional epithelium, or exhibited transitional epithelial hyperplasia, and some of these formed the mucosal folds. In conclusion, we demonstrated the following characteristics and histopathological features of cat ureters: decreases in the ureter size, lumen area, and submucosa area from proximal to middle segment in healthy; ADCF changes in urolithiasis, including increased connective tissues with inflammation and decreased nerves. These data are important to understand the pathogenesis of feline ureteral obstruction.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-26

Coffey EL, Gomez AM, Burton EN, et al (2022)

Characterization of the urogenital microbiome in Miniature Schnauzers with and without calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 36(4):1341-1352.

BACKGROUND: Calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths are common in dogs. Humans with CaOx urolithiasis exhibit alterations of the urinary and urogenital microbiomes that might mediate urolith formation. Detection of urogenital microbes associated with CaOx in dogs could inform disease pathophysiology.

OBJECTIVE: To identify compositional differences in the urogenital microbiome of Miniature Schnauzers with and without CaOx uroliths.

ANIMALS: Nineteen midstream, voided urine samples from Miniature Schnauzers with (n = 9) and without (n = 10) a history of CaOx urolithiasis.

METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study. Microbial DNA was extracted from previously frozen urine samples and sequenced for the bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions. Diversity and composition of microbial populations were compared between urolith formers and controls.

RESULTS: Alpha and beta diversity measures were similar between groups. Five individual bacterial taxa differed in abundance (indicator values >0.5 and P < .05): Acinetobacter, 2 Geobacillus variants, and Hydrogenophaga were overrepresented in the urine of urolith formers, and Sphingopyxis was overrepresented in controls. Two distinct subtypes of urine microbial composition were observed based on beta diversity measures, independent of urolith status, and other clinical variables.

Although we did not detect a difference in the overall urogenital microbial composition between groups, observed differences in individual bacterial taxa might be clinically relevant. For example, Acinetobacter was overrepresented in urolith formers and is associated with CaOx urolithiasis in humans. Two unique clusters of the microbiome were identified, independent of urolith status, which may represent distinct urotypes present in Miniature Schnauzers.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Hoelmer AM, Lulich JP, Rendahl AK, et al (2022)

Prevalence and Predictors of Radiographically Apparent Upper Urinary Tract Urolithiasis in Eight Dog Breeds Predisposed to Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis and Mixed Breed Dogs.

Veterinary sciences, 9(6):.

Data on upper urinary tract (UUT) uroliths in dogs are important to understanding their etiology. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine the prevalence and identify predictors of radiographically apparent UUT uroliths in dog breeds at increased risk for calcium oxalate uroliths (CaOx risk breeds) and mixed breed dogs. Radiologist reports of three-view abdominal radiographs were reviewed from 251 purebred dogs of 8 CaOx risk breeds and 68 mixed breed dogs. UUT uroliths were more common in CaOx risk breeds than mixed breed dogs (23% versus 6%, respectively; OR = 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-18.9, p < 0.001). UUT uroliths were more common in dogs with lower urinary tract (LUT) uroliths (predominantly calcium-containing) than those without (41% versus 5%, respectively; OR = 13.6, 95% CI 6.3-33.1, p < 0.001), and LUT uroliths predicted the presence of UUT uroliths in the multivariable regression (OR = 6.5, 95% CI 2.8-16.7, p < 0.001). Increasing age (p < 0.001) and lower body weight (p = 0.0016) were also predictors of UUT urolith presence in the multivariable regression. The high prevalence of UUT uroliths in dogs with LUT uroliths supports a shared mechanism for their formation.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Breu D, E Müller (2022)

[Feline uroliths: Analysis of frequency and epidemiology in Germany (2016-2020)].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 50(2):102-111.

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to assess the distribution and frequency of uroliths in cats as well as to evaluate gender-, age-, and breed-specific differences.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 3629 uroliths from cats in Germany were analyzed by infrared-spectroscopy during the period 2016-2020. The majority (3300) of the uroliths originated from purebred cats of 22 breeds.

RESULTS: Uroliths were prevalent in the order of male neutered (45.3 %), female spayed (35.3 %), male intact (7.4 %), and female intact cats (6.3 %). Median age of the cats with uroliths was 7 years, although it varied slightly depending on types of the urolith. The most frequent uroliths were calcium oxalate (59.5 %), followed by struvite (33.7 %), ammonium urate (2 %), calcium phosphate (1.7 %), cystine (0.7 %) and xanthine (0.4 %). Males (59.4 %) and females (59.2 %) showed nearly identical prevalence of calcium oxalates, whereas it significantly diverged in castrated (60.2 %) versus intact animals (54.4 %; p = 0.01). With regard to struvites, male cats (32.6 %) were less prone than females (35.4 %; p = 0.08) while intact cats (38.2 %) significantly outnumbered the castrated cohorts (33.1 %; p = 0.02). The prevalence for calcium oxalate uroliths increased by 6.6 % during the study period, contrasting a decrease of 5.5 % for struvites. Some breeds (> 10 individuals) showed significantly higher propensities than others for urolith formation. Calcium oxalates were significantly more frequent in British shorthair cats (85.2 %), Ragdoll (75 %), Scottish fold (74.1 %) and Persians (72.4 %). Struvites were prevailing in Norwegian forest cats (48.5 %), British longhair (41.7 %), European shorthair (41.7 %) and Siberian forest cats (36.8 %). Siamese cats had the significantly highest percentage of cystine uroliths (16 %).

The occurrence of urine calculi in cats from Germany was found to be most frequent for calcium oxalate and struvite types. We also found breed-, age-, gender- specific differences in addition to variations depending on the neutering status of the animals.

RevDate: 2022-08-02
CmpDate: 2022-05-04

Ho J, J Lavallée (2022)

Obstructive struvite ureterolithiasis in 4-month-old intact male Bernese mountain dog.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 63(5):504-509.

A 4-month-old, 7 kg, intact male, Bernese mountain dog was presented for obstructive struvite ureterolithiasis. Multiple urethroliths, ureteroliths, and urocystoliths were present. Based on an abdominal ultrasound, there was severe left hydronephrosis and hydroureter from distal ureterolith obstruction, just proximal to the vesicoureteral junction. The dog was not azotemic. Successful treatment was accomplished via ventral cystotomy. Bladder wall culture revealed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. No predisposing cause was identified. There are no known genetic predispositions in Bernese mountain dogs for struvite urolithiasis. The urinary tract infection resolved with surgical retrieval of the uroliths and antibiotic treatment. The dog remained clinically normal after the cystotomy but developed a subclinical urinary tract infection 4 mo post-operatively. Key clinical message: Urolithiasis is rare in pediatric veterinary patients. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of obstructive ureterolithiasis in a puppy. There is no known genetic predisposition for urolithiasis in Bernese mountain dogs.

RevDate: 2022-06-17
CmpDate: 2022-06-02

Hsu HH, Ueno S, Miyakawa H, et al (2022)

Upper urolithiasis in cats with chronic kidney disease: prevalence and investigation of serum and urinary calcium concentrations.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 24(6):e70-e75.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to define the prevalence of upper urolithiasis in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a referral population, and to compare urinary calcium:creatinine ratio (UCa:Cr), and total and ionised calcium between cats with CKD with and without upper urolithiasis.

METHODS: The medical records of cats diagnosed with CKD were reviewed for signalment, body weight, diet and prevalence of upper urolithiasis. Cats with preserved urine samples were further classified into two groups: urolithiasis group (upper urolithiasis identified by abdominal ultrasonography) and control group (CKD of unknown origin). Serum biochemical analysis, CKD stage, blood gas analysis, urine specific gravity and UCa:Cr were compared between groups using a two-sample t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variable and a χ[2] test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors.

RESULTS: Among the 140 cats with CKD, the prevalence of upper urolithiasis was 73%. Fifty cats (5, 29 and 16 cats with CKD stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively) with urine samples met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Among cats with CKD, being purebred (odds ratio [OR] = 81.56; P = 0.03) and being fed dry food only (OR = 25.06; P = 0.001) were identified as independent upper urolithiasis risk factors; those with upper urolithiasis were more likely to be exclusively fed with urine-acidifying food (P <0.001) and have increased serum ionised calcium (iCa) (P = 0.044), fractional excretion of calcium (P = 0.45) and UCa:Cr (P = 0.005) than cats with CKD without upper urolithiasis.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cats with CKD that were purebred, fed dry food and fed urine-acidifying food only often had upper urolithiasis. A higher UCa:Cr may be a result of increased serum iCa and may cause upper urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2022-03-30

Tsamouri MM, Durbin-Johnson BP, Culp WTN, et al (2022)

Untargeted Metabolomics Identify a Panel of Urinary Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder, as Compared to Urolithiasis with or without Urinary Tract Infection in Dogs.

