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14 Nov 2022 at 02:06
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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 02:06 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: asbestos AND mesothelioma NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-11-08

Fassio F, Bussa M, Oddone E, et al (2022)

Health status of petrochemical workers: a narrative review.

Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia, 44(1):51-58.

SUMMARY: Professional exposure to benzene has been extensively investigated by occupational medicine, leading to strict regulation of exposure threshold values. However, the petrochemical industry utilizes many chemical substances, whose exposure, without effective control and mitigation actions, could influence the health status over time. The aim of this narrative review is to describe health status of petrochemical workers related to occupational exposures, inquiring literature from 1980 to present. We used the PubMed and Web of Science search engines. As regards non-neoplastic diseases, despite heterogeneous prevalence estimates, we could say that standardized mortality rate (SMR) for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes does not increase overall, compared to reference populations; a possible explanation may be the "healthy worker effect". Attention should be paid to color disperception and respiratory symptoms, due to toxic or irritating substances exposure. Studies concerning neoplastic pathology have mainly investigated mortality outcomes, finding no increase in cancer, except for melanoma or other skin cancers and leukemia. As regards the former, however, it is not excluded that other risk factors may contribute (e.g. UV rays in offshore workers), while for leukemia, only the most recent studies have analyzed various subtypes of hematopoietic tumors, highlighting a possible risk for the development of myelodysplastic syndrome. The risk of pleural mesothelioma was also increased, likely due to asbestos exposures, while the risk of death from prostate cancer remains controversial.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Ge T, Phung AL, Jhala G, et al (2022)

Diabetes induced by checkpoint inhibition in nonobese diabetic mice can be prevented or reversed by a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor.

Clinical & translational immunology, 11(11):e1425 pii:CTI21425.

Objectives: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have achieved clinical success in cancer treatment, but this treatment causes immune-related adverse events, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our aim was to test whether a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, effective at treating spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, can prevent diabetes secondary to PD-L1 blockade.

Methods: Anti-PD-L1 antibody was injected into NOD mice to induce diabetes, and JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor LN3103801 was administered by oral gavage to prevent diabetes. Flow cytometry was used to study T cells and beta cells. Mesothelioma cells were inoculated into BALB/c mice to induce a transplantable tumour model.

Results: Anti-PD-L1-induced diabetes was associated with increased immune cell infiltration in the islets and upregulated MHC class I on islet cells. Anti-PD-L1 administration significantly increased islet T cell proliferation and islet-specific CD8+ T cell numbers in peripheral lymphoid organs. JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor treatment blocked IFNγ-mediated MHC class I upregulation on beta cells and T cell proliferation mediated by cytokines that use the common γ chain receptor. As a result, anti-PD-L1-induced diabetes was prevented by JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor administered before or after checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Diabetes was also reversed when the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor was administered after the onset of anti-PD-L1-induced hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor intervention after checkpoint inhibitors did not reverse or abrogate the antitumour effects in a transplantable tumour model.

Conclusion: A JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor can prevent and reverse anti-PD-L1-induced diabetes by blocking IFNγ and γc cytokine activities. Our study provides preclinical validation of JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor use in checkpoint inhibitor-induced diabetes.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Caporali S, Butera A, I Amelio (2022)

BAP1 in cancer: epigenetic stability and genome integrity.

Discover. Oncology, 13(1):117.

Mutations in BAP1 have been identified in a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome and in sporadic tumours. Individuals carrying familiar BAP1 monoallelic mutations display hypersusceptibility to exposure-associated cancers, such as asbestos-driven mesothelioma, thus BAP1 status has been postulated to participate in gene-environment interaction. Intriguingly, BAP1 functions display also a high degree of tissue dependency, associated to a peculiar cancer spectrum and cell types of specific functions. Mechanistically, BAP1 functions as an ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCH) and controls regulatory ubiquitination of histones as well as degradative ubiquitination of a range of protein substrates. In this article we provide an overview of the most relevant findings on BAP1, underpinning its tissue specific tumour suppressor function. We also discuss the importance of its epigenetic role versus the control of protein stability in the regulation of genomic integrity.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Allione A, Viberti C, Cotellessa I, et al (2022)

Blood cell DNA methylation biomarkers in preclinical malignant pleural mesothelioma: the EPIC prospective cohort.

International journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer mainly caused by asbestos exposure. Specific and sensitive non-invasive biomarkers may facilitate and enhance screening programs for the early detection of cancer. We investigated DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in MPM pre-diagnostic blood samples in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort, aiming to characterise DNAm biomarkers associated with MPM. From the EPIC cohort, we included samples from 135 participants who developed MPM during 20 years of follow up and from 135 matched, cancer-free, controls. For the discovery phase we selected EPIC participants who developed MPM within five years from enrolment (n=36) with matched controls. We identified nine differentially methylated CpGs, selected by 10-fold cross-validation and correlation analyses: cg25755428 (MRI1), cg20389709 (KLF11), cg23870316, cg13862711 (LHX6), cg06417478 (HOOK2), cg00667948, cg01879420 (AMD1), cg25317025 (RPL17) and cg06205333 (RAP1A). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the model including baseline characteristics (age, sex, PC1wbc) along with the nine MPM-related CpGs has a better predictive value for MPM occurrence than the baseline model alone, maintaining some performance also at more than five years before diagnosis [AUC (area under the curve) < 5 years=0.89; AUC 5-10 years=0.80; AUC >10 years=0.75; baseline AUC range=0.63-0.67)]. DNAm changes as non-invasive biomarkers in pre-diagnostic blood samples of MPM cases were investigated for the first time. Their application can improve the identification of asbestos-exposed individuals at higher MPM risk in order to possibly adopt more intensive monitoring for early disease identification.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Lam SK, Yan S, Lam JS, et al (2022)

Disturbance of the Warburg effect by dichloroacetate and niclosamide suppresses the growth of different sub-types of malignant pleural mesothelioma in vitro and in vivo.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:1020343.

Background: Inhalation of asbestos fibers is the most common cause of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved a combination of cisplatin with pemetrexed to treat unresectable MPM. Nonetheless novel treatment is urgently needed. The objective of this study is to report the combination effect of dichloroacetate (DCA) or niclosamide (Nic) Nic in MPM. Materials and methods: The effect of a combination of DCA and Nic was studied using a panel of MPM cell lines (H28, MSTO-211H, H226, H2052, and H2452). Cell viability was monitored by MTT assay. Glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, glucose, glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, citrate, succinate and ATP levels were determined by corresponding ELISA. Apoptosis, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cell cycle analysis, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were investigated by flow cytometry. Cell migration and colony formation were investigated by transwell migration and colony formation assays respectively. The in vivo effect was confirmed using 211H and H226 nude mice xenograft models. Results and conclusion: Cell viability was reduced. Disturbance of glycolysis and/or oxidative phosphorylation resulted in downregulation of glycogen, citrate and succinate. DCA and/or Nic increased apoptosis, mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, G2/M arrest and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, DCA and/or Nic suppressed cell migration and colony formation. Furthermore, a better initial tumor suppressive effect was induced by the DCA/Nic combination compared with either drug alone in both 211H and H226 xenograft models. In H226 xenografts, DCA/Nic increased median survival of mice compared with single treatment. Single drug and/or a combination disturbed the Warburg effect and activated apoptosis, and inhibition of migration and proliferation in vivo. In conclusion, dichloroacetate and/or niclosamide showed a tumor suppressive effect in MPM in vitro and in vivo, partially mediated by disturbance of glycolysis/oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, ROS production, G2/M arrest, and suppression of migration and proliferation.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Chernova T, Grosso S, Sun XM, et al (2022)

Extracellular Vesicles Isolated from Malignant Mesothelioma Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Induce Pro-Oncogenic Changes in Healthy Mesothelial Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(20): pii:ijms232012469.

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of the pleura (MPM) or peritoneum with a clinical presentation at an advanced stage of the disease. Current therapies only marginally improve survival and there is an urgent need to identify new treatments. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent the main component of a vast stroma within MPM and play an important role in the tumour microenvironment. The influence of CAFs on cancer progression, aggressiveness and metastasis is well understood; however, the role of CAF-derived extracellular vesicles (CAF-EVs) in the promotion of tumour development and invasiveness is underexplored. We purified CAF-EVs from MPM-associated cells and healthy dermal human fibroblasts and examined their effect on cell proliferation and motility. The data show that exposure of healthy mesothelial cells to EVs derived from CAFs, but not from normal dermal human fibroblasts (NDHF) resulted in activating pro-oncogenic signalling pathways and increased proliferation and motility. Consistent with its role in suppressing Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) activation (which in MPM is a result of Hippo pathway inactivation), treatment with Simvastatin ameliorated the pro-oncogenic effects instigated by CAF-EVs by mechanisms involving both a reduction in EV number and changes in EV cargo. Collectively, these data determine the significance of CAF-derived EVs in mesothelioma development and progression and suggest new targets in cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2022-10-27
CmpDate: 2022-10-27

Gualtieri AF (2023)

Journey to the centre of the lung. The perspective of a mineralogist on the carcinogenic effects of mineral fibres in the lungs.

