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Bibliography on: Urolithiasis

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 02:06 Created: 

Urolithiasis

Some mineral solutes precipitate to form crystals in urine; these crystals may aggregate and grow to macroscopic size, at which time they are known as uroliths (calculi or stones). Mechanisms involved in stone formation are incompletely understood in dogs and cats. Regardless of the underlying mechanism(s), uroliths are not produced unless sufficiently high urine concentrations of urolith-forming constituents exist and transit time of crystals within the urinary tract is prolonged. Clinical signs associated with urolithiasis are seldom caused by microscopic crystals. However, formation of macroscopic uroliths in the lower urinary tract that interfere with the flow of urine and/or irritate the mucosal surface often results in dysuria, hematuria, and stranguria. Urethral obstruction is common in male dogs and cats. It may occur suddenly or may develop throughout days or weeks. Initially, the animal may frequently attempt to urinate and produce only a fine stream, a few drops, or nothing. Animals may also exhibit extreme pain manifested by crying out when attempting to urinate. Complete obstruction causes uremia within 36–48 hr, which leads to depression, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, coma, and death within ~72 hr.

NOTE: Urethral obstruction is an emergency condition, and treatment should begin immediately.

Created with PubMed® Query: (canine OR feline) and (urolithiasis) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-10-14

Park J, Jang K, Jo HM, et al (2022)

Laparoscopic attenuation of a congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a dog-a thin-film banding for splenophrenic shunt: A case report.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 9:918153.

A 6-year-old castrated male Shih-Tzu dog weighing 6. 5 kg presented with chief complaints of pollakiuria and urine dribbling. He had a history of urolithiasis for 3 years, which was confirmed by the presence of ammonium urate in the urinary stone analysis, performed 2 years prior to the presentation. Blood examination showed high values of fasting ammonia, post-prandial bile acid, and low blood urea nitrogen. Microhepatica and urolithiasis were identified on plain radiography and ultrasonography. A computed tomography angiography demonstrated a shunting vessel, diameter up to 9.6 mm, originated from the splenic vein, and linked with the phrenic vein. A surgical attenuation with a thin-film banding was performed under laparoscopic visualization. Left triangular ligament was incised, and one stay suture was placed to the stomach to expose the vessel. The shunting vessel was dissected before it entered the diaphragm, and a thin-film band was applied around the vessel. The patient recovered uneventfully without post-attenuation neurologic signs. Portal vein diameter increased with time, and complete closure of the shunting vessel was identified on computed tomography angiography performed at 14 months after attenuation. The patient was doing well for 31 months after surgery without protein restriction. This is a report of laparoscopic attenuation for splenophrenic type of canine congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt with a favorable outcome using thin-film banding.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-11

Waite LA, Hahn AM, Sturgeon GL, et al (2022)

UROLITHIASIS IN FOXES: ASSESSMENT OF 65 UROLITH SUBMISSIONS TO THE MINNESOTA UROLITH CENTER FROM 1981 TO 2021.

Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 53(3):578-582.

This article summarizes urinary stone submissions from foxes in human care to the Minnesota Urolith Center over 40 years. A previous report documented the analysis of uroliths from foxes that were submitted between 1981 and 2007.13 New data compiled from 2008 to 2021 included an additional 38 stones submitted from foxes, totaling 65 fox urolith submissions from 1981 to 2021. Struvite and cystine uroliths were most common, with the remainder comprised of calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate, compound, mixed, or miscellaneous material. Most stones were submitted from male foxes. Seventy-two percent of the stones were urocystoliths, and from 2010 to 2021, most stones were diagnosed antemortem and removed surgically. More than half of the stones were submitted from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and fennec foxes (Vulpes zerda). Urolithiasis in foxes may be an underrecognized condition, and data from this study suggest that clinicians should consider routine urinalysis and diagnostic imaging as part of the preventive medicine program for fox species, especially red foxes and fennec foxes.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-26

Faria LA, Meirelles AÉWB, Froes TR, et al (2022)

Comparison of radiographic methods for detecting radiolucent uroliths in dogs.

PloS one, 17(9):e0274087.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare positive cystography techniques at 5%, 10%, and 20%, as well as three different double-contrast protocols for detecting radiolucent uroliths with a diameter of less than 3.0 mm in dogs. Six cadavers were used, one was selected at random to represent the negative control, and the others were submitted to urolith implantation in the bladder by urethral catheter. Three radiology professionals blindly accessed ventrodorsal and -lateral projections of each test. Contrast at 20% showed greater diagnostic sensitivity, but with greater difficulty identifying the number and size of the uroliths. Consequently, double-contrast techniques are better and should be used for diagnostic and therapeutic planning. Sensitivity and specificity tests demonstrated that positive 5% cystography and different concentrations of double contrast obtained better results in terms of sensitivity and specificity. However, due to the presence of a greater amount of artifacts in the 5% cystography, it is suggested that double contrast is used for this purpose, especially with the removal of contrast excess (protocol 2).

RevDate: 2022-10-12
CmpDate: 2022-10-03

Bruwier A, Godart B, Gatel L, et al (2022)

Computed tomographic assessment of retrograde urohydropropulsion in male dogs and prediction of stone composition using Hounsfield unit in dogs and cats.

Journal of veterinary science, 23(5):e65.

BACKGROUND: Persistent uroliths after a cystotomy in dogs are a common cause of surgical failure.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the following: the success rate of retrograde urohydropropulsion in male dogs using non-enhanced computed tomography (CT), whether the CT mean beam attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (mHU) measured in vivo could predict the urolithiasis composition and whether the selected reconstruction kernel may influence the measured mHU.

METHODS: All dogs and cats that presented with lower urinary tract uroliths and had a non-enhanced CT preceding surgery were included. In male dogs, CT was performed after retrograde urohydropropulsion to detect the remaining urethral calculi. The percentage and location of persistent calculi were recorded. The images were reconstructed using three kernels, from smooth to ultrasharp, and the calculi mHU were measured.

RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were included in the study. The success rate of retrograde urohydropropulsion in the 45 male dogs was 55.6% and 86.7% at the first and second attempts, respectively. The predominant components of the calculi were cystine (20), struvite (15), calcium oxalate (8), and urate (7). The convolution kernel influenced the mHU values (p < 0.05). The difference in mHU regarding the calculus composition was better assessed using the smoother kernel. A mHU greater than 1,000 HU was predictive of calcium oxalate calculi.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-enhanced CT is useful for controlling the success of retrograde urohydropropulsion. The mHU could allow a prediction of the calculus composition, particularly for calcium oxalate, which may help determine the therapeutic strategy.

RevDate: 2022-08-23
CmpDate: 2022-08-16

Jewell DE, Tavener SK, Hollar RL, et al (2022)

Metabolomic changes in cats with renal disease and calcium oxalate uroliths.

Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society, 18(8):68.

INTRODUCTION: There is a significant incidence of cats with renal disease (RD) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney uroliths in domesticated cats. Foods which aid in the management of these diseases may be enhanced through understanding the underlying metabolomic changes.

OBJECTIVE: Assess the metabolomic profile with a view to identifying metabolomic targets which could aid in the management of renal disease and CaOx uroliths.

METHOD: This is a retrospective investigation of 42 cats: 19 healthy kidney controls, 11 with RD, and 12 that formed CaOx nephroliths. Cats were evaluated as adults (2 through 7 years) and at the end of life for plasma metabolomics, body composition, and markers of renal dysfunction. Kidney sections were assessed by Pizzolato stain at the end of life for detection of CaOx crystals. CaOx stone presence was also assessed by analysis of stones removed from the kidney at the end of life.

RESULTS: There were 791 metabolites identified with 91 having significant (p < 0.05, q < 0.1) changes between groups. Many changes in metabolite concentrations could be explained by the loss of renal function being most acute in the cats with RD while the cats with CaOx stones were intermediate between control and RD (e.g., urea, creatinine, pseudouridine, dimethylarginines). However, the concentrations of some metabolites differentiated RD from CaOx stone forming cats. These were either increased in the RD cats (e.g., cystathionine, dodecanedioate, 3-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl) uridine, 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine) or comparatively increased in the CaOx stone forming cats (phenylpyruvate, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, alpha-ketobutyrate, retinal).

CONCLUSIONS: The metabolomic changes show specific metabolites which respond generally to both renal diseases while the metabolomic profile still differentiates cats with RD and cats with CaOx uroliths.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Ichii O, Oyamada K, Mizukawa H, et al (2022)

Ureteral morphology and pathology during urolithiasis in cats.

Research in veterinary science, 151:10-20.

Cats exhibit high susceptibility to urinary organ-related diseases. We investigated the healthy ureter morphologies and compared these with ureters that were surgically resected distal to a urolithiasis obstruction in cats. Healthy ureters (total length 9.88 ± 0.38 cm) developed adventitia composed of collagen fibers (ADCF), containing a longitudinal muscular layer, toward the distal segment. The healthy ureter was the smallest in the middle segment (4.71-6.90 cm from the urinary bladder) with significantly decreased luminal and submucosal areas compared to those in the proximal segment. Diseased cats exhibited a high incidence of calcium oxalate urolithiasis with renal dysfunction, regardless of age, sex, and body size. Diseased ureters showed increased perimeters, inflammation, and decreased nerves in ADCF. Collagen fibers were increased in the submucosal area, intermuscular spaces, and ADCF, particularly near the obstructed lesion. The mean resected ureter length was 5.66 ± 0.49 cm, suggesting a high obstruction risk in the middle segment. The middle segment also increased the cross-sectional area of the ureter and ADCF, regardless of the distance from the obstructed lesion. The ureters in several cases either lacked the transitional epithelium, or exhibited transitional epithelial hyperplasia, and some of these formed the mucosal folds. In conclusion, we demonstrated the following characteristics and histopathological features of cat ureters: decreases in the ureter size, lumen area, and submucosa area from proximal to middle segment in healthy; ADCF changes in urolithiasis, including increased connective tissues with inflammation and decreased nerves. These data are important to understand the pathogenesis of feline ureteral obstruction.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-26

Coffey EL, Gomez AM, Burton EN, et al (2022)

Characterization of the urogenital microbiome in Miniature Schnauzers with and without calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 36(4):1341-1352.

BACKGROUND: Calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths are common in dogs. Humans with CaOx urolithiasis exhibit alterations of the urinary and urogenital microbiomes that might mediate urolith formation. Detection of urogenital microbes associated with CaOx in dogs could inform disease pathophysiology.

OBJECTIVE: To identify compositional differences in the urogenital microbiome of Miniature Schnauzers with and without CaOx uroliths.

ANIMALS: Nineteen midstream, voided urine samples from Miniature Schnauzers with (n = 9) and without (n = 10) a history of CaOx urolithiasis.

METHODS: Analytical cross-sectional study. Microbial DNA was extracted from previously frozen urine samples and sequenced for the bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions. Diversity and composition of microbial populations were compared between urolith formers and controls.

RESULTS: Alpha and beta diversity measures were similar between groups. Five individual bacterial taxa differed in abundance (indicator values >0.5 and P < .05): Acinetobacter, 2 Geobacillus variants, and Hydrogenophaga were overrepresented in the urine of urolith formers, and Sphingopyxis was overrepresented in controls. Two distinct subtypes of urine microbial composition were observed based on beta diversity measures, independent of urolith status, and other clinical variables.

Although we did not detect a difference in the overall urogenital microbial composition between groups, observed differences in individual bacterial taxa might be clinically relevant. For example, Acinetobacter was overrepresented in urolith formers and is associated with CaOx urolithiasis in humans. Two unique clusters of the microbiome were identified, independent of urolith status, which may represent distinct urotypes present in Miniature Schnauzers.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Hoelmer AM, Lulich JP, Rendahl AK, et al (2022)

Prevalence and Predictors of Radiographically Apparent Upper Urinary Tract Urolithiasis in Eight Dog Breeds Predisposed to Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis and Mixed Breed Dogs.

Veterinary sciences, 9(6):.

Data on upper urinary tract (UUT) uroliths in dogs are important to understanding their etiology. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to determine the prevalence and identify predictors of radiographically apparent UUT uroliths in dog breeds at increased risk for calcium oxalate uroliths (CaOx risk breeds) and mixed breed dogs. Radiologist reports of three-view abdominal radiographs were reviewed from 251 purebred dogs of 8 CaOx risk breeds and 68 mixed breed dogs. UUT uroliths were more common in CaOx risk breeds than mixed breed dogs (23% versus 6%, respectively; OR = 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-18.9, p < 0.001). UUT uroliths were more common in dogs with lower urinary tract (LUT) uroliths (predominantly calcium-containing) than those without (41% versus 5%, respectively; OR = 13.6, 95% CI 6.3-33.1, p < 0.001), and LUT uroliths predicted the presence of UUT uroliths in the multivariable regression (OR = 6.5, 95% CI 2.8-16.7, p < 0.001). Increasing age (p < 0.001) and lower body weight (p = 0.0016) were also predictors of UUT urolith presence in the multivariable regression. The high prevalence of UUT uroliths in dogs with LUT uroliths supports a shared mechanism for their formation.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Breu D, E Müller (2022)

[Feline uroliths: Analysis of frequency and epidemiology in Germany (2016-2020)].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 50(2):102-111.

OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to assess the distribution and frequency of uroliths in cats as well as to evaluate gender-, age-, and breed-specific differences.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: 3629 uroliths from cats in Germany were analyzed by infrared-spectroscopy during the period 2016-2020. The majority (3300) of the uroliths originated from purebred cats of 22 breeds.

RESULTS: Uroliths were prevalent in the order of male neutered (45.3 %), female spayed (35.3 %), male intact (7.4 %), and female intact cats (6.3 %). Median age of the cats with uroliths was 7 years, although it varied slightly depending on types of the urolith. The most frequent uroliths were calcium oxalate (59.5 %), followed by struvite (33.7 %), ammonium urate (2 %), calcium phosphate (1.7 %), cystine (0.7 %) and xanthine (0.4 %). Males (59.4 %) and females (59.2 %) showed nearly identical prevalence of calcium oxalates, whereas it significantly diverged in castrated (60.2 %) versus intact animals (54.4 %; p = 0.01). With regard to struvites, male cats (32.6 %) were less prone than females (35.4 %; p = 0.08) while intact cats (38.2 %) significantly outnumbered the castrated cohorts (33.1 %; p = 0.02). The prevalence for calcium oxalate uroliths increased by 6.6 % during the study period, contrasting a decrease of 5.5 % for struvites. Some breeds (> 10 individuals) showed significantly higher propensities than others for urolith formation. Calcium oxalates were significantly more frequent in British shorthair cats (85.2 %), Ragdoll (75 %), Scottish fold (74.1 %) and Persians (72.4 %). Struvites were prevailing in Norwegian forest cats (48.5 %), British longhair (41.7 %), European shorthair (41.7 %) and Siberian forest cats (36.8 %). Siamese cats had the significantly highest percentage of cystine uroliths (16 %).

The occurrence of urine calculi in cats from Germany was found to be most frequent for calcium oxalate and struvite types. We also found breed-, age-, gender- specific differences in addition to variations depending on the neutering status of the animals.

RevDate: 2022-08-02
CmpDate: 2022-05-04

Ho J, J Lavallée (2022)

Obstructive struvite ureterolithiasis in 4-month-old intact male Bernese mountain dog.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 63(5):504-509.

A 4-month-old, 7 kg, intact male, Bernese mountain dog was presented for obstructive struvite ureterolithiasis. Multiple urethroliths, ureteroliths, and urocystoliths were present. Based on an abdominal ultrasound, there was severe left hydronephrosis and hydroureter from distal ureterolith obstruction, just proximal to the vesicoureteral junction. The dog was not azotemic. Successful treatment was accomplished via ventral cystotomy. Bladder wall culture revealed a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. No predisposing cause was identified. There are no known genetic predispositions in Bernese mountain dogs for struvite urolithiasis. The urinary tract infection resolved with surgical retrieval of the uroliths and antibiotic treatment. The dog remained clinically normal after the cystotomy but developed a subclinical urinary tract infection 4 mo post-operatively. Key clinical message: Urolithiasis is rare in pediatric veterinary patients. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of obstructive ureterolithiasis in a puppy. There is no known genetic predisposition for urolithiasis in Bernese mountain dogs.

RevDate: 2022-06-17
CmpDate: 2022-06-02

Hsu HH, Ueno S, Miyakawa H, et al (2022)

Upper urolithiasis in cats with chronic kidney disease: prevalence and investigation of serum and urinary calcium concentrations.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 24(6):e70-e75.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to define the prevalence of upper urolithiasis in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a referral population, and to compare urinary calcium:creatinine ratio (UCa:Cr), and total and ionised calcium between cats with CKD with and without upper urolithiasis.

METHODS: The medical records of cats diagnosed with CKD were reviewed for signalment, body weight, diet and prevalence of upper urolithiasis. Cats with preserved urine samples were further classified into two groups: urolithiasis group (upper urolithiasis identified by abdominal ultrasonography) and control group (CKD of unknown origin). Serum biochemical analysis, CKD stage, blood gas analysis, urine specific gravity and UCa:Cr were compared between groups using a two-sample t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variable and a χ2 test or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors.

RESULTS: Among the 140 cats with CKD, the prevalence of upper urolithiasis was 73%. Fifty cats (5, 29 and 16 cats with CKD stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively) with urine samples met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Among cats with CKD, being purebred (odds ratio [OR] = 81.56; P = 0.03) and being fed dry food only (OR = 25.06; P = 0.001) were identified as independent upper urolithiasis risk factors; those with upper urolithiasis were more likely to be exclusively fed with urine-acidifying food (P <0.001) and have increased serum ionised calcium (iCa) (P = 0.044), fractional excretion of calcium (P = 0.45) and UCa:Cr (P = 0.005) than cats with CKD without upper urolithiasis.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cats with CKD that were purebred, fed dry food and fed urine-acidifying food only often had upper urolithiasis. A higher UCa:Cr may be a result of increased serum iCa and may cause upper urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2022-03-30

Tsamouri MM, Durbin-Johnson BP, Culp WTN, et al (2022)

Untargeted Metabolomics Identify a Panel of Urinary Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder, as Compared to Urolithiasis with or without Urinary Tract Infection in Dogs.

