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22 Oct 2020 at 01:54
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Bibliography on: Urolithiasis


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Some mineral solutes precipitate to form crystals in urine; these crystals may aggregate and grow to macroscopic size, at which time they are known as uroliths (calculi or stones). Mechanisms involved in stone formation are incompletely understood in dogs and cats. Regardless of the underlying mechanism(s), uroliths are not produced unless sufficiently high urine concentrations of urolith-forming constituents exist and transit time of crystals within the urinary tract is prolonged. Clinical signs associated with urolithiasis are seldom caused by microscopic crystals. However, formation of macroscopic uroliths in the lower urinary tract that interfere with the flow of urine and/or irritate the mucosal surface often results in dysuria, hematuria, and stranguria. Urethral obstruction is common in male dogs and cats. It may occur suddenly or may develop throughout days or weeks. Initially, the animal may frequently attempt to urinate and produce only a fine stream, a few drops, or nothing. Animals may also exhibit extreme pain manifested by crying out when attempting to urinate. Complete obstruction causes uremia within 36–48 hr, which leads to depression, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, coma, and death within ~72 hr.

NOTE: Urethral obstruction is an emergency condition, and treatment should begin immediately.

Created with PubMed® Query: (canine OR feline) and (urolithiasis) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2020-10-03

Wood MW, Lepold A, Tesfamichael D, et al (2020)

Risk factors for enterococcal bacteriuria in dogs: A retrospective study.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In humans, Enterococcus spp. urinary tract infections (UTI) are commonly associated with urinary catheter-induced urothelial inflammation but this is not the case in dogs.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors predisposing dogs to enterococcal bacteriuria.

ANIMALS: Seventy dogs with Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria (case) and 70 dogs with Enterococcus coli bacteriuria (control).

METHODS: A single center retrospective case-control study with subjects and controls identified by a medical records search for Enterococcus spp. (subject) or E coli (control) bacteriuria from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. Cases and controls were balanced with respect to average age and weight. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate and test whether the odds of having Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria (instead of E coli) were associated with the presence of any given characteristic.

RESULTS: A history of recurrent bacteriuria was significantly more common in Enterococcus spp. cases than in E coli controls (odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-4.16, P = .04). Comorbidities associated with the presence of Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria included lower urinary tract (LUT) anatomic abnormalities (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.17-8.10, P = .02), urolithiasis (P = .01), and the presence of LUT neoplasia (P = .04). Small frequencies (n = 12 and n = 6, respectively) compromise our ability to precisely estimate the genuine OR for the latter 2 characteristics.

If the identified risk factors promote Enterococcus spp. colonization in dogs via induced LUT inflammation similar to people then Enterococcus spp. bacteriuria could be a sentinel for underlying LUT inflammation.

RevDate: 2020-09-30

Seneviratne M, Stamenova P, K Lee (2020)

Comparison of surgical indications and short- and long-term complications in 56 cats undergoing perineal, transpelvic or prepubic urethrostomy.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare indications, complications and mortality rates for perineal urethrostomy (PU), transpelvic urethrostomy (TPU) and prepubic urethrostomy (PPU).

METHODS: A retrospective review of, and follow-up owner questionnaire for, cats undergoing urethrostomy between 2008 and 2018, at a single referral hospital, were performed.

RESULTS: Fifty-six cats underwent urethrostomy (PU, n = 37; TPU, n = 8; PPU, n = 11). The presenting problem was significantly associated with urethrostomy technique (P <0.001). For PU cats, feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC; n = 21 [56.7%]) was the most common problem, whereas for PPU cats, trauma (n = 9 [81.8%]) was most common (P <0.001). Urethrostomy technique was associated with imaging diagnosis (P <0.001) of the urethral lesion. Most PU cats had no diagnostic imaging lesion (n = 15 [40.5%]) or obstructive calculi or clots (n = 10 [27.0%]), and all PPU cats had urethral rupture. Ten (90.9%) PPU cats had a pelvic lesion, while 21 (56.7%) PU cats had a penile lesion. TPU cats had a range of presenting problems and imaging diagnoses. Short- and long-term complications were reported in 33/55 (60.0%) and 11/30 (36.7%) cats, respectively. The number of cats with long-term complications was greater among PPU cats (P = 0.02). Short-term dermatitis (P = 0.019) and long-term incontinence (P = 0.01) were associated with PPU. Short-term mortality was 5.6% and long-term mortality was 13.3%; both were independent of urethrostomy technique. Quality of life post-urethrostomy, across all techniques, was graded as good by 93% of owners.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, PU was the most common feline urethrostomy technique indicated for FIC. Short-term urethrostomy complications are common, irrespective of urethrostomy technique. Long-term complications are less frequent but more common with PPU.

RevDate: 2020-09-22

Schwarz T, Shorten E, Gennace M, et al (2020)

CT features of feline lipiduria and renal cortical lipid deposition.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to document the presence and prevalence of feline lipiduria and renal lipid deposition on CT, and to search for associations between the presence of lipiduria and sex, urinary tract abnormalities and urolithiasis.

METHODS: The CT examinations of 252 cats were reviewed for the presence of an antigravitational hypodense bubble in the urinary bladder with density values between -180 Hounsfield units (HU) and -20 HU. To identify associations between lipiduria and sex, urinary tract abnormalities and urolithiasis, Fisher's exact test was used. Renal cortical density measurement was performed in all cats. The Mann-Whitney test was performed to compare renal cortical density between lipiduric and unaffected cats.

RESULTS: A total of 27 domestic cats (10.7%) had CT evidence of lipiduria. Lipiduric cats had a significantly lower renal cortical density than unaffected cats (P <0.01). Male neutered cats had a significantly higher frequency of lipiduria and lower renal cortical density compared with female neutered cats (P <0.01). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding renal, ureteral or urethral abnormalities.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Lipiduria is a common physiological phenomenon in cats that can be detected on routine CT examinations. Decreased renal cortical density is associated with lipiduria. This may aid in the diagnosis of feline lipiduria and help to differentiate its presence from other pathological depositions and excretions.

RevDate: 2020-08-26
CmpDate: 2020-08-26

Thiel C, Häußler TC, Kramer M, et al (2019)

[Urethrolithiasis in the dog - a retrospective evaluation of 83 male dogs].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 47(6):394-401.

OBJECTIVE: Urethral calculi are a frequent cause of urinary disorders in male dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate male dogs with urethral stones, which were relocated into the urinary bladder with the support of standardized epidural anesthesia in addition to general anesthesia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 83 male dogs with urethral calculi were evaluated regarding clinical signs, localization and number of urethral calculi, diagnostic imaging, surgical procedure and postoperative radiographs. Additionally, bacterial culture and stone type analysis were evaluated. Besides general anesthesia all dogs received an epidural anesthesia.

RESULTS: With one exception all dogs showed signs of urinary disorders, in 33 cases, these were chronic. In 66 cases, urethral stones were diagnosed radiographically and in 11 cases, radiolucent urethral concrements were detected via ultrasonography. In 6 dogs, diagnosis was reached by catheterization and subsequent evidence of stones in the urinary bladder. At the time of presentation, more than one third of the dogs showed urethral calculi only. In 53 % of the dogs (n = 44), 3 or more urethral stones were present. In 77 of 83 dogs (92.7 %), relocation of all urethral stones into the urinary bladder was achieved. During postoperative radiography 9 dogs were diagnosed with residual urethral calculi.

Due to a significant proportion of dogs with sole urethral stones reliable radiological diagnosis of urethral calculi requires precise patient positioning. In cases of radiolucent calculi, ultrasonography of the urethra may lead to a diagnosis, sonographic evaluation of the urinary bladder alone is not sufficient. The use of epidural anesthesia should in the least be considered in cases in which relocation of the urethral stones is not possible by flushing. Postoperative radiographs is advisable in patients with radiodense calculi.

RevDate: 2020-08-17

Nururrozi A, Yanuartono Y, Sivananthan P, et al (2020)

Evaluation of lower urinary tract disease in the Yogyakarta cat population, Indonesia.

Veterinary world, 13(6):1182-1186.

Background and Aim: This paper reports a retrospective study performed in 185 cats diagnosed with feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD). The analyzed population involved feline patients at the Veterinary Clinic of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. This research aimed to evaluate the clinical indications and causes of FLUTD in the Yogyakarta cat population.

Materials and Methods: The medical data of all feline patients were obtained to conduct this study. FLUTD diagnoses were based on physical examinations, urinalyses, ultrasound examinations, and bacterial cultures. Only cats with a complete examination were used in the study. The clinical signs were evaluated and accompanied by the results of laboratory tests in cats that showed symptoms of FLUTD. The medical history of all feline patients was analyzed thoroughly. Most of the feline's urine samples were collected by catheterization.

Results: The most commonly diagnosed of FLUTD in the Yogyakarta cat population were: feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) (56%), urinary tract infection (UTI; 25%), urolithiasis (13%), urethral plugs (UP) (4.9%), and neoplasia (0.4%), respectively. The prevalence of UTI is higher than that reported in Europe or the US. Older cats more often show symptoms of UTI and neoplasia, whereas young cats more often show symptoms of FIC and UP. The prevalence of male cats experiencing FLUTD in Yogyakarta is much higher than female cats.

Conclusion: The incidence rate of FLUTD cases in Yogyakarta is related to age and sex. The results of this study are similar to those of the previous research studies conducted in other countries.

RevDate: 2020-08-17

Astuty ATJE, Tjahajati I, WS Nugroho (2020)

Detection of feline idiopathic cystitis as the cause of feline lower urinary tract disease in Sleman Regency, Indonesia.

Veterinary world, 13(6):1108-1112.

Background and Aim: Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is one of the common cat diseases. The aim of this study was to detect feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) as a cause of FLUTD in Sleman Regency, which is a problem in the population.

Materials and Methods: Seventy-three cats with FLUTD symptoms were used from seven veterinary practices in Sleman Regency. The logging of each cat's medical history, clinical examination, urinalysis, routine blood screening, and ultrasonography was conducted to diagnose the cause of FLUTD.

Results: The percentages of diseases causing FLUTD included FIC 21.9%, urolithiasis 57.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI) 16.4%, neoplasia 1.4%, trauma 1.4%, and nervous disorders 1.4%.

Conclusion: FIC, one of the causes of FLUTD, is found in cats and has become a problem among the cat population in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Various handling and preventive efforts should be undertaken against the disease.

RevDate: 2020-08-14

Fantinati M, N Priymenko (2020)

Managing Feline Idiopathic Hypercalcemia With Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.): A Case Series.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 7:421.

Background: We describe for the first time the use of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) as a non-pharmacological solution in managing feline idiopathic hypercalcemia when dietary change alone fails. Case Summary: Over a 2-year period of time, three female spayed, middle-aged, Domestic Shorthair cats were diagnosed with idiopathic hypercalcemia. Reason for consultation were lethargy and dysorexia, with a single episode of vomiting described in one cat and dysuria in another. Thorough diagnostic work-up included complete blood count, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, ionized calcium, calcemic hormones, parathyroid hormone-related protein, and imaging of chest and abdomen. Based on different nutritional reasons, each cat was switched to a different high-moisture pet food as first-step in managing the disorder: a high-fiber diet, a diet formulated for chronic kidney disease management and a diet designed to prevent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. In the three cats, 6 weeks of dietary change alone did not result in normocalcemia. Before resorting to any pharmacological solution, supplementation to the diet of chia seeds (2 g/cat/day) was started. After 4 weeks from the introduction of Salvia hispanica L., all cats achieved normalization of ionized calcium concentration. Conclusion: Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) supplementation could be a useful tool in managing feline idiopathic hypercalcemia.

RevDate: 2020-07-24

Tefft KM, Byron JK, Hostnik ET, et al (2020)

Effect of a struvite dissolution diet in cats with naturally occurring struvite urolithiasis.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of the low struvite relative supersaturation diet in dissolution of feline struvite cystoliths.

METHODS: This was a prospective, open-label, two-center study. Twelve client-owned cats were enrolled based on the radiographic appearance of their uroliths and urinalysis parameters. Cats were fed the test diet exclusively for up to 56 days. Cats were radiographed every other week until radiographic evidence of dissolution occurred or the end of the study period was reached. Cats with radiographically apparent uroliths at the end of the study period underwent cystotomy for stone retrieval and analysis.

RESULTS: Nine of the 12 cats completed the study. Eight experienced radiographic dissolution; seven of these had complete dissolution within the first month of treatment. One cat, whose owner declined cystotomy after partial dissolution at day 56, had complete radiographic resolution at 70 days of treatment. Two calcium oxalate urolith cores were removed from a cat that had partial radiographic dissolution.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The test diet was successful in dissolving suspected struvite cystoliths. As this diet is suitable for maintenance feeding of adult cats, it may be a suitable choice for long-term prevention of feline struvite urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2020-07-15
CmpDate: 2020-07-15

Sueksakit K, V Thongboonkerd (2019)

Protective effects of finasteride against testosterone-induced calcium oxalate crystallization and crystal-cell adhesion.

Journal of biological inorganic chemistry : JBIC : a publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 24(7):973-983.

Finasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor) has been widely used for treatment of several testosterone-related disorders. However, its beneficial role in kidney stone disease had not been previously investigated. This study thus addressed whether finasteride has any protective effects against testosterone-induced calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stone formation. Renal tubular cells were treated with testosterone with/without finasteride for 72 h. Western blotting revealed the increased level of α-enolase (a known COM crystal receptor) in whole-cell lysate, apical membrane, and cytosolic fraction of the testosterone-treated cells. Immunofluorescence staining also showed the increased levels of surface and intracellular α-enolase in the testosterone-treated cells. In addition, testosterone significantly increased the number of adherent COM crystals on the cell surface. All of these effects were completely abolished by finasteride treatment. Interestingly, the secreted proteins from testosterone-treated cells significantly increased COM crystallization, but did not affect crystal growth and aggregation. Again, such promoting effect of testosterone on COM crystallization was completely abolished by finasteride. These data indicate that finasteride effectively protects testosterone-induced kidney stone formation by restoring apical surface expression of α-enolase and COM crystal-cell adhesion to their basal levels. Moreover, finasteride can also neutralize the promoting effect of testosterone on COM crystallization.

RevDate: 2020-07-13
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Buckley CN, Lee AM, AJ Mackin (2019)

What Is Your Diagnosis?.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 255(7):785-788.

RevDate: 2020-07-07

Perondi F, Puccinelli C, Lippi I, et al (2020)

Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Urachal Anomalies in Cats and Dogs: Retrospective Study of 98 Cases (2009-2019).

Veterinary sciences, 7(3): pii:vetsci7030084.

This retrospective study investigated the prevalence of different urachal anomalies (UA) in cats (n = 60) and dogs (n = 38) and their association with clinical symptoms and urinalysis alterations. Among UA, the vesicourachal diverticulum was the most prevalent UA diagnosed in both cats (96.7%) and dogs (89.5%): the intramural vesicourachal diverticulum was diagnosed in 76.7% of cats and 71.1% of dogs, followed by extramural vesicourachal diverticulum (20.0% and 18.4% respectively). In both cats and dogs, bladder wall diffuse or regional thickening was the most prevalent alteration. The most common alterations of the urinary bladder content were urolithiasis sediment in cats (33.3%) and in dogs (31.6%). Dogs with UA were more often asymptomatic (p = 0.01). No difference was found in cats. Stranguria, hematuria, and urethral obstruction were the most frequently reported clinical signs, while hematuria and leukocyturia were the most prevalent abnormalities at urinalysis. In conclusion, our study confirmed UA as uncommon, and often incidental findings, with a high prevalence of animals without clinical signs.

RevDate: 2020-07-01
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Bishop BA, AE Gallagher (2019)

Endoscopic-guided laser lithotripsy for removal of an encrusted ureteral stent in a dog.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 255(6):706-709.

CASE DESCRIPTION: An 8-year-old spayed female Dalmatian was evaluated because of recurrent urinary tract infections following ureteral stent placement 3 years earlier.