Journal of hazardous materials, 442:130077.

This work reviews the bio-chemical mechanisms leading to adverse effects produced when mineral fibres are inhaled and transported in the lungs from the perspective of a mineralogist. The behaviour of three known carcinogenic mineral fibres (crocidolite, chrysotile, and fibrous-asbestiform erionite) during their journey through the upper respiratory tract, the deep respiratory tract and the pleural cavity is discussed. These three fibres have been selected as they are the most socially and economically relevant mineral fibres representative of the classes of chain silicates (amphiboles), layer silicates (serpentine), and framework silicates (zeolites), respectively. Comparison of the behaviour of these fibres is made according to their specific crystal-chemical assemblages and properties. Known biological and subsequent pathologic effects which lead and contribute to carcinogenesis are critically reviewed under the mineralogical perspective and in relation to recent progress in this multidisciplinary field of research. Special attention is given to the understanding of the cause-effect relationships for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Comparison with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, or "asbestosis", will also be made here. This overview highlights open issues, data gaps, and conflicts in the literature for these topics, especially as regards relative potencies of the three mineral fibres under consideration for lung cancer and mesothelioma. Finally, an attempt is made to identify future research lines suitable for a general comprehensive model of the carcinogenicity of mineral fibres.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Mangone L, Storchi C, Pinto C, et al (2022)

Incidence of malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

La Medicina del lavoro, 113(5):e2022047.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and asbestos exposure in an Italian region in the period 1996-June 2021.

METHODS: The study included cases with microscopic confirmation and those with instrumental confirmation. For each case, information on sex, age, tumour site, morphology and date of diagnosis was collected, along with details of exposure to asbestos.

RESULTS: 3,097 cases of MM (2,233 males and 864 females) were registered: 90.8% with microscopic confirmation. A total of 2,840 cases involved the pleura (92%), 230 cases the peritoneum (7%), and a small number of cases the pericardium and testis (9 and 18, respectively). Most cases (78.0%) occurred after 65 years of age, while only 1.5% concerned individuals with age < 45 years. The standardized incidence rate for the entire period (adjusted to the 2000 Italian standard population and calculated per 100,000 person-years) was equal to 3.9 in males and 1.4 in females, and the trend showed an increase with age in both sexes. Concerning asbestos exposure, 79.7% of cases were exposed (86.7% males and 60.1% females). In 70.3%, exposure was occupational (83.4% males and 33.2% females), while 20.7% of females and 0.8% of males had familial exposure. Building construction, rolling stock manufacture/repair and metalworking were the most prevalent economic activities associated with occupational exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: This study offers an overview of MM in an Italian region characterized by high incidence and high exposure due to its particular production activities.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Quigley N, Lang-Lazdunski L, Boily-Daoust C, et al (2022)

An unusual isolated anterior mediastinal lesion.

Respirology case reports, 10(11):e01059 pii:RCR21059.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an infrequent tumour of poor prognosis with a strong association with asbestos exposure. Pleural effusion or thickening is the most common radiological finding. Thoracoscopic biopsy is the diagnostic modality of choice. In our report, we present the case of a career welder who consulted with vocal cord palsy and an atypical anterior mediastinal lesion. An EBUS-TBNA-guided biopsy and a thorough cytological assessment led to an unexpected diagnosis of epithelioid MPM. A localized anterior mediastinal lesion is an extremely infrequent presentation of MPM that deserves clinical recognition.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-10-18

Jiménez-Ramírez C, Gilbert Weber D, Aguilar-Madrid G, et al (2022)

Assessment of miR-103a-3p in leukocytes-No diagnostic benefit in combination with the blood-based biomarkers mesothelin and calretinin for malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis.