Metabolites, 12(3):.

Urothelial carcinoma (UC), the most common urologic cancer in dogs, is often diagnosed late because the clinical signs are shared by other non-malignant lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD). The urine-based BRAFV595E test for UC is highly effective only in certain breeds; hence additional non-invasive biomarkers of UC are needed. Here, urine from dogs with UC (n = 27), urolithiasis (n = 8), or urolithiasis with urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 8) were subjected to untargeted metabolomics analyses, using GC-TOF-MS for primary metabolites, QTOF-MS for complex lipids, and HILIC-QTOF MS for secondary and charged metabolites. After adjusting for age and sex, we identified 1123 known metabolites that were differentially expressed between UC and LUTD. Twenty-seven metabolites were significant (1.5 ≤ log2FC ≤ -1.5, adjusted p-value < 0.05); however, 10 of these could be attributed to treatment-related changes. Of the remaining 17, 6 (hippuric acid, N-Acetylphenylalanine, sarcosine, octanoylcarnitine, N-alpha-methylhistamine, glycerol-3-galactoside) discriminated between UC and LUTD (area under the ROC curve > 0.85). Of the 6 metabolites, only hippuric acid and N-alpha-methylhistamine were discriminatory in both male (n = 20) and female (n = 23) dogs, while sarcosine was an effective discriminator in several breeds, but only in females. Further investigation of these metabolites is warranted for potential use as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers of dogs with UC that present with LUTD-related clinical signs.

RevDate: 2022-03-15
CmpDate: 2022-03-15

Jesus L, Arenas C, Domínguez-Ruiz M, et al (2022)

Xanthinuria secondary to allopurinol treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis: Current perspectives of the Iberian veterinary community.

Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 83:101783.

Xanthinuria is a significant adverse effect in dogs on long-term allopurinol for treatment of leishmaniosis. The study aims to investigate how the Iberian veterinary community (IVC) identifies, manages, and proactively prevents xanthinuria secondary to allopurinol treatment. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey, translated into two languages, and disseminated to the IVC via social networking forums. Respondents were asked to share their treatment regimens, adverse effects attributed to treatment, as well as preventive and reactive measures against xanthuria. Of two-hundred and thirty respondents, 99.6% prescribe allopurinol for canine leishmaniosis. Xanthinuria was estimated to happen in less than one out of every four dogs by 91.7% of the clinicians. Xanthinuria has been detected by 71.6% of respondents at least once. Three out of every four respondents inform owners about deleterious effects of allopurinol, and 28.4% consider implementing a change in diet in advance of treatment as a proactive measure. To monitor xanthinuria, urinalysis and diagnostic imaging are used by 71.2% and 31% of clinicians respectively. When xanthinuria is detected, 43.2% of the respondents discontinue allopurinol, 24% replace it by nucleotide-analogs, 14.9% reduce its dosage, and 3.1% split its dosage but increase administration frequency. Additional measures are taken by 72.1% of the respondents, 59.4% of whom prescribe a low-purine diet. The IVC recognizes xanthinuria as a fairly common secondary effect of long-term allopurinol treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis and recommends periodically monitoring and preventive measures.

RevDate: 2022-08-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-12

Lew LJ, Berent AC, Kirsch MS, et al (2022)

Bladder wall adhesion causing a vesicular septum in a dog following surgical cystotomy.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 260(7):1-8.

CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier-Poodle dog was evaluated for persistent pollakiuria and stranguria following routine cystotomy for calcium oxalate cystoliths.

CLINICAL FINDINGS: The dog presented for a cystotomy with intermittent hematuria. Postoperative radiographs revealed no remaining cystoliths. Urine, cystolith, and bladder mucosal aerobic cultures were negative. Pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria developed immediately after surgery and persisted despite antibiotics. Ultrasound revealed suspected fibrous adhesions within the urinary bladder lumen connecting the dorsal and ventral bladder wall creating a septum. This was confirmed cystoscopically 4 weeks after surgery.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was performed to incise abnormal tissue connecting the ventral and dorsal bladder wall using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Three weeks later, ultrasound revealed adhesion resolution though mild pollakiuria and stranguria persisted. Oxybutynin was prescribed and clinical signs resolved. At 27 months after ablation, hematuria occurred with recurrent cystoliths. These cystoliths were removed by percutaneous cystolithotomy, documenting a cystoscopically normal bladder wall. The patient had normal urination for 55.5 months after ablation, with normal bladder wall thickness on ultrasound repeated at 27 and 36 months after ablation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To the authors' knowledge, an adhesion creating a septum between the dorsal and ventral bladder wall has not been previously reported as a complication after cystotomy in any species and should be considered as a cause of persistent lower urinary signs after surgery. Ultrasound identified the lesion in this dog. Because bladder abnormalities can develop quickly after surgery, ultrasound might be considered if urine testing is not supportive of infection. Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was a successful minimally invasive treatment in this case.

RevDate: 2022-02-10

Blanchard G, Amato C, André A, et al (2022)

Beneficial effects of a prescription home-prepared diet and of zucchini on urine calcium oxalate supersaturation and urinary parameters in adult cats.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: From the authors' experience, the consumption of a balanced prescription home-prepared diet that includes zucchini (courgette) benefits cats with recurrent urolithiasis, but there is no published evidence to support this. The aim was to study the effects on urinary parameters of (1) a balanced prescription home-prepared diet containing zucchini, and (2) the addition of zucchini to a dry food, compared with two commercial therapeutic diets.

METHODS: Eight healthy cats were included in a Latin-square designed protocol. Five diets were evaluated: two commercial diets, designed for cats with urinary disorders, one high-moisture (U-WET) and one high-sodium dry (U-DRY); one home-prepared diet (HOME); one commercial dry food for adult maintenance (DRY); and DRY given together with 10 g of zucchini per kg body weight (DRY-Zuc). After a 7-day adaptation period, urine was collected and daily food and water intakes were assessed for 12 days. Urinary parameters, and relative supersaturation (RSS) for calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite, were determined. Data underwent repeated measures ANOVA analysis.

RESULTS: The digestibility of energy, dry matter, protein and fat was highest with the HOME diet. CaOx RSS was lowest in cats eating the HOME diet, but not significantly different from the U-WET or U-DRY diets. CaOx RSS was lower in cats eating the DRY-Zuc diet than in cats eating the DRY diet. Struvite RSS did not differ significantly among groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study shows that a balanced prescription home-prepared diet was safe and allowed a very low urinary CaOx RSS. It also showed that adding zucchini to dry food lowered the urine CaOx RSS.

RevDate: 2022-02-08

Miyakawa H, Hsu HH, Ogawa M, et al (2022)

Association between serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations and blood calcium levels in chronic kidney disease cats with upper urolithiasis.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 concentrations are associated with serum total calcium (tCa) and blood ionised calcium (iCa) concentrations in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and upper urolithiasis.

METHODS: Serum samples and the medical records of cats with CKD with nephroliths, ureteroliths or both were investigated retrospectively. Cats with a serum creatinine concentration >250 μmol/l and/or a serum phosphorus concentration ⩾1.50 mmol/l were excluded. Based on cut-offs for serum tCa (2.70 mmol/l) or blood iCa (1.40 mmol/l), cats were divided into the following groups: total hypercalcaemia (H-tCa) (>2.70 mmol/l) and total normocalcaemia (N-tCa) (⩽2.70 mmol/l) groups, or ionised hypercalcaemia (H-iCa) (>1.40 mmol/l) and ionised normocalcaemia (N-iCa) (⩽1.40 mmol/l) groups, respectively. Serum FGF-23 concentrations were compared between groups and correlation analysis was performed.

RESULTS: Thirty-two cats with CKD and upper urolithiasis were included. Serum FGF-23 concentrations in the H-tCa group (median 573 pg/ml [range 125-3888]; n = 12) were significantly higher compared with the N-tCa group (median 245 pg/ml [range 94-627]; n = 20) (P = 0.001). Serum FGF-23 concentrations in the H-iCa group (median 1479 pg/ml [range 509-3888]; n = 6) increased significantly compared with the N-iCa group (median 245 pg/ml [range 94-637]; n = 26) (P <0.001). Serum FGF-23 concentrations significantly correlated with serum tCa (r = 0.511, P = 0.003) and blood iCa concentrations (r = 0.425, P = 0.015) but not serum creatinine (r = 0.279, P = 0.122) or phosphorus concentrations (r = 0.208, P = 0.253).Conclusions and relevance Increased serum FGF-23 concentrations were associated with hypercalcaemia independently of creatinine and phosphate status in cats with CKD and upper urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2022-02-08
CmpDate: 2022-02-04

Uttamamul N, Jitpean S, Lulitanond A, et al (2022)

Risk factors for canine magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis associated with bacterial infection.

Journal of veterinary science, 23(1):e6.

BACKGROUND: With limited information available, the association among urinary tract infections, urease-producing bacteria and the presence of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) urolithiasis in canines in Thailand requires more study.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between demographic characteristics of canines and the presence of MAP urolithiasis in canines, and to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from canine uroliths.

METHODS: A total of 56 canines admitted for treatment with surgical removal of uroliths were recruited. Demographic characteristics and clinical chemistry data were recorded. Bacteria isolated from the removed uroliths were identified. Chemical compositions of the uroliths were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Potential risk factors were determined with univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses.

RESULTS: Of 56 canine urolithiasis, bacteria were isolated from uroliths of 38 canines (27 MAP and 11 non-MAP) but not from uroliths of 18 canines (5 MAP and 13 non-MAP). The most common bacteria found in nidus of MAP uroliths was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (approximately 51%). An antimicrobial resistance was frequently found in Staphylococci isolates (42.86%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the predictors of MAP urolith in canine urolithiasis were being female (p = 0.044; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 10.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-98.24) and the positive urolith culture (p = 0.012; adjusted OR, 8.60; 95% CI, 1.60-46.30).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that S. pseudintermedius (a urease-producing bacterium) is the major causative bacteria of MAP uroliths. A positive urolith culture and being female are risk factors of MAP urolithiasis in canines.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-07

Anonymous (2021)

.

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 49(6):475.

RevDate: 2022-02-02
CmpDate: 2022-01-25

Paulin MV, Dunn M, Vachon C, et al (2022)

Association between hyperlipidemia and calcium oxalate lower urinary tract uroliths in dogs.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 36(1):146-155.

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is associated with formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in humans.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between obesity and hyperlipidemia with CaOx lower urinary tract uroliths in client-owned dogs.

ANIMALS: Dogs with (n = 55, U [uroliths]-dogs) and without (n = 39, UF [uroliths-free]-dogs) CaOx lower urinary tract uroliths.

METHODS: Case-control study. U-dogs were retrospectively enrolled and compared to UF-dogs. Body condition score (BCS; 1-9 scoring scale), serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (CH) concentrations and glycemia (after >12-hour food withholding) were recorded in both groups.

RESULTS: On univariate logistic regression, when excluding Miniature Schnauzers, odds of having uroliths increased by a factor of 3.32 (95% CI 1.38-11.12) for each mmol/L of TG (P = .027), of 39 (95% CI 9.27-293.22) for each mmol/L of glycemia (P < .0001), and of 2.43 (95% CI 1.45-4.45) per unit of BCS (P = .002). In multivariable models, the effect of TG was retained when all breeds were included for analysis and odds of having uroliths increased by a factor of 4.34 per mmol/L of TG (95% CI 1.45-19.99; P = .02).

Serum lipid screening in dogs diagnosed with CaOx uroliths might be recommended to improve their medical staging and management.

RevDate: 2022-02-17
CmpDate: 2022-02-17

Peeters L, Foubert K, Breynaert A, et al (2022)

Effects of medicagenic acid metabolites, originating from biotransformation of an Herniaria hirsuta extract, on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro.

Journal of ethnopharmacology, 285:114860.

Herniaria hirsuta is traditionally used in Moroccan folk medicine for treatment of urinary stones and as a diuretic. It is rich in saponins, which are known to be deglycosylated in the colon, whereafter aglycones such as medicagenic acid are absorbed and further metabolized in the liver.

AIM OF THE STUDY: A sample of hepatic metabolites of medicagenic acid, with medicagenic acid glucuronide as the most abundant one, was evaluated for in vitro activity against urinary stones. A crystallization assay and a crystal-cell interaction assay were used to evaluate in vitro activity of hepatic metabolites of medicagenic acid on CaC2O4 (calciumoxalate) crystals, present in the majority of urinary stones.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the crystallization assay the effects on nucleation of Ca2+ and C2O42- and aggregation of the CaC2O4 crystals are studied. In the crystal-cell interaction assay crystal retention is investigated by determining the amount of Ca2+ bound to injured monolayers of MDCK I cells.

RESULTS: Results of the crystallization assay showed a tentative effect on crystal aggregation. The crystal-cell interaction assay showed a significant inhibition of crystal binding, which may reduce crystal retention in the urinary tract.

CONCLUSIONS: As both formation of crystals by inhibiting aggregation and retention of crystals is affected, the beneficial effect of H. hirsuta against urinary stones may at least in part be attributed to medicagenic acid metabolites, indicating that saponins containing medicagenic acid may act as prodrugs.

RevDate: 2022-02-10
CmpDate: 2022-02-10

Rezakahn Khajeh N, Black KM, Daignault-Newton S, et al (2022)

Impact of Pulse Mode on Dusting Effect for Holmium Laser Lithotripsy: In Vitro Evaluation With Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Stones.

Urology, 159:53-58.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of stone fragments (<0.25->2 mm) after in vitro dusting laser lithotripsy with varying pulse modes using canine calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones. Recent work demonstrates that fragments <0.25 mm are ideal for dusting, and we hypothesized advanced pulse modes might improve this outcome.

METHODS: A 3D-printed bulb was used as a calyceal model containing a single COM stone. A 230-core fiber (Lumenis) was passed through a ureteroscope (LithoVue, Boston Scientific). Contact laser lithotripsy by a single operator was performed with dusting settings (0.5J x 30Hz; Moses Pulse120H) to deliver 1kJ of energy for each trial. Short pulse (SP), long pulse (LP), Moses Distance (MD) and Moses Contact (MC) modes were tested with 5 trials for each parameter. Primary outcome was mass of fragments <0.25, <0.5, <1, and <2 mm. Laser fiber tip degradation was measured using a digital caliper.

RESULTS: Mass of stone fragments <0.25 mm varied from 34.6%-43.0% depending on the pulse mode, with no statistically significant differences between modes. MC (98.5%) produced a greater mass of fragments <2 mm compared to LP (86.1%; P = .046) but not SP (92.0%). Significantly less fiber tip burnback occurred with MC (0.29 mm) and MD (0.28 mm), compared to SP (0.83 mm; P < .0005).

CONCLUSION: Regardless of pulse mode, greater than one-third of the mass of COM stone was reduced to fragments <0.25 mm following contact laser lithotripsy. MC produced a greater mass of fragments <2 mm compared to LP and demonstrated less fiber tip burnback compared to SP.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Tate NM, Minor KM, Lulich JP, et al (2021)

Multiple variants in XDH and MOCOS underlie xanthine urolithiasis in dogs.

Molecular genetics and metabolism reports, 29:100792.

Hereditary xanthinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by missense and loss of function variants in the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) or molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MOCOS) genes. The aim of this study was to uncover variants underlying risk for xanthinuria in dogs. Affected dogs included two Manchester Terriers, three Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, an English Cocker Spaniel, a Dachshund, and a mixed-breed dog. Four putative causal variants were discovered: an XDH c.654G > A splice site variant that results in skipping of exon 8 (mixed-breed dog), a MOCOS c.232G > T splice site variant that results in skipping of exon 2 (Manchester Terriers), a MOCOS p.Leu46Pro missense variant (Dachshund), and a MOCOS p.Ala128Glyfs*30 frameshift variant that results in a premature stop codon (Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and English Cocker Spaniel). The two splice site variants suggest that the regions skipped are critical to the respective enzyme function, though protein misfolding is an alternative theory for loss of function. The MOCOS p.Leu46Pro variant has not been previously reported in human or other animal cases and provides novel data supporting this residue as critical to MOCOS function. All variants were present in the homozygous state in affected dogs, indicating an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Allele frequencies of these variants in breed-specific populations ranged from 0 to 0.18. In conclusion, multiple diverse variants appear to be responsible for hereditary xanthinuria in dogs.

RevDate: 2021-11-01
CmpDate: 2021-09-27

Lepold AM, Tesfamichael DH, Hartmann FA, et al (2021)

Comparison of urine fibrinogen and interleukin-6 concentrations between healthy dogs and dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria.

American journal of veterinary research, 82(10):846-852.

OBJECTIVE: To compare urine concentrations of fibrinogen (uFIB) and interleukin-6 (uIL-6) between dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria and healthy dogs.

SAMPLE: Banked urine samples with negative aerobic culture results from 8 dogs with urolithiasis, 9 dogs with anatomic abnormalities of the lower portion of the urinary tract (LUT), 10 dogs with LUT neoplasia, and 21 healthy control dogs.

PROCEDURES: Urine creatinine concentration (uCrea) was determined by an automated biochemical analyzer, and uFIB and uIL-6 were determined by dog-specific ELISAs. The uFIB:uCrea and uIL-6:uCrea ratios were calculated for each sample to normalize intersample differences in urine concentration and were compared among the 4 experimental groups.

