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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 07 Dec 2019 at 01:40 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: "invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-12-06

Sheehan EV, Bridger D, Nancollas SJ, et al (2019)

PelagiCam: a novel underwater imaging system with computer vision for semi-automated monitoring of mobile marine fauna at offshore structures.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 192(1):11 pii:10.1007/s10661-019-7980-4.

Engineered structures in the open ocean are becoming more frequent with the expansion of the marine renewable energy industry and offshore marine aquaculture. Floating engineered structures function as artificial patch reefs providing novel and relatively stable habitat structure not otherwise available in the pelagic water column. The enhanced physical structure can increase local biodiversity and benefit fisheries yet can also facilitate the spread of invasive species. Clear evidence of any ecological consequences will inform the design and placement of structures to either minimise negative impacts or enhance ecosystem restoration. The development of rapid, cost-effective and reliable remote underwater monitoring methods is crucial to supporting evidence-based decision-making by planning authorities and developers when assessing environmental risks and benefits of offshore structures. A novel, un-baited midwater video system, PelagiCam, with motion-detection software (MotionMeerkat) for semi-automated monitoring of mobile marine fauna, was developed and tested on the UK's largest offshore rope-cultured mussel farm in Lyme Bay, southwest England. PelagiCam recorded Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), garfish (Belone belone) and two species of jellyfish (Chrysaora hysoscella and Rhizostoma pulmo) in open water close to the floating farm structure. The software successfully distinguished video frames where fishes were present versus absent. The PelagiCam system provides a cost-effective remote monitoring tool to streamline biological data acquisition in impact assessments of offshore floating structures. With the rise of sophisticated artificial intelligence for object recognition, the integration of computer vision techniques should receive more attention in marine ecology and has great potential to revolutionise marine biological monitoring.

RevDate: 2019-12-06

Li LH, Lv S, Lu Y, et al (2019)

Spatial structure of the microbiome in the gut of Pomacea canaliculata.

BMC microbiology, 19(1):273 pii:10.1186/s12866-019-1661-x.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes can contribute to their hosts in food digestion, nutrient absorption, and inhibiting the growth of pathogens. However, only limited studies have focused on the gut microbiota of freshwater snails. Pomacea canaliculata is considered one of the worst invasive alien species in the world. Elucidating the diversity and composition of the microbiota in the gut of P. canaliculata snails may be helpful for better understanding the widespread invasion of this snail species. In this study, the buccal masses, stomachs, and intestines were isolated from seven P. canaliculata snails. The diversity and composition of the microbiota in the three gut sections were then investigated based on high-throughput Illumina sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS: The diversity of the microbiota was highest in the intestine but lowest in the buccal mass. A total of 29 phyla and 111 genera of bacteria were identified in all of the samples. In general, Ochrobactrum, a genus of putative cellulose-degrading bacteria, was the most abundant (overall relative abundance: 13.6%), followed by Sediminibacterium (9.7%), Desulfovibrio (7.8%), an unclassified genus in the family Aeromonadaceae (5.4%), and Cloacibacterium (5.4%). The composition of the microbiota was diverse among the different gut sections. Ochrobactrum (relative abundance: 23.15% ± 7.92%) and Sediminibacterium (16.95 ± 5.70%) were most abundant in the stomach, an unclassified genus in the family Porphyromonadaceae (14.28 ± 7.29%) and Leptotrichia (8.70 ± 4.46%) were highest in the buccal mass, and two genera in the families Aeromonadaceae (7.55 ± 4.53%) and Mollicutes (13.47 ± 13.03%) were highest in the intestine.

CONCLUSIONS: The diversity and composition of the microbiome vary among different gut sections of P. canaliculata snails. Putative cellulose-degrading bacteria are enriched in the gut of P. canaliculata.

RevDate: 2019-12-06

Cowen S, Clausen L, Algar D, et al (2019)

Using Genetics to Evaluate the Success of a Feral Cat (Felis catus) Control Program in North-Western Australia.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(12): pii:ani9121050.

The feral cat has been implicated in the decline and extinction of many species worldwide and a range of strategies have been devised for its control. A five-year control program using the aerial broadcast of toxic Eradicat® baits was undertaken at Fortescue Marsh in the Pilbara region of north-western Australia, for the protection of biodiversity in this important wetland area. This program has been shown to have had a significant detrimental effect on cats in this landscape, but the long-term impact is difficult to ascertain. We assessed population genetics across three cohorts of feral cats sampled as part of the control program. We also compared cat populations in natural habitats and around human infrastructure. A key challenge in any study of wild animal populations is small sample sizes and feral cats are particularly difficult to capture and sample. The results of this study superficially appear to suggest promising trends but were limited by sample size and many were not statistically significant. We find that the use of genetic techniques to monitor the impact of invasive species control programs is potentially useful, but ensuring adequate sample sizes over a long enough time-frame will be critical to the success of such studies.

RevDate: 2019-12-05

Schwoerer T, Little JM, Schmidt JI, et al (2019)

Hitchhikers on floats to Arctic freshwater: Private aviation and recreation loss from aquatic invasion.

Ambio pii:10.1007/s13280-019-01295-7 [Epub ahead of print].

This study of aviation-related recreation loss shows that a survey primarily aimed at collecting information on invasive species' pathways can also be used to estimate changes in pathway-related ecosystem services. We present a case study for Elodea spp. (elodea), Alaska's first known aquatic invasive plant, by combining respondents' stated pre-invasion actual flights with stated post-invasion contingent behavior, plane operating costs, and site quality data. We asked pilots about the extent of continued flights should destinations become invaded and inhibit flight safety. We estimate a recreation demand model where the lost trip value to the average floatplane pilot whose destination is an elodea-invaded lake is US$185 (95 % CI $157, $211). Estimates of ecosystem damages incurred by private actors responsible for transmitting invaders can nudge actors to change behavior and inform adaptive ecosystem management. The policy and modeling implications of quantifying such damages and integration into more complex models are discussed.

RevDate: 2019-12-05

Weißinger L, Samuel N, Breuer M, et al (2019)

Effects of Variety and Grape Berry Condition of Vitis vinifera on Preference Behavior and Performance of Drosophila suzukii.

Insects, 10(12): pii:insects10120432.

Drosophila suzukii is an invasive fruit pest and represents a potential economic threat to viticulture. After first observations of D. suzukii in Europe in 2008, research mainly focused on the evaluation of the host range and infestation risk for fruit and berry crops. However, the risk assessment of D. suzukii in viticulture has only recently started. Understanding the factors influencing preferences of D. suzukii for host species and varieties as well as offspring performance is essential to improve management strategies. We investigated the field infestation of different grape varieties across Baden-Wuerttemberg, southwestern Germany, between 2015 and 2018. Moreover, we performed dual-choice assays in the laboratory to investigate whether adults show preferences for certain varieties and whether offspring performance differs between varieties. Furthermore, we studied the impact of grape damage on choice behavior. Field monitoring revealed that D. suzukii show preferences for red varieties, whereas almost no oviposition occurred in white varieties. The results of dual-choice assays confirmed that D. suzukii preference and performance are influenced by grape variety and that flies preferred damaged over intact "Pinot Noir", "Pinot Blanc", and "Müller-Thurgau" berries. Overall, these findings may have important implications for winegrowers regarding cultivated varieties, grape health, and insecticide reduction.

RevDate: 2019-12-04

Agius JE, Phalen DN, Rose K, et al (2019)

New insights into Sauropsid Papillomaviridae evolution and epizootiology: discovery of two novel papillomaviruses in native and invasive Island geckos.

Virus evolution, 5(2):vez051 pii:vez051.

Papillomaviruses cause persistent infections in skin and mucosal membranes and, in at least one species, are also be able to infect a tissue of mesenchymal origin. Infections may either be subclinical or induce proliferative lesions. Of the known papillomaviruses, the majority that have been characterized are from humans and other mammals. Currently, only fifteen complete bird and reptile papillomavirus genomes have been described, and they have been found in birds (n = 11), turtles (n = 2), and snakes (n = 2). Using next-generation sequencing technologies and virus-specific PCR, we have identified two novel papillomavirus genomes, Hemidactylus frenatus Papillomavirus 1 and 2 (HfrePV1, HfrePV2), in the widely distributed and highly invasive Asian house gecko (H.frenatus) and mute gecko (Gehyra mutilata) on Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands. HfrePV1 was also detected in critically endangered Lister's geckos (Lepidodactylus listeri) in their captive breeding colony on Christmas Island. Tissue-containing virus included epidermis, oral mucosa, and liver (HfrePV1) and epidermis, liver, and colon (HfrePV2). Concurrent infections were found in both H.frenatus and G.mutilata. Invasive mourning geckos (Lepidodactylus lugubris) (n = 4), Sri Lankan house geckos (Hemidactylus parvimaculatus) (n = 3), flat-tailed house geckos (Hemidactylus platyurus) (n = 4) from the Cocos Islands, and blue-tailed skinks (Cryptoblepharus egeriae) (n = 10) from Christmas Island were also screened but were not found to be infected. The novel HfrePV1 and HfrePV2 genomes were 7,378 bp and 7,380 bp in length, respectively, and each contained the early (E1, E2, and E7), and late (L1 and L2) open-reading frames. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated E1, E2, and L1 proteins from both papillomaviruses revealed that they clustered with, but were basal to, the Sauropsida clade containing bird and reptile viruses. This study sheds light on the evolution of papillomaviruses and the distribution of pathogens in a highly invasive species impacting endangered populations of geckos.

RevDate: 2019-12-04

Romanuk TN, Binzer A, Loeuille N, et al (2019)

Simulated evolution assembles more realistic food webs with more functionally similar species than invasion.

Scientific reports, 9(1):18242 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-54443-0.

While natural communities are assembled by both ecological and evolutionary processes, ecological assembly processes have been studied much more and are rarely compared with evolutionary assembly processes. We address these disparities here by comparing community food webs assembled by simulating introductions of species from regional pools of species and from speciation events. Compared to introductions of trophically dissimilar species assumed to be more typical of invasions, introducing species trophically similar to native species assumed to be more typical of sympatric or parapatric speciation events caused fewer extinctions and assembled more empirically realistic networks by introducing more persistent species with higher trophic generality, vulnerability, and enduring similarity to native species. Such events also increased niche overlap and the persistence of both native and introduced species. Contrary to much competition theory, these findings suggest that evolutionary and other processes that more tightly pack ecological niches contribute more to ecosystem structure and function than previously thought.

RevDate: 2019-12-04

Christie MR, Sepúlveda MS, ES Dunlop (2019)

Rapid resistance to pesticide control is predicted to evolve in an invasive fish.

Scientific reports, 9(1):18157 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-54260-5.

Xenobiotic resistance is commonly found in species with short generation times such as bacteria, annual plants, and insects. Nevertheless, the fundamental evolutionary principles that govern the spread of resistance alleles hold true for species with longer generation times. One such example could occur with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a parasitic invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes that decimated native fish populations prior to its control with the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). Since the 1950s, tributaries have been treated annually with TFM, where treatments effectively remove most, but not all, larval sea lamprey. We developed an eco-genetic model of sea lamprey to examine factors affecting the evolution of resistance and found that resistance alleles rapidly rise to fixation after 40-80 years of treatment, despite the species' relatively long generation time (4-7 years). The absence of natal homing allows resistant individuals to spread quickly throughout the entire system, but also makes the early detection of resistance challenging. High costs of resistance and density independent reproduction can delay, but not prevent, the onset of resistance. These results illustrate that sea lamprey have the potential to evolve resistance to their primary control agent in the near future, highlighting the urgent need for alternative controls.

RevDate: 2019-12-04

Yuval B, Lahuatte P, Jose PA, et al (2019)

Behavioral Responses of the Invasive Fly Philornis downsi to Stimuli from Bacteria and Yeast in the Laboratory and the Field in the Galapagos Islands.

Insects, 10(12): pii:insects10120431.

Philornis downsi Dodge and Aitken (Diptera: Muscidae) is an avian parasitic fly that has invaded the Galapagos archipelago and exerts an onerous burden on populations of endemic land birds. As part of an ongoing effort to develop tools for the integrated management of this fly, our objective was to determine its long- and short-range responses to bacterial and fungal cues associated with adult P. downsi. We hypothesized that the bacterial and fungal communities would elicit attraction at distance through volatiles, and appetitive responses upon contact. Accordingly, we amplified bacteria from guts of adult field-caught flies and from bird feces, and yeasts from fermenting papaya juice (a known attractant of P. downsi), on selective growth media, and assayed the response of flies to these microbes or their exudates. In the field, we baited traps with bacteria or yeast and monitored adult fly attraction. In the laboratory, we used the proboscis extension response (PER) to determine the sensitivity of males and females to tarsal contact with bacteria or yeast. Long range trapping efforts yielded two female flies over 112 trap-nights (attracted by bacteria from bird feces and from the gut of adult flies). In the laboratory, tarsal contact with stimuli from gut bacteria elicited significantly more responses than did yeast stimuli. We discuss the significance of these findings in context with other studies in the field and identify targets for future work.

RevDate: 2019-12-03

Rossi F, Viejo RM, Duarte L, et al (2019)

Removal of an established invader can change gross primary production of native macroalgae and alter carbon flow in intertidal rock pools.

PloS one, 14(12):e0217121 pii:PONE-D-19-12571.

The impact of invasive species on recipient communities can vary with environmental context and across levels of biological complexity. We investigated how an established invasive seaweed species affected the biomass, eco-physiology, carbon and nitrogen storage capacity of native seaweeds at sites with a different environmental setting due to a persistent upwelling in northern Spain. We removed the invasive Japanese wireweed Sargassum muticum from intertidal rock pools once every month during a one-year period and used an in-situ stable isotope pulse-chase labeling to estimate gross primary production (GPP), nitrogen uptake rate, 13C-carbon and 15N-nitrogen storage capacities. Following the addition of 13C-enriched bicarbonate and 15N-enriched nitrate to the seawater in the rock pools during the period of the low tide, we sampled macroalgal thalli at incoming tide to determine label uptake rate. After four days, we sampled macroalgal assemblages to determine both label storage capacity and biomass. After one year of removal there was no change in the macroalgal assemblage. However, both the GPP and 13C-carbon storage capacity were higher in the turf-forming Corallina spp. and, sometimes, in the canopy-forming Bifurcaria bifurcata. Nitrogen uptake rate followed similar, but more variable results. Although S. muticum inhibited carbon storage capacity of native species, the assemblage-level 13C-carbon storage was similar in the S. muticum-removed and control rock pools because the presence of the invasive species compensated for the functional loss of native species, particularly at sites where it was most abundant. No obvious effects were observed in relation to the environmental setting. Overall, the effect of the invasive S. muticum on carbon flow appeared to be mediated both by the effects on resource-use efficiency of native species and by its own biomass. Integrating physiological and assemblage-level responses can provide a broad understanding of how invasive species affect recipient communities and ecosystem functioning.

RevDate: 2019-12-03

Wasowicz P, Sennikov AN, Westergaard KB, et al (2019)

Non-native vascular flora of the Arctic: Taxonomic richness, distribution and pathways.

Ambio pii:10.1007/s13280-019-01296-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We present a comprehensive list of non-native vascular plants known from the Arctic, explore their geographic distribution, analyze the extent of naturalization and invasion among 23 subregions of the Arctic, and examine pathways of introductions. The presence of 341 non-native taxa in the Arctic was confirmed, of which 188 are naturalized in at least one of the 23 regions. A small number of taxa (11) are considered invasive; these plants are known from just three regions. In several Arctic regions there are no naturalized non-native taxa recorded and the majority of Arctic regions have a low number of naturalized taxa. Analyses of the non-native vascular plant flora identified two main biogeographic clusters within the Arctic: American and Asiatic. Among all pathways, seed contamination and transport by vehicles have contributed the most to non-native plant introduction in the Arctic.

RevDate: 2019-12-03

Nędzarek A, Czerniejewski P, A Tórz (2019)

Macroelements and Trace Elements in Invasive Signal Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from the Wieprza River (Southern Baltic): Human Health Implications.

Biological trace element research pii:10.1007/s12011-019-01978-y [Epub ahead of print].

Signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) is an invasive species displacing native European crayfish from their natural habitats. The elemental composition of the population from the southern Baltic coastal river and the potential health hazards are not known. The aim of the conducted research was to assess the quantitative content of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn in meat, hepatopancreas, and exoskeleton in a population from Wieprza River (Poland) and compare the results with the recommendations of daily human consumption. Analysis also involved the composition of water and sediments. The concentrations of elements were analyzed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of elements in the signal crayfish was much higher from water than from sediments. Bioaccumulation of elements differed between the particular parts of the body of crayfish, e.g., Ca showed extreme predominance in the exoskeleton, while in meat exhibited a predominance of K, Na, Ca, and Mg. Among trace elements, crayfish meat was the richest in Zn, Cu, and Fe. The concentrations of non-essential Cd, Pb, and As were low compared to other determined elements. The highest concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Se were found in the hepatopancreas, while the highest levels of Al and Pb were found in the exoskeleton. Generally, it was found that the meat of P. leniusculus can be a perfect supplement to the human diet, and the consumption of 100 g of meat per day did not exceed the dietary reference values for essential elements and also for Al, As, Cd, Ni, and Pb.

