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Bibliography on: Corvids: Behavior

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 08 Feb 2023 at 01:40 Created: 

Corvids: Behavior

Audubon Magazine: Members of the crow family, known as the corvids, are among the smartest birds in the world. Some are capable of using tools, playing tricks, teaching each other new things, even holding "funerals." And yet there's still much we don't know about these fascinating, sometimes confounding creatures. All corvids have relatively big brains for their size. But while a seed storer like a Pinyon Jay or a nutcracker has a huge hippocampus — a region involved in memory — crows and ravens are more like primates. They have exceptionally large forebrains, the domain of analytical thought, higher-level sensory processing, and flexible behavior.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( (behavior OR behaviour OR ethology) AND \(corvus[TIAB] OR corvid[TIAB] OR OR corvids[TIAB] OR corvidae[TIAB] OR crow[TIAB] OR crows[TIAB] OR raven[TIAB] OR ravens[TIAB] OR jay[TIAB] OR jays[TIAB] OR magpie[TIAB] OR magpies[TIAB] OR jackdaw[TIAB] OR jackdaws[TIAB]) ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-02-07

Talmi Frank D, Byas AD, Murrieta R, et al (2023)

Intracellular diversity of WNV within circulating avian peripheral blood mononuclear cells reveals host-dependent patterns of polyinfection.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.27.525959.

UNLABELLED: Error-prone replication of RNA viruses generates the genetic diversity required for adaptation within rapidly changing environments. Thus, arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) populations exist in nature as mutant swarms that are maintained between arthropods and vertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that West Nile virus (WNV) population dynamics are host dependent: In American crows, which experience extremely high viremia, purifying selection is weak and population diversity is high compared to American robins, which have 100 to 1000-fold lower viremia. WNV passed in robins experiences fitness gains, whereas that passed in crows does not. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high crow viremia allows higher genetic diversity within individual avian peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), reasoning that this could have produced the previously observed host-specific differences in genetic diversity and fitness. Specifically, we infected cells and birds with a novel, barcoded version of WNV and sequenced viral RNA from single cells to quantify the number of WNV barcodes that each contained. Our results demonstrate that the richness of WNV populations within crows far exceeds that in robins. Similarly, rare WNV variants were maintained by crows more frequently than by robins. Our results suggest that increased viremia in crows relative to robins leads to maintenance of defective genomes and less prevalent variants, presumably through complementation. Our findings further suggest that weaker purifying selection in highly susceptible crows is attributable to this higher viremia, polyinfections and complementation. These studies further document the role of particular, ecologically relevant hosts in shaping virus population structure.

AUTHOR SUMMARY: WNV mutational diversity in vertebrates is species-dependent. In crows, low frequency variants are common, and viral populations are more diverse. In robins, fewer mutations become permanent fixtures of the overall viral population. We infected crows, robins and a chicken cell line with a genetically marked (barcoded) WNV. Higher levels of virus led to multiple unique WNV genomes infecting individual cells, even when a genotype was present at low levels in the input viral stock. Our findings suggest that higher levels of circulating virus in natural hosts allow less fit viruses to survive in RNA virus populations through complementation by more fit viruses. This is significant as it allows less represented and less fit viruses to be maintained at low levels until they potentially emerge when virus environments change. Overall our data reveal new insights on the relationships between host susceptibility to high viremia and virus evolution.

RevDate: 2023-02-06
CmpDate: 2023-02-06

Rahman E, Mosahebi A, Carruthers JDA, et al (2023)

The Efficacy and Duration of Onabotulinum Toxin A in Improving Upper Facial Expression Lines With 64-Unit Dose Optimization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis With Trial Sequential Analysis of the Randomized Controlled Trials.

Aesthetic surgery journal, 43(2):215-229.

BACKGROUND: Onabotulinumtoxin A (Onabot A) was the first treatment to be approved for aesthetic indications, namely glabellar lines (GLs), crow's feet lines (CFLs), and forehead lines (FHLs), with a cumulative dose of 64 U.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to combine the available data for approved doses for GLs, CFLs, and FHLs to explore the effect and duration of simultaneous treatment with Onabot A.

METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and other national clinical trial registries were searched for randomized controlled trials from January 2010 to July 2022. The meta-analysis, trial sequential analysis, and investigator-assessed time to return to nonresponder status in GLs, CFLs, and FHLs following Onabot A were plotted to elicit a cumulative dose-adjusted response curve based on Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test.

RESULTS: Fourteen randomized controlled trials were eligible for quantitative analysis. A total of 8369 subjects were recruited across the trials. The meta-analysis results show that Onabot A is very effective in reducing moderate to severe GLs, CFLs, and FHLs. The cumulative Z-curve for GLs, CFLs, and FHLs also exceeds the required information size (RIS). Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test demonstrated that simultaneous treatment of GLs, CFLs, and FHLs requires 182 days (95% CI = 179, 215 days) (P < 0.00002) to return to nonresponder status.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of the upper facial expression lines with Onabot A is effective, and the approved cumulative dose of 64 U gives longer-lasting effects.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Walsh SL, Engesser S, Townsend SW, et al (2023)

Multi-level combinatoriality in magpie non-song vocalizations.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 20(199):20220679.

Comparative studies conducted over the past few decades have provided important insights into the capacity for animals to combine vocal segments at either one of two levels: within- or between-calls. There remains, however, a distinct gap in knowledge as to whether animal combinatoriality can extend beyond one level. Investigating this requires a comprehensive analysis of the combinatorial features characterizing a species' vocal system. Here, we used a nonlinear dimensionality reduction analysis and sequential transition analysis to quantitatively describe the non-song combinatorial repertoire of the Western Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen dorsalis). We found that (i) magpies recombine four distinct acoustic segments to create a larger number of calls, and (ii) the resultant calls are further combined into larger call combinations. Our work demonstrates two levels in the combining of magpie vocal units. These results are incongruous with the notion that a capacity for multi-level combinatoriality is unique to human language, wherein the combining of meaningless sounds and meaningful words interactively occurs across different combinatorial levels. Our study thus provides novel insights into the combinatorial capacities of a non-human species, adding to the growing evidence of analogues of language-specific traits present in the animal kingdom.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Parsa FR, Bayley S, Bell F, et al (2023)

Epidemiology of protozoan and helminthic parasites in wild passerine birds of Britain and Ireland.

Parasitology pii:S0031182022001779 [Epub ahead of print].

Avian endoparasites play important roles in conservation, biodiversity and host evolution. Currently, little is known about the epidemiology of intestinal helminths and protozoans infecting wild birds of Britain and Ireland. This study aimed to determine the rates of parasite prevalence, abundance and infection intensity in wild passerines. Fecal samples (n = 755) from 18 bird families were collected from 13 sites across England, Wales and Ireland from March 2020 to June 2021. A conventional sodium nitrate flotation method allowed morphological identification and abundance estimation of eggs/oocysts. Associations with host family and age were examined alongside spatiotemporal and ecological factors using Bayesian phylogenetically controlled models. Parasites were detected in 20.0% of samples, with corvids and finches having the highest prevalences and intensities, respectively. Syngamus (33%) and Isospora (32%) were the most prevalent genera observed. Parasite prevalence and abundance differed amongst avian families and seasons, while infection intensity varied between families and regions. Prevalence was affected by diet diversity, while abundance differed by host age and habitat diversity. Infection intensity was higher in birds using a wider range of habitats, and doubled in areas with feeders present. The elucidation of these patterns will increase the understanding of parasite fauna in British and Irish birds.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Hunt GR, P Villard (2023)

Oscillatory extraction behaviour suggests functional attributes of crows' hooked-stick tools.

Animal cognition [Epub ahead of print].

New Caledonian crows are the only nonhuman animals known to craft hooked-sticks for use in foraging. Since their first description over 25 years ago, researchers have been unable to provide a detailed account of how these complex tools function in natural probe sites. Using close-up video footage, we document how a New Caledonian crow operated a hooked-stick to extract a large tree weta from a chamber in a tree trunk. The extraction technique had two distinct, separate components: (1) simultaneous oscillating head rotation and reciprocating bill action, and (2) measured pulling with the tool. Analysis of this first detailed field observation of hooked-stick use suggests a link between hooked-stick tool characteristics, functionality and skilled manipulation in natural prey extraction by these technological birds. Our findings also provide a rare, if not novel, example of tool-associated oscillatory manipulation in nonhuman animals.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Tatebe LC, Ho VP, Santry HP, et al (2023)

Redefining trauma deserts: novel technique to accurately map prehospital transport time.

Trauma surgery & acute care open, 8(1):e001013.

BACKGROUND: Prehospital transport time has been directly related to mortality for hemorrhaging trauma patients. 'Trauma deserts' were previously defined as being outside of a 5-mile radial distance of an urban trauma center. We postulated that the true 'desert' should be based on transport time rather than transport distance.

METHODS: Using the Chicagoland area that was used to describe 'trauma deserts,' a sequential process to query a commercial travel optimization product to map transport times over coordinates that covered the entire urban area at a particular time of day. This produces a heat map representing prehospital transport times. Travel times were then limited to 15 minutes to represent a temporally based map of transport capabilities. This was repeated during high and low traffic times and for centers across the city.

RESULTS: We demonstrated that the temporally based map for transport to a trauma center in an urban center differs significantly from the radial distance to the trauma center. Primary effects were proximity to highways and the downtown area. Transportation to centers were significantly different when time was considered instead of distance (p<0.001). We were further able to map variations in traffic patterns and thus transport times by time of day. The truly 'closest' trauma center by time changed based on time of day and was not always the closest hospital by distance.

DISCUSSION: As the crow flies is not how the ambulance drives. This novel technique of dynamically mapping transport times can be used to create accurate trauma deserts in an urban setting with multiple trauma centers. Further, this technique can be used to quantify the potential benefit or detriment of adding or removing firehouses or trauma centers.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Balasubramanian K, Ramya K, K Gayathri Devi (2023)

Optimized adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based on hybrid grey wolf-bat algorithm for schizophrenia recognition from EEG signals.

Cognitive neurodynamics, 17(1):133-151.

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that impairs a person's thinking capacity, feelings and emotions, behavioural traits, etc., Emotional distortions, delusions, hallucinations, and incoherent speech are all some of the symptoms of schizophrenia, and cause disruption of routine activities. Computer-assisted diagnosis of schizophrenia is significantly needed to give its patients a higher quality of life. Hence, an improved adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based on the Hybrid Grey Wolf-Bat Algorithm for accurate prediction of schizophrenia from multi-channel EEG signals is presented in this study. The EEG signals are pre-processed using a Butterworth band pass filter and wICA initially, from which statistical, time-domain, frequency-domain, and spectral features are extracted. Discriminating features are selected using the ReliefF algorithm and are then forwarded to ANFIS for classification into either schizophrenic or normal. ANFIS is optimized by the Hybrid Grey Wolf-Bat Algorithm (HWBO) for better efficiency. The method is experimented on two separate EEG datasets-1 and 2, demonstrating an accuracy of 99.54% and 99.35%, respectively, with appreciable F1-score and MCC. Further experiments reveal the efficiency of the Hybrid Wolf-Bat algorithm in optimizing the ANFIS parameters when compared with traditional ANFIS model and other proven algorithms like genetic algorithm-ANFIS, particle optimization-ANFIS, crow search optimization algorithm-ANFIS and ant colony optimization algorithm-ANFIS, showing high R[2] value and low RSME value. To provide a bias free classification, tenfold cross validation is performed which produced an accuracy of 97.8% and 98.5% on the two datasets respectively. Experimental outcomes demonstrate the superiority of the Hybrid Grey Wolf-Bat Algorithm over the similar techniques in predicting schizophrenia.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Likhanov M, Bogdanova O, Alenina E, et al (2023)

No evidence of a positive effect of learning Chinese language as an L2 on spatial ability.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1262.

Spatial ability (SA) was shown to be a robust predictor of success in various educational contexts, including STEM. Thus, ways to improve SA are of interest to educational psychology. There is some evidence that SA might be improved via learning character-based language, e.g. Chinese as a second language (CSL), however, the existing research is quite limited. The study aims to investigate an effect of CSL learning on SA in schoolchildren from Year 2 to Year 7. Current study employs a sample of Russian schoolchildren (N = 283), who learnt: English only, English and Spanish; or English and Chinese. Participants completed Raven's progressive matrices and Mental rotation task at the age of 8 and again at the age of 14. Our data showed negligible group differences in the initial SA level at Year 2 (before learning second language). Similar negligible differences were found at Year 7. Regression analysis showed that SA was predicted by intelligence (Raven's) and gender but not language learnt at both ages. This pattern of results indicates that learning a Chinese as a second language is unlikely to affect SA. Further research is needed to investigate whether other factors, such as length, intensity and context of learning, moderate this link.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Thiele JA, Richter A, K Hilger (2023)

Multimodal Brain Signal Complexity Predicts Human Intelligence.

eNeuro pii:ENEURO.0345-22.2022 [Epub ahead of print].

Spontaneous brain activity builds the foundation for human cognitive processing during external demands. Neuroimaging studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) identified specific characteristics of spontaneous (intrinsic) brain dynamics to be associated with individual differences in general cognitive ability, i.e., intelligence. However, fMRI research is inherently limited by low temporal resolution, thus, preventing conclusions about neural fluctuations within the range of milliseconds. Here, we used resting-state electroencephalographical (EEG) recordings from 144 healthy adults to test whether individual differences in intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices scores) can be predicted from the complexity of temporally highly resolved intrinsic brain signals. We compared different operationalizations of brain signal complexity (multiscale entropy, Shannon entropy, Fuzzy entropy, and specific characteristics of microstates) regarding their relation to intelligence. The results indicate that associations between brain signal complexity measures and intelligence are of small effect sizes (r ∼ .20) and vary across different spatial and temporal scales. Specifically, higher intelligence scores were associated with lower complexity in local aspects of neural processing, and less activity in task-negative brain regions belonging to the default-mode network. Finally, we combined multiple measures of brain signal complexity to show that individual intelligence scores can be significantly predicted with a multimodal model within the sample (10-fold cross-validation) as well as in an independent sample (external replication, N = 57). In sum, our results highlight the temporal and spatial dependency of associations between intelligence and intrinsic brain dynamics, proposing multimodal approaches as promising means for future neuroscientific research on complex human traits.Significance StatementSpontaneous brain activity builds the foundation for intelligent processing - the ability of humans to adapt to various cognitive demands. Using resting-state EEG, we extracted multiple aspects of temporally highly resolved intrinsic brain dynamics to investigate their relationship with individual differences in intelligence. Single associations were of small effect sizes and varied critically across spatial and temporal scales. However, combining multiple measures in a multimodal cross-validated prediction model, allows to significantly predict individual intelligence scores in unseen participants. Our study adds to a growing body of research suggesting that observable associations between complex human traits and neural parameters might be rather small and proposes multimodal prediction approaches as promising tool to derive robust brain-behavior relations despite limited sample sizes.

RevDate: 2023-01-19

Zhou L, Lei J, Zhai X, et al (2023)

Chinese striped-neck turtles vocalize underwater and show differences in peak frequency among different age and sex groups.

PeerJ, 11:e14628.

BACKGROUND: Turtle vocalizations play an important role throughout their lives by expressing individual information (position, emotion, or physiological status), reflecting mating preferences, and synchronizing incubation. The Chinese striped-neck turtle (Mauremys sinensis) is one of the most widely distributed freshwater turtles in China, whose wild population is critically endangered. However, its vocalization has not been studied, which can be the basis for behavioral and ecological studies.

METHODS: Five different sex-age groups of turtles were recorded underwater in a soundproof room. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis for classification of Chinese striped-neck turtle calls were unreasonable. The turtle calls were manually sought using visual and aural inspection of the recordings in Raven Pro 1.5 software and classified according to differences perceived through auditory inspection and the morphological characteristics of the spectrograms. The results of similarity analysis verified the reliability of manual classification. We compared the peak frequency of the calls among different age and sex groups.

RESULTS: We identified ten M. sinensis call types, displayed their spectra and waveforms, and described their auditory characteristics. Most calls produced by the turtles were low-frequency. Some high-frequency call types, that are common in other turtle species were also produced. Similar to other turtles, the Chinese striped-neck turtle generates harmonic vocalizations. Courtship behaviors were observed when one of the call types occurred in the mixed-sex group. Adult females produced more high-frequency call types, and subadult males had higher vocalizations than other groups. These results provide a basis for future research on the function of vocalizations, field monitoring, and conservation of this species.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Salaün JP, Chagnot A, Cachia A, et al (2023)

Consequences of General Anesthesia in Infancy on Behavior and Brain Structure.

Anesthesia and analgesia, 136(2):240-250.

BACKGROUND: One in 7 children will need general anesthesia (GA) before the age of 3. Brain toxicity of anesthetics is controversial. Our objective was to clarify whether exposure of GA to the developing brain could lead to lasting behavioral and structural brain changes.

METHODS: A first study was performed in mice. The behaviors (fear conditioning, Y-maze, and actimetry) and brain anatomy (high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging) of 6- to 8-week-old Swiss mice exposed or not exposed to GA from 4 to 10 days old were evaluated. A second study was a complementary analysis from the preexisting APprentissages EXécutifs et cerveau chez les enfants d'âge scolaire (APEX) cohort to assess the replicability of our data in humans. The behaviors (behavior rating inventory of executive function, emotional control, and working memory score, Backward Digit Span, and Raven 36) and brain anatomy (high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging) were compared in 102 children 9 to 10 years of age exposed or not exposed to a single GA (surgery) during infancy.