CLINICAL FINDINGS: Polyuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria were reported by the owner. Abdominal radiography revealed well-defined, faintly mineralized material superimposed over the distal portion of the previously placed ureteral stent. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed thickening of the bladder wall, right hydroureter, and right pyelectasia; the ureteral stent appeared to extend into a region containing cystic calculi. Cystoscopy revealed small uroliths and mineralized encrustation of the distal portion of the ureteral stent.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: A holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser was used to fragment mineralized material from the distal end of the stent and allow endoscopic transurethral removal. Stone analysis revealed ammonium urate as the major component of the mineralized material. The owner was instructed to feed the dog a diet formulated to decrease the likelihood of urate stone recurrence and to administer marbofloxacin for 6 weeks because of suspected pyelonephritis. Follow-up bacterial culture of a urine sample and abdominal ultrasonography revealed resolution of urinary tract infection, pyelectasia, hydroureter, and associated clinical signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that endoscopic-guided laser lithotripsy can be used as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery for removal of severely encrusted ureteral stents in dogs.

RevDate: 2020-07-01
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Petrovsky B, Berent AC, Weisse CW, et al (2019)

Endoscopic nephrolithotomy for the removal of complicated nephroliths in dogs and cats: 16 kidneys in 12 patients (2005-2017).

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 255(3):352-365.

OBJECTIVE: To describe techniques and outcomes for dogs and cats undergoing endoscopic nephrolithotomy (ENL) for the removal of complicated nephroliths.

ANIMALS: 11 dogs and 1 cat (n = 16 renal units) with complicated nephroliths that underwent ENL via a surgically assisted ENL approach (12 renal units) or a percutaneous nephrolithotomy approach (4 renal units) between December 2005 and June 2017.

PROCEDURES: Data were obtained from the medical records regarding preoperative, operative, and postoperative findings. Follow-up information on complications and outcomes was also collected.

RESULTS: Indications for nephrolith removal included massive calculi displacing parenchyma (n = 7), recurrent urinary tract infections (5), and ureteral outflow obstruction (4). Median nephrolith diameter was 2.5 cm (range, 0.5 to 5.7 cm). Nephrolith composition differed among patients; calcium oxalate was the most common type (n = 7 [including 2 mixed nephroliths containing ≥ 60% calcium oxalate]). Following ENL (median duration, 180 minutes), 15 of 16 renal units were completely nephrolith free. Procedure-related complications included renal puncture-associated hemorrhage requiring a blood transfusion (n = 1), renal capsule tear (1), and ureteral puncture (1); all were managed without adverse consequence. Five of 12 patients remained alive at the final follow-up (median, 557 days after ENL), and none died from the procedure.

ENL as performed was safe and effective in removing complicated nephroliths in a renal-sparing manner for the patients in this study. This procedure requires technical training and could be considered for the treatment of complicated nephrolithiasis in dogs and possibly cats.

RevDate: 2020-07-01
CmpDate: 2020-07-01

Okafor CC, Pearl DL, Blois SL, et al (2019)

Factors associated with hematuric struvite crystalluria in cats.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 21(10):922-930.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to identify any dietary, signalment, geographic and clinical factors associated with hematuric struvite crystalluria (HSC) in a population of cats that visit general care veterinary hospitals in the USA.

METHODS: In total, 4032 cats that had a first-time diagnosis of HSC and 8064 control cats with no history of hematuria or crystalluria were identified from medical records of all cats examined between 2007 and 2011 at 790 US veterinary hospitals. Extracted variables included age, sex, neuter status, breed, diet, urinalysis results and history of cystitis. Potential associations between these variables and HSC were estimated.

RESULTS: Controlling for other factors, young cats fed a dry diet had an increased likelihood of HSC relative to young cats fed a non-dry diet. However, as age increased, the likelihood of HSC declined for cats fed a dry diet and increased for cats fed a non-dry diet. Moreover, the odds of HSC were significantly greater when cats were unneutered (vs neutered; odds ratio [OR] 45.52) or had a thin (vs heavy) body condition (OR 23.81), diagnosis of cystitis (OR 2.84), urine protein concentration >30 mg/dl (OR 4.72), alkaline (vs neutral) urine pH (OR 3.34), pyuria (OR 23.67) or bacteriuria (OR 2.24).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The present study provides estimates of the strengths of association between HSC and certain signalment and clinical characteristics of cats. This information could help clinicians to perform a more directed screening for struvite crystalluria in certain cat populations. Follow-up studies that build on the findings of this study could explore the clinical importance of HSC in cats.

RevDate: 2020-06-29
CmpDate: 2020-06-29

Peerapen P, V Thongboonkerd (2019)

Protective Cellular Mechanism of Estrogen Against Kidney Stone Formation: A Proteomics Approach and Functional Validation.

Proteomics, 19(19):e1900095.

Females have less incidence/prevalence of kidney stone disease than males. Estrogen thus may serve as the protective factor but with unclear mechanism. This study explores cellular mechanism underlying such stone preventive mechanism of estrogen. Madin darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubular cells are incubated with or without 20 nm 17β-estradiol for 7 days. Comparative proteomics reveals 58 differentially expressed proteins in estrogen-treated versus control cells that are successfully identified by nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Interestingly, these altered proteins are involved mainly in "binding and receptor," "metabolic process," and "migration and healing" networks. Functional investigations demonstrate reduction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal-binding capability of the estrogen-treated cells consistent with the decreased levels of annexin A1 and α-enolase (the known CaOx crystal-binding receptors) on the cell surface. High-calcium and high-oxalate challenge initially enhances surface expression of annexin A1 and α-enolase, respectively, both of which return to their basal levels by estrogen. Additionally, estrogen reduces intracellular ATP level and promotes cell migration and tissue healing. Taken together, estrogen causes changes in cellular proteome of renal tubular cells that lead to decreased surface expression of CaOx crystal receptors, reduced intracellular metabolism, and enhanced cell proliferation and tissue healing, all of which may contribute, at least in part, to stone prevention.

RevDate: 2020-06-25
CmpDate: 2020-06-25

Chacar FC, Kogika MM, Ferreira AC, et al (2019)

Total serum magnesium in cats with chronic kidney disease with nephrolithiasis.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 21(12):1172-1180.

OBJECTIVES: Magnesium has been 'the forgotten ion' for many years. Over the past decade, however, the role of magnesium in essential physiological functions and several illness conditions have been elucidated. Nevertheless, the investigation of magnesium in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nephrolithiasis is yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CKD cats with nephrolithiasis have changes in total serum magnesium concentrations, and whether magnesium disorders may be associated with other electrolyte disturbances, as well as with prognosis. We also aimed to evaluate whether total serum magnesium concentration differs between CKD cats with and without nephrolithiasis.

METHODS: Total serum magnesium concentrations were assessed in 42 cats with CKD with stage 1-4 nephrolithiasis. The correlation between magnesium and other electrolytes, as well as Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, were performed. We also selected 14 control cats with CKD without nephrolithiasis age-matched with 14 cats with CKD with nephrolithiasis.

RESULTS: Hypermagnesemia was observed in 16/42 (38.1%) and hypomagnesemia in 6/42 (14.3%) cats. Serum magnesium abnormalities were observed in cats of all stages, and marked hypermagnesemia was noted in cats with stage 4 CKD with nephrolithiasis (P <0.001). There was a negative correlation between total serum magnesium and ionized calcium (r = -0.64; P <0.01), and a positive correlation between total serum magnesium and serum phosphorus (r = 0.58, P = 0.01). Cats with CKD with nephrolithiasis and hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia had higher mortality than those with normal total serum magnesium concentration (P <0.01), regardless of CKD stage. There was no difference in total serum magnesium concentration between CKD cats with and without nephrolithiasis.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Cats with CKD with nephrolithiasis have magnesium abnormalities. Hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia were associated with an increase in mortality, and thus total serum magnesium abnormalities may be used as prognostic factors in these cases.

RevDate: 2020-05-05

Remichi H, Hani FA, Rebouh M, et al (2020)

Lower urinary tract lithiasis of cats in Algeria: Clinical and epidemiologic features.

Veterinary world, 13(3):563-569.

Aim: This study aims to describe the clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of urolithiasis of the lower urinary tract and to determine the main risk factors involved in the occurrence of urinary lithiasis in cats in Algeria from 2016 to 2018.

Materials and Methods: During the study period, 465 cats were examined and 32 cases of urolithiases were selected and investigated by conducting physical examinations, blood analyses, urinalysis, X-ray radiography, and ultrasonography. Parameters such as breed, age, or sex were studied and reported in a farm return to analyze risk factors involved in the formation of lower urinary urolithiasis.

Results: The most clinically relevant symptoms of urolithiasis observed in cats were dysuria, pollakiuria, hematuria, and stranguria. Urinalysis and blood analysis revealed a significant presence of urinary crystals and acute kidney failure in nine cats. The ultrasonography and radiography confirmed the diagnosis of urolithiasis with the incidence of 43.75% and 31.25%, respectively. The lower urinary tract urolithiasis appeared to be more frequent in European and Siamese cats. In addition, cats aged between 4 and 8 years old were the most affected. Male cats (87.50%) were more affected than female cats. Finally, the lower urinary tract urolithiasis was more frequent in cats consuming the commercial pet food, previously castrated, and confined inside the house.

Conclusion: Complete clinical assessments, in addition to complementary examinations, are necessary and beneficial in treating the animal and preventing possible complications. Whether the choice of therapy is surgical or treatment with drugs, it is crucial to understand that the elimination of the stone is not an end, but the beginning of a series of investigations. Because of their impact on both the formation and elimination of metabolites, it has been found that factors, such as race, gender, age, diet, and lifestyle, should be considered as potential risk factors for urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Hickey JM, Berent AC, Fischetti AJ, et al (2020)

Radiographic features of suspected suture-associated cystic calculi in dogs.

Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association [Epub ahead of print].

This retrospective case series describes the radiographic features of suspected suture-associated cystic calculi in six dogs with a history of at least one or multiple prior cystotomies. One of the dogs presented twice. Suspected suture-associated cystic calculi were multifocal, short, predominantly linear mineral opacities localized in the center of the urinary bladder on abdominal radiographs. One patient (n = 1) presented with multifocal round, pin point, and linear radiopaque calculi. The calculi were all calcium oxalate in composition. On gross examination, the calculi had a hollow center. Six cystotomies used monofilament absorbable suture material (polydioxanone [n = 4] or poliglecaprone 25 [n = 1]) in prior cystotomies. Suture material in two of the cases was unknown. Suspected suture-associated cystic calculi are a rare occurrence in veterinary medicine but should be considered in dogs that have a history of prior cystotomy, hollow core on gross analysis, and radiographic evidence of mineral opaque, predominantly linear, cystic calculi.

RevDate: 2020-04-24

Pacheco RE (2020)

Cystine Urolithiasis in Ferrets.

The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice, 23(2):309-319.

Urolithiasis in captive domestic ferrets has previously been predominantly struvite uroliths, although more recent laboratory submissions show a shift to predominantly cystine uroliths. Genetic mutations for cystinuria have been identified in dogs, and it is suspected that underlying genetic mutations are partly responsible for this disease in ferrets. Currently, surgery remains the only definitive treatment of cystine urolithiasis in ferrets, since dietary dissolution protocols have not been thoroughly explored. Despite this, medical management with dietary and urinary manipulation should be considered for use in ferrets postoperatively based on principles of cystine urolithiasis management in dogs adapted for ferrets.

RevDate: 2020-04-20
CmpDate: 2020-04-20

Liu YD, Yu SL, Wang R, et al (2019)

Rosiglitazone Suppresses Calcium Oxalate Crystal Binding and Oxalate-Induced Oxidative Stress in Renal Epithelial Cells by Promoting PPAR-γ Activation and Subsequent Regulation of TGF-β1 and HGF Expression.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2019:4826525.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, and it has become evident that PPAR-γ agonists have renoprotective effects, but their influence and mechanism during the development of calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis remain unknown. Rosiglitazone (RSG) was used as a representative PPAR-γ agonist in our experiments. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), c-Met, p-Met, PPAR-γ, p-PPAR-γ (Ser112), Smad2, Smad3, pSmad2/3, and Smad7 was examined in oxalate-treated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and a stone-forming rat model. A CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the effects of RSG on cell viability. In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were monitored, and lipid peroxidation in renal tissue was detected according to superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, the location and extent of CaOx crystal deposition were evaluated by Pizzolato staining. Our results showed that, both in vitro and in vivo, oxalate impaired PPAR-γ expression and phosphorylation, and then accumulative ROS production was observed, accompanied by enhanced TGF-β1 and reduced HGF. These phenomena could be reversed by the addition of RSG. RSG also promoted cell viability and proliferation and decreased oxidative stress damage and CaOx crystal deposition. However, these protective effects of RSG were abrogated by the PPAR-γ-specific inhibitor GW9662. Our results revealed that the reduction of PPAR-γ activity played a critical role in oxalate-induced ROS damage and CaOx stone formation. RSG can regulate TGF-β1 and HGF/c-Met through PPAR-γ to exert antioxidant effects against hyperoxaluria and alleviate crystal deposition. Therefore, PPAR-γ agonists may be expected to be a novel therapy for nephrolithiasis, and this effect is related to PPAR-γ-dependent suppression of oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2020-04-01

Lavin LE, Amore AR, SL Shaver (2020)

Urethral obstruction and urolithiasis associated with patent urachus in a 12-week-old kitten.

JFMS open reports, 6(1):2055116920909920 pii:10.1177_2055116920909920.

Case summary: A 12-week-old intact male domestic shorthair kitten presented for dysuria. The patient had a urethral obstruction that was relieved with urinary catheter placement. A cutaneous opening at the umbilicus was identified. Three-view abdominal radiographs and a contrast study revealed a patent urachus with no evidence of urine leakage into the abdomen. An exploratory laparotomy was performed that confirmed a patent urachus, which was excised, and cystic and urethral calculi, which were removed via cystotomy. The patient recovered well from surgery, with a 12 h period of stranguria occurring 2 days postoperatively, attributed to residual inflammation. Calculi analysis revealed struvite stones, likely secondary to infection and inflammation. At the time of writing, 3 months postoperatively, the kitten had one episode of hematuria and inappropriate urination, which resolved with a short course of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but had been otherwise been asymptomatic and healthy.

To our knowledge, this is the first report of urolithiasis and patent urachus in a pediatric feline patient. Based on the occurrence of struvite stones in the presence of a patent urachus in an animal of this age, we suspect that chronic infection and inflammation led to the development of urolithiasis. Correction of the patent urachus resulted in almost complete resolution of clinical signs and no crystal formation was appreciated on recheck urinalysis.

RevDate: 2020-03-11

Queau Y, Bijsmans ES, Feugier A, et al (2020)

Increasing dietary sodium chloride promotes urine dilution and decreases struvite and calcium oxalate relative supersaturation in healthy dogs and cats.

Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Urolithiasis is highly prevalent in dogs and cats, with struvite and calcium oxalate being most commonly diagnosed. Some commercial diets aimed at reducing the risk of urolithiasis are based on inclusion of sodium chloride (NaCl) in an attempt to dilute the urine and the risk of crystallization, but more information on the effect of differing levels of sodium inclusion is needed. The objective of this study was to compare the short-term effect of four diets differing only in NaCl content (base diet with 0.3% sodium and diets with added NaCl to achieve 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3% sodium as fed) on urinary ion concentrations and relative supersaturation (RSS) of struvite and calcium oxalate in dogs and cats. In both species, there was a significant increase in water intake and urine volume as dietary NaCl increased. Urine sodium concentration increased with increasing dietary NaCl. The highest sodium diet increased urinary calcium excretion in dogs only, while decreasing urinary calcium concentration. Calcium oxalate RSS and struvite RSS both significantly decreased, with the lowest RSS values reported on the highest sodium diet in both dogs and cats (p < .001). These results suggest that an increase in dietary NaCl decreases RSS values in both dogs and cats. Despite an increase in urinary calcium excretion in dogs, urinary calcium concentration and calcium oxalate RSS were lower on high sodium diets due to urine dilution. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the relationship between RSS and stone occurrence and recurrence.

RevDate: 2020-02-21
CmpDate: 2020-02-21

Choi JY, Kim JH, HJ Han (2019)

Suspected anaphylactic shock associated with administration of tranexamic acid in a dog.

The Journal of veterinary medical science, 81(10):1522-1526.

A 10-year-old male castrated Maltese was referred with clinical signs of hematuria, stranguria, and pollakiuria. The dog was diagnosed with sterile hemorrhagic cystitis with urethroliths and cystoliths. To remove the uroliths, the dog underwent retrograde urohydropropulsion followed by a cystotomy. The following day, persistent bleeding in the urinary bladder was identified with large hematoma, hematuria and anemia. In order to reduce bleeding, the dog received 10 mg/kg of tranexamic acid (TXA) intravenously. Immediately after TXA administration, the dog developed anaphylactic shock manifested by hypotension, hypothermia, tachycardia and a dull mentation. Thus, an emergency treatment including bolus injection of crystalloid, administration of dexamethasone and diphenhydramine, and oxygen supplementation was given, after which the dog quickly recovered within a few minutes.