RevDate: 2019-12-03

Tang F, Kemp JS, DC Aldridge (2019)

Life on the edge: Compensatory growth and feeding rates at environmental extremes mediates potential ecosystem engineering by an invasive bivalve.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(19)35736-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive non-native species (INNS) with marine or brackish origins have become increasingly common occupying freshwater habitats. The transition of INNS from marine or brackish water into physiologically stressful freshwater environments may be facilitated by compensatory growth and elevated feeding rates. In this study, we investigate the capacity of the Gulf wedge clam (Rangia cuneata), a brackish NNS that is spreading quickly across European waterways, to survive in freshwater conditions and consider its resultant impacts as an ecosystem engineer. To investigate the performance of R. cuneata under freshwater conditions, we compared the population structure, the physiological condition, and the growth of R. cuneata collected from its distributional limits in Great Britain. Feeding rate of R. cuneata was quantified by conducting a reciprocal transfer experiment with a two-way factorial design on individuals obtained from the freshwater and saline extremes. R. cuneata density was almost 10-fold higher at its most saline distributional limit (213 individual m-2, 3.1‰) compared to its most freshwater limit (22 individuals m-2, 1.2‰). The impaired physiological condition (18.7% lower relative soft tissue mass and 26.4% lower shell mass) and the lack of juvenile individuals also suggests that the R. cuneata inhabiting the freshwater extreme may not be able to maintain a persistent population over the long term. Although R. cuneata at its freshwater extreme were under stress, the per capita impacts caused by these individuals were not weakened at the suboptimal conditions, evidenced by their elevated growth and over four times as high relative clearance rate (0.28 L-1 g-1 h-1) compared to those from the saline limit (0.06 L-1 g-1 h-1). This study demonstrates that under suboptimal conditions, the physiological responses of INNS may result in elevated per capita effects which may lead to unexpected or under-estimated impacts on recipient ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-12-03

Meza-Lopez MM, E Siemann (2019)

Warming alone increased exotic snail reproduction and together with eutrophication influenced snail growth in native wetlands but did not impact plants.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(19)35263-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Warming and eutrophication can have varying effects on exotic species performance and their interactions. These effects can vary with trophic level, but are rarely investigated simultaneously on exotic species from multiple trophic levels. To address this, we manipulated temperature, nutrients, and plant origin (native vs. exotic) in snail invaded wetland communities. Warming increased exotic apple snail (Pomacea maculata) reproduction (4-fold increase in egg mass) and also number of egg clutches produced while warming slowed exotic snail growth, suggesting a trade-off between reproduction and growth in exotic snails influenced by warming and nutrients. However, exotic snail size varied with warming and nutrients. Additionally, warming reduced native plant mass with no effect on exotic plants while nutrients had greater positive effects on exotic plants biomass. In combination warming and nutrient enrichment will likely increase exotic snail growth, while nutrient enrichment alone will contribute to exotic plant dominance. In conclusion, the individual and interactive effects of warming and eutrophication vary with the trophic level of exotic species with trade-offs in exotic herbivores depending on environmental conditions, making it difficult to predict effects of multiple anthropogenic factors on co-occurring exotic plants and their effects on native communities.

RevDate: 2019-12-03

Tyner EH, TA Boyer (2019)

Applying best-worst scaling to rank ecosystem and economic benefits of restoration and conservation in the Great Lakes.

Journal of environmental management, 255:109888 pii:S0301-4797(19)31606-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Since 2010, over $2.4 billion in public funds have been invested in the cleanup and restoration of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. Efforts have targeted restoration of Areas of Concern and other degraded sites. While the ecological benefits of Great Lakes restoration have been highlighted by the Environmental Protection Agency, and the economic benefits studied by the binational International Joint Commission, public preferences for Great Lakes conservation and restoration have not been well studied. Using best-worst scaling and a seven-preference choice set, 1,215 Basin residents quantitatively ranked their preferred reasons to restore and conserve Great Lakes shorelines and waterways, with a focus on restoration at Areas of Concern and National Park Service sites. The analysis shows the most preferred reason for restoration and conservation is to promote human health, followed by the protection of native species, and the prevention of new invasive species from entering the Great Lakes. The least preferred reason for restoration and conservation is to improve local property values. Although respondents' top reason was human-centered, respondents' preferred ecosystem conservation over the benefits of economic revitalization, recreational use, and improved property values. Preferences analyzed by gender, income, and home location followed these same rankings. Preferences for habitat restoration and the prevention of invasive species align with the focus areas guiding the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, providing evidence of public support for this expansive, publicly funded restoration effort.

RevDate: 2019-12-02

Litmer AR, CM Murray (2019)

Critical thermal tolerance of invasion: Comparative niche breadth of two invasive lizards.

Journal of thermal biology, 86:102432.

Understanding the evolution of thermal tolerance in ectotherms is particularly important given the current period of rapid change in the environment and thermal climate. Specifically, introduced species have the potential to evolve different thermal tolerances than native populations due to rapid evolution and novel selection pressures. Our study examined critical thermal tolerance in two introduced lizard species, the European wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) in Ohio and Kentucky, and the Mediterranean gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) from Texas through Alabama. We tested the hypotheses that critical thermal maximum, minimum, and breadth varies among introduced populations of P. muralis and H. turcicus, and that critical thermal tolerance broadens when moving away from the introduction site, because dispersal across novel environments may remove dispersers with narrow thermal tolerances. We found that among P. muralis populations, CTmin and thermal breadth were significantly different. Specifically, when moving away from the introduction site, lizards exhibited increased cold tolerance and broader thermal breadth. Variability in thermal parameters were also lowest at the site closest to the introduction point in P. muralis. In contrast, H. turcicus had no significant differences in critical thermal minimum, maximum, or breadth among sites, or with respect to distance from introduction point. However, we did find little variability in thermal maximum, compared to greater variability in overall tolerance and critical thermal minimums. Thus, this study shows that selection on thermal tolerance and dispersal characteristics occur in novel climatic environments. Understanding how thermal tolerance changes over time can aid in predicting establishment and movement of introduced species, with applications for native species during a time of global climatic change.

RevDate: 2019-12-02

Sherpa S, Guéguen M, Renaud J, et al (2019)

Predicting the success of an invader: Niche shift versus niche conservatism.

Ecology and evolution, 9(22):12658-12675 pii:ECE35734.

Invasive species can encounter environments different from their source populations, which may trigger rapid adaptive changes after introduction (niche shift hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether postintroduction evolution is correlated with contrasting environmental conditions between the European invasive and source ranges in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. The comparison of environmental niches occupied in European and source population ranges revealed more than 96% overlap between invasive and source niches, supporting niche conservatism. However, we found evidence for postintroduction genetic evolution by reanalyzing a published ddRADseq genomic dataset from 90 European invasive populations using genotype-environment association (GEA) methods and generalized dissimilarity modeling (GDM). Three loci, among which a putative heat-shock protein, exhibited significant allelic turnover along the gradient of winter precipitation that could be associated with ongoing range expansion. Wing morphometric traits weakly correlated with environmental gradients within Europe, but wing size differed between invasive and source populations located in different climatic areas. Niche similarities between source and invasive ranges might have facilitated the establishment of populations. Nonetheless, we found evidence for environmental-induced adaptive changes after introduction. The ability to rapidly evolve observed in invasive populations (genetic shift) together with a large proportion of unfilled potential suitable areas (80%) pave the way to further spread of Ae. albopictus in Europe.

RevDate: 2019-12-02

Underwood EC, Klinger RC, ML Brooks (2019)

Effects of invasive plants on fire regimes and postfire vegetation diversity in an arid ecosystem.

Ecology and evolution, 9(22):12421-12435 pii:ECE35650.

We assessed the impacts of co-occurring invasive plant species on fire regimes and postfire native communities in the Mojave Desert, western USA. We analyzed the distribution and co-occurrence patterns of three invasive annual grasses (Bromus rubens, Bromus tectorum, and Schismus spp.) known to alter fuel conditions and community structure, and an invasive forb (Erodium cicutarium) which dominates postfire sites. We developed species distribution models (SDMs) for each of the four taxa and analyzed field plot data to assess the relationship between invasives and fire frequency, years postfire, and the impacts on postfire native herbaceous diversity. Most of the Mojave Desert is highly suitable for at least one of the four invasive species, and 76% of the ecoregion is predicted to have high or very high suitability for the joint occurrence of B. rubens and B. tectorum and 42% high or very high suitability for the joint occurrence of the two Bromus species and E. cicutarium. Analysis of cover from plot data indicated two or more of the species occurred in 77% of the plots, with their cover doubling with each additional species. We found invasive cover in burned plots increased for the first 20 years postfire and recorded two to five times more cover in burned than unburned plots. Analysis also indicated that native species diversity and evenness as negatively associated with higher levels of relative cover of the four invasive taxa. Our findings revealed overlapping distributions of the four invasives; a strong relationship between the invasives and fire frequency; and significant negative impacts of invasives on native herbaceous diversity in the Mojave. This suggests predicting the distributions of co-occurring invasive species, especially transformer species, will provide a better understanding of where native-dominated communities are most vulnerable to transformations following fire or other disturbances.

RevDate: 2019-12-02
CmpDate: 2019-12-02

Mack KML, Eppinga MB, JD Bever (2019)

Plant-soil feedbacks promote coexistence and resilience in multi-species communities.

PloS one, 14(2):e0211572 pii:PONE-D-18-27055.

Both ecological theory and empirical evidence suggest that negative frequency dependent feedbacks structure plant communities, but integration of these findings has been limited. Here we develop a generic model of frequency dependent feedback to analyze coexistence and invasibility in random theoretical and real communities for which frequency dependence through plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) was determined empirically. We investigated community stability and invasibility by means of mechanistic analysis of invasion conditions and numerical simulations. We found that communities fall along a spectrum of coexistence types ranging from strict pair-wise negative feedback to strict intransitive networks. Intermediate community structures characterized by partial intransitivity may feature "keystone competitors" which disproportionately influence community stability. Real communities were characterized by stronger negative feedback and higher robustness to species loss than randomly assembled communities. Partial intransitivity became increasingly likely in more diverse communities. The results presented here theoretically explain why more diverse communities are characterized by stronger negative frequency dependent feedbacks, a pattern previously encountered in observational studies. Natural communities are more likely to be maintained by strict negative plant-soil feedback than expected by chance, but our results also show that community stability often depends on partial intransitivity. These results suggest that plant-soil feedbacks can facilitate coexistence in multi-species communities, but that these feedbacks may also initiate cascading effects on community diversity following from single-species loss.

RevDate: 2019-12-02
CmpDate: 2019-12-02

Casado MA, Martín-Forés I, Castro I, et al (2018)

Asymmetric flows and drivers of herbaceous plant invasion success among Mediterranean-climate regions.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16834.

Understanding the mechanisms that support the arrival, establishment and spread of species over an introduced range is crucial in invasion ecology. We analysed the unintentionally introduced herbaceous species that are naturalised in the five Mediterranean-climate regions. There is an asymmetry in the species flows among regions, being the Iberian Peninsula the main donor to the other regions. At interregional scale, the species' capacity to spread among regions is related to the ecological versatility of the species in the donor area (Iberian Peninsula). At intraregional scale, the species' capacity to successfully occupy a complete region first depends on the time elapsed from its introduction and afterwards on the degree of occurrence in the region of origin, which is commonly related to its chance of coming into contact with humans. Information on exotic species in their origin region provides insights into invasion process and decision-making to reduce the risks of future invasions.

RevDate: 2019-11-30

Hoy MS, CO Ostberg (2019)

Development of a quantitative PCR assay for detection of redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus) from environmental DNA.

BMC research notes, 12(1):782 pii:10.1186/s13104-019-4819-6.

OBJECTIVE: A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection of redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus) environmental DNA (eDNA) was designed as a side product of a larger project aimed at using eDNA to determine the presence and geographic extent of native and non-native fishes in the reservoirs and associated tributaries above the three mainstem dams (Ross, Diablo, Gorge) on the Skagit River, Washington, USA. The eDNA survey results can be used to help guide additional sampling efforts that include traditional sampling methods, such as electrofishing and netting.

RESULTS: The redside shiner qPCR assay (RSSCOI_540-601) was validated by testing for sensitivity using redside shiner genomic DNA from three different populations and by testing for specificity against 30 potentially sympatric species. No non-target amplification was observed in our validation tests. We then evaluated the assay on field-collected water samples where there are known populations of redside shiner and a negative control site where the target species is known to be absent. The field-collected water samples tested positive at the redside shiner sites and tested negative at the negative control site. The assay could provide resource managers with an effective means for surveying and monitoring redside shiner populations.

RevDate: 2019-11-30

Gomes-Silva G, Pereira BB, Liu K, et al (2020)

Using native and invasive livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae, Teleostei) for the integrated biological assessment of pollution in urban streams.

The Science of the total environment, 698:134336.

Invasive species are increasingly replacing native species, especially in anthropogenically transformed or polluted habitats. This opens the possibility to use invasive species as indicator taxa for the biological assessment of pollution. Integrated biological assessment, however, additionally relies on the application of multiple approaches to quantify physiological or cytogenetic responses to pollution within the same focal species. This is challenging when species are restricted to either polluted or unpolluted sites. Here, we make use of a small group of neotropical livebearing fishes (family Poeciliidae) for the integrated biological assessment of water quality. Comparing urban and suburban stream sections that receive varying degrees of pollution from industrial and domestic waste waters in and around the Brazilian city of Uberlândia, we demonstrate that two members of this family may indeed serve as indicators of water pollution levels. The native species Phalloceros caudimaculatus appears to be replaced by invasive guppies (Poecilia reticulata) at heavily polluted sites. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that both species could be used for the assessment of bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Cr). Ambient (sediment) concentrations predicted concentrations in somatic tissue across species (R2-values between 0.74 and 0.96). Moreover, we used cytogenetic methods to provide an estimate of genotoxic effects of water pollution and found pollution levels (multiple variables, condensed into principal components) to predict the occurrence of nuclear abnormalities (e.g., frequencies of micro-nucleated cells) across species (R2 between 0.69 and 0.83). The occurrence of poeciliid fishes in urban and polluted environments renders this family a prime group of focal organisms for biological water quality monitoring and assessment. Both species could be used interchangeably to assess genotoxic effects of water pollution, which may facilitate future comparative analyses over extensive geographic scales, as members of the family Poeciliidae have become invasive in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Boll PK, Marques D, AM Leal-Zanchet (2019)

Mind the food: Survival, growth and fecundity of a Neotropical land planarian (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) under different diets.

Zoology (Jena, Germany), 138:125722 pii:S0944-2006(19)30188-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Although most land planarians are sensitive to environmental changes, some species are well adapted to human-disturbed areas and are easily transported to new places, having the potential to threaten native ecosystems. We investigated growth and survival in a land planarian common in human-disturbed areas in southern Brazil. Specimens of Obama anthropophila were divided into three groups that received different diets: (1) only the land planarian Luteostriata abundans (N=13), (2) only the slug Deroceras leave (N=12), and (3) alternating both prey types (N=13). We monitored the weight of the specimens for a month and counted and weighed egg capsules. Planarians receiving a mixed diet tended to survive less than the groups receiving a single prey type; there were significant differences between those feeding on D. laeve and the other groups. Planarians with the mixed diet ate L. abundans more often than D. laeve, and those feeding only on L. abundans tended to eat more than the other groups. Most egg capsules were laid by specimens with a diet based on D. laeve but the mixed-diet group laid heavier capsules. Both prey species are suitable as food for O. anthropophila, although it prefers planarians when both food items are available. The constant alternation between food items seems to have adverse effects, perhaps related to physiological changes to digest different food items. The heavier egg capsules of the mixed-diet group, considering its lower survival, suggest terminal investment, i.e., an increased reproductive effort when approaching death. The ability to feed on both snails and planarians, combined with its proximity to humans, make O. anthropophila a potentially invasive species.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Gallego-Tévar B, Peinado-Torrubia P, Álvarez R, et al (2019)

Changes to the functional traits of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase following hybridization in C-4 halophytes.

Physiologia plantarum [Epub ahead of print].

Hybridization is a relevant evolutionary mechanism linked to the invasiveness of plant species, but little is known about its effect on enzymatic activities in response to stress. We analyzed the effects of salinity on key mechanistic traits of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme for two hybrid taxa derived from native Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald and invasive Spartina densiflora Brongn. in comparison with their parental species. Parental species showed contrasted strategies at the PEPC level to cope with salinity. S. maritima showed its physiological optimum at 10 to 40 ppt salinity, with high PEPC activity (per unit leaf soluble protein), in contrast to the lower salinity optimum of 0.5 and 10 ppt for S. densiflora, where highest levels of PEPC apparent specific activity coincided with high light-induced activation of PEPC. Both hybrids showed constant PEPC apparent specific activity from fresh water to hypersalinity and exhibited higher net photosynthesis rates in fresh water than their parents. S. maritima x densiflora presented three transgressive PEPC-related traits, being the only taxon able to increase its PEPC activation in darkness at high salinity. S. densiflora x maritima showed most PEPC-related traits intermediate between its parents. Inheritance types operating differently in reciprocal hybrids determine key functional traits conditioning their ecological performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Chen JY, Chang YW, Tang XT, et al (2019)

Population genetics of Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and comparison with four Liriomyza species in China based on COI, EF-1a and microsatellites loci.

Scientific reports, 9(1):17856 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-53886-9.

Liriomyza is a large genus that includes polyphagous and invasive species (L. trifolii, L. sativae, and L. huidobrensis), and oligophagous species such as L. Chinensis in China. Effective control of these invasive and oligophagous species is not easy due to the fast invasion rate, interspecific competition, and pesticide resistance. In this study, we investigated population genetics of five Liriomyza species L. trifolii, L. sativae, L. huidobrensis, L. bryoniae, and L. chinensis based on COI and EF-1a genes, and microsatellite DNA. These five Liriomyza species revealed highly conservative characteristics in the COI gene among populations collected from different geographical regions and host plants. By contrast, the mutation rate of the EF-1a gene was higher than COI, and phylogenetic tree based on EF-1a showed that haplotypes of L. trifolii and L. sativae were not distinguished well. Genetic differentiation in microsatellite loci was obvious among the five species. Our results also indicated that geographic isolation had a greater impact on genetic differentiation in L. trifolii than the host plant. Populations of L. trifolii in China showed a high to moderate level of genetic differentiation and they had divided into two groups representing the coastal areas of southern China and northern regions. The genetic diversity of the southern group was higher than the northern group. We speculated that the invasion of L. trifolii likely occurred in southern regions of China and then spread northward. Bottleneck analyses revealed that the L. trifolii population in China was in a steady growth period.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Tempesti J, Langeneck J, Maltagliati F, et al (2019)

Macrobenthic fouling assemblages and NIS success in a Mediterranean port: The role of use destination.