RESULTS: The animal study revealed chronic exacerbated fear behavior in the adult mice (95% confidence interval [CI], 4-80; P = .03) exposed to postnatal GA; this was associated with an 11% (95% CI, 7.5-14.5) reduction of the periaqueductal gray matter (P = .046). The study in humans suggested lower emotional control (95% CI, 0.33-9.10; P = .06) and a 6.1% (95% CI, 4.3-7.8) reduction in the posterior part of the right inferior frontal gyrus (P = .019) in the children who had been exposed to a single GA procedure.

CONCLUSIONS: The preclinical and clinical findings of these independent studies suggest lasting effects of early life exposure to anesthetics on later emotional control behaviors and brain structures.

RevDate: 2023-01-11

Huber L, L Lonardo (2023)

Canine perspective-taking.

Animal cognition [Epub ahead of print].

An important question in the study of canine cognition is how dogs understand humans, given that they show impressive abilities for interacting and communicating with us. In this review, we describe and discuss studies that have investigated dogs' perspective-taking abilities. There is solid evidence that dogs are not only sensitive to the gaze of others, but also their attention. We specifically address the question whether dogs have the ability to take the perspective of others and thus come to understand what others can or cannot perceive. From the latter, they may then infer what others know and use this representation to anticipate what others do next. Still, dogs might simply rely on directly observable cues and on what they themselves can perceive when they assess what others can perceive. And instead of making inferences from representations of others' mental states, they may have just learned that certain behaviours of ours lead to certain outcomes. However, recent research seems to challenge this low-level explanation. Dogs have solved several perspective-taking tasks instantly and reliably across a large number of variations, including geometrical gaze-following, stealing in the dark, concealing information from others, and Guesser/Knower differentiation. In the latter studies, dogs' choices between two human informants were strongly influenced by cues related to the humans' visual access to the food, even when the two informants behaved identically. And finally, we review a recent study that found dogs reacting differently to misleading suggestions of human informants that have either a true or false belief about the location of food. We discuss this surprising result in terms of the comprehension of reality-incongruent mental states, which is considered as a hallmark of Theory of Mind acquisition in human development. Especially on the basis of the latter findings, we conclude that pet dogs might be sensitive to what others see, know, intend, and believe. Therefore, this ability seems to have evolved not just in the corvid and primate lineages, but also in dogs.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Lima M, Tábuas-Pereira M, Durães J, et al (2023)

Neuropsychological Assessment in the Distinction Between Biomarker Defined Frontal-Variant of Alzheimer's Disease and Behavioral-Variant of Frontotemporal Dementia.

Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD pii:JAD220897 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Frontal-variant of Alzheimer's disease (fvAD) was purposed for patients with AD pathology that, despite the typical amnestic presentation, show early and progressive deterioration of behavior and executive functions, closely resembling the behavioral-variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). This leads to a challenging differential diagnosis where neuropsychological evaluation and in vivo pathological evidence are essential.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment (NP) battery in distinguishing between fvAD-dementia and bvFTD supported by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers.

METHODS: We included 40 patients with a baseline NP profile with prominent early executive and/or behavioral dysfunction, who meet both diagnosis of bvFTD and fvAD-dementia, according to international criteria. All patients underwent comprehensive NP assessment and CSF-AD biomarker evaluation. Neuropsychological domains as well as clinical and sociodemographic features, and APOE genotype were compared between groups.

RESULTS: 21 patients (52.5%) met the biological criteria for AD (decreased Aβ42 together with increased T-tau or P-tau in CSF) and were therefore classified as fvAD (mean age was 64.57, with 47.6% female). There were no differences between groups regarding age/age-at-onset, gender, or educational level. Regarding neuropsychological profile, performances in language and memory functions were equivalent in both groups. Significant differences were found in visuo-constructional abilities (p = 0.004), Trail Making Test A (p < 0.001), and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (p = 0.019), with fvAD patients showing worst performances.

CONCLUSION: In patients with an early prominent frontal profile, a higher impairment in attention and visuo-spatial functions, signaling additional right hemisphere fronto-parietal dysfunction, point towards a diagnosis of fvAD-dementia and may be useful in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-01-03

Rey A, J Fagot (2023)

Associative learning accounts for recursive-structure generation in crows.

Learning & behavior [Epub ahead of print].

Recursive sequence generation (i.e., the ability to transfer recursive patterns to novel items) was recently reported in crows (Liao et al., 2022, Science Advances, 8[44], eabq3356). Here, we argue that although the reported data are certainly compatible with the recursion hypothesis, they can also be explained by other, much simpler mechanisms of associative learning.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Beauchamp G, R Bowman (2022)

Visual Monitoring Strategies of Sentinels in a Cooperative Breeder.

Biology, 11(12): pii:biology11121769.

Vigilance is important for early detection of threats. Previous studies have focused on the allocation of time to vigilance but neglected how animals monitor their surroundings during vigilance. Where animals look and how long each look lasts can affect the quality of visual monitoring and thus the ability to detect threats during vigilance. We examined visual monitoring strategies in the Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a cooperative breeder with sentinel behaviour. Sentinels in this species make head turns from vantage points to detect the arrival of predators and intruding neighbours. We found that sentinels initiated head turns at regular intervals and also returned their gaze to areas previously monitored at regular intervals, which is predicted when predators and intruders rely on surprise rather than stealth to approach. Sentinels made head turns in several directions, but often more frequently on one side of the body than the other, which was not predicted for regular vigilance. Average look duration during sentinel bouts was shorter in smaller groups and in juveniles. We argue that shorter looks are beneficial to increase visual coverage in more threatening situations. Our study highlights how visual monitoring strategies during vigilance reflect the risk posed by predators and intruders.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

Mantilla C, Z Murad (2022)

Ego-relevance in team production.

PloS one, 17(12):e0279391 pii:PONE-D-22-10648.

We study how individuals' effort contribution to a team production task varies depending on whether the task is ego relevant or not. We conduct an experiment to test the effect of ego-relevance when the team production depends on the team's top- or bottom-performer. Ego-relevance is manipulated by calling the Raven IQ Test an "IQ Task" or a "Pattern Task." We find that the effort contributed to the task is affected by ego-relevance and the impact of the team production function on effort contribution is mediated by the teammate's expected effort contribution. Ego-relevance increases the responsiveness to the teammate's expected effort contributions. Similarly, more responsive behavior is noticeable when the team production depends on the bottom-performer. However, we do not observe interaction-effects between ego-relevance and the team production function that affect effort contributions.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

O'Coin D, Mclvor GE, Thornton A, et al (2022)

Velocity correlations in jackdaw flocks in different ecological contexts.

Physical biology, 20(1):.

Velocity correlation is an important feature for animal groups performing collective motions. Previous studies have mostly focused on the velocity correlation in a single ecological context. It is unclear whether correlation characteristics vary in a single species in different contexts. Here, we studied the velocity correlations in jackdaw flocks in two different contexts: transit flocks where birds travel from one location to another, and mobbing flocks where birds respond to an external stimulus. We found that in both contexts, although the interaction rules are different, the velocity correlations remain scale-free, i.e. the correlation length (the distance over which the velocity of two individuals is similar) increases linearly with the group size. Furthermore, we found that the correlation length is independent of the group density for transit flocks, but increases with increasing group density in mobbing flocks. This result confirms a previous observation that birds obey topological interactions in transit flocks, but switch to metric interactions in mobbing flocks. Finally, in both contexts, the impact of group polarization on correlation length is not significant. Our results suggest that wild animals are always able to respond coherently to perturbations regardless of context.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Blum CR, Fitch WT, T Bugnyar (2022)

Social dynamics impact scolding behaviour in captive groups of common ravens (Corvus corax).

Frontiers in zoology, 19(1):32.

BACKGROUND: Predator avoidance can have immense impacts on fitness, yet individual variation in the expression of anti-predator behaviour remains largely unexplained. Existing research investigating learning of novel predators has focused either on individuals or groups, but not both. Testing in individual settings allows evaluations of learning or personality differences, while testing in group settings makes it impossible to distinguish any such individual differences from social dynamics. In this study, we investigate the effect of social dynamics on individual anti-predator behaviour. We trained 15 captive ravens to recognize and respond to a novel experimental predator and then exposed them to this predator in both group and isolation settings across 1.5 years to tease apart individual differences from social effects and evaluate two hypotheses: (1) weaker anti-predator responses of some individuals in the group occurred, because they failed to recognize the experimental predator as a threat, leading to weak responses when separated, or (2) some individuals had learned the new threat, but their scolding intensity was repressed in the group trials due to social dynamics (such as dominance rank), leading to increased scolding intensity when alone.

RESULTS: We found that dominance significantly influences scolding behaviour in the group trials; top-ranked individuals scold more and earlier than lower ranking ones. However, in the separation trials scolding duration is no longer affected by rank.

CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that, while top-ranked individuals use their anti-predator responses to signal status in the group, lower-ranking ravens may be suppressed from, or are less capable of, performing intense anti-predator behaviour while in the group. This suggests that, in addition to its recruitment or predator-deterrent effects, alarm calling may serve as a marker of individual quality to conspecifics.

RevDate: 2022-12-12
CmpDate: 2022-12-12

Cella F, Marchak KA, Bianchi C, et al (2022)

Generic Language for Social and Animal Kinds: An Examination of the Asymmetry Between Acceptance and Inferences.

Cognitive science, 46(12):e13209.

Generics (e.g., "Ravens are black") express generalizations about categories or their members. Previous research found that generics about animals are interpreted as broadly true of members of a kind, yet also accepted based on minimal evidence. This asymmetry is important for suggesting a mechanism by which unfounded generalizations may flourish; yet, little is known whether this finding extends to generics about groups of people (heretofore, "social generics"). Accordingly, in four preregistered studies (n = 665), we tested for an inferential asymmetry for generics regarding novel groups of animals versus people. Participants were randomly assigned to either an Implied Prevalence task (given a generic, asked to estimate the prevalence of a property) or a Truth-Conditions task (given prevalence information, asked whether a generic was true or false). A generic asymmetry was found in both domains, at equivalent levels. The asymmetry also extended to properties varying in valence (dangerous and neutral). Finally, there were differences as a function of property valence in the Implied Prevalence task and a small but consistent interaction between domain and prevalence in the Truth-Conditions task. We discuss the implications of these results for the semantics of generics, theoretical accounts of the asymmetry, and the relation between generics and stereotyping.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Hilger K, MJ Euler (2022)

Intelligence and Visual Mismatch Negativity: Is Pre-Attentive Visual Discrimination Related to General Cognitive Ability?.

Journal of cognitive neuroscience pii:114117 [Epub ahead of print].

EEG has been used for decades to identify neurocognitive processes related to intelligence. Evidence is accumulating for associations with neural markers of higher-order cognitive processes (e.g., working memory); however, whether associations are specific to complex processes or also relate to earlier processing stages remains unclear. Addressing these issues has implications for improving our understanding of intelligence and its neural correlates. The MMN is an ERP that is elicited when, within a series of frequent standard stimuli, rare deviant stimuli are presented. As stimuli are typically presented outside the focus of attention, the MMN is suggested to capture automatic pre-attentive discrimination processes. However, the MMN and its relation to intelligence has largely only been studied in the auditory domain, thus preventing conclusions about the involvement of automatic discrimination processes in humans' dominant sensory modality-vision. EEG was recorded from 50 healthy participants during a passive visual oddball task that presented simple sequence violations and deviations within a more complex hidden pattern. Signed area amplitudes and fractional area latencies of the visual MMN were calculated with and without Laplacian transformation. Correlations between visual MMN and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices) were of negligible to small effect sizes, differed critically between measurement approaches, and Bayes Factors provided anecdotal to substantial evidence for the absence of an association. We discuss differences between the auditory and visual MMN, the implications of different measurement approaches, and offer recommendations for further research in this evolving field.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Cicero C, Mason NA, Oong Z, et al (2022)

Deep ecomorphological and genetic divergence in Steller's Jays (Cyanocitta stelleri, Aves: Corvidae).

Ecology and evolution, 12(12):e9517.

The relationship between ecology and morphology is a cornerstone of evolutionary biology, and quantifying variation across environments can shed light on processes that give rise to biodiversity. Three morphotypes of the Steller's Jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) occupy different ecoregions in western North America, which vary in climate and landcover. These morphotypes (Coastal, Interior, Rocky Mountain) differ in size, plumage coloration, and head pattern. We sampled 1080 Steller's Jays from 68 populations (plus 11 outgroups) to address three main questions using data on morphology, plumage, genetics (mtDNA, microsatellites), and ecological niches: (1) How do phenotypic and genetic traits vary within and among populations, morphotypes, and ecoregions? (2) How do population-level differences in Steller's Jays compare with other sister species pairs of North American birds? (3) What can we infer about the population history of Steller's Jays in relation to past climates, paleoecology, and niche evolution? We found substantial morphological, genetic, and ecological differentiation among morphotypes. The greatest genetic divergence separated Coastal and Interior morphotypes from the Rocky Mountain morphotype, which was associated with warmer, drier, and more open habitats. Microsatellites revealed additional structure between Coastal and Interior groups. The deep mtDNA split between Coastal/Interior and Rocky Mountain lineages of Steller's Jay (ND2 ~ 7.8%) is older than most North American avian sister species and dates to approximately 4.3 mya. Interior and Rocky Mountain morphotypes contact across a narrow zone with steep clines in traits and reduced gene flow. The distribution of the three morphotypes coincides with divergent varieties of ponderosa pine and Douglas fir. Species distribution models support multiple glacial refugia for Steller's Jays. Our integrative dataset combined with extensive geographic sampling provides compelling evidence for recognizing at least two species of Steller's Jay.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Michon A (2022)

Botulinum toxin for cosmetic treatments in young adults: An evidence-based review and survey on current practice among aesthetic practitioners.

Journal of cosmetic dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) treatments are popular worldwide. Young adults, less than 41 years of age, are an important cohort of patients seen in practice, and the optimal dosage of BoNTA in this age group remains poorly defined.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dosing of BoNTA across different age-matched cohorts by reviewing the literature and to evaluate current BoNTA practices among aesthetic practitioners when treating younger versus older adults.

METHODS: An evidence-based literature review was performed to evaluate the current evidence on BoNTA injections for cosmetic indications in millennials (born between 1981 and 1996) and young adults. A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to aesthetic practitioners to assess their current practice with BoNTA.

RESULTS: There is a paucity of high-quality research on BoNT in millennials. Our literature review suggests different patterns of practice when treating younger adults. Specifically, our survey revealed that: (1) younger adults are receiving, on average, fewer units of BoNTA at the glabella, forehead, and crow's feet, (2) younger toxin-naïve patients are also afraid to look frozen or unnatural, and (3) wrinkles prevention was the most common reason for seeking treatment in younger patients.

CONCLUSION: The literature review supports the efficacy of BoNTA for correcting wrinkles in millennials. Our findings provide further insight into the dosing pattern of cosmetic BoNTA and motivating factors for seeking treatments in young adults. This valuable information will help practitioners with treatment planning when seeing patients from different age cohorts. An individualized approach and a lower dosage of BoNTA in toxin-naïve younger adults are recommended.

RevDate: 2022-11-24

Morin TM, Moore KN, Isenburg K, et al (2022)

Functional reconfiguration of task-active frontoparietal control network facilitates abstract reasoning.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) pii:6843797 [Epub ahead of print].

While the brain's functional network architecture is largely conserved between resting and task states, small but significant changes in functional connectivity support complex cognition. In this study, we used a modified Raven's Progressive Matrices Task to examine symbolic and perceptual reasoning in human participants undergoing fMRI scanning. Previously, studies have focused predominantly on discrete symbolic versions of matrix reasoning, even though the first few trials of the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices task consist of continuous perceptual stimuli. Our analysis examined the activation patterns and functional reconfiguration of brain networks associated with resting state and both symbolic and perceptual reasoning. We found that frontoparietal networks, including the cognitive control and dorsal attention networks, were significantly activated during abstract reasoning. We determined that these same task-active regions exhibited flexibly-reconfigured functional connectivity when transitioning from resting state to the abstract reasoning task. Conversely, we showed that a stable network core of regions in default and somatomotor networks was maintained across both resting and task states. We propose that these regionally-specific changes in the functional connectivity of frontoparietal networks puts the brain in a "task-ready" state, facilitating efficient task-based activation.

RevDate: 2022-11-11

Chevrier B, Lamore K, Untas A, et al (2022)

Young adult carers' identification, characteristics, and support: A systematic review.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:990257.

UNLABELLED: Young Adult Carers (YAC) are informal carers aged 18-25 years. This is an unrecognized population. The present systematic review aims to respond to: (1) how YAC are identified in research; (2) the prevalence of YAC; (3) the characteristics of YAC; and (4) how to support YAC. Five electronic databases (Google Scholar, PsycArticle, PsycInfo, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and PubMed) were searched for studies, scientific articles, and gray literature on YAC published prior to January 18, 2021. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Crow Critical Appraisal Tool, and a narrative method was used to underline major findings. Twenty-three studies were included and revealed that there were several ways to identify YAC, resulting in heterogeneous prevalence. Nine themes were highlighted for YAC characteristics (way into caring; care receiver; caring responsibilities; amount of caring; self-identification as a carer; living arrangement; physical, psychological, and adaptative outcomes; interpersonal relationships; education and employment); and three for YAC support (needs, available support services, and recommendations). The findings showed the diversity of YAC experiences. Although YAC expressed several needs, there are few or no support services devoted to them. More research is needed to improve political awareness.

https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021231882, identifier: CRD42021231882.