RevDate: 2020-01-28
CmpDate: 2020-01-28

Butty EM, Bua AS, Vanstone NP, et al (2019)

Retained laser fiber in the nidus of a recurrent cystine urolith in an intact male English bulldog.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 60(1):29-32.

A lithotripsy and percutaneous cystolithotomy (PCCL) were performed on a 5-year-old intact male English bulldog. The composition of the uroliths was 100% cystine. When a second PCCL was performed 2 months later, the nidus of the largest urolith was a segment of an optical fiber broken off during laser lithotripsy.

RevDate: 2020-01-20
CmpDate: 2020-01-20

Cardoso KMMC, Souza IP, Silva CIF, et al (2019)

Bilateral Primary Obstructive Giant Megaureter in an Adult Dog.

Journal of comparative pathology, 170:101-104.

A rare case of bilateral, primary, obstructive, giant megaureter was found during necropsy examination of an 11-year-old female German shepherd dog. On ultrasound examination and at necropsy examination, both ureters were tortuous and extensively dilated with diameter ranging from 1.86 to 4.8 cm. Both vesicoureteral junctions were obstructed by uroliths. A diagnosis of giant megaureter was established using human parameters since these values are not recognized in animals. The classification of obstructive and primary megaureter was determined because the obstruction was due to uroliths at the vesicoureteral junctions.

RevDate: 2020-01-20
CmpDate: 2020-01-20

Li S, Lan Y, Wu W, et al (2019)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ modulates renal crystal retention associated with high oxalate concentration by regulating tubular epithelial cellular transdifferentiation.

Journal of cellular physiology, 234(3):2837-2850.

The differentiated phenotype of renal tubular epithelial cell exerts significant effect on crystal adherence. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to be critical for the regulation of cell transdifferentiation in many physiological and pathological conditions; however, little is known about its role in kidney stone formation. In the current study, we found that temporarily high oxalate concentration significantly decreased PPARγ expression, induced Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell dedifferentiation, and prompted subsequent calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal adhesion in vitro. Furthermore, cell redifferentiation after the removal of the high oxalate concentration, along with a decreasing affinity to crystals, was an endogenic PPARγ-dependent process. In addition, the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, which can depress total-PPARγ expression and activity, enhanced cell dedifferentiation induced by high oxalate concentration and inhibited cell redifferentiation after removal of the high oxalate concentration. These effects were partially reversed by the PPARγ agonist 15d-PGJ2. Similar results were observed in animals that suffered from temporary hyperoxaluria followed by a recovery period. The active crystal-clearing process occurs through the transphenotypical morphology of renal tubular epithelial cells, reflecting cell transdifferentiation during the recovery period. However, GW9662 delayed cell redifferentiation and increased the secondary temporary crystalluria-induced crystal retention. This detrimental effect was partially reversed by 15d-PGJ2. Taken together, our results revealed that endogenic PPARγ activity plays a vital regulatory role in crystal clearance, subsequent crystal adherence, and CaOx stone formation via manipulating the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells.

RevDate: 2020-01-14

Piyarungsri K, Tangtrongsup S, Thitaram N, et al (2020)

Prevalence and risk factors of feline lower urinary tract disease in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Scientific reports, 10(1):196 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-56968-w.

Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a common problem in cats. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence, clinical signs, and causes of FLUTD and the risk factors for FLUTD. The medical records of 3486 cats visiting Chiang Mai University Small Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) between November 2016 and October 2017 were reviewed. An age-matched case-control study was performed to determine the risk factors for FLUTD by comparing 78 cats with FLUTD and 78 clinically normal age-matched cats. For each animal, potential risk data were obtained from medical records and cat owner interviews; these were analysed for associations with FLUTD. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratios and to adjust for expected confounding factors. The prevalence of FLUTD in cats visiting the Chiang Mai University Veterinary Teaching Hospital was 2.2%. The most common clinical signs identified were urethral obstruction (55.1%) and haematuria (23.1%). The most common diagnoses were feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) (57.7%) and urolithiasis (struvite) (18%). The multivariable logistic regression analysis results indicated that FLUTD was most likely to be diagnosed in castrated male cats. FIC and urolithiasis were the most common diagnoses in cats with FLUTD, and male sex and castration increased the risk of FLUTD.

RevDate: 2020-01-11

Carr SV, Grant DC, DeMonaco SM, et al (2020)

Measurement of preprandial and postprandial urine calcium to creatinine ratios in male Miniature Schnauzers with and without urolithiasis.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify a simple test for excessive calciuresis and predict calcium oxalate (CaOx) disease in Miniature Schnauzers. We investigated the impact of postprandial time on the urine calcium to creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr) in male dogs of this breed, with the goal of improving the utility of the UCa/Cr.

HYPOTHESES: (1) Significant differences will exist in preprandial and postprandial UCa/Cr between CaOx urolith-forming and control Schnauzers. (2) The UCa/Cr will increase significantly from the first morning baseline at ≥1 postprandial time point(s) in both control and CaOx urolith-forming dogs. (3) Biochemical abnormalities and other variables may be associated with urolith status.

ANIMALS: Twenty-four male Miniature Schnauzer dogs, consisting of 9 with (urolith formers) and 15 without (controls) CaOx uroliths.

METHODS: Urine was collected before and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after feeding a standardized diet. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the UCa/Cr cutoff that most accurately differentiates dogs based on urolith status.

RESULTS: Urolith formers had significantly higher mean UCa/Cr over the course of 8 hours. The postprandial change in UCa/Cr was not significant at any time point between or within groups. The cutoff UCa/Cr value of 0.06 had a specificity of 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80%-100%) and a sensitivity of 56% (95% CI, 21%-86%) for identifying CaOx urolithiasis.

Urolith-forming male Miniature Schnauzers have excessive calciuresis, and the postprandial sampling time up to 8 hours is not critical. This simple urine measurement has potential as a marker of CaOx disease.

RevDate: 2019-12-31

El-Salam MA, Furtado N, Haskic Z, et al (2019)

Antiurolithic activity and biotransformation of galloylquinic acids by Aspergillus alliaceus ATCC10060, Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404, and Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028b.

Biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology, 18:.

Copaifera lucens n-butanolic fraction (BF) was used as a source of galloylquinic acids, and aerobically incubated with Aspergillus alliaceus ATCC10060, Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404, and Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028b cultures for 60 and 120 h. Out of the three studied filamentous fungi, A. alliaceus ATCC10060 was able to degrade galloylquinic acids into one major metabolite, 3-O-methylgallic acid (M1). The product was identified by 1H-NMR, UPLC-MS/MS and its potential effect on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal binding to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells type I surface was studied. Renal cells pretreatment with BF and M1 for 3 h significantly decreased calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal-adherence at 50 μg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. Both M1 and BF significantly reduced surface expression of COM-binding proteins annexin A1 and heat shock protein 90, respectively as evidenced by Western blot analysis of membrane, cytosolic, and whole cell lysate fractions. The compounds also showed antioxidant activities in DPPH assay.

RevDate: 2019-12-05

Mendoza-López CI, Del-Angel-Caraza J, Aké-Chiñas MA, et al (2019)

Epidemiology of feline urolithiasis in Mexico (2006-2017).

JFMS open reports, 5(2):2055116919885699 pii:10.1177_2055116919885699.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the proportions of different types of uroliths, characterize the population of cats that present with urolithiasis and determine possible predisposing factors in a population of Mexican cats.

Methods: This study analyzed clinical specimens of feline urolithiasis submitted to our laboratory in the period from 2006 to 2017. The mineral composition of the uroliths was determined by qualitative and quantitative mineral analyses, performed by stereoscopic microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.

Results: In the population studied, 54.3% of all uroliths were calcium oxalate, followed by 32.1% struvite and 7.4% purine (urate and xanthine) uroliths, with other types accounting for 6.2% of submissions. The male:female ratio was 1.2:1. Calcium oxalate submissions were predominantly from males and struvite submissions were predominantly from females. The age of the cats with stone submissions ranged from 6 months to 17 years. In cats with calcium oxalate uroliths, 52.3% were aged 7 years or older. Cats with struvite uroliths were younger, with 65.4% younger than 6 years of age. Almost 90% of all submitted uroliths were from domestic shorthair cats.

Conclusions and relevance: This is the first epidemiologic study of urolithiasis in cats in Mexico. Age and sex predispositions to common uroliths were identified, as males aged ≥7 years primarily presented with calcium oxalate uroliths and females aged <6 years primarily presented struvite uroliths. Cases of urolithiasis of genetic origin, including xanthinuria and cystinuria, were also detected, in addition to silicate uroliths.

RevDate: 2019-12-03
CmpDate: 2019-12-03

Wickhorst JP, Hassan AA, Sammra O, et al (2019)

First report on the isolation of Trueperella abortisuis from companion animals.

Research in veterinary science, 125:465-467.

The present study gives a detailed phenotypic and genotypic characterization of three Trueperella abortisuis strains isolated from a ten year old male Hovawart dog with an abscess of anal sac, from urine of an eight year old European shorthair cat with urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis and from a 14year old Maine Coon cat with a perianal abscess, respectively. All three strains could be identified phenotypically, by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and genotypically by sequencing the 16S rDNA and the molecular target genes gap and tuf. The present study gives a first description of T. abortisuis of this origin.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-21

Singhto N, V Thongboonkerd (2018)

Exosomes derived from calcium oxalate-exposed macrophages enhance IL-8 production from renal cells, neutrophil migration and crystal invasion through extracellular matrix.

Journal of proteomics, 185:64-76.

Deposition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals in renal interstitium is one of the key factors that cause progressive inflammation in kidney stone disease. Macrophages are responsible for elimination of these crystals but their roles to worsen inflammatory process remain under-investigated. This study thus aimed to define roles of exosomes released from macrophages exposed to CaOx crystals in mediating subsequent inflammatory cascades. Macrophages were incubated with or without CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals for 16 h and their exosomes were isolated. Quantitative proteomics using nanoLC-ESI-Qq-TOF MS/MS revealed 26 proteins with significantly altered levels in exosomes derived from COM-treated macrophages (COM-treated exosomes) comparing to those derived from the controlled macrophages (controlled exosomes). Protein network analysis showed that these altered proteins were involved in cytoskeleton and actin binding, calcium binding, stress response, transcription regulation, immune response and extracellular matrix disassembly. Functional investigations revealed that COM-treated exosomes enhanced IL-8 production from renal tubular cells, activated neutrophil migration, had increased (exosomal) membrane fragility, had greater binding capacity to COM crystals, and subsequently enhanced crystal invasion through extracellular matrix migration chamber. These data indicate that macrophage exosomes play important roles in inflammatory response to COM crystals and may be involved in crystal invasion in the renal interstitium.

RevDate: 2019-09-11
CmpDate: 2019-09-11

Pantke P (2019)

[Management of urethral stones in dogs using pneumatic and laser lithotripsy].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 47(2):77-83.

OBJECTIVE: Description of clinical experience with two different lithotripsy modalities for treatment of urethral stones in dogs.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis (October 2016 - November 2017) of medical records from dogs with urinary stones that underwent transurethral pneumatic or laser lithotripsy.

RESULTS: In 28 male and 5 female dogs, either pneumatic lithotripsy (39 %) or laser lithotripsy (61 %) was performed. In the urethra, stone free rates of 100 % in females and over 85 % in males could be achieved using either fragmentation modality. In 3 of 28 (11 %) male dogs, after fragmentation of urethral stones, urethral patency was impaired because of endoscopically suspected polypoid urethritis requiring urethrostomy. In 8 out of 28 (29 %) male dogs and in 1 of 5 (20 %) female dogs, an additional lithocystotomy was necessary to achieve stone-free status in the lower urinary tract.

Transurethral pneumatic or laser lithotripsy of urinary stones is a successful procedure in dogs. Major pathological conditions of the urethral mucosa may require further surgical or interventional methods for the restoration of a functional urethra.

RevDate: 2019-09-10
CmpDate: 2019-09-10

Clarke DL (2018)

Feline ureteral obstructions Part 1: medical management.

The Journal of small animal practice, 59(6):324-333.

Feline ureteral obstructions are an increasingly recognised and challenging diagnostic and management problem. Many cats with ureteral obstructions are critically ill at the time of diagnosis, especially if there is dysfunction of the contralateral kidney. They may present with varying severities of acute kidney injury, electrolyte disturbances, and may have comorbidities such as heart disease that complicate perioperative and long-term management. Medical management, which may consist of rehydration and restoration of intravascular volume with intravenous fluid therapy, osmotic diuresis, ureteral muscle relaxation, and antimicrobials for infection, is important in feline ureteral obstruction patients. Despite medical management, many cats with ureteral obstructions will require decompression of the obstructed kidney to relieve pressure-nephropathy and restore urine flow. However, some cats may be too unstable for traditional medical management and require more emergent intervention to relieve the obstruction and address the life-threatening sequelae to acute kidney injury, such as hyperkalaemia and fluid overload. Both surgical and interventional methods to address ureteral obstructions have been described in veterinary medicine, though debate continues as to the ideal approach.

RevDate: 2019-08-31

Hunprasit V, Schreiner PJ, Bender JB, et al (2019)

Epidemiologic evaluation of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs in the United States: 2010-2015.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Positive health implications of early recognition of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis include increased opportunity for nonsurgical removal, early dietary modification to minimize urolith growth, early removal to avoid urinary obstruction, and early recognition of genetic and metabolic diseases before they contribute to additional morbidity.

OBJECTIVES: To identify high- and low-risk dog breeds for CaOx uroliths and to determine the relationship of age and sex to the development of CaOx uroliths.

ANIMALS: Calcium oxalate urolith submissions between 2010 and 2015.

METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to identify high- and low-risk breeds for CaOx uroliths by comparing cases to multiple comparison groups. At-risk breeds were identified if odds ratios were significant (P value <.05) across all comparison groups.

RESULTS: Of 258 898 urolith submissions, 124 285 were CaOx. Calcium oxalate was identified in 212 breeds. Twelve breeds were identified as high-risk breeds, and 14 breeds were identified as low-risk breeds. All high-risk breeds were small dog breeds, and all low-risk breeds were medium to large dog breeds. Overall, the mean age ± standard deviation of the first CaOx urolith was 8.4 ± 2.8 years.

To achieve the health benefits of preclinical evaluation, breeds at high risk for CaOx urolithiasis should be screened at 5 to 6 years of age, which is 2 to 3 years before likely development of clinical urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2019-08-13
CmpDate: 2019-08-13

Dear JD, Larsen JA, Bannasch M, et al (2019)

Evaluation of a dry therapeutic urinary diet and concurrent administration of antimicrobials for struvite cystolith dissolution in dogs.

BMC veterinary research, 15(1):273 pii:10.1186/s12917-019-1992-8.

BACKGROUND: Struvite urolithiasis with bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly reported in dogs; few data exist to describe successful dissolution protocols in dogs with naturally occurring disease. We hypothesized that a dry therapeutic urinary diet combined with targeted antimicrobial therapy can effectively dissolve presumptive struvite cystolithiasis in dogs with naturally occurring urease-producing bacterial UTI.

RESULTS: Ten dogs with presumed infection-induced struvite cystolithiasis based on lower urinary tract signs (LUTS), radiodense cystoliths, and urease-producing bacterial UTI were enrolled. At enrollment, antimicrobials and dry therapeutic urinary diet were dispensed. In addition to lack of radiographic resolution of urolithiasis, dogs with persistent clinical signs were considered non-responders. There was no significant difference in pH between responders and non-responders; USG was significantly higher in the responder group. Recheck visits continued until radiographic dissolution or failure was documented. Five of the 10 dogs achieved radiographic dissolution of cystolithiasis within a median of 31 days (range 19-103). In the other 5 dogs, surgical urolith removal was necessary due to persistent LUTS (3 dogs within 2 weeks) or lack of continued dissolution noted radiographically (1 dog with numerous cystoliths failed at day 91; 1 dog failed by day 57 with questionable owner compliance).

CONCLUSIONS: Dissolution of urinary tract infection induced struvite cystoliths can be accomplished in some dogs fed this dry therapeutic urinary diet in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy. Case selection could increase the likelihood of successful dissolution; however, if calcium phosphate is present, this could also prevent stone dissolution. If clinical signs persist despite diet and antimicrobials, stone removal is advised.