Marine pollution bulletin pii:S0025-326X(19)30924-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Macrozoobenthic fouling assemblages were studied in the port area of Livorno, focusing on the occurrence of non-indigenous species (NIS). Sampling was carried out at ten sites characterised by different anthropic impacts related to their use destination. Among the 262 species identified, twenty-six were alien or cryptogenic, seventeen of which were new records for the study area, confirming the role of the port of Livorno as a hotspot of NIS introduction. Multivariate analyses highlighted a strong influence of the use destination on the diversity of macrozoobenthic communities. Even though the majority of transoceanic maritime traffic from and to Livorno pertains to the commercial harbour, the touristic harbour hosted the highest number of NIS, possibly because of secondary spread from other Mediterranean ports. The ALien Biotic IndEX (ALEX) identified all sites as high or good environmental status, but the large number of NIS detected suggests caution about their impact and further spread.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Korell L, Schädler M, Brandl R, et al (2019)

Release from Above- and Belowground Insect Herbivory Mediates Invasion Dynamics and Impact of an Exotic Plant.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 8(12): pii:plants8120544.

The enemy-release hypothesis is one of the most popular but also most discussed hypotheses to explain invasion success. However, there is a lack of explicit, experimental tests of predictions of the enemy-release hypothesis (ERH), particularly regarding the effects of above- and belowground herbivory. Long-term studies investigating the relative effect of herbivores on invasive vs. native plant species within a community are still lacking. Here, we report on a long-term field experiment in an old-field community, invaded by Solidago canadensis s. l., with exclusion of above- and belowground insect herbivores. We monitored population dynamics of the invader and changes in the diversity and functioning of the plant community across eight years. Above- and belowground insects favoured the establishment of the invasive plant species and thereby increased biomass and decreased diversity of the plant community. Effects of invertebrate herbivores on population dynamics of S. canadensis appeared after six years and increased over time, suggesting that long-term studies are needed to understand invasion dynamics and consequences for plant community structure. We suggest that the release from co-evolved trophic linkages is of importance not only for the effect of invasive species on ecosystems, but also for the functioning of novel species assemblages arising from climate change.

RevDate: 2019-11-28

Larson DJ, GGE Scudder (2019)

Scolopostethus affinis (Schilling) (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae, Drymini): a new alien established in North America.

ZooKeys, 889:17-22 pii:35805.

Scolopostethus affinis, a species native to the Palearctic region, is reported from two localities in Montreal, Quebec. The species appears established and breeding in Quebec and is a new alien species in North America. A description of S. affinis is given, with illustrations, and details of the life cycle and diagnostic characters.

RevDate: 2019-11-29
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

Li S, Huang X, Chen Y, et al (2019)

Identification and characterization of proteins involved in stolon adhesion in the highly invasive fouling ascidian Ciona robusta.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 510(1):91-96.

Adhesive ascidians have caused serious biofouling problems and huge economic losses in marine ecosystems. However, adhesion mechanisms, particularly on functional proteins involved in ascidian adhesion, remain largely unexplored. Here, we identified 26 representative stolon proteins from the highly invasive fouling ascidian Ciona robusta using the proteomics approach. The uncharacterized stolon proteins were rich in adhesion-related conserved domains. Real-time quantitative PCR further revealed specific expressions of these uncharacterized protein genes in stolon tissue, suggesting their potential roles in stolon adhesion.> A recombinant vWFA domain-containing uncharacterized protein, ascidian stolon protein 1 (ASP-1), was successfully expressed in a baculovirus-insect cell system and purified in vitro. Coating experiment showed that tyrosinase-modified ASP-1 could absorb to glass and organic glass stronger than unmodified ASP-1, while only modified ASP-1 could absorb to aluminum foil. Quartz crystal microbalance analysis also showed the increase in absorption ability of ASP-1 after modification. In addition, abundant 3,4-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in modified protein was detected by nitroblue tetrazolium staining. These results suggest that ASP-1 be involved in ascidian DOPA-dependent and material-selective adhesion. Overall, this study provides insight into molecular mechanisms of C. robusta stolon adhesion, and findings here are expected to be conductive to develop strategies against biofouling caused by ascidians.

RevDate: 2019-11-27

Pergl J, Pyšek P, Essl F, et al (2019)

Need for routine tracking of biological invasions.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-11-27

Kerkow A, Wieland R, Früh L, et al (2019)

Can data from native mosquitoes support determining invasive species habitats? Modelling the climatic niche of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) in Germany.

Parasitology research pii:10.1007/s00436-019-06513-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive mosquito species and the pathogens they transmit represent a serious health risk to both humans and animals. Thus, predictions on their potential geographic distribution are urgently needed. In the case of a recently invaded region, only a small number of occurrence data is typically available for analysis, and absence data are not reliable. To overcome this problem, we have tested whether it is possible to determine the climatic ecological niche of an invasive mosquito species by using both the occurrence data of other, native species and machine learning. The approach is based on a support vector machine and in this scenario applied to the Asian bush mosquito (Aedes japonicus japonicus) in Germany. Presence data for this species (recorded in the Germany since 2008) as well as for three native mosquito species were used to model the potential distribution of the invasive species. We trained the model with data collected from 2011 to 2014 and compared our predicted occurrence probabilities for 2015 with observations found in the field throughout 2015 to evaluate our approach. The prediction map showed a high degree of concordance with the field data. We applied the model to medium climate conditions at an early stage of the invasion (2011-2015), and developed an explanation for declining population densities in an area in northern Germany. In addition to the already known distribution areas, our model also indicates a possible spread to Saarland, southwestern Rhineland-Palatinate and in 2015 to southern Bavaria, where the species is now being increasingly detected. However, there is also evidence that the possible distribution area under the mean climate conditions was underestimated.

RevDate: 2019-11-27

Rolla M, Consuegra S, Carrington E, et al (2019)

Experimental evidence of chemical attraction in the mutualistic zebra mussel-killer shrimp system.

PeerJ, 7:e8075 pii:8075.

Invasion facilitation, whereby one species has a positive effect on the establishment of another species, could help explain the rapid colonisation shown by some freshwater invasive species, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We employed two-choice test arenas to test whether the presence of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) could facilitate the establishment of the killer shrimp (Dikerogammarus villosus). Killer shrimp preferred to settle on mats of zebra mussel, but this was unrelated to mat size, and was not different from attraction shown to artificial grass, suggesting that zebra mussel primarily provides substrate and refuge to the killer shrimp. Killer shrimp were strongly attracted to water scented by zebra mussel, but not to water scented by fish. Chemical attraction to the zebra mussel's scent did not differ between sympatric and allopatric populations of killer shrimp, suggesting that chemical attraction is not an acquired or learned trait. Our study shows, for the first time, chemical attraction between two highly invasive freshwater species, thereby providing a plausible mechanism for invasion facilitation. This has implications for managing the spread of killer shrimp, and perhaps other freshwater invasive species, because chemical attraction could significantly increase establishment success in mutualistic systems. Failure to consider invasion facilitation may underestimate the risk of establishment, and likely also the impact of some aquatic invaders.

RevDate: 2019-11-27
CmpDate: 2019-11-27

Oricchio FT, Marques AC, Hajdu E, et al (2019)

Exotic species dominate marinas between the two most populated regions in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

Marine pollution bulletin, 146:884-892.

Human occupation of coastal areas promotes the establishment of non-native species but information on bioinvasions is usually biased toward the Northern Hemisphere. We assessed non-native species' importance in sessile communities at six marinas along the most urbanized area of the Southwestern Atlantic coastline. We found 67 species, of which 19 are exotic. The most frequent species was the exotic polychaete Branchiomma luctuosum, while the most abundant was the exotic bryozoan Schizoporella errata that monopolized the substrata in three marinas. Along with S. errata, the exotic polychaete Hydroides elegans and ascidian Styela plicata dominated space in the three remaining marinas, while native species were in general rare. We show that communities associated with artificial substrata along this Brazilian urbanized area are dominated by exotic species and that using abundance data along with species identity can improve our understanding of the importance of exotic species for the dynamics of biological communities.

RevDate: 2019-11-26

Jerde CL (2019)

Can we manage fisheries with the inherent uncertainty from eDNA?.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental (e)DNA, as a general approach in aquatic systems, seeks to connect the presence of species' genetic material in the water and hence to infer the species' physical presence. However, fisheries managers face making decisions with risk and uncertainty when eDNA indicates a fish is present but traditional methods fail to capture the fish. In comparison with traditional methods such as nets, electrofishing and piscicides, eDNA approaches have more sources of underlying error that could give rise to false positives. This has resulted in some managers to question whether eDNA can be used to make management decisions because there is no fish in hand. As a relatively new approach, the methods and techniques have quickly evolved to improve confidence in eDNA. By evaluating an eDNA based research programmes through the pattern of the eDNA signal, assay design, experimental design, quality assurance and quality control checks, data analyses and concurrent search for fish using traditional gears, the evidence for fish presence can be evaluated to build confidence in the eDNA approach. The benefits for fisheries management from adopting an eDNA approach are numerous but include cost effectiveness, broader geographic coverage of habitat occupancy, early detection of invasive species, non-lethal stock assessments, exploration of previously inaccessible aquatic environments and discovery of new species hidden beneath the water's surface. At a time when global freshwater and marine fisheries are facing growing threats from over-harvest, pollution and climate change, we anticipate that growing confidence in eDNA will overcome the inherent uncertainty of not having a fish in hand and will empower the informed management actions necessary to protect and restore our fisheries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-11-25

Murphy CA, Taylor G, Pierce T, et al (2019)

Short-term reservoir draining to streambed for juvenile salmon passage and non-native fish removal.

Ecohydrology : ecosystems, land and water process interactions, ecohydrogeomorphology, 12(6):e2096.

Fish passage out of reservoirs is a critical issue for downstream movement of juvenile salmonids and other migratory species. Reservoirs can delay downstream migrations by juvenile salmon for months or years. Here, we examine whether a novel management activity implementing annual short-term draining of a reservoir to streambed improves timely downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. We analyse 12 years of fish capture data from a screw trap located downstream of Fall Creek Reservoir (Oregon, USA) to examine changes in timing of passage out of the reservoir and to compare fish species composition pre- and post-draining. We observed a contraction in the timing of downstream migration for juvenile Chinook Salmon and reduction of yearlings in years following draining. We suggest that briefly draining the reservoir to streambed leads to reduced abundance of warm-water invasive fishes in the reservoir after it refills. These changes could decrease predation and shift competition between invasive and resident riverine-adapted native fishes in the reservoir. Collectively, our findings suggest that this low-cost reservoir management option may improve passage and connectivity for juvenile Chinook Salmon while also decreasing the abundance of invasive fish species in the reservoir. This case study underscores the crucial need for further evaluations of reservoir draining in other systems and contexts.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Ammon UV, Wood SA, Laroche O, et al (2018)

Combining morpho-taxonomy and metabarcoding enhances the detection of non-indigenous marine pests in biofouling communities.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16290.

Marine infrastructure can favor the spread of non-indigenous marine biofouling species by providing a suitable habitat for them to proliferate. Cryptic organisms or those in early life stages can be difficult to distinguish by conventional morphological taxonomy. Molecular tools, such as metabarcoding, may improve their detection. In this study, the ability of morpho-taxonomy and metabarcoding (18S rRNA and COI) using three reference databases (PR2, BOLD and NCBI) to characterize biodiversity and detect non-indigenous species (NIS) in biofouling was compared on 60 passive samplers deployed over summer and winter in a New Zealand marina. Highest resolution of metazoan taxa was identified using 18S rRNA assigned to PR2. There were higher assignment rates to NCBI reference sequences, but poorer taxonomic identification. Using all methods, 48 potential NIS were identified. Metabarcoding detected the largest proportion of those NIS: 77% via 18S rRNA/PR2 and NCBI and 35% via COI/BOLD and NCBI. Morpho-taxonomy detected an additional 14% of all identified NIS comprising mainly of bryozoan taxa. The data highlight several on-going challenges, including: differential marker resolution, primer biases, incomplete sequence reference databases, and variations in bioinformatic pipelines. Combining morpho-taxonomy and molecular analysis methods will likely enhance the detection of NIS from complex biofouling.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Ujiyama S, K Tsuji (2018)

Controlling invasive ant species: a theoretical strategy for efficient monitoring in the early stage of invasion.

Scientific reports, 8(1):8033.

Invasion by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, has destructive effects on native biodiversity, agriculture and public health. This ant's aggressive foraging behaviour and high reproductive capability have enabled its establishment of wild populations in most regions into which it has been imported. An important aspect of eradication is thorough nest monitoring and destruction during early invasion to prevent range expansion. The question is: How intense must monitoring be on temporal and spatial scales to eradicate the fire ant? Assuming that the ant was introduced into a region and that monitoring was conducted immediately after nest detection in an effort to detect all other potentially established nests, we developed a mathematical model to investigate detection rates. Setting the monitoring limit to three years, the detection rate was maximized when monitoring was conducted shifting bait trap locations and setting them at intervals of 30 m for each monitoring. Monitoring should be conducted in a radius of at least 4 km around the source nest, or wider-depending on how late a nest is found. For ease of application, we also derived equations for finding the minimum bait interval required in an arbitrary ant species for thorough monitoring.

RevDate: 2019-11-24

Howard PL (2019)

Human adaptation to invasive species: A conceptual framework based on a case study metasynthesis.

Ambio pii:10.1007/s13280-019-01297-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Species invasions are a major driver of ecological change, are very difficult to control or reverse, and will increase with climate change and global trade. Invasion sciences consider how species in invaded environments adapt, but neither scientists nor policy makers consider human adaptation to invasive species and how this affects ecosystems and well-being. To address this, a framework conceptualising autochthonous human adaptation to invasions was developed based on the Human Adaptation to Biodiversity Change framework and a case study metasynthesis. Results show that adaptation occurs within different spheres of human activity and organisation at different social-ecological scales; responses have feedbacks within and across these spheres. Adaptation to invasives and other drivers is a set of highly contextual, complex, non-linear responses that make up pathways pursued over time. Most invasive species management and adaptation occurs 'from below,' and policies and planned control efforts should support autochthonous adaptation, rather than undermining it.

RevDate: 2019-11-24

Howard PL, GT Pecl (2019)

Introduction: Autochthonous human adaptation to biodiversity change in the Anthropocene.

Rapid biodiversity change that is already occurring across the globe is accelerating, with major and often negative consequences for human well-being. Biodiversity change is partly driven by climate change, but it has many other interacting drivers that are also driving human adaptation, including invasive species, land-use change, pollution and overexploitation. Humans are adapting to changes in well-being that are related with these biodiversity drivers and other forces and pressures. Adaptation, in turn, has feedbacks both for biodiversity change and human well-being; however, to date, these processes have received little science or policy attention. This Special Issue introduces human adaptation to biodiversity change as a science-policy issue. Research on human adaptation to biodiversity change requires new methods and tools as well as conceptual evolution, as social-ecological systems and environmental change adaptation approaches must be reconsidered when they are applied to different processes and contexts-where biodiversity change drivers are highly significant, where people are responding principally to changes in species, species communities and related ecosystem processes, and where adaptation entails changes in the management of biodiversity and related resource use regimes. The research was carried out in different marine and terrestrial environments across the globe. All of the studies consider adaptation among highly biodiversity-reliant populations, including Indigenous Peoples in the Americas and Europe, farmers in Asia and marine resource users in Europe and the Pacific. The concept of autochthonous adaptation is introduced to specifically address adaptation to environmental change in local systems, which also considers that local adaptation is conditioned by multi-scalar influences and occurs in synergy or conflict with adaptations of other non-local agents and actors who enable or constrain autochthonous adaptation options.

RevDate: 2019-11-23

Benoit LK, Les DH, King UM, et al (2019)

Extensive interlineage hybridization in the predominantly clonal Hydrilla verticillata.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: The submersed aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata ("hydrilla") is important ecologically and economically due to its aggressive growth in both indigenous and nonindigenous regions. Substantial morphological variation has been documented in hydrilla, including the existence of monoecious and dioecious "biotypes." Whereas plastid sequence data have been used previously to explore intraspecific diversity, nuclear data have yet to be analyzed in a phylogenetic context. Molecular and morphological analyses were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of native and introduced populations.

METHODS: Nuclear (internal transcribed spacer-ITS; phytoene desaturase-PDS) and plastid (trnL-F) sequence data were evaluated phylogenetically using likelihood and Bayesian methods. Leaf morphologies were compared among clades that were identified in phylogenetic analyses.

RESULTS: Data from both ITS and PDS show multiple instances of polymorphic sequences that could be traced to two or more lineages, including both invasive biotypes in the Americas. Leaf morphological data support the distinctness of lineages and provide a metric for distinguishing monoecious and dioecious biotypes in the United States.

CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear molecular data indicate far greater genetic diversity than could be estimated using plastid markers. Substantially divergent copies of nuclear genes, found in multiple populations worldwide, likely result from interlineage hybridization. Invasive monoecious and dioecious hydrilla biotypes in the Americas are genetically distinct, with both biotypes resulting from admixture among Eurasian progenitors. Genetic similarity to populations in India and South Korea, respectively, implicates these as likely origins for the dioecious and monoecious biotypes.