Metabolites, 12(3):.

Urothelial carcinoma (UC), the most common urologic cancer in dogs, is often diagnosed late because the clinical signs are shared by other non-malignant lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD). The urine-based BRAF[V595E] test for UC is highly effective only in certain breeds; hence additional non-invasive biomarkers of UC are needed. Here, urine from dogs with UC (n = 27), urolithiasis (n = 8), or urolithiasis with urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 8) were subjected to untargeted metabolomics analyses, using GC-TOF-MS for primary metabolites, QTOF-MS for complex lipids, and HILIC-QTOF MS for secondary and charged metabolites. After adjusting for age and sex, we identified 1123 known metabolites that were differentially expressed between UC and LUTD. Twenty-seven metabolites were significant (1.5 ≤ log2FC ≤ -1.5, adjusted p-value < 0.05); however, 10 of these could be attributed to treatment-related changes. Of the remaining 17, 6 (hippuric acid, N-Acetylphenylalanine, sarcosine, octanoylcarnitine, N-alpha-methylhistamine, glycerol-3-galactoside) discriminated between UC and LUTD (area under the ROC curve > 0.85). Of the 6 metabolites, only hippuric acid and N-alpha-methylhistamine were discriminatory in both male (n = 20) and female (n = 23) dogs, while sarcosine was an effective discriminator in several breeds, but only in females. Further investigation of these metabolites is warranted for potential use as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers of dogs with UC that present with LUTD-related clinical signs.

RevDate: 2022-03-15
CmpDate: 2022-03-15

Jesus L, Arenas C, Domínguez-Ruiz M, et al (2022)

Xanthinuria secondary to allopurinol treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis: Current perspectives of the Iberian veterinary community.

Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 83:101783.

Xanthinuria is a significant adverse effect in dogs on long-term allopurinol for treatment of leishmaniosis. The study aims to investigate how the Iberian veterinary community (IVC) identifies, manages, and proactively prevents xanthinuria secondary to allopurinol treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey, translated into two languages, and disseminated to the IVC via social networking forums. Respondents were asked to share their treatment regimens, adverse effects attributed to treatment, as well as preventive and reactive measures against xanthuria. Of two-hundred and thirty respondents, 99.6% prescribe allopurinol for canine leishmaniosis. Xanthinuria was estimated to happen in less than one out of every four dogs by 91.7% of the clinicians. Xanthinuria has been detected by 71.6% of respondents at least once. Three out of every four respondents inform owners about deleterious effects of allopurinol, and 28.4% consider implementing a change in diet in advance of treatment as a proactive measure. To monitor xanthinuria, urinalysis and diagnostic imaging are used by 71.2% and 31% of clinicians respectively. When xanthinuria is detected, 43.2% of the respondents discontinue allopurinol, 24% replace it by nucleotide-analogs, 14.9% reduce its dosage, and 3.1% split its dosage but increase administration frequency. Additional measures are taken by 72.1% of the respondents, 59.4% of whom prescribe a low-purine diet. The IVC recognizes xanthinuria as a fairly common secondary effect of long-term allopurinol treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis and recommends periodically monitoring and preventive measures.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-12

Lew LJ, Berent AC, Kirsch MS, et al (2022)

Bladder wall adhesion causing a vesicular septum in a dog following surgical cystotomy.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 260(7):1-8.

CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier-Poodle dog was evaluated for persistent pollakiuria and stranguria following routine cystotomy for calcium oxalate cystoliths.

CLINICAL FINDINGS: The dog presented for a cystotomy with intermittent hematuria. Postoperative radiographs revealed no remaining cystoliths. Urine, cystolith, and bladder mucosal aerobic cultures were negative. Pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria developed immediately after surgery and persisted despite antibiotics. Ultrasound revealed suspected fibrous adhesions within the urinary bladder lumen connecting the dorsal and ventral bladder wall creating a septum. This was confirmed cystoscopically 4 weeks after surgery.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was performed to incise abnormal tissue connecting the ventral and dorsal bladder wall using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Three weeks later, ultrasound revealed adhesion resolution though mild pollakiuria and stranguria persisted. Oxybutynin was prescribed and clinical signs resolved. At 27 months after ablation, hematuria occurred with recurrent cystoliths. These cystoliths were removed by percutaneous cystolithotomy, documenting a cystoscopically normal bladder wall. The patient had normal urination for 55.5 months after ablation, with normal bladder wall thickness on ultrasound repeated at 27 and 36 months after ablation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To the authors' knowledge, an adhesion creating a septum between the dorsal and ventral bladder wall has not been previously reported as a complication after cystotomy in any species and should be considered as a cause of persistent lower urinary signs after surgery. Ultrasound identified the lesion in this dog. Because bladder abnormalities can develop quickly after surgery, ultrasound might be considered if urine testing is not supportive of infection. Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was a successful minimally invasive treatment in this case.

RevDate: 2022-02-10

Blanchard G, Amato C, André A, et al (2022)

Beneficial effects of a prescription home-prepared diet and of zucchini on urine calcium oxalate supersaturation and urinary parameters in adult cats.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: From the authors' experience, the consumption of a balanced prescription home-prepared diet that includes zucchini (courgette) benefits cats with recurrent urolithiasis, but there is no published evidence to support this. The aim was to study the effects on urinary parameters of (1) a balanced prescription home-prepared diet containing zucchini, and (2) the addition of zucchini to a dry food, compared with two commercial therapeutic diets.

METHODS: Eight healthy cats were included in a Latin-square designed protocol. Five diets were evaluated: two commercial diets, designed for cats with urinary disorders, one high-moisture (U-WET) and one high-sodium dry (U-DRY); one home-prepared diet (HOME); one commercial dry food for adult maintenance (DRY); and DRY given together with 10 g of zucchini per kg body weight (DRY-Zuc). After a 7-day adaptation period, urine was collected and daily food and water intakes were assessed for 12 days. Urinary parameters, and relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite, were determined. Data underwent repeated measures ANOVA analysis.

RESULTS: The digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein and fat was highest with the HOME diet. CaOx RSS was lowest in cats eating the HOME diet, but not significantly different from the U-WET or U-DRY diets. CaOx RSS was lower in cats eating the DRY-Zuc diet than in cats eating the DRY diet. Struvite RSS did not differ significantly among groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study shows that a balanced prescription home-prepared diet was safe and allowed a very low urinary CaOx RSS. It also showed that adding zucchini to dry food lowered the urine CaOx RSS.

RevDate: 2022-02-08

Miyakawa H, Hsu HH, Ogawa M, et al (2022)

Association between serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations and blood calcium levels in chronic kidney disease cats with upper urolithiasis.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 concentrations are associated with serum total calcium (tCa) and blood ionised calcium (iCa) concentrations in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and upper urolithiasis.

METHODS: Serum samples and the medical records of cats with CKD with nephroliths, ureteroliths or both were investigated retrospectively. Cats with a serum creatinine concentration >250 μmol/l and/or a serum phosphorus concentration ⩾1.50 mmol/l were excluded. Based on cut-offs for serum tCa (2.70 mmol/l) or blood iCa (1.40 mmol/l), cats were divided into the following groups: total hypercalcaemia (H-tCa) (>2.70 mmol/l) and total normocalcaemia (N-tCa) (⩽2.70 mmol/l) groups, or ionised hypercalcaemia (H-iCa) (>1.40 mmol/l) and ionised normocalcaemia (N-iCa) (⩽1.40 mmol/l) groups, respectively. Serum FGF-23 concentrations were compared between groups and correlation analysis was performed.

RESULTS: Thirty-two cats with CKD and upper urolithiasis were included. Serum FGF-23 concentrations in the H-tCa group (median 573 pg/ml [range 125-3888]; n = 12) were significantly higher compared with the N-tCa group (median 245 pg/ml [range 94-627]; n = 20) (P = 0.001). Serum FGF-23 concentrations in the H-iCa group (median 1479 pg/ml [range 509-3888]; n = 6) increased significantly compared with the N-iCa group (median 245 pg/ml [range 94-637]; n = 26) (P <0.001). Serum FGF-23 concentrations significantly correlated with serum tCa (r = 0.511, P = 0.003) and blood iCa concentrations (r = 0.425, P = 0.015) but not serum creatinine (r = 0.279, P = 0.122) or phosphorus concentrations (r = 0.208, P = 0.253).Conclusions and relevance Increased serum FGF-23 concentrations were associated with hypercalcaemia independently of creatinine and phosphate status in cats with CKD and upper urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2022-02-08
CmpDate: 2022-02-04

Uttamamul N, Jitpean S, Lulitanond A, et al (2022)

Risk factors for canine magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis associated with bacterial infection.