RevDate: 2019-08-01

Kaul E, Hartmann K, Reese S, et al (2019)

Recurrence rate and long-term course of cats with feline lower urinary tract disease.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) causes clinical signs such as stranguria, pollakiuria, haematuria, vocalisation and periuria, and is often associated with recurring episodes. The primary objective of this study was to survey the long-term course of cats presenting with FLUTD in terms of recurrence rate and mortality.

METHODS: Data from cats that were presented with lower urinary tract signs from 2010-2013 were collected by telephone interview with cat owners, using a questionnaire. The observation period ranged from the first presentation due to FLUTD to the telephone interview or the cat's death. Data on diagnoses, recurrence of clinical signs and disease-free intervals, as well as implementation and impact of prophylactic measures (PMs), were collected and compared between groups with different aetiologies.

RESULTS: The study included 101 cats. Fifty-two cats were diagnosed with feline idiopathic cystitis, 21 with urolithiasis and 13 with bacterial urinary tract infection; 15 had no definitive diagnosis. Of the 86 cats with a known diagnosis, the recurrence rate was 58.1%, with no significant difference between groups. Twenty-one cats had one relapse, 12 had two relapses, 10 had three and seven had four to eight relapses within a median observation period of 38 months (range 0.5-138 months). Fourteen cats suffered from different causes of FLUTD at different episodes. Mortality due to FLUTD among all 101 cats was 5.0%. The recurrence rate in cats with urolithiasis receiving at least two PMs was significantly lower than the recurrence rate in those without PMs (P = 0.029).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: More than half of the cats with FLUTD presented with two or more recurrent episodes irrespective of the identified aetiology. Cats should be thoroughly investigated at each presentation as it cannot be presumed that the cause of FLUTD is the same at different episodes. The mortality due to FLUTD is lower than previously reported.

RevDate: 2019-07-15
CmpDate: 2019-07-15

Culler CA, Fick M, A Vigani (2019)

Ultrasound-guided placement of pigtail cystostomy tubes in dogs with urethral obstruction.

Journal of veterinary emergency and critical care (San Antonio, Tex. : 2001), 29(3):331-336.

BACKGROUND: Circumstances such as the inability to pass a retrograde urinary catheter or a lack of surgeon availability may prevent immediate relief of urethral obstruction in dogs. In such situations, a cystostomy tube may be placed with ultrasound guidance to allow urinary diversion until further treatment is possible.

KEY FINDINGS: A case of a 5-year-old male neutered Swiss Mountain dog with an obstructive urolith at the level of the os penis is used to describe the technique. Multiple attempts to pass a urinary catheter under sedation were unsuccessful. A pigtail cystostomy tube was placed with ultrasound guidance to allow urinary diversion. The dog was discharged from the hospital within 2 days after scrotal urethrostomy and the dog made a full recovery. Ultrasound-guided placement of a pigtail cystostomy tube was straightforward and without complications.

SIGNIFICANCE: Ultrasound-guided placement of a pigtail cystostomy tube may be beneficial as it is not technically challenging, can be performed rapidly, and may avoid the need for general anesthesia. Additionally, ultrasound is readily available and an inexperienced ultrasonographer can easily locate the urinary bladder. This report serves to provide a detailed technique of ultrasound-guided placement of a pigtail cystostomy tube in dogs for emergency urinary diversion.

RevDate: 2019-06-28
CmpDate: 2019-05-10

Groth EM, Lulich JP, Chew DJ, et al (2019)

Vitamin D metabolism in dogs with and without hypercalciuric calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 33(2):758-763.

BACKGROUND: There are abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism in people with calcium nephrolithiasis, but limited data are available on vitamin D status in dogs with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis.

OBJECTIVE: To compare serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in dogs with and without hypercalciuric CaOx urolithiasis.

ANIMALS: Thirty-eight dogs with (n = 19) and without (n = 19) a history of CaOx urolithiasis and hypercalciuria.

METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2 D], and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [24,25(OH)2 D] were measured. The ratios of 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2 D and 1,25(OH)2 D/25(OH)D were compared between cases and controls.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences between cases and controls when comparing 25(OH)D, 24,25(OH)2 D, 1,25(OH)2 D, or 1,25(OH)2 D/25(OH)D. Cases had higher 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2 D (median = 1.40, range = 0.98-1.58) compared to controls (median = 1.16, range = 0.92-2.75; P = .01). There was overlap in the ranges for 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2 D between cases and controls, but 6 cases (32%) had ratios above the control dog range. There was a moderate positive correlation between the ratio of 25(OH)D/24,25(OH)2 D and urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratios (r = 0.40, 95% confidence interval = 0.10-0.64; P = .01).

These data suggest that decreased conversion of 25(OH)D to 24,25(OH)2 D occurs in a subset of dogs with CaOx urolithiasis. Abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism might contribute to stone risk in dogs.

RevDate: 2019-03-20
CmpDate: 2019-02-20

Milligan M, AC Berent (2019)

Medical and Interventional Management of Upper Urinary Tract Uroliths.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 49(2):157-174.

Nephroliths are often clinically silent. When non-obstructive and of an amenable stone type, dissolution should be attempted. When problematic, nephrolithotomy can be considered. Depending on stone type, size, and species, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or endoscopic nephrolithotomy are preferred techniques. Obstructive ureterolithiasis should be addressed immediately to preserve kidney function. Because of decreased morbidity and mortality and versatility for all causes, interventional techniques for kidney decompression are preferred by the authors. Proper training and expertise in these interventional techniques should be acquired before performing them on clinical patients for the best possible outcomes.

RevDate: 2019-07-30
CmpDate: 2019-07-30

Yang X, Yang T, Li J, et al (2019)

Metformin prevents nephrolithiasis formation by inhibiting the expression of OPN and MCP-1 in vitro and in vivo.

International journal of molecular medicine, 43(4):1611-1622.

Treatment targeting osteopontin (OPN) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP‑1) has been recognized as a novel approach in renal crystal formation. The present study was designed to investigate the suppressive effects of metformin on nephrolithiasis formation and its potential mechanism. The cytotoxicity of metformin on MDCK and HK‑2 cells was determined using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay in vitro. Subsequently, the mRNA transcription and protein expression levels of MCP‑1 and OPN were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction analysis, western blot analysis and ELISA. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided into a control group, ethylene glycol (EG) group and EG + metformin group. The expression levels of MCP‑1 and OPN and crystal formations were evaluated in renal tissues following an 8‑week treatment period. In vitro, metformin significantly inhibited the production of MCP‑1 and OPN induced by oxalate at the mRNA and protein expression levels. In vivo, increased expression levels of MCP‑1 and OPN were detected in the EG group compared with the controls, and this upregulation was reversed in the EG + metformin group. Renal crystal deposition in the EG + metformin group was markedly decreased compared with that in the EG group. Therefore, the results of the study suggest that metformin suppressed urinary crystal deposit formation, possibly by mediating the expression of inflammatory mediators OPN and MCP‑1.

RevDate: 2019-05-10
CmpDate: 2019-05-10

Labadie JD, Magzamen S, Morley PS, et al (2019)

Associations of environment, health history, T-zone lymphoma, and T-zone-like cells of undetermined significance: A case-control study of aged Golden Retrievers.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 33(2):764-775.

BACKGROUND: T-zone lymphoma (TZL), an indolent disease in older dogs, comprises approximately 12% of lymphomas in dogs. TZL cells exhibit an activated phenotype, indicating the disease may be antigen-driven. Prior research found that asymptomatic aged Golden Retrievers (GLDRs) commonly have populations of T-zone-like cells (phenotypically identical to TZL) of undetermined significance (TZUS).

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations of inflammatory conditions, TZL and TZUS, using a case-control study of GLDRs.

ANIMALS: TZL cases (n = 140), flow cytometrically diagnosed, were identified through Colorado State University's Clinical Immunology Laboratory. Non-TZL dogs, recruited through either a database of owners interested in research participation or the submitting clinics of TZL cases, were subsequently flow cytometrically classified as TZUS (n = 221) or control (n = 147).

METHODS: Health history, signalment, environmental, and lifestyle factors were obtained from owner-completed questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, obtaining separate estimates for TZL and TZUS (versus controls).

RESULTS: Hypothyroidism (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), omega-3 supplementation (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6), and mange (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.4-21.1) were significantly associated with TZL. Gastrointestinal disease (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 0.98-5.8) had nonsignificantly increased TZL odds. Two shared associations for TZL and TZUS were identified: bladder infection or calculi (TZL OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.96-12.7; TZUS OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.9-13.7) and eye disease (TZL OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.97-5.2; TZUS OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.99-3.8).

These findings may elucidate pathways involved in TZUS risk and progression from TZUS to TZL. Further investigation into the protective association of omega-3 supplements is warranted.

RevDate: 2019-05-10
CmpDate: 2019-05-10

Luskin AC, Lulich JP, Gresch SC, et al (2019)

Bone resorption in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and idiopathic hypercalciuria.

Research in veterinary science, 123:129-134.

People with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis and idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) often have evidence of increased bone resorption, but bone turnover has not previously been investigated in dogs with these conditions. The aim of this study was to determine whether a marker of bone resorption, β-crosslaps, differs between dogs with CaOx urolithiasis and IH compared to controls. This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a canine specific ELISA to measure β-crosslaps concentrations in stored frozen serum samples from 20 dogs with CaOx urolithiasis and IH and 20 breed-, sex-, and age-matched stone-free controls (18 Miniature Schnauzers, 14 Bichons Frise, and 8 Shih Tzus). Dogs with CaOx urolithiasis and IH had lower β-crosslaps concentrations relative to controls (P = .0043), and β-crosslaps had a moderate negative correlation with urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratios (r = -0.44, P = .0044). Miniature Schnauzers had lower β-crosslaps concentrations than the other two breeds (P = .0035). The ELISA had acceptable intra-assay precision, but concentrations decreased when samples were repeatedly assayed over time. Assay recovery rates were also below acceptance criteria. In conclusion, Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frise, and Shih Tzus with CaOx urolithiasis and IH have evidence of decreased bone resorption compared to stone-free controls. This suggests that other causes of IH, such as intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium, underlie risk for CaOx urolithiasis in these breeds. Results should be confirmed in larger populations and with other β-crosslaps assays and additional biomarkers of bone turnover. The stability of canine serum β-crosslaps after freeze-thaw cycles and storage at various temperatures requires investigation.

RevDate: 2019-08-20
CmpDate: 2019-08-20

Yoong YT, Fujita K, Galway A, et al (2018)


Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 49(4):863-869.

Uroliths (urinary stones) are routinely found in both domestic and exotic animals kept under human care. In zoos, Asian small-clawed otters (ASCOs, Aonyx cinereus) have been identified as being particularly prone to this disease. Risk factors are thought to be nutritional; however, recommendations contradict each other, depending on which physiological model was used. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of uroliths in ASCOs under human care and to evaluate which feeding patterns and nutrients may be linked to their occurrence. Questionnaires were sent to zoos holding ASCOs in North America (AZA), Europe (EAZA), and Japan and Southeast Asia (Asia) asking about diets and medical histories of all ASCOs alive or dead within the last 10 yr. A risk-factor style binary logistic regression was conducted on these data. A total of 94 questionnaires were received; however, only 56 were usable (15.6% return rate), representing 161 otter cases. AZA had the significantly highest incidence of kidney stones (62.8%), followed by EAZA (12.9%) and Asia (9.4%). Age and calcium were risk factors, whereas crude protein and sodium were protective. Therefore, calcium may need to be controlled within their diet. A diet high in fish and crustaceans may be beneficial and is consistent with wild ASCO diets. The feline model may be the best choice out of other models; however, many factors cannot be compared with ASCO, such as urinary pH.

RevDate: 2019-03-20
CmpDate: 2019-02-20

Queau Y (2019)

Nutritional Management of Urolithiasis.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 49(2):175-186.

Dietary management of urolithiasis in dogs and cats is designed to dissolve calculi when possible and/or reduce the risk of recurrence. The diet must reduce urine relative supersaturation for the particular salt in order to prevent crystallization. To decrease urinary concentrations of crystal precursors, increasing water intake is essential regardless of the stone type. Altering the amounts of dietary precursors of the stone and controlling urine pH is mostly effective for struvite, urate, xanthine, and cystine, but still subject to controversy for calcium oxalate. The investigation of underlying metabolic disorders and close monitoring of animals at risk is recommended.

RevDate: 2019-08-22

Hesse A, Frick M, Orzekowsky H, et al (2018)

Canine calcium oxalate urolithiasis: Frequency of Whewellite and Weddellite stones from 1979 to 2015.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 59(12):1305-1310.

This study reports on a retrospective evaluation of epidemiological data from calcium oxalate stones in dogs differentiated into calcium oxalate monohydrate (Whewellite, Wh) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (Weddellite, Wd). Of the 22 456 uroliths submitted from 1979 to 2015, 6690 (29.8%) were composed of > 70% calcium oxalate. During the observation period, the proportion of calcium oxalate stones rose from 4% (1979) to 46% (2015). Of all the calcium oxalate stones, 31.0% were Wh and 49.4% Wd, while 19.6% were a mixture of Wh and Wd. The dogs with Wh stones were significantly older than the dogs with Wd stones. Several breeds have increased odds ratios (OR) for either Wh (5 highest OR: Norwich terrier, keeshond, Norfolk terrier, fox terrier, sheltie) or Wd (Pomeranian, borzoi, Japanese spitz, Finnish lapphund, bichon frise). Analytical differentiation of the calcium oxalate stones into Wh and Wd is important for understanding the cause and possible treatment and prevention of the uroliths.

RevDate: 2019-06-03
CmpDate: 2019-06-03

Berent AC, Weisse CW, Bagley DH, et al (2018)

Use of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass device for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction in cats: 174 ureters in 134 cats (2009-2015).

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 253(10):1309-1327.

OBJECTIVE To determine outcomes of subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device placement for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction in cats. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 134 cats with SUB devices placed in 174 obstructed ureters during 144 hospitalizations. PROCEDURES Medical records of cats that underwent SUB device placement for treatment of benign ureteral obstruction between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. The SUB device was placed by use of fluoroscopic and surgical methods. Signalment, history, diagnostic imaging results, postprocedural results, duration of hospitalization, complications, and short- and long-term outcomes were recorded. RESULTS Ureteral obstructions were caused by ureterolithiasis (114/174 [65.5%]), stricture (28/174 [16.1%]), both ureterolithiasis and stricture (29/174 [16.7%]), or pyonephrosis (1/174 [0.6%]); in 2 (1.1%) cats, the cause was not recorded. Fifty-two of the 134 (39%) cats had bilateral ureteral obstruction. At admission, 127 (95%) cats were azotemic. Median serum creatinine concentrations at admission and 3 months after SUB device placement were 6.6 and 2.6 mg/dL, respectively. Median renal pelvis diameters before and after the procedure were 9.2 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Postsurgical complications included device occlusion with blood clots (14/172 [8.1%]), device leakage (6/172 [3.5%]), and kinking of the device tubing (8/174 [4.6%]). Cats survived to hospital discharge after 135 of the 144 (94%) hospital admissions. The most common long-term complication was catheter mineralization (40/165 [24.2%]), which was documented a median of 463 days after device placement. A high postoperative serum ionized calcium concentration was significantly associated with SUB device occlusion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that SUB device placement may be a viable option for treatment of cats with benign ureteral obstruction.

RevDate: 2019-04-24
CmpDate: 2019-04-24

Cohen SM (2018)

Crystalluria and Chronic Kidney Disease.

Toxicologic pathology, 46(8):949-955.

Crystalluria can involve the kidney and lower urinary tract, can produce acute and chronic effects, and occurs in all mammalian species. Most commonly urinary crystals contain calcium. Numerous other endogenous and exogenous substances can produce crystalluria. Crystals are identified in kidneys of many species, up to 100% in certain rat strains. More severe renal disease (acute tubular necrosis and chronic renal disease) can be secondary to crystal accumulation, such as observed with melamine-cyanuric acid in cats and dogs. Aggregation of crystals leads to calculi that act as urothelial abrasives with consequent regenerative proliferation. Accumulation in the kidney pelvis or bladder can lead to partial or complete obstruction and hydronephrosis. Long-term presence of urinary tract calculi in rodents leads to increased risk of urothelial tumors, but not in humans. Crystals in the lower urinary tract can act as irritants in rodents, but not in humans. It is critical that specific procedures are followed to optimize the presence of crystals in urine for diagnosis, including not fasting the animals. Numerous factors have been identified which can enhance or inhibit crystal formation. Extrapolation from animals for the threshold toxicity of crystals/calculi is appropriate but is not relevant for cancer risk assessment.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Reines BP, RA Wagner (2018)

Resurrecting FUS: Adrenal Androgens as an Ultimate Cause of Hematuria, Periuria, Pollakuria, Stranguria, Urolithiasis and Obstruction in Neutered Cats.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 5:207.