RevDate: 2019-11-23

Penagos-Tabares F, Groß KM, Hirzmann J, et al (2019)

Occurrence of canine and feline lungworms in Arion vulgaris in a park of Vienna: First report of autochthonous Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior in Austria.

Parasitology research pii:10.1007/s00436-019-06527-z [Epub ahead of print].

So far, neither the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior nor the canine lungworm Angiostrongylus vasorum was reported in wildlife or intermediate hosts from Austria. The slug Arion vulgaris represents an invasive species in Europe and serves as intermediate host for several lungworm species. This study aimed to analyse the occurrence of metastrongyloid lungworm larvae in slugs in Vienna, Austria. Therefore, 193 A. vulgaris were collected in the central Prater park in summer 2016. Specimens were artificially digested, analysed microscopically for lungworm larvae, and species were confirmed via PCR and sequencing. Out of 193, five slugs were positive to lungworms (2.6%), one for A. vasorum, two for A. abstrusus (genotypes A and B) and one for T. brevior, and one slug had a mixed infection of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae. The current study is the first evidence on the endemicity of these metastrongyloid lungworm species in Austria.

RevDate: 2019-11-23

Sowa A, Krodkiewska M, Halabowski D, et al (2019)

Response of the mollusc communities to environmental factors along an anthropogenic salinity gradient.

Die Naturwissenschaften, 106(11-12):60 pii:10.1007/s00114-019-1655-4.

Anthropogenic salinisation of freshwater ecosystems is frequent across the world. The scale of this phenomenon remains unrecognised, and therefore, monitoring and management of such ecosystems is very important. We conducted a study on the mollusc communities in inland anthropogenic ponds covering a large gradient of salinity located in an area of underground coal mining activity. A total of 14 gastropod and 6 bivalve species were noted. No molluscs were found in waters with total dissolved solids (TDS) higher than 17.1 g L-1. The share of alien species in the communities was very high in waters with elevated salinity and significantly lower in the freshwaters. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that TDS, pH, alkalinity, nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, iron, the content of organic matter in sediments, the type of substrate and the content of sand and gravel in sediments were the variables that were significantly associated with the distribution of molluscs. The regression analysis revealed that total mollusc density was positively related to alkalinity and negatively related to nitrate nitrogen. The taxa richness was negatively related to TDS, which is consistent with previous studies which indicated that a high salinity level is a significant threat to freshwater malacofauna, causing a loss of biodiversity and contributing to the colonisation and establishment of alien species in aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-11-22

Baltazar-Soares M, Blanchet S, Cote J, et al (2019)

Genomic footprints of a biological invasion: introduction from Asia and dispersal in Europe of the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva).

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Facilitated by the intensification of global trading, the introduction and dispersal of species to areas in which they are historically non-native is nowadays common. From an evolutionary standpoint, invasions are paradoxical: not only non-native environments could be different from native ones for which introduced individuals would be ill-adapted, but also small founding population size should be associated with reduced adaptive potential. As such, biological invasions are considered valuable real-time evolutionary experiments. Here, we investigated the population structure and adaptive potential of the highly invasive topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) across Europe and East Asia. We RAD-sequenced 301 specimens from sixteen populations and three distinct within-catchment invaded regions as well as two locations in the native range. With 13785 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we provide conclusive evidence for a genome-wide signature of two distinct invasion events, in Slovakia and Turkey, each originating from a specific area in the native range. A third invaded area, in France, appears to be the result of dispersal within the invasive range. Few loci showed signs of selection, the vast majority of which being identified in the Slovakian region. Functional annotation suggests that faster early stage development, resistance to pollution and immunocompetence contribute to the invasion success of the local habitats. By showing that populations in the invasive range have different evolutionary histories, our study reinforces the idea that populations, rather than species, are the units to consider in invasion biology.

RevDate: 2019-11-22

Ferraguti M, Martínez-de la Puente J, García-Longoria L, et al (2019)

From Africa to Europe: evidence of transmission of a tropical Plasmodium lineage in Spanish populations of house sparrows.

Parasites & vectors, 12(1):548 pii:10.1186/s13071-019-3804-1.

BACKGROUND: Avian malaria parasites are a highly diverse group that commonly infect birds and have deleterious effects on their hosts. Some parasite lineages are geographically widespread and infect many host species in many regions. Bird migration, natural dispersal, invasive species and human-mediated introductions into areas where competent insect vectors are present, are probably the main drivers of the current distribution of avian malaria parasites.

METHODS: A total of 412 and 2588 wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) were captured in 2012 and 2013 in two areas of the Iberian Peninsula (central and southern Spain, respectively). Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples; parasite lineages were sequenced and identified by comparing with GenBank and/or MalAvi databases.

RESULTS: Thirteen Plasmodium lineages were identified in house sparrows corresponding to three major clades. Five individuals were infected by the African Plasmodium lineage PAGRI02, which has been proposed to actively circulate only in Africa.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of PAGRI02 in sparrows in Spain, our results suggest that the area of transmission of this parasite is more widespread than previously thought and covers both Africa and Europe. Further studies of the global distribution of Plasmodium lineages infecting wild birds are required to identify the current transmission areas of these parasites. This is vital given the current scenario of global change that is providing new opportunities for avian malaria transmission into areas where parasites were previously absent.

RevDate: 2019-11-22

Wei Y, Wang J, Song Z, et al (2019)

Patterns of spatial genetic structures in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in China.

Parasites & vectors, 12(1):552 pii:10.1186/s13071-019-3801-4.

BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world and the vector for several arboviruses including dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. Understanding the population spatial genetic structure, migration, and gene flow of vector species is critical to effectively preventing and controlling vector-borne diseases. Little is known about the population structure and genetic differentiation of native Ae. albopictus in China. The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of the spatial genetic structures of native Ae. albopictus populations, and their relationship to dengue incidence, on a large geographical scale.

METHODS: During 2016-2018, adult female Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected by human landing catch (HLC) or human-bait sweep-net collections in 34 localities across China. Thirteen microsatellite markers were used to examine the patterns of genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow among native Ae. albopictus populations. The correlation between population genetic indices and dengue incidence was also examined.

RESULTS: A total of 153 distinct alleles were identified at the 13 microsatellite loci in the tested populations. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of distinct alleles ranging from eight to sixteen. Genetic parameters such as PIC, heterozygosity, allelic richness and fixation index (FST) revealed highly polymorphic markers, high genetic diversity, and low population genetic differentiation. In addition, Bayesian analysis of population structure showed two distinct genetic groups in southern-western and eastern-central-northern China. The Mantel test indicated a positive correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance (R2 = 0.245, P = 0.01). STRUCTURE analysis, PCoA and GLS interpolation analysis indicated that Ae. albopictus populations in China were regionally clustered. Gene flow and relatedness estimates were generally high between populations. We observed no correlation between population genetic indices of microsatellite loci in Ae. albopictus populations and dengue incidence.

CONCLUSION: Strong gene flow probably assisted by human activities inhibited population differentiation and promoted genetic diversity among populations of Ae. albopictus. This may represent a potential risk of rapid spread of mosquito-borne diseases. The spatial genetic structure, coupled with the association between genetic indices and dengue incidence, may have important implications for understanding the epidemiology, prevention, and control of vector-borne diseases.

RevDate: 2019-11-21

Kwak ML, Lee L, Okumura C, et al (2019)

First Report of Co-invasion by the Reptile Nematode Ozolaimus megatyphlon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) with Invasive Green Iguanas (Iguana iguana) in the Asia-Pacific.

Acta parasitologica pii:10.2478/s11686-019-00144-7 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Co-invasion of naïve ecosystems by non-native parasites is a serious threat to global biodiversity, though such events are difficult to detect early in the invasion process. Green iguanas (Iguana iguana) are an emerging invasive species and have colonised several countries in the Asia-Pacific. A survey was undertaken to determine whether parasites of the green iguana had co-invaded naïve ecosystems with their introduced host.

METHODS: Over a 10-month period, wild green iguanas were trapped and euthanised in Singapore. All animals were necropsied and sampled for parasites. Parasites were then identified morphologically and subsequently characterised molecularly at the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) locus.

RESULTS: The reptile nematode Ozolaimus megatyphlon was found in 38% of the sampled green iguanas, with burdens of 100 + worms in all infected animals. This represents the first recorded co-invasion of this species with wild green iguanas in the Asia-Pacific. Based on the molecular characterisation of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) locus, the first DNA barcode is provided for O. megatyphlon.

CONCLUSION: For the first time, the reptile nematode Ozolaimus megatyphlon is shown to be invasive and to have colonised the Asia-Pacific region with its introduced host, the green iguana. The DNA barcode provided here will facilitate future monitoring programmes as O. megatyphlon invades new habitats and countries.

RevDate: 2019-11-21
CmpDate: 2019-11-21

Viviani A, Bernardi R, Cavallini A, et al (2019)

Genotypic Characterization of Torymus sinensis (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) After Its Introduction in Tuscany (Italy) for the Biological Control of Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

Journal of insect science (Online), 19(4):.

Torymus sinensis Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) is an alien parasitoid that is used in many areas of the world for biological control the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). In Italy, this parasitoid was imported from Japan in 2003 and subsequently multiplied and released throughout the country. In this study, a phylogenetic investigation was carried out on insects from three different sites in northern Tuscany (Italy). Moreover, the possible hybridization between T. sinensis and some native Torymus species was evaluated. The conserved region 18S rRNA gene and the hypervariable ITS2 (Internal Transcribed Spacer 2) region of the ribosomal cistrone were selected as molecular markers. Sequencing the amplified products, after cloning, ruled out any hybridization between T. sinensis and the native Torymus species, and also confirmed the presence of two haplotypes for the Tuscan population of T. sinensis both for the region of the 18S rRNA gene as well as for the ITS2 region. These results confirm that the environmental impact of the alien parasitoid T. sinensis in the study site is acceptable, although an extensive and repeated monitoring would be desirable.

RevDate: 2019-11-21
CmpDate: 2019-11-21

Fletcher RA, Brooks RK, Lakoba VT, et al (2019)

Invasive plants negatively impact native, but not exotic, animals.

Global change biology, 25(11):3694-3705.

Despite our growing understanding of the impacts of invasive plants on ecosystem structure and function, important gaps remain, including whether native and exotic species respond differently to plant invasion. This would elucidate basic ecological interactions and inform management. We performed a meta-analytic review of the effects of invasive plants on native and exotic resident animals. We found that invasive plants reduced the abundance of native, but not exotic, animals. This varied by animal phyla, with invasive plants reducing the abundance of native annelids and chordates, but not mollusks or arthropods. We found dissimilar impacts among "wet" and "dry" ecosystems, but not among animal trophic levels. Additionally, the impact of invasive plants increased over time, but this did not vary with animal nativity. Our review found that no studies considered resident nativity differences, and most did not identify animals to species. We call for more rigorous studies of invaded community impacts across taxa, and most importantly, explicit consideration of resident biogeographic origin. We provide an important first insight into how native and exotic species respond differently to invasion, the consequences of which may facilitate cascading trophic disruptions further exacerbating global change consequences to ecosystem structure and function.

RevDate: 2019-11-21
CmpDate: 2019-11-21

Yang W, Zhang D, Cai X, et al (2019)

Significant alterations in soil fungal communities along a chronosequence of Spartina alterniflora invasion in a Chinese Yellow Sea coastal wetland.

The Science of the total environment, 693:133548.

Plant invasion typically alters the microbial communities of soils, which affects ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles. The responses of the soil fungal communities to plant invasion along its chronosequence remain poorly understood. For this study, we investigated variations in soil fungal communities through Illumina MiSeq sequencing analyses of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), along a chronosequence (i.e., 9-, 13-, 20- and 23-year-old) of invasive Spartina alterniflora. We compared these variations with those of bare flat in a Chinese Yellow Sea coastal wetland. Our results highlighted that the abundance of soil fungi, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), species richness, and Shannon diversity indices for soil fungal communities were highest in 9-year-old S. alterniflora soil, which gradually declined along the invasion chronosequence. The relative abundance of copiotrophic Basidiomycota revealed significant decreasing trend, while the relative abundance of oligotrophic Ascomycota gradually increased along the S. alterniflora invasion chronosequence. The relative abundance of soil saprotrophic fungi (e.g., undefined saprotrophs) was gradually reduced while symbiotic fungi (e.g., ectomycorrhizal fungi) and pathotrophic fungi (e.g., plant and animal pathogens) progressively increased along the S. alterniflora invasion chronosequence. Our results suggested that S. alterniflora invasion significantly altered soil fungal abundance and diversity, community composition, trophic modes, and functional groups along a chronosequence, via substantially reduced soil litter inputs, and gradually decreased soil pH, moisture, and soil nutrient substrates along the invasion chronosequence, from 9 to 23 years. These changes in soil fungal communities, particularly their trophic modes and functional groups along the S. alterniflora invasion chronosequence could well impact the decomposition and accumulation of soil C and N, while potentially altering ecosystem C and N sinks in a Chinese Yellow Sea coastal wetland.

RevDate: 2019-11-21
CmpDate: 2019-11-21

Penk MR, MA Williams (2019)

Thermal effluents from power plants boost performance of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in Ireland's largest river.

The Science of the total environment, 693:133546.

Elevated temperatures due to anthropogenic activities can improve the performance of non-native species that are adapted to higher temperatures than resident species. Ecosystems may experience higher temperature due to global stressors, such as climate change, or local stressors, including thermal effluents and urban heat islands. Using field surveys of population density and body size of the highly invasive and hot-adapted clam Corbicula fluminea in and out of two thermal effluents from power plants along the River Shannon, Ireland, we tested the hypothesis that C. fluminea performs better in thermal plumes. Shell length and body mass of C. fluminea in thermal effluents were 1.8 and 4.4 times higher, respectively, compared with adjacent unheated river sections. Density of C. fluminea was 13.7 times higher in heated, compared with unheated river reaches, leading to an increase in combined biomass per unit area of >50-fold. Our temperature data suggest an up to 2.5-fold increase of degree-days for growth and up to 5.2-fold increase of degree-days for larval incubation in the thermal plumes in River Shannon, compared with unheated conditions. Through enlarged body size, the elevated temperatures likely increase fecundity within the plumes. These findings illustrate that, in temperate climates, thermal plumes can form sanctuaries, where C. fluminea likely alters habitat, outpaces competitors and potentially dominates the energy flow through food webs. Furthermore, thermal plumes can act as stepping-stones and propagule banks for further proliferation of C. fluminea and other warm-adapted invaders.

RevDate: 2019-11-21
CmpDate: 2019-11-21

Papanikolaou NE, Kavallieratos NG, Kondakis M, et al (2019)

Elucidating fitness components of the invasive dermestid beetle Trogoderma granarium combining deterministic and stochastic demography.

PloS one, 14(2):e0212182 pii:PONE-D-18-23684.

The invasive dermestid khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, is an important pest of stored products that is subject to strict phytosanitary measures. In this study, we conducted a demographic analysis of this species at 30, 35 and 40°C, combining deterministic and stochastic approaches. The net reproductive rate, the intrinsic rate of increase, the finite rate of increase and the doubling time did not differ significantly between 30 and 35°C, while at 40°C we detected negative values of the intrinsic rate of increase and the doubling time. The Briere model fit the data well with respect to the intrinsic rate of increase. Females of roughly 63, 42 and 21 days old reached their maximum reproductive potential at 30, 35 and 40°C, respectively. The stochastic models of this study allowed for checking model fit and the characterization of the most suitable distribution for each component of the process. We expect these results to have bearing on the management of T. granarium since they could be combined with models related to international trade and climatic change, alerting specialists towards early detection strategies against this species.

RevDate: 2019-11-20

Burton EJ, RN Lea (2019)

Annotated checklist of fishes from Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary with notes on extralimital species.

ZooKeys, 887:1-119 pii:38024.

Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary is a federal, marine protected area located off the central coast of California, USA. Understanding biodiversity, and how it is changing, is necessary to effectively manage the sanctuary. The large size of this sanctuary, which contains a variety of habitats and is influenced by several water masses, provides for a diverse fish fauna. The central California coast has a rich history of ichthyological research and surveys, contributing to a unique repository of information on fish diversity. Herein, we provide a checklist of fishes that occur within the sanctuary, including justification for each species. Ancillary record information including name-bearing type specimens, historic species, cold- or warm-water event species, introduced species, and occurrence at Davidson Seamount or Elkhorn Slough are also provided. This represents the first comprehensive annotated checklist of 507 fishes known to occur within the sanctuary. In addition, 18 species are considered to be extralimital. This annotated checklist of fishes can be used by those interested in zoogeography, marine protected areas, ichthyology, regional natural history, and sanctuary management.

RevDate: 2019-11-20
CmpDate: 2019-11-20

Brissette CA (2019)

TICK TOCK-Time Is Running Out, as the United States Is Being Invaded by the Longhorned Tick!.

Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.), 19(5):307-308.

RevDate: 2019-11-19

Squadrone S, Brizio P, Stella C, et al (2019)

Differential Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements and Rare Earth Elements in the Muscle, Kidneys, and Liver of the Invasive Indo-Pacific Lionfish (Pterois spp.) from Cuba.

Biological trace element research pii:10.1007/s12011-019-01918-w [Epub ahead of print].

The Indo-Pacific lionfish is a saltwater fish that inhabits the Red Sea waters and the Indian and Pacific oceans; it is an invasive species in the western Atlantic and was recently introduced into the local diet in the USA, Central and South America, and the Caribbean with the aim of controlling the invasion of this species. Due to its predatory nature, it tends to bioaccumulate metals and other contaminants via the marine food web and could thus constitute a suitable species for monitoring aquatic ecosystems. The presence and distribution of 23 trace elements and 16 rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the muscle, liver, and kidneys of lionfish from Cuba. Significant differences in metal concentrations were found in the different fish organs. The liver and kidneys registered the highest concentrations for most trace elements and for ΣREE, thus demonstrating that they are effective bioindicators of possible pollution on the environment in which fish live, and assuming great importance in the choice of early biomonitoring. Trace element concentrations in the muscle are instead of crucial interest for consumer safety. The limits set by EU regulations and Cuban guidelines for Cd and Pb in fish muscle were never exceeded, suggesting that lionfish from Cuba could therefore represent a good source of minerals and proteins for the local population. Graphical abstract.