Journal of veterinary science, 23(1):e6.

BACKGROUND: With limited information available, the association among urinary tract infections, urease-producing bacteria and the presence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) urolithiasis in canines in Thailand requires more study.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between demographic characteristics of canines and the presence of MAP urolithiasis in canines, and to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from canine uroliths.

METHODS: A total of 56 canines admitted for treatment with surgical removal of uroliths were recruited. Demographic characteristics and clinical chemistry data were recorded. Bacteria isolated from the removed uroliths were identified. Chemical compositions of the uroliths were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Potential risk factors were determined with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses.

RESULTS: Of 56 canine urolithiasis, bacteria were isolated from uroliths of 38 canines (27 MAP and 11 non-MAP) but not from uroliths of 18 canines (5 MAP and 13 non-MAP). The most common bacteria found in nidus of MAP uroliths was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (approximately 51%). An antimicrobial resistance was frequently found in Staphylococci isolates (42.86%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the predictors of MAP urolith in canine urolithiasis were being female (p = 0.044; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 10.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-98.24) and the positive urolith culture (p = 0.012; adjusted OR, 8.60; 95% CI, 1.60-46.30).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that S. pseudintermedius (a urease-producing bacterium) is the major causative bacteria of MAP uroliths. A positive urolith culture and being female are risk factors of MAP urolithiasis in canines.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-07

Anonymous (2021)

[Not Available].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 49(6):475.

RevDate: 2022-02-02
CmpDate: 2022-01-25

Paulin MV, Dunn M, Vachon C, et al (2022)

Association between hyperlipidemia and calcium oxalate lower urinary tract uroliths in dogs.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 36(1):146-155.

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is associated with formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in humans.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between obesity and hyperlipidemia with CaOx lower urinary tract uroliths in client-owned dogs.

ANIMALS: Dogs with (n = 55, U [uroliths]-dogs) and without (n = 39, UF [uroliths-free]-dogs) CaOx lower urinary tract uroliths.

METHODS: Case-control study. U-dogs were retrospectively enrolled and compared to UF-dogs. Body condition score (BCS; 1-9 scoring scale), serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (CH) concentrations and glycemia (after >12-hour food withholding) were recorded in both groups.

RESULTS: On univariate logistic regression, when excluding Miniature Schnauzers, odds of having uroliths increased by a factor of 3.32 (95% CI 1.38-11.12) for each mmol/L of TG (P = .027), of 39 (95% CI 9.27-293.22) for each mmol/L of glycemia (P < .0001), and of 2.43 (95% CI 1.45-4.45) per unit of BCS (P = .002). In multivariable models, the effect of TG was retained when all breeds were included for analysis and odds of having uroliths increased by a factor of 4.34 per mmol/L of TG (95% CI 1.45-19.99; P = .02).

Serum lipid screening in dogs diagnosed with CaOx uroliths might be recommended to improve their medical staging and management.

RevDate: 2022-02-17
CmpDate: 2022-02-17

Peeters L, Foubert K, Breynaert A, et al (2022)

Effects of medicagenic acid metabolites, originating from biotransformation of an Herniaria hirsuta extract, on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro.

Journal of ethnopharmacology, 285:114860.

Herniaria hirsuta is traditionally used in Moroccan folk medicine for treatment of urinary stones and as a diuretic. It is rich in saponins, which are known to be deglycosylated in the colon, whereafter aglycones such as medicagenic acid are absorbed and further metabolized in the liver.

AIM OF THE STUDY: A sample of hepatic metabolites of medicagenic acid, with medicagenic acid glucuronide as the most abundant one, was evaluated for in vitro activity against urinary stones. A crystallization assay and a crystal-cell interaction assay were used to evaluate in vitro activity of hepatic metabolites of medicagenic acid on CaC2O4 (calciumoxalate) crystals, present in the majority of urinary stones.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the crystallization assay the effects on nucleation of Ca[2+] and C2O4[2-] and aggregation of the CaC2O4 crystals are studied. In the crystal-cell interaction assay crystal retention is investigated by determining the amount of Ca[2+] bound to injured monolayers of MDCK I cells.

RESULTS: Results of the crystallization assay showed a tentative effect on crystal aggregation. The crystal-cell interaction assay showed a significant inhibition of crystal binding, which may reduce crystal retention in the urinary tract.

CONCLUSIONS: As both formation of crystals by inhibiting aggregation and retention of crystals is affected, the beneficial effect of H. hirsuta against urinary stones may at least in part be attributed to medicagenic acid metabolites, indicating that saponins containing medicagenic acid may act as prodrugs.

RevDate: 2022-02-10
CmpDate: 2022-02-10

Rezakahn Khajeh N, Black KM, Daignault-Newton S, et al (2022)

Impact of Pulse Mode on Dusting Effect for Holmium Laser Lithotripsy: In Vitro Evaluation With Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Stones.

Urology, 159:53-58.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of stone fragments (<0.25->2 mm) after in vitro dusting laser lithotripsy with varying pulse modes using canine calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones. Recent work demonstrates that fragments <0.25 mm are ideal for dusting, and we hypothesized advanced pulse modes might improve this outcome.

METHODS: A 3D-printed bulb was used as a calyceal model containing a single COM stone. A 230-core fiber (Lumenis) was passed through a ureteroscope (LithoVue, Boston Scientific). Contact laser lithotripsy by a single operator was performed with dusting settings (0.5J x 30Hz; Moses Pulse120H) to deliver 1kJ of energy for each trial. Short pulse (SP), long pulse (LP), Moses Distance (MD) and Moses Contact (MC) modes were tested with 5 trials for each parameter. Primary outcome was mass of fragments <0.25, <0.5, <1, and <2 mm. Laser fiber tip degradation was measured using a digital caliper.

RESULTS: Mass of stone fragments <0.25 mm varied from 34.6%-43.0% depending on the pulse mode, with no statistically significant differences between modes. MC (98.5%) produced a greater mass of fragments <2 mm compared to LP (86.1%; P = .046) but not SP (92.0%). Significantly less fiber tip burnback occurred with MC (0.29 mm) and MD (0.28 mm), compared to SP (0.83 mm; P < .0005).

CONCLUSION: Regardless of pulse mode, greater than one-third of the mass of COM stone was reduced to fragments <0.25 mm following contact laser lithotripsy. MC produced a greater mass of fragments <2 mm compared to LP and demonstrated less fiber tip burnback compared to SP.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Tate NM, Minor KM, Lulich JP, et al (2021)

Multiple variants in XDH and MOCOS underlie xanthine urolithiasis in dogs.

Molecular genetics and metabolism reports, 29:100792.

Hereditary xanthinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by missense and loss of function variants in the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) or molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MOCOS) genes. The aim of this study was to uncover variants underlying risk for xanthinuria in dogs. Affected dogs included two Manchester Terriers, three Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, an English Cocker Spaniel, a Dachshund, and a mixed-breed dog. Four putative causal variants were discovered: an XDH c.654G > A splice site variant that results in skipping of exon 8 (mixed-breed dog), a MOCOS c.232G > T splice site variant that results in skipping of exon 2 (Manchester Terriers), a MOCOS p.Leu46Pro missense variant (Dachshund), and a MOCOS p.Ala128Glyfs*30 frameshift variant that results in a premature stop codon (Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and English Cocker Spaniel). The two splice site variants suggest that the regions skipped are critical to the respective enzyme function, though protein misfolding is an alternative theory for loss of function. The MOCOS p.Leu46Pro variant has not been previously reported in human or other animal cases and provides novel data supporting this residue as critical to MOCOS function. All variants were present in the homozygous state in affected dogs, indicating an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Allele frequencies of these variants in breed-specific populations ranged from 0 to 0.18. In conclusion, multiple diverse variants appear to be responsible for hereditary xanthinuria in dogs.

RevDate: 2021-11-01
CmpDate: 2021-09-27

Lepold AM, Tesfamichael DH, Hartmann FA, et al (2021)

Comparison of urine fibrinogen and interleukin-6 concentrations between healthy dogs and dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria.

American journal of veterinary research, 82(10):846-852.

OBJECTIVE: To compare urine concentrations of fibrinogen (uFIB) and interleukin-6 (uIL-6) between dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria and healthy dogs.

SAMPLE: Banked urine samples with negative aerobic culture results from 8 dogs with urolithiasis, 9 dogs with anatomic abnormalities of the lower portion of the urinary tract (LUT), 10 dogs with LUT neoplasia, and 21 healthy control dogs.

PROCEDURES: Urine creatinine concentration (uCrea) was determined by an automated biochemical analyzer, and uFIB and uIL-6 were determined by dog-specific ELISAs. The uFIB:uCrea and uIL-6:uCrea ratios were calculated for each sample to normalize intersample differences in urine concentration and were compared among the 4 experimental groups.