Although many authors have doubted that "feline urological syndrome" (FUS) describes a real pathogenetic entity, because it subsumes such a large variety of signs, Sumner's recent finding that urethral obstruction occurs most frequently in springtime adds to a large body of evidence that lower urinary tract problems occur most commonly in late winter and spring. This suggests that FUS may be a unitary disorder, with a hormonal basis, driven by increasing day length. We argue that rising adrenal androgens (AA) in neutered cats induce stress, and other more concrete manifestations of FUS through androgen-driven mechanisms.

RevDate: 2019-01-14
CmpDate: 2019-01-14

Nesser VE, Reetz JA, Clarke DL, et al (2018)

Radiographic distribution of ureteral stones in 78 cats.

Veterinary surgery : VS, 47(7):895-901.

OBJECTIVE: To document the distribution of ureteral stones in cats.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS: Seventy-eight cats.

METHODS: Abdominal radiographs with ureteral stones were reviewed. The location of stones was categorized as proximal ureter (PU), midureter (MU), or ureterovesicular junction (UVJ). The number, size, and location of stones were recorded by using the kidneys and vertebral bodies as landmarks. Stone location in cats with 1 versus multiple stones was assessed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the incidence of ureteral stone location.

RESULTS: Among cats with a single stone (44%, 34/78), 44% (15/34) had a stone in the PU, 41% (14/34) had a stone in the MU, and 15% (5/34) had a stone at the UVJ. When multiple stones were present, 61% (27/44) of cats had at least 1 stone located in the PU, 70% (31/44) had at least 1 stone located in the MU, and 34% (15/44) had at least 1 stone located at the UVJ. The L4 vertebral body most commonly marked stone location in cats with 1 stone and the most distal stone in cats with multiple stones. Stones located at the UVJ site were more common in male (37%) than in female (12%) cats (P = 0.004). Larger stone size was associated with a more proximal location (P = 0.04).

CONCLUSION: Ureteral stones were more commonly located in the PU and the MU than in the UVJ. UVJ stones were more common in male than in female cats, and larger stones had a more proximal location.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study enhances our understanding of feline ureteral stone location and identifies a correlation between stone location and stone size.

RevDate: 2019-06-18
CmpDate: 2019-06-18

Swieton N (2018)

Urinary calculi in a shih tzu dog with hyperadrenocorticism.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 59(8):905-907.

An 11-year-old spayed female shih tzu dog was presented with pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria. Radiographs revealed a large number of radiodense urinary calculi within the bladder. Physical examination, complete blood cell count, biochemistry and ACTH stimulation test suggested possible hyperadrenocorticism. A cystotomy was performed and the patient was treated for hyperadrenocorticism.

RevDate: 2018-10-01
CmpDate: 2018-10-01

Cléroux A (2018)

Minimally Invasive Management of Uroliths in Cats and Dogs.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 48(5):875-889.

Urolithiasis commonly affects cats and dogs. The American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine established guidelines for the treatment of uroliths that reflect modern techniques prioritizing minimally invasive procedures with an emphasis on prevention strategies to limit morbidity and mortality. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and endoscopic nephrolithotomy constitute some of the minimally invasive treatment modalities available for upper urinary tract uroliths. Cystoscopic-guided basket retrieval, cystoscopic-guided laser lithotripsy, and percutaneous cystolithotomy are minimally invasive options for the management of lower urinary tract uroliths. Following stone removal, prevention strategies are essential to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with stone recurrence.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Nikousefat Z, Hashemnia M, Javdani M, et al (2018)

Obstructive bacterial cystitis following cystotomy in a Persian cat.

Veterinary research forum : an international quarterly journal, 9(2):199-203.

Feline lower urinary tract diseases are known to be life threatening conditions in cats, especially when they occur as obstructive diseases in males. Early diagnosis and treatment is necessary, otherwise it may lead to death. A 3-year-old male Persian cat was referred to the clinic with a history of anuria, lethargy, loss of appetite and exploratory cystotomy 6 months ago due to urethral obstruction following urolithiasis. Urinary bladder was enlarged and painful on palpation and urine accumulation was observed in ultrasonography. Biochemical and hematological analyses revealed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia and increase in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit. Urine analysis showed a turbid appearance, protein 1+, blood 3+, pH reduction, increased WBCs and RBCs and presence of bacteria, calcium oxalate crystals and epithelial cells. Urine culture reveled Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Postoperatively, microscopic examinations of the urinary bladder biopsy showed pathological lesions of bacterial cystitis. Based on these findings, bacterial cystitis and urethral obstruction due to post-operative urinary tract infections were diagnosed. For treatment, electrolyte imbalances were corrected firstly, cystotomy was performed and a catheter was conducted into the urethra; then, urethra was flushed and obstruction was resolved. Ampicillin was effective in reducing the bacterial count in urine. Despite the fact that cystotomy is a common procedure in veterinary medicine, clinicians should be aware of its complications such as post-operative urinary tract infections.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Kim HT, Loftus JP, Gagné JW, et al (2018)

Evaluation of selected ultra-trace minerals in commercially available dry dog foods.

Veterinary medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 9:43-51.

Purpose: To evaluate the concentrations of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, silica, and aluminum in several commercially available dry dog foods and compare these with current World Health Organization's (WHO) mean human daily dietary intake. Conversion of dietary intake per megacalorie (Mcal) for both dog foods and human average intake was performed based on the National Research Council recommendation of a 2,900 kcal diet for comparative purposes to average intake and potential toxic exposure.

Materials and methods: Forty-nine over-the-counter dry foods formulated for maintenance of healthy dogs yet listed as all life stage foods were analyzed. Concentrations of the ultra-trace minerals were measured via inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and represented per Mcal for comparative purposes as it relates to common intake in dogs in comparison with humans.

Results: Chromium, molybdenum, and aluminum concentrations in all of the dog foods were at levels that would be considered above average human daily consumption on a caloric basis. Nickel and silica calculated intakes per Mcal were comparable with human intake patterns, while both trace minerals displayed outliers exceeding at least twofold of the upper range of human daily intake.

Conclusion: Overall, ultra-trace minerals found in dog foods were above the expected average daily intake for humans on a caloric basis. There was no evidence of potential chronic toxic exposure based on presumptive intake extrapolated from WHO published toxic intake concentrations for humans or domestic animals. The large range of silica intake from various foods (2.96-83.67 mg/1,000 kcal) may have health implications in dogs prone to silica urolithiasis. Further studies investigating the bioavailability of these ultra-trace minerals and establishing dietary ultra-trace mineral allowance would be ideal; however, based on these findings, consumption of these ultra-trace minerals in over-the-counter dry dog foods appears safe.

RevDate: 2019-08-14

Brooks ED, Landau DJ, Everitt JI, et al (2018)

Long-term complications of glycogen storage disease type Ia in the canine model treated with gene replacement therapy.

Journal of inherited metabolic disease, 41(6):965-976.

BACKGROUND: Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) in dogs closely resembles human GSD Ia. Untreated patients with GSD Ia develop complications associated with glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency. Survival of human patients on intensive nutritional management has improved; however, long-term complications persist including renal failure, nephrolithiasis, hepatocellular adenomas (HCA), and a high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Affected dogs fail to thrive with dietary therapy alone. Treatment with gene replacement therapy using adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) expressing G6Pase has greatly prolonged life and prevented hypoglycemia in affected dogs. However, long-term complications have not been described to date.

METHODS: Five GSD Ia-affected dogs treated with AAV-G6Pase were evaluated. Dogs were euthanized due to reaching humane endpoints related to liver and/or kidney involvement, at 4 to 8 years of life. Necropsies were performed and tissues were analyzed.

RESULTS: Four dogs had liver tumors consistent with HCA and HCC. Three dogs developed renal failure, but all dogs exhibited progressive kidney disease histologically. Urolithiasis was detected in two dogs; uroliths were composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. One affected and one carrier dog had polycystic ovarian disease. Bone mineral density was not significantly affected.

CONCLUSIONS: Here, we show that the canine GSD Ia model demonstrates similar long-term complications as GSD Ia patients in spite of gene replacement therapy. Further development of gene therapy is needed to develop a more effective treatment to prevent long-term complications of GSD Ia.

RevDate: 2019-09-02
CmpDate: 2019-09-02

Hoffman JM, Lourenço BN, Promislow DEL, et al (2018)

Canine hyperadrenocorticism associations with signalment, selected comorbidities and mortality within North American veterinary teaching hospitals.

The Journal of small animal practice, 59(11):681-690.

OBJECTIVE: To describe a large population of dogs with a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism at the time of death in North American veterinary teaching hospitals, and to identify comorbid conditions associated with hyperadrenocorticism.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 1519 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism from a population of 70,574 dogs reported to the Veterinary Medical Database. Signalment, presence or absence of hyperadrenocorticism, aetiology of hyperadrenocorticism (if described), frequency of select comorbidities and causes of death were evaluated in dogs with and without hyperadrenocorticism.

RESULTS: Hyperadrenocorticism was more frequent in females. Neutering was associated with a minor, but significant, increase in the odds of hyperadrenocorticism. Hyperadrenocorticism was the presumed cause of death of 393 (25∙9%) of affected dogs. When aetiology was specified (527 dogs, corresponding to 34∙7% of the cases), pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism [387 (73∙4%) out of 527 dogs] was more common than functional adrenocortical tumour [136 (25∙8%) out of 527 dogs). Hyperadrenocorticism was over-represented in certain expected (miniature poodle, dachshund) and unexpected (Irish setter, bassett hound) breeds compared with the population at large. Of the select comorbidities investigated, dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were at increased risk for concurrent diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, hypertension, gall bladder mucocoele and thromboembolic disease compared with dogs without hyperadrenocorticism.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Hyperadrenocorticism is significantly associated with certain comorbid conditions but is not a major cause of mortality in affected dogs. Documented patterns now provide targets for prospective clinical research.

RevDate: 2019-05-24

Lund HS, AV Eggertsdóttir (2019)

Recurrent episodes of feline lower urinary tract disease with different causes: possible clinical implications.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 21(6):590-594.

CASE SERIES SUMMARY: While descriptions of cats with recurrent episodes of feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) exist, little is published on cats with recurrent episodes of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) where the cat is diagnosed with different causes of FLUTD at separate episodes. In the present paper, six cats, originally part of larger studies of FLUTD among Norwegian cats, are described. In the project period (2003-2009), these cats had several episodes of FLUTD. At each episode, the cats had a complete physical examination, abdominal imaging, blood work, urinalysis and urine culture performed. Two of the cats initially presented with urolithiasis and subsequently with episodes of non-obstructed FIC. Four of the cats presented with non-obstructed FIC at one or more episodes, but were later diagnosed with urolithiasis or bacterial cystitis without prior catheterisation or other known predisposing factors.

Cats with recurrent episodes of FLUTD may present with different causes at different times. The need to thoroughly work-up cats with recurrent episodes of FLUTD at each presentation is emphasised. FIC may be considered as a predisposing factor in cats developing urolithiasis or bacterial cystitis; alternatively, interrelated FLUTD disease mechanisms exists. Thus, applying multimodal environmental enrichment and modification (MEMO) to cats with signs of FLUTD independent of diagnosis should be considered.

RevDate: 2019-08-09

Clarke DL (2018)

Feline ureteral obstructions Part 2: surgical management.

The Journal of small animal practice, 59(7):385-397.

Feline obstructive ureteral disease will likely remain a common and frustrating cause of critical illness in cats for the foreseeable future. Since many cats are uraemic and cardiovascularly unstable secondary to obstructive nephropathy, prompt recognition using clinical intuition, blood work and diagnostic imaging is essential to make a timely diagnosis and decision about timing for intervention, if indicated. Multiple surgical and interventional procedures exist for the management of feline ureteral obstructions but there is no ideal technique and all currently available procedures carry risk of infection, re-obstruction, urine leakage and the need for additional procedures in the future. Therefore, until clear, evidence-based guideline exist, the decision about which ureteral procedure to perform in cats should be guided by nature of the obstruction, location, concurrent urolithiasis, infection and surgeon preference. In all likelihood, ureteral surgery, stents and ureteral bypass devices will continue to remain viable options and the decision about which procedure to use will be made on a case-by-case basis.

RevDate: 2019-03-13
CmpDate: 2019-03-13

Mariano AD, Penninck DG, Sutherland-Smith J, et al (2018)

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the canine urinary bladder following cystotomy for treatment of urolithiasis.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 252(9):1090-1096.

OBJECTIVE To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the urinary bladder incision site in dogs that underwent cystotomy for treatment of urolithiasis. DESIGN Prospective, longitudinal study. ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs underwent urinary bladder ultrasonography at baseline (≤ 1 day before surgery) and at 1 day and approximately 2, 6, and 12 weeks after cystotomy for urocystolith removal. A baseline ratio between ventral (cystotomy site) and corresponding dorsal midline wall thickness was calculated and used to account for measurement variations attributable to bladder distension at subsequent visits. Patient signalment, weight, medications administered, urocystolith composition, and culture results were recorded. Clinical signs, reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci, and suture visualization were recorded at follow-up examinations. Variables were evaluated for association with cystotomy site thickening and resolution of thickening. RESULTS Median wall thickness at the ventral aspect of the bladder was significantly greater than that of the corresponding dorsal aspect at baseline. Cystotomy site thickening peaked 1 day after surgery and decreased at subsequent visits in a linear manner. Twelve weeks after surgery, 5 of 10 clinically normal dogs evaluated had persistent cystotomy site thickening. Eleven of 18 dogs had reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci within the bladder at some time during the study (median time to first detection, 17 days after surgery). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Persistent cystotomy site thickening can be present up to 3 months after cystotomy for urolithiasis in dogs without lower urinary tract signs. Reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci in the bladder, although subclinical, was detected earlier and at a higher rate than anticipated.

RevDate: 2018-12-26
CmpDate: 2018-12-26

Walker MA (2018)

Struvite urolithiasis with eosinophilic polypoid cystitis in a shih tzu dog.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 59(2):181-183.

A 7-year-old female spayed shih tzu dog was presented with hematuria of 4 weeks' duration. Radiographs revealed 1 cystic calculus. A polypoid mass was found incidentally during cystotomy and was removed by partial cystectomy. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic polypoid cystitis and urolith analysis reported struvite. A urinary tract infection was treated.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-03-22

Gomes VDR, Ariza PC, Borges NC, et al (2018)

Risk factors associated with feline urolithiasis.

Veterinary research communications, 42(1):87-94.

Urinary tract diseases are among the main reasons for consultation in veterinary clinics and hospitals. It affects animals of any age, breed and gender. Among the diseases that affect this system, urolithiasis is the second largest cause of clinical signs compatible with feline urinary tract disease. The term urolithiasis refers to the presence of uroliths in any region of the urinary tract, but it is more commonly seen in the bladder and urethra. Uroliths are classified based on the type of mineral present in their composition, therefore, quantitative and qualitative analyzes are important for a better therapeutic approach. The animals may suffer from the disease and be asymptomatic, or show nonspecific clinical signs, making the diagnosis difficult. The disease should not be seen as a single problem, but as a consequence of various disorders. As dietary, metabolic, genetic and infectious causes, as well as factors that potentiate the chance of development of uroliths such as breed, age, sex, age range, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, geographic region and climate. Thus, the knowledge of the factors that influence the formation of uroliths, as well as the understanding of the pathophysiology, are key elements for better alternatives of therapy and prevention. The recognition of these factors helps to identify susceptible populations, minimizing exposure and increasing the protection factors, which facilitates the diagnosis and treatment of patients with urolithiasis. The objective of this paper is to present the main risk factors involved in the formation of urinary lithiasis in felines.

RevDate: 2019-07-01
CmpDate: 2019-07-01

Cannizzo SA, Stinner M, S Kennedy-Stoskopf (2017)


Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 48(4):1102-1107.