RevDate: 2022-11-10
CmpDate: 2022-11-10

Cohen JL, Fagien S, Ogilvie P, et al (2022)

High Patient Satisfaction for up to 6 Months With OnabotulinumtoxinA Treatment for Upper Facial Lines.

Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.], 48(11):1191-1197.

BACKGROUND: OnabotulinumtoxinA safety and efficacy are well established for upper facial lines (UFL), including forehead lines (FHL), glabellar lines (GL), and crow's feet lines (CFL).

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of onabotulinumtoxinA efficacy with patient-reported psychological impacts and satisfaction in UFL.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pooled analysis of data from 4 pivotal Phase 3 trials (onabotulinumtoxinA vs placebo in FHL ± GL, FHL + GL ± CFL, CFL, and CFL + GL for ≤180 days) evaluated investigator-assessed ≥1-grade severity improvement on the Allergan Facial Wrinkle Scale at Day 30 (responders). Facial Line Outcomes (FLO-11) Questionnaire, Facial Line Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLSQ), and Subject Assessment of Satisfaction of Appearance (SASA) were used to evaluate responder appearance-related psychological impacts and satisfaction.

RESULTS: OnabotulinumtoxinA patients, by primary study focus (FHL, GL, or CFL), totaled 921, 921, and 833, respectively; 786 patients received placebo. Most patients were female, White, and aged 45 to 50 years (median). Through 150 days, >42% FHL, >43% GL, and ≥32% CFL patients were onabotulinumtoxinA responders. Responders reported improvements in appearance-related psychological impacts (FLO-11) and high satisfaction (FLSQ and SASA), sustained through ≥150 days.

CONCLUSION: A ≥1-grade improvement with onabotulinumtoxinA is a clinically meaningful outcome in UFL, associated with long-lasting improved patient-reported psychological impacts and high satisfaction.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Liao DA, Brecht KF, Johnston M, et al (2022)

Recursive sequence generation in crows.

Science advances, 8(44):eabq3356.

Recursion, the process of embedding structures within similar structures, is often considered a foundation of symbolic competence and a uniquely human capability. To understand its evolution, we can study the recursive aptitudes of nonhuman animals. We adopted the behavioral protocol of a recent study demonstrating that humans and nonhuman primates grasp recursion. We presented sequences of bracket pair stimuli (e.g., [ ] and { }) to crows who were instructed to peck at training lists. They were then tested on their ability to transfer center-embedded structure to never-before-seen pairings of brackets. We reveal that crows have recursive capacities; they perform on par with children and even outperform macaques. The crows continued to produce recursive sequences after extending to longer and thus deeper embeddings. These results demonstrate that recursive capabilities are not limited to the primate genealogy and may have occurred separately from or before human symbolic competence in different animal taxa.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-01

Schnell AK, Boeckle M, NS Clayton (2022)

Waiting for a better possibility: delay of gratification in corvids and its relationship to other cognitive capacities.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1866):20210348.

Self-control, the ability to resist temptation and wait for better but delayed possibilities, is an important cognitive skill that underpins decision-making and planning. The capacity to exert self-control has been linked to intelligence in humans, chimpanzees and most recently cuttlefish. Here, we presented 10 Eurasian jays, Garrulus glandarius, with a delayed maintenance task, which measured the ability to choose a preferred outcome as well as the ability to sustain the delay prior to that outcome. Jays were able to wait for better possibilities, but maximum wait times varied across the subjects. We also presented them with five cognitive tasks that assessed spatial memory, spatial relationships and learning capacity. These tasks are commonly used as measures of general intelligence within an ecological context. Individual performance was correlated across the cognitive tasks, which suggests that there was a general intelligence factor underlying their performance. Performance in these tasks was correlated significantly with the jays' capacity to wait for better possibilities. This study demonstrates that self-control and intelligence are correlated in jays. The fact that this correlation exists in diverse species suggests that self-control is a fundamental feature of cognition. Our results are discussed in the context of convergent evolution. This article is part of the theme issue 'Thinking about possibilities: mechanisms, ontogeny, functions and phylogeny'.

RevDate: 2022-11-14
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Ioan I, Weick D, Sevin F, et al (2022)

Neurocognitive evaluation of children with down syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Sleep medicine, 100:542-549.

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) treatment has been shown to improve cardiac behavioral and cognitive functions in typically developing children. Early OSAS diagnosis in children with Down syndrome (DS) would be important to prevent its complications, especially cognitive ones, but remains overlooked. The main objective of our study was to assess the cognitive function of children with DS, with and without OSAS. The second objective was to determine the impact of the therapeutic intervention on the cognitive function of children with OSAS. This study included 41 children with DS who underwent polysomnography for OSAS diagnosis and a cognitive evaluation. They were aged between 3.4 and 17.3 years and 24 (59%) were boys. Their median OAHI was 2.6 (0-31)/h of sleep, 30 (73%) were diagnosed with OSAS (15 had mild OSAS, and 15 had moderate/severe OSAS). Some scores of the Raven's colored progressive matrices were negatively correlated with the respiratory arousal index, OAHI tended to be positively correlated with Reiss behavioral problems. 24 (59%) patients received a treatment. Even if we were unable to demonstrate this formally due that only 16 children (39%) accepted a follow-up visit, some displayed improvement in their neuropsychological scores, especially those with moderate/severe OSAS after treatment. Children with DS have low intellectual abilities and more risk of developing OSAS compared to the general population, which may lead to further neurocognitive impairment. Early screening and management are important in this population to prevent any further neurocognitive delay in their development.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Takeda K, Takahashi N, EI Izawa (2022)

Social encounters produce different autonomic response between dominants and subordinates in crows.

Royal Society open science, 9(10):220972.

Recent studies of behavioural physiology on animals have suggested the crucial role of peripherally physiological signals in eliciting arousal and emotion. Heart rate (HR) is one of the useful and critical signals to measure autonomic regulation as a physiological basis for arousal and emotion in response to biologically significant stimuli such as social encounter with conspecific individuals. However, our understanding of peripherally physiological response such as HRs and autonomic activities under social contexts of non-human animals is still limited, particularly in birds. Here, we examined the autonomic activity of behaving crows exposed to a dominant and a subordinate conspecific by using non-invasive electrocardiogram recording. We found different patterns of autonomic responses dependent on the relative dominance position: dominant crows encountering subordinates showed the elevation of sympathetic activity, whereas subordinates encountering dominants showed decreased HR with elevated parasympathetic activity. This is the first study in birds to report different autonomic responses dependent on relative dominance positions during dyadic social encounters. The present study advances our understanding of the role of the peripheral autonomic system, as an interactive system with the brain, in eliciting emotion/arousal associated with socially challenging environments from an evolutionary perspective.

RevDate: 2022-10-30

Bailote HB, Linhares D, Carvalho C, et al (2022)

Iodine Intake and Related Cognitive Function Impairments in Elementary Schoolchildren.

Biology, 11(10):.

Iodine deficiency, the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide, has been linked to poorer intellectual function in several studies. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been performed in moderate iodine-deficient schoolchildren using the complete form of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III; Portuguese version). The main purpose of this study was to ascertain whether moderate iodine deficiency would affect the cognitive function of schoolchildren (7-11 years old; 3rd and 4th grades). Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM; Portuguese version) were used for measuring the intelligence quotient (IQ) of the total population (n = 256; median UIC = 66.2 μg/L), and the WISC-III was used to study two selected subgroups: one moderately iodine-deficient (n = 30) and the other with adequate iodine intake (n = 30). WISC-III was shown to be the prime instrument for cognitive function assessment among moderate iodine-deficient schoolchildren; this subgroup had a Full-Scale IQ 15.13 points lower than the adequate iodine intake subgroup, with a magnitude effect of d = 0.7 (p = 0.013). Significant differences were also registered in 6 of the 13 Verbal-Performance IQ subtests. Moderate iodine deficiency has a substantial impact on mental development and cognitive functioning of schoolchildren, with significant impairment in both Performance IQ and Verbal IQ spectrum, adversely impacting their educational performance.

RevDate: 2022-11-15
CmpDate: 2022-10-27

Fielding MW, Cunningham CX, Buettel JC, et al (2022)

Dominant carnivore loss benefits native avian and invasive mammalian scavengers.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1985):20220521.

Scavenging by large carnivores is integral for ecosystem functioning by limiting the build-up of carrion and facilitating widespread energy flows. However, top carnivores have declined across the world, triggering trophic shifts within ecosystems. Here, we compare findings from previous work on predator decline against areas with recent native mammalian carnivore loss. Specifically, we investigate top-down control on utilization of experimentally placed carcasses by two mesoscavengers-the invasive feral cat and native forest raven. Ravens profited most from carnivore loss, scavenging for five times longer in the absence of native mammalian carnivores. Cats scavenged on half of all carcasses in the region without dominant native carnivores. This was eight times more than in areas where other carnivores were at high densities. All carcasses persisted longer than the three-week monitoring period in the absence of native mammalian carnivores, while in areas with high carnivore abundance, all carcasses were fully consumed. Our results reveal that top-carnivore loss amplifies impacts associated with carnivore decline-increased carcass persistence and carrion access for smaller scavengers. This suggests that even at low densities, native mammalian carnivores can fulfil their ecological functions, demonstrating the significance of global carnivore conservation and supporting management approaches, such as trophic rewilding.

RevDate: 2022-11-13
CmpDate: 2022-10-27

Storms RF, Carere C, Musters R, et al (2022)

Deterrence of birds with an artificial predator, the RobotFalcon.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 19(195):20220497.

Collisions between birds and airplanes can damage aircrafts, resulting in delays and cancellation of flights, costing the international civil aviation industry more than 1.4 billion US dollars annually. Driving away birds is therefore crucial, but the effectiveness of current deterrence methods is limited. Live avian predators can be an effective deterrent, because potential prey will not habituate to them, but live predators cannot be controlled entirely. Thus, there is an urgent need for new deterrence methods. We developed the RobotFalcon, a device modelled after the peregrine falcon, and tested its effectiveness to deter flocks of corvids, gulls, starlings and lapwings. We compared its effectiveness with that of a drone, and of conventional methods routinely applied at a military airbase. The RobotFalcon scared away bird flocks from fields immediately, and these fields subsequently remained free of bird flocks for hours. The RobotFalcon outperformed the drone and the best conventional method at the airbase (distress calls). Importantly, there was no evidence that bird flocks habituated to the RobotFalcon over the course of the fieldwork. We conclude that the RobotFalcon is a practical and ethical solution to drive away bird flocks with all advantages of live predators but without their limitations.

RevDate: 2022-10-21
CmpDate: 2022-10-21

Wang Y, Song J, Z Teng (2022)

An Improved New Caledonian Crow Learning Algorithm for Global Function Optimization.

Computational intelligence and neuroscience, 2022:9248771.

The New Caledonian crow learning algorithm (NCCLA) is a novel metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the learning behavior of New Caledonian crows learning to make tools to obtain food. However, it suffers from the problems of easily falling into local optima and insufficient convergence accuracy and convergence precision. To further improve the convergence performance of NCCLA, an improved New Caledonian crow learning algorithm (INCCLA) is proposed in this paper. By determining the parent individuals based on the cosine similarity, the juveniles are guided to search toward different ranges to maintain the population diversity; a novel hybrid mechanism of complete and incomplete learning is proposed to balance the exploration and exploitation capabilities of the algorithm; the update strategy of juveniles and parent individuals is improved to enhance the convergence speed and precision of the algorithm. The test results of the CEC2013 and CEC2020 test suites show that, compared with the original NCCLA algorithm and four of the best metaheuristics to date, INCCLA has significant advantages in terms of convergence speed, convergence precision, and stability.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Passarello N, Varini L, Liparoti M, et al (2022)

Boosting effect of regular sport practice in young adults: Preliminary results on cognitive and emotional abilities.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:957281.

Several studies have shown that physical exercise (PE) improves behavior and cognitive functioning, reducing the risk of various neurological diseases, protecting the brain from the detrimental effects of aging, facilitating body recovery after injuries, and enhancing self-efficacy and self-esteem. Emotion processing and regulation abilities are also widely acknowledged to be key to success in sports. In this study, we aim to prove that regular participation in sports enhances cognitive and emotional functioning in healthy individuals. A sample of 60 students (mean age = 22.12; SD = 2.40; M = 30), divided into sportive and sedentary, were subjected to a neuropsychological tests battery to assess their overall cognitive abilities (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, APM), verbal and graphic fluency (Word Fluency Task and modified Five Point Test, m-FPT), as well as their emotional awareness skills (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20). Our results showed that sportive students performed better than sedentary ones in all cognitive tasks. Regarding emotional processing abilities, significant differences were found in the TAS-20 total score as well as in the Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF) subscale and the Difficulty Identifying Feeling (DIF) subscale. Lastly, gender differences were found in the External-Oriented Thinking (EOT) subscale. Overall, our findings evidence that PE has positive effects on cognitive functioning and emotion regulation, suggesting how sports practice can promote mental health and wellbeing.

RevDate: 2022-10-25
CmpDate: 2022-10-10

Romeo Z, Marino M, Angrilli A, et al (2022)

Altered language network lateralization in euthymic bipolar patients: a pilot study.

Translational psychiatry, 12(1):435.

Bipolar patients (BD) in the euthymic phase show almost no symptoms, nevertheless possibility of relapse is still present. We expected to find a psychobiological trace of their vulnerability by analyzing a specific network-the Language Network (LN)-connecting many high-level processes and brain regions measured at rest. According to Crow's hypothesis on the key role of language in the origin of psychoses, we expected an altered asymmetry of the LN in euthymic BDs. Eighteen euthymic BD patients (10 females; age = 54.50 ± 11.38 years) and 16 healthy controls (HC) (8 females; age = 51.16 ± 11.44 years) underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan at rest. The LN was extracted through independent component analysis. Then, LN time series was used to compute the fractional amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) index, which was then correlated with clinical scales. Compared with HC, euthymic patients showed an altered LN with greater activation of Broca's area right homologous and anterior insula together with reduced activation of left middle temporal gyrus. The normalized fALFF analysis on BD patients' LN time series revealed that the Slow-5 fALFF band was positively correlated with residual mania symptoms but negatively associated with depression scores. In line with Crow's hypothesis postulating an altered language hemispheric asymmetry in psychoses, we revealed, in euthymic BD patients, a right shift involving both the temporal and frontal linguistic hubs. The fALFF applied to LN allowed us to highlight a number of significant correlations of this measure with residual mania and depression psychiatric symptoms.

RevDate: 2022-12-02
CmpDate: 2022-12-02

McElderry RM, Paxton EH, Nguyen AV, et al (2022)

Predation thresholds for reintroduction of native avifauna following suppression of invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 32(8):e2716.

The brown treesnake (BTS) (Boiga irregularis) invasion on Guåhan (in English, Guam) led to the extirpation of nearly all native forest birds. In recent years, methods have been developed to reduce BTS abundance on a landscape scale. To help assess the prospects for the successful reintroduction of native birds to Guåhan following BTS suppression, we modeled bird population persistence based on their life history characteristics and relative sensitivity to BTS predation. We constructed individual-based models and simulated BTS predation in hypothetical founding populations for each of seven candidate bird species. We represented BTS predation risk in two steps: risk of being encountered and risk of mortality if encountered. We link encounter risk from the bird's perspective to snake contact rates at camera traps with live animal lures, the most direct practical means of estimating BTS predation risk. Our simulations support the well-documented fact that Guåhan's birds cannot persist with an uncontrolled population of BTS but do indicate that bird persistence in Guåhan's forests is possible with suppression short of total eradication. We estimate threshold BTS contact rates would need to be below 0.0002-0.0006 snake contacts per bird per night for these birds to persist on the landscape, which translates to an annual encounter probability of 0.07-0.20. We simulated the effects of snake-proof nest boxes for Sihek (Todiramphus cinnamominus) and Såli (Aplonis opaca), but the benefits were small relative to the overall variation in contact rate thresholds among species. This variation among focal bird species in sustainable predation levels can be used to prioritize species for reintroduction in a BTS-suppressed landscape, but variation among these species is narrow relative to the required reduction from current BTS levels, which may be four orders of magnitude higher (>0.18). Our modeling indicates that the required predation thresholds may need to be lower than have yet been demonstrated with current BTS management. Our predation threshold metric provides an important management tool to help estimate target BTS suppression levels that can be used to determine when bird reintroduction campaigns might begin and serves as a model for other systems to match predator control with reintroduction efforts.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Vanhooland LC, Szabó A, Bugnyar T, et al (2022)

A comparative study of mirror self-recognition in three corvid species.

Animal cognition [Epub ahead of print].