RESULTS: Median uFIB:uCrea ratios for dogs with urolithiasis (0.72; interquartile [25th to 75 percentile] range [IQR], 0.46 to 3.48) and LUT neoplasia (6.16; IQR, 3.89 to 12.75), but not for dogs with LUT anatomic abnormalities (0.48; IQR, 0.27 to 0.69), were significantly greater than that for control dogs (0.17; IQR, 0.07 to 0.39). Median uIL-6: uCrea ratios for dogs with urolithiasis (0.48; IQR, 0.18 to 1.61), LUT anatomic abnormalities (0.25; IQR, 0.17 to 0.33), and LUT neoplasia (0.25; IQR, 0.12 to 1.01) were significantly greater than that for control dogs (0.08; IQR, 0.06 to 0.11).

The uFIB and uIL-6 in dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria were generally greater than corresponding values in control dogs. Further investigation is necessary to determine the role of fibrinogen in enterococcal colonization of the urinary tract of dogs.

RevDate: 2021-10-03
CmpDate: 2021-09-30

Wingert AM, Murray OA, Lulich JP, et al (2021)

Efficacy of medical dissolution for suspected struvite cystoliths in dogs.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(5):2287-2295.

BACKGROUND: Medical dissolution of struvite uroliths in dogs is commonly recommended, but data on success rates and complications are limited.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of medical dissolution for suspected struvite cystoliths in dogs.

ANIMALS: Fifty client-owned dogs fed a therapeutic dissolution diet, with or without administration of antimicrobials, for treatment of suspected struvite cystoliths.

METHODS: Single institution, retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with at least 1 follow-up visit. Dissolution success, complications, and possible predictors of success were evaluated.

RESULTS: Full dissolution of cystoliths was achieved in 58% (29/50) of dogs within a median of 35 days (range, 13-167). Of 21 dogs without success, 7 each had partial dissolution, no dissolution, or undetermined outcome. Uroliths containing >10% nonstruvite mineral were common in the nonsuccess group (11/16 analyzed). Maximum urolith diameter, number of uroliths, and baseline urine pH did not differ significantly between dogs with and without success. Dissolution was more likely in dogs receiving antimicrobial therapy (OR = 16.3, 95% confidence interval 1.9-787.4, P = .002). Adverse events occurred in 9 dogs (18%); urethral obstructions were the most common, but 3 of 4 dogs with this complication were obstructed on presentation, before trial initiation.

Results support a medical dissolution trial for dogs with suspected struvite cystoliths. If no reduction in urolith size or number occurs by 1 month, a nonstruvite composition is likely, and alternative interventions should be considered. Dogs presenting with urethral obstructions should not be considered candidates for medical dissolution.

RevDate: 2021-12-21
CmpDate: 2021-12-21

de Campos Fonseca Pinto ACB, Murakami M, Steinbach SML, et al (2021)

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of a hair foreign body in the urinary bladder of a dog.

Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association, 62(6):e25-e28.

A 13-year-old male neutered mixed-breed dog with a history of gallbladder mucocele and urolithiasis was evaluated by ultrasound. Two hyperechoic, linear foreign bodies with no distal acoustic shadowing were detected in the urinary bladder and urethra. Following the ultrasound examination, the patient underwent cystoscopy, and two single hairs were found and successfully retrieved. Considering that urinary bladder foreign bodies may be a source for urinary tract infection and can act as a nidus for urocystolith formation, removal is recommended. This is the first published report describing ultrasonographic diagnosis of a hair foreign body in the canine urinary bladder and urethra.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Kovaříková S, Maršálek P, K Vrbová (2021)

Cystinuria in Dogs and Cats: What Do We Know after Almost 200 Years?.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(8):.

The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on canine and feline cystinuria from available scientific reports. Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic defect characterized by abnormal intestinal and renal amino acid transport in which cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, lysine, and arginine are involved (COLA). At a normal urine pH, ornithine, lysine, and arginine are soluble, but cysteine forms a dimer, cystine, which is relatively insoluble, resulting in crystal precipitation. Mutations in genes coding COLA transporter and the mode of inheritance were identified only in some canine breeds. Cystinuric dogs may form uroliths (mostly in lower urinary tract) which are associated with typical clinical symptoms. The prevalence of cystine urolithiasis is much higher in European countries (up to 14% according to the recent reports) when compared to North America (United States and Canada) where it is approximately 1-3%. Cystinuria may be diagnosed by the detection of cystine urolithiasis, cystine crystalluria, assessment of amino aciduria, or using genetic tests. The management of cystinuria is aimed at urolith removal or dissolution which may be reached by dietary changes or medical treatment. In dogs with androgen-dependent cystinuria, castration will help. In cats, cystinuria occurs less frequently in comparison with dogs.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Hall JA, Vanchina MA, Ogleby B, et al (2021)

Increased Water Viscosity Enhances Water Intake and Reduces Risk of Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation in Cats.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(7):.

The purpose of this study is to determine if water with increased viscosity results in increased water intake, thus lowering the risk of urolithiasis in cats. Twelve healthy adult cats were fed pre-trial standard dry maintenance food for 1 week and then randomized into two groups for the study phase. The cats continued to receive the same food but were provided either control (deionized) water or viscous (1% methylcellulose) water for two months and then switched to the other water type for two months in a cross-over study design with repeated measures. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry profiles, and urinalysis were performed at the initiation of the study and again at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months. Daily water consumption and energy intake for each cat were recorded. Body weights were assessed weekly. Cats consuming 1% methylcellulose water with increased viscosity had increased water intake (p < 0.001; 25% and 21% higher at 28 and 56 days, respectively). Increased consumption of water resulted in lower urine specific gravity (p = 0.04), serum creatinine (p = 0.02), and blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.002) concentrations (without changing serum albumin, glucose, and calcium concentrations or serum osmolality) and decreased urine calcium concentration (p = 0.01) compared with cats consuming control water. In addition, the increased water intake increased (p = 0.05) resistance to oxalate crystal formation.

RevDate: 2022-08-02
CmpDate: 2021-10-25

Saver A, Lulich JP, Van Buren S, et al (2021)

Calcium oxalate urolithiasis in juvenile dogs.

The Veterinary record, 189(3):e141.

BACKGROUND: The features of juvenile-onset calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs have not been previously reported.

METHODS: Calcium oxalate urolith submissions to the Minnesota Urolith Center between 2012 and 2016 were analyzed to identify those originating from juvenile (≤2 years, n = 510) or mature (7-9 years, n = 39,093) dogs. Breed, sex, urolith salt type and urolith location were compared between groups. Breeds represented in both groups were also compared with respect to sex, urolith salt type and urolith location.

RESULTS: French (odds ratios [OR] = 14.7, p < 0.001) and English (OR = 14.3, p < 0.001) Bulldogs were overrepresented in juvenile submissions. All juvenile French and English Bulldogs were male. Across all breeds, juvenile dogs were more likely to be male (89%, p < 0.001) than mature dogs (79%). Juvenile dogs were also more likely to form dihydrate stones compared to mature dogs (33% versus 14%, respectively; p < 0.001). Breed differences were discovered in sex, urolith salt type and stone location.

CONCLUSIONS: French and English Bulldogs comprise a greater proportion of juvenile calcium oxalate urolith submissions than expected based on their rarity in mature submissions. Inherited risk factors, particularly X chromosome variants, should be investigated due to the strong breed and sex predispositions identified.

RevDate: 2022-06-17
CmpDate: 2022-06-02

Mérindol I, Dunn M, C Vachon (2022)

Feline urinary incontinence: a retrospective case series (2009-2019).

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 24(6):506-516.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the feline population presented for urinary incontinence at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2009 and 2019, with a particular focus on cats with a non-neurologic underlying cause.

METHODS: The medical records of cats diagnosed with urinary incontinence were retrospectively evaluated. Signalment, clinical presentation, results of diagnostic tests, diagnosis of the underlying cause and treatments were recorded. When information was available, outcome was recorded and follow-ups divided into three time frames (0-1 week, 1 week to 3 months and >3 months).