Cystinuria is a condition caused by defects in amino acid transport within the kidneys and small intestines. It has been reported in humans, dogs, domestic cats, ferrets, nondomestic canids, and nondomestic felids, including servals (Leptailurus serval). Genetic mutations have been identified in dogs, humans, and domestic cats. Cystinuria usually follows an autosomal recessive inheritance, although it can be autosomal dominant and sex linked. The primary objective of this study was to screen urine samples dried on filter paper from captive servals in the United States for cystinuria by using the cyanide-nitroprusside screening test. A second objective was to determine whether cystinuria is inheritable in servals. Servals were initially recruited for the study by survey. Owners and institutions interested in participating were sent a second survey and filter paper for collecting urine samples. Samples were collected from 25 servals. One additional serval with confirmed cystine urolithiasis was added for a total sample size of 26 servals. Twenty-seven percent (7/26) were positive, 54% (14/26) were weakly positive, and 19% (5/26) were negative. Sex, reproductive status, and urine collection method had no significant association with test results. This condition is likely underreported in servals and should be ruled out in any serval with nonspecific signs of illness; neurologic signs such as lethargy, ataxia, or seizures; ptyalism; or signs of lower urinary tract disease such as dysuria, hematuria, stranguria, pollakiuria, or urethral obstructions.

RevDate: 2019-06-26

Daniels M, Bartges JW, Raditic DM, et al (2018)

Evaluation of three herbal compounds used for the management of lower urinary tract disease in healthy cats: a pilot study.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 20(12):1094-1099.

OBJECTIVES: Lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) occurs commonly in cats, and idiopathic cystitis (FIC) and urolithiasis account for >80% of cases in cats <10 years of age. Although several strategies have been recommended, a common recommendation is to induce dilute urine resulting in more frequent urination and to dilute calculogenic constituents. In addition to conventional therapy using modified diets, traditional Chinese and Western herbs have been recommended, although only one - choreito - has published data available. We evaluated three commonly used herbal treatments recommended for use in cats with LUTD: San Ren Tang, Wei Ling Tang and Alisma. We hypothesized that these three Chinese herbal preparations would induce increased urine volume, decreased urine saturation for calcium oxalate and struvite, and differences in mineral and electrolyte excretions in healthy cats.

METHODS: Six healthy spayed female adult cats were evaluated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover design study. Cats were randomized to one of four treatments, including placebo, San Ren Tang, Wei Ling Tang or Alisma. Treatment was for 2 weeks each with a 1 week washout period between treatments. At the end of each treatment period, a 24 h urine sample was collected using modified litter boxes.

RESULTS: Body weights were not different between treatments. No differences were found in 24 h urinary analyte excretions, urine volume, urine pH or urinary saturation for calcium oxalate or struvite between treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis; however, evaluation of longer-term and different dosage studies in cats with LUTD is warranted.

RevDate: 2018-05-25
CmpDate: 2018-05-25

Vila A, Movilla R, Castro J, et al (2018)

Successful medical management of pseudomembranous cystitis in three cats with lower urinary tract obstruction.

Australian veterinary journal, 96(1-2):33-38.

CASE REPORT: The present case series describes the clinical course and outcome of three cats diagnosed with pseudomembranous cystitis. This is an uncommon presentation of lower urinary tract obstruction but can be easily be identified by ultrasonography, revealing severe bladder wall thickening and thin hyperechoic luminal strips. The condition can be secondary to severe bacterial urinary tract infection. All cats were successfully treated with medical management only, mainly based on antimicrobials and individualised supportive therapy.

CONCLUSION: Further evaluation of this condition is necessary in order to determine potential underlying aetiologies, pathophysiological mechanisms and the most appropriate standardised treatment.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-10-30

Vinaiphat A, V Thongboonkerd (2018)

Characterizations of PMCA2-interacting complex and its role as a calcium oxalate crystal-binding protein.

Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 75(8):1461-1482.

Three isoforms of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) are expressed in the kidney. While PMCA1 and PMCA4 play major role in regulating Ca2+ reabsorption, the role for PMCA2 remains vaguely defined. To define PMCA2 function, PMCA2-interacting complex was characterized by immunoprecipitation followed by nanoLC-ESI-Qq-TripleTOF MS/MS (IP-MS). After subtracting non-specific binders using isotype-controlled IP-MS, 474 proteins were identified as PMCA2-interacting partners. Among these, eight were known and 20 were potential PMCA2-interacting partners based on bioinformatic prediction, whereas other 446 were novel and had not been previously reported/predicted. Quantitative immuno-co-localization assay confirmed the association of PMCA2 with these partners. Gene ontology analysis revealed binding activity as the major molecular function of PMCA2-interacting complex. Functional validation using calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal-protein binding, crystal-cell adhesion, and crystal internalization assays together with neutralization by anti-PMCA2 antibody compared to isotype-controlled IgG and blank control, revealed a novel role of PMCA2 as a COM crystal-binding protein that was crucial for crystal retention and uptake. In summary, a large number of novel PMCA2-interacting proteins have been defined and a novel function of PMCA2 as a COM crystal-binding protein sheds light onto its involvement, at least in part, in kidney stone pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-11-20

Hall JA, Brockman JA, Davidson SJ, et al (2017)

Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

PloS one, 12(10):e0187133.

The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years) were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA), but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all P<0.001) serum concentrations of EPA (173%), DHA (61%), and AA (35%); decreased urine specific gravity (P = 0.02); decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06); decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03); and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06) compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; P<0.01). These data show benefits for reducing urine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-09-17

Lulich JP, Prasad HS, Manno M, et al (2017)

Ectopic Bone as a Nidus for Calcium Oxalate Urocystolithiasis in a Cat.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 31(6):1866-1870.

A 7-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was referred to the urology service for nonsurgical urocystolith removal. A urolith was attached to the urothelium by ectopic bone. Interventional removal without surgery was successful. Follow-up evaluation 3 years after urolith removal revealed recurrent uroliths, bladder wall mineralization, and marked renal mineralization. This case illustrates the metaplastic potential of the urothelium and that ectopic bone should be included among the pathological factors that promote lithogenesis.

RevDate: 2018-06-07
CmpDate: 2018-06-07

Vedrine B (2017)

Perioperative Occlusion of a Subcutaneous Ureteral Bypass Secondary to a Severe Pyonephrosis in a Birman Cat.

Topics in companion animal medicine, 32(2):58-60.

A subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) was placed in a 10-year-old Birman cat for management of unilateral ureterolithiasis. Perioperative occlusion of the nephrostomy tube of the SUB device happened secondary to a severe pyonephrosis. Flushing of the system throught the subcutaneous shunting port was made with saline solution after clamping the urinary bladder catheter. Repetitive flushing of the device was performed daily for 3 days to be sure of the remanent patency of the catheter. Repetitive flushing of the SUB device is a successful renal-sparing treatment for pyonephrosis in a cat and may be considered as an effective treatment option for this condition.

RevDate: 2018-06-07
CmpDate: 2018-06-07

Torres-Henderson C, Bunkers J, Contreras ET, et al (2017)

Use of Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diet UR Urinary St/Ox to Dissolve Struvite Cystoliths.

Topics in companion animal medicine, 32(2):49-54.

The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of feeding the commercially available diet, Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets UR Urinary St/Ox, for the dissolution of struvite cystoliths in cats with naturally occurring disease. Twelve cats with clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease and cystoliths confirmed via radiographs were enrolled. The cats were fed the study diet ad libitum and assessed by abdominal radiographs weekly. Cats with cystoliths that resolved based on radiographs and confirmatory ultrasound examination were considered diet successes. Cats with no change in cystolith size after 2-6 weeks underwent cystotomy for stone removal, aerobic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and analysis. All cats accepted the study diet, and weight loss was not noted over the course of the study. Total cystolith dissolution was achieved by week 2 for 5 cats, which were presumed to have struvite cystoliths. All other cats underwent cystotomy for stone removal after radiographic evidence of cystoliths were still present at 2 weeks (1 cat with severe signs), 4 weeks (5 cats), or 6 weeks (1 cat). The cystoliths that were surgically removed were calcium oxalate (5 cats) and mixed (2 cats) and would not be expected to dissolve with this diet. Follow-up radiographs from 6 cats fed the diet long term (3 presumed struvite and 3 with other cystoliths removed surgically) were collected from 1 to 6 months after beginning the study and showed no evidence of cystolith recurrence. While larger case numbers are needed, these results suggest that feeding Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets UR Urinary St/Ox can successfully dissolve cystoliths that are likely struvite and may lessen the risk of recurrence of struvite and calcium oxalate cystoliths.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2018-02-13

Nykamp SG (2017)

Dual-energy computed tomography of canine uroliths.

American journal of veterinary research, 78(10):1150-1155.

OBJECTIVE To determine whether dual-energy CT (DECT) could accurately differentiate the composition of common canine uroliths in a phantom model. SAMPLE 30 canine uroliths with pure compositions. PROCEDURES Each urolith was composed of ≥ 70% struvite (n = 10), urate (8), cystine (5), calcium oxalate (4), or brushite (3) as determined by standard laboratory methods performed at the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre. Uroliths were suspended in an agar phantom, and DECT was performed at low (80 kV) and high (140 kV) energies. The ability of low- and high-energy CT numbers, DECT number, and DECT ratio to distinguish uroliths on the basis of composition was assessed with multivariate ANOVA. RESULTS No single DECT measure differentiated all urolith types. The DECT ratio differentiated urate uroliths from all other types of uroliths. The DECT and low-energy CT numbers were able to differentiate between 8 and 7 pairs of urolith types, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that DECT was unable to differentiate common types of canine uroliths in an in vitro model; therefore, it is unlikely to be clinically useful for determining urolith composition in vivo. Given that the primary reasons for determining urolith composition in vivo are to predict response to shock wave lithotripsy and develop a treatment plan, future research should focus on the correlation between DECT measurements and urolith fragility rather than urolith composition.

RevDate: 2018-10-15
CmpDate: 2018-10-15

Mack JK, E Kienzle (2017)

[Unusual case of struvite urolithiasis in a dog. A case report].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 45(5):344-351.

A dog was referred for nutrition consultation after surgical removal of struvite uroliths from the bladder. Inspection of the dog's current ration revealed a pronounced vitamin-A deficiency together with a marked deficiency of protein, phosphorus and magnesium. Therefore, a supersaturation of the urine with ammonium, magnesium and phosphate, the three constituents of struvite, as a cause of struvite calculi formation appears rather unlikely. Vitamin-A deficiency can promote urinary infections and consequently struvite stone formation because of the lack of the protective effect of vitamin A on the epithelia of the urinary tract. Not only common causes for struvite urolith formation, including urinary supersaturation with stone-forming constituents and urinary tract infection, but also less common causes, including vitamin-A deficiency, which was the presumed trigger in the present case study, have to be taken into consideration. Dietetic measures appear to be a useful tool in such cases to prevent uroliths from reoccurring.

RevDate: 2017-12-28
CmpDate: 2017-12-28

Deroy C, Rossetti D, Ragetly G, et al (2017)

Comparison between double-pigtail ureteral stents and ureteral bypass devices for treatment of ureterolithiasis in cats.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 251(4):429-437.

OBJECTIVE To compare the complication rates and outcomes in cats with ureteral obstruction treated by placement of double-pigtail ureteral stents or ureteral bypass (UB) devices. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS Cats with unilateral or bilateral ureterolithiasis that received double-pigtail ureteral stents (30 stents in 27 cats; stent group) or UB devices (30 devices in 23 cats; UB group). PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to collect data on signalment, clinical signs, serum biochemical data, surgical procedure, duration of hospitalization, complications, and follow-up (≥ 6 months after placement) information. Outcomes were compared between device types. RESULTS Median durations of surgery and hospitalization were significantly longer in the stent versus UB group. Perioperative mortality rate was 18% (5/27) in the stent group and 13% (3/23) in the UB group. Median survival time was shorter in the stent versus UB group. Stent placement was associated with a greater risk of lower urinary tract-related signs, such as hematuria (52% [14/27]) and pollakiuria or stranguria (48% [13/27]). The risk of device occlusion was also greater in the stent (26% [7/27]) versus UB (4% [1/23]) group. The percentage of cats requiring additional procedures to treat complications was greater in the stent (44%; complications included uroabdomen, stent occlusion, and refractory cystitis) versus UB (9%; complications included UB occlusion and urethral obstruction) group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although the benefits of stent placement in the treatment of ureteral obstruction in cats have been established, results suggested that cats treated with UB devices had a lower risk of complications and a longer survival time than those treated with double-pigtail ureteral stents.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2018-05-11

Hunprasit V, Osborne CA, Schreiner PJ, et al (2017)

Epidemiologic evaluation of canine urolithiasis in Thailand from 2009 to 2015.

Research in veterinary science, 115:366-370.

The cross-sectional study described the epidemiology of 8560 canine urolith submissions from Thailand to the Minnesota Urolith Center between January 2009 and December 2015. The frequency of urolith types, the relationships between urolith type and breed, sex, and neutered status, and change of annual submission proportion over the study period were analyzed. Struvite was the most common canine urolith (44%), and was commonly found in intact females with a mean age of 6.3±3.1years. Calcium oxalate was the second most common (27%), more frequently found in intact males with a mean age of 8.8±3.3years. Compound, purine, cystine, calcium phosphate, and silica urolith were less common. During the study period, the proportion of struvite urolith significantly decreased from 48% in 2009 to 39% in 2015 (p<0.001). The proportion of CaOx increased from 21% in 2009 to 32% in 2015 (p<0.001). The results of this study can help veterinarians predict urolith composition to select diagnostic tests and to initiate therapy prior to urolith removal.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2017-11-28

Florey J, Ewen V, H Syme (2017)

Association between cystine urolithiasis and neuter status of dogs within the UK.

The Journal of small animal practice, 58(9):531-535.

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to examine the association between diagnosis of cystine urolithiasis and entire versus neutered status in male dogs and whether the strength of association varies among breeds.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A previously reported canine urolithiasis database was used, documenting all urolith submissions to Hill's Pet Nutrition UK over a 10-year period. Uroliths were classified as cystine or non-cystine, and only male dogs with known neuter status were included in the analysis. Breeds of dog (and an additional crossbreed group), for which there was a minimum of 10 cystine urolith submissions, were analysed individually, with all other breeds combined together to form a reference group. Results were analysed using chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between breed and neuter status and formation of cystine calculi.

RESULTS: In multiple breeds, dogs with cystine uroliths were significantly more likely to be entire than dogs forming other types of urolith. Being an entire male, regardless of breed, was associated with an increased risk of cystine urolithiasis (odds ratio=4·5; 95% confidence interval: 3·22 to 6·37; P<0·001).

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Increased odds of cystine formation in entire dogs supports further investigation of castration as a method to prevent cystine urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2017-12-01

Hilton S, Mizukami K, U Giger (2017)

[Cystinuria caused by a SLC7A9 missense mutation in Siamese-crossbred littermates in Germany].

Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere, 45(4):265-272.

Cystinuria is caused by defective proximal renal tubular reabsorption of the amino acids cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (COLA). The low solubility of cystine in mildly acidic urine may lead to the formation of urinary cystine crystals and uroliths. Much progress has been made recently in the diagnosis and understanding of cystinuria in companion animals. In cats, cystinuria affects equally both genders independent of neutering status and, despite being rare, already more cystinuria-causing mutations have been detected in cats compared to dogs. In this study a litter of Siamese-crossbred cats in Germany was assessed clinically for cystinuria and screened for mutations known to cause cystinuria in cats. An adult male castrated cat was presented with cystine crystalluria and calculi-related urinary obstruction and treated with perineal urethrostomy, cystotomy, and medical management. This cat and a neutered male littermate without evidence of urinary tract disease were found to be positive for cystine by urinary nitroprusside test, to have increased urinary COLA values and to be homozygous for the p.Val294Glu mutation in the SLC7A9 gene coding for b0,+AT subunit of the b0,+ renal COLA transporter. Another littermate was non-cystinuric and did not carry this mutation. The same SLC7A9 mutation was previously found in a Maine coon, a Sphinx and a medium-haired cat in North America suggesting a common ancestor and likely first widespread SLC7A9 mutation causing cystinuria in cats. Genetic screening for this mutation may offer a simple and precise mean to diagnose other cats for cystinuria and offer specific management.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Manissorn J, Fong-Ngern K, Peerapen P, et al (2017)

Systematic evaluation for effects of urine pH on calcium oxalate crystallization, crystal-cell adhesion and internalization into renal tubular cells.

Scientific reports, 7(1):1798.