Mirror self-recognition (MSR) assessed by the Mark Test has been the staple test for the study of animal self-awareness. When tested in this paradigm, corvid species return discrepant results, with only the Eurasian magpies and the Indian house crow successfully passing the test so far, whereas multiple other corvid species fail. The lack of replicability of these positive results and the large divergence in applied methodologies calls into question whether the observed differences are in fact phylogenetic or methodological, and, if so, which factors facilitate the expression of MSR in some corvids. In this study, we (1) present new results on the self-recognition abilities of common ravens, (2) replicate results of azure-winged magpies, and (3) compare the mirror responses and performances in the mark test of these two corvid species with a third corvid species: carrion crows, previously tested following the same experimental procedure. Our results show interspecies differences in the approach of and the response to the mirror during the mirror exposure phase of the experiment as well as in the subsequent mark test. However, the performances of these species in the Mark Test do not provide any evidence for their ability of self-recognition. Our results add to the ongoing discussion about the convergent evolution of MSR and we advocate for consistent methodologies and procedures in comparing this ability across species to advance this discussion.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Zhozhikashvili N, Zakharov I, Ismatullina V, et al (2022)

Parietal Alpha Oscillations: Cognitive Load and Mental Toughness.

Brain sciences, 12(9):.

Cognitive effort is intrinsically linked to task difficulty, intelligence, and mental toughness. Intelligence reflects an individual's cognitive aptitude, whereas mental toughness (MT) reflects an individual's resilience in pursuing success. Research shows that parietal alpha oscillations are associated with changes in task difficulty. Critically, it remains unclear whether parietal alpha oscillations are modulated by intelligence and MT as a personality trait. We examined event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS) of alpha oscillations associated with encoding, retention, and recognition in the Sternberg task in relation to intelligence and mental toughness. Eighty participants completed the Sternberg task with 3, 4, 5 and 6 digits, Raven Standard Progressive Matrices test and an MT questionnaire. A positive dependence on difficulty was observed for all studied oscillatory effects (t = -8.497, p < 0.001; t = 2.806, p < 0.005; t = -2.103, p < 0.05). The influence of Raven intelligence was observed for encoding-related alpha ERD (t = -2.02, p = 0.049). The influence of MT was observed only for difficult conditions in recognition-related alpha ERD (t = -3.282, p < 0.005). Findings indicate that the modulation of alpha rhythm related to encoding, retention and recognition may be interpreted as correlates of cognitive effort modulation. Specifically, results suggest that effort related to encoding depends on intelligence, whereas recognition-related effort level depends on mental toughness.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

He L, L Huang (2022)

A Study on the Effects of a Cartoon Text Version of Health Education Manual with Sandplay on the Psychological Status and Cognitive Function of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2022:1816391.

PURPOSE: The study aimed to examine the effects of a cartoon text version of a health education manual with sandplay on the psychological status and cognitive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

METHODS: Eighty cases of children with ADHD admitted from February 2019 to September 2021 were selected for the study. They were numbered according to the order of consultation, and after obtaining family consent, they were divided into the control group (n = 40) and the observation group (n = 40) using the random number table method. The control group received only medication and verbal health education, while the observation group received a cartoon text version of the health education manual together with sandplay on top of the above, and both groups were treated for 30 weeks. The attention test results and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham-IV rating scales (SNAP-IV) were used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment for both groups of children. The awareness rate of health education knowledge of children and their families in both groups was counted. The Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Combined Raven's test (CRT) were used to assess the psychological status and cognitive functioning of the children in both groups.

RESULTS: After treatment, the response time, the number of errors, and the number of missed alarms in the attention test results were lower in the observation group than in the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, the inattention, antagonism and defiance, and impulsiveness and hyperactivity scores on SNAP-IV were lower in the observation group than in the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, the knowledge of disease and treatment, medical and nursing cooperation, safety and protection, and dietary precautions were higher in the observation group than in the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, the learning problems, conduct problems, psychosomatic problems, anxiety, impulsivity-hyperactivity, and hyperactivity index scores on the PSQ were lower in the observation group than in the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, the A, B, C, D, and E theme scores in the CRT were higher in the observation group than in the control group, and the IQ score was also higher in the observation group than in the control group (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The cartoon text version of the health education manual with sandplay can significantly improve the attention deficit, hyperactive behaviour, psychological status, and cognitive function of children with ADHD on the basis of pharmacological treatment, which has a good clinical application.

RevDate: 2022-10-20
CmpDate: 2022-10-13

Poncet L, Desnous C, Bellanger C, et al (2022)

Unruly octopuses are the rule: Octopus vulgaris use multiple and individually variable strategies in an episodic-like memory task.

The Journal of experimental biology, 225(19):.

Episodic-like memory has mainly been studied through experimental tasks in which subjects have to remember what they ate, where and when or in which context. Seemingly quite common in mammals and corvids, episodic-like memory ability has also been demonstrated in the common cuttlefish, a cephalopod mollusc. To explore whether this ability is common to all cephalopods or whether it has emerged to face specific ecological constraints, we conducted an episodic-like memory task with seven Octopus vulgaris. Only one individual learnt the replenishing rates during training and subsequently showed episodic-like memory ability, whereas the other individuals favoured simpler foraging strategies, such as avoidance of familiarity and alternation, use of a win-stay strategy and risk sensitivity. A high variability in the use of these strategies was observed between and within individuals throughout training. As octopuses seem to live under lighter environmental pressure than cuttlefish, they may not need to rely on episodic-like memory ability to optimize foraging as cuttlefish do. These results highlight the differences in the use of complex cognitive abilities between cuttlefish and octopuses, which might be linked to different environmental and predatory constraints.

RevDate: 2022-11-03
CmpDate: 2022-11-03

Loth A, Güntürkün O, von Fersen L, et al (2022)

Through the looking glass: how do marked dolphins use mirrors and what does it mean?.

Animal cognition, 25(5):1151-1160.

Mirror-guided self-inspection is seen as a cognitive hallmark purportedly indicating the existence of self-recognition. Only a few species of great apes have been reported to pass a standard mark test for mirror self-recognition in which animals attempt to touch a mark. In addition, evidence for passing the mark test was also reported for Asian elephants, two species of corvids, and a species of cleaner fish. Mirror self-recognition has also been claimed for bottlenose dolphins, using exposure of marked areas to a mirror as evidence. However, what counts as self-directed behaviour to see the mark and what does not has been debated. To avoid this problem, we marked the areas around both eyes of the animals at the same time, one with visible and the other with transparent dye to control for haptic cues. This allowed the animal to see the mark easily and us to investigate what side was exposed to the mirror as an indicator for mark observation. We found that the animals actively chose to inspect their visibly marked side while they did not show an increased interest in a marked conspecific in the pool. These results demonstrate that dolphins use the mirror to inspect their marks and, therefore, likely recognise a distinction between self and others.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Koo SJ, Kim YJ, Seo E, et al (2022)

Relationship of neurocognitive ability, perspective taking, and psychoticism with hostile attribution bias in non-clinical participants: Theory of mind as a mediator.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:863763.

OBJECTIVES: Hostile attribution bias is reportedly common from non-clinical population to those with serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, and is known to be closely related to theory of mind (ToM). This study aimed to investigate whether ToM skills mediate the relationship among neurocognitive ability, personality traits, and attribution bias.

METHODS: A total of 198 (101 females) non-clinical youths were recruited. To assess their neurocognitive ability and ToM skills, the participants were asked to complete Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) and the Korean version of the Reading the Mind in Eyes Test (K-RMET). To determine their personality traits, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (psychoticism) and interpersonal reactivity index (perspective taking) were used. To evaluate hostile attribution bias, the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire was administered. Path analysis and bias-corrected percentile bootstrap methods were used to estimate model fit and the parameters of the mediating effects.

RESULTS: Based on model comparison, the best model characterized (1) two direct pathways from psychoticism and the K-RMET to hostility attribution bias and (2) three indirect pathways, wherein SPM, perspective taking, and psychoticism influenced hostile attribution bias through K-RMET. The final model fit indices were good [x [2]/df = 1.126; comparative fit index = 0.996; root mean square error of approximation = 0.026; standard root mean square residual = 0.026 and Akaike information criterion = 28.251] and the K-RMET fully mediated the association between SPM, perspective taking, psychoticism, and hostile attribution bias.

CONCLUSION: The main findings suggested that ToM skills, such as the RMET, play an important role in explaining the relationship among neurocognitive ability, personality traits, and hostile attribution bias. ToM skills and a remediation strategy may need to be developed to balance the enhanced hostility bias that underlies the paranoia.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Ashton BJ, Thornton A, Speechley EM, et al (2022)

Does trappability and self-selection influence cognitive performance?.

Royal Society open science, 9(9):220473.

Recent research has highlighted how trappability and self-selection-the processes by which individuals with particular traits may be more likely to be caught or to participate in experiments-may be sources of bias in studies of animal behaviour and cognition. It is crucial to determine whether such biases exist, and if they do, what effect they have on results. In this study, we investigated if trappability (quantified through 'ringing status'-whether or not a bird had been trapped for ringing) and self-selection are sources of bias in a series of associative learning experiments spanning 5 years in the Western Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen dorsalis). We found no evidence of self-selection, with no biases in task participation associated with sex, age, group size or ringing status. In addition, we found that there was no effect of trappability on cognitive performance. These findings give us confidence in the results generated in the animal cognition literature and add to a growing body of literature seeking to determine potential sources of bias in studies of animal behaviour, and how they influence the generalizability and reproducibility of findings.

RevDate: 2022-08-30

Jain V, Bugnyar T, Cunningham SJ, et al (2022)

The spatial and temporal exploitation of anthropogenic food sources by common ravens (Corvus corax) in the Alps.

Movement ecology, 10(1):35.

BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic food sources (AFSs) are widespread in human-transformed landscapes and the current scale at which they occur drives ecological change at the individual, population, and community levels. AFSs are exploited extensively by common ravens, Corvus corax. Understanding how raven populations use AFSs can provide insight into their ecological responses to AFSs.

METHODS: We equipped 81 ravens in the Austrian Alps with GPS-transmitters over a period of 2.75 years. Using these tracking data, we investigated how cohort differences (i.e., age, sex, and origin) and seasonal changes influence raven movement patterns (i.e., occurrence distribution and maximum daily displacement) and AFS-use (i.e., number of AFSs visited and probability of being present at any AFS) at 45 extensively exploited sites.

RESULTS: We found that proxies for experience and dominance, inferred by age (i.e., juvenile versus adult) and origin (i.e., wild-caught versus captive-bred-released) cohorts, influenced movement patterns and the number of AFSs visited. However, all individuals were equally likely to be present at AFSs, highlighting the importance of AFSs for non-breeders in the study population. Seasonal changes in environmental conditions that affect energetic demands, the availability of natural and anthropogenic food, and foraging competition,  influenced individuals' occurrence distributions and AFS-use. We found that under harsher conditions in autumn and winter, individuals ranged wider and depended on AFSs to a larger degree. However, contrary to expectation, they were less likely to be present at AFSs in these seasons compared to spring and summer, suggesting a trade-off between time spent moving and exploiting resources. We attribute the small ranging movements exhibited by non-breeders in spring and summer to the presence of highly territorial and socially dominant breeders. As breeders mostly stay and forage within their territories during these seasons, competition at AFSs decrease, thereby increasing the likelihood of individuals being present at any AFS.

CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize that movement and AFS-use differ according to cohort differences and the seasonality of the environment. Our results highlight that predictable AFSs affect foraging strategies among non-breeding ravens. The extent of AFS-exploitation among non-breeding ravens in our study emphasize the potential of AFSs in shaping raven movement and resource-use.

RevDate: 2022-11-02
CmpDate: 2022-11-02

Forbes SL, Samson C, CJ Watson (2022)

Seasonal impact of scavenger guilds as taphonomic agents in central and northern Ontario, Canada.

Journal of forensic sciences, 67(6):2203-2217.

The process of human decomposition is driven by biological decomposers, mainly bacteria, vertebrates, and invertebrate scavengers. When vertebrate scavengers have access to a body, they can considerably accelerate decomposition through consumption of soft tissue and dispersal of skeletal elements. Presently, there are limited data available on vertebrate scavenging activity in Canada, particularly in densely populated provinces such as Ontario. This study aimed to determine which vertebrate species belong to the scavenger guilds in central and northern Ontario, and the impact of season and habitat on these taphonomic agents. Seasonal trials were conducted in summer, fall, and spring of 2020/2021 with pig carcasses placed in open (grassland) and closed (forest) sites. Vertebrate scavenger activity was recorded continuously using cellular and non-cellular trail cameras. Photographs were analyzed to identify species, quantify feeding intensity, and document scavenging behavior. We identified four mammalian scavengers, namely coyote, red fox, fisher, and pine marten, and three avian scavengers, namely bald eagle, turkey vulture, and American crows/northern ravens (grouped as corvids) across the trials. Season impacted scavenger presence with feeding and loss of soft tissue occurring more quickly in the summer, followed by spring and fall. None of the scavengers demonstrated a clear preference for the open versus closed sites. Our findings have identified the most prevalent vertebrate scavengers in central and northern Ontario and their taphonomic impact on soft and hard tissues. It is important to consider these agents and their ability to degrade and disperse remains during the search and recovery of human remains.

RevDate: 2022-09-07
CmpDate: 2022-07-29

Lima RA, Soares FC, van Poppel M, et al (2022)

Determinants of Cognitive Performance in Children and Adolescents: A Populational Longitudinal Study.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(15):.

We evaluated the determinants of cognitive performance in children and adolescents. This is a longitudinal study, secondary analysis of the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study. We assessed 502 children (51.6% girls) at middle childhood (range: 6.6 to 9.0 years), at late childhood, 437 children (51.0% girls, range: 8.8 to 11.2 years), and in 277 adolescents (54.5% girls, range: 15.0 to 17.4 years). Raven's progressive matrices tests estimated the participants' cognitive performance (outcome variable) at all time points. In total, we evaluated 29 factors from various dimensions (prenatal, neonatal, child fitness, lifestyle and anthropometrics). None of the neonatal and anthropometric parameters were associated with cognitive performance. Preeclampsia (prenatal) and listening to music, writing, arts and craft and watching TV (lifestyle) were negatively associated with cognitive performance. Shuttle run and box and block tests (fitness), and playing music, reading and time at the computer (lifestyle) were positive determinants of cognitive performance in children and adolescents. Fitness and lifestyle factors during childhood and adolescence diminished the importance of prenatal factors on cognitive performance and lifestyle factors were especially relevant in regard to cognitive performance. Reading was positively associated with cognitive performance, regardless of age and time dedicated, and should be promoted.

RevDate: 2022-07-31
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Bhuiyan R, Abdullah J, Hashim N, et al (2022)

Deep Dilated Convolutional Neural Network for Crowd Density Image Classification with Dataset Augmentation for Hajj Pilgrimage.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 22(14):.

Almost two million Muslim pilgrims from all around the globe visit Mecca each year to conduct Hajj. Each year, the number of pilgrims grows, creating worries about how to handle such large crowds and avoid unpleasant accidents or crowd congestion catastrophes. In this paper, we introduced deep Hajj crowd dilated convolutional neural network (DHCDCNNet) for crowd density analysis. This research also presents augmentation technique to create additional dataset based on the hajj pilgrimage scenario. We utilized a single framework to extract both high-level and low-level features. For creating additional dataset we divide the process of images augmentation into two routes. In the first route, we utilized magnitude extraction followed by the polar magnitude. In the second route, we performed morphological operation followed by transforming the image into skeleton. This paper presented a solution to the challenge of measuring crowd density using a surveillance camera pointed at a distance. An FCNN-based technique for crowd analysis is included in the proposed methodology, particularly for classifying crowd density. There are several obstacles in video analysis when there are a large number of pilgrims moving around the tawaf area, with densities of between 7 and 8 per square meter. The proposed DHCDCNNet method has achieved accuracy of 97%, 89% and 100% for the JHU-CROWD dataset, the UCSD dataset and the proposed Hajj-Crowd dataset, respectively. The proposed Hajj-Crowd dataset, the UCSD dataset, and the JHU-CROW dataset all had accuracy of 98%, 97% and 97%, respectively, using the VGGNet approach. Using the ResNet50 approach, the proposed Hajj-Crowd dataset, the UCSD dataset, and the JHU-CROW dataset all had an accuracy of 99%, 91% and 97%, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Loh Z, Hall EH, Cronin D, et al (2022)

Working memory control predicts fixation duration in scene-viewing.

Psychological research [Epub ahead of print].

When viewing scenes, observers differ in how long they linger at each fixation location and how far they move their eyes between fixations. What factors drive these differences in eye-movement behaviors? Previous work suggests individual differences in working memory capacity may influence fixation durations and saccade amplitudes. In the present study, participants (N = 98) performed two scene-viewing tasks, aesthetic judgment and memorization, while viewing 100 photographs of real-world scenes. Working memory capacity, working memory processing ability, and fluid intelligence were assessed with an operation span task, a memory updating task, and Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, respectively. Across participants, we found significant effects of task on both fixation durations and saccade amplitudes. At the level of each individual participant, we also found a significant relationship between memory updating task performance and participants' fixation duration distributions. However, we found no effect of fluid intelligence and no effect of working memory capacity on fixation duration or saccade amplitude distributions, inconsistent with previous findings. These results suggest that the ability to flexibly maintain and update working memory is strongly related to fixation duration behavior.

RevDate: 2022-07-29
CmpDate: 2022-07-22

Ręk P, RD Magrath (2022)

Reality and illusion: the assessment of angular separation of multi-modal signallers in a duetting bird.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1978):20220680.