RESULTS: Median uFIB:uCrea ratios for dogs with urolithiasis (0.72; interquartile [25th to 75 percentile] range [IQR], 0.46 to 3.48) and LUT neoplasia (6.16; IQR, 3.89 to 12.75), but not for dogs with LUT anatomic abnormalities (0.48; IQR, 0.27 to 0.69), were significantly greater than that for control dogs (0.17; IQR, 0.07 to 0.39). Median uIL-6: uCrea ratios for dogs with urolithiasis (0.48; IQR, 0.18 to 1.61), LUT anatomic abnormalities (0.25; IQR, 0.17 to 0.33), and LUT neoplasia (0.25; IQR, 0.12 to 1.01) were significantly greater than that for control dogs (0.08; IQR, 0.06 to 0.11).

The uFIB and uIL-6 in dogs with risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria were generally greater than corresponding values in control dogs. Further investigation is necessary to determine the role of fibrinogen in enterococcal colonization of the urinary tract of dogs.

RevDate: 2021-10-03
CmpDate: 2021-09-30

Wingert AM, Murray OA, Lulich JP, et al (2021)

Efficacy of medical dissolution for suspected struvite cystoliths in dogs.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(5):2287-2295.

BACKGROUND: Medical dissolution of struvite uroliths in dogs is commonly recommended, but data on success rates and complications are limited.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of medical dissolution for suspected struvite cystoliths in dogs.

ANIMALS: Fifty client-owned dogs fed a therapeutic dissolution diet, with or without administration of antimicrobials, for treatment of suspected struvite cystoliths.

METHODS: Single institution, retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed for dogs with at least 1 follow-up visit. Dissolution success, complications, and possible predictors of success were evaluated.

RESULTS: Full dissolution of cystoliths was achieved in 58% (29/50) of dogs within a median of 35 days (range, 13-167). Of 21 dogs without success, 7 each had partial dissolution, no dissolution, or undetermined outcome. Uroliths containing >10% nonstruvite mineral were common in the nonsuccess group (11/16 analyzed). Maximum urolith diameter, number of uroliths, and baseline urine pH did not differ significantly between dogs with and without success. Dissolution was more likely in dogs receiving antimicrobial therapy (OR = 16.3, 95% confidence interval 1.9-787.4, P = .002). Adverse events occurred in 9 dogs (18%); urethral obstructions were the most common, but 3 of 4 dogs with this complication were obstructed on presentation, before trial initiation.

Results support a medical dissolution trial for dogs with suspected struvite cystoliths. If no reduction in urolith size or number occurs by 1 month, a nonstruvite composition is likely, and alternative interventions should be considered. Dogs presenting with urethral obstructions should not be considered candidates for medical dissolution.

RevDate: 2021-12-21
CmpDate: 2021-12-21

de Campos Fonseca Pinto ACB, Murakami M, Steinbach SML, et al (2021)

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of a hair foreign body in the urinary bladder of a dog.

Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association, 62(6):e25-e28.

A 13-year-old male neutered mixed-breed dog with a history of gallbladder mucocele and urolithiasis was evaluated by ultrasound. Two hyperechoic, linear foreign bodies with no distal acoustic shadowing were detected in the urinary bladder and urethra. Following the ultrasound examination, the patient underwent cystoscopy, and two single hairs were found and successfully retrieved. Considering that urinary bladder foreign bodies may be a source for urinary tract infection and can act as a nidus for urocystolith formation, removal is recommended. This is the first published report describing ultrasonographic diagnosis of a hair foreign body in the canine urinary bladder and urethra.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Kovaříková S, Maršálek P, K Vrbová (2021)

Cystinuria in Dogs and Cats: What Do We Know after Almost 200 Years?.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(8):.

The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on canine and feline cystinuria from available scientific reports. Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic defect characterized by abnormal intestinal and renal amino acid transport in which cystine and the dibasic amino acids ornithine, lysine, and arginine are involved (COLA). At a normal urine pH, ornithine, lysine, and arginine are soluble, but cysteine forms a dimer, cystine, which is relatively insoluble, resulting in crystal precipitation. Mutations in genes coding COLA transporter and the mode of inheritance were identified only in some canine breeds. Cystinuric dogs may form uroliths (mostly in lower urinary tract) which are associated with typical clinical symptoms. The prevalence of cystine urolithiasis is much higher in European countries (up to 14% according to the recent reports) when compared to North America (United States and Canada) where it is approximately 1-3%. Cystinuria may be diagnosed by the detection of cystine urolithiasis, cystine crystalluria, assessment of amino aciduria, or using genetic tests. The management of cystinuria is aimed at urolith removal or dissolution which may be reached by dietary changes or medical treatment. In dogs with androgen-dependent cystinuria, castration will help. In cats, cystinuria occurs less frequently in comparison with dogs.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Hall JA, Vanchina MA, Ogleby B, et al (2021)

Increased Water Viscosity Enhances Water Intake and Reduces Risk of Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation in Cats.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(7):.

The purpose of this study is to determine if water with increased viscosity results in increased water intake, thus lowering the risk of urolithiasis in cats. Twelve healthy adult cats were fed pre-trial standard dry maintenance food for 1 week and then randomized into two groups for the study phase. The cats continued to receive the same food but were provided either control (deionized) water or viscous (1% methylcellulose) water for two months and then switched to the other water type for two months in a cross-over study design with repeated measures. Complete blood counts, serum chemistry profiles, and urinalysis were performed at the initiation of the study and again at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months. Daily water consumption and energy intake for each cat were recorded. Body weights were assessed weekly. Cats consuming 1% methylcellulose water with increased viscosity had increased water intake (p < 0.001; 25% and 21% higher at 28 and 56 days, respectively). Increased consumption of water resulted in lower urine specific gravity (p = 0.04), serum creatinine (p = 0.02), and blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.002) concentrations (without changing serum albumin, glucose, and calcium concentrations or serum osmolality) and decreased urine calcium concentration (p = 0.01) compared with cats consuming control water. In addition, the increased water intake increased (p = 0.05) resistance to oxalate crystal formation.

RevDate: 2022-08-02
CmpDate: 2021-10-25

Saver A, Lulich JP, Van Buren S, et al (2021)

Calcium oxalate urolithiasis in juvenile dogs.

The Veterinary record, 189(3):e141.

BACKGROUND: The features of juvenile-onset calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs have not been previously reported.

METHODS: Calcium oxalate urolith submissions to the Minnesota Urolith Center between 2012 and 2016 were analyzed to identify those originating from juvenile (≤2 years, n = 510) or mature (7-9 years, n = 39,093) dogs. Breed, sex, urolith salt type and urolith location were compared between groups. Breeds represented in both groups were also compared with respect to sex, urolith salt type and urolith location.

RESULTS: French (odds ratios [OR] = 14.7, p < 0.001) and English (OR = 14.3, p < 0.001) Bulldogs were overrepresented in juvenile submissions. All juvenile French and English Bulldogs were male. Across all breeds, juvenile dogs were more likely to be male (89%, p < 0.001) than mature dogs (79%). Juvenile dogs were also more likely to form dihydrate stones compared to mature dogs (33% versus 14%, respectively; p < 0.001). Breed differences were discovered in sex, urolith salt type and stone location.

CONCLUSIONS: French and English Bulldogs comprise a greater proportion of juvenile calcium oxalate urolith submissions than expected based on their rarity in mature submissions. Inherited risk factors, particularly X chromosome variants, should be investigated due to the strong breed and sex predispositions identified.

RevDate: 2022-06-17
CmpDate: 2022-06-02

Mérindol I, Dunn M, C Vachon (2022)

Feline urinary incontinence: a retrospective case series (2009-2019).

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 24(6):506-516.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the feline population presented for urinary incontinence at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2009 and 2019, with a particular focus on cats with a non-neurologic underlying cause.

METHODS: The medical records of cats diagnosed with urinary incontinence were retrospectively evaluated. Signalment, clinical presentation, results of diagnostic tests, diagnosis of the underlying cause and treatments were recorded. When information was available, outcome was recorded and follow-ups divided into three time frames (0-1 week, 1 week to 3 months and >3 months).

RESULTS: Thirty-five cats were presented with urinary incontinence. Of these, 18 cats with complete medical records presented urinary incontinence of non-neurologic origin. The most common clinical signs at presentation were urine leakage while resting (12/18), urine-soiled perineum (8/18), urine dribbling (8/18) and no spontaneous micturition (5/18). The most common underlying cause was urethral obstruction (67%; 12/18), with a majority due to urethral strictures (58%; 7/12). Other causes were suspected inflammation (2/12), neoplasia (1/12), urolithiasis (1/12) and foreign body (1/12). In 8/10 cats in which it was performed, cystoscopy and contrast cystourethrography were the methods that led to the diagnosis. Twelve cats with urethral obstruction underwent interventional procedures, resulting in complete resolution of incontinence in 7/12 and improvement in 1/12. Urinary tract infection was a common complication after 3 months (4/18).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: When incontinence of non-neurologic origin is suspected in a cat, urethral obstruction should be considered. Advanced imaging studies (cystoscopy and contrast studies) are useful for diagnosis. A good prognosis was reported in cats undergoing interventional procedures with no long-term treatment.

RevDate: 2021-12-15
CmpDate: 2021-12-15

Khamchun S, Yoodee S, V Thongboonkerd (2021)

Dual modulatory effects of diosmin on calcium oxalate kidney stone formation processes: Crystallization, growth, aggregation, crystal-cell adhesion, internalization into renal tubular cells, and invasion through extracellular matrix.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 141:111903.

Diosmin is a natural flavone glycoside (bioflavonoid) found in fruits and plants with several pharmacological activities. It has been widely used as a dietary supplement or therapeutic agent in various diseases/disorders. Although recommended, evidence of its protective mechanisms against kidney stone disease (nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis), especially calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate (COM) that is the most common type, remained unclear. In this study, we thus systematically evaluated the effects of diosmin (at 2.5-160 nM) on various stages of kidney stone formation processes, including COM crystallization, crystal growth, aggregation, crystal-cell adhesion, internalization into renal tubular cells and invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM). The results showed that diosmin had dose-dependent modulatory effects on all the mentioned COM kidney stone processes. Diosmin significantly increased COM crystal number and mass during crystallization, but reduced crystal size and growth. While diosmin promoted crystal aggregation, it inhibited crystal-cell adhesion and internalization into renal tubular cells. Finally, diosmin promoted crystal invasion through the ECM. Our data provide evidence demonstrating both inhibiting and promoting effects of diosmin on COM kidney stone formation processes. Based on these dual modulatory activities of diosmin, its anti-urolithiasis role is doubtful and cautions should be made for its use in kidney stone disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-02
CmpDate: 2021-09-30

Chamsuwan S, Angkanaporn K, Dissayabutra T, et al (2021)

The association between single nucleotide polymorphism in vitamin D receptor and calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(5):2263-2270.

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) are associated with calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis in humans.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between VDR polymorphisms and susceptibility to CaOx urolithiasis in dogs.

ANIMALS: Thirty-five dogs with CaOx urolithiasis were compared with 40 stone-free dogs.

METHODS: This was a case-control study. Two VDR gene polymorphisms (rs851998024 and rs852900542) were detected by specific TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, and their relationship with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, serum and urinary electrolyte concentrations was evaluated.

RESULTS: The distribution of the rs852900542 polymorphism was significantly different between the case and the control dogs (x2 = 6.369, P = .04). Dogs with a CC or CT genotype had an increased risk of CaOx stones than those with the TT genotype (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval 1.04-13.98). The CaOx dogs with the TT genotype had a significantly lower urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio than the CT+CC genotypes. 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations did not differ between the cases and the controls (308.7 ± 217.4 vs 286.7 ± 185.1 pg/mL, P = .45).

This finding suggests that vitamin D metabolism might play a role in CaOx stone formation in dogs.

RevDate: 2021-07-22

Mendoza-López CI, Del-Angel-Caraza J, Aké-Chiñas MA, et al (2021)

Canine Silica Urolithiasis in Mexico, Associated with the Concentration of Dissolved Silica in Tap Water.

Veterinary medicine international, 2021:6667927.

Silica urolithiasis is infrequent in dogs, but in Mexico represents 12.9%. Our hypothesis is the consumption of high amounts of silicates in the diet, especially that dissolved in tap water. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of silica in the tap water in different geographical areas and their relationship with cases of silicate urolithiasis in dogs. From 179 cases of silicate urolithiasis, 98.9% were from dogs within a geographic area called the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which represents a cross shaft to the center of the country. Silica concentrations in tap water ranged between 3 and 76 mg/L, with a range of 27 to 76 mg/L, a mean of 49.9 ± 12 mg/L within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and a concentration from 3 to 30 mg/L, with a mean of 16.4 ± 7 mg/L outside this area; these were significantly different (p < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that there is a geographic risk factor for silicate urolithiasis in urolith-forming dogs, related to the consumption of tap water with a high concentration of silica. Further studies are necessary to identify this same pathophysiological association in other species.

RevDate: 2021-10-02
CmpDate: 2021-09-30

Testault I, Gatel L, M Vanel (2021)

Comparison of nonenhanced computed tomography and ultrasonography for detection of ureteral calculi in cats: A prospective study.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(5):2241-2248.

BACKGROUND: Radiographs and ultrasound (US) are the primary imaging modalities used to assess ureteral calculi in cats. Reports describing the use of nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) are scarce.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare US and nonenhanced CT for detection, number and localization of ureteral calculi in cats.

ANIMALS: Fifty-one cats with at least 1 ureteral calculus, and 101 ureters.

METHODS: Prospective case series. All cats underwent an US followed by a nonenhanced CT. Cats were included in the study if at least 1 ureteral calculus was diagnosed on either modality. Number of calculi and their localization (proximal, middle, and distal) were recorded on both modalities. Pelvic dilatation and maximal ureteral diameter were recorded with US.

RESULTS: More calculi were detected by nonenhanced CT (126) compared to US (90), regardless of localization (P < .001). More ureters were affected on nonenhanced CT (70) compared to US (57; P < .001). The number of calculi detected was significantly different between US and nonenhanced CT in the proximal (P = .02) and distal ureteral region (P < .001). Bilateral calculi were more frequent with nonenhanced CT (19 cats) compared to US (9 cats; P < .001). A pelvic size superior to 5 mm and a maximal ureteral diameter value superior to 3 mm were always associated with ureteral calculi.

Computed tomography is an emerging imaging modality in cats with a suspected ureteral obstruction. Combination of CT and US can be beneficial for case management.

RevDate: 2021-12-03
CmpDate: 2021-08-04

Nell E, Garofolo SQ, C Ober (2021)

Pure cystine and urate calculi can be clearly visible using survey digital radiography.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 62(6):605-607.

Cystine and urate calculi are considered nonradiopaque to faintly radiopaque. Two canine cases in which these types of calculi are radiopaque and clearly apparent in vivo on survey digital radiography are described. The densities of cystine and urate calculi, as determined in vitro with computed tomography, are compared to other pure calculi and mixed or compound calculi to further explore the relative attenuation characteristics.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Bijsmans E, Quéau Y, V Biourge (2021)

Increasing Dietary Potassium Chloride Promotes Urine Dilution and Decreases Calcium Oxalate Relative Supersaturation in Healthy Dogs and Cats.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(6):.

Urine dilution is a strategy used to decrease the risk of crystallization in cats and dogs at risk of urolithiasis. Sodium chloride has been used in prescription diets to effectively promote urine dilution, but the effect of the salt-substitute potassium chloride (KCl) on urine parameters has not been extensively investigated. Two diets differing only in KCl (Diet A; K 0.44 g/MJ, Diet B; K 1.03 g/MJ) were fed to 17 cats and 22 dogs for seven days, followed by three days of urine collection. Urinary ion concentrations were determined by ionic chromatography, and SUPERSAT software was used to calculate the relative supersaturation (RSS) value for struvite and calcium oxalate. Water intake and urine volume increased, and USG decreased on diet B (p < 0.001). Urine concentration of potassium increased on diet B, but concentrations of all other ions did not change or decrease in line with urine dilution. Calcium oxalate RSS decreased on diet B (p < 0.05). This short-term study showed that increased dietary KCl in a dry extruded diet effectively dilutes the urine of cats and dogs and therefore offers a novel nutritional strategy for the prevention of urolithiasis. This finding is of interest for patients that would benefit from dietary sodium restriction.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Deprey J, Baldinger A, Livet V, et al (2021)

Risk factors and clinical relevance of positive urine cultures in cats with subcutaneous ureteral bypass.

BMC veterinary research, 17(1):199.

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to report the incidence and risk factors associated with positive urine bacterial cultures as well as long-term outcome in cats with subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) devices.

RESULTS: Medical records of cats that underwent SUB device placement were retrospectively reviewed. Signalment of the cat, laterality of the ureteral obstruction, surgery, anesthesia and hospitalization duration, bacterial culture results and follow-up data were retrieved. Thirty-two cats met the inclusion criteria. Four cats (12.5%) had a positive intraoperative culture, with two of them being treated successfully. Ten cats out of 28 (35.7%) were documented with a positive urine culture during follow-up period, with a median time between discharge and identification of the first positive urine culture of 159 days (range 8-703 days). Bacteriuria resolved in 60% of cats (6/10). Escherichia coli was the most common organism, isolated in 4 out of 10 postoperative urine cultures. Overall, subclinical bacteriura was documented for 6 of 32 (18.8%) cats and 5 of 32 (15.6%) cats displayed clinicals signs suggestive of persistent UTI. One cat had subclinical bacteriuria. Three cats died during the follow-up period. There was a significant difference between negative and positive urine bacterial culture groups in median hospitalization duration (5 days versus 6 days, P = 0.022) and in median body condition score (5/9 versus 4/9, P = 0.03). Cats with a longer hospital stay and with a lower body condition score were more likely to have a positive urine culture during follow-up period.