Urine pH has been thought to be an important factor that can modulate kidney stone formation. Nevertheless, there was no systematic evaluation of such pH effect. Our present study thus addressed effects of differential urine pH (4.0-8.0) on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization, crystal-cell adhesion, crystal internalization into renal tubular cells, and binding of apical membrane proteins to the crystals. Microscopic examination revealed that CaOx monohydrate (COM), the pathogenic form, was crystallized with greatest size, number and total mass at pH 4.0 and least crystallized at pH 8.0, whereas COD was crystallized with the vice versa order. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed such morphological study. Crystal-cell adhesion assay showed the greatest degree of crystal-cell adhesion at the most acidic pH and least at the most basic pH. Crystal internalization assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled crystals and flow cytometry demonstrated that crystal internalization into renal tubular cells was maximal at the neutral pH (7.0). Finally, there were no significant differences in binding capacity of the crystals to apical membrane proteins at different pH. We concluded that the acidic urine pH may promote CaOx kidney stone formation, whereas the basic urine pH (i.e. by alkalinization) may help to prevent CaOx kidney stone disease.

RevDate: 2017-11-16
CmpDate: 2017-10-31

Segarra S, Miró G, Montoya A, et al (2017)

Randomized, allopurinol-controlled trial of the effects of dietary nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound in the treatment of canine leishmaniosis.

Veterinary parasitology, 239:50-56.

First-line treatment for canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is N-methylglucamine antimoniate (MGA) combined with allopurinol. However, in some dogs allopurinol may induce hyperxanthinuria leading to urolithiasis. Moreover, allopurinol resistance has recently been described in Leishmania infantum isolates from treated dogs with a relapse of the disease. Alternative treatments are thus needed. Since the type of host immune response strongly influences CanL progression and prognosis, dogs could benefit from treatments targeted at modulating such response, such as nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound (AHCC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral combination of nucleotides and AHCC in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis. Sixty-nine dogs with naturally-occurring clinical leishmaniosis were included in this multicenter, open-label, positively-controlled clinical trial and randomized to receive 10mg/kg allopurinol PO BID (allopurinol group) or 17mg/kg AHCC plus 32mg/kg nucleotides PO SID (supplement group) for 180 days. All dogs were also given 50mg/kg MGA SC BID during the first 28 days. At the time points 0, 30, and 180 days of the trial, dogs underwent a clinical examination, and blood, urine, and bone marrow samples were submitted for analytical tests. Final data analyses (allopurinol group: n=29; supplement group: n=24) revealed a significant improvement in both groups in clinical scores and ELISA-determined antibody titers after treatment. However, the supplement group showed a significantly lower clinical score (P=0.005) and significantly higher antibody titers (P=0.032) after 180 days, compared to the allopurinol group. RT-PCR parasite loads were reduced in groups (mean±SD supplement: 0.38±0.56 vs 5.23±18.9; allopurinol: 0.45±1.47 vs 3.09±8.36 parasites/ng of DNA), but there were no significant differences over time or between groups. During the study, 12 dogs in the allopurinol group developed xanthinuria (41%) compared to no dogs (0%) in the supplement group (P=0.000). Both treatments led to significantly increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and improvements in protein electrophoretic pattern and acute phase response. In conclusion, 6-month oral treatment with nucleotides and AHCC in addition to MGA showed similar efficacy to the current first-line treatment for CanL, without producing xanthinuria. This combination could be a good alternative to MGA-allopurinol combination treatment for CanL, especially for dogs suffering allopurinol-related adverse events.

RevDate: 2019-02-08
CmpDate: 2017-09-18

Furrow E, McCue ME, JP Lulich (2017)

Urinary metals in a spontaneous canine model of calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

PloS one, 12(5):e0176595.

Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is a common and painful condition in people. The pathogenesis of this disease is complex and poorly understood. Laboratory animal and in vitro studies have demonstrated an effect of multiple trace metals in the crystallization process, and studies in humans have reported relationships between urinary metal concentrations and stone risk. Dogs are a spontaneous model of calcium oxalate urolithiasis, and the metal content of canine calcium oxalate stones mirrors that of human stones. The aim of this study was to test for a relationship between urinary metals and calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs. We hypothesized that urinary metals would differ between dogs with and without calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Urine from 122 dogs (71 cases and 51 stone-free controls) was analyzed for calcium and 12 other metals. The cases had higher urinary calcium, copper, iron, and vanadium and lower urinary cobalt. Higher urinary vanadium in the cases was associated with being fed a therapeutic stone-prevention diet. Urinary calcium had a strong positive correlation with strontium and moderate positive correlations with chromium, nickel, and zinc. The results of this study complement the findings of similar human studies and suggest a potential role of trace metals in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Further investigation into how trace metals may affect stone formation is warranted.

RevDate: 2017-09-06
CmpDate: 2017-09-06

Adamama-Moraitou KK, Pardali D, Prassinos NN, et al (2017)

Evaluation of dogs with macroscopic haematuria: a retrospective study of 162 cases (2003-2010).

New Zealand veterinary journal, 65(4):204-208.

AIMS: To retrospectively describe clinical features of dogs that were presented to a small animal clinic between 2003-10 with macroscopic haematuria, and investigate whether signalment of the dog and severity and duration of the haematuria at admission were associated with specific aetiologies.

METHODS: Medical records were evaluated of 162 dogs with macroscopic haematuria admitted to a University-based small animal clinic in Thessaloniki, Greece, from January 2003 to December 2010. The inclusion criteria were discolouration of the urine sediment combined with abnormal numbers of erythrocytes, when examined microscopically. Data collected from the medical records included signalment, severity, frequency and duration of haematuria, and diagnosis.

RESULTS: Between January 2007 and December 2010, 8,893 dogs were admitted to the clinic; of these 99 (1.1%) were admitted with haematuria. Of the 162 dogs with records of haematuria, 80 (49.4%) were aged between 5.1-10 years, presented with acute (96/162; 59.3%), constant (99/162; 61.1%) and mild/moderate (150/162; 92.6%) haematuria. Of 147 dogs with a recorded diagnosis, the commonest diagnoses were urinary tract infection (UTI, 42/147; 28.6%), urolithiasis (38/147; 25.9%), prostatic disease (25/147; 17.0%) and urinary tumours (13/147; 8.8%). The prevalence of UTI was higher in female (22/56; 39%) than male (20/91; 22%) dogs, and in medium sized (22/52; 42%) than small (6/40; 15%) dogs. Urolithiasis was most prevalent in small (21/40; 52.5%) dogs, and all dogs with urolithiasis presented with mild/moderate haematuria. The prevalence of prostatic disease was highest in large (11/46; 24%) and giant (3/9; 33%) sized dogs and in dogs aged >10 years (8/30; 27%).

In this retrospective study from one small animal clinic, UTI, urolithiasis, prostatic disease and urinary tumours predominated among the causes of canine haematuria. The consideration of sex, age, and size of the dog and characteristics of haematuria were found to be useful parameters when forming the list of differential diagnoses.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-09-08

Hall JA, Yerramilli M, Obare E, et al (2017)

Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine in cats with kidney stones.

PloS one, 12(4):e0174854.

Serum concentrations of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) correlate with renal function in cats and SDMA has been shown to be a more reliable and earlier marker for chronic kidney disease (CKD) compared with serum creatinine (Cr). Calcium oxalate uroliths tend to develop in mid-to-older aged cats and kidney stones may cause a reduction in renal function with increased SDMA, but normal serum Cr. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if cats with kidney stones had increased serum SDMA concentrations, and whether SDMA increased earlier than serum creatinine concentrations. Cats in the colony with kidney stones diagnosed between August 2010 and December 2015 (n = 43) were compared with healthy geriatric cats (n = 21) without kidney stones. Serum SDMA concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and serum Cr concentrations were determined by enzymatic colorimetry. Cats with kidney stones were diagnosed antemortem by radiographic imaging (n = 12) or by postmortem necropsy (n = 31). Retrospectively, serum SDMA was found to be increased above the upper reference limit in 39 of 43 cats with kidney stones. Serum Cr was increased above the upper reference limit in 18 of 43 cats; 6 of these 18 cats had terminal azotemia only. The mean time that serum SDMA was increased before serum Cr was increased was 26.9 months (range 0 to 60 months). Kidney stones were composed of calcium oxalate in 30 of 34 cats. The lifespan for cats with kidney stones (mean, 12.5 years; range, 6.1 to 18.1 years) was shorter (P < 0.001) than for control cats (mean, 15.2 years; range, 13.0 to 17.2 years), suggesting that non-obstructive kidney stones have an effect on mortality rate or rate of CKD progression. In conclusion, if SDMA concentrations are elevated in mid-to-older aged cats, further imaging studies are warranted to check for the presence of kidney stones.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-04-19

O'Kell AL, Grant DC, SR Khan (2017)

Pathogenesis of calcium oxalate urinary stone disease: species comparison of humans, dogs, and cats.

Urolithiasis, 45(4):329-336.

Idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis is a highly recurrent disease that is increasing in prevalence. Decades of research have not identified effective methods to consistently prevent the formation of nephroliths or induce medical dissolution. Idiopathic calcium oxalate nephroliths form in association with renal papillary subepithelial calcium phosphate deposits called Randall's plaques (RPs). Rodent models are commonly used to experimentally induce calcium oxalate crystal and stone formation, but a rodent model that conclusively forms RPs has not been identified. Both dogs and cats form calcium oxalate uroliths that can be recurrent, but the etiopathologic mechanisms of stone formation, especially renal pathologic findings, are a relatively unexploited area of study. A large animal model that shares a similar environment to humans, along with a shorter lifespan and thus shorter time to recurrence, might provide an excellent means to study preventative and therapeutic measures, along with enhancing the concepts of the one health initiative. This review article summarizes and compares important known features of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease in humans, dogs, and cats, and emphasizes important knowledge gaps and areas for future study in the quest to discover a naturally occurring animal model of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone disease.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-09-14

Yu L, Gan X, Liu X, et al (2017)

Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

Renal failure, 39(1):440-451.

Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

RevDate: 2017-08-08
CmpDate: 2017-08-08

Cléroux A, Alexander K, Beauchamp G, et al (2017)

Evaluation for association between urolithiasis and chronic kidney disease in cats.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 250(7):770-774.

OBJECTIVE To determine whether urolithiasis is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 126 cats (59 and 67 with and without urolithiasis, respectively). PROCEDURES Medical records from June 2006 to July 2013 were searched to identify cats that underwent abdominal or focal urinary tract ultrasonography and for which serum creatinine concentration and urine specific gravity data were obtained ≤ 14 days before or after the examination. In cats with (urolithiasis group) and without (control group) urolithiasis, the presence of CKD was determined according to International Renal Interest Society guidelines. Information recorded included signalment, body weight, serum creatinine concentration, and urine specific gravity; when present, the location and number of uroliths were noted. Differences between groups and associations between group and categorical variables were analyzed statistically. RESULTS Age, weight, sex, and breed did not differ between groups. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in cats with urolithiasis than in the control group. Among cats with urolithiasis, there was a negative association between CKD and presence of cystoliths. There was no association between urolithiasis and the stage of CKD or between presence of CKD and location of nephroliths in the kidney. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results confirmed a positive association between urolithiasis and CKD in the feline population studied and suggested that cats with urolithiasis should be evaluated for CKD. Further research is warranted to assess the nature of the relationship between CKD and urolithiasis in cats.

RevDate: 2017-06-27
CmpDate: 2017-06-27

Sumner JP, M Rishniw (2017)

Urethral obstruction in male cats in some Northern United States shows regional seasonality.

Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), 220:72-74.

Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a term encompassing several different conditions affecting the feline lower urinary tract. Certain FLUTD aetiologies, such as idiopathic cystitis, urethral plugs or urolithiasis, commonly produce urethral obstruction (UO) in male cats. It is widely accepted that environmental, behavioural and dietary factors can play a role in the aetiopathogenesis of these conditions. We investigated the seasonal prevalence of UO by analysing admission dates of 2443 male cats with UO from eight practices in the Northern USA over a 4-year period. A significantly greater number of cats presented for UO in April and May (P < 0.025). When stratified by geographic location, a spring peak was found in cats from the North-Eastern United States, but no peak was demonstrable in cats from the North-West coast. This suggests that UO might depend, at least in part, on geographical climatic variations.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Mittal A, Tandon S, Singla SK, et al (2017)

Cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic role of Terminalia arjuna on oxalate injured renal epithelial cells.

Cytotechnology, 69(2):349-358.

Urolithiasis is one of the painful multifactorial disorders caused by metabolic abnormalities influencing the composition of body fluids and urine. The bark of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna), very well known in Ayurveda for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, possesses antioxidant and diuretic activity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiurolithiatic efficacy of aqueous extract of bark of T. arjuna on oxalate-induced injury to renal tubular epithelial cells. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were exposed to 2 mM oxalate for 48 h to evaluate the protective effect of T. arjuna aqueous extract on cell viability, CaOx crystal adherence and apoptotic changes caused by oxalate. The results confirmed that oxalate injured MDCK cells were protected by T. arjuna extract. On treatment with a range concentrations, the cell viability increased in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the extract prevented the interaction of the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals with the cell surface and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The current data suggests that T. arjuna bark confers a cytoprotective role and based on our results it could be a potential candidate from natural plant sources against urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-03-27

Westropp JL, Larsen JA, Johnson EG, et al (2017)

Evaluation of dogs with genetic hyperuricosuria and urate urolithiasis consuming a purine restricted diet: a pilot study.

BMC veterinary research, 13(1):45.

BACKGROUND: Urate urolithiasis is a common problem in breed homozygous for the mutation that results in hyperuricosuria. Low purine diets have been recommended to reduce purine intake in these dogs.

METHODS: A higher protein, purine restricted diet with water added was evaluated in dogs with genetic hyperuricosuria and a history of clinical urate urolithiasis over a one year time period. Dogs were evaluated at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after initiating the test diet. Bloodwork, urinalysis, abdominal ultrasound, body composition, and 24-h urinary purine metabolite analyses were performed.

RESULTS: Transient, mild, self-limited lower urinary tract signs were noted in only one dog on a single day, despite variable but usually mild and occasionally moderate amounts of echogenic bladder stones (<2-3 mm in size) in almost every dog at each visit. No significant differences were noted in urine specific gravity, urine pH, lean body condition score or body composition. Urinary uric acid concentration was lower on the test diet (p = 0.008), but 24-h uric acid excretions were similar (p = 0.220) compared to baseline. Significant differences between least squares mean plasma amino acid concentrations measured at the 0 and 12-month visits were found only for valine (p = 0.0119) and leucine (p = 0.0017).

CONCLUSION: This study suggests the use of a low purine, higher protein diet with added water may be beneficial as part of the management of dogs with genetic hyperuricosuria and history of clinical urate urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2017-06-13

Kizivat T, Smolić M, Marić I, et al (2017)

Antioxidant Pre-Treatment Reduces the Toxic Effects of Oxalate on Renal Epithelial Cells in a Cell Culture Model of Urolithiasis.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(1):.

Urolithiasis is characterized by the formation and retention of solid crystals within the urinary tract. Kidney stones are mostly composed of calcium oxalate, which predominantly generates free radicals that are toxic to renal tubular cells. The aim of the study is to explore possible effects of antioxidant pre-treatment on inhibition of oxidative stress. Three cell lines were used as in vitro model of urolithiasis: MDCK I, MDCK II and LLC-PK1. Oxidative stress was induced by exposure of cells to sodium oxalate in concentration of 8 mM. In order to prevent oxidative stress, cells were pre-treated with three different concentrations of l-arginine and vitamin E. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), osteopontin (OPN), and by the concentration of glutathione (GSH). In all three cell lines, pre-treatment of antioxidants increased cell survival. Positive correlation of SOD and OPN expression as well as GSH concentration was observed in all groups of cells. Our results indicate that an antioxidant pre-treatment with l-arginine and vitamin E is able to hamper oxalate-induced oxidative stress in kidney epithelial cells and as such could play a role in prevention of urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-03-24

Houston DM, Weese HE, Vanstone NP, et al (2017)

Analysis of canine urolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre, 1998-2014.

The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 58(1):45-50.