The spatial distribution of cooperating individuals plays a strategic role in territorial interactions of many group-living animals, and can indicate group cohesion. Vocalizations are commonly used to judge the distribution of signallers, but the spatial resolution of sounds is poor. Many species therefore accompany calls with movement; however, little is known about the role of audio-visual perception in natural interactions. We studied the effect of angular separation on the efficacy of multimodal duets in the Australian magpie-lark, Grallina cyanoleuca. We tested specifically whether conspicuous wing movements, which typically accompany duets, affect responses to auditory angular separation. Multimodal playbacks of duets using robotic models and speakers showed that birds relied primarily on acoustic cues when visual and auditory angular separations were congruent, but used both modalities to judge separation between the signallers when modalities were spatially incongruent. The visual component modified the effect of acoustic separation: robotic models that were apart weakened the response when speakers were together, while models that were together strengthened responses when speakers were apart. Our results show that responses are stronger when signallers are together, and suggest that males were are able to bind information cross-modally on the senders' spatial location, which is consistent with a multisensory illusion.

RevDate: 2022-09-27
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Saito Y, Takeshita E, Komaki H, et al (2022)

Determining neurodevelopmental manifestations in Duchenne muscular dystrophy using a battery of brief tests.

Journal of the neurological sciences, 440:120340.

OBJECTIVE: We report neurodevelopmental manifestations in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and evaluate the correlations between mutation location and three neurodevelopmental abnormalities: intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and attentional problems.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 55 Japanese boys with genetically confirmed DMD who visited the outpatient department of the National Center for Psychiatry and Neurology of Japan from October 2017 to April 2018. Neurodevelopmental manifestations were evaluated using the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Parent-Interview Autism Spectrum Disorder Rating Scale-Text Revision (PARS-TR), and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Rating Scale.

RESULTS: Among the 55 boys (mean [standard deviation, SD] age, 9.5 [1.6] years), 24 (43.6%) scored below -2.0 SD in RCPM, indicating intellectual disability. Further, 83% had DMD variants in exon 45 or downstream to it (P = 0.005). On the PARS-TR, 30 (55%) and 21 boys (38%) scored higher than the clinical cutoff score in childhood and present scores, respectively. Stereotyped behavior and restricted interests scores were found to decrease with age (P = 0.003 and P = 0.01, respectively).

DISCUSSION: The results show that boys with DMD who have intellectual disability commonly have DMD variants in exon 45 or downstream to it. Stereotyped behavior and restricted interests improved with age, while intellectual disability did not.

CONCLUSION: Understanding these characteristics of neurodevelopmental disability may reduce risky behaviors and improve the overall quality of life of patients with DMD.

RevDate: 2022-08-09
CmpDate: 2022-07-19

Ram B, R Thakur (2022)

Epidemiology and Economic Burden of Continuing Challenge of Infectious Diseases in India: Analysis of Socio-Demographic Differentials.

Frontiers in public health, 10:901276.

Unlike other low- and middle-income countries, infectious diseases are still predominant, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging without replacing the burden of infectious diseases in India, where it is imposing a double burden of diseases on households in the country. This study aimed to analyse the socio-economic and demographic differentials in the magnitude of economic burden and coping strategies associated with health expenditure on infectious diseases in India. National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) data on "Key Indicators of Social Consumption in India: Health, (2017-18)" have been employed in this study. The findings of the study revealed that more than 33% of the individuals are still suffering from infectious diseases out of the total ailing population in India. Based on the various socio-economic and demographic covariates, infectious diseases are highly prevalent among individuals with marginalized characteristics, such as individuals residing in rural areas, females, 0-14 age groups, Muslims, illiterates, scheduled tribes (STs), and scheduled castes (SCs), large family households, and economically poor people in the country. The per capita out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on infectious diseases is INR 7.28 and INR 29.38 in inpatient and outpatient care, respectively. Whereas, monthly per patient OOP expenditure on infectious diseases by infection-affected populations is INR 881.56 and INR 1,156.34 in inpatient and outpatient care in India. The study found that people residing in rural areas, SCs followed by other backward classes (OBCs), illiterates, poor, and very poor are more dependent on borrowings, sale of assets, and other distressed sources of financing. However, under National Health Policy 2017, many initiatives, such as "Ayushman Bharat," PM-JAY, and National Digital Health Mission (NDHM) in 2021, have been launched by the government of India in the recent years. These initiatives are holistically launched for ensuring better health facilities, but it is early to make any prediction regarding its outcomes; hopefully, the time will define it over the passing of a few more years. Finally, the study proposed the need for proper implementations of policy initiatives, awareness against unhygienic conditions and contamination of illnesses, immunisations/vaccination campaigns, subsidized medical facilities, and the country's expansion of quality primary health-care facilities.

RevDate: 2022-08-24

Mack C, N Uomini (2022)

Modulation of behavioural laterality in wild New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides): Vocalization, age and function.

Laterality [Epub ahead of print].

The New Caledonian crow (Corvus moneduloides) is known for displaying a unique set of tool-related behaviours, with the bird's bill acting as an individually consistently lateralized effector. However, we still fail to understand how such laterality develops, is modulated or even if its expression is consistent across other behavioural categories. Creating the first ethogram for this species allowed us to examine laterality and vocalisations in a population of wild, free-flying New Caledonian crows using detailed analyses of close-up video footage. We revealed the existence of an overall strong left-sided bias during object manipulation only and which was driven by the adult crows of our focal population, the stabilization of individual preferences occurring during the birds' juvenile years. Individually, at least one crow showed consistent side biases to the right and left within different behavioural categories. Our findings highlight previously unknown variability in behavioural laterality in this species, thus advocating for further investigation. Specifically, we argue that a better understanding of the New Caledonian crow's biology and ecology is required if one wishes to pursue the promising comparative road that laterality could be connected to the evolution of tool-making.

RevDate: 2022-09-15

Malkinski M, J Mandziuk (2022)

Multi-Label Contrastive Learning for Abstract Visual Reasoning.

IEEE transactions on neural networks and learning systems, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

For a long time, the ability to solve abstract reasoning tasks was considered one of the hallmarks of human intelligence. Recent advances in the application of deep learning (DL) methods led to surpassing human abstract reasoning performance, specifically in the most popular type of such problems-Raven's progressive matrices (RPMs). While the efficacy of DL systems is indeed impressive, the way they approach the RPMs is very different from that of humans. State-of-the-art systems solving RPMs rely on massive pattern-based training and sometimes on exploiting biases in the dataset, whereas humans concentrate on the identification of the rules/concepts underlying the RPM to be solved. Motivated by this cognitive difference, this work aims at combining DL with the human way of solving RPMs. Specifically, we cast the problem of solving RPMs into a multilabel classification framework where each RPM is viewed as a multilabel data point, with labels determined by the set of abstract rules underlying the RPM. For efficient training of the system, we present a generalization of the noise contrastive estimation algorithm to the case of multilabel samples and a new sparse rule encoding scheme for RPMs. The proposed approach is evaluated on the two most popular benchmark datasets I-RAVEN and procedurally generated matrices (PGM) and on both of them demonstrate an advantage over the state-of-the-art results.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Kang KH, Nam KB, Kim JS, et al (2022)

Nest characteristics and composition of the colonial nesting Azure-winged magpie Cyanopica cyanus in South Korea.

PeerJ, 10:e13637.

Bird nests are crucial for reproductive success since they serve as structures to hold the eggs and nestlings safely. Therefore, the structural characteristics of bird nests have optimally evolved to maximize reproductive success, which are known to be affected by various factors. We gathered information on the nest characteristics such as nest structure and constituent materials in the colonial breeding Azure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyanus) and investigated the relationship between ecologically relevant factors and the size and mass of the nests. The Azure-winged magpie nest can be deconstructed into an outer nest and an inner cup, and the type and mass of materials used for the construction of each part varies. Compared to the inner cup, the outer nest, which constitutes the overall shape of the nest, is composed of relatively harder materials, such as branches and soil. In contrast, the inner cup, which is the part where birds directly incubate eggs and raise nestlings, is composed of more flexible and softer materials, such as fiber and moss. We found that there was no relationship between nest characteristics and ecologically relevant factors. However, as the breeding season progressed, the volume of the inner cup decreased with increasing ambient temperatures. Our results show that Azure-winged magpies use differing materials for structurally distinct parts of the nests during construction. The results also indirectly suggest that the choice regarding the amount of insulating materials relative to changing temperatures during the breeding season may be one of the more significant adaptive strategies in the nest-building behaviors of Azure-winged magpies.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-07-06

Khosrozadeh M, Ghadimi S, Kazemzadeh Gharghabi M, et al (2022)

The Correlation between Children's Intelligence Quotient and Their Behavior in Dental Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study.

BioMed research international, 2022:2299215.

Children with high intelligence quotient (IQ) are more capable of managing adverse situations. These children may show more cooperation to receive dental treatments. This study assessed the effect of intelligence quotient (IQ) of 5-10-year-old children on their cooperation during dental treatments. Eighty children without previous dental history and in need of pulpotomy and stainless steel crowns in one tooth were selected. A written consent was obtained from the parents, and after the children's IQ was measured by Raven intelligence test, the treatments were performed and their cooperation level was determined using Frankl's behavior rating scale with rating 1 to rating 4 (definitely negative, negative, positive, and definitely positive). In this cross-sectional study, the relationship between IQ and cooperation level was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test while the effect of age and gender on IQ and cooperation level was studied by ordinal regression test. Out of the total samples, 5% had definitely negative, 16.2% had negative, 56.3% had positive, and 22.5% had definitely positive level of cooperation according to Frankl criteria. There was a significant and positive correlation between IQ and level of cooperation (r = 0.87, p < 0.001). According to the results of the linear regression analysis, to examine the effect of age, sex, and IQ variables on cooperation, children's age (p value = 0.003) had a positive effect on their cooperation, but gender had no effect on predicting IQ and cooperation level (p value = 0.557). Regarding significant relationship between IQ scores and cooperation level, dentists can predict cooperation in pediatric patients to deliver better treatments and increase patients' satisfaction.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Gallego-Abenza M, Boucherie PH, T Bugnyar (2022)

Early social environment affects attention to social cues in juvenile common ravens, Corvus corax.

Royal Society open science, 9(6):220132.

Social competence, i.e. defined as the ability to adjust the expression of social behaviour to the available social information, is known to be influenced by early-life conditions. Brood size might be one of the factors determining such early conditions, particularly in species with extended parental care. We here tested in ravens whether growing up in families of different sizes affects the chicks' responsiveness to social information. We experimentally manipulated the brood size of 13 captive raven families, creating either small or large families. Simulating dispersal, juveniles were separated from their parents and temporarily housed in one of two captive non-breeder groups. After five weeks of socialization, each raven was individually tested in a playback setting with food-associated calls from three social categories: sibling, familiar unrelated raven they were housed with, and unfamiliar unrelated raven from the other non-breeder aviary. We found that individuals reared in small families were more attentive than birds from large families, in particular towards the familiar unrelated peer. These results indicate that variation in family size during upbringing can affect how juvenile ravens value social information. Whether the observed attention patterns translate into behavioural preferences under daily life conditions remains to be tested in future studies.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-07-04

Zhu C (2022)

Effects of Musicotherapy Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Intervention on the Cognitive Ability of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Psychiatria Danubina, 34(2):288-295.

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) mainly manifests as learning difficulties, emotional impulsiveness, excessive activities, and attention deficit disorder. Given that it can influence social communication abilities, as well as physical and psychological health and viability, ADHD rehabilitation has attracted close attention. This study aims to discuss the influences of musicotherapy combined with cognitive behavioral intervention on the cognitive ability of children with ADHD and provide some references for ADHD rehabilitation.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 120 children with ADHD in the Cooperative Hospital of Guangzhou University from June 2018 to May 2021 were chosen as the research objects. They were divided randomly into the control and observation groups with 60 cases in each group via the observing random digital method. The control group was the blank control and did not receive any intervention. The observation group received 16 weeks of musicotherapy combined with cognitive behavioral intervention. Symptoms and the results of the numerical cross-attention test, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the combined Raven's test (CRT), the Wechsler intelligence scale for children test, and Conner's child behavioral scale for parents of the two groups before and after the intervention were compared.

RESULTS: The relevant indexes of the control group did not show any significant changes after the intervention (P>0.05). In the intervention group, the accurately crossed number and net scores increased significantly, whereas the wrongly crossed number and missed crossed number scores and error; attention deficit; hyperactivity-impulsiveness; and ADHD-RS-Ⅳ total scores declined dramatically after intervention relative to those before the intervention. Moreover, the above indexes of the observation group showed more significant improvements than those of the control group (P<0.05). In the observation group, the conceptual level percentage and the number of completed classes had significantly increased and the number of discontinuous errors and number of continuous errors after the intervention had dropped sharply compared with those before. The above indexes of the observation group had improved significantly compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, in both groups, the concentration/attention factor and CRT scores increased dramatically and the scores of Conner's child behavior scale after the intervention had dropped significantly compared with those before. After intervention, the above indexes of the observation group showed greater improvements than those of the control group (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The musicotherapy combined with cognitive behavioral intervention can improve the cognitive functions of children with ADHD and has clinical application values.

RevDate: 2022-09-27
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Baciadonna L, Jerwood GM, Farrar BG, et al (2022)

Investigation of mirror-self recognition in ravens (Corvus corax).

Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983), 136(3):194-198.

Large-brained birds, such as corvids and parrots, tend to fail tests for self-recognition (mirror self-recognition [MSR]), but the limited positive evidence for MSR in these species has been questioned due to methodological limitations. In the present study, we aimed to investigate MSR in ravens by performing three mirror tests: a mirror exposure test, a mirror preference test, and a mark test. Across all three tests, the ravens' behavior was not consistent with MSR. Three out of six ravens infrequently interacted with the mirror and the nonmirror surfaces. Two birds explored the mirror and occasionally displayed contingent behaviors. Finally, the ravens made very few social displays toward the mirror, suggesting that at this stage they did not treat their reflection as a conspecific. These findings, along with the current evidence available, raise further questions on the validity of relying on one test to establish self-recognition and call for the development of methods beyond mirror tests to explore self-recognition in nonhuman animals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2022-11-02
CmpDate: 2022-11-02

Cavallini M, Papagni M, Augelli F, et al (2022)

Heterogeneous crow's feet line patterns and customized botulinum toxin rejuvenating treatment.

Journal of cosmetic dermatology, 21(10):4294-4300.

BACKGROUND: From early dynamic lines in smiling and squinting young people, crow's feet lines in the lateral canthal region evolve through prolonged tissue remodeling into mature, stable rhytids after the mid-to-late thirties, and requests for rejuvenating treatment. Because of the heterogeneous fanning behavior of crow's feet lines, individualizing neuromodulation with botulinum toxin injections might be a sound strategy to maximize aesthetic outcomes.

AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of variable crow's feet line patterns at maximum contracture and while smiling and comment on the relative distribution of such patterns and the influence of aging. These considerations will be the basis and rationale for future studies that will individualize the total 24-unit dose according to the distribution of crow's feet lines.

METHODS: Identifying CFL orientation at maximum frown and while smiling; assessment tool: the four-class 2015-version of Kane's classification further modified by converting the former "central fan pattern" into a new, more precisely defined "extended full-fan pattern" class.

RESULTS: The 323 cohort subjects had a mean age of 51.5 ± 9.28 years. Although with some differences, outcomes in a central-southern real-world European Caucasian population appear similar to the distribution first studied in 2003 in a highly selected population in New England involved in double-blind clinical trials. The full-fan pattern predominated both at maximum contraction and when smiling, followed in prevalence by the upper-fan pattern at maximum contraction and the extended full-fan pattern while smiling. Age significantly influenced the crow's feet line pattern-lower-fan patterns were more frequent than other patterns in the real-world younger middle-age group (40-49 years old); full-fan and extended full-fan patterns progressively more prevalent with aging.

CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms but somewhat modifies the previous evidence about the non-homogeneous distribution of crow's feet line fanning patterns in different age groups and reinforces the case to individualize the topography of botulinum toxin injections.

RevDate: 2022-07-27
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Buniyaadi A, Prabhat A, Bhardwaj SK, et al (2022)

Night melatonin levels affect cognition in diurnal animals: Molecular insights from a corvid exposed to an illuminated night environment.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 308:119618.

This study investigated the role of nocturnal melatonin secretion in the cognitive performance of diurnal animals. An initial experiment measured the cognitive performance in Indian house crows treated for 11 days with 12 h light at 1.426 W/m[2] (∼150 lux) coupled with 12 h of 0.058 W/m[2] (∼6-lux) dim light at night (dLAN) or with absolute darkness (0 lux dark night, LD). dLAN treatment significantly decreased midnight melatonin levels and negatively impacted cognitive performance. Subsequently, the role of exogenous melatonin (50 μg; administered intraperitoneally half an hour before the night began) was assessed on the regulation of cognitive performance in two separate experimental cohorts of crows kept under dLAN; LD controls received vehicle. Exogenous melatonin restored its mid-night levels under dLAN at par with those under LD controls, and improved the cognitive performance, as measured in the innovative problem-solving, and spatial and pattern learning-memory efficiency tests in dLAN-treated crows. There were concurrent molecular changes in the cognition-associated brain areas, namely the hippocampus, nidopallium caudolaterale and midbrain. In particular, the expression levels of genes involved in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity (bdnf, dcx, egr1, creb), and dopamine synthesis and signalling (th, drd1, drd2, darpp32, taar1) were restored to LD control levels in crows treated with illuminated nights and received melatonin. These results demonstrate that the maintenance of nocturnal melatonin levels is crucial for an optimal higher-order brain function in diurnal animals in the face of an environmental threat, such as light pollution.