CONCLUSIONS: SUB device placement surgery is associated with complications such as chronic bacteriuria. Bacteriuria in our study resolved with appropriate antibiotic treatment in more than half of cats. Risk factors identified for positive urine culture were a longer hospitalization duration and a decreased body condition score.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Kopecny L, Palm CA, Segev G, et al (2021)

Urolithiasis in dogs: Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and risk factors (2006-2018).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(3):1406-1415.

BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is a common and often recurrent problem in dogs.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in urolith composition in dogs and to assess risk factors for urolithiasis, including age, breed, sex, neuter status, urolith location, and bacterial urolith cultures.

SAMPLE POPULATION: A total of 10 444 uroliths and the dogs from which they were obtained.

METHODS: The laboratory database at the UC Davis Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched for all urolith submissions from dogs between January 2006 and December 2018. Mineral type, age, breed, sex, neuter status, urolith location, and urolith culture were recorded. Trends were evaluated and variables compared to evaluate risk factors.

RESULTS: Calcium oxalate (CaOx) and struvite-containing uroliths comprised the majority of all submissions from dogs, representing 47.0% and 43.6%, respectively. The proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths significantly decreased from 49.5% in 2006 to 41.8% in 2018 (P = .006), with no change in the proportion of struvite-containing urolith submissions. Cystine-containing uroliths comprised 2.7% of all submissions between 2006 and 2018 and a significant nonlinear increase in this mineral type occurred over time (1.4% of all submissions in 2006 to 8.7% in 2018; P < .001). Of all cystine-containing uroliths, 70.3% were from intact male dogs. Age, breed, and sex predispositions for uroliths were similar to those previously identified.

Although calcium oxalate- and struvite-containing uroliths continue to be the most common uroliths submitted from dogs, a decrease in the proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths and an increase in the proportion of cystine-containing uroliths occurred during the time period evaluated.

RevDate: 2022-07-12
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Kopecny L, Palm CA, Segev G, et al (2021)

Urolithiasis in cats: Evaluation of trends in urolith composition and risk factors (2005-2018).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(3):1397-1405.

BACKGROUND: Urolithiasis is an important upper and lower urinary tract disease in cats that results in morbidity and mortality.

OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in composition of uroliths in cats and evaluate risk factors related to age, breed, sex, urolith location, and bacterial urolith cultures.

SAMPLE POPULATION: A total of 3940 uroliths and the cats from which they were obtained.

METHODS: The database of the UC Davis Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched for all urolith submissions from cats between January 2005 and December 2018. Mineral type, age, breed, sex, and urolith location and culture results were recorded. Trends were evaluated and variables compared to evaluate risk factors.

RESULTS: A significant decrease in the proportion of calcium oxalate (CaOx)-containing uroliths occurred over time (P = .02), from 50.1% (204/407) of all submissions in 2005 to 37.7% (58/154) in 2018. In contrast, the proportion of struvite-containing uroliths increased significantly (P = .002), from 41.8% (170/407) in 2005 to 54.5% (84/154) in 2018. The proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths in the upper urinary tract was significantly higher compared to the proportion of other urolith types in the upper urinary tract. Urate-containing uroliths were the third most common type (361/3940, 9.2%). Overall, sex and age predispositions were similar to those reported previously.

The decrease in the proportion of CaOx-containing uroliths and increase in the proportion of struvite-containing uroliths warrants investigation. Further education regarding the efficacy of medical dissolution of struvite-containing uroliths is recommended.

RevDate: 2021-06-24
CmpDate: 2021-06-24

Burggraaf ND, Westgeest DB, RJ Corbee (2021)

Analysis of 7866 feline and canine uroliths submitted between 2014 and 2020 in the Netherlands.

Research in veterinary science, 137:86-93.

Analysis of large datasets of uroliths is necessary to illustrate the prevalence and risk factors of urolithiasis. Furthermore, it may help to improve treatment and prevention of urolithiasis. In this study, 7866 uroliths (44.5% feline and 55.5% canine) from veterinary practitioners in the Netherlands between 2014 and 2020 were analysed. Between 2014 and 2020 the distribution over the different types of uroliths remained similar over time. Female cats, obese cats, Domestic Shorthair cats, female dogs, and large breed dogs had an increased risk for struvite. Neutered cats, all cat breeds except Domestic Shorthair, neutered dogs, male dogs, intact male dogs, and small breed dogs had an increased risk for calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Cystine and urate were found predominantly in male dogs. Dalmatians were at highest risk for urate urolithiasis. The findings of this study in the Netherlands were similar to findings in previous studies from different countries. However, urate urolithiasis in the English Cocker Spaniel and cystine urolithiasis in the Yorkshire Terrier were new associations. Body condition score, information about recurrence of urolithiasis, medical history, and diet history should be included in submission sheets in the future to explore other possible associations.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Butty EM, McKinney CA, AJ Prisk (2021)

Treatment of a flunixin meglumine overdose with intravenous administration of lipid emulsion and therapeutic plasma exchange in a Nigerian dwarf buck kid (Capra aegagrus hircus).

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 35(3):1626-1630.

A 12 week-old Nigerian dwarf (Capra aegagrus hircus) buck kid was hospitalized for management of obstructive urolithiasis. Postoperatively, he was inadvertently administered 16-times greater than his calculated dose of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID; 17.5 mg/kg flunixin meglumine, IV). The goat was treated with intravenous administration of lipid emulsion (ILE) prior to membrane-based therapeutic plasma exchange (mTPE) under general anesthesia. The increased coagulability inherent to small ruminants in comparison with dogs and cats warranted specific adjustments in the prescription of anticoagulation, blood flow, and filtration fraction to avoid circuit clotting during mTPE. Serum flunixin meglumine concentration measured before, during, and after mTPE revealed marked reduction in drug concentration. After the combined treatments, no clinical evidence of NSAID gastrointestinal or renal toxicosis was detected. This case report describes successful management of flunixin meglumine overdose in a small ruminant using combined ILE and mTPE.

RevDate: 2021-05-10
CmpDate: 2021-05-10

Womble M, Georoff TA, Helmick K, et al (2021)

MORTALITY REVIEW FOR THE NORTH AMERICAN SNOW LEOPARD (PANTHERA UNCIA) ZOO POPULATION FROM JANUARY 1999 TO DECEMBER 2019.

Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 52(1):145-156.

The objective of this 20-yr retrospective study was to review and summarize causes of mortality in the North American (NA) snow leopard population to inform and enhance animal health and husbandry practices. Pathology reports were requested from all NA zoological institutions housing snow leopards that died between 01 January 1999 and 31 December 2019. Data were reviewed and cause of death (COD) and concurrent diseases were summarized and compared by age group, organ system, and disease process. The 241 snow leopards in this report include 109 males, 130 females, and two of undetermined sex. Among them were 116 geriatric snow leopards (>15 yr), 72 adults (15-3 yr), 16 juveniles (3 yr to 2 mo), 32 neonates (2 mo to 0 days), and five fetuses (<0 days). Overall, noninfectious diseases were the most common COD across all age groups (73%). In adult and geriatric snow leopards, chronic renal disease (CRD) (38.8%) and malignant neoplasia (19.7%), including oral squamous cell carcinoma (6.4%), were a common COD. In juveniles and neonates, perinatal death and congenital diseases, including ocular coloboma (15.6%), were a common COD. Individuals with CRD were 13.5 and 4.36 times more likely to have veno-occlusive disease and cardiac fibrosis, respectively. Snow leopards with urolithiasis were 5.27 times more likely to have CRD. Infectious (14.1%) and inflammatory diseases (8.7%) for which no specific etiology was identified were less common overall and more common in juveniles and neonates (25% and 21%, respectively). Neoplasms not previously reported in snow leopards or that are generally uncommon in the veterinary literature included transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (n = 7) and mesothelioma (n = 1).

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Breu D, Stieger N, E Müller (2021)

[Occurrence of uroliths - age-, breed-, and gender-specific differences in dogs from Germany].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 49(1):6-12.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and frequency of uroliths in dogs in Germany and to evaluate age-, gender-, and breed-specific differences.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 2772 uroliths from dogs in Germany that had been submitted from veterinary practices during the years 2017-2019 were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.

RESULTS: Uroliths were analyzed as follows: Struvite (44.7 %), calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite 24.5 %), cystine (15.2 %), ammonium urate (5.3 %), calcium oxalate dihydrate (weddellite 4.4 %), calcium phosphate (1.6 %), xanthine (1.2 %), whewellite/weddellite (11 %), brushite (0.4 %) and other substances (1.7 %). The dogs' median age (in years) with regards to the urolith type amounted to: struvite 8, calcium oxalate (whewellite and weddellite) 10, cystine 5, brushite 11, xanthine 6.5, and ammonium urate 6 years. Struvite uroliths were most common in intact females (83.8 %) and neutered females (80.8 %), while cystine uroliths (36.7 %) and calcium oxalates (35.7 % whewellite and weddellite) were most common in intact males. Calcium oxalate (50 %), struvite (17.3 %), and cystine uroliths (10.5 %) were found in male neutered dogs. The most frequent breeds with struvite uroliths were Pug (75.9 %), Labrador (73.1 %), Shih Tzu (62.2 %), Dachshund (50.4 %) and Maltese (36 %). Calcium oxalates were most frequently encountered in the breeds Miniature Schnauzer (54.8 %), Jack Russell Terrier (49.5 %), and Yorkshire Terrier (48.2 %). Cystine uroliths were most frequent in the breeds French Bulldog (47.2 %), Bulldogs (44.8 %), Chihuahua (44.1 %) and Dachshund (32.8 %).

Dogs from Germany displayed age-, gender- and breed-specific differences in the frequency of urine calculi occurrence. Knowledge of the frequent occurrence of the distinct uroliths in Germany as well as potential breed dispositions allow the veterinarian to implement an appropriate preventive treatment plan. This would involve a targeted monitoring program for the prevention and follow-up care of the patient in conjunction with the pet owner.

RevDate: 2022-07-31
CmpDate: 2021-10-15

Bijsmans ES, Quéau Y, Feugier A, et al (2021)

The effect of urine acidification on calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in cats.

Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 105(3):579-586.

There is an apparent reciprocal relationship between magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP, struvite) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis incidence rate in cats. The number of struvite uroliths submitted for analysis over the past 35 years has been decreasing, with an increase in CaOx urolith submissions. Commercial diets aimed to dissolve struvite uroliths are typically acidified, and it has been suggested that dietary acidification increases urinary calcium excretion and the risk of CaOx crystallization. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of urine acidification on the relative supersaturation (RSS) of CaOx in cats, as a representation of crystallization risk. Four diets were extruded to contain identical nutrient contents, but with gradual acidification (0, 0.6, 1.3 and 1.9% sodium bisulphate substituted sodium chloride in diets A, B, C and D respectively). Thirteen adult cats were fed each diet sequentially for a minimum of 10 days. Average urine pH was 6.4, 6.2, 6.0 and 5.9 on diets A, B, C and D respectively (p < 0.0001). Struvite RSS decreased on diets inducing more acidic urine pH (p < 0.0001). Urinary calcium excretion and concentration increased with diets inducing lower urine pH (p < 0.0001), but oxalate excretion and concentration decreased (p < 0.001). CaOx RSS was not different between diets (p = 0.63). These results suggest that a lower diet base excess and resulting urine pH to support struvite dissolution do not increase the risk for CaOx crystallization in the range of urine pH representative of most commercial feline diets. Long-term studies are needed to confirm this.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Jones E, Alawneh J, Thompson M, et al (2020)

Predicting Diagnosis of Australian Canine and Feline Urinary Bladder Disease Based on Histologic Features.

Veterinary sciences, 7(4):.

Anatomic pathology is a vital component of veterinary medicine but as a primarily subjective qualitative or semiquantitative discipline, it is at risk of cognitive biases. Logistic regression is a statistical technique used to explain relationships between data categories and outcomes and is increasingly being applied in medicine for predicting disease probability based on medical and patient variables. Our aims were to evaluate histologic features of canine and feline bladder diseases and explore the utility of logistic regression modeling in identifying associations in veterinary histopathology, then formulate a predictive disease model using urinary bladder as a pilot tissue. The histologic features of 267 canine and 71 feline bladder samples were evaluated, and a logistic regression model was developed to identify associations between the bladder disease diagnosed, and both patient and histologic variables. There were 102 cases of cystitis, 84 neoplasia, 42 urolithiasis and 63 normal bladders. Logistic regression modeling identified six variables that were significantly associated with disease outcome: species, urothelial ulceration, urothelial inflammation, submucosal lymphoid aggregates, neutrophilic submucosal inflammation, and moderate submucosal hemorrhage. This study demonstrated that logistic regression modeling could provide a more objective approach to veterinary histopathology and has opened the door toward predictive disease modeling based on histologic variables.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-01-28

Alford A, Furrow E, Borofsky M, et al (2020)

Animal models of naturally occurring stone disease.

Nature reviews. Urology, 17(12):691-705.

The prevalence of urolithiasis in humans is increasing worldwide; however, non-surgical treatment and prevention options remain limited despite decades of investigation. Most existing laboratory animal models for urolithiasis rely on highly artificial methods of stone induction and, as a result, might not be fully applicable to the study of natural stone initiation and growth. Animal models that naturally and spontaneously form uroliths are an underused resource in the study of human stone disease and offer many potential opportunities for improving insight into stone pathogenesis. These models include domestic dogs and cats, as well as a variety of other captive and wild species, such as otters, dolphins and ferrets, that form calcium oxalate, struvite, uric acid, cystine and other stone types. Improved collaboration between urologists, basic scientists and veterinarians is warranted to further our understanding of how stones form and to consider possible new preventive and therapeutic treatment options.

RevDate: 2020-11-05

Mendoza-López CI, Del-Angel-Caraza J, Aké-Chiñas MA, et al (2020)

Canine Silica Urolithiasis in Mexico (2005-2018).

Veterinary medicine international, 2020:8883487.

A higher frequency of canine silica urolithiasis is found in Mexico, unlike <1-8% in other countries. The causes and risk factors for this pathology are unknown. However, we consider the consumption of high amounts of silica from the solid diet or dissolved in water as the only hypothesis. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for silica urolithiasis in dogs from Mexico. A total of 1383 clinical cases of canine urolithiasis were included in this study; the uroliths were analyzed to determine their mineral composition by stereoscopic microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Of these cases, 12.94% were considered pure silica uroliths; however, considering the mixed and compound uroliths, the frequency increased to 17.42%. Male dogs aged >6 years and large breeds, especially Labradors and Golden retrievers, were at significant risk for this disease. 98.88 % of the clinical cases studied were found in the central axis of the country, considering this finding as a possible geographical risk factor to be analyzed in another study.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Wood MW, Lepold A, Tesfamichael D, et al (2020)

Risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria in dogs: A retrospective study.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 34(6):2447-2453.

BACKGROUND: In humans, Enterococcus spp. urinary tract infections (UTI) are commonly associated with urinary catheter-induced urothelial inflammation but this is not the case in dogs.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors predisposing dogs to enterococcal bacteriuria.

ANIMALS: Seventy dogs with Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria (case) and 70 dogs with Enterococcus coli bacteriuria (control).

METHODS: A single center retrospective case-control study with subjects and controls identified by a medical records search for Enterococcus spp. (subject) or E coli (control) bacteriuria from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. Cases and controls were balanced with respect to average age and weight. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate and test whether the odds of having Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria (instead of E coli) were associated with the presence of any given characteristic.

RESULTS: A history of recurrent bacteriuria was significantly more common in Enterococcus spp. cases than in E coli controls (odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-4.16, P = .04). Comorbidities associated with the presence of Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria included lower urinary tract (LUT) anatomic abnormalities (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.17-8.10, P = .02), urolithiasis (P = .01), and the presence of LUT neoplasia (P = .04). Small frequencies (n = 12 and n = 6, respectively) compromise our ability to precisely estimate the genuine OR for the latter 2 characteristics.

If the identified risk factors promote Enterococcus spp. colonization in dogs via induced LUT inflammation similar to people then Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria could be a sentinel for underlying LUT inflammation.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Seneviratne M, Stamenova P, K Lee (2021)

Comparison of surgical indications and short- and long-term complications in 56 cats undergoing perineal, transpelvic or prepubic urethrostomy.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 23(6):477-486.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare indications, complications and mortality rates for perineal urethrostomy (PU), transpelvic urethrostomy (TPU) and prepubic urethrostomy (PPU).

METHODS: A retrospective review of, and follow-up owner questionnaire for, cats undergoing urethrostomy between 2008 and 2018, at a single referral hospital, were performed.

RESULTS: Fifty-six cats underwent urethrostomy (PU, n = 37; TPU, n = 8; PPU, n = 11). The presenting problem was significantly associated with urethrostomy technique (P <0.001). For PU cats, feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC; n = 21 [56.7%]) was the most common problem, whereas for PPU cats, trauma (n = 9 [81.8%]) was most common (P <0.001). Urethrostomy technique was associated with imaging diagnosis (P <0.001) of the urethral lesion. Most PU cats had no diagnostic imaging lesion (n = 15 [40.5%]) or obstructive calculi or clots (n = 10 [27.0%]), and all PPU cats had urethral rupture. Ten (90.9%) PPU cats had a pelvic lesion, while 21 (56.7%) PU cats had a penile lesion. TPU cats had a range of presenting problems and imaging diagnoses. Short- and long-term complications were reported in 33/55 (60.0%) and 11/30 (36.7%) cats, respectively. The number of cats with long-term complications was greater among PPU cats (P = 0.02). Short-term dermatitis (P = 0.019) and long-term incontinence (P = 0.01) were associated with PPU. Short-term mortality was 5.6% and long-term mortality was 13.3%; both were independent of urethrostomy technique. Quality of life post-urethrostomy, across all techniques, was graded as good by 93% of owners.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, PU was the most common feline urethrostomy technique indicated for FIC. Short-term urethrostomy complications are common, irrespective of urethrostomy technique. Long-term complications are less frequent but more common with PPU.