RESULTS: Thirty-five cats were presented with urinary incontinence. Of these, 18 cats with complete medical records presented urinary incontinence of non-neurologic origin. The most common clinical signs at presentation were urine leakage while resting (12/18), urine-soiled perineum (8/18), urine dribbling (8/18) and no spontaneous micturition (5/18). The most common underlying cause was urethral obstruction (67%; 12/18), with a majority due to urethral strictures (58%; 7/12). Other causes were suspected inflammation (2/12), neoplasia (1/12), urolithiasis (1/12) and foreign body (1/12). In 8/10 cats in which it was performed, cystoscopy and contrast cystourethrography were the methods that led to the diagnosis. Twelve cats with urethral obstruction underwent interventional procedures, resulting in complete resolution of incontinence in 7/12 and improvement in 1/12. Urinary tract infection was a common complication after 3 months (4/18).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: When incontinence of non-neurologic origin is suspected in a cat, urethral obstruction should be considered. Advanced imaging studies (cystoscopy and contrast studies) are useful for diagnosis. A good prognosis was reported in cats undergoing interventional procedures with no long-term treatment.

RevDate: 2021-12-15
CmpDate: 2021-12-15

Khamchun S, Yoodee S, V Thongboonkerd (2021)

Dual modulatory effects of diosmin on calcium oxalate kidney stone formation processes: Crystallization, growth, aggregation, crystal-cell adhesion, internalization into renal tubular cells, and invasion through extracellular matrix.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 141:111903.

Diosmin is a natural flavone glycoside (bioflavonoid) found in fruits and plants with several pharmacological activities. It has been widely used as a dietary supplement or therapeutic agent in various diseases/disorders. Although recommended, evidence of its protective mechanisms against kidney stone disease (nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis), especially calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate (COM) that is the most common type, remained unclear. In this study, we thus systematically evaluated the effects of diosmin (at 2.5-160 nM) on various stages of kidney stone formation processes, including COM crystallization, crystal growth, aggregation, crystal-cell adhesion, internalization into renal tubular cells and invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM). The results showed that diosmin had dose-dependent modulatory effects on all the mentioned COM kidney stone processes. Diosmin significantly increased COM crystal number and mass during crystallization, but reduced crystal size and growth. While diosmin promoted crystal aggregation, it inhibited crystal-cell adhesion and internalization into renal tubular cells. Finally, diosmin promoted crystal invasion through the ECM. Our data provide evidence demonstrating both inhibiting and promoting effects of diosmin on COM kidney stone formation processes. Based on these dual modulatory activities of diosmin, its anti-urolithiasis role is doubtful and cautions should be made for its use in kidney stone disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-02
CmpDate: 2021-09-30

Chamsuwan S, Angkanaporn K, Dissayabutra T, et al (2021)

The association between single nucleotide polymorphism in vitamin D receptor and calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(5):2263-2270.

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are associated with calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis in humans.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between VDR polymorphisms and susceptibility to CaOx urolithiasis in dogs.

ANIMALS: Thirty-five dogs with CaOx urolithiasis were compared with 40 stone-free dogs.

METHODS: This was a case-control study. Two VDR gene polymorphisms (rs851998024 and rs852900542) were detected by specific TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, and their relationship with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, serum and urinary electrolyte concentrations was evaluated.

RESULTS: The distribution of the rs852900542 polymorphism was significantly different between the case and the control dogs (x[2]  = 6.369, P = .04). Dogs with a CC or CT genotype had an increased risk of CaOx stones than those with the TT genotype (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval 1.04-13.98). The CaOx dogs with the TT genotype had a significantly lower urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio than the CT+CC genotypes. 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations did not differ between the cases and the controls (308.7 ± 217.4 vs 286.7 ± 185.1 pg/mL, P = .45).

This finding suggests that vitamin D metabolism might play a role in CaOx stone formation in dogs.

RevDate: 2021-07-22

Mendoza-López CI, Del-Angel-Caraza J, Aké-Chiñas MA, et al (2021)

Canine Silica Urolithiasis in Mexico, Associated with the Concentration of Dissolved Silica in Tap Water.

Veterinary medicine international, 2021:6667927.

Silica urolithiasis is infrequent in dogs, but in Mexico represents 12.9%. Our hypothesis is the consumption of high amounts of silicates in the diet, especially that dissolved in tap water. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of silica in the tap water in different geographical areas and their relationship with cases of silicate urolithiasis in dogs. From 179 cases of silicate urolithiasis, 98.9% were from dogs within a geographic area called the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which represents a cross shaft to the center of the country. Silica concentrations in tap water ranged between 3 and 76 mg/L, with a range of 27 to 76 mg/L, a mean of 49.9 ± 12 mg/L within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and a concentration from 3 to 30 mg/L, with a mean of 16.4 ± 7 mg/L outside this area; these were significantly different (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that there is a geographic risk factor for silicate urolithiasis in urolith-forming dogs, related to the consumption of tap water with a high concentration of silica. Further studies are necessary to identify this same pathophysiological association in other species.

RevDate: 2021-10-02
CmpDate: 2021-09-30

Testault I, Gatel L, M Vanel (2021)

Comparison of nonenhanced computed tomography and ultrasonography for detection of ureteral calculi in cats: A prospective study.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(5):2241-2248.

BACKGROUND: Radiographs and ultrasound (US) are the primary imaging modalities used to assess ureteral calculi in cats. Reports describing the use of nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) are scarce.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare US and nonenhanced CT for detection, number and localization of ureteral calculi in cats.

ANIMALS: Fifty-one cats with at least 1 ureteral calculus, and 101 ureters.

METHODS: Prospective case series. All cats underwent an US followed by a nonenhanced CT. Cats were included in the study if at least 1 ureteral calculus was diagnosed on either modality. Number of calculi and their localization (proximal, middle, and distal) were recorded on both modalities. Pelvic dilatation and maximal ureteral diameter were recorded with US.

RESULTS: More calculi were detected by nonenhanced CT (126) compared to US (90), regardless of localization (P < .001). More ureters were affected on nonenhanced CT (70) compared to US (57; P < .001). The number of calculi detected was significantly different between US and nonenhanced CT in the proximal (P = .02) and distal ureteral region (P < .001). Bilateral calculi were more frequent with nonenhanced CT (19 cats) compared to US (9 cats; P < .001). A pelvic size superior to 5 mm and a maximal ureteral diameter value superior to 3 mm were always associated with ureteral calculi.

Computed tomography is an emerging imaging modality in cats with a suspected ureteral obstruction. Combination of CT and US can be beneficial for case management.

RevDate: 2021-12-03
CmpDate: 2021-08-04

Nell E, Garofolo SQ, C Ober (2021)

Pure cystine and urate calculi can be clearly visible using survey digital radiography.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 62(6):605-607.

Cystine and urate calculi are considered nonradiopaque to faintly radiopaque. Two canine cases in which these types of calculi are radiopaque and clearly apparent in vivo on survey digital radiography are described. The densities of cystine and urate calculi, as determined in vitro with computed tomography, are compared to other pure calculi and mixed or compound calculi to further explore the relative attenuation characteristics.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Bijsmans E, Quéau Y, V Biourge (2021)

Increasing Dietary Potassium Chloride Promotes Urine Dilution and Decreases Calcium Oxalate Relative Supersaturation in Healthy Dogs and Cats.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(6):.

Urine dilution is a strategy used to decrease the risk of crystallization in cats and dogs at risk of urolithiasis. Sodium chloride has been used in prescription diets to effectively promote urine dilution, but the effect of the salt-substitute potassium chloride (KCl) on urine parameters has not been extensively investigated. Two diets differing only in KCl (Diet A; K 0.44 g/MJ, Diet B; K 1.03 g/MJ) were fed to 17 cats and 22 dogs for seven days, followed by three days of urine collection. Urinary ion concentrations were determined by ionic chromatography, and SUPERSAT software was used to calculate the relative supersaturation (RSS) value for struvite and calcium oxalate. Water intake and urine volume increased, and USG decreased on diet B (p < 0.001). Urine concentration of potassium increased on diet B, but concentrations of all other ions did not change or decrease in line with urine dilution. Calcium oxalate RSS decreased on diet B (p < 0.05). This short-term study showed that increased dietary KCl in a dry extruded diet effectively dilutes the urine of cats and dogs and therefore offers a novel nutritional strategy for the prevention of urolithiasis. This finding is of interest for patients that would benefit from dietary sodium restriction.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Deprey J, Baldinger A, Livet V, et al (2021)

Risk factors and clinical relevance of positive urine cultures in cats with subcutaneous ureteral bypass.

BMC veterinary research, 17(1):199.

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to report the incidence and risk factors associated with positive urine bacterial cultures as well as long-term outcome in cats with subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) devices.