Understanding urolith trends and risk factors is important for understanding urolithiasis, which is a common problem in dogs. This study evaluated 75 674 canine cystolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre between 1998 and 2014. Struvite and calcium oxalate uroliths comprised 80.8% of all uroliths, with calcium oxalate outnumbering struvite. There were significant increases in the proportions of calcium oxalate, mixed and cystine uroliths, and significant decreases in struvite, urate, silica, and calcium phosphate carbonate over the study period. Breeds associated with increased risk of calcium oxalate urolithiasis tended to be small breeds, while those that were at increased risk of struvite urolith formation were larger breeds. Dalmatians were at increased risk of forming both urate and xanthine uroliths while Scottish deerhounds had a remarkably high association with cystine urolithiasis. Males were more likely to form calcium oxalate and metabolic uroliths and females were more likely to develop struvite and mixed uroliths.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-07-03

Mellema M, Stoller M, Queau Y, et al (2016)

Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis for the Enumeration and Characterization of Mineralo-Organic Nanoparticles in Feline Urine.

PloS one, 11(12):e0166045.

Urinary stone disease, particularly calcium oxalate, is common in both humans and cats. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) are spherical nanocrystallite material, and are composed of proteins (fetuin, albumin) and inorganic minerals. CNP are suggested to play a role in a wide array of pathologic mineralization syndromes including urolithiasis. We documented the development of a clinically relevant protocol to assess urinary CNP in 9 healthy cats consuming the same diet in a controlled environment using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA®). NTA® is a novel method that allows for characterization of the CNP in an efficient, accurate method that can differentiate these particles from other urinary submicron particulates. The predominant nanoscale particles in feline urine are characteristic of CNP in terms of their size, their ability to spontaneously form under suitable conditions, and the presence of an outer layer that is rich in calcium and capable of binding to hydroxyapatite binders such as alendronate and osteopontin. The expansion of this particle population can be suppressed by the addition of citrate to urine samples. Further, compounds targeting exosomal surfaces do not label these particulates. As CNP have been associated with a number of significant urologic maladies, the method described herein may prove to be a useful adjunct in evaluating lithogenesis risk in mammals.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-06-04

Peerapen P, V Thongboonkerd (2016)

Caffeine prevents kidney stone formation by translocation of apical surface annexin A1 crystal-binding protein into cytoplasm: In vitro evidence.

Scientific reports, 6:38536.

Recent large 3 cohorts have shown that caffeinated beverage consumption was associated with lower risk of kidney stone disease. However, its protective mechanisms remained unknown and had not been previously investigated. We thus evaluated protective effects of caffeine (1 μM-10 mM) on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stone formation, using crystallization, crystal growth, cell-crystal adhesion, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence assays. The results showed that caffeine reduced crystal number but, on the other hand, increased crystal size, resulting in unchanged crystal mass, consistent with crystal growth that was not affected by caffeine. However, caffeine significantly decreased crystal-binding capacity of MDCK renal tubular cells in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting and immunofluorescence study of COM crystal-binding proteins revealed significantly decreased level of annexin A1 on apical surface and its translocation into cytoplasm of the caffeine-treated cells, but no significant changes in other COM crystal-binding proteins (annexin A2, α-enolase, HSP70, and HSP90) were observed. Moreover, caffeine decreased intracellular [Ca2+] but increased [Ca2+] secretory index. Taken together, our findings showed an in vitro evidence of the protective mechanism of caffeine against kidney stone formation via translocation of annexin A1 from apical surface into cytoplasm to reduce the crystal-binding capacity of renal tubular epithelial cells.

RevDate: 2017-08-17
CmpDate: 2017-07-05

Singh A, Hoddinott K, Morrison S, et al (2016)

Perioperative characteristics of dogs undergoing open versus laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy for treatment of cystic calculi: 89 cases (2011-2015).

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 249(12):1401-1407.

OBJECTIVE To compare perioperative characteristics of dogs with cystic calculi treated via open versus laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy (LAC). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 89 client-owned dogs that underwent open cystotomy (n = 39) or LAC (50). PROCEDURES Medical records of dogs that underwent cystotomy between 2011 and 2015 were reviewed. History, signalment, surgery date, results of physical examination, results of preoperative diagnostic testing, details of surgical treatment, duration of surgery, perioperative complications, treatment costs, and duration of hospitalization were recorded. RESULTS 5 of 50 (10%) dogs required conversion from LAC to open cystotomy (OC). There was no significant difference between the LAC (1/50) and OC (2/39) groups with regard to percentage of patients with incomplete removal of calculi. Duration of surgery was not significantly different between the LAC (median, 80 min; range, 35 to 145 min) and OC (median, 70 min; range, 45 to 120 min) groups. Postoperative duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter for dogs that underwent LAC (median, 24 hours; range, 12 to 48 hours) versus OC (median, 26 hours; range, 12 to 63 hours). Surgical and total procedural costs were significantly higher for patients undergoing LAC. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that LAC may be an acceptable minimally invasive technique for treatment of cystic calculi in dogs. Surgery times were similar to those for dogs undergoing OC; however, surgical and total procedural costs were higher. Further investigation is suggested to determine which patients may benefit from LAC versus traditional OC.

RevDate: 2017-05-25
CmpDate: 2017-05-25

Thierry F, Drew S, Del-Pozo J, et al (2017)

Incomplete Urethral Duplication Associated with a Dermoid Cyst in a Dog with Urinary Obstruction.

Journal of comparative pathology, 156(1):29-32.

A 20-month-old male miniature dachshund was evaluated for a 10-week history of intermittent stranguria, pollakiuria, haematuria and obstructive urolithiasis. Retrograde urethrocystography revealed a subcutaneous saccular structure in the perineal area connected to the intrapelvic urethra associated with urolithiasis. After excision of the perineal saccular structure, microscopical examination confirmed the presence of transitional epithelium lining the diverticulum, with isolated submucosal smooth muscle bundles. This structure was attached to another saccular structure lined by stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium with hair follicles, sebaceous glands and apocrine glands. An incomplete urethral duplication with dermoid cyst was diagnosed. The dog recovered uneventfully from surgery and was still urinary continent and free from clinical signs 5 months after surgery. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an incomplete urethral duplication with a dermoid cyst and concurrent obstructive urolithiasis in a dog.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-07-05

Kennedy SM, Lulich JP, Ritt MG, et al (2016)

Comparison of body condition score and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate uroliths.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 249(11):1274-1280.

OBJECTIVE To compare body condition score (BCS) and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths. DESIGN Case-control study. ANIMALS 46 Miniature Schnauzers, 16 Bichons Frises, and 6 Shih Tzus. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frises, and Shih Tzus that were examined between January 2001 and November 2014 for another urolithiasis study or for a urolith removal procedure. Dogs with CaOx uroliths were classified as cases. Dogs without a history of urinary tract disease and with no evidence of radiopaque uroliths on abdominal radiographs were classified as controls. Each case was matched with 1 control on the basis of age (± 2 years), sex, and breed. Body condition score and urinalysis results were compared between cases and controls, and the relationship between BCS and urine pH was analyzed. RESULTS Median BCS was significantly greater for cases than controls, although the proportion of overweight dogs did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Urine pH was negatively associated with age, but was not associated with BCS or the presence of CaOx uroliths. Cases infrequently had acidic urine or CaOx crystalluria but frequently had hematuria and proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CaOx uroliths had a greater median BCS than control dogs, but the clinical importance of that finding was unclear. Acidic urine and CaOx crystalluria were uncommon and not adequate predictors of CaOx urolith status. Hematuria and proteinuria were commonly observed in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis, but they are not pathognomonic for that condition.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-03-13

Yang X, Ding H, Qin Z, et al (2016)

Metformin Prevents Renal Stone Formation through an Antioxidant Mechanism In Vitro and In Vivo.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2016:4156075.

Oxidative stress is a causal factor and key promoter of urolithiasis associated with renal tubular epithelium cell injury. The present study was designed to investigate the preventive effects of metformin on renal tubular cell injury induced by oxalate and stone formation in a hyperoxaluric rat model. MTT assays were carried out to determine the protection of metformin from oxalate-induced cytotoxicity. The intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in vitro. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control group, ethylene glycol (EG) treated group, and EG + metformin treated group. Oxidative stress and crystal formations were evaluated in renal tissues after 8-week treatment. Metformin significantly inhibited the decrease of the viability in MDCK cells and HK-2 cells induced by oxalate. Besides, metformin markedly prevented the increased concentration of MDA and the decreased tendency of SOD in oxalate-induced MDCK cells and HK-2 cells. In vivo, the increased MDA levels and the reduction of SOD activity were detected in the EG treated group compared with controls, while these parameters reversed in the EG + metformin treated group. Kidney crystal formation in the EG + metformin treated group was decreased significantly compared with the EG treated group. Metformin suppressed urinary crystal deposit formation through renal tubular cell protection and antioxidative effects.

RevDate: 2017-04-07
CmpDate: 2017-04-07

Li S, Wu W, Wu W, et al (2016)

L-Carnitine Protects Renal Tubular Cells Against Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals Adhesion Through Preventing Cells From Dedifferentiation.

Kidney & blood pressure research, 41(5):582-592.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The interactions between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and renal tubular epithelial cells are important for renal stone formation but still unclear. This study aimed to investigate changes of epithelial cell phenotype after COM attachment and whether L-carnitine could protect cells against subsequent COM crystals adhesion.

METHODS: Cultured MDCK cells were employed and E-cadherin and Vimentin were used as markers to estimate the differentiate state. AlexaFluor-488-tagged COM crystals were used in crystals adhesion experiment to distinguish from the previous COM attachment, and adhesive crystals were counted under fluorescence microscope, which were also dissolved and the calcium concentration was assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

RESULTS: Dedifferentiated MDCK cells induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) shown higher affinity to COM crystals. After exposure to COM for 48 hours, cell dedifferentiation were observed and more subsequent COM crystals could bind onto, mediated by Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine attenuated this signaling, resulted in inhibition of cell dedifferentiation and reduction of subsequent COM crystals adhesion.

CONCLUSIONS: COM attachment promotes subsequent COM crystals adhesion, by inducing cell dedifferentiation via Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine partially abolishes cell dedifferentiation and resists COM crystals adhesion. L-carnitine, may be used as a potential therapeutic strategy against recurrence of urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2017-01-19
CmpDate: 2016-12-16

Gerber B, Brandenberger-Schenk F, Rothenanger E, et al (2016)

[Uroliths of cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009].

Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde, 158(10):711-716.

INTRODUCTION: In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats. Cats with calcium oxalate stones were older and cats with struvite stones were younger than other affected cats. Female and male cats were equally affected with stones. Compared to studies from other countries, in Switzerland silica stones occurred more often and ureteral stones were more often composed of Struvite. The present study shows that occurrence and prevalence of urinary calculi of cats from Switzerland exhibited only slight differences to studies from other countries.

RevDate: 2017-08-17
CmpDate: 2017-07-14

Tong K, Weisse C, AC Berent (2016)

Rigid urethrocystoscopy via a percutaneous fluoroscopic-assisted perineal approach in male dogs: 19 cases (2005-2014).

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 249(8):918-925.

OBJECTIVE To describe the technique and outcome for male dogs undergoing rigid urethrocystoscopy via a novel percutaneous, fluoroscopic-assisted perineal approach. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 19 client-owned male dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records of male dogs that underwent urethrocystoscopy via a percutaneous perineal approach for treatment of a variety of conditions from 2005 through 2014 were reviewed. Signalment, history, pertinent diagnostic imaging results, endourologic and postprocedure details, duration of hospitalization, complications, and outcome (short-term, < 1 month; long-term, ≥ 1 month) were recorded. After flexible urethrocystoscopy, direct percutaneous perineal needle puncture and guidewire placement by means of fluoroscopic guidance (with or without ultrasonography) allowed access to the urethral lumen. The perineal tract was subsequently serially dilated to accommodate a peel-away sheath and rigid endoscope. Rigid urethrocystoscopy was performed, and on completion of endourologic procedures, the access site was left to heal by second intention. RESULTS 19 male dogs successfully underwent 20 procedures. No intraoperative complications were reported. Short-term outcome was good (ie, mild perineal urine leakage) for 3 dogs and excellent (ie, no abnormalities with urination) for 16. Long-term outcome was excellent for the 17 dogs for which follow-up information was available. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A percutaneous fluoroscopic-assisted perineal approach (with or without ultrasonography) allowed access to the pelvic urethra with no major complications in the present series of patients. This minimally invasive approach may be a valuable tool for endourologic procedures in male dogs.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-08-16

Mittal A, Tandon S, Singla SK, et al (2016)

Mechanistic Insights into the Antilithiatic Proteins from Terminalia arjuna: A Proteomic Approach in Urolithiasis.

PloS one, 11(9):e0162600.

Kidney stone formation during hyperoxaluric condition is inherently dependent on the interaction between renal epithelial cells and calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. Although modern medicine has progressed in terms of removal of these stones, recurrence and persistent side effects restricts their use. Strategies involving plant based agents which could be used as adjunct therapy is an area which needs to be explored. Plant proteins having antilithiatic activity is a hitherto unexplored area and therefore, we conducted a detailed identification and characterization of antilithiatic proteins from Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). Proteins were isolated from the dried bark of T. arjuna and those having molecular weights > 3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography. Four proteins were identified exhibiting inhibitory activity against CaOx crystallization and crystal growth kinetics The cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic efficacy of these purified proteins was further investigated on oxalate injured renal epithelial cells (MDCK and NRK-52E) wherein, injury due to oxalate was significantly attenuated and led to a dose dependent increase in viability of these cells. These proteins also prevented the interaction of the CaOx crystals to the cell surface and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Identification of these 4 anionic proteins from the bark of T. arjuna was carried out by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This was followed by database search with the MASCOT server and sequence similarity was found with Nuclear pore anchor, DEAD Box ATP-dependent RNA helicase 45, Lon protease homolog 1 and Heat shock protein 90-3. These novel proteins isolated from T. arjuna have the potential to inhibit CaOx crystallization and promote cell survival and therefore, offer novel avenues which need to be explored further for the medical management of urolithiasis.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2018-02-05

Lulich JP, Berent AC, Adams LG, et al (2016)

ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Recommendations on the Treatment and Prevention of Uroliths in Dogs and Cats.

Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 30(5):1564-1574.

In an age of advancing endoscopic and lithotripsy technologies, the management of urolithiasis poses a unique opportunity to advance compassionate veterinary care, not only for patients with urolithiasis but for those with other urinary diseases as well. The following are consensus-derived, research and experience-supported, patient-centered recommendations for the treatment and prevention of uroliths in dogs and cats utilizing contemporary strategies. Ultimately, we hope that these recommendations will serve as a foundation for ongoing and future clinical research and inspiration for innovative problem solving.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2017-08-18

Bartges JW (2016)

Feline Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis: Risk factors and rational treatment approaches.

Journal of feline medicine and surgery, 18(9):712-722.

PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Uroliths occur commonly in the bladder and/or urethra of cats and can be lifethreatening if urethral obstruction occurs. Calcium oxalate accounts for 40-50% of urocystoliths and these stones are not amenable to medical dissolution; therefore, removal by surgery or minimally invasive techniques is required if uroliths must be treated. Medical protocols for prevention involve decreasing urine saturation for minerals that form uroliths.

ETIOPATHOGENESIS: Formation of uroliths is not a disease, but rather a complication of several disorders. Some disorders can be identified and corrected (such as infection-induced struvite urolith formation); others can be identified but not corrected (such as idiopathic hypercalcemia). In most cats with calcium oxalate urolith formation the underlying etiopathogenesis is not known. A common denominator of all these disorders is that they can from time to time create oversaturation of urine with one or more crystal precursors, resulting in formation of crystals.

BASIC CONCEPTS: In order to develop rational and effective approaches to treatment, abnormalities that promote urolith formation must be identified, with the goal of eliminating or modifying them. It is important, therefore, to understand several basic concepts associated with urolithiasis and the factors that promote urolith formation that may be modified with medical treatment; for example, the state of urinary saturation, modifiers of crystal formation, potential for multiple crystal types, and presence of bacterial infection or urinary obstruction.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Urolithioasis is a surprising common problem in make dogs and cats. An undiagnosed and untreated acute attach involving urethral blockage causes severe pain and can be lethal within dats. Complete obstruction causes uremia within 36–48 hr, which leads to depression, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, coma, and death within ~72 hr. Urethral obstruction is an emergency condition, and treatment should begin immediately. Familiarity with the problem and its symptoms could save your pet's life. I know, because it saved mine: One of my long-term pets—a cat named Leonard—struggled with urolithiasis most of his life. For many years, it was possible to control the problem with dietary medications. Ultimately, however, he required surgery, which was a success and allowed his to live into a comfortable old age. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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