RevDate: 2020-11-10
CmpDate: 2020-11-10

Sutthimethakorn S, V Thongboonkerd (2020)

Effects of high-dose uric acid on cellular proteome, intracellular ATP, tissue repairing capability and calcium oxalate crystal-binding capability of renal tubular cells: Implications to hyperuricosuria-induced kidney stone disease.

Chemico-biological interactions, 331:109270.

Hyperuricosuria is associated with kidney stone disease, especially uric acid (UA) and calcium oxalate (CaOx) types. Nevertheless, detailed mechanisms of hyperuricosuria-induced kidney stone formation remained unclear. This study examined changes in cellular proteome and function of renal tubular cells after treatment with high-dose UA for 48-h. Quantitative proteomics using 2-DE followed by nanoLC-ESI-ETD MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry revealed significant changes in levels of 22 proteins in the UA-treated cells. These proteomic data could be confirmed by Western blotting. Functional assays revealed an increase in intracellular ATP level and enhancement of tissue repairing capability in the UA-treated cells. Interestingly, levels of HSP70 and HSP90 (the known receptors for CaOx crystals) were increased in apical membranes of the UA-treated cells. CaOx crystal-cell adhesion assay revealed significant increase in CaOx-binding capability of the UA-treated cells, whereas neutralization of the surface HSP70 and/or HSP90 using their specific monoclonal antibodies caused significant reduction in such binding capability. These findings highlighted changes in renal tubular cells in response to high-dose UA that may, at least in part, explain the pathogenic mechanisms of hyperuricosuria-induced mixed kidney stone disease.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Schwarz T, Shorten E, Gennace M, et al (2021)

CT features of feline lipiduria and renal cortical lipid deposition.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 23(4):357-363.

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to document the presence and prevalence of feline lipiduria and renal lipid deposition on CT, and to search for associations between the presence of lipiduria and sex, urinary tract abnormalities and urolithiasis.

METHODS: The CT examinations of 252 cats were reviewed for the presence of an antigravitational hypodense bubble in the urinary bladder with density values between -180 Hounsfield units (HU) and -20 HU. To identify associations between lipiduria and sex, urinary tract abnormalities and urolithiasis, Fisher's exact test was used. Renal cortical density measurement was performed in all cats. The Mann-Whitney test was performed to compare renal cortical density between lipiduric and unaffected cats.

RESULTS: A total of 27 domestic cats (10.7%) had CT evidence of lipiduria. Lipiduric cats had a significantly lower renal cortical density than unaffected cats (P <0.01). Male neutered cats had a significantly higher frequency of lipiduria and lower renal cortical density compared with female neutered cats (P <0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding renal, ureteral or urethral abnormalities.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Lipiduria is a common physiological phenomenon in cats that can be detected on routine CT examinations. Decreased renal cortical density is associated with lipiduria. This may aid in the diagnosis of feline lipiduria and help to differentiate its presence from other pathological depositions and excretions.

RevDate: 2021-10-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-19

Al KF, Daisley BA, Chanyi RM, et al (2020)

Oxalate-Degrading Bacillus subtilis Mitigates Urolithiasis in a Drosophila melanogaster Model.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Kidney stones affect nearly 10% of the population in North America and are associated with high morbidity and recurrence, yet novel prevention strategies are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the human gut microbiota can influence the development of nephrolithiasis, although clinical trials have been limited and inconclusive in determining the potential for microbially based interventions. Here, we used an established Drosophila melanogaster model of urolithiasis as a high-throughput screening platform for evaluation of the therapeutic potential of oxalate-degrading bacteria in calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. The results demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis 168 (BS168) is a promising candidate based on its preferential growth in high oxalate concentrations, its ability to stably colonize the D. melanogaster intestinal tract for as long as 5 days, and its prevention of oxalate-induced microbiota dysbiosis. Single-dose BS168 supplementation exerted beneficial effects on D. melanogaster for as long as 14 days, decreasing stone burden in dissected Malpighian tubules and fecal excreta while increasing survival and behavioral markers of health over those of nonsupplemented lithogenic controls. These findings were complemented by in vitro experiments using the established MDCK renal cell line, which demonstrated that BS168 pretreatment prevented increased CaOx crystal adhesion and aggregation. Taking our results together, this study supports the notion that BS168 can functionally reduce CaOx stone burden in vivo through its capacity for oxalate degradation. Given the favorable safety profile of many B. subtilis strains already used as digestive aids and in fermented foods, these findings suggest that BS168 could represent a novel therapeutic adjunct to reduce the incidence of recurrent CaOx nephrolithiasis in high-risk patients.IMPORTANCE Kidney stone disease is a morbid condition that is increasing in prevalence, with few nonsurgical treatment options. The majority of stones are composed of calcium oxalate. Unlike humans, some microbes can break down oxalate, suggesting that microbial therapeutics may provide a novel treatment for kidney stone patients. This study demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis 168 (BS168) decreased stone burden, improved health, and complemented the microbiota in a Drosophila melanogaster urolithiasis model, while not exacerbating calcium oxalate aggregation or adhesion to renal cells in vitro These results identify this bacterium as a candidate for ameliorating stone formation; given that other strains of B. subtilis are components of fermented foods and are used as probiotics for digestive health, strain 168 warrants testing in humans. With the severe burden that recurrent kidney stone disease imposes on patients and the health care system, this microbial therapeutic approach could provide an inexpensive therapeutic adjunct.

RevDate: 2022-04-16

Nururrozi A, Yanuartono Y, Sivananthan P, et al (2020)

Evaluation of lower urinary tract disease in the Yogyakarta cat population, Indonesia.

Veterinary world, 13(6):1182-1186.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This paper reports a retrospective study performed in 185 cats diagnosed with feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD). The analyzed population involved feline patients at the Veterinary Clinic of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. This research aimed to evaluate the clinical indications and causes of FLUTD in the Yogyakarta cat population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical data of all feline patients were obtained to conduct this study. FLUTD diagnoses were based on physical examinations, urinalyses, ultrasound examinations, and bacterial cultures. Only cats with a complete examination were used in the study. The clinical signs were evaluated and accompanied by the results of laboratory tests in cats that showed symptoms of FLUTD. The medical history of all feline patients was analyzed thoroughly. Most of the feline's urine samples were collected by catheterization.

RESULTS: The most commonly diagnosed of FLUTD in the Yogyakarta cat population were: feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) (56%), urinary tract infection (UTI; 25%), urolithiasis (13%), urethral plugs (UP) (4.9%), and neoplasia (0.4%), respectively. The prevalence of UTI is higher than that reported in Europe or the US. Older cats more often show symptoms of UTI and neoplasia, whereas young cats more often show symptoms of FIC and UP. The prevalence of male cats experiencing FLUTD in Yogyakarta is much higher than female cats.

CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of FLUTD cases in Yogyakarta is related to age and sex. The results of this study are similar to those of the previous research studies conducted in other countries.

RevDate: 2022-04-16

Astuty ATJE, Tjahajati I, WS Nugroho (2020)

Detection of feline idiopathic cystitis as the cause of feline lower urinary tract disease in Sleman Regency, Indonesia.

Veterinary world, 13(6):1108-1112.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is one of the common cat diseases. The aim of this study was to detect feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) as a cause of FLUTD in Sleman Regency, which is a problem in the population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three cats with FLUTD symptoms were used from seven veterinary practices in Sleman Regency. The logging of each cat's medical history, clinical examination, urinalysis, routine blood screening, and ultrasonography was conducted to diagnose the cause of FLUTD.

RESULTS: The percentages of diseases causing FLUTD included FIC 21.9%, urolithiasis 57.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI) 16.4%, neoplasia 1.4%, trauma 1.4%, and nervous disorders 1.4%.

CONCLUSION: FIC, one of the causes of FLUTD, is found in cats and has become a problem among the cat population in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Various handling and preventive efforts should be undertaken against the disease.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Fantinati M, N Priymenko (2020)

Managing Feline Idiopathic Hypercalcemia With Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.): A Case Series.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 7:421.

Background: We describe for the first time the use of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) as a non-pharmacological solution in managing feline idiopathic hypercalcemia when dietary change alone fails. Case Summary: Over a 2-year period of time, three female spayed, middle-aged, Domestic Shorthair cats were diagnosed with idiopathic hypercalcemia. Reason for consultation were lethargy and dysorexia, with a single episode of vomiting described in one cat and dysuria in another. Thorough diagnostic work-up included complete blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, ionized calcium, calcemic hormones, parathyroid hormone-related protein, and imaging of chest and abdomen. Based on different nutritional reasons, each cat was switched to a different high-moisture pet food as first-step in managing the disorder: a high-fiber diet, a diet formulated for chronic kidney disease management and a diet designed to prevent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. In the three cats, 6 weeks of dietary change alone did not result in normocalcemia. Before resorting to any pharmacological solution, supplementation to the diet of chia seeds (2 g/cat/day) was started. After 4 weeks from the introduction of Salvia hispanica L., all cats achieved normalization of ionized calcium concentration. Conclusion: Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) supplementation could be a useful tool in managing feline idiopathic hypercalcemia.

RevDate: 2020-12-25
CmpDate: 2020-12-25

Lorange M, E Monnet (2020)

Postoperative outcomes of 12 cats with ureteral obstruction treated with ureteroneocystostomy.

Veterinary surgery : VS, 49(7):1418-1427.

OBJECTIVE: To report complications and long-term outcomes of cats with benign ureteral obstruction treated with ureteroneocystostomy and to determine the effects of double pigtail catheter (DPT) placement on postoperative outcomes.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.

ANIMALS: Twelve client-owned cats with ureteral urolithiasis treated with ureteroneocystostomy.

METHODS: Records were reviewed for signalment, location of the obstruction, diagnostic tests, surgical technique, perioperative complications, long-term measurements of kidney function, and survival. Cats were divided into two groups; in one group, a DPT was placed at the time of ureteroneocystostomy, and, in the other group, a DPT was not placed at the time of ureteroneocystostomy (NDPT).

RESULTS: A DPT was placed in six of 12 cats. The NDPT group included four cats with temporary catheters and two cats with no catheter. Median creatinine concentration decreased from 10.4 mg/dL (range, 1.6-20.3) to 2.2 mg/dL (range, 1.1-3.6) at the time of discharge (P = .015) in all cats. Two cats in the NDPT group required revision surgery for uroabdomen. Eleven cats were discharged from the hospital. Long-term complications (hematuria, pollakiuria, urinary tract infections) were more common in the DPT group (P = .047). Seven cats were alive a median of 329 days (range, 8-1772) after surgery. Median creatinine concentration was 2.0 mg/dL (range, 0.6-6.4) at a median of 157 days (range, 43-1772) after surgery.

CONCLUSION: Ureteroneocystostomy resulted in acceptable long-term outcomes in 11 of 12 cats. The placement of a DPT did not influence the long-term outcome in this small population.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Ureteroneocystostomy with or without intraoperative placement of a DPT should be considered to relieve benign ureteral obstructions in cats.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Tefft KM, Byron JK, Hostnik ET, et al (2021)

Effect of a struvite dissolution diet in cats with naturally occurring struvite urolithiasis.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 23(4):269-277.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of the low struvite relative supersaturation diet in dissolution of feline struvite cystoliths.

METHODS: This was a prospective, open-label, two-center study. Twelve client-owned cats were enrolled based on the radiographic appearance of their uroliths and urinalysis parameters. Cats were fed the test diet exclusively for up to 56 days. Cats were radiographed every other week until radiographic evidence of dissolution occurred or the end of the study period was reached. Cats with radiographically apparent uroliths at the end of the study period underwent cystotomy for stone retrieval and analysis.

RESULTS: Nine of the 12 cats completed the study. Eight experienced radiographic dissolution; seven of these had complete dissolution within the first month of treatment. One cat, whose owner declined cystotomy after partial dissolution at day 56, had complete radiographic resolution at 70 days of treatment. Two calcium oxalate urolith cores were removed from a cat that had partial radiographic dissolution.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The test diet was successful in dissolving suspected struvite cystoliths. As this diet is suitable for maintenance feeding of adult cats, it may be a suitable choice for long-term prevention of feline struvite urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Perondi F, Puccinelli C, Lippi I, et al (2020)

Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Urachal Anomalies in Cats and Dogs: Retrospective Study of 98 Cases (2009-2019).

Veterinary sciences, 7(3):.

This retrospective study investigated the prevalence of different urachal anomalies (UA) in cats (n = 60) and dogs (n = 38) and their association with clinical symptoms and urinalysis alterations. Among UA, the vesicourachal diverticulum was the most prevalent UA diagnosed in both cats (96.7%) and dogs (89.5%): the intramural vesicourachal diverticulum was diagnosed in 76.7% of cats and 71.1% of dogs, followed by extramural vesicourachal diverticulum (20.0% and 18.4% respectively). In both cats and dogs, bladder wall diffuse or regional thickening was the most prevalent alteration. The most common alterations of the urinary bladder content were urolithiasis sediment in cats (33.3%) and in dogs (31.6%). Dogs with UA were more often asymptomatic (p = 0.01). No difference was found in cats. Stranguria, hematuria, and urethral obstruction were the most frequently reported clinical signs, while hematuria and leukocyturia were the most prevalent abnormalities at urinalysis. In conclusion, our study confirmed UA as uncommon, and often incidental findings, with a high prevalence of animals without clinical signs.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2021-11-05

Garcia CA, Loureiro BA, Peres FM, et al (2021)

Effects of crude protein and sodium intake on water turnover in cats fed extruded diets.

Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 105 Suppl 2:95-105.

The comprehension of strategies to increase urine production may be important, especially in kibble diets to prevent urolithiasis in cats. The effects of increasing amounts of crude protein (CP) and sodium on the water turnover of cats were evaluated using the water balance (WB) method and the deuterium dilution technique. The study followed a randomized block design, with three blocks of eight cats, two cats per food type in each block, and six cats per food. Four extruded diets with different amounts of CP and sodium were evaluated (on DM basis): 28% CP and 0.58% sodium; 39% CP and 0.64% sodium; 52% CP and 0.76% sodium; and 64% CP and 0.87% sodium. Cats were individually housed in cages for 8 days to measure WB, urea excretion, and faecal and urine characteristics. Deuterium oxide was used to evaluate water turnover, and during the period cats were housed in a collective cattery. The data were analysed by an F test, and the means were compared by polynomial contrasts. The ɑ level of significance was set at 0.05. The methods were compared by Pearson correlation, and Bland and Altman analysis. The increase in the CP content elevated linearly the renal excretion of urea (p < .001), and, together with the higher sodium intake, elevated the renal solute load, which resulted in a linear increase in urine production and water intake (p < .01). The urine density, metabolic water, and faecal and insensible water losses did not differ (p > .05). The water flux increased linearly when using the deuterium method (p < .001), but the obtained values were 20.85 ± 11.11 ml/cat/day higher than those verified using the WB method (p = .001). Higher CP and sodium amounts in dry diets increased the urine production and water consumption of cats, and this can be explored as a possible option to increase urination.

RevDate: 2022-04-14

Remichi H, Hani FA, Rebouh M, et al (2020)

Lower urinary tract lithiasis of cats in Algeria: Clinical and epidemiologic features.

Veterinary world, 13(3):563-569.

AIM: This study aims to describe the clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of urolithiasis of the lower urinary tract and to determine the main risk factors involved in the occurrence of urinary lithiasis in cats in Algeria from 2016 to 2018.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the study period, 465 cats were examined and 32 cases of urolithiases were selected and investigated by conducting physical examinations, blood analyses, urinalysis, X-ray radiography, and ultrasonography. Parameters such as breed, age, or sex were studied and reported in a farm return to analyze risk factors involved in the formation of lower urinary urolithiasis.

RESULTS: The most clinically relevant symptoms of urolithiasis observed in cats were dysuria, pollakiuria, hematuria, and stranguria. Urinalysis and blood analysis revealed a significant presence of urinary crystals and acute kidney failure in nine cats. The ultrasonography and radiography confirmed the diagnosis of urolithiasis with the incidence of 43.75% and 31.25%, respectively. The lower urinary tract urolithiasis appeared to be more frequent in European and Siamese cats. In addition, cats aged between 4 and 8 years old were the most affected. Male cats (87.50%) were more affected than female cats. Finally, the lower urinary tract urolithiasis was more frequent in cats consuming the commercial pet food, previously castrated, and confined inside the house.

CONCLUSION: Complete clinical assessments, in addition to complementary examinations, are necessary and beneficial in treating the animal and preventing possible complications. Whether the choice of therapy is surgical or treatment with drugs, it is crucial to understand that the elimination of the stone is not an end, but the beginning of a series of investigations. Because of their impact on both the formation and elimination of metabolites, it has been found that factors, such as race, gender, age, diet, and lifestyle, should be considered as potential risk factors for urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2020-11-25
CmpDate: 2020-11-25

Hickey JM, Berent AC, Fischetti AJ, et al (2020)

Radiographic features of suspected suture-associated cystic calculi in dogs.

Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association, 61(4):394-398.

This retrospective case series describes the radiographic features of suspected suture-associated cystic calculi in six dogs with a history of at least one or multiple prior cystotomies. One of the dogs presented twice. Suspected suture-associated cystic calculi were multifocal, short, predominantly linear mineral opacities localized in the center of the urinary bladder on abdominal radiographs. One patient (n = 1) presented with multifocal round, pin point, and linear radiopaque calculi. The calculi were all calcium oxalate in composition. On gross examination, the calculi had a hollow center. Six cystotomies used monofilament absorbable suture material (polydioxanone [n = 4] or poliglecaprone 25 [n = 1]) in prior cystotomies. Suture material in two of the cases was unknown. Suspected suture-associated cystic calculi are a rare occurrence in veterinary medicine but should be considered in dogs that have a history of prior cystotomy, hollow core on gross analysis, and radiographic evidence of mineral opaque, predominantly linear, cystic calculi.