RESULTS: Medical records of cats that underwent SUB device placement were retrospectively reviewed. Signalment of the cat, laterality of the ureteral obstruction, surgery, anesthesia and hospitalization duration, bacterial culture results and follow-up data were retrieved. Thirty-two cats met the inclusion criteria. Four cats (12.5%) had a positive intraoperative culture, with two of them being treated successfully. Ten cats out of 28 (35.7%) were documented with a positive urine culture during follow-up period, with a median time between discharge and identification of the first positive urine culture of 159 days (range 8-703 days). Bacteriuria resolved in 60% of cats (6/10). Escherichia coli was the most common organism, isolated in 4 out of 10 postoperative urine cultures. Overall, subclinical bacteriura was documented for 6 of 32 (18.8%) cats and 5 of 32 (15.6%) cats displayed clinicals signs suggestive of persistent UTI. One cat had subclinical bacteriuria. Three cats died during the follow-up period. There was a significant difference between negative and positive urine bacterial culture groups in median hospitalization duration (5 days versus 6 days, P = 0.022) and in median body condition score (5/9 versus 4/9, P = 0.03). Cats with a longer hospital stay and with a lower body condition score were more likely to have a positive urine culture during follow-up period.

CONCLUSIONS: SUB device placement surgery is associated with complications such as chronic bacteriuria. Bacteriuria in our study resolved with appropriate antibiotic treatment in more than half of cats. Risk factors identified for positive urine culture were a longer hospitalization duration and a decreased body condition score.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Kopecny L, Palm CA, Segev G, et al (2021)

Urolithiasis in dogs: Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and risk factors (2006-2018).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(3):1406-1415.

BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a common and often recurrent problem in dogs.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in urolith composition in dogs and to assess risk factors for urolithiasis, including age, breed, sex, neuter status, urolith location, and bacterial urolith cultures.

SAMPLE POPULATION: A total of 10 444 uroliths and the dogs from which they were obtained.

METHODS: The laboratory database at the UC Davis Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched for all urolith submissions from dogs between January 2006 and December 2018. Mineral type, age, breed, sex, neuter status, urolith location, and urolith culture were recorded. Trends were evaluated and variables compared to evaluate risk factors.

RESULTS: Calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite-containing uroliths comprised the majority of all submissions from dogs, representing 47.0% and 43.6%, respectively. The proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths significantly decreased from 49.5% in 2006 to 41.8% in 2018 (P = .006), with no change in the proportion of struvite-containing urolith submissions. Cystine-containing uroliths comprised 2.7% of all submissions between 2006 and 2018 and a significant nonlinear increase in this mineral type occurred over time (1.4% of all submissions in 2006 to 8.7% in 2018; P < .001). Of all cystine-containing uroliths, 70.3% were from intact male dogs. Age, breed, and sex predispositions for uroliths were similar to those previously identified.

Although calcium oxalate- and struvite-containing uroliths continue to be the most common uroliths submitted from dogs, a decrease in the proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths and an increase in the proportion of cystine-containing uroliths occurred during the time period evaluated.

RevDate: 2022-07-12
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Kopecny L, Palm CA, Segev G, et al (2021)

Urolithiasis in cats: Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and risk factors (2005-2018).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(3):1397-1405.

BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is an important upper and lower urinary tract disease in cats that results in morbidity and mortality.

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in composition of uroliths in cats and evaluate risk factors related to age, breed, sex, urolith location, and bacterial urolith cultures.

SAMPLE POPULATION: A total of 3940 uroliths and the cats from which they were obtained.

METHODS: The database of the UC Davis Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched for all urolith submissions from cats between January 2005 and December 2018. Mineral type, age, breed, sex, and urolith location and culture results were recorded. Trends were evaluated and variables compared to evaluate risk factors.

RESULTS: A significant decrease in the proportion of calcium oxalate (CaOx)-containing uroliths occurred over time (P = .02), from 50.1% (204/407) of all submissions in 2005 to 37.7% (58/154) in 2018. In contrast, the proportion of struvite-containing uroliths increased significantly (P = .002), from 41.8% (170/407) in 2005 to 54.5% (84/154) in 2018. The proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths in the upper urinary tract was significantly higher compared to the proportion of other urolith types in the upper urinary tract. Urate-containing uroliths were the third most common type (361/3940, 9.2%). Overall, sex and age predispositions were similar to those reported previously.

The decrease in the proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths and increase in the proportion of struvite-containing uroliths warrants investigation. Further education regarding the efficacy of medical dissolution of struvite-containing uroliths is recommended.

RevDate: 2021-06-24
CmpDate: 2021-06-24

Burggraaf ND, Westgeest DB, RJ Corbee (2021)

Analysis of 7866 feline and canine uroliths submitted between 2014 and 2020 in the Netherlands.

Research in veterinary science, 137:86-93.

Analysis of large datasets of uroliths is necessary to illustrate the prevalence and risk factors of urolithiasis. Furthermore, it may help to improve treatment and prevention of urolithiasis. In this study, 7866 uroliths (44.5% feline and 55.5% canine) from veterinary practitioners in the Netherlands between 2014 and 2020 were analysed. Between 2014 and 2020 the distribution over the different types of uroliths remained similar over time. Female cats, obese cats, Domestic Shorthair cats, female dogs, and large breed dogs had an increased risk for struvite. Neutered cats, all cat breeds except Domestic Shorthair, neutered dogs, male dogs, intact male dogs, and small breed dogs had an increased risk for calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Cystine and urate were found predominantly in male dogs. Dalmatians were at highest risk for urate urolithiasis. The findings of this study in the Netherlands were similar to findings in previous studies from different countries. However, urate urolithiasis in the English Cocker Spaniel and cystine urolithiasis in the Yorkshire Terrier were new associations. Body condition score, information about recurrence of urolithiasis, medical history, and diet history should be included in submission sheets in the future to explore other possible associations.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Butty EM, McKinney CA, AJ Prisk (2021)

Treatment of a flunixin meglumine overdose with intravenous administration of lipid emulsion and therapeutic plasma exchange in a Nigerian dwarf buck kid (Capra aegagrus hircus).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(3):1626-1630.

A 12 week-old Nigerian dwarf (Capra aegagrus hircus) buck kid was hospitalized for management of obstructive urolithiasis. Postoperatively, he was inadvertently administered 16-times greater than his calculated dose of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID; 17.5 mg/kg flunixin meglumine, IV). The goat was treated with intravenous administration of lipid emulsion (ILE) prior to membrane-based therapeutic plasma exchange (mTPE) under general anesthesia. The increased coagulability inherent to small ruminants in comparison with dogs and cats warranted specific adjustments in the prescription of anticoagulation, blood flow, and filtration fraction to avoid circuit clotting during mTPE. Serum flunixin meglumine concentration measured before, during, and after mTPE revealed marked reduction in drug concentration. After the combined treatments, no clinical evidence of NSAID gastrointestinal or renal toxicosis was detected. This case report describes successful management of flunixin meglumine overdose in a small ruminant using combined ILE and mTPE.

RevDate: 2021-05-10
CmpDate: 2021-05-10

Womble M, Georoff TA, Helmick K, et al (2021)


Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 52(1):145-156.

The objective of this 20-yr retrospective study was to review and summarize causes of mortality in the North American (NA) snow leopard population to inform and enhance animal health and husbandry practices. Pathology reports were requested from all NA zoological institutions housing snow leopards that died between 01 January 1999 and 31 December 2019. Data were reviewed and cause of death (COD) and concurrent diseases were summarized and compared by age group, organ system, and disease process. The 241 snow leopards in this report include 109 males, 130 females, and two of undetermined sex. Among them were 116 geriatric snow leopards (>15 yr), 72 adults (15-3 yr), 16 juveniles (3 yr to 2 mo), 32 neonates (2 mo to 0 days), and five fetuses (<0 days). Overall, noninfectious diseases were the most common COD across all age groups (73%). In adult and geriatric snow leopards, chronic renal disease (CRD) (38.8%) and malignant neoplasia (19.7%), including oral squamous cell carcinoma (6.4%), were a common COD. In juveniles and neonates, perinatal death and congenital diseases, including ocular coloboma (15.6%), were a common COD. Individuals with CRD were 13.5 and 4.36 times more likely to have veno-occlusive disease and cardiac fibrosis, respectively. Snow leopards with urolithiasis were 5.27 times more likely to have CRD. Infectious (14.1%) and inflammatory diseases (8.7%) for which no specific etiology was identified were less common overall and more common in juveniles and neonates (25% and 21%, respectively). Neoplasms not previously reported in snow leopards or that are generally uncommon in the veterinary literature included transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (n = 7) and mesothelioma (n = 1).

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Breu D, Stieger N, E Müller (2021)

[Occurrence of uroliths - age-, breed-, and gender-specific differences in dogs from Germany].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 49(1):6-12.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and frequency of uroliths in dogs in Germany and to evaluate age-, gender-, and breed-specific differences.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 2772 uroliths from dogs in Germany that had been submitted from veterinary practices during the years 2017-2019 were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.