RevDate: 2022-11-15
CmpDate: 2022-11-15

Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Zhao L, et al (2022)

Azure-winged Magpies would rather avoid losses than strive for benefits based on reciprocal altruism.

Animal cognition, 25(6):1579-1588.

It is no doubt that the reciprocal altruism of humans is unparalleled in the animal world. However, how strong altruistic behavior in the non-human animal is still very controversial. Almost all previous researches allowed only one individual in the dyad for action or dyad to accomplish tasks and obtain rewards simultaneously. Here, we designed current study based on the prisoner's dilemma to investigate reciprocal altruism under interactions of Azure-winged Magpies (Cyanopica cyanus), which is direct reciprocity of allowing subjects obtain rewards, respectively. The results suggest that Azure-winged Magpies failed to show continuously altruistic behavior due to the empiricism that stemmed from interactions, that is, avoiding losses. Meanwhile, the resource exchange game paradigm, which is designed in our study, is worthwhile to study the evolution of cooperation in more species in the future.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Gallup AC, Schild AB, Ühlein MA, et al (2022)

No Evidence for Contagious Yawning in Juvenile Ravens (Corvus corax): An Observational Study.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(11):.

The overt and reflexive matching of behaviors among conspecifics has been observed in a growing number of social vertebrates, including avian species. In general, behavioral contagion-such as the spread of yawning-may serve important functions in group synchronization and vigilance behavior. Here, we performed an exploratory study to investigate yawn contagion among 10 captive juvenile ravens (Corvus corax), across two groups. Using observational methods, we also examined the contagiousness of three other distinct behaviors: stretching, scratching, and shaking. A total of 44 20 min observations were made across both groups, including 28 in the morning and 16 in the afternoon. The time and occurrence of all the behaviors from each bird were coded, and the temporal pattern of each behavior across both groups was then analyzed to assess the degree of social contagion. Overall, we found no evidence for contagious yawning, stretching, scratching, or shaking. However, yawns were relatively infrequent per observation (0.052 ± 0.076 yawns/bird) and thus experimental methods should be used to support this finding.

RevDate: 2022-06-07
CmpDate: 2022-05-31

Vermeylen MK, Knowles TG, HW Barron (2022)

The influence of Lake Okeechobee discharges on Karenia brevis blooms and the effects on wildlife along the central west coast of Florida.

Harmful algae, 115:102237.

Blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (K. brevis) are a common occurrence in the Gulf of Mexico, especially along Florida's coast. The blooms produce brevetoxins, potent neurotoxins that are associated with mortalities of marine wildlife. In recent years, K. brevis blooms seem to have become more frequent and intense. The cause of these suspected increases is highly debated, with one suggested explanation being anthropogenic eutrophication. Patient records from the Clinic for the Rehabilitation of Wildlife (CROW) on Sanibel Island, Florida, USA, and K. brevis cell count samples from the west coast of Florida were used to assess trends in red tides and affected wildlife. Flow data from the Okeechobee waterway was used to investigate if discharges from Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee Estuary, where eutrophication is present, influence red tides along Florida's central west coast. Overall, K. brevis blooms show trends of increasing intensity and duration along Florida's coast between 1954 and 2020 (latest data available). This means the amount of wildlife affected will likely increase in the future, as a linear relationship was found between the number of admissions to CROW and K. brevis densities. Furthermore, water discharges from the Okeechobee waterway (including Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee Estuary) into the Gulf of Mexico were significantly correlated with K. brevis densities, which suggests that anthropogenic pollution might play a role in the observed increases. Clear correlations were found between K. brevis densities and brevetoxicosis patient numbers admitted, and this was strongest with overall admissions lagging 23 days behind cell counts. This further confirms brevetoxins as the likely cause of their morbidity and supports previous research on brevetoxin retention in the environment. Different species groups had significant correlations with K. brevis cell counts, double-crested cormorants showing the strongest link, and there were significant differences between these groups in lag times. The differences are likely due to their distinct foraging behaviours or susceptibilities to brevetoxins. These findings can help predict future trends in red tides and can guide further research on the effects of discharges on K. brevis blooms.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-31

Rho NK, Han KH, HS Kim (2022)

An Update on the Cosmetic Use of Botulinum Toxin: The Pattern of Practice among Korean Dermatologists.

Toxins, 14(5):.

The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin injection have made it a popular aesthetic procedure worldwide. A cross-sectional survey was performed in order to determine the pattern of type A botulinum toxin injections in cosmetic practice, for which an 18-item questionnaire was distributed to dermatologists. A total of 469 Korean board-certified dermatologists participated in the survey, with the following results: the main candidates for type A botulinum toxin injection were individuals in their 40-50 years (46.1%), followed by those in their 20-30 years (33.4%), and people over 60 years of age (20.5%). Overall, the upper face (the glabella, forehead, and crow's line, in decreasing order) was the most favored area of injection (51%). In contrast, body contouring (i.e., shoulder, calf) and treatment for benign masseter hypertrophy were significantly more popular in the 20-30 years age group than their older counterparts. For wrinkle effacement, the most preferred dilution was 100 units/2.5 mL with isotonic sodium chloride injection (51.2%), and the most often used interval was six months (43.6%). About half (46.3%) of the dermatologists reported the experience of clinical cases which were suspicious of botulinum toxin resistance. Despite this, regarding the choice of the product, type A botulinum toxin products with greater cost-effectiveness were favored over products with a lower risk of antibody formation. Other than its cosmetic usage, botulinum toxin is applied for a variety of skin conditions. Further studies are suggested in order to identify the practice pattern of type A botulinum toxin for therapeutic uses in dermatology, such as hyperhidrosis and rosacea.

RevDate: 2022-08-15
CmpDate: 2022-05-26

Farine DR (2022)

Collective behaviour: Jackdaws vote to leave with their voice.

Current biology : CB, 32(10):R467-R469.

Making a decision as a group requires not only choosing where to go but also when to go. A new study provides experimental evidence that, in jackdaws, vocalisations facilitate synchronous early morning departures from communal roosts.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Moyer RA, Beck CJ, Van Atter N, et al (2022)

Advocacy services for survivors of intimate partner violence: Pivots and lessons learned during the COVID-19 quarantine in Tacoma, Washington.

Family court review, 60(2):288-302.

The Crystal Judson Family Justice Center (CJFJC), like many advocacy programs for survivors of intimate partner violence, transformed its structure and operating procedures amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The first confirmed case of COVID-19 in the United States was in Washington State, where CJFJC is located, and Governor Jay Inslee acted quickly with a strict stay-at-home order. This paper describes the pre-pandemic, in-person service model used at CJFJC and then the transition to a fully online service model utilizing phone, email and online procedures and platforms. The rapid transition posed many opportunities to learn how to provide services during public pandemics, and how to provide services virtually. We conclude with detailed lessons learned from the experiences of filing domestic violence protection orders online, Zoom court hearings, innovation surrounding community partnerships, and information technology development.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Kövér L, Paládi P, Benmazouz I, et al (2022)

Is the Hitchcock Story Really True? Public Opinion on Hooded Crows in Cities as Input to Management.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(9):.

In recent years, the Hooded crow (Corvus cornix) has become one of the most successful wild bird species in urban environments across Europe. Hooded crows can cause several problems in cities, including trash scattering, noise disturbance, and aggressive behavior toward humans or pets, and they can be potential vectors of pathogens. To find effective solutions, the public has to be involved in the decision-making process in urban planning management, managed by the city administration. In this study, we surveyed the attitude of people in Hungary towards crows and crow management by collecting information using an online questionnaire containing 65 questions published in 14 Facebook groups. We found that many people were familiar with corvid species and had personal experience with them. In most cases, these experiences were not negative, so the crows were not or only rarely perceived to cause problems to people, such as aggressive behavior, damage to cars or stealing something. Most respondents recognized that the presence of large numbers of hooded crows is a problem to be solved and acknowledged that they do not know how to resolve it. The majority of people expressed their interest in raising public awareness of crows but not in their management actions, which they believe should be implemented by experts. Most respondents preferred passive, harmless methods. More direct methods such as egg/chick removal from the nest, control by trapping, poisoned baits or firearms, or oral contraceptives were the least acceptable. These results express the difficulty in identifying a control method for managing hooded crow populations that is both acceptable to most people and effective at the same time. This study demonstrates the importance of involving public opinion in wildlife management and providing more information to citizens to reduce human-crow conflicts.

RevDate: 2022-08-27
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Brynychová K, Sládeček M, Pešková L, et al (2022)

Aggressiveness in a subtropical shorebird's nest defense is adjusted to the predator species and shared by conspecifics.

Aggressive behavior, 48(5):475-486.

Aggression is an important component of an animal's defense when protecting offspring from predators. Ground nesting birds use a variety of defense strategies. However, their choice according to situation context is poorly known, especially in nonpasserines and in the subtropics and tropics. The ability to distinguish between differently dangerous predator species and the opportunity to share defense with conspecifics are potentially important but little-studied aspects of nest defense strategy. We experimentally studied the nest defense of Red-Wattled Lapwing in an individually marked population in a desert area near Dubai, UAE. We used three stuffed models representing 1) a predator dangerous both to adults and to nests (a cat), 2) a nest predator (a raven), and 3) a harmless reference model (a moorhen). We confirmed that the lapwings distinguished between predator species (being most aggressive toward the cat, and least aggressive toward the moorhen) and adjusted their defense strategy accordingly. In addition, conspecific visitors play a variety of roles in parents' defense strategy. They can strengthen the parental reaction, or they can assist in distracting a predator. The visitors included not only nesting neighbors but also nonbreeding floaters. Both parents participated in nest defense to a similar extent, regardless of incubation stage and ambient temperature. This study provides new insight into the complexity of the defensive patterns in ground-nesting birds inhabiting a hot environment. Comparative experimental research on a range of environments, with various bird species and predator models, can help us to understand the drivers of these defensive behavioral patterns.

RevDate: 2022-10-17
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Ocañas AR, Danoff-Burg JA, Mulroe K, et al (2022)

Addressing the raven food subsidy challenge by engaging restaurants to close their dumpsters.

Zoo biology, 41(5):491-500.

Ravens have benefitted from resource subsidies provided by humans so much that their population has increased by over 800% in the western Mojave desert over the last 50 years. Our food waste is an especially large subsidy. Raven predation is one of the greatest threats to desert tortoise survival in the California desert. We sought to create and evaluate a behavioral change program among restaurants in Yucca Valley and Twentynine Palms, California in the western Mojave with elevated raven populations. Half of the 60 restaurants in these two communities received an intervention encouraging them to close their dumpsters while the other half served as controls with no intervention. Treatment restaurants received two in-person visits to discuss the manifold importance of dumpster closure and laminated information signs to display and extend communication to staff. We surveyed all dumpsters for open/closed status five times before the intervention and five times again 3 months after the intervention. We found a significant increase in closure rates among treatment restaurants due to the interventions, with an average of 9.5% increase toward maximum possible lid closure. Restaurants achieving 80%+ closure received "Gold Star Awards" to further stimulate community-wide behavior change by publicly recognizing and encouraging desired behaviors. We summarize dumpster closure rates from similar interventions in nearby Joshua Tree and across the Coachella Valley to illustrate how local social norms may influence behavior.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Johnsson RD, Connelly F, Gaviraghi Mussoi J, et al (2022)

Sleep loss impairs cognitive performance and alters song output in Australian magpies.

Scientific reports, 12(1):6645.

Sleep maintains optimal brain functioning to facilitate behavioural flexibility while awake. Owing to a historical bias towards research on mammals, we know comparatively little about the role of sleep in facilitating the cognitive abilities of birds. We investigated how sleep deprivation over the full-night (12 h) or half-night (6 h) affects cognitive performance in adult Australian magpies (Cracticus tibicen), relative to that after a night of undisturbed sleep. Each condition was preceded and followed by a baseline and recovery night of sleep, respectively. Prior to each treatment, birds were trained on an associative learning task; on the day after experimental treatment (recovery day), birds were tested on a reversal learning task. To glean whether sleep loss affected song output, we also conducted impromptu song recordings for three days. Ultimately, sleep-deprived magpies were slower to attempt the reversal learning task, less likely to perform and complete the task, and those that did the test performed worse than better-rested birds. We also found that sleep-deprived magpies sang longer yet fewer songs, shifted crepuscular singing to mid-day, and during the post-recovery day, song frequency bandwidth narrowed. These results collectively indicate that sleep loss impairs motivation and cognitive performance, and alters song output, in a social adult songbird.

RevDate: 2022-07-31
CmpDate: 2022-06-24

Sianta SA, KM Kay (2022)

Phylogenomic analysis does not support a classic but controversial hypothesis of progenitor-derivative origins for the serpentine endemic Clarkia franciscana.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 76(6):1246-1259.

Budding speciation involves isolation of marginal populations at the periphery of a species range and is thought to be a prominent mode of speciation in organisms with low dispersal and/or strong local adaptation among populations. Budding speciation is typically evidenced by abutting, asymmetric ranges of ecologically divergent sister species and low genetic diversity in putative budded species. Yet these indirect patterns may be unreliable, instead caused by postspeciation processes such as range or demographic shifts. Nested phylogenetic relationships provide the most conclusive evidence of budding speciation. A putative case of budding speciation in the serpentine endemic Clarkia franciscana and two closely related widespread congeners was studied by Harlan Lewis, Peter Raven, Leslie Gottlieb, and others over a 20-year period, yet the origin of C. franciscana remains controversial. Here, we reinvestigate this system with phylogenomic analyses to determine whether C. franciscana is a recently derived budded species, phylogenetically nested within one of the other two putative progenitor species. In contrast to the hypothesized pattern of relatedness among the three Clarkia species, we find no evidence for recent budding speciation. Instead, the data suggest the three species diverged simultaneously. We urge caution in using contemporary range patterns to infer geographic modes of speciation.

RevDate: 2022-04-05

Sofologi M, Pliogou V, Bonti E, et al (2021)

An Investigation of Working Memory Profile and Fluid Intelligence in Children With Neurodevelopmental Difficulties.

Frontiers in psychology, 12:773732.

The present study aims to evaluate the distinct patterns of working memory (WM) capacity of children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD), High-functioning children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and children with Down syndrome (DS). More specifically, the current study investigates the complex relationship of fluid intelligence and WM between 39 children with DLD, 20 H igh-functioning children with ASD, and 15 children with DS. All children were evaluated in different measures of Phonological Working Memory, Visual-spatial Working Memory whereas Fluid Intelligence was measured with Raven Progressive Matrices. The result analysis revealed a significant difference among the three groups, both among each function separately and the correlations among them, as well. The results revealed that the DLD groups and High-functioning ASD group exhibited a common picture or an overlap of performances in all Phonological and Visuo-spatial working memory measures, except Backward Digit Recall task. As for the DS group research findings revealed different and unique working memory patterns in comparison to DLD group and High-functioning ASD. Their differences have been studied and further conclusions have been drawn about the different patterns of working memory among the three clinical groups. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of support for learning. The common profile that characterize the two developmental conditions and the distinct pattern of working memory performance in DS group underlies the need for further research in the field.

RevDate: 2022-04-06

Holtmann B, Buskas J, Steele M, et al (2022)

Author Correction: Dominance relationships and coalitionary aggression against conspecifics in female carrion crows.

Scientific reports, 12(1):5537 pii:10.1038/s41598-022-09406-3.

RevDate: 2022-10-21
CmpDate: 2022-10-21

Mechera-Ostrovsky T, Heinke S, Andraszewicz S, et al (2022)

Cognitive abilities affect decision errors but not risk preferences: A meta-analysis.

Psychonomic bulletin & review, 29(5):1719-1750.

When making risky decisions, people should evaluate the consequences and the chances of the outcome occurring. We examine the risk-preference hypothesis, which states that people's cognitive abilities affect their evaluation of choice options and consequently their risk-taking behavior. We compared the risk-preference hypothesis against a parsimonious error hypothesis, which states that lower cognitive abilities increase decision errors. Increased decision errors can be misinterpreted as more risk-seeking behavior because in most risk-taking tasks, random choice behavior is often misclassified as risk-seeking behavior. We tested these two competing hypotheses against each other with a systematic literature review and a Bayesian meta-analysis summarizing the empirical correlations. Results based on 30 studies and 62 effect sizes revealed no credible association between cognitive abilities and risk aversion. Apparent correlations between cognitive abilities and risk aversion can be explained by biased risk-preference-elicitation tasks, where more errors are misinterpreted as specific risk preferences. In sum, the reported associations between cognitive abilities and risk preferences are spurious and mediated by a misinterpretation of erroneous choice behavior. This result also has general implications for any research area in which treatment effects, such as decreased cognitive attention or motivation, could increase decision errors and be misinterpreted as specific preference changes.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Bravo C, Sarasa M, Bretagnolle V, et al (2022)

Detectability and predator strategy affect egg depredation rates: Implications for mitigating nest depredation in farmlands.

The Science of the total environment, 829:154558.