RevDate: 2020-09-22
CmpDate: 2020-09-22

Pacheco RE (2020)

Cystine Urolithiasis in Ferrets.

The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice, 23(2):309-319.

Urolithiasis in captive domestic ferrets has previously been predominantly struvite uroliths, although more recent laboratory submissions show a shift to predominantly cystine uroliths. Genetic mutations for cystinuria have been identified in dogs, and it is suspected that underlying genetic mutations are partly responsible for this disease in ferrets. Currently, surgery remains the only definitive treatment of cystine urolithiasis in ferrets, since dietary dissolution protocols have not been thoroughly explored. Despite this, medical management with dietary and urinary manipulation should be considered for use in ferrets postoperatively based on principles of cystine urolithiasis management in dogs adapted for ferrets.

RevDate: 2022-04-13

Lavin LE, Amore AR, SL Shaver (2020)

Urethral obstruction and urolithiasis associated with patent urachus in a 12-week-old kitten.

JFMS open reports, 6(1):2055116920909920.

CASE SUMMARY: A 12-week-old intact male domestic shorthair kitten presented for dysuria. The patient had a urethral obstruction that was relieved with urinary catheter placement. A cutaneous opening at the umbilicus was identified. Three-view abdominal radiographs and a contrast study revealed a patent urachus with no evidence of urine leakage into the abdomen. An exploratory laparotomy was performed that confirmed a patent urachus, which was excised, and cystic and urethral calculi, which were removed via cystotomy. The patient recovered well from surgery, with a 12 h period of stranguria occurring 2 days postoperatively, attributed to residual inflammation. Calculi analysis revealed struvite stones, likely secondary to infection and inflammation. At the time of writing, 3 months postoperatively, the kitten had one episode of hematuria and inappropriate urination, which resolved with a short course of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but had been otherwise been asymptomatic and healthy.

To our knowledge, this is the first report of urolithiasis and patent urachus in a pediatric feline patient. Based on the occurrence of struvite stones in the presence of a patent urachus in an animal of this age, we suspect that chronic infection and inflammation led to the development of urolithiasis. Correction of the patent urachus resulted in almost complete resolution of clinical signs and no crystal formation was appreciated on recheck urinalysis.

RevDate: 2021-07-12
CmpDate: 2021-07-12

Queau Y, Bijsmans ES, Feugier A, et al (2020)

Increasing dietary sodium chloride promotes urine dilution and decreases struvite and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy dogs and cats.

Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 104(5):1524-1530.

Urolithiasis is highly prevalent in dogs and cats, with struvite and calcium oxalate being most commonly diagnosed. Some commercial diets aimed at reducing the risk of urolithiasis are based on inclusion of sodium chloride (NaCl) in an attempt to dilute the urine and the risk of crystallization, but more information on the effect of differing levels of sodium inclusion is needed. The objective of this study was to compare the short-term effect of four diets differing only in NaCl content (base diet with 0.3% sodium and diets with added NaCl to achieve 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3% sodium as fed) on urinary ion concentrations and relative supersaturation (RSS) of struvite and calcium oxalate in dogs and cats. In both species, there was a significant increase in water intake and urine volume as dietary NaCl increased. Urine sodium concentration increased with increasing dietary NaCl. The highest sodium diet increased urinary calcium excretion in dogs only, while decreasing urinary calcium concentration. Calcium oxalate RSS and struvite RSS both significantly decreased, with the lowest RSS values reported on the highest sodium diet in both dogs and cats (p < .001). These results suggest that an increase in dietary NaCl decreases RSS values in both dogs and cats. Despite an increase in urinary calcium excretion in dogs, urinary calcium concentration and calcium oxalate RSS were lower on high sodium diets due to urine dilution. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the relationship between RSS and stone occurrence and recurrence.

RevDate: 2020-11-17
CmpDate: 2020-11-17

Li Z, Litchfield J, Tess DA, et al (2020)

A Physiologically Based in Silico Tool to Assess the Risk of Drug-Related Crystalluria.

Journal of medicinal chemistry, 63(12):6489-6498.

Drug precipitation in the nephrons of the kidney can cause drug-induced crystal nephropathy (DICN). To aid mitigation of this risk in early drug discovery, we developed a physiologically based in silico model to predict DICN in rats, dogs, and humans. At a minimum, the likelihood of DICN is determined by the level of systemic exposure to the molecule, the molecule's physicochemical properties and the unique physiology of the kidney. Accordingly, the proposed model accounts for these properties in order to predict drug exposure relative to solubility along the nephron. Key physiological parameters of the kidney were codified in a manner consistent with previous reports. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models and in vitro assays were used to estimate drug-specific physicochemical inputs to the model. The proposed model was calibrated against urinary excretion data for 42 drugs, and the utility for DICN prediction is demonstrated through application to 20 additional drugs.

RevDate: 2020-11-03
CmpDate: 2020-11-03

Cruciani B, Vachon C, M Dunn (2020)

Removal of lower urinary tract stones by percutaneous cystolithotomy: 68 cases (2012-2017).

Veterinary surgery : VS, 49 Suppl 1:O138-O147.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the use and outcome of percutaneous cystolithotomy (PCCL) for removal of urethral and bladder stones in dogs and cats.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS: Sixty-eight client-owned dogs and cats.

METHODS: Records were reviewed and analyzed for dogs and cats that underwent PCCL between January 2012 and December 2017. Signalment, clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging data, procedure time, use of lithotripsy, biopsy, perioperative and immediate postoperative complications, hospitalization times, stone composition, and urine culture results were recorded. Owners were contacted by phone or email 3 weeks after the procedure. Follow-up communications with the owner and referring veterinarian were also recorded.

RESULTS: Seventy percutaneous cystolithotomies were performed in 59 dogs and nine cats. The median duration of the procedure was 95 minutes (45-420), and lithotripsy was required in 3% (2/70) of PCCL. Complications during the procedure were reported in one case. In eighty-three percent of procedures (58/70), animals were discharged within 24 hours postoperative. Twenty-four percent (16/68) of animals had minor complications (lower urinary tract signs), and one dog had a major complication (surgical wound dehiscence) during the 3 weeks after the operation. Long-term follow-up revealed stone recurrence in 21% of cases followed more than a year after the procedure (7/33).

CONCLUSION: Percutaneous cystolithotomy allowed removal of bladder and urethral stones with rapid postoperative recovery and few major perioperative or short-term postoperative complications.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Percutaneous cystolithotomy provides an attractive minimally invasive surgical alternative for removal of lower urinary tract stones in small animals.

RevDate: 2021-01-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Piyarungsri K, Tangtrongsup S, Thitaram N, et al (2020)

Prevalence and risk factors of feline lower urinary tract disease in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Scientific reports, 10(1):196.

Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a common problem in cats. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence, clinical signs, and causes of FLUTD and the risk factors for FLUTD. The medical records of 3486 cats visiting Chiang Mai University Small Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) between November 2016 and October 2017 were reviewed. An age-matched case-control study was performed to determine the risk factors for FLUTD by comparing 78 cats with FLUTD and 78 clinically normal age-matched cats. For each animal, potential risk data were obtained from medical records and cat owner interviews; these were analysed for associations with FLUTD. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios and to adjust for expected confounding factors. The prevalence of FLUTD in cats visiting the Chiang Mai University Veterinary Teaching Hospital was 2.2%. The most common clinical signs identified were urethral obstruction (55.1%) and haematuria (23.1%). The most common diagnoses were feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) (57.7%) and urolithiasis (struvite) (18%). The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that FLUTD was most likely to be diagnosed in castrated male cats. FIC and urolithiasis were the most common diagnoses in cats with FLUTD, and male sex and castration increased the risk of FLUTD.

RevDate: 2021-01-10
CmpDate: 2020-12-14

Carr SV, Grant DC, DeMonaco SM, et al (2020)

Measurement of preprandial and postprandial urine calcium to creatinine ratios in male Miniature Schnauzers with and without urolithiasis.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 34(2):754-760.

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify a simple test for excessive calciuresis and predict calcium oxalate (CaOx) disease in Miniature Schnauzers. We investigated the impact of postprandial time on the urine calcium to creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr) in male dogs of this breed, with the goal of improving the utility of the UCa/Cr.

HYPOTHESES: (1) Significant differences will exist in preprandial and postprandial UCa/Cr between CaOx urolith-forming and control Schnauzers. (2) The UCa/Cr will increase significantly from the first morning baseline at ≥1 postprandial time point(s) in both control and CaOx urolith-forming dogs. (3) Biochemical abnormalities and other variables may be associated with urolith status.

ANIMALS: Twenty-four male Miniature Schnauzer dogs, consisting of 9 with (urolith formers) and 15 without (controls) CaOx uroliths.

METHODS: Urine was collected before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after feeding a standardized diet. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the UCa/Cr cutoff that most accurately differentiates dogs based on urolith status.

RESULTS: Urolith formers had significantly higher mean UCa/Cr over the course of 8 hours. The postprandial change in UCa/Cr was not significant at any time point between or within groups. The cutoff UCa/Cr value of 0.06 had a specificity of 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80%-100%) and a sensitivity of 56% (95% CI, 21%-86%) for identifying CaOx urolithiasis.

Urolith-forming male Miniature Schnauzers have excessive calciuresis, and the postprandial sampling time up to 8 hours is not critical. This simple urine measurement has potential as a marker of CaOx disease.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

El-Salam MA, Furtado N, Haskic Z, et al (2019)

Antiurolithic activity and biotransformation of galloylquinic acids by Aspergillus alliaceus ATCC10060, Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404, and Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028b.

Biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology, 18:.

Copaifera lucens n-butanolic fraction (BF) was used as a source of galloylquinic acids, and aerobically incubated with Aspergillus alliaceus ATCC10060, Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404, and Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028b cultures for 60 and 120 h. Out of the three studied filamentous fungi, A. alliaceus ATCC10060 was able to degrade galloylquinic acids into one major metabolite, 3-O-methylgallic acid (M1). The product was identified by 1H-NMR, UPLC-MS/MS and its potential effect on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal binding to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells type I surface was studied. Renal cells pretreatment with BF and M1 for 3 h significantly decreased calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal-adherence at 50 μg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. Both M1 and BF significantly reduced surface expression of COM-binding proteins annexin A1 and heat shock protein 90, respectively as evidenced by Western blot analysis of membrane, cytosolic, and whole cell lysate fractions. The compounds also showed antioxidant activities in DPPH assay.

RevDate: 2020-08-26
CmpDate: 2020-08-26

Thiel C, Häußler TC, Kramer M, et al (2019)

[Urethrolithiasis in the dog - a retrospective evaluation of 83 male dogs].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 47(6):394-401.

OBJECTIVE: Urethral calculi are a frequent cause of urinary disorders in male dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate male dogs with urethral stones, which were relocated into the urinary bladder with the support of standardized epidural anesthesia in addition to general anesthesia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 83 male dogs with urethral calculi were evaluated regarding clinical signs, localization and number of urethral calculi, diagnostic imaging, surgical procedure and postoperative radiographs. Additionally, bacterial culture and stone type analysis were evaluated. Besides general anesthesia all dogs received an epidural anesthesia.

RESULTS: With one exception all dogs showed signs of urinary disorders, in 33 cases, these were chronic. In 66 cases, urethral stones were diagnosed radiographically and in 11 cases, radiolucent urethral concrements were detected via ultrasonography. In 6 dogs, diagnosis was reached by catheterization and subsequent evidence of stones in the urinary bladder. At the time of presentation, more than one third of the dogs showed urethral calculi only. In 53 % of the dogs (n = 44), 3 or more urethral stones were present. In 77 of 83 dogs (92.7 %), relocation of all urethral stones into the urinary bladder was achieved. During postoperative radiography 9 dogs were diagnosed with residual urethral calculi.

Due to a significant proportion of dogs with sole urethral stones reliable radiological diagnosis of urethral calculi requires precise patient positioning. In cases of radiolucent calculi, ultrasonography of the urethra may lead to a diagnosis, sonographic evaluation of the urinary bladder alone is not sufficient. The use of epidural anesthesia should in the least be considered in cases in which relocation of the urethral stones is not possible by flushing. Postoperative radiographs is advisable in patients with radiodense calculi.

RevDate: 2022-04-11

Mendoza-López CI, Del-Angel-Caraza J, Aké-Chiñas MA, et al (2019)

Epidemiology of feline urolithiasis in Mexico (2006-2017).

JFMS open reports, 5(2):2055116919885699.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify the proportions of different types of uroliths, characterize the population of cats that present with urolithiasis and determine possible predisposing factors in a population of Mexican cats.

METHODS: This study analyzed clinical specimens of feline urolithiasis submitted to our laboratory in the period from 2006 to 2017. The mineral composition of the uroliths was determined by qualitative and quantitative mineral analyses, performed by stereoscopic microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

RESULTS: In the population studied, 54.3% of all uroliths were calcium oxalate, followed by 32.1% struvite and 7.4% purine (urate and xanthine) uroliths, with other types accounting for 6.2% of submissions. The male:female ratio was 1.2:1. Calcium oxalate submissions were predominantly from males and struvite submissions were predominantly from females. The age of the cats with stone submissions ranged from 6 months to 17 years. In cats with calcium oxalate uroliths, 52.3% were aged 7 years or older. Cats with struvite uroliths were younger, with 65.4% younger than 6 years of age. Almost 90% of all submitted uroliths were from domestic shorthair cats.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This is the first epidemiologic study of urolithiasis in cats in Mexico. Age and sex predispositions to common uroliths were identified, as males aged ≥7 years primarily presented with calcium oxalate uroliths and females aged <6 years primarily presented struvite uroliths. Cases of urolithiasis of genetic origin, including xanthinuria and cystinuria, were also detected, in addition to silicate uroliths.

RevDate: 2020-04-20
CmpDate: 2020-04-20

Liu YD, Yu SL, Wang R, et al (2019)

Rosiglitazone Suppresses Calcium Oxalate Crystal Binding and Oxalate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Renal Epithelial Cells by Promoting PPAR-γ Activation and Subsequent Regulation of TGF-β1 and HGF Expression.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2019:4826525.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, and it has become evident that PPAR-γ agonists have renoprotective effects, but their influence and mechanism during the development of calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis remain unknown. Rosiglitazone (RSG) was used as a representative PPAR-γ agonist in our experiments. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), c-Met, p-Met, PPAR-γ, p-PPAR-γ (Ser112), Smad2, Smad3, pSmad2/3, and Smad7 was examined in oxalate-treated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and a stone-forming rat model. A CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the effects of RSG on cell viability. In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were monitored, and lipid peroxidation in renal tissue was detected according to superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, the location and extent of CaOx crystal deposition were evaluated by Pizzolato staining. Our results showed that, both in vitro and in vivo, oxalate impaired PPAR-γ expression and phosphorylation, and then accumulative ROS production was observed, accompanied by enhanced TGF-β1 and reduced HGF. These phenomena could be reversed by the addition of RSG. RSG also promoted cell viability and proliferation and decreased oxidative stress damage and CaOx crystal deposition. However, these protective effects of RSG were abrogated by the PPAR-γ-specific inhibitor GW9662. Our results revealed that the reduction of PPAR-γ activity played a critical role in oxalate-induced ROS damage and CaOx stone formation. RSG can regulate TGF-β1 and HGF/c-Met through PPAR-γ to exert antioxidant effects against hyperoxaluria and alleviate crystal deposition. Therefore, PPAR-γ agonists may be expected to be a novel therapy for nephrolithiasis, and this effect is related to PPAR-γ-dependent suppression of oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Buckley CN, Lee AM, AJ Mackin (2019)

What Is Your Diagnosis?.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 255(7):785-788.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Bishop BA, AE Gallagher (2019)

Endoscopic-guided laser lithotripsy for removal of an encrusted ureteral stent in a dog.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 255(6):706-709.

CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old spayed female Dalmatian was evaluated because of recurrent urinary tract infections following ureteral stent placement 3 years earlier.

CLINICAL FINDINGS: Polyuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria were reported by the owner. Abdominal radiography revealed well-defined, faintly mineralized material superimposed over the distal portion of the previously placed ureteral stent. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed thickening of the bladder wall, right hydroureter, and right pyelectasia; the ureteral stent appeared to extend into a region containing cystic calculi. Cystoscopy revealed small uroliths and mineralized encrustation of the distal portion of the ureteral stent.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: A holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser was used to fragment mineralized material from the distal end of the stent and allow endoscopic transurethral removal. Stone analysis revealed ammonium urate as the major component of the mineralized material. The owner was instructed to feed the dog a diet formulated to decrease the likelihood of urate stone recurrence and to administer marbofloxacin for 6 weeks because of suspected pyelonephritis. Follow-up bacterial culture of a urine sample and abdominal ultrasonography revealed resolution of urinary tract infection, pyelectasia, hydroureter, and associated clinical signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that endoscopic-guided laser lithotripsy can be used as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery for removal of severely encrusted ureteral stents in dogs.

RevDate: 2020-06-29
CmpDate: 2020-06-29

Peerapen P, V Thongboonkerd (2019)

Protective Cellular Mechanism of Estrogen Against Kidney Stone Formation: A Proteomics Approach and Functional Validation.

Proteomics, 19(19):e1900095.

Females have less incidence/prevalence of kidney stone disease than males. Estrogen thus may serve as the protective factor but with unclear mechanism. This study explores cellular mechanism underlying such stone preventive mechanism of estrogen. Madin darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubular cells are incubated with or without 20 nm 17β-estradiol for 7 days. Comparative proteomics reveals 58 differentially expressed proteins in estrogen-treated versus control cells that are successfully identified by nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Interestingly, these altered proteins are involved mainly in "binding and receptor," "metabolic process," and "migration and healing" networks. Functional investigations demonstrate reduction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal-binding capability of the estrogen-treated cells consistent with the decreased levels of annexin A1 and α-enolase (the known CaOx crystal-binding receptors) on the cell surface. High-calcium and high-oxalate challenge initially enhances surface expression of annexin A1 and α-enolase, respectively, both of which return to their basal levels by estrogen. Additionally, estrogen reduces intracellular ATP level and promotes cell migration and tissue healing. Taken together, estrogen causes changes in cellular proteome of renal tubular cells that lead to decreased surface expression of CaOx crystal receptors, reduced intracellular metabolism, and enhanced cell proliferation and tissue healing, all of which may contribute, at least in part, to stone prevention.