RESULTS: Uroliths were analyzed as follows: Struvite (44.7 %), calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite 24.5 %), cystine (15.2 %), ammonium urate (5.3 %), calcium oxalate dihydrate (weddellite 4.4 %), calcium phosphate (1.6 %), xanthine (1.2 %), whewellite/weddellite (11 %), brushite (0.4 %) and other substances (1.7 %). The dogs' median age (in years) with regards to the urolith type amounted to: struvite 8, calcium oxalate (whewellite and weddellite) 10, cystine 5, brushite 11, xanthine 6.5, and ammonium urate 6 years. Struvite uroliths were most common in intact females (83.8 %) and neutered females (80.8 %), while cystine uroliths (36.7 %) and calcium oxalates (35.7 % whewellite and weddellite) were most common in intact males. Calcium oxalate (50 %), struvite (17.3 %), and cystine uroliths (10.5 %) were found in male neutered dogs. The most frequent breeds with struvite uroliths were Pug (75.9 %), Labrador (73.1 %), Shih Tzu (62.2 %), Dachshund (50.4 %) and Maltese (36 %). Calcium oxalates were most frequently encountered in the breeds Miniature Schnauzer (54.8 %), Jack Russell Terrier (49.5 %), and Yorkshire Terrier (48.2 %). Cystine uroliths were most frequent in the breeds French Bulldog (47.2 %), Bulldogs (44.8 %), Chihuahua (44.1 %) and Dachshund (32.8 %).

Dogs from Germany displayed age-, gender- and breed-specific differences in the frequency of urine calculi occurrence. Knowledge of the frequent occurrence of the distinct uroliths in Germany as well as potential breed dispositions allow the veterinarian to implement an appropriate preventive treatment plan. This would involve a targeted monitoring program for the prevention and follow-up care of the patient in conjunction with the pet owner.

RevDate: 2022-07-31
CmpDate: 2021-10-15

Bijsmans ES, Quéau Y, Feugier A, et al (2021)

The effect of urine acidification on calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in cats.

Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 105(3):579-586.

There is an apparent reciprocal relationship between magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP, struvite) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis incidence rate in cats. The number of struvite uroliths submitted for analysis over the past 35 years has been decreasing, with an increase in CaOx urolith submissions. Commercial diets aimed to dissolve struvite uroliths are typically acidified, and it has been suggested that dietary acidification increases urinary calcium excretion and the risk of CaOx crystallization. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of urine acidification on the relative supersaturation (RSS) of CaOx in cats, as a representation of crystallization risk. Four diets were extruded to contain identical nutrient contents, but with gradual acidification (0, 0.6, 1.3 and 1.9% sodium bisulphate substituted sodium chloride in diets A, B, C and D respectively). Thirteen adult cats were fed each diet sequentially for a minimum of 10 days. Average urine pH was 6.4, 6.2, 6.0 and 5.9 on diets A, B, C and D respectively (p < 0.0001). Struvite RSS decreased on diets inducing more acidic urine pH (p < 0.0001). Urinary calcium excretion and concentration increased with diets inducing lower urine pH (p < 0.0001), but oxalate excretion and concentration decreased (p < 0.001). CaOx RSS was not different between diets (p = 0.63). These results suggest that a lower diet base excess and resulting urine pH to support struvite dissolution do not increase the risk for CaOx crystallization in the range of urine pH representative of most commercial feline diets. Long-term studies are needed to confirm this.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Jones E, Alawneh J, Thompson M, et al (2020)

Predicting Diagnosis of Australian Canine and Feline Urinary Bladder Disease Based on Histologic Features.

Veterinary sciences, 7(4):.

Anatomic pathology is a vital component of veterinary medicine but as a primarily subjective qualitative or semiquantitative discipline, it is at risk of cognitive biases. Logistic regression is a statistical technique used to explain relationships between data categories and outcomes and is increasingly being applied in medicine for predicting disease probability based on medical and patient variables. Our aims were to evaluate histologic features of canine and feline bladder diseases and explore the utility of logistic regression modeling in identifying associations in veterinary histopathology, then formulate a predictive disease model using urinary bladder as a pilot tissue. The histologic features of 267 canine and 71 feline bladder samples were evaluated, and a logistic regression model was developed to identify associations between the bladder disease diagnosed, and both patient and histologic variables. There were 102 cases of cystitis, 84 neoplasia, 42 urolithiasis and 63 normal bladders. Logistic regression modeling identified six variables that were significantly associated with disease outcome: species, urothelial ulceration, urothelial inflammation, submucosal lymphoid aggregates, neutrophilic submucosal inflammation, and moderate submucosal hemorrhage. This study demonstrated that logistic regression modeling could provide a more objective approach to veterinary histopathology and has opened the door toward predictive disease modeling based on histologic variables.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-01-28

Alford A, Furrow E, Borofsky M, et al (2020)

Animal models of naturally occurring stone disease.

Nature reviews. Urology, 17(12):691-705.

The prevalence of urolithiasis in humans is increasing worldwide; however, non-surgical treatment and prevention options remain limited despite decades of investigation. Most existing laboratory animal models for urolithiasis rely on highly artificial methods of stone induction and, as a result, might not be fully applicable to the study of natural stone initiation and growth. Animal models that naturally and spontaneously form uroliths are an underused resource in the study of human stone disease and offer many potential opportunities for improving insight into stone pathogenesis. These models include domestic dogs and cats, as well as a variety of other captive and wild species, such as otters, dolphins and ferrets, that form calcium oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cystine and other stone types. Improved collaboration between urologists, basic scientists and veterinarians is warranted to further our understanding of how stones form and to consider possible new preventive and therapeutic treatment options.

RevDate: 2020-11-05

Mendoza-López CI, Del-Angel-Caraza J, Aké-Chiñas MA, et al (2020)

Canine Silica Urolithiasis in Mexico (2005-2018).

Veterinary medicine international, 2020:8883487.

A higher frequency of canine silica urolithiasis is found in Mexico, unlike <1-8% in other countries. The causes and risk factors for this pathology are unknown. However, we consider the consumption of high amounts of silica from the solid diet or dissolved in water as the only hypothesis. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for silica urolithiasis in dogs from Mexico. A total of 1383 clinical cases of canine urolithiasis were included in this study; the uroliths were analyzed to determine their mineral composition by stereoscopic microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Of these cases, 12.94% were considered pure silica uroliths; however, considering the mixed and compound uroliths, the frequency increased to 17.42%. Male dogs aged >6 years and large breeds, especially Labradors and Golden retrievers, were at significant risk for this disease. 98.88 % of the clinical cases studied were found in the central axis of the country, considering this finding as a possible geographical risk factor to be analyzed in another study.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Wood MW, Lepold A, Tesfamichael D, et al (2020)

Risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria in dogs: A retrospective study.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 34(6):2447-2453.

BACKGROUND: In humans, Enterococcus spp. urinary tract infections (UTI) are commonly associated with urinary catheter-induced urothelial inflammation but this is not the case in dogs.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors predisposing dogs to enterococcal bacteriuria.

ANIMALS: Seventy dogs with Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria (case) and 70 dogs with Enterococcus coli bacteriuria (control).

METHODS: A single center retrospective case-control study with subjects and controls identified by a medical records search for Enterococcus spp. (subject) or E coli (control) bacteriuria from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. Cases and controls were balanced with respect to average age and weight. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate and test whether the odds of having Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria (instead of E coli) were associated with the presence of any given characteristic.

RESULTS: A history of recurrent bacteriuria was significantly more common in Enterococcus spp. cases than in E coli controls (odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-4.16, P = .04). Comorbidities associated with the presence of Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria included lower urinary tract (LUT) anatomic abnormalities (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.17-8.10, P = .02), urolithiasis (P = .01), and the presence of LUT neoplasia (P = .04). Small frequencies (n = 12 and n = 6, respectively) compromise our ability to precisely estimate the genuine OR for the latter 2 characteristics.

If the identified risk factors promote Enterococcus spp. colonization in dogs via induced LUT inflammation similar to people then Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria could be a sentinel for underlying LUT inflammation.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Seneviratne M, Stamenova P, K Lee (2021)

Comparison of surgical indications and short- and long-term complications in 56 cats undergoing perineal, transpelvic or prepubic urethrostomy.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 23(6):477-486.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare indications, complications and mortality rates for perineal urethrostomy (PU), transpelvic urethrostomy (TPU) and prepubic urethrostomy (PPU).

METHODS: A retrospective review of, and follow-up owner questionnaire for, cats undergoing urethrostomy between 2008 and 2018, at a single referral hospital, were performed.