Predation is a major evolutionary force in animal ecology. Mechanisms by which prey coloration provides camouflage has been widely studied. However, predator response to prey camouflage and concealment has received less attention. Understanding vegetation structure effect on depredation success could help managers design strategies to mitigate the depredation of managed species (e.g., threatened or hunted). We aimed to investigate the relationship between depredation rate, nest camouflage and concealment in ground-nesting birds of farmlands, and their predators. We set up an experiment of 2576 artificial ground nests to assess the role of egg coloration (white, light green, and dark green), egg size (small, medium, and large), and vegetation structure (vegetation height and land use) in nest survival rates. We also explored the role of predator searching strategies by analysing clumped depredation and multiple depredation events. Of the nests, 34.0% were depredated, with corvids as the predators 78.5% of the time. Corvid depredation decreased by 40-60% in grasslands and spring crops above a vegetation height of 30 cm. In contrast, vegetation height and land use may be of far less importance in avoiding depredation by other predators. The probability of depredation was spatially clumped, suggesting that predators increase search effort in areas where a nest was previously encountered. Neighboring depredation and depredation repetition were more frequent in corvids than in other predators. Our study indicates that nests in vegetation higher than 30 cm had a drastic reduction in depredation rates by corvids. Management of vegetation structure is a key tool to mitigate depredation risk, and improving the availability of alternative food resources may be a complementary tool.

RevDate: 2022-06-24
CmpDate: 2022-06-24

Cogni R, Quental TB, PR Guimarães (Jr) (2022)

Ehrlich and Raven escape and radiate coevolution hypothesis at different levels of organization: Past and future perspectives.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 76(6):1108-1123.

The classic paper by Ehrlich and Raven on coevolution will soon be 60 years old. Although they were not the first to develop the idea of coevolution, their thought-provoking paper certainly popularized this idea and inspired several generations of scientists interested in coevolution. Here, we describe some of their main contributions, quantitatively measure the impact of their seminal paper on different fields of research, and discuss how ideas related to their original paper might push the study of coevolution forward. To guide our discussion, we explore their original hypothesis into three research fields that are associated with distinct scales/levels of organization: (1) the genetic mechanisms underlying coevolutionary interactions; (2) the potential association between coevolutionary diversification and the organization of ecological networks; and (3) the micro- and macroevolutionary mechanisms and expected patterns under their hypothesis. By doing so, we discuss potentially overlooked aspects and future directions for the study of coevolutionary dynamics and diversification.

RevDate: 2022-08-30
CmpDate: 2022-06-08

González R, Rojas M, Rosselli M, et al (2022)

Linguistic profiles of variants of primary progressive aphasia.

Journal of communication disorders, 97:106202.

BACKGROUND: Several subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) have been proposed. Most reports use small samples, and few have included Spanish-speaking participants.

AIM: To analyze the language profile and nonlinguistic deficits in a large sample of PPA Spanish monolingual participants.

METHOD: 177 individuals were diagnosed with PPA in a sample consisting of 69 men and 108 women (Mage = 66.40 years, SD = 9.30). The participants were assessed using the Spanish versions of the Western Aphasia Battery Revised (SWAB-R) and the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (SBDAE). Non-verbal reasoning was evaluated with the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices.

RESULTS: 41.8% of the sample met the criteria for the logopenic variant (lvPPA), while 28.2% met the criteria for semantic (svPPA), 15.3% for lexical (lxvPPA), and 14.7% for nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA) variants. Language difficulties were similar in all variants except for lxvPPA. Scores on Spontaneous Language, Auditory Comprehension, Repetition, and Naming were significantly higher for the lxvPPA group. Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices scores were significantly lower in lvPPA. Years of education correlated with all test scores, while age was negatively associated with naming. When the PPA variants were classified according to the traditional aphasia classification, discrepancies were evident. Furthermore, the most frequent type of aphasia was Amnesic, while the least frequent was Wernicke's aphasia.

CONCLUSION: The SWAB-R is useful in describing the clinical characteristics of aphasia for each variant of PPA, but quantitative scores from this battery are not capable of distinguishing between variants of PPA, with the exception of lxvPPA.

RevDate: 2022-03-09

Nittono H, Ohashi A, M Komori (2022)

Creation and Validation of the Japanese Cute Infant Face (JCIF) Dataset.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:819428.

Research interest in cuteness perception and its effects on subsequent behavior and physiological responses has recently been increasing. The purpose of the present study was to produce a dataset of Japanese infant faces that are free of portrait rights and can be used for cuteness research. A total of 80 original facial images of 6-month-old infants were collected from their parents. The cuteness level of each picture was rated on a 7-point scale by 200 Japanese people (100 men and 100 women in their 20s-60s). Prototypical high- and low-cuteness faces were created by averaging the top 10 and bottom 10 faces according to the mean cuteness ratings. Then, 50 composite faces were made by mixing two faces randomly chosen from the 60 unused middle-cuteness faces. The normative cuteness ratings of these composite faces were obtained from 229 Japanese men and women in their 20s-60s. The shape of each composite face was transformed to be cuter (+50%) or less cute (-50%) along a continuum between the high- and low-cuteness prototypical faces. A two-alternative forced-choice task (N = 587) confirmed that cuteness discrimination was better than the chance level for all 50 face pairs. Moreover, the results showed that young men had poorer sensitivity to cuteness differences in infant faces than older men and women of any age. This Japanese Cute Infant Face (JCIF, "jay-sif") dataset, including composite face images and normative rating scores, is publicly available online.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Abdel Maksoud MKM, Ibrahim AAH, Nabil TM, et al (2022)

Histomorphological, histochemical and scanning electron microscopic investigation of the proventriculus (Ventriculus glandularis) of the hooded crow (Corvus cornix).

Anatomia, histologia, embryologia, 51(3):380-389.

The current investigation aimed to clarify the histomorphological features, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histochemistry of the proventriculus in the adult hooded crow (Corvus cornix). Twenty-two adult birds of both sexes were collected from El-Fayoum and Beni-Suef governorates, Egypt; ten were used for anatomical investigation, two were scanned using SEM, and ten were subjected to routine histological technique. The obtained anatomical results revealed a small-sized spindle-shaped proventriculus obliquely located in the left ventral part of the body cavity with an average body weight, length and diameter of 1.689 ± 0.231 gm, 1.54 ± 0.383cm and 3.51 ± 0.416cm, respectively. The histological examination revealed a typical tubular organ. The mucosa exhibited several plicae and sulci that were lined with simple columnar cells. The lamina propria was composed of collagenous connective tissue infiltrated by lymphocytes, lymphatic aggregations and tubular glands. The submucosa consisted of collagenic fibres and compound tubuloalveolar glandular lobules lined with oxynticopeptic cells and enteroendocrine cells. The oxynticopeptic cells reacted negatively with PAS and Alcian Blue stains, whereas the ductal cells reacted positively with PAS only. Enteroendocrine cells were seen singly in the lamina epithelialis mucosae and were abundant in submucosal glands. The tunica musclaris was arranged in two layers covered by serosa. The proventricular glands' openings were noticed by SEM as raised tubes with regular circular outlines surrounded by anastomosed microscopic folds. The obtained histomorphological structure of the hooded crow's proventriculus revealed some shared morphological features with most species of birds and some variations that might be attributed to their diet and feeding behaviour.

RevDate: 2022-03-14
CmpDate: 2022-03-14

McCune KB, Valente JJ, Jablonski PG, et al (2022)

Social behavior mediates the use of social and personal information in wild jays.

Scientific reports, 12(1):2494.

The factors favoring the evolution of certain cognitive abilities in animals remain unclear. Social learning is a cognitive ability that reduces the cost of acquiring personal information and forms the foundation for cultural behavior. Theory predicts the evolutionary pressures to evolve social learning should be greater in more social species. However, research testing this theory has primarily occurred in captivity, where artificial environments can affect performance and yield conflicting results. We compared the use of social and personal information, and the social learning mechanisms used by wild, asocial California scrub-jays and social Mexican jays. We trained demonstrators to solve one door on a multi-door task, then measured the behavior of naïve conspecifics towards the task. If social learning occurs, observations of demonstrators will change the rate that naïve individuals interact with each door. We found both species socially learned, though personal information had a much greater effect on behavior in the asocial species while social information was more important for the social species. Additionally, both species used social information to avoid, rather than copy, conspecifics. Our findings demonstrate that while complex social group structures may be unnecessary for the evolution of social learning, it does affect the use of social versus personal information.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-04-15

Seguchi A, Mogi K, EI Izawa (2022)

Measurement of urinary mesotocin in large-billed crows by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

The Journal of veterinary medical science, 84(4):520-524.

Mesotocin (MT) is an avian homologue of oxytocin (OT). Behavioral pharmacological studies in birds have suggested the involvement of MT in socially affiliative behavior. However, investigations of peripheral MT levels associated with social behavior are lacking because non-invasive methods to measure surrogate plasma MT have yet to be established. This study aimed to measure urinary MT in crows using a commercially available OT enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Urine samples were collected after intravenous injection of MT and centrifuged to separate urine and fecal components. We found that urinary MT was significantly elevated 15-30 min after MT injection. These results validate our method for the use of urine samples for the measurement of peripheral MT levels in crows.

RevDate: 2022-02-16

Wang J, Cui R, Stolarz-Fantino S, et al (2021)

Differences in Mood, Optimism, and Risk-Taking Behavior Between American and Chinese College Students.

Frontiers in psychology, 12:781609.

Mood and optimism have been demonstrated to influence risk-taking decisions; however, the literature on mood, optimism, and decision-making is mixed and conducted primarily with western samples. This study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the impact of mood and dispositional optimism on risk-taking and whether these associations differed between undergraduate students from the United States (N = 141) and the People's Republic of China (N = 90). Both samples completed a dispositional optimism questionnaire and an autobiographical mood induction task. They were then tasked with choosing to complete the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices reasoning task on easy, medium, or hard difficulty for hypothetical money. Selecting harder difficulties was interpreted as more risk-taking due to a higher chance of failure. More positive mood and higher dispositional optimism were associated with decreased risk-taking, i.e., selecting easier puzzle difficulties, in the American sample but increased risk-taking decisions, i.e., selecting harder difficulties, in the Chinese sample (p < 0.05 for all). These findings suggest that the effect of mood and optimism on decision-making may differ by nationality and/or culture.

RevDate: 2022-11-14
CmpDate: 2022-10-14

De Mendoza RS, RO Gómez (2022)

Ecomorphology of the tarsometatarsus of waterfowl (Anseriformes) based on geometric morphometrics and its application to fossils.

Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007), 305(11):3243-3253.

Anseriformes is a diverse group of birds that comprises screamers, the Magpie Goose, and swans ducks and geese, with a relatively rich fossil record. Waterfowl live in close relation to water bodies, but show a diversity of locomotory habits, being typically categorized as walkers, dabblers, and divers. Owing to its functional significance and high preservation potential, the tarsometatarsus has been considered to be a "key" element upon which to base ecomorphological inferences in fossil waterfowl. For instance, based on features of the tarsometatarsus the Miocene flightless duck Cayaoa bruneti and the Oligocene-Miocene large waterfowl Paranyroca have been inferred as divers. Herein, we use a geometric morphometric approach and comparative methods to assess the phylogenetic and ecomorphological signals in the shape and size of waterfowl tarsometatarsi in relation to their locomotory habits. We also apply phylogenetic flexible discriminant analysis (pFDA) to test the inferred diving habits in the extinct waterfowl Cayaoa and Paranyroca. Extant waterfowl species are largely distributed according to their locomotory habit along the main axis of variation in the shape space, a pattern mirrored by the phylogenetic generalized least squares model, which shows that a third of the shape variation is significantly explained by the habit. The pFDA reclassifies correctly almost all extant species and classified with high posterior probabilities the fossil Cayaoa and Paranyroca as a diver and as a dabbler, respectively. Our quantitative multivariate approach confirms the tarsometatarsus as a useful source of data upon which reliably assesses locomotory habits of fossil waterfowl.

RevDate: 2022-10-26

Harlow SD, Burnett-Bowie SM, Greendale GA, et al (2022)

Disparities in Reproductive Aging and Midlife Health between Black and White women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

Women's midlife health, 8(1):3.

This paper reviews differences in the experience of the menopause transition and midlife health outcomes between Black and White women who participated in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a 25-year, longitudinal, multi-racial/ethnic cohort study. We identify health disparities, i.e., instances in which Black women's outcomes are less favorable than those of White women, and consider whether structural racism may underlie these disparities. Although SWAN did not explicitly assess structural racism, Black women in SWAN grew up during the Jim Crow era in the United States, during which time racism was legally sanctioned. We consider how we might gain insight into structural racism by examining proxy exposures such as socioeconomic characteristics, reports of everyday discrimination, and a range of life stressors, which likely reflect the longstanding, pervasive and persistent inequities that have roots in systemic racism in the US. Thus, this paper reviews the presence, magnitude, and longitudinal patterns of racial disparities observed in SWAN in six areas of women's health - menopause symptoms, sleep, mental health, health related quality of life, cardio-metabolic health, and physical function -and elucidates the contextual factors that are likely influencing these disparities. We review the strengths and weaknesses of SWAN's design and approach to analysis of racial disparities and use this as a springboard to offer recommendations for future cohort studies.

RevDate: 2022-05-04
CmpDate: 2022-05-04

Gonthier C (2022)

Cross-cultural differences in visuo-spatial processing and the culture-fairness of visuo-spatial intelligence tests: an integrative review and a model for matrices tasks.

Cognitive research: principles and implications, 7(1):11.

Visuo-spatial reasoning tests, such as Raven's matrices, Cattell's culture-fair test, or various subtests of the Wechsler scales, are frequently used to estimate intelligence scores in the context of inter-racial comparisons. This has led to several high-profile works claiming that certain ethnic groups have lower intelligence than others, presumably due to genetic inferiority. This logic is predicated on the assumption that such visuo-spatial tests, because they are non-verbal, must be culture-fair: that their solution process does not significantly draw on factors that vary from one culture to the next. This assumption of culture-fairness is dubious at best and has been questioned by many authors. In this article, I review the substantial body of psychological and ethnographic literature which has demonstrated that the perception, manipulation and conceptualization of visuo-spatial information differs significantly across cultures, in a way that is relevant to intelligence tests. I then outline a model of how these inter-cultural differences can affect seven major steps of the solution process for Raven's matrices, with a brief discussion of other visuo-spatial reasoning tests. Overall, a number of cultural assumptions appear to be deeply ingrained in all visuo-spatial reasoning tests, to the extent that it disqualifies the view of such tests as intrinsically culture-fair and makes it impossible to draw clear-cut conclusions from average score differences between ethnic groups.

RevDate: 2022-07-13
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Suh YH, Bowman R, JW Fitzpatrick (2022)

Staging to join non-kin groups in a classical cooperative breeder, the Florida scrub-jay.

The Journal of animal ecology, 91(5):970-982.

Why unrelated members form groups in animal societies remains a pertinent topic in evolutionary biology because benefits for group members often are not obvious. We studied subordinates that disperse to join unrelated social groups in the Florida scrub-jay Aphelocoma coerulescens, a cooperative breeding species mainly composed of kin-based groups. We evaluated potential adaptive benefits of dispersing to become an unrelated helper (staging) versus remaining home and dispersing only to pair and breed (direct dispersal) to understand why non-kin-based groups form. Using 35 years of demographic data, we quantified life-history aspects of staging individuals and tested associations between social and ecological factors on the natal and staging territories. We compared fitness outcomes between dispersal strategies by analysing survival, breeding recruitment and direct reproductive output. We tested for sexual asymmetry potentially driven by differences in territory acquisition patterns and female-biased dispersal for this species. Of birds that reached 1 year, 28% staged at a non-natal territory before breeding or disappearing. Staging dispersers departed at younger ages and moved greater distances than direct dispersers. When looking at proximate factors on the natal territory associated with staging, males left groups with many same-sex helpers, while females often left when their father disappeared. For both sexes, staging individuals more likely came from high-quality territories and joined groups with fewer same-sex helpers than in their natal group. While staging and direct dispersers did not differ in survival or likelihood of becoming a breeder, staging males became breeders later and had lower lifetime reproductive success than direct dispersers. In Florida scrub-jays, staging appears to be an alternative strategy for female helpers, but a best-of-a-bad-situation for males. This sexual asymmetry is consistent with males having more options than females to achieve higher reproductive success by breeding near home. Trade-offs in cost-benefits of departing the natal territory and joining unrelated groups as a helper seem to best explain alternative dispersal patterns, with optimal social queues primarily driving the benefits. This research highlights plasticity in dispersal behaviour in response to social and environmental conditions and offers a new perspective in our understanding of non-kin-based social groups.

RevDate: 2022-04-08
CmpDate: 2022-04-08

Sorensen MC, Strickland D, Freeman NE, et al (2022)

Early-life experience shapes patterns of senescence in a food-caching passerine.

Biology letters, 18(1):20210532.

For many species, breeding performance increases through early adulthood followed by declines later in life. Although patterns of age-specific decline have been shown to vary between individuals, the factors that lead to this individual variation in the intensity of reproductive senescence are yet to be fully understood. We investigated whether early-life social status influenced age-related trends in the breeding performance of male Canada jays (Perisoreus canadensis), year-round residents of North America's boreal and sub-alpine forests. Shortly after young become nutritionally independent, intra-brood dominance struggles lead to one juvenile (Dominant Juvenile) remaining on the natal territory after expelling its subordinate siblings (Ejectees). First, we show via radio tracking that in our declining range-edge population Ejectees either join an unrelated pair (67%), form a breeding pair with another bird (28%) or occupy a territory alone (5%). Second, using 39 years of breeding data, we demonstrate that Ejectee males advanced laying dates and increased the annual number of nestlings until 6 years of age before declining, whereas Dominant Juvenile males advanced laying dates until 11 years and increased annual number of nestlings until 12 years of age before declining. This study documents clear variation in ageing patterns between dominant and expelled young, with implications for the role of early-life experiences and phenotypic quality in determining patterns of ageing.