RevDate: 2021-01-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-05

Hunprasit V, Schreiner PJ, Bender JB, et al (2019)

Epidemiologic evaluation of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs in the United States: 2010-2015.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 33(5):2090-2095.

BACKGROUND: Positive health implications of early recognition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis include increased opportunity for nonsurgical removal, early dietary modification to minimize urolith growth, early removal to avoid urinary obstruction, and early recognition of genetic and metabolic diseases before they contribute to additional morbidity.

OBJECTIVES: To identify high- and low-risk dog breeds for CaOx uroliths and to determine the relationship of age and sex to the development of CaOx uroliths.

ANIMALS: Calcium oxalate urolith submissions between 2010 and 2015.

METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to identify high- and low-risk breeds for CaOx uroliths by comparing cases to multiple comparison groups. At-risk breeds were identified if odds ratios were significant (P value <.05) across all comparison groups.

RESULTS: Of 258 898 urolith submissions, 124 285 were CaOx. Calcium oxalate was identified in 212 breeds. Twelve breeds were identified as high-risk breeds, and 14 breeds were identified as low-risk breeds. All high-risk breeds were small dog breeds, and all low-risk breeds were medium to large dog breeds. Overall, the mean age ± standard deviation of the first CaOx urolith was 8.4 ± 2.8 years.

To achieve the health benefits of preclinical evaluation, breeds at high risk for CaOx urolithiasis should be screened at 5 to 6 years of age, which is 2 to 3 years before likely development of clinical urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2020-02-21
CmpDate: 2020-02-21

Choi JY, Kim JH, HJ Han (2019)

Suspected anaphylactic shock associated with administration of tranexamic acid in a dog.

The Journal of veterinary medical science, 81(10):1522-1526.

A 10-year-old male castrated Maltese was referred with clinical signs of hematuria, stranguria, and pollakiuria. The dog was diagnosed with sterile hemorrhagic cystitis with urethroliths and cystoliths. To remove the uroliths, the dog underwent retrograde urohydropropulsion followed by a cystotomy. The following day, persistent bleeding in the urinary bladder was identified with large hematoma, hematuria and anemia. In order to reduce bleeding, the dog received 10 mg/kg of tranexamic acid (TXA) intravenously. Immediately after TXA administration, the dog developed anaphylactic shock manifested by hypotension, hypothermia, tachycardia and a dull mentation. Thus, an emergency treatment including bolus injection of crystalloid, administration of dexamethasone and diphenhydramine, and oxygen supplementation was given, after which the dog quickly recovered within a few minutes.

RevDate: 2020-01-20
CmpDate: 2020-01-20

Cardoso KMMC, Souza IP, Silva CIF, et al (2019)

Bilateral Primary Obstructive Giant Megaureter in an Adult Dog.

Journal of comparative pathology, 170:101-104.

A rare case of bilateral, primary, obstructive, giant megaureter was found during necropsy examination of an 11-year-old female German shepherd dog. On ultrasound examination and at necropsy examination, both ureters were tortuous and extensively dilated with diameter ranging from 1.86 to 4.8 cm. Both vesicoureteral junctions were obstructed by uroliths. A diagnosis of giant megaureter was established using human parameters since these values are not recognized in animals. The classification of obstructive and primary megaureter was determined because the obstruction was due to uroliths at the vesicoureteral junctions.

RevDate: 2020-02-25
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Dear JD, Larsen JA, Bannasch M, et al (2019)

Evaluation of a dry therapeutic urinary diet and concurrent administration of antimicrobials for struvite cystolith dissolution in dogs.

BMC veterinary research, 15(1):273.

BACKGROUND: Struvite urolithiasis with bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly reported in dogs; few data exist to describe successful dissolution protocols in dogs with naturally occurring disease. We hypothesized that a dry therapeutic urinary diet combined with targeted antimicrobial therapy can effectively dissolve presumptive struvite cystolithiasis in dogs with naturally occurring urease-producing bacterial UTI.

RESULTS: Ten dogs with presumed infection-induced struvite cystolithiasis based on lower urinary tract signs (LUTS), radiodense cystoliths, and urease-producing bacterial UTI were enrolled. At enrollment, antimicrobials and dry therapeutic urinary diet were dispensed. In addition to lack of radiographic resolution of urolithiasis, dogs with persistent clinical signs were considered non-responders. There was no significant difference in pH between responders and non-responders; USG was significantly higher in the responder group. Recheck visits continued until radiographic dissolution or failure was documented. Five of the 10 dogs achieved radiographic dissolution of cystolithiasis within a median of 31 days (range 19-103). In the other 5 dogs, surgical urolith removal was necessary due to persistent LUTS (3 dogs within 2 weeks) or lack of continued dissolution noted radiographically (1 dog with numerous cystoliths failed at day 91; 1 dog failed by day 57 with questionable owner compliance).

CONCLUSIONS: Dissolution of urinary tract infection induced struvite cystoliths can be accomplished in some dogs fed this dry therapeutic urinary diet in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy. Case selection could increase the likelihood of successful dissolution; however, if calcium phosphate is present, this could also prevent stone dissolution. If clinical signs persist despite diet and antimicrobials, stone removal is advised.

RevDate: 2020-07-15
CmpDate: 2020-07-15

Sueksakit K, V Thongboonkerd (2019)

Protective effects of finasteride against testosterone-induced calcium oxalate crystallization and crystal-cell adhesion.

Journal of biological inorganic chemistry : JBIC : a publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 24(7):973-983.

Finasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor) has been widely used for treatment of several testosterone-related disorders. However, its beneficial role in kidney stone disease had not been previously investigated. This study thus addressed whether finasteride has any protective effects against testosterone-induced calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stone formation. Renal tubular cells were treated with testosterone with/without finasteride for 72 h. Western blotting revealed the increased level of α-enolase (a known COM crystal receptor) in whole-cell lysate, apical membrane, and cytosolic fraction of the testosterone-treated cells. Immunofluorescence staining also showed the increased levels of surface and intracellular α-enolase in the testosterone-treated cells. In addition, testosterone significantly increased the number of adherent COM crystals on the cell surface. All of these effects were completely abolished by finasteride treatment. Interestingly, the secreted proteins from testosterone-treated cells significantly increased COM crystallization, but did not affect crystal growth and aggregation. Again, such promoting effect of testosterone on COM crystallization was completely abolished by finasteride. These data indicate that finasteride effectively protects testosterone-induced kidney stone formation by restoring apical surface expression of α-enolase and COM crystal-cell adhesion to their basal levels. Moreover, finasteride can also neutralize the promoting effect of testosterone on COM crystallization.

RevDate: 2021-02-17
CmpDate: 2021-02-17

Kaul E, Hartmann K, Reese S, et al (2020)

Recurrence rate and long-term course of cats with feline lower urinary tract disease.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 22(6):544-556.

OBJECTIVES: Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) causes clinical signs such as stranguria, pollakiuria, haematuria, vocalisation and periuria, and is often associated with recurring episodes. The primary objective of this study was to survey the long-term course of cats presenting with FLUTD in terms of recurrence rate and mortality.

METHODS: Data from cats that were presented with lower urinary tract signs from 2010 to 2013 were collected by telephone interview with cat owners, using a questionnaire. The observation period ranged from the first presentation due to FLUTD to the telephone interview or the cat's death. Data on diagnoses, recurrence of clinical signs and disease-free intervals, as well as implementation and impact of prophylactic measures (PMs), were collected and compared between groups with different aetiologies.

RESULTS: The study included 101 cats. Fifty-two cats were diagnosed with feline idiopathic cystitis, 21 with urolithiasis and 13 with bacterial urinary tract infection; 15 had no definitive diagnosis. Of the 86 cats with a known diagnosis, the recurrence rate was 58.1%, with no significant difference between groups. Twenty-one cats had one relapse, 12 had two relapses, 10 had three and seven had four to eight relapses within a median observation period of 38 months (range 0.5-138 months). Fourteen cats suffered from different causes of FLUTD at different episodes. Mortality due to FLUTD among all 101 cats was 5.0%. The recurrence rate in cats with urolithiasis receiving at least two PMs was significantly lower than the recurrence rate in those without PMs (P = 0.029).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: More than half of the cats with FLUTD presented with two or more recurrent episodes irrespective of the identified aetiology. Cats should be thoroughly investigated at each presentation as it cannot be presumed that the cause of FLUTD is the same at different episodes. The mortality due to FLUTD is lower than previously reported.

RevDate: 2020-07-01
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Petrovsky B, Berent AC, Weisse CW, et al (2019)

Endoscopic nephrolithotomy for the removal of complicated nephroliths in dogs and cats: 16 kidneys in 12 patients (2005-2017).

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 255(3):352-365.

OBJECTIVE: To describe techniques and outcomes for dogs and cats undergoing endoscopic nephrolithotomy (ENL) for the removal of complicated nephroliths.

ANIMALS: 11 dogs and 1 cat (n = 16 renal units) with complicated nephroliths that underwent ENL via a surgically assisted ENL approach (12 renal units) or a percutaneous nephrolithotomy approach (4 renal units) between December 2005 and June 2017.

PROCEDURES: Data were obtained from the medical records regarding preoperative, operative, and postoperative findings. Follow-up information on complications and outcomes was also collected.

RESULTS: Indications for nephrolith removal included massive calculi displacing parenchyma (n = 7), recurrent urinary tract infections (5), and ureteral outflow obstruction (4). Median nephrolith diameter was 2.5 cm (range, 0.5 to 5.7 cm). Nephrolith composition differed among patients; calcium oxalate was the most common type (n = 7 [including 2 mixed nephroliths containing ≥ 60% calcium oxalate]). Following ENL (median duration, 180 minutes), 15 of 16 renal units were completely nephrolith free. Procedure-related complications included renal puncture-associated hemorrhage requiring a blood transfusion (n = 1), renal capsule tear (1), and ureteral puncture (1); all were managed without adverse consequence. Five of 12 patients remained alive at the final follow-up (median, 557 days after ENL), and none died from the procedure.

ENL as performed was safe and effective in removing complicated nephroliths in a renal-sparing manner for the patients in this study. This procedure requires technical training and could be considered for the treatment of complicated nephrolithiasis in dogs and possibly cats.

RevDate: 2022-04-10
CmpDate: 2019-09-11

Pantke P (2019)

[Management of urethral stones in dogs using pneumatic and laser lithotripsy].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 47(2):77-83.

OBJECTIVE: Description of clinical experience with two different lithotripsy modalities for treatment of urethral stones in dogs.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis (October 2016 - November 2017) of medical records from dogs with urinary stones that underwent transurethral pneumatic or laser lithotripsy.

RESULTS: In 28 male and 5 female dogs, either pneumatic lithotripsy (39 %) or laser lithotripsy (61 %) was performed. In the urethra, stone free rates of 100 % in females and over 85 % in males could be achieved using either fragmentation modality. In 3 of 28 (11 %) male dogs, after fragmentation of urethral stones, urethral patency was impaired because of endoscopically suspected polypoid urethritis requiring urethrostomy. In 8 out of 28 (29 %) male dogs and in 1 of 5 (20 %) female dogs, an additional lithocystotomy was necessary to achieve stone-free status in the lower urinary tract.

Transurethral pneumatic or laser lithotripsy of urinary stones is a successful procedure in dogs. Major pathological conditions of the urethral mucosa may require further surgical or interventional methods for the restoration of a functional urethra.

RevDate: 2019-07-15
CmpDate: 2019-07-15

Culler CA, Fick M, A Vigani (2019)

Ultrasound-guided placement of pigtail cystostomy tubes in dogs with urethral obstruction.

Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001), 29(3):331-336.

BACKGROUND: Circumstances such as the inability to pass a retrograde urinary catheter or a lack of surgeon availability may prevent immediate relief of urethral obstruction in dogs. In such situations, a cystostomy tube may be placed with ultrasound guidance to allow urinary diversion until further treatment is possible.

KEY FINDINGS: A case of a 5-year-old male neutered Swiss Mountain dog with an obstructive urolith at the level of the os penis is used to describe the technique. Multiple attempts to pass a urinary catheter under sedation were unsuccessful. A pigtail cystostomy tube was placed with ultrasound guidance to allow urinary diversion. The dog was discharged from the hospital within 2 days after scrotal urethrostomy and the dog made a full recovery. Ultrasound-guided placement of a pigtail cystostomy tube was straightforward and without complications.

SIGNIFICANCE: Ultrasound-guided placement of a pigtail cystostomy tube may be beneficial as it is not technically challenging, can be performed rapidly, and may avoid the need for general anesthesia. Additionally, ultrasound is readily available and an inexperienced ultrasonographer can easily locate the urinary bladder. This report serves to provide a detailed technique of ultrasound-guided placement of a pigtail cystostomy tube in dogs for emergency urinary diversion.

RevDate: 2021-01-09
CmpDate: 2019-05-10

Groth EM, Lulich JP, Chew DJ, et al (2019)

Vitamin D metabolism in dogs with and without hypercalciuric calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 33(2):758-763.

BACKGROUND: There are abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism in people with calcium nephrolithiasis, but limited data are available on vitamin D status in dogs with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis.

OBJECTIVE: To compare serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in dogs with and without hypercalciuric CaOx urolithiasis.

ANIMALS: Thirty-eight dogs with (n = 19) and without (n = 19) a history of CaOx urolithiasis and hypercalciuria.

METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D], and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH)2 D] were measured. The ratios of 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2 D and 1,25(OH)2 D/25(OH)D were compared between cases and controls.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences between cases and controls when comparing 25(OH)D, 24,25(OH)2 D, 1,25(OH)2 D, or 1,25(OH)2 D/25(OH)D. Cases had higher 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2 D (median = 1.40, range = 0.98-1.58) compared to controls (median = 1.16, range = 0.92-2.75; P = .01). There was overlap in the ranges for 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2 D between cases and controls, but 6 cases (32%) had ratios above the control dog range. There was a moderate positive correlation between the ratio of 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2 D and urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratios (r = 0.40, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.64; P = .01).

These data suggest that decreased conversion of 25(OH)D to 24,25(OH)2 D occurs in a subset of dogs with CaOx urolithiasis. Abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism might contribute to stone risk in dogs.

RevDate: 2019-03-20
CmpDate: 2019-02-20

Milligan M, AC Berent (2019)

Medical and Interventional Management of Upper Urinary Tract Uroliths.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 49(2):157-174.

Nephroliths are often clinically silent. When non-obstructive and of an amenable stone type, dissolution should be attempted. When problematic, nephrolithotomy can be considered. Depending on stone type, size, and species, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or endoscopic nephrolithotomy are preferred techniques. Obstructive ureterolithiasis should be addressed immediately to preserve kidney function. Because of decreased morbidity and mortality and versatility for all causes, interventional techniques for kidney decompression are preferred by the authors. Proper training and expertise in these interventional techniques should be acquired before performing them on clinical patients for the best possible outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-03-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-30

Yang X, Yang T, Li J, et al (2019)

Metformin prevents nephrolithiasis formation by inhibiting the expression of OPN and MCP-1 in vitro and in vivo.

International journal of molecular medicine, 43(4):1611-1622.

Treatment targeting osteopontin (OPN) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP‑1) has been recognized as a novel approach in renal crystal formation. The present study was designed to investigate the suppressive effects of metformin on nephrolithiasis formation and its potential mechanism. The cytotoxicity of metformin on MDCK and HK‑2 cells was determined using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay in vitro. Subsequently, the mRNA transcription and protein expression levels of MCP‑1 and OPN were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction analysis, western blot analysis and ELISA. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into a control group, ethylene glycol (EG) group and EG + metformin group. The expression levels of MCP‑1 and OPN and crystal formations were evaluated in renal tissues following an 8‑week treatment period. In vitro, metformin significantly inhibited the production of MCP‑1 and OPN induced by oxalate at the mRNA and protein expression levels. In vivo, increased expression levels of MCP‑1 and OPN were detected in the EG group compared with the controls, and this upregulation was reversed in the EG + metformin group. Renal crystal deposition in the EG + metformin group was markedly decreased compared with that in the EG group. Therefore, the results of the study suggest that metformin suppressed urinary crystal deposit formation, possibly by mediating the expression of inflammatory mediators OPN and MCP‑1.

RevDate: 2020-06-25
CmpDate: 2020-06-25

Chacar FC, Kogika MM, Ferreira AC, et al (2019)

Total serum magnesium in cats with chronic kidney disease with nephrolithiasis.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 21(12):1172-1180.

OBJECTIVES: Magnesium has been 'the forgotten ion' for many years. Over the past decade, however, the role of magnesium in essential physiological functions and several illness conditions have been elucidated. Nevertheless, the investigation of magnesium in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nephrolithiasis is yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CKD cats with nephrolithiasis have changes in total serum magnesium concentrations, and whether magnesium disorders may be associated with other electrolyte disturbances, as well as with prognosis. We also aimed to evaluate whether total serum magnesium concentration differs between CKD cats with and without nephrolithiasis.

METHODS: Total serum magnesium concentrations were assessed in 42 cats with CKD with stage 1-4 nephrolithiasis. The correlation between magnesium and other electrolytes, as well as Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, were performed. We also selected 14 control cats with CKD without nephrolithiasis age-matched with 14 cats with CKD with nephrolithiasis.