RevDate: 2019-11-19
CmpDate: 2019-11-18

Coggan NV, H Gibb (2019)

Digging mammal reintroductions reduce termite biomass and alter assemblage composition along an aridity gradient.

Oecologia, 191(3):645-656.

Invasions can trigger cascades in ecological communities by altering species interactions. Following the introduction of cats and foxes into Australia, one tenth of Australia's terrestrial mammal species became extinct, due to predation, while many continue to decline. The broader consequences for Australian ecosystems are poorly understood. Soil-dwelling invertebrates are likely to be affected by the loss of fossorial native mammals, which are predators and disturbance agents. Using reintroductions as a model for ecosystems prior to species loss, we tested the hypothesis that mammal reintroduction leads to reduced vegetation cover and altered termite assemblages, including declines in abundance and biomass and changed species composition. We hypothesised that the magnitude of mammal reintroduction effects would diminish with increasing aridity, which affects resource availability. We compared six paired sites inside and outside three reintroduction sanctuaries across an aridity gradient. We sampled termite assemblages using soil trenches and measured habitat availability. Reintroductions were associated with increased bare ground and reduced vegetation, compared with controls. Aridity also had an underlying influence on vegetation cover by limiting water availability. Termite abundance and biomass were lower where mammals were reintroduced and the magnitude of this effect decreased with increasing aridity. Termite abundance was highest under wood, and soil-nesting wood-feeders were most affected inside sanctuaries. Ecological cascades resulting from exotic predator invasions are thus likely to have increased termite biomass and altered termite assemblages, but impacts may be lower in less-productive habitats. Our findings have implications for reserve carrying capacities and understanding of assemblage reconstruction following ecological cascades.

RevDate: 2019-11-19
CmpDate: 2019-11-19

Gloag RS, Christie JR, Ding G, et al (2019)

Workers' sons rescue genetic diversity at the sex locus in an invasive honey bee population.

Molecular ecology, 28(7):1585-1592.

The hallmark of eusociality is the division of labour between reproductive (queen) and nonreproductive (worker) females. Yet in many eusocial insects, workers retain the ability to produce haploid male offspring from unfertilized eggs. The reproductive potential of workers has well-documented consequences for the structure and function of insect colonies, but its implications at the population level are less often considered. We show that worker reproduction in honey bees can have an important role in maintaining genetic diversity at the sex locus in invasive populations. The honey bee sex locus is homozygous-lethal, and, all else being equal, a higher allele number in the population lead to higher mean brood survival. In an invasive population of the honey bee Apis cerana in Australia, workers contribute significantly to male production: 38% of male-producing colonies are queenless, and these contribute one-third of all males at mating congregations. Using a model, we show that such male production by queenless workers will increase the number of sex alleles retained in nascent invasive populations following founder events, relative to a scenario in which only queens reproduce. We conclude that by rescuing sex locus diversity that would otherwise be lost, workers' sons help honey bee populations to minimize the negative effects of inbreeding after founder events and so contribute to their success as invaders.

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Perzanowska J, Korzeniak J, D Chmura (2019)

Alien species as a potential threat for Natura 2000 habitats: a national survey.

PeerJ, 7:e8032 pii:8032.

Invasion by alien species (AS) is one of the most serious threats to ecosystems. In Europe, the Natura 2000 habitats network was established to protect habitats vital for the conservation of biodiversity and function of ecosystems. Therefore, the appearance of AS in Natura 2000 habitats is a warning signal that the most valuable European habitats may be endangered. However, quantitative studies encompassing a wide spectrum of habitats are lacking, and there is no insight into the differences in the level of invasion among habitats. Our survey is based on the State Monitoring of Natura 2000 data and aimed at an assessment of the level of invasion in natural habitat types in Poland. The percentage of invaded locations, number and frequency of alien plant species was assessed in 79 Natura 2000 habitats, both terrestrial and water, investigated on 5,941 locations. The most invaded habitats (with the highest percentage of invaded plots) were dunes with Hippophaë rhamnoides (habitat code 2160), rivers with muddy banks (habitat code 3270), and alpine rivers and herbaceous and ligneous vegetation along their banks (habitat codes: 3220, 3230, 3240). Grassland, forest and most of the bog, mire and fen habitats and also some habitats on a rock were invaded by a relatively large number of AS, but their frequency was comparatively low. In contrast, a high frequency of AS was found in the majority of dune and costal habitats and calaminarian grasslands. Compared with the period 2000-2010, the number of AS in some riparian, grassland and forest habitats rose noticeably. The occurrence of AS showed a negative correlation with conservation status of the habitats. This study has demonstrated that standard monitoring of Natura 2000 habitats provides the basis for the detection of AS, including invasive ones, in all types of habitats, and can be used for development rapid and effective response programs.

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Fenollosa E, S Munné-Bosch (2019)

Increased chilling tolerance of the invasive species Carpobrotus edulis may explain its expansion across new territories.

Conservation physiology, 7(1):coz075 pii:coz075.

Invasive plants are expanding their geographical distribution across new regions. Expansion modeling is crucial for geographic prioritization in management policies. However, the assumption of niche conservatism and the lack of information of the species physiological response to the environmental factors determining species presence may hinder predictions. In this study, we aimed to understand the expansion of the widely distributed plant Carpobrotus edulis in Europe. We contrasted introduced and native C. edulis ecological niches and explored the experimental response to temperature, a major determining factor for species distribution, of native and invasive individuals in terms of different biochemical markers. Niche analysis revealed an expansion of the introduced niche to occupy colder climates. Introduced and native individuals showed differential mechanisms facing low temperatures. Individuals from the native range showed an increased sensitivity to chilling, as reflected by photosynthetic pigment degradation, increased de-epoxidation of xanthophylls and the accumulation of the lipophilic antioxidant alpha-tocopherol. The found physiological differentiation towards an increased invasive chilling tolerance of invasive C. edulis individuals together with a high propagule pressure may explain the introduced climatic niche shift to colder climates observed, allowing the extensive expansion of this species in Europe.

RevDate: 2019-11-18
CmpDate: 2019-11-18

Delory BM, Weidlich EWA, Kunz M, et al (2019)

The exotic species Senecio inaequidens pays the price for arriving late in temperate European grassland communities.

Oecologia, 191(3):657-671.

The exotic South African ragwort (Senecio inaequidens DC.) rapidly spread across Central Europe after its introduction, but we still do not know to what extent its timing of arrival in a plant community (i.e. before or after natives) and the composition of the native community being invaded affect (1) its capacity to invade a European grassland, (2) the performance of the native species, and (3) the direction and strength of priority effects. In a greenhouse experiment, we manipulated the timing of arrival of the exotic species (Senecio) and the composition of the native community to test the influence of these factors on the productivity and N content of exotic and native species. We also investigated if the plant species origin (native or exotic) and the native community composition affected the benefit of arriving early and the cost of arriving late in the community. The establishment success of Senecio strongly depended on its timing of arrival in a grassland community. Senecio benefited more from arriving early than did the natives. The presence of legumes in the community did not favour invasion by Senecio. When natives arrived later than Senecio, however, priority effects were weaker when legumes were part of the native community. Our results showed that inhibitory priority effects created by natives can lower the risk of invasion by Senecio. An early arrival of this species at a site with low native species abundance is a scenario that could favour invasion.

RevDate: 2019-11-17

Mueller M, Bierschenk AM, Bierschenk BM, et al (2019)

Effects of multiple stressors on the distribution of fish communities in 203 headwater streams of Rhine, Elbe and Danube.

The Science of the total environment, 703:134523 pii:S0048-9697(19)34514-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Fishes in European rivers are threatened by manifold stressors such as structural degradation, water pollution, overexploitation, land-use changes in the catchment, invasive species and global processes including climate change. Identifying main stressors in a stream/river system is of utterly importance for efficiently utilizing the scarce funds for conservation measures in order to achieve the best possible outcome. Within 203 headwater streams of Rhine, Elbe and Danube, we quantified the relative influence of different environmental stressors (water chemistry, food availability (macroinvertebrates), terrestrial predators) and anthropogenic stressors (land use, structural modification of streams) on fish assemblages at different spatial scales based on multivariate biota-environment models. In our analyses, the predictor variables percentage of impoundments, crop farming (especially erosion-prone crops such as maize) and ground sealing in the catchments, the number of wastewater treatment plants and biogas plants in the catchments as well as structural modifications of river banks were most often identified as stressors influencing fish community composition. However, the effects of the stressors varied between the investigated survey-area scales (two different catchments sizes and riparian strips) and regionally (entire study area, major drainage systems, river catchments, stream sizes, geographical subregions). In most cases, fish community composition was simultaneously affected by multiple stressors, underpinning the need for a more holistic and ecosystem-based approach in freshwater conservation and restoration.

RevDate: 2019-11-17

Muñoz-Mas R, E García-Berthou (2019)

Alien animal introductions in Iberian inland waters: An update and analysis.

The Science of the total environment, 703:134505 pii:S0048-9697(19)34496-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Inland waters provide innumerable ecosystem services and for this reason are among the most negatively impacted ecosystems worldwide. This is also the case with invasive alien species, which have enormous economic and ecological impacts in freshwater ecosystems. The pace of alien introductions has not decreased in recent years and the first step to their management is to update checklists and to determine introduction pathways and origins of species. This study updates the list of alien animal species introduced and naturalised in inland waters of the Iberian Peninsula. Additionally, the most relevant characteristics and association patterns of these species (region of origin, taxonomic group, introduction pathway and main habitat) and introduction trends in the Iberian Peninsula, mainland Portugal and Galicia are analysed. We identified 125 alien animal species introduced in Iberian inland waters (increase of 30% compared to previous reviews) whereas 24 additional species have uncertain establishment or native status. We found marked associations among taxonomic groups and their region of origin, introduction pathway and main habitat used but less relationship between these three latter features. Considering the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula, the introduction rates seem to be experiencing a decrease or to have achieved stabilization. However, this is not applicable to mainland Portugal and Galicia for which the historical delay in the first record dates for alien species is fading-out, suggesting increasing spread rates. Our results should facilitate early detections and the design of prevention protocols and taxon-specific management plans.

RevDate: 2019-11-17

Pinochet J, Urbina MA, ME Lagos (2019)

Marine invertebrate larvae love plastics: Habitat selection and settlement on artificial substrates.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(19)34427-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Global urbanization and plastic pollution has increased the availability and variety of substrates for sessile organisms, and are intensively used by invasive species for settlement. Despite extensive literature describing the strong association between artificial structures and invasive species, little effort has been directed towards identifying the larval traits that favor this selection. Larval selection and settlement are crucial as larvae actively search and interpret environmental cues to identify suitable habitats to settle. The aim of this research was to investigate if invertebrate larvae have a preference for a particular anthropogenic substrate, and how pre-settlement behaviors vary when encountering different substrates. We used two invasive bryozoan species, Bugula flabellata and Bugula neritina, which are commonly found in urbanized areas around the world. Energy expenditure during planktonic and benthonic stages, pre-settlement swimming/exploring behaviors, settlement and larval selectivity were quantified under laboratory conditions on different substrates (concrete, wood, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate and polycarbonate). The energy expenditure measured was higher in planktonic larvae than in early settled larvae. Larvae of both species swam less and explored more when exposed to plastic surfaces, suggesting a preference for this substrate and resulting in lower energy expenditures associated with searching for habitat. Larvae actively chose to settle on plastics rather than on wood or concrete substrates. The results suggest that for Bugula larvae, the likelihood of colonizing plastic surfaces is higher than other materials commonly found in urbanized coastal areas. The more quickly they adhere to artificial substrates the lower the energy expenditure, contributing to higher fitness in these individuals. The strong preference of invertebrate larvae for plastics can potentially extend the distribution range of many invasive marine species as they are able to travel long distances attached to floating debris. This phenomenon will likely exacerbate the introduction of exotic species into novel habitats.

RevDate: 2019-11-16

Tshabalala T, Ncube B, Madala NE, et al (2019)

Scribbling the Cat: A Case of the "Miracle" Plant, Moringa oleifera.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 8(11): pii:plants8110510.

This paper reviews the properties of the most cultivated species of the Moringaceae family, Moringa oleifera Lam. The paper takes a critical look at the positive and the associated negative properties of the plant, with particular emphasis on its chemistry, selected medicinal and nutritional properties, as well as some ecological implications of the plant. The review highlights the importance of glucosinolates (GS) compounds which are relatively unique to the Moringa species family, with glucomoriginin and its acylated derivative being the most abundant. We highlight some new research findings revealing that not all M. oleifera cultivars contain an important flavonoid, rutin. The review also focuses on phenolic acids, tannin, minerals and vitamins, which are in high amounts when compared to most vegetables and fruits. Although there are numerous benefits of using M. oleifera for medicinal purposes, there are reports of contraindications. Nonetheless, we note that there are no major harmful effects of M. oleifera that have been reported by the scientific community. M. oleifera is suspected to be potentially invasive and moderately invasive in some regions of the world because of its ability to grow in a wide range of environmental conditions. However, the plant is currently classified as a low potential invasive species and thus there is a need to constantly monitor the species. Despite the numerous benefits associated with the plant, there is still a paucity of data on clinical trials proving both the positive and negative effects of the plant. We recommend further clinical trials to ascertain the properties associated with the plant, especially regarding long term use.

RevDate: 2019-11-16

Grewell BJ, Gillard MB, Futrell CJ, et al (2019)

Seedling Emergence from Seed Banks in Ludwigia hexapetala-Invaded Wetlands: Implications for Restoration.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 8(11): pii:plants8110451.

Soil seed banks play a critical role in the maintenance of wetland plant communities and contribute to revegetation following disturbances. Analysis of the seed bank can therefore inform restoration planning and management. Emergence from seed banks may vary in response to hydrologic conditions and sediment disturbances. To assess the community-level impact of exotic Ludwigia hexapetala on soil seed banks, we compared differences in species composition of standing vegetation among invaded and non-invaded wetlands and the degree of similarity between vegetation and soil seed banks in northern California. To determine potential seed bank recruitment of L. hexapetala and associated plant species, we conducted a seedling emergence assay in response to inundation regime (drawdown vs. flooded) and sediment depth (surface vs. buried). Plant species richness, evenness, and Shannon's H' diversity were substantially lower in standing vegetation at L. hexapetala invaded sites as compared to non-invaded sites. Over 12 months, 69 plant taxa germinated from the seed banks, including L. hexapetala and several other exotic taxa. Seedling density varied among sites, being the highest (10,500 seedlings m-2) in surface sediments from non-invaded sites subjected to drawdown treatments. These results signal the need for invasive plant management strategies to deplete undesirable seed banks for restoration success.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Gallagher MC, Arnold M, Kadaub E, et al (2019)

Competing barnacle species with a time dependent reproduction rate.

Theoretical population biology pii:S0040-5809(19)30181-9 [Epub ahead of print].

A simple competition model with time varying periodic coefficients, in which two species use different reproduction strategies, is explored in this paper. The two species considered comprise a native species which reproduces once a year over a short time period and an invasive species which is capable of reproducing throughout the entire year. A monotonicity property of the model is instrumental for its analysis. The model reveals that the time difference between the peak of reproduction for the two species is a critical factor in determining the outcome of competition between these species. The impact of climate change and an anthropogenic disturbance, comprising the creation of additional substrate, is also investigated using a modified model. The results of this paper describe how climate change will favour the invasive species by reducing the time period between the reproductive peaks of the two species and how the addition of new substrates is likely to endanger a small population of either of the two species, depending on the timing of the introduction of the substrates.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Li X, Sun Z, Tian L, et al (2020)

Effects of spatial expansion between Phragmites australis and Cyperus malaccensis on variations of arsenic and heavy metals in decomposing litters in a typical subtropical estuary (Min River), China.

Chemosphere, 240:124965.

To investigate the effects of spatial expansion between native invasive species (Phragmites australis) and commom native species (Cyperus malaccensis) on variations of micro-elements (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As) in decomposing litters in the Min River estuary, in situ filed decomposition experiment was conducted in P. australis (PA) community (before expansion, BE), C. malaccensis (CM) community (before expansion, BE) and P. australis-C. malaccensis (PA'-CM') community (during expansion, DE) from February 2016 to February 2017 by space-for- time substitution method. Results showed that the decomposition of C. malaccensis were faster than those of P. australis whether at BE stage or at DE stage. The decomposition rate of PA' increased by 24.40% compared to PA whereas the value of CM' decreased by 15.67% compared with CM. The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and As in decomposing litters of P. australis (PA and PA') and C. malaccensis (CM and CM') generally showed increasing tendency and the values in the former were significantly lower than those in the latter (p < 0.05). The physicochemical sorption onto recalcitrant organic fractions and the substrate quality (C/N and M/C ratios) of decomposing litters were two important factors affecting the differences in As/metals variations between species. The levels of Cr in decaying litters increased initially and decreased afterward, and the values in P. australis were significantly higher than those in C. malaccensis (p < 0.05). Whether at BE stage or at DE stage, stocks of As/metals in decomposing litters of P. australis (PA and PA') were generally higher than those of C. malaccensis (CM and CM'). The lower stocks of As/metals in CM or CM' might be more dependent on its lower mass remaining. Compared with PA at BE stage, the accumulation of As/metals in decomposing litters of PA' at DE stage decreased greatly, which might be ascribed to the lower precipitation of metal sulfides in PA'. Stocks of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr in CM' and stocks of Cr in PA' generally evidenced the export of metals from decomposing litter to environment, indicating that the potential exposure risk of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr might be increased as CM was invading by PA. This study found that the spatial expansion between P. australis and C. malaccensis not only altered the stocks of As/metals in decomposing litters but also increased the exposure risk of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr in ecotone. In future, as the ecological functions of ecotone was precisely evaluated during the expansion of the two plants in the Min River estuary, the alterations of litter decomposition rates and the exposure risks of Zn, Ni and Cd caused by CM' should be emphasized.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Giakoumi S, Katsanevakis S, Albano PG, et al (2019)

Management priorities for marine invasive species.