RevDate: 2022-02-04
CmpDate: 2022-02-04

Signorini M, Piero Fundarò S, Bertossi D, et al (2022)

OnabotulinumtoxinA from lines to facial reshaping: A new Italian consensus report.

Journal of cosmetic dermatology, 21(2):550-563.

BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxin type A is the most widely used nonsurgical treatment for esthetic improvement of the face and neck. In 2015, an Italian consensus panel met to discuss the optimal methods for using onabotulinumtoxinA. However, clinical practice continues to evolve and the original report is now considered obsolete.

AIMS: To provide updated guidance on the esthetic uses of onabotulinumtoxinA in the face and neck.

METHODS: A panel of 10 Italian specialists (including plastic and maxillofacial surgeons, dermatologists, and esthetic doctors) individually completed a questionnaire on their own clinical practice, and then met to discuss their responses and agree on a revised treatment consensus.

RESULTS: Recommendations are provided on patient assessment, reconstitution of onabotulinumtoxinA, and preferred procedures (injection sites, doses, anatomical targets, safety precautions, etc.) across a variety of treatment areas, including glabellar, crow's feet, and forehead lines; brow lifting and shaping; lower eyelid hypertrophy; bunny lines; sagging nasal tip; gummy smile; masseter hypertrophy; perioral lines; marionette lines and "sad mouth;" mentalis hypertonia; and platysma bands. Some of the recommended doses are substantially increased from the previous consensus (particularly in the upper third and masseter) for the purpose of achieving longer lasting results without affecting safety. Furthermore, two increasingly popular techniques-the Nefertiti lift and Microbotox-are included in the consensus for the first time.

CONCLUSIONS: Optimal practice with onabotulinumtoxinA requires a systematic approach to maximize safety and effectiveness across the range of potential uses. The present consensus was developed to support these aims.

RevDate: 2022-04-22
CmpDate: 2022-04-22

Boucherie PH, Gallego-Abenza M, Massen JJM, et al (2022)

Dominance in a socially dynamic setting: hierarchical structure and conflict dynamics in ravens' foraging groups.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1845):20200446.

Dominance hierarchies typically emerge in systems where group members regularly encounter and compete for resources. In birds, the 'open' and dynamic structure of foraging groups may prevent the emergence of structured hierarchies, although this assumption have hardly been tested. We report on agonistic data for ravens Corvus corax, collected over two 18-month periods for 183 marked individuals of a wild (fluid) population and 51 birds from six captive (stable) groups. We show that the dominance structure (steep and transitive) in wild foraging groups is strikingly similar to that found in captivity. In the wild, we found that higher ranks are mainly occupied by males, older and more aggressive individuals that also tend to receive fewer aggressions. Exploring the mechanisms sustaining the wild dominance structure, we confirmed that males are more aggressive than females and, with age, tend to receive fewer aggressions than females. Males that are about to leave the foraging groups for some months are less aggressive than newcomers or locals, while newcomers are specifically targeted by aggressions in their first year (as juveniles). Taken together, our results indicate that the socially dynamic conditions ravens face during foraging do not hinder, but provide opportunities for, using (advanced) social cognition. This article is part of the theme issue 'The centennial of the pecking order: current state and future prospects for the study of dominance hierarchies'.

RevDate: 2022-04-20
CmpDate: 2022-04-20

LaFave SE, Suen JJ, Seau Q, et al (2022)

Racism and Older Black Americans' Health: a Systematic Review.

Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 99(1):28-54.

We reviewed research that examines racism as an independent variable and one or more health outcomes as dependent variables in Black American adults aged 50 years and older in the USA. Of the 43 studies we reviewed, most measured perceived interpersonal racism, perceived institutional racism, or residential segregation. The only two measures of structural racism were birth and residence in a "Jim Crow state." Fourteen studies found associations between racism and mental health outcomes, five with cardiovascular outcomes, seven with cognition, two with physical function, two with telomere length, and five with general health/other health outcomes. Ten studies found no significant associations in older Black adults. All but six of the studies were cross-sectional. Research to understand the extent of structural and multilevel racism as a social determinant of health and the impact on older adults specifically is needed. Improved measurement tools could help address this gap in science.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-04

Martin RJ, Dick MF, DF Sherry (2022)

Canada jays (Perisoreus canadensis) balance protein and energy targets simultaneously in both consumed and cached food.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 266:111142.

Food scarce periods pose serious physiological challenges for birds, especially in energetically demanding conditions. For species in the northern hemisphere, a decrease in available resources during winter adds further physiological stress to the energetic demands of life at low temperatures. Some species cache food to provide a reliable energy and nutrient resource during scarcity. Canada Jays are a year-round food-caching resident of the North American boreal forest. Canada Jays also rear their young prior to spring green up, making food caching not only essential for adult winter survival, but also potentially important for meeting the requirements of growing offspring in late winter and early spring. We examined the diet choices of Canada Jays immediately prior to winter, and the macronutrient composition of the foods Canada Jay consumed and cached at this time. We found that Canada Jays cache the same relative amounts of macronutrients as they consume but did not vary macronutrients seasonally. The similarities in the macronutrient proportions cached and consumed suggest a consistent nutrient intake pattern, and that Canada Jays are foraging to simultaneously meet similar minimum energy and minimum protein targets for both the present and future. These simultaneous targets constrain the caching decisions of jays when presented with dietary choices.

RevDate: 2022-09-22
CmpDate: 2022-08-25

Marsja E, Stenbäck V, Moradi S, et al (2022)

Is Having Hearing Loss Fundamentally Different? Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling of the Effect of Cognitive Functioning on Speech Identification.

Ear and hearing, 43(5):1437-1446.

OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that there is a robust relationship between cognitive functioning and speech-in-noise performance for older adults with age-related hearing loss. For normal-hearing adults, on the other hand, the research is not entirely clear. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive functioning, aging, and speech-in-noise, in a group of older normal-hearing persons and older persons with hearing loss who wear hearing aids.

DESIGN: We analyzed data from 199 older normal-hearing individuals (mean age = 61.2) and 200 older individuals with hearing loss (mean age = 60.9) using multigroup structural equation modeling. Four cognitively related tasks were used to create a cognitive functioning construct: the reading span task, a visuospatial working memory task, the semantic word-pairs task, and Raven's progressive matrices. Speech-in-noise, on the other hand, was measured using Hagerman sentences. The Hagerman sentences were presented via an experimental hearing aid to both normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. Furthermore, the sentences were presented with one of the two background noise conditions: the Hagerman original speech-shaped noise or four-talker babble. Each noise condition was also presented with three different hearing processing settings: linear processing, fast compression, and noise reduction.

RESULTS: Cognitive functioning was significantly related to speech-in-noise identification. Moreover, aging had a significant effect on both speech-in-noise and cognitive functioning. With regression weights constrained to be equal for the two groups, the final model had the best fit to the data. Importantly, the results showed that the relationship between cognitive functioning and speech-in-noise was not different for the two groups. Furthermore, the same pattern was evident for aging: the effects of aging on cognitive functioning and aging on speech-in-noise were not different between groups.

CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed similar cognitive functioning and aging effects on speech-in-noise performance in older normal-hearing and aided hearing-impaired listeners. In conclusion, the findings support the Ease of Language Understanding model as cognitive processes play a critical role in speech-in-noise independent from the hearing status of elderly individuals.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-02-22

Willi Y, Kristensen TN, Sgrò CM, et al (2022)

Conservation genetics as a management tool: The five best-supported paradigms to assist the management of threatened species.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(1):.

About 50 y ago, Crow and Kimura [An Introduction to Population Genetics Theory (1970)] and Ohta and Kimura [Genet. Res. 22, 201-204 (1973)] laid the foundations of conservation genetics by predicting the relationship between population size and genetic marker diversity. This work sparked an enormous research effort investigating the importance of population dynamics, in particular small population size, for population mean performance, population viability, and evolutionary potential. In light of a recent perspective [J. C. Teixeira, C. D. Huber, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, 10 (2021)] that challenges some fundamental assumptions in conservation genetics, it is timely to summarize what the field has achieved, what robust patterns have emerged, and worthwhile future research directions. We consider theory and methodological breakthroughs that have helped management, and we outline some fundamental and applied challenges for conservation genetics.

RevDate: 2022-01-25
CmpDate: 2022-01-25

Klump BC, St Clair JJ, C Rutz (2021)

New Caledonian crows keep 'valuable' hooked tools safer than basic non-hooked tools.

eLife, 10:.

The temporary storage and re-use of tools can significantly enhance foraging efficiency. New Caledonian crows in one of our study populations use two types of stick tools - hooked and non-hooked - which differ in raw material, manufacture costs, and foraging performance. Using a large sample of wild-caught, temporarily captive New Caledonian crows, we investigated experimentally whether individuals prefer one tool type over the other when given a choice and whether they take better care of their preferred tools between successive episodes of use, safely storing them underfoot or in nearby holes. Crows strongly preferred hooked stick tools made from Desmanthus virgatus stems over non-hooked stick tools. Importantly, this preference was also reflected in subsequent tool-handling behaviour, with subjects keeping hooked stick tools safe more often than non-hooked stick tools sourced from leaf litter. These results suggest that crows 'value' hooked stick tools, which are both costlier to procure and more efficient to use, more than non-hooked stick tools. Results from a series of control treatments suggested that crows altered their tool 'safekeeping' behaviour in response to a combination of factors, including tool type and raw material. To our knowledge, our study is the first to use safekeeping behaviour as a proxy for assessing how non-human animals value different tool types, establishing a novel paradigm for productive cross-taxonomic comparisons.

RevDate: 2022-02-02
CmpDate: 2022-02-02

Satoh M, Tabei KI, Abe M, et al (2021)

The Correlation between a New Online Cognitive Test (the Brain Assessment) and Widely Used In-Person Neuropsychological Tests.

Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 50(5):473-481.

INTRODUCTION: There are several problems with standard in-person neuropsychological assessments, such as habituation, necessity of human resources, and difficulty of in-person assessment under societal conditions during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019. Thus, we developed an online cognitive test (the Brain Assessment [BA]). In this study, we investigated the correlation between the results of the BA and those of established neuropsychological tests.

PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven elderly persons (mean 71.3 ± 5.1 years old; range 65-86; male:female = 45:32) were recruited through the internet. Correlations were evaluated between the BA and the following widely used neuropsychological tests: the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the Raven's colored progressive matrices (RCPM), the logical memory I and II of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test, the word fluency (WF) test, and the Trail-Making TestA/B.

RESULTS: We found moderate correlations between the total cognitive score of the BA and the total score of the MMSE (r = 0.433, p < 0.001), as well as between the total BA score and the total RCPM score (r = 0.582, p < 0.001) and time to complete the RCPM (r = 0.455, p < 0.001). Moderate correlations were also observed between the cognitive score of the memory of words BA subtest and the LM-I (r = 0.518, p < 0.001), the mental rotation subtest and figure drawing (r = 0.404, p < 0.001), the logical reasoning subtest and total RCPM score (r = 0.491, p < 0.001), and the memory of numbers and words subtests and WF (memory of numbers and total WF: r = 0.456, p < 0.001; memory of words and total WF: r = 0.571, p < 0.001).

DISCUSSION: We found that the BA showed moderate correlations between established neuropsychological tests for intellect, memory, visuospatial function, and frontal function. The MMSE and the RCPM reflect Spearman's s-factor and g-factor, respectively, and thus the BA also covered both factors.

CONCLUSION: The BA is a useful tool for assessing the cognitive function of generally healthy elderly persons.

RevDate: 2022-04-21
CmpDate: 2022-04-21

Yamaguchi E, Fujii K, Kayano M, et al (2022)

Is Salmonella enterica shared between wildlife and cattle in cattle farming areas? An 11-year retrospective study in Tokachi district, Hokkaido, Japan.

Veterinary medicine and science, 8(2):758-770.

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica in cattle has long been problematic and suspected to be transmitted by wildlife in Tokachi, Hokkaido, a major cattle farming area in Japan. Understanding the role of wildlife in S. enterica transmission would be helpful for developing control strategies of bovine salmonellosis.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to elucidate the possibility of S. enterica transmission between sympatric wildlife, including raccoons and crows and cattle, in Tokachi from 2008 to 2018 by analysing S. enterica detection records, and the genetic relatedness of serotypes shared between wildlife and cattle.

METHODS: S. enterica detection records were based on the results of a field survey and existing cattle records at relevant organisations, including clinical reports, a monitoring survey and quarantine for introduced calves at growing farms and public calving farms. S. enterica was identified by polymerase chain reaction assay and serotyped by agglutination assay. The detection records were organised chronologically to investigate whether common serotypes in wildlife and cattle were detected in the same year. The isolates corresponding to detection records were assessed for their genetic patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

RESULTS: The prevalence of S. enterica in raccoons and crows was 10.7% (17/159) and 5.7% (55/967), respectively. The following serotypes were detected from both wildlife and cattle: Braenderup, Dublin, Infantis, Mbandaka, Montevideo, 4,[5],12:i:- and Typhimurium. Genetically similar isolates for S. Braenderup, S. Dublin, S. Montevideo and S. 4,[5],12:i:- were detected from both species in the same year.

CONCLUSIONS: Our long-term retrospective observations supported that S. enterica was shared between wildlife and cattle. Wildlife invasions should be controlled at farms to prevent inter-species transmission of S. enterica from livestock farms.

RevDate: 2022-01-24
CmpDate: 2022-01-24

Martin RJ, Martin GK, Roberts WA, et al (2021)

No evidence for future planning in Canada jays (Perisoreus canadensis).

Biology letters, 17(12):20210504.

In the past 20 years, research in animal cognition has challenged the belief that complex cognitive processes are uniquely human. At the forefront of these challenges has been research on mental time travel and future planning in jays. We tested whether Canada jays (Perisoreus canadensis) demonstrated future planning, using a procedure that has produced evidence of future planning in California scrub-jays. Future planning in this procedure is caching in locations where the bird will predictably experience a lack of food in the future. Canada jays showed no evidence of future planning in this sense and instead cached in the location where food was usually available, opposite to the behaviour described for California scrub-jays. We provide potential explanations for these differing results adding to the recent debates about the role of complex cognition in corvid caching strategies.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Benmazouz I, Jokimäki J, Lengyel S, et al (2021)

Corvids in Urban Environments: A Systematic Global Literature Review.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(11):.

Urbanization is one of the most prevalent drivers of biodiversity loss, yet few taxonomic groups are remarkably successful at adapting to urban environments. We systematically surveyed the global literature on the effects of urbanization on species of family Corvidae (crows, choughs, jackdaws, jays, magpies, nutcrackers, ravens, rooks, treepies) to assess the occurrence of corvids in urban environments and the factors affecting their success. We found a total of 424 primary research articles, and the number of articles has increased exponentially since the 1970s. Most studies were carried out in cities of Europe and North America (45.5% and 31.4%, respectively) and were directed on a single species (75.2). We found that 30 corvid species (23% of 133 total) regularly occur in urban environments. The majority (72%) of the studies reported positive effects of urbanization on corvids, with 85% of studies detecting population increases and 64% of studies detecting higher breeding success with urbanization. Of the factors proposed to explain corvids' success (availability of nesting sites and food sources, low predation and persecution), food availability coupled with diet shifts emerged as the most important factors promoting Corvidae to live in urban settings. The breeding of corvids in urban environments was further associated with earlier nesting, similar or larger clutches, lower hatching but higher fledging success, reduced home range size and limited territoriality, increased tolerance towards humans and increasing frequency of conflicts with humans. Despite geographic and taxonomic biases in our literature sample, our review indicates that corvids show both flexibility in resource use and behavioral plasticity that enable them to exploit novel resources for nesting and feeding. Corvids can thus be urban exploiters of the large-scale modifications of ecosystems caused by urbanization.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Schneider S, Goettlich S, Diercks C, et al (2021)

Discrimination of Acoustic Stimuli and Maintenance of Graded Alarm Call Structure in Captive Meerkats.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(11):.

Animals living in human care for several generations face the risk of losing natural behaviors, which can lead to reduced animal welfare. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that meerkats (Suricata suricatta) living in zoos can assess potential danger and respond naturally based on acoustic signals only. This includes that the graded information of urgency in alarm calls as well as a response to those alarm calls is retained in captivity. To test the response to acoustic signals with different threat potential, meerkats were played calls of various animals differing in size and threat (e.g., robin, raven, buzzard, jackal) while their behavior was observed. The emitted alarm calls were recorded and examined for their graded structure on the one hand and played back to them on the other hand by means of a playback experiment to see whether the animals react to their own alarm calls even in the absence of danger. A fuzzy clustering algorithm was used to analyze and classify the alarm calls. Subsequently, the features that best described the graded structure were isolated using the LASSO algorithm and compared to features already known from wild meerkats. The results show that the graded structure is maintained in captivity and can be described by features such as noise and duration. The animals respond to new threats and can distinguish animal calls that are dangerous to them from those that are not, indicating the preservation of natural cooperative behavior. In addition, the playback experiments show that the meerkats respond to their own alarm calls with vigilance and escape behavior. The findings can be used to draw conclusions about the intensity of alertness in captive meerkats and to adapt husbandry conditions to appropriate welfare.

RevDate: 2022-10-05
CmpDate: 2022-02-14

Leopold SS (2022)

A Conversation with … Jay Nordlinger, the Writer Who Sees Both Sides.

Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 480(2):217-219.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

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