RESULTS: Hypermagnesemia was observed in 16/42 (38.1%) and hypomagnesemia in 6/42 (14.3%) cats. Serum magnesium abnormalities were observed in cats of all stages, and marked hypermagnesemia was noted in cats with stage 4 CKD with nephrolithiasis (P <0.001). There was a negative correlation between total serum magnesium and ionized calcium (r = -0.64; P <0.01), and a positive correlation between total serum magnesium and serum phosphorus (r = 0.58, P = 0.01). Cats with CKD with nephrolithiasis and hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia had higher mortality than those with normal total serum magnesium concentration (P <0.01), regardless of CKD stage. There was no difference in total serum magnesium concentration between CKD cats with and without nephrolithiasis.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cats with CKD with nephrolithiasis have magnesium abnormalities. Hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia were associated with an increase in mortality, and thus total serum magnesium abnormalities may be used as prognostic factors in these cases.

RevDate: 2021-01-09
CmpDate: 2019-05-10

Labadie JD, Magzamen S, Morley PS, et al (2019)

Associations of environment, health history, T-zone lymphoma, and T-zone-like cells of undetermined significance: A case-control study of aged Golden Retrievers.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 33(2):764-775.

BACKGROUND: T-zone lymphoma (TZL), an indolent disease in older dogs, comprises approximately 12% of lymphomas in dogs. TZL cells exhibit an activated phenotype, indicating the disease may be antigen-driven. Prior research found that asymptomatic aged Golden Retrievers (GLDRs) commonly have populations of T-zone-like cells (phenotypically identical to TZL) of undetermined significance (TZUS).

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations of inflammatory conditions, TZL and TZUS, using a case-control study of GLDRs.

ANIMALS: TZL cases (n = 140), flow cytometrically diagnosed, were identified through Colorado State University's Clinical Immunology Laboratory. Non-TZL dogs, recruited through either a database of owners interested in research participation or the submitting clinics of TZL cases, were subsequently flow cytometrically classified as TZUS (n = 221) or control (n = 147).

METHODS: Health history, signalment, environmental, and lifestyle factors were obtained from owner-completed questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, obtaining separate estimates for TZL and TZUS (versus controls).

RESULTS: Hypothyroidism (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), omega-3 supplementation (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6), and mange (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.4-21.1) were significantly associated with TZL. Gastrointestinal disease (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.98-5.8) had nonsignificantly increased TZL odds. Two shared associations for TZL and TZUS were identified: bladder infection or calculi (TZL OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.7; TZUS OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.9-13.7) and eye disease (TZL OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.97-5.2; TZUS OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.99-3.8).

These findings may elucidate pathways involved in TZUS risk and progression from TZUS to TZL. Further investigation into the protective association of omega-3 supplements is warranted.

RevDate: 2020-03-09
CmpDate: 2020-01-28

Butty EM, Bua AS, Vanstone NP, et al (2019)

Retained laser fiber in the nidus of a recurrent cystine urolith in an intact male English bulldog.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 60(1):29-32.

A lithotripsy and percutaneous cystolithotomy (PCCL) were performed on a 5-year-old intact male English bulldog. The composition of the uroliths was 100% cystine. When a second PCCL was performed 2 months later, the nidus of the largest urolith was a segment of an optical fiber broken off during laser lithotripsy.

RevDate: 2020-04-01
CmpDate: 2019-05-10

Luskin AC, Lulich JP, Gresch SC, et al (2019)

Bone resorption in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and idiopathic hypercalciuria.

Research in veterinary science, 123:129-134.

People with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis and idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) often have evidence of increased bone resorption, but bone turnover has not previously been investigated in dogs with these conditions. The aim of this study was to determine whether a marker of bone resorption, β-crosslaps, differs between dogs with CaOx urolithiasis and IH compared to controls. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a canine specific ELISA to measure β-crosslaps concentrations in stored frozen serum samples from 20 dogs with CaOx urolithiasis and IH and 20 breed-, sex-, and age-matched stone-free controls (18 Miniature Schnauzers, 14 Bichons Frise, and 8 Shih Tzus). Dogs with CaOx urolithiasis and IH had lower β-crosslaps concentrations relative to controls (P = .0043), and β-crosslaps had a moderate negative correlation with urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratios (r = -0.44, P = .0044). Miniature Schnauzers had lower β-crosslaps concentrations than the other two breeds (P = .0035). The ELISA had acceptable intra-assay precision, but concentrations decreased when samples were repeatedly assayed over time. Assay recovery rates were also below acceptance criteria. In conclusion, Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frise, and Shih Tzus with CaOx urolithiasis and IH have evidence of decreased bone resorption compared to stone-free controls. This suggests that other causes of IH, such as intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium, underlie risk for CaOx urolithiasis in these breeds. Results should be confirmed in larger populations and with other β-crosslaps assays and additional biomarkers of bone turnover. The stability of canine serum β-crosslaps after freeze-thaw cycles and storage at various temperatures requires investigation.

RevDate: 2019-12-10
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Yoong YT, Fujita K, Galway A, et al (2018)

UROLITH PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS IN ASIAN SMALL-CLAWED OTTERS (AONYX CINEREUS).

Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 49(4):863-869.

Uroliths (urinary stones) are routinely found in both domestic and exotic animals kept under human care. In zoos, Asian small-clawed otters (ASCOs, Aonyx cinereus) have been identified as being particularly prone to this disease. Risk factors are thought to be nutritional; however, recommendations contradict each other, depending on which physiological model was used. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of uroliths in ASCOs under human care and to evaluate which feeding patterns and nutrients may be linked to their occurrence. Questionnaires were sent to zoos holding ASCOs in North America (AZA), Europe (EAZA), and Japan and Southeast Asia (Asia) asking about diets and medical histories of all ASCOs alive or dead within the last 10 yr. A risk-factor style binary logistic regression was conducted on these data. A total of 94 questionnaires were received; however, only 56 were usable (15.6% return rate), representing 161 otter cases. AZA had the significantly highest incidence of kidney stones (62.8%), followed by EAZA (12.9%) and Asia (9.4%). Age and calcium were risk factors, whereas crude protein and sodium were protective. Therefore, calcium may need to be controlled within their diet. A diet high in fish and crustaceans may be beneficial and is consistent with wild ASCO diets. The feline model may be the best choice out of other models; however, many factors cannot be compared with ASCO, such as urinary pH.

RevDate: 2019-03-20
CmpDate: 2019-02-20

Queau Y (2019)

Nutritional Management of Urolithiasis.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 49(2):175-186.

Dietary management of urolithiasis in dogs and cats is designed to dissolve calculi when possible and/or reduce the risk of recurrence. The diet must reduce urine relative supersaturation for the particular salt in order to prevent crystallization. To decrease urinary concentrations of crystal precursors, increasing water intake is essential regardless of the stone type. Altering the amounts of dietary precursors of the stone and controlling urine pH is mostly effective for struvite, urate, xanthine, and cystine, but still subject to controversy for calcium oxalate. The investigation of underlying metabolic disorders and close monitoring of animals at risk is recommended.

RevDate: 2019-10-08
CmpDate: 2019-10-08

Hesse A, Frick M, Orzekowsky H, et al (2018)

Canine calcium oxalate urolithiasis: Frequency of Whewellite and Weddellite stones from 1979 to 2015.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 59(12):1305-1310.

This study reports on a retrospective evaluation of epidemiological data from calcium oxalate stones in dogs differentiated into calcium oxalate monohydrate (Whewellite, Wh) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (Weddellite, Wd). Of the 22 456 uroliths submitted from 1979 to 2015, 6690 (29.8%) were composed of > 70% calcium oxalate. During the observation period, the proportion of calcium oxalate stones rose from 4% (1979) to 46% (2015). Of all the calcium oxalate stones, 31.0% were Wh and 49.4% Wd, while 19.6% were a mixture of Wh and Wd. The dogs with Wh stones were significantly older than the dogs with Wd stones. Several breeds have increased odds ratios (OR) for either Wh (5 highest OR: Norwich terrier, keeshond, Norfolk terrier, fox terrier, sheltie) or Wd (Pomeranian, borzoi, Japanese spitz, Finnish lapphund, bichon frise). Analytical differentiation of the calcium oxalate stones into Wh and Wd is important for understanding the cause and possible treatment and prevention of the uroliths.

RevDate: 2019-06-03
CmpDate: 2019-06-03

Berent AC, Weisse CW, Bagley DH, et al (2018)

Use of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass device for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction in cats: 174 ureters in 134 cats (2009-2015).

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 253(10):1309-1327.

OBJECTIVE To determine outcomes of subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device placement for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction in cats. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 134 cats with SUB devices placed in 174 obstructed ureters during 144 hospitalizations. PROCEDURES Medical records of cats that underwent SUB device placement for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. The SUB device was placed by use of fluoroscopic and surgical methods. Signalment, history, diagnostic imaging results, postprocedural results, duration of hospitalization, complications, and short- and long-term outcomes were recorded. RESULTS Ureteral obstructions were caused by ureterolithiasis (114/174 [65.5%]), stricture (28/174 [16.1%]), both ureterolithiasis and stricture (29/174 [16.7%]), or pyonephrosis (1/174 [0.6%]); in 2 (1.1%) cats, the cause was not recorded. Fifty-two of the 134 (39%) cats had bilateral ureteral obstruction. At admission, 127 (95%) cats were azotemic. Median serum creatinine concentrations at admission and 3 months after SUB device placement were 6.6 and 2.6 mg/dL, respectively. Median renal pelvis diameters before and after the procedure were 9.2 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Postsurgical complications included device occlusion with blood clots (14/172 [8.1%]), device leakage (6/172 [3.5%]), and kinking of the device tubing (8/174 [4.6%]). Cats survived to hospital discharge after 135 of the 144 (94%) hospital admissions. The most common long-term complication was catheter mineralization (40/165 [24.2%]), which was documented a median of 463 days after device placement. A high postoperative serum ionized calcium concentration was significantly associated with SUB device occlusion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that SUB device placement may be a viable option for treatment of cats with benign ureteral obstruction.

RevDate: 2020-07-01
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Okafor CC, Pearl DL, Blois SL, et al (2019)

Factors associated with hematuric struvite crystalluria in cats.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 21(10):922-930.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify any dietary, signalment, geographic and clinical factors associated with hematuric struvite crystalluria (HSC) in a population of cats that visit general care veterinary hospitals in the USA.

METHODS: In total, 4032 cats that had a first-time diagnosis of HSC and 8064 control cats with no history of hematuria or crystalluria were identified from medical records of all cats examined between 2007 and 2011 at 790 US veterinary hospitals. Extracted variables included age, sex, neuter status, breed, diet, urinalysis results and history of cystitis. Potential associations between these variables and HSC were estimated.

RESULTS: Controlling for other factors, young cats fed a dry diet had an increased likelihood of HSC relative to young cats fed a non-dry diet. However, as age increased, the likelihood of HSC declined for cats fed a dry diet and increased for cats fed a non-dry diet. Moreover, the odds of HSC were significantly greater when cats were unneutered (vs neutered; odds ratio [OR] 45.52) or had a thin (vs heavy) body condition (OR 23.81), diagnosis of cystitis (OR 2.84), urine protein concentration >30 mg/dl (OR 4.72), alkaline (vs neutral) urine pH (OR 3.34), pyuria (OR 23.67) or bacteriuria (OR 2.24).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The present study provides estimates of the strengths of association between HSC and certain signalment and clinical characteristics of cats. This information could help clinicians to perform a more directed screening for struvite crystalluria in certain cat populations. Follow-up studies that build on the findings of this study could explore the clinical importance of HSC in cats.

RevDate: 2020-01-20
CmpDate: 2020-01-20

Li S, Lan Y, Wu W, et al (2019)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ modulates renal crystal retention associated with high oxalate concentration by regulating tubular epithelial cellular transdifferentiation.

Journal of cellular physiology, 234(3):2837-2850.

The differentiated phenotype of renal tubular epithelial cell exerts significant effect on crystal adherence. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to be critical for the regulation of cell transdifferentiation in many physiological and pathological conditions; however, little is known about its role in kidney stone formation. In the current study, we found that temporarily high oxalate concentration significantly decreased PPARγ expression, induced Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell dedifferentiation, and prompted subsequent calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal adhesion in vitro. Furthermore, cell redifferentiation after the removal of the high oxalate concentration, along with a decreasing affinity to crystals, was an endogenic PPARγ-dependent process. In addition, the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, which can depress total-PPARγ expression and activity, enhanced cell dedifferentiation induced by high oxalate concentration and inhibited cell redifferentiation after removal of the high oxalate concentration. These effects were partially reversed by the PPARγ agonist 15d-PGJ2. Similar results were observed in animals that suffered from temporary hyperoxaluria followed by a recovery period. The active crystal-clearing process occurs through the transphenotypical morphology of renal tubular epithelial cells, reflecting cell transdifferentiation during the recovery period. However, GW9662 delayed cell redifferentiation and increased the secondary temporary crystalluria-induced crystal retention. This detrimental effect was partially reversed by 15d-PGJ2. Taken together, our results revealed that endogenic PPARγ activity plays a vital regulatory role in crystal clearance, subsequent crystal adherence, and CaOx stone formation via manipulating the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells.

RevDate: 2019-04-24
CmpDate: 2019-04-24

Cohen SM (2018)

Crystalluria and Chronic Kidney Disease.

Toxicologic pathology, 46(8):949-955.

Crystalluria can involve the kidney and lower urinary tract, can produce acute and chronic effects, and occurs in all mammalian species. Most commonly urinary crystals contain calcium. Numerous other endogenous and exogenous substances can produce crystalluria. Crystals are identified in kidneys of many species, up to 100% in certain rat strains. More severe renal disease (acute tubular necrosis and chronic renal disease) can be secondary to crystal accumulation, such as observed with melamine-cyanuric acid in cats and dogs. Aggregation of crystals leads to calculi that act as urothelial abrasives with consequent regenerative proliferation. Accumulation in the kidney pelvis or bladder can lead to partial or complete obstruction and hydronephrosis. Long-term presence of urinary tract calculi in rodents leads to increased risk of urothelial tumors, but not in humans. Crystals in the lower urinary tract can act as irritants in rodents, but not in humans. It is critical that specific procedures are followed to optimize the presence of crystals in urine for diagnosis, including not fasting the animals. Numerous factors have been identified which can enhance or inhibit crystal formation. Extrapolation from animals for the threshold toxicity of crystals/calculi is appropriate but is not relevant for cancer risk assessment.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Reines BP, RA Wagner (2018)

Resurrecting FUS: Adrenal Androgens as an Ultimate Cause of Hematuria, Periuria, Pollakuria, Stranguria, Urolithiasis and Obstruction in Neutered Cats.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 5:207.

Although many authors have doubted that "feline urological syndrome" (FUS) describes a real pathogenetic entity, because it subsumes such a large variety of signs, Sumner's recent finding that urethral obstruction occurs most frequently in springtime adds to a large body of evidence that lower urinary tract problems occur most commonly in late winter and spring. This suggests that FUS may be a unitary disorder, with a hormonal basis, driven by increasing day length. We argue that rising adrenal androgens (AA) in neutered cats induce stress, and other more concrete manifestations of FUS through androgen-driven mechanisms.

RevDate: 2019-01-14
CmpDate: 2019-01-14

Nesser VE, Reetz JA, Clarke DL, et al (2018)

Radiographic distribution of ureteral stones in 78 cats.

Veterinary surgery : VS, 47(7):895-901.

OBJECTIVE: To document the distribution of ureteral stones in cats.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS: Seventy-eight cats.

METHODS: Abdominal radiographs with ureteral stones were reviewed. The location of stones was categorized as proximal ureter (PU), midureter (MU), or ureterovesicular junction (UVJ). The number, size, and location of stones were recorded by using the kidneys and vertebral bodies as landmarks. Stone location in cats with 1 versus multiple stones was assessed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the incidence of ureteral stone location.

RESULTS: Among cats with a single stone (44%, 34/78), 44% (15/34) had a stone in the PU, 41% (14/34) had a stone in the MU, and 15% (5/34) had a stone at the UVJ. When multiple stones were present, 61% (27/44) of cats had at least 1 stone located in the PU, 70% (31/44) had at least 1 stone located in the MU, and 34% (15/44) had at least 1 stone located at the UVJ. The L4 vertebral body most commonly marked stone location in cats with 1 stone and the most distal stone in cats with multiple stones. Stones located at the UVJ site were more common in male (37%) than in female (12%) cats (P = 0.004). Larger stone size was associated with a more proximal location (P = 0.04).

CONCLUSION: Ureteral stones were more commonly located in the PU and the MU than in the UVJ. UVJ stones were more common in male than in female cats, and larger stones had a more proximal location.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study enhances our understanding of feline ureteral stone location and identifies a correlation between stone location and stone size.

RevDate: 2019-06-18
CmpDate: 2019-06-18

Swieton N (2018)

Urinary calculi in a shih tzu dog with hyperadrenocorticism.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 59(8):905-907.

An 11-year-old spayed female shih tzu dog was presented with pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria. Radiographs revealed a large number of radiodense urinary calculi within the bladder. Physical examination, complete blood cell count, biochemistry and ACTH stimulation test suggested possible hyperadrenocorticism. A cystotomy was performed and the patient was treated for hyperadrenocorticism.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Urolithioasis is a surprising common problem in make dogs and cats. An undiagnosed and untreated acute attach involving urethral blockage causes severe pain and can be lethal within dats. Complete obstruction causes uremia within 36–48 hr, which leads to depression, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, coma, and death within ~72 hr. Urethral obstruction is an emergency condition, and treatment should begin immediately. Familiarity with the problem and its symptoms could save your pet's life. I know, because it saved mine: One of my long-term pets—a cat named Leonard—struggled with urolithiasis most of his life. For many years, it was possible to control the problem with dietary medications. Ultimately, however, he required surgery, which was a success and allowed his to live into a comfortable old age. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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