The Science of the total environment, 688:976-982.

Managing invasive alien species is particularly challenging in the ocean mainly because marine ecosystems are highly connected across broad spatial scales. Eradication of marine invasive species has only been achieved when species were detected early, and management responded rapidly. Generalized approaches, transferable across marine regions, for prioritizing actions to control invasive populations are currently lacking. Here, expert knowledge was elicited to prioritize 11 management actions for controlling 12 model species, distinguished by differences in dispersion capacity, distribution in the area to be managed, and taxonomic identity. Each action was assessed using five criteria (effectiveness, feasibility, acceptability, impacts on native communities, and cost), which were combined in an 'applicability' metric. Raising public awareness and encouraging the commercial use of invasive species were highly prioritized, whereas biological control actions were considered the least applicable. Our findings can guide rapid decision-making on prioritizing management options for the control of invasive species especially at early stages of invasion, when reducing managers' response time is critical.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Bremer LL, Wada CA, Medoff S, et al (2019)

Contributions of native forest protection to local water supplies in East Maui.

The Science of the total environment, 688:1422-1432.

Tropical forests provide a suite of benefits including biodiversity, cultural value, and a range of ecosystem services. Globally, there is increasing interest in incentivizing native forest protection as a multi-benefit natural infrastructure strategy to secure clean and ample water supplies. In addition to conversion to agriculture and other non-forest land uses, non-native species invasion represents a major threat to these systems, particularly on islands. Whereas several recent efforts have quantified the benefits of reforestation or avoided agricultural expansion in tropical forest areas, the hydrologic and associated economic benefits of avoided invasion have received less attention. To address this gap, we quantified the benefits of protecting native forest from conversion to non-native forest in East Maui, Hawai'i in terms of groundwater recharge, a highly valued hydrologic ecosystem service that water utilities increasingly seek to co-finance. Compared with two counterfactual invasion scenarios, the groundwater recharge benefits of planned conservation activities reached 40.9 to 146.3 million cubic meters over 100 years depending on invasion rate assumptions. This translated to 2.70 to 137.6 million dollars of cost savings to the water utility in present value terms (achieved through reducing reliance on more expensive water alternatives) under a range of discount rates and water scarcity assumptions. Our results suggest that investing in native forest conservation provides an important hydrologic ecosystem service benefit that complements the range of benefits provided by these ecosystems. These findings demonstrate that co-financing native forest conservation represents an important supply side option in water resources planning.

RevDate: 2019-11-15
CmpDate: 2019-11-15

Šibíková M, Jarolímek I, Hegedüšová K, et al (2019)

Effect of planting alien Robinia pseudoacacia trees on homogenization of Central European forest vegetation.

The Science of the total environment, 687:1164-1175.

Biological homogenization is a process of biodiversity loss driven by the introduction and invasion of widespread species and the extinction of specialized, endemic species. This process has accelerated in recent years due to intensive human activities. We focused our study on large areas of forest vegetation that have not yet been intensively studied. Forest management, especially the planting of alien trees, could play a key role in the homogenization process because alien trees can act as habitat 'transformers' influencing vegetation through creating different environmental conditions. Several types of native forests (hardwood floodplain forests, oak forests, and oak-hornbeam forests) have in many regions been replaced by Robinia pseudoacacia plantations. The huge diversity of native broadleaved deciduous forests in the Pannonian and Carpathian regions, with many local differences and considerable geographical variability, could be exposed to the homogenization process due to the planting of Robinia pseudoacacia. We used 282 paired plots of Robinia pseudoacacia-dominated forests and native forests with a distance of 50-250 m among them under the same environmental conditions to avoid the influence of the variability of local environmental conditions on the forest undergrowth. We found out that the replacement of native forests by plantations of Robinia pseudoacacia plays a crucial role in the homogenization process in forest vegetation by unifying microenvironmental conditions of stands and removing the geographically specified variability of plant communities from previous four classes to single one. The replacement reduced total species pool from 422 to 372 species and supported the occurrence of widespread, generalist plant species in the undergrowth.

RevDate: 2019-11-15
CmpDate: 2019-11-15

Ibarra Caballero JR, Jeon J, Lee YH, et al (2019)

Genomic comparisons of the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, and related tree pathogens highlight an arsenal of pathogenicity related genes.

Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 125:84-92.

Raffaelea lauricola is an invasive fungal pathogen and symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) that has caused widespread mortality to redbay (Persea borbonia) and other Lauraceae species in the southeastern USA. We compare two genomes of R. lauricola (C2646 and RL570) to seven other related Ophiostomatales species including R. aguacate (nonpathogenic close relative of R. lauricola), R. quercus-mongolicae (associated with mortality of oaks in Korea), R. quercivora (associated with mortality of oaks in Japan), Grosmannia clavigera (cause of blue stain in conifers), Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (extremely virulent causal agent of Dutch elm disease), O. ulmi (moderately virulent pathogen that cause of Dutch elm disease), and O. piceae (blue-stain saprophyte of conifer logs and lumber). Structural and functional annotations were performed to determine genes that are potentially associated with disease development. Raffaelea lauricola and R. aguacate had the largest genomes, along with the largest number of protein-coding genes, genes encoding secreted proteins, small-secreted proteins, ABC transporters, cytochrome P450 enzymes, CAZYmes, and proteases. Our results indicate that this large genome size was not related to pathogenicity but was likely lineage specific, as the other pathogens in Raffaelea (R. quercus-mongolicae and R. quercivora) had similar genome characteristics to the Ophiostoma species. A diverse repertoire of wood-decaying enzymes were identified in each of the genomes, likely used for toxin neutralization rather than wood degradation. Lastly, a larger number of species-specific, secondary metabolite, synthesis clusters were identified in R. lauricola suggesting that it is well equipped as a pathogen, which could explain its success as a pathogen of a wide range of lauraceous hosts.

RevDate: 2019-11-15
CmpDate: 2019-11-15

Barker BS, Cocio JE, Anderson SR, et al (2019)

Potential limits to the benefits of admixture during biological invasion.

Molecular ecology, 28(1):100-113.

Species introductions often bring together genetically divergent source populations, resulting in genetic admixture. This geographic reshuffling of diversity has the potential to generate favourable new genetic combinations, facilitating the establishment and invasive spread of introduced populations. Observational support for the superior performance of admixed introductions has been mixed, however, and the broad importance of admixture to invasion questioned. Under most underlying mechanisms, admixture's benefits should be expected to increase with greater divergence among and lower genetic diversity within source populations, though these effects have not been quantified in invaders. We experimentally crossed source populations differing in divergence in the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis. Crosses resulted in many positive (heterotic) interactions, but fitness benefits declined and were ultimately negative at high source divergence, with patterns suggesting cytonuclear epistasis. We explored the literature to assess whether such negative epistatic interactions might be impeding admixture at high source population divergence. Admixed introductions reported for plants came from sources with a wide range of genetic variation, but were disproportionately absent where there was high genetic divergence among native populations. We conclude that while admixture is common in species introductions and often happens under conditions expected to be beneficial to invaders, these conditions may be constrained by predictable negative genetic interactions, potentially explaining conflicting evidence for admixture's benefits to invasion.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

McKinney ML, Gladstone NS, Lentz JG, et al (2019)

Land snail dispersal, abundance and diversity on green roofs.

PloS one, 14(11):e0221135 pii:PONE-D-19-19480.

We present the first major systematic study of land snail diversity on green roofs. We surveyed 27 green roofs and the adjacent ground habitat in six major cities in the southeastern United States. We found a total of 18 species of land snails, with three considered to be non-native or invasive species. The majority of land snails encountered in surveys are widespread, generalist species, typically adapted to open habitats. Twelve of the land snails encountered are "greenhouse" species that are very commonly transported via the horticultural trade. Therefore, we infer that at least some land snail species are introduced to green roofs via initial green roof installation and associated landscaping. The major determinants of snail species richness and abundance are the size of each roof and the quality of green roof maintenance regime.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Qazi S, Iqbal J, JA Khan (2019)

Assessment of the health impact of paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L.), an invasive plant species in Islamabad, Pakistan.

Geospatial health, 14(2):.

This study focuses on the risk of pollen allergy due to paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera L.), an Asian invasive plant species now common in large parts of the world. Pollen plays a key role in the pathogenesis of respiratory allergic diseases, particularly rhinitis and asthma, and Islamabad, a major metropolitan city, is severely affected by allergy owing to B. papyrifera pollen. Due to its seasonality and other relationships with climatic variables, we used remote sensing to monitor the trend of pollen count. We also mapped the localisation of patients affected by pollen allergy using geographic information systems. The maximum likelihood algorithm was applied to SPOT-5 satellite imagery for land use/land cover classification. Temporal analysis of remotely sensed data revealed an increasing trend of paper mulberry density towards the southern and south-western part of Islamabad. Although not evident during rainfall, a clear positive correlation was found between patient count and pollen count. Field survey data and hotspot spatial analysis of allergy patients revealed that residents of Shakerperiyan and Lok Virsa areas (Sectors H-8, I-8, I-9, G-8, G-7 and G-6 in Islamabad) had more pronounced symptoms compared to residents of other sectors. The methodology adopted used in this study can be used to map the distribution of similar invasive species in other parts of the country.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Wei J, Peng L, He Z, et al (2019)

Potential distribution of two invasive pineapple pests under climate change.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The number of global invasive species has significantly increased during the past two centuries due to globalization. The understanding of species invasion under climate change is crucial for sustainable biodiversity conservation, community dynamics, ecosystem function, and resource distribution. Two invasive species, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and D. neobrevipes (Beardsley) have greatly expanded their ranges during recent years. These insects are now considered as extremely serious pests for various plants, especially pineapple. In addition, they are the primary vectors for pineapple wilt associated virus. However, the potential distribution range and management strategies for these pests are unclear.

RESULTS: In this study, potential risk maps were developed for these pests with MaxEnt (maximum entropy) based on occurrence data under different environmental variables. The potential distributions of these pests were projected for 2050s and 2070s under three climate change scenarios as described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Results showed that both pests have similar potential distributions, with high environmental suitability in South America, Africa and South Asia. In addition, potential range expansions or reductions were predicted under different climate change scenarios. The annual mean temperature was the most important factor, accounting for 43.4% of D. brevipes distribution. The minimum temperature of coldest month and mean temperature of coldest quarter was found to be responsible for 90.3% of D. neobrevipes distribution.

CONCLUSION: This research provided a theoretical reference framework to develop policies in the management and control of these invasive pests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Sagoff M (2019)

Fact and value in invasion biology.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Some invasion biologists contend their science has reached a consensus on 4 facts: cost estimates of the effects of nonindigenous species provided in papers by Pimentel et al. are credible; invasive species generally, not just predators, pose significant extinction threats; characteristic biological differences distinguish novel from native species, ecosystems, communities, and processes; and ontological dualism, which distinguishes between natural and anthropogenic processes and influences, plays a useful role in biological inquiry. I contend there is no convincing empirical evidence for any of these propositions. Leading invasion biologists cite their agreement about these propositions as evidence for them and impugn the motives of critics who believe consensus should be based on evidence not the other way around. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Burgess MG, Fredston-Hermann A, Tilman D, et al (2019)

Broadly inflicted stressors can cause ecosystem thinning.

Theoretical ecology, 12(2):207-223.

Many anthropogenic stressors broadly inflict mortality or reduce fecundity, including habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, invasive species, and multispecies harvesting. Here, we show-in four analytical models of interspecies competition-that broadly inflicted stressors disproportionately cause competitive exclusions within groups of ecologically similar species. As a result, we predict that ecosystems become progressively thinner-that is, they have progressively less functional redundancy-as broadly inflicted stressors become progressively more intense. This may negatively affect the temporal stability of ecosystem functions, but it also buffers ecosystem productivity against stress by favoring species less sensitive to the stressors. Our main result follows from the weak limiting similarity principle: species with more similar ecological niches compete more strongly, and their coexistence can be upset by smaller perturbations. We show that stressors can cause indirect competitive exclusions at much lower stressor intensity than needed to directly cause species extinction, consistent with the finding of empirical studies that species interactions are often the proximal drivers of local extinctions. The excluded species are more sensitive to the stressor relative to their ecologically similar competitors. Moreover, broadly inflicted stressors may cause hydra effects-where higher stressor intensity results in higher abundance for a species with lower sensitivity to the stressor than its competitors. Correlations between stressor impacts and ecological niches reduce the potential for indirect competitive exclusions, but they consequently also reduce the buffering effect of ecosystem thinning on ecosystem productivity. Our findings suggest that ecosystems experiencing stress may continue to provision ecosystem services but lose functional redundancy and stability.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Meadley-Dunphy SA, Prior KM, ME Frederickson (2019)

Invasive ants disperse seeds farther than native ants, affecting the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment and survival.

Oecologia pii:10.1007/s00442-019-04553-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Mutualists can vary in the quantity and quality of service which they provide to their partners. Variation in seed disperser quality depends on seed-processing traits, dispersal distance, and deposition location, all of which ultimately affect plant fitness. Here, we compared these aspects of seed dispersal quality between a native and an invasive ant species, and examined how they affect competition and plant performance. Using experimental mesocosm communities, we examined how these two ant species affect the spatial pattern of recruitment and establishment for four myrmecochorous plant species, including one invasive species. We measured the locations of dispersed seedlings relative to ant nests, adult plants, and other dispersed seedlings, as well as measured the effects of location on plant performance. The invasive ant, Myrmica rubra, secondarily dispersed seeds farther from its nests, creating a less clumped pattern of seedling recruitment compared to the native ant, Aphaenogaster rudis. Plant species responded differently to dispersal. Invasive seedlings recruited farther from adult plants than native seedlings, and had higher survival the farther they were from conspecifics. In contrast, native plants had higher survival and grew taller when dispersed farther from invasive plants. We show that seed-dispersing ant partners differ in mutualist quality creating differences in dispersal distance and deposition location that affects a plant's competitive environment. Our results reveal the potential for long-term consequences on plant community structure with changing ant partner identity. We emphasize the need to examine dispersal quality in addition to quantity to uncover the importance of partner identity in structuring communities.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Endress BA, JP Averett (2019)

Dataset of plant community composition in the Zumwalt Prairie Preserve, Oregon, USA.

Data in brief, 27:104690 pii:104690.

These data support the research article: "Non-native species threaten the biotic integrity of the largest remnant Pacific Northwest Bunchgrass prairie in the United States" Endress et al. (2019) [1].The data were collected at the Zumwalt Prairie Preserve (Zumwalt), northeastern Oregon, USA, and include vascular plant species abundance matrices from 123 plots sampled in 2008 and 2009 and the estimated abundance of dominant species in community space.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Zalota AK, Zimina OL, VA Spiridonov (2019)

Combining data from different sampling methods to study the development of an alien crab Chionoecetes opilio invasion in the remote and pristine Arctic Kara Sea.

PeerJ, 7:e7952 pii:7952.

Data obtained using three different types of sampling gear is compared and combined to assess the size composition and density of a non-indigenous snow crab population Chionoecetes opilio in the previously free of alien species Kara Sea benthos. The Sigsbee trawl has small mesh and catches even recently settled crabs. The large bottom trawl is able to catch large crabs, but does not retain younger crabs, due to its large mesh. Video sampling allows the observation of larger crabs, although some smaller crabs can also be spotted. The combined use of such gear could provide full scope data of the existing size groups in a population. The density of the crabs was calculated from the video footage. The highest figures were in Blagopoluchiya Bay at 0.87 crabs/m2, where the settlement seems to be reaching its first peak of population growth after the introduction. High density in the Kara Gates Strait at 0.55 crabs/m2, could be due to the close proximity of the Barents Sea from where the crabs can enter by both larval dispersal and active adult migration. All size groups have been present in most sampled areas, which suggest successful settlement and growth of crabs over a number of years. Again, this was not the case in Blagopoluchiya Bay with high density of small crabs (<30 mm CW), which confirms its recent population growth. Male to female ratio was strikingly different between the bays of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago and west of the Yamal Peninsula (0.8 and 3.8 respectively). Seventy five ovigerous females were caught in 2016, which confirms the presence of a reproducing population in the Kara Sea. The spatial structure of the snow crab population in the Kara Sea is still in the process of formation. The presented data indicates that this process may lead to a complex system, which is based on local recruitment and transport of larvae from the Barents Sea and across the western Kara shelf; formation of nursery grounds; active migration of adults and their concentration in the areas of the shelf with appropriate feeding conditions.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Heger T, Bernard-Verdier M, Gessler A, et al (2019)

Towards an Integrative, Eco-Evolutionary Understanding of Ecological Novelty: Studying and Communicating Interlinked Effects of Global Change.

Bioscience, 69(11):888-899.

Global change has complex eco-evolutionary consequences for organisms and ecosystems, but related concepts (e.g., novel ecosystems) do not cover their full range. Here we propose an umbrella concept of "ecological novelty" comprising (1) a site-specific and (2) an organism-centered, eco-evolutionary perspective. Under this umbrella, complementary options for studying and communicating effects of global change on organisms, ecosystems, and landscapes can be included in a toolbox. This allows researchers to address ecological novelty from different perspectives, e.g., by defining it based on (a) categorical or continuous measures, (b) reference conditions related to sites or organisms, and (c) types of human activities. We suggest striving for a descriptive, non-normative usage of the term "ecological novelty" in science. Normative evaluations and decisions about conservation policies or management are important, but require additional societal processes and engagement with multiple stakeholders.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Bueno-Villegas J, Sierwald P, AA DE Ascenção (2019)

Check list of the Venezuelan millipedes species.