RESULTS: Fifty-six cats underwent urethrostomy (PU, n = 37; TPU, n = 8; PPU, n = 11). The presenting problem was significantly associated with urethrostomy technique (P <0.001). For PU cats, feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC; n = 21 [56.7%]) was the most common problem, whereas for PPU cats, trauma (n = 9 [81.8%]) was most common (P <0.001). Urethrostomy technique was associated with imaging diagnosis (P <0.001) of the urethral lesion. Most PU cats had no diagnostic imaging lesion (n = 15 [40.5%]) or obstructive calculi or clots (n = 10 [27.0%]), and all PPU cats had urethral rupture. Ten (90.9%) PPU cats had a pelvic lesion, while 21 (56.7%) PU cats had a penile lesion. TPU cats had a range of presenting problems and imaging diagnoses. Short- and long-term complications were reported in 33/55 (60.0%) and 11/30 (36.7%) cats, respectively. The number of cats with long-term complications was greater among PPU cats (P = 0.02). Short-term dermatitis (P = 0.019) and long-term incontinence (P = 0.01) were associated with PPU. Short-term mortality was 5.6% and long-term mortality was 13.3%; both were independent of urethrostomy technique. Quality of life post-urethrostomy, across all techniques, was graded as good by 93% of owners.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, PU was the most common feline urethrostomy technique indicated for FIC. Short-term urethrostomy complications are common, irrespective of urethrostomy technique. Long-term complications are less frequent but more common with PPU.

RevDate: 2020-11-10
CmpDate: 2020-11-10

Sutthimethakorn S, V Thongboonkerd (2020)

Effects of high-dose uric acid on cellular proteome, intracellular ATP, tissue repairing capability and calcium oxalate crystal-binding capability of renal tubular cells: Implications to hyperuricosuria-induced kidney stone disease.

Chemico-biological interactions, 331:109270.

Hyperuricosuria is associated with kidney stone disease, especially uric acid (UA) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) types. Nevertheless, detailed mechanisms of hyperuricosuria-induced kidney stone formation remained unclear. This study examined changes in cellular proteome and function of renal tubular cells after treatment with high-dose UA for 48-h. Quantitative proteomics using 2-DE followed by nanoLC-ESI-ETD MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry revealed significant changes in levels of 22 proteins in the UA-treated cells. These proteomic data could be confirmed by Western blotting. Functional assays revealed an increase in intracellular ATP level and enhancement of tissue repairing capability in the UA-treated cells. Interestingly, levels of HSP70 and HSP90 (the known receptors for CaOx crystals) were increased in apical membranes of the UA-treated cells. CaOx crystal-cell adhesion assay revealed significant increase in CaOx-binding capability of the UA-treated cells, whereas neutralization of the surface HSP70 and/or HSP90 using their specific monoclonal antibodies caused significant reduction in such binding capability. These findings highlighted changes in renal tubular cells in response to high-dose UA that may, at least in part, explain the pathogenic mechanisms of hyperuricosuria-induced mixed kidney stone disease.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Schwarz T, Shorten E, Gennace M, et al (2021)

CT features of feline lipiduria and renal cortical lipid deposition.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 23(4):357-363.

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to document the presence and prevalence of feline lipiduria and renal lipid deposition on CT, and to search for associations between the presence of lipiduria and sex, urinary tract abnormalities and urolithiasis.

METHODS: The CT examinations of 252 cats were reviewed for the presence of an antigravitational hypodense bubble in the urinary bladder with density values between -180 Hounsfield units (HU) and -20 HU. To identify associations between lipiduria and sex, urinary tract abnormalities and urolithiasis, Fisher's exact test was used. Renal cortical density measurement was performed in all cats. The Mann-Whitney test was performed to compare renal cortical density between lipiduric and unaffected cats.

RESULTS: A total of 27 domestic cats (10.7%) had CT evidence of lipiduria. Lipiduric cats had a significantly lower renal cortical density than unaffected cats (P <0.01). Male neutered cats had a significantly higher frequency of lipiduria and lower renal cortical density compared with female neutered cats (P <0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding renal, ureteral or urethral abnormalities.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Lipiduria is a common physiological phenomenon in cats that can be detected on routine CT examinations. Decreased renal cortical density is associated with lipiduria. This may aid in the diagnosis of feline lipiduria and help to differentiate its presence from other pathological depositions and excretions.

RevDate: 2021-10-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-19

Al KF, Daisley BA, Chanyi RM, et al (2020)

Oxalate-Degrading Bacillus subtilis Mitigates Urolithiasis in a Drosophila melanogaster Model.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Kidney stones affect nearly 10% of the population in North America and are associated with high morbidity and recurrence, yet novel prevention strategies are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the human gut microbiota can influence the development of nephrolithiasis, although clinical trials have been limited and inconclusive in determining the potential for microbially based interventions. Here, we used an established Drosophila melanogaster model of urolithiasis as a high-throughput screening platform for evaluation of the therapeutic potential of oxalate-degrading bacteria in calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. The results demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis 168 (BS168) is a promising candidate based on its preferential growth in high oxalate concentrations, its ability to stably colonize the D. melanogaster intestinal tract for as long as 5 days, and its prevention of oxalate-induced microbiota dysbiosis. Single-dose BS168 supplementation exerted beneficial effects on D. melanogaster for as long as 14 days, decreasing stone burden in dissected Malpighian tubules and fecal excreta while increasing survival and behavioral markers of health over those of nonsupplemented lithogenic controls. These findings were complemented by in vitro experiments using the established MDCK renal cell line, which demonstrated that BS168 pretreatment prevented increased CaOx crystal adhesion and aggregation. Taking our results together, this study supports the notion that BS168 can functionally reduce CaOx stone burden in vivo through its capacity for oxalate degradation. Given the favorable safety profile of many B. subtilis strains already used as digestive aids and in fermented foods, these findings suggest that BS168 could represent a novel therapeutic adjunct to reduce the incidence of recurrent CaOx nephrolithiasis in high-risk patients.IMPORTANCE Kidney stone disease is a morbid condition that is increasing in prevalence, with few nonsurgical treatment options. The majority of stones are composed of calcium oxalate. Unlike humans, some microbes can break down oxalate, suggesting that microbial therapeutics may provide a novel treatment for kidney stone patients. This study demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis 168 (BS168) decreased stone burden, improved health, and complemented the microbiota in a Drosophila melanogaster urolithiasis model, while not exacerbating calcium oxalate aggregation or adhesion to renal cells in vitro These results identify this bacterium as a candidate for ameliorating stone formation; given that other strains of B. subtilis are components of fermented foods and are used as probiotics for digestive health, strain 168 warrants testing in humans. With the severe burden that recurrent kidney stone disease imposes on patients and the health care system, this microbial therapeutic approach could provide an inexpensive therapeutic adjunct.

RevDate: 2022-04-16

Nururrozi A, Yanuartono Y, Sivananthan P, et al (2020)

Evaluation of lower urinary tract disease in the Yogyakarta cat population, Indonesia.

Veterinary world, 13(6):1182-1186.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This paper reports a retrospective study performed in 185 cats diagnosed with feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD). The analyzed population involved feline patients at the Veterinary Clinic of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. This research aimed to evaluate the clinical indications and causes of FLUTD in the Yogyakarta cat population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical data of all feline patients were obtained to conduct this study. FLUTD diagnoses were based on physical examinations, urinalyses, ultrasound examinations, and bacterial cultures. Only cats with a complete examination were used in the study. The clinical signs were evaluated and accompanied by the results of laboratory tests in cats that showed symptoms of FLUTD. The medical history of all feline patients was analyzed thoroughly. Most of the feline's urine samples were collected by catheterization.

RESULTS: The most commonly diagnosed of FLUTD in the Yogyakarta cat population were: feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) (56%), urinary tract infection (UTI; 25%), urolithiasis (13%), urethral plugs (UP) (4.9%), and neoplasia (0.4%), respectively. The prevalence of UTI is higher than that reported in Europe or the US. Older cats more often show symptoms of UTI and neoplasia, whereas young cats more often show symptoms of FIC and UP. The prevalence of male cats experiencing FLUTD in Yogyakarta is much higher than female cats.

CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of FLUTD cases in Yogyakarta is related to age and sex. The results of this study are similar to those of the previous research studies conducted in other countries.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Urolithioasis is a surprising common problem in make dogs and cats. An undiagnosed and untreated acute attach involving urethral blockage causes severe pain and can be lethal within dats. Complete obstruction causes uremia within 36–48 hr, which leads to depression, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, coma, and death within ~72 hr. Urethral obstruction is an emergency condition, and treatment should begin immediately. Familiarity with the problem and its symptoms could save your pet's life. I know, because it saved mine: One of my long-term pets—a cat named Leonard—struggled with urolithiasis most of his life. For many years, it was possible to control the problem with dietary medications. Ultimately, however, he required surgery, which was a success and allowed his to live into a comfortable old age. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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