Zootaxa, 4686(2):zootaxa.4686.2.1 pii:zootaxa.4686.2.1.

Here we provide a checklist of millipedes described or recorded in the literature from Venezuela. The diplopod fauna is comprised of eight orders, 18 families, 54 genera, and 157 species. The millipede orders Glomerida, Chordeumatida, Julida, Siphoniulida, and Platydesmida (known elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere) are not, as of yet, reported from the Venezuelan fauna. Two widely distributed invasive species, Asiomorpha coarctata and Oxidus gracilis, were recorded from Venezuela. All species records listed here contain comprehensive citation and synonymy lists. Numerous locality data are questionable and are discussed. For most species, the supposed deposition of the type specimens is given. However, the museum and gender information is taken mostly from the literature as the type specimen themselves were not examined. An analysis of records extracted from GBIF in 2016 and in 2018 was conducted and compared to the data captured from the published taxonomic literature. The data in this checklist are summarized online at the MilliBase website.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Korovchinsky NM, SE Arnott (2019)

Taxonomic resolution of the North American invasive species of the genus Bythotrephes Leydig, 1860 (Crustacea: Cladocera: Cercopagididae).

Zootaxa, 4691(2):zootaxa.4691.2.2 pii:zootaxa.4691.2.2.

The invasive species of the genus Bythotrephes introduced in the North American lakes in 1970s-early 1980s was named variously either B. cederstroemi or B. longimanus. The investigation of individuals of the genus from 15 Canadian lakes has allowed us to identify all of them as B. cederströmii Schödler, based on the detailed taxonomic redescription of the Eurasian representatives of the species. The available documented data (figures and photographs) on Bythotrephes from other North American lakes, made it possible to recognize their identity with this species as well. The possible introduction of interspecific hybrids of the genus Bythotrephes in the North American lakes has not been confirmed.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Eyer PA, Blumenfeld AJ, EL Vargo (2019)

Sexually antagonistic selection promotes genetic divergence between males and females in an ant.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1906568116 [Epub ahead of print].

Genetic diversity acts as a reservoir for potential adaptations, yet selection tends to reduce this diversity over generations. However, sexually antagonistic selection (SAS) may promote diversity by selecting different alleles in each sex. SAS arises when an allele is beneficial to one sex but harmful to the other. Usually, the evolution of sex chromosomes allows each sex to independently reach different optima, thereby circumventing the constraint of a shared autosomal genome. Because the X chromosome is found twice as often in females than males, it represents a hot spot for SAS, offering a refuge for recessive male-beneficial but female-costly alleles. Hymenopteran species do not have sex chromosomes; females are diploid and males are haploid, with sex usually determined by heterozygosity at the complementary sex-determining locus. For this reason, their entire genomes display an X-linked pattern, as every chromosome is found twice as often in females than in males, which theoretically predisposes them to SAS in large parts of their genome. Here we report an instance of sexual divergence in the Hymenoptera, a sexually reproducing group that lacks sex chromosomes. In the invasive ant Nylanderia fulva, a postzygotic SAS leads daughters to preferentially carry alleles from their mothers and sons to preferentially carry alleles from their grandfathers for a substantial region (∼3%) of the genome. This mechanism results in nearly all females being heterozygous at these regions and maintains diversity throughout the population, which may mitigate the effects of a genetic bottleneck following introduction to an exotic area and enhance the invasion success of this ant.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Abbate CE, B Fischer (2019)

Don't Demean "Invasives": Conservation and Wrongful Species Discrimination.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(11): pii:ani9110871.

It is common for conservationists to refer to non-native species that have undesirable impacts on humans as "invasive". We argue that the classification of any species as "invasive" constitutes wrongful discrimination. Moreover, we argue that its being wrong to categorize a species as invasive is perfectly compatible with it being morally permissible to kill animals-assuming that conservationists "kill equally". It simply is not compatible with the double standard that conservationists tend to employ in their decisions about who lives and who dies.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Dalmon A, Gayral P, Decante D, et al (2019)

Viruses in the Invasive Hornet Vespa velutina.

Viruses, 11(11): pii:v11111041.

The Asian yellow-legged hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax, a major predator of honeybees, is spreading in Europe in part due to a lack of efficient control methods. In this study, as a first step to identify biological control agents, we characterized viral RNA sequences present in asymptomatic or symptomatic hornets. Among 19 detected viruses, the honey bee virus Deformed wing virus-B was predominant in all the samples, particularly in muscles from the symptomatic hornet, suggesting a putative cause of the deformed wing symptom. Interestingly, two new viruses closely related to Acyrthosiphon pisumvirus and Himetobi Pvirus and viruses typically associated with honey bees, Acute bee paralysis virus and Black queen cell virus, were detected in the brain and muscles, and may correspond to the circulation and possible replication forms of these viruses in the hornet. Aphid lethal paralysis virus, Bee Macula-like virus, and Moku virus, which are known to infect honey bees, were also identified in the gut virus metagenome of hornets. Therefore, our study underlined the urgent need to study the host range of these newly discovered viruses in hornets to determine whether they represent a new threat for honey bees or a hope for the biocontrol of V. velutina.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Breuil M, Vuillaume B, Schikorski D, et al (2019)

A story of nasal horns: two new subspecies of Iguana Laurenti, 1768 (Squamata, Iguanidae) in Saint Lucia, St Vincent amp; the Grenadines, and Grenada (southern Lesser Antilles).

Zootaxa, 4608(2):zootaxa.4608.2.1 pii:zootaxa.4608.2.1.

The Lesser Antilles, in the Eastern Caribbean, were long considered to have only two species in the genus Iguana Laurenti 1768: the Lesser Antillean iguana Iguana delicatissima, which is endemic to parts of the Lesser Antilles, and the Common green iguana Iguana iguana, which also occurs throughout Central and South America. No subspecies are currently recognised. However, herpetologists and reptile collectors have pointed out strong physical differences between some of the island populations of Iguana iguana and those from the continent. Drawing on both morphological and genetic data, this paper describes two subspecies of the Common green iguana Iguana iguana from the southern Lesser Antilles, specifically the countries of Saint Lucia Iguana iguana sanctaluciae and Iguana iguana insularis from St Vincent the Grenadines, and Grenada. The form on the island of Saint Vincent has not been identified. The new subspecies are described based on the following unique combination of characters: Presence of high median and medium to small lateral horns on the snout; Small subtympanic plate not exceeding 20% of the eardrum size; Two or three scales of decreasing size anterior to the subtympanic plate; Fewer than ten small to medium triangular gular spikes; Medium sized dewlap; Low number of small to medium dispersed nuchal tubercles; Dark brown iris, with the white of the eye visible; Oval, prominent nostril; Short and relatively flat head; High dorsal spines; No swelling of the jowls in reproductively active males. Iguana iguana sanctaluciae has in adults vertical black stripes on body and tail and a black dewlap whereas Iguana iguana insularis is pale grey or creamy white in adults. Both subspecies are globally threatened by unsustainable hunting (including the pet trade) and by invasive alien species, including hybridization from invasive iguanas from South and Central America (I. iguana iguana and I. rhinolopha, considered here as full species) that have become established in all three countries. The authors call for stronger measures to conserve the remaining purebred Iguana i. insularis and Iguana i. sanctaluciae ssp. nov. throughout their ranges and for further research to identify other cryptic species and subspecies of Iguana in the Lesser Antilles.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Kirichenko N, Triberti P, Akulov E, et al (2019)

Exploring species diversity and host plant associations of leaf-mining micromoths (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in the Russian Far East using DNA barcoding.

Zootaxa, 4652(1):zootaxa.4652.1.1 pii:zootaxa.4652.1.1.

The Russian Far East (RFE) is an important hotspot of biodiversity whose insect fauna remains understudied, particularly its Microlepidoptera. Here we explore the diversity of leaf-mining micromoths of the family Gracillariidae, their distribution and host plant associations in RFE using a combination of field observations and sampling, DNA barcoding, morphological analysis and literature review. We collected 91 gracillariid specimens (45 larvae, 9 pupae and 37 adults) in 12 localities across RFE and identified 34 species using a combination of DNA barcoding and morphology. We provide a genetic library of 57 DNA barcodes belonging to 37 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), including four BINs that could potentially represent species new to science. Leaf mines and leaf shelters are described and illustrated for 32 studied species, male or female genitalia as well as forewing patterns of adults are shown, especially for those species identified based on morphology. Three species, Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering), Callisto insperatella (Nickerl), and Phyllonorycter junoniella (Zeller) are newly recorded from RFE. Five species previously known from some regions of RFE, were found for the first time in Amurskaya Oblast: Phyllonorycter populifoliella (Treitschke), Primorskii Krai: Ph. sorbicola Kumata and Sahkalin Island: Caloptilia heringi Kumata, Ph. ermani (Kumata) and Ph. ulmifoliella (Hübner). Eight gracillariid-plant associations are novel to science: Caloptilia gloriosa Kumata on Acer pseudosieboldianum, Cameraria niphonica Kumata on A. caudatum subsp. ukurundense, Parornix ermolaevi Kuznetzov on Corylus sieboldiana, Phyllonorycter ermani (Kumata) on Betula platyphylla, Ph. nipponicella (Issiki) on Quercus mongolica, Ph. orientalis (Kumata) and Ph. pseudojezoniella Noreika on Acer saccharum, Ph. sorbicola on Prunus maakii. For the first time we documented the "green island" phenotype on Phyllonorycter cavella (Zeller) mines on Betula platyphylla. Two pestiferous species have been recorded during our surveys: Micrurapteryx caraganella on ornamental Caragana arborescens in urban plantations in Amurskaya Oblast, and the lime leafminer Phyllonorycter issikii (Kumata), a species known to be native to RFE and invasive elsewhere in Russia and in European countries. A revised checklist of RFE gracillariids has been compiled. It accounts for 135 species among which 17 species (13%) are only known to occur in RFE. The gracillariid fauna of RFE is more similar to the Japanese fauna (49%), than to the fauna of the rest of Russia (i.e European part and Siberia) (32%).

RevDate: 2019-11-13

LaPOLLA JS, RJ Kallal (2019)

Nylanderia of the World Part III: Nylanderia in the West Indies.

Zootaxa, 4658(3):zootaxa.4658.3.1 pii:zootaxa.4658.3.1.

The diversity of the formicine ant genus Nylanderia is currently underestimated and largely undescribed. This includes the faunas of tropical regions where species richness is typically high. Here, the taxonomy of the West Indian Nylanderia fauna is revised for the first time. Fourteen new species are described, bringing the total number of species known from the region to 22. The new species are: N. bibadia, sp. nov., N. caerula, sp. nov., N. coveri, sp. nov., N. disatra, sp. nov., N. esperanza, sp. nov., N. fuscaspecula, sp. nov., N. lucayana, sp. nov., N. metacista, sp. nov., N. pini, sp. nov., N. semitincta, sp. nov., N. sierra, sp. nov., N. wardi, sp. nov., N. xestonota, sp. nov., and N. zaminyops, sp. nov. There are several introduced species in the region including the globally widespread Old World species N. bourbonica. Other introduced species are N. fulva, N. pubens, N. guatemalensis, and N. steinheili. The following new synonyms are proposed: fulva Mayr 1862 (= fulva cubana Santschi 1930); steinheili Forel 1893 (= steinheili minuta Forel 1893). An identification key is provided for the workers of Nylanderia found in the West Indies. Photomontage images are provided for the worker of each species and when available photomontage and SEM images are provided for males. This work represents another step forward in understanding the diversity of this widespread and commonly encountered ant genus.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Mifsud D, M Daccordi (2019)

Colaphellus palaestinus Achard, a new leaf-beetle for Europe (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae).

Zootaxa, 4565(3):zootaxa.4565.3.13 pii:zootaxa.4565.3.13.

Colaphellus palaestinus Achard, an alien invasive species is here reported for the first time for Europe. It was found for the first time in Malta in November 2017, and the year after thousands of individuals were observed in Malta with many photographs posted in social media and local news. Global distribution of this species and information on closely related species is also provided here. Colaphellus zarudnyi Medvedev is probably a synonym of C. palaestinus.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Sepúlveda TA, CJB Carvalho (2019)

Chaetonerius Hendel (Neriidae: Diptera) from the East African islands with description of four new species from Madagascar and the Comoros.

Zootaxa, 4567(1):zootaxa.4567.1.7 pii:zootaxa.4567.1.7.

Except for the introduced species, Telostylinus lineolatus Wiedemann, all Neriidae occurring in the Ethiopian Region belong to the genus Chaetonerius Hendel and only one species, C. alluaudi (Giglio-Tos), is known from the East African islands, described from Seychelles and also recorded for Madagascar and Mauritius. Herein, we describe four new species of Chaetonerius from the East African islands, including the first species of Neriidae from the Comoros (C. kotrbae sp. n.) and three new species from Madagascar (C. ebejeri sp. n., C. kirkspriggsi sp. n. and C. madagasikara sp. n.). Additionally, a redescription of C. alluaudi (Giglio-Tos) with new record for Réunion and a key for identification of Chaetonerius from the East African islands are provided.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Normark BB, Okusu A, Morse GE, et al (2019)

Phylogeny and classification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae).

Zootaxa, 4616(1):zootaxa.4616.1.1 pii:zootaxa.4616.1.1.

Armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) are major economic pests and are among the world's most invasive species. Here we describe a system of specimen and identification management that establishes a basis for well-vouchered molecular identification. We also present an expanded Bayesian phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated fragments of 4 genetic loci: the large ribosomal subunit (28S), elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α), cytochrome oxidase I and II (COI‒II), and the small ribosomal subunit (16S) of the primary endosymbiont, Uzinura diaspidicola (Bacteroidetes: Flavobacteriales). Our sample includes 1,389 individuals, representing 11 outgroup species and at least 311 described and 61 undescribed diaspidid species. The results broadly support Takagi's 2002 classification but indicate that some revisions are needed. We propose a revised classification recognizing 4 subfamilies: Ancepaspidinae Borchsenius, new rank, Furcaspidinae Balachowsky, new rank, Diaspidinae Targioni Tozzetti, and Aspidiotinae Westwood. Within Aspidiotinae, in addition to the existing tribes Aspidiotini Westwood, Parlatoriini Leonardi, Odonaspidini Ferris, Leucaspidini Atkinson, and Smilacicolini Takagi, we recognize as tribes Gymnaspidini Balachowsky, new rank, and Aonidiini Balachowsky, new rank. Within Diaspidinae we recognize the 2 tribes Lepidosaphidini Shimer and Diaspidini Targioni Tozzetti, and within Diaspidini we recognize three subtribes: Diaspidina Targioni Tozzetti, Fioriniina Leonardi, and Chionaspidina Brues Melander. We regard Kuwanaspidina Borchsenius as a junior synonym of Fioriniina, Thysanaspidini Takagi as a junior synonym of Leucaspidini, and Protodiaspidina Takagi and Ulucoccinae Takagi as junior synonyms of Chionaspidina. To clarify the composition of the higher taxa we describe 2 new genera for Australian species heretofore misplaced in the genus Ancepaspis Ferris: Brimblecombia Normark (Aonidiini) and Hendersonaspis Normark (Leucaspidini). We also propose many additional minor modifications to the taxonomy of Diaspididae, including the following new combinations, revived combinations, and replacement names: Aonidia edgerleyi (Mamet), new combination (from Bigymnaspis Balachowsky); Aonidomytilus espinosai Porter, revived combination (from Porterinaspis González); Aspidiotus badius (Brain), new combination (this and the next 5 Aspidiotus species all from Aonidia Targioni Tozzetti); Aspidiotus biafrae (Lindinger), new combination; Aspidiotus chaetachmeae (Brain), new combination; Aspidiotus laticornis (Balachowsky), new combination; Aspidiotus rhusae (Brain), new combination; Aspidiotus sclerosus (Munting), new combination; Brimblecombia asperata (Brimblecombe), new combination (this and the next 5 Brimblecombia species all from Ancepaspis); Brimblecombia longicauda (Brimblecombe), new combination; Brimblecombia magnicauda (Brimblecombe), new combination; Brimblecombia reticulata (Brimblecombe), new combination; Brimblecombia rotundicauda (Brimblecombe), new combination; Brimblecombia striata (Brimblecombe), new combination; Cooleyaspis pseudomorpha (Leonardi), new combination (from Dinaspis Leonardi); Cupidaspis wilkeyi (Howell Tippins), new combination (from Paracupidaspis Howell Tippins); Cupressaspis isfarensis Borchsenius, revived combination (this species, the next 2 species in Cupressaspis Borchsenius, revived genus, and the next 9 species in Diaspidiotus Cockerell all from Aonidia); Cupressaspis mediterranea (Lindinger), revived combination; Cupressaspis relicta (Balachowsky), new combination; Diaspidiotus atlanticus (Ferris), new combination; Diaspidiotus marginalis (Brain), new combination; Diaspidiotus maroccanus (Balachowsky), new combination; Diaspidiotus mesembryanthemae (Brain), new combination; Diaspidiotus opertus (De Lotto), new combination; Diaspidiotus shastae (Coleman), new combination; Diaspidiotus simplex (Leonardi), new combination; Diaspidiotus visci (Hall), new combination; Diaspidiotus yomae (Munting), new combination; Diaspis arundinariae (Tippins Howell), new combination (from Geodiaspis Tippins Howell); Duplachionaspis arecibo (Howell), new combination (this and the next 10 Duplachionaspis MacGillivray species all from Haliaspis Takagi); Duplachionaspis asymmetrica Ferris, revived combination; Duplachionaspis distichlii (Ferris), revived combination; Duplachionaspis litoralis Ferris, revived combination; Duplachionaspis mackenziei McDaniel, revived combination; Duplachionaspis milleri (Howell), new combination; Duplachionaspis nakaharai (Howell), new combination; Duplachionaspis peninsularis (Howell), new combination; Duplachionaspis spartinae (Comstock), revived combination; Duplachionaspis texana (Liu Howell) new combination; Duplachionaspis uniolae (Takagi), new combination; Duplachionaspis mutica (Williams) (from Aloaspis Williams), new combination; Epidiaspis doumtsopi (Schneider), new combination (from Diaspis Costa); Fiorinia ficicola (Takahashi), new combination (from Ichthyaspis Takagi); Fiorinia macroprocta (Leonardi), revived combination (this and the next 2 species of Fiorinia Targioni Tozzetti all from Trullifiorinia Leonardi); Fiorinia rubrolineata Leonardi, revived combination; Fiorinia scrobicularum Green, revived combination; Genaparlatoria pseudaspidiotus (Lindinger), revived combination (from Parlatoria); Greeniella acaciae (Froggatt), new combination (this and the next 4 Greeniella Cockerell species all from Gymnaspis Newstead); Greeniella cassida (Hall Williams), new combination; Greeniella grandis (Green), new combination; Greeniella perpusilla (Maskell), new combination; Greeniella serrata (Froggatt), new combination; Hendersonaspis anomala (Green), new combination (from Ancepaspis); Hulaspis bulba (Munting), new combination (this and the next Hulaspis Hall species both from Andaspis MacGillivray); Hulaspis formicarum (Ben-Dov), new combination; Lepidosaphes antidesmae (Rao in Rao Ferris), new combination (this and the next 19 species all from Andaspis); Lepidosaphes arcana (Matile-Ferrero), new combination; Lepidosaphes betulae (Borchsenius), new combination; Lepidosaphes citricola (Young Hu), new combination; Lepidosaphes conocarpi (Takagi), new combination; Lepidosaphes crawi (Cockerell), revived combination; Lepidosaphes erythrinae Rutherford, revived combination; Lepidosaphes incisor Green, revived combination; Lepidosaphes indica (Borchsenius), new combination; Lepidosaphes kashicola Takahashi, revived combination; Lepidosaphes kazimiae (Williams), new combination; Lepidosaphes laurentina (Almeida), new combination; Lepidosaphes maai (Williams Watson), new combination; Lepidosaphes mackieana McKenzie, revived combination; Lepidosaphes micropori (Borchsenius), new combination; Lepidosaphes punicae Laing, revived combination; Lepidosaphes quercicola (Borchsenius), new combination; Lepidosaphes recurrens (Takagi Kawai), new combination; Lepidosaphes viticis (Takagi), new combination; Lepidosaphes xishuanbannae (Young Hu), new combination; Lepidosaphes giffardi (Adachi Fullaway), new combination (from Carulaspis MacGillivray); Lepidosaphes garciniae (Young Hu), new combination (this and the next 2 species all from Ductofrontaspis Young Hu); Lepidosaphes huangyangensis (Young Hu), new combination; Lepidosaphes jingdongensis (Young Hu), new combination; Lepidosaphes recurvata (Froggatt), revived combination (from Metandaspis Williams); Lepidosaphes ficicola Takahashi, revived combination (this and the next 2 species all from Ungulaspis MacGillivray); Lepidosaphes pinicolous Chen, revived combination; Lepidosaphes ungulata Green, revived combination; Lepidosaphes serrulata (Ganguli), new combination (from Velataspis Ferris); Lepidosaphes huyoung Normark, replacement name for Andaspis ficicola Young Hu; Lepidosaphes tangi Normark, replacement name for Andaspis schimae Tang; Lepidosaphes yuanfeng Normark, replacement name for Andaspis keteleeriae Yuan Feng; Leucaspis ilicitana (Gómez-Menor), new combination (from Aonidia); Lopholeucaspis spinomarginata (Green), new combination (from Gymnaspis); Melanaspis campylanthi (Lindinger), new combination (from Aonidia); Mohelnaspis bidens (Green), new combination (from Fiorinia); Parlatoria affinis (Ramakrishna Ayyar), new combination (this and the next 4 Parlatoria species all from Gymnaspis); Parlatoria ficus (Ramakrishna Ayyar), new combination; Parlatoria mangiferae (Ramakrishna Ayyar), new combination; Parlatoria ramakrishnai (Green), new combination; Parlatoria sclerosa (Munting), new combination; Parlatoria bullata (Green), new combination (from Bigymnaspis); Parlatoria leucaspis (Lindinger), new combination (this and the next species both from Cryptoparlatorea Lindinger); Parlatoria pini (Takahashi), new combination; Parlatoria tangi Normark, replacement name for Parlatoria pini Tang; Pseudoparlatoria bennetti (Williams), new combination (from Parlagena McKenzie); Pseudoparlatoria chinchonae (McKenzie), new combination (from Protodiaspis Cockerell); Pseudoparlatoria larreae (Leonardi), revived combination (from Protargionia Leonardi); Quernaspis lepineyi (Balachowsky), new combination (from Chionaspis); Rhizaspidiotus nullispinus (Munting), new combination (from Aonidia); Rolaspis marginalis (Leonardi), new combination (from Lepidosaphes); Salicicola lepelleyi (De Lotto), new combination (from Anotaspis Ferris); Tecaspis giffardi (Leonardi), new combination (from Dinaspis); Trullifiorinia geijeriae (Froggatt), new combination (from Fiorinia); Trullifiorinia nigra (Lindinger), new combination (from Crypthemichionaspis Lindinger); and Voraspis olivina (Leonardi), new combination (from Lepidosaphes).

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Gadallah SM, Nasser MG, Farag SM, et al (2019)

Deroplax silphoides (Thunberg, 1783) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) Invasive Species in Egypt with additional morphological and behavioral data.

Zootaxa, 4624(3):zootaxa.4624.3.7 pii:zootaxa.4624.3.7.

Invasive species continue to be a noteworthy risk to a wide range of biological systems and species diversity throughout the world. At present, accessible data about invasive species in Egypt are still insufficient despite the genuine danger these species pose to the Egyptian environment, economy and human well-being. The present study adds new distribution records of the invasive scutellerid species, Deroplax silphoides (Thunberg, 1783), to the Egyptian fauna. In 2008, this bug was first observed in Egypt in South Sinai, followed by Giza in 2016. Recently, hundreds of specimens were reported from Cairo in 2018. A new host plant, Chrysanthemum morifolium L. (Asteraceae), is reported for this bug. This work also provides additional information about the male and female genitalia. New characteristic features, photos, examined material, map of its world distribution, ecological and behavioral notes are also provided. Moreover, egg sculpturing of Deroplax silphoides was examined for the first time.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Korda M, Csóka GY, Szabó Á, et al (2019)

First occurrence and description of Aceria fraxiniflora (Felt, 1906) Acariformes: Eriophyoidea) from Europe.

Zootaxa, 4568(2):zootaxa.4568.2.5 pii:zootaxa.4568.2.5.

Aceria fraxiniflora (Felt, 1906) is reported from Europe for the first time. This mite has never been described before and we therefore describe and illustrate the female and the nymph. The species was collected from the galled inflorescences and fruits of the introduced species Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae) in Hungary, and from Fraxinus americana L. in Indiana, USA.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Dessouassi CE, Lalèyè PA, CD D'Acoz (2019)

First record of the globally invasive crab, Charybdis hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867), in Benin, with notes on its taxonomy (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae).

Zootaxa, 4576(2):zootaxa.4576.2.1 pii:zootaxa.4576.2.1.

The Indo-Pacific portunid, Charybdis hellerii (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867), is a crab species native to the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans and has previously colonized the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Atlantic. It is now recorded in the Eastern Atlantic, on the coast of Benin, where a thriving population has established. This invasive and widely distributed species exhibits morphological variations within and between populations, which are discussed in detail. Its current distribution is presented, and its future expansion along the West African coast and future impact on coastal ecosystems and local fisheries are the object of tentative forecasts. Illustrations of sexually mature specimens from different sizes and regions are presented, and their allometric, individual and geographical variations are discussed. A new synonymy and a new account on the taxonomy and the biology of the species are presented. Illustrations of the lectotype and the paralectotype of C. hellerii are also provided for the first time. Charybdis spinifera (Miers, 1884), C. merguiensis (De Man, 1887) and C. vannamei Ward, 1941 are here treated as subjective junior synonyms of C. hellerii. The holotype of C. spinifera and two syntypes of C. merguiensis are illustrated.

RevDate: 2019-11-13
CmpDate: 2019-11-13

Janssen N, Werner D, H Kampen (2019)

Population genetics of the invasive Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) in Germany-a re-evaluation in a time period of separate populations merging.

Parasitology research, 118(9):2475-2484.

The Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus, endemic to East Asia, is one of the most expansive mosquito species in the world and has as yet established in 15 countries of Europe. Within Germany, the species has been spreading tremendously during the last years, and its four once geographically isolated populations were on the verge of merging in 2017. To reveal relationships and carry-over ways between the various populations, and thus, migration and displacement routes, the genetic make-up of Ae. japonicus from ten different locations throughout its German distribution area was investigated. For this purpose, a part of the mitochondrial DNA (nad4 gene) of collected specimens was sequenced and seven loci of short tandem repeats (microsatellites) were genotyped. When related to similar genetic studies carried out between 2012 and 2015, the results suggest that admixtures had since occurred, but no complete genetic mixture of populations had taken place. At the time of sampling for the present study, the western collection sites were still uniform in their genetic make-up; however, a carry-over of individuals from the southeastern to the northern and southwestern German populations was determined. Further introductions from abroad are possible. In summary, the genetic diversity of Ae. japonicus in Germany had grown considerably, thus increasing ecological variability and adaptability of the species. At this point (10 years after the first detection), it is not possible anymore to draw conclusions on the origins of the populations.

RevDate: 2019-11-12

Branco CWC, Leal JJF, Huszar VLM, et al (2019)

New lake in a changing world: the construction and filling of a small hydropower reservoir in the tropics (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-019-06665-y [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has affected rainfall patterns in tropical regions, where simultaneous demands for water and energy, habitat loss, declining biodiversity, and spread of invasive species have reflected a rapidly changing world underway. In Brazil, hydropower generation accounts for 64% of the electricity matrix, which presently includes 1007 small hydropower plants (SHPs) having many others under construction or planned. This paper aimed to evaluate changes in water quality, plankton communities, and benthic macroinvertebrates during dam construction, filling, and the first year of operation of a SHP. Suspended solids, turbidity, and silica were variables that highlighted the impact of this construction on the river. Fast changes in water quality (increases in calcium, chlorides, and nitrate) and on aquatic communities (i.e. euglenophyceans and testate amoebae increased in numbers) were detected during the filling phase. Following SHP construction, the concentrations of metals and total phosphorus tended to decrease. Two striking findings observed in the aquatic communities from the riverine conditions to the new lake were the increase in picocyanobacteria abundance, expanding population stocks throughout the river basin, and the constant presence of the invasive mollusc Corbicula fluminea in the macroinvertebrate assemblage, revealing once again its resistance to environmental variability. The lake soon became a natural trap for ions from the drainage basin, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity, ammonium, potassium, and magnesium concentrations and the abundance of cyanobacteria, highlighting the need for watershed management to improve ecological conditions in the lake.

RevDate: 2019-11-12

Chen F, Ye J, Chio C, et al (2019)

A simplified quick microbial genomic DNA extraction via freeze-thawing cycles.

Molecular biology reports pii:10.1007/s11033-019-05176-w [Epub ahead of print].

Effective isolation of high-quality genomic DNA is one of the essential steps in molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetic studies. Here we describe a simplified procedure based on repeated freeze-thawing cycles to isolate genomic DNA from different organisms of microbes (Burkholderia pyrrocinia JK-SH007, Bacillus pumilus HRl0, Botrytis cinerea) and nematodes (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). The DNA extraction buffer includes 10% of CTAB; 4% of NaCl (W/V); 20 mM of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid; 100 mM of Tris-HCl, pH 8.0 and 1% of polyvinylpyrrolidone. The released DNA was purified from the mixture using a phenol/chloroform mixture and precipitated in 70% ethanol to remove proteins, carbohydrates, phenols, RNA, etc. Our method is a reproducible, simple, and rapid technique for routine DNA extractions from various microorganisms and nematodes. Furthermore, the low cost of this method could be an economic benefit to large-scale studies.

RevDate: 2019-11-12

Grand D, Marinov M, Jourdan H, et al (2019)

Distribution, habitats, phenology and conservation of New Caledonian Odonata.

Zootaxa, 4640(1):zootaxa.4640.1.1 pii:zootaxa.4640.1.1.

Compared to other archipelagos of the Pacific, the New Caledonian Odonata fauna is rich and diverse with 56 valid species or subspecies (23 endemics, 41%) from eight families (four Zygoptera: Argiolestidae, Coenagrionidae, Isostictidae, Lestidae, and four Anisoptera: Aeshnidae, Corduliidae, Synthemistidae, Libellulidae) and 31 genera (including four endemics, 13%). In Zygoptera, we record 19 species including 12 endemics (63%), and among Anisoptera, we record 37 species or subspecies, including 11 endemics (30%). We removed five species from the list that had been erroneously recorded as occurring in New Caledonia: Tramea carolina (Linnaeus, 1763), Austroargiolestes icteromelas (Selys-Longchamps, 1862), Ischnura torresiana Tillyard, 1913, Xiphiagrion cyanomelas Selys-Longchamps, 1876 and Hemicordulia oceanica Selys-Longchamps, 1871. The occurrence of Tramea limbata (Desjardins, 1835) appears also doubtful, but we were unable to clarify to which taxon this record referred hence we excluded it from our update. From a biogeographic perspective, the New Caledonian fauna has mostly Australian affinities with some connections with southeast Asia and the Pacific region. We provide for each species, whenever information was available, a distribution map with a brief review of its known ecology, behaviour and phenology. We also evaluated each species' conservation status, in light of known threats (range restriction, scarcity and human activity including altered water flow). We consider seventeen species (30%) endangered. The most immediate threats concern water pollution including alteration to the flow of water courses caused by mining, deforestation and fires. Invasive species, such as alien fish, may be predators of concern for odonata larva, although this has not yet been proven in New Caledonia.

RevDate: 2019-11-12

Arregui L, Diaz-Diaz S, Alonso-López E, et al (2019)

Hormonal induction of spermiation in a Eurasian bufonid (Epidalea calamita).

Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E, 17(1):92 pii:10.1186/s12958-019-0537-0.

BACKGROUND: Amphibian diversity is declining at an alarming rate due to habitat loss, invasive species, climate change and diseases. Captive assurance colonies have been established for some species at risk; however, many species do not breed well in captivity and the development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is critical to help sustain genetic diversity. To date, the majority of the work has been accomplished in species from the American continent and Australia, and there is a need to address similar breeding challenges in Eurasian and African species of amphibians.

METHODS: The aim of this study was to develop a hormone protocol for stimulation of spermiation in Epidalea calamita as a model for Eurasian bufonids. Hence, the effect on sperm production and quality of three doses of chorionic gonadotropin hormone (5, 10 and 15 IU hCG/g) over time (1 to 24 h) was evaluated. In addition, cold storage (at 5 °C) of sperm for 24 and 48 h and three frequencies for hormonal treatment (weekly, biweekly and monthly) were examined.

RESULTS: Hormone concentrations of 10 or 15 IU of hCG induced spermiation in 100% of males and produced sperm of comparable quality, while 5 IU hCG stimulated spermiation in only 40% of males. Total motility peaked between 1 to 4 h post-treatment with 10 IU hCG, whereas treatment with 15 IU hCG peaked between 2 to 6 h. After 24 h of cold storage total motility dropped by 20% and forward motility dropped by 10% for both the 10 and 15 IU treatments. Weekly hormone administration resulted in higher variation between trials in all motility parameters and a lower overall Total Motility and Forward Movement. Furthermore, the effect of exogenous hormone treatment overlapped between the last two trials in the weekly frequency. Sperm concentration was higher in the first trial for all frequencies but showed no differences among other trials.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results show that hormone concentration, time after treatment, frequency of hormone treatment and cold storage should be borne in mind when developing a hormone stimulation protocol for Eurasian amphibian species.

RevDate: 2019-11-11

Tucker EK, Zurliene ME, Suski CD, et al (2019)

Gonad development and reproductive hormones of invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) in the Illinois River.

Biology of reproduction pii:5618861 [Epub ahead of print].

Reproduction is a major component of an animal's life history strategy. Species with plasticity in their reproductive biology are likely to be successful as an invasive species, as they can adapt their reproductive effort during various phases of a biological invasion. Silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix), an invasive cyprinid in North America, display wide variation in reproductive strategies across both their native and introduced ranges, though the specifics of silver carp reproduction in the Illinois River have not been established. We assessed reproductive status using histological and endocrinological methods in silver carp between April-October 2018, with additional histological data from August-October 2017. Here we show that female silver carp are batch spawners with asynchronous, indeterminate oocyte recruitment, while male silver carp utilize a determinate pattern of spermatogenesis which ceases in the early summer. High plasma testosterone levels in females could be responsible for regulating oocyte development. Our results suggest that silver carp have high spawning activity in the early summer (May-June), but outside of the peak spawning period, female silver carp can maintain spawning-capable status by adjusting rates of gametogenesis and atresia in response to environmental conditions, while males regress their gonads as early as July. The results of this study are compared to reports of silver carp reproduction in other North American rivers as well as in Asia.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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