PloS one, 17(10):e0275936.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a cancer associated with asbestos exposure and its diagnosis is challenging due to the moderate sensitivities of the available methods. In this regard, miR-103a-3p was considered to increase the sensitivity of established biomarkers to detect MPM. Its behavior and diagnostic value in the Mexican population has not been previously evaluated. In 108 confirmed MPM cases and 218 controls, almost all formerly exposed to asbestos, we quantified miR-103-3a-3p levels in leukocytes using quantitative Real-Time PCR, together with mesothelin and calretinin measured in plasma by ELISA. Sensitivity and specificity of miR-103-3a-3p alone and in combination with mesothelin and calretinin were determined. Bivariate analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation. Non-conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for the combination of biomarkers. Mesothelin and calretinin levels were higher among cases, remaining as well among males and participants ≤60 years old (only mesothelin). Significant differences for miR-103a-3p were observed between male cases and controls, whereas significant differences between cases and controls for mesothelin and calretinin were observed in men and women. At 95.5% specificity the individual sensitivity of miR-103a-3p was 4.4% in men, whereas the sensitivity of mesothelin and calretinin was 72.2% and 80.9%, respectively. Positive correlations for miR-103a-3p were observed with age, environmental asbestos exposure, years with diabetes mellitus, and glucose levels, while negative correlations were observed with years of occupational asbestos exposure, creatinine, erythrocytes, direct bilirubin, and leukocytes. The addition of miR-103a-3p to mesothelin and calretinin did not increase the diagnostic performance for MPM diagnosis. However, miR-103a-3p levels were correlated with several characteristics in the Mexican population.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Gesmundo I, Pedrolli F, Vitale N, et al (2022)

Antagonist of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Potentiates the Antitumor Effect of Pemetrexed and Cisplatin in Pleural Mesothelioma.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(19):.

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis and no effective therapies, mainly caused by exposure to asbestos. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) display strong antitumor effects in many experimental cancers, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. Here, we aimed to determine whether GHRH antagonist MIA-690 potentiates the antitumor effect of cisplatin and pemetrexed in PM. In vitro, MIA-690, in combination with cisplatin and pemetrexed, synergistically reduced cell viability, restrained cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis, compared with drugs alone. In vivo, the same combination resulted in a strong growth inhibition of MSTO-211H xenografts, decreased tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Mechanistically, MIA-690, particularly with chemotherapeutic drugs, inhibited proliferative and oncogenic pathways, such as MAPK ERK1/2 and cMyc, and downregulated cyclin D1 and B1 mRNAs. Inflammatory pathways such as NF-kB and STAT3 were also reduced, as well as oxidative, angiogenic and tumorigenic markers (iNOS, COX-2, MMP2, MMP9 and HMGB1) and growth factors (VEGF and IGF-1). Overall, these findings strongly suggest that GHRH antagonists of MIA class, such as MIA-690, could increase the efficacy of standard therapy in PM.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Johnson B, Zhuang L, Rath EM, et al (2022)

Exploring MicroRNA and Exosome Involvement in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Drug Response.

Cancers, 14(19):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly thoracic malignancy and existing treatment options are limited. Chemotherapy remains the most widely used first-line treatment regimen for patients with unresectable MPM, but is hampered by drug resistance issues. The current study demonstrated a modest enhancement of MPM cell sensitivity to chemotherapy drug treatment following microRNA (miRNA) transfection in MPM cell lines, albeit not for all tested miRNAs. This effect was more pronounced for FAK (PND-1186) small molecule inhibitor treatment; consistent with previously published data. We previously established that MPM response to survivin (YM155) small molecule inhibitor treatment is unrelated to basal survivin expression. Here, we showed that MPM response to YM155 treatment is enhanced following miRNA transfection of YM155-resistant MPM cells. We determined that YM155-resistant MPM cells secrete a higher level of exosomes in comparison to YM155-sensitive MPM cells. Despite this, an exosome inhibitor (GW4896) did not enhance MPM cell sensitivity to YM155. Additionally, our study showed no evidence of a correlation between the mRNA expression of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family members and MPM cell sensitivity to YM155. However, two drug transporter genes, ABCA6 and ABCA10, were upregulated in the MPM cell lines and correlated with poor sensitivity to YM155.

RevDate: 2022-10-12

Hariharan A, Qi W, Rehrauer H, et al (2022)

Heterogeneous RNA editing and influence of ADAR2 on mesothelioma chemoresistance and the tumor microenvironment.

Molecular oncology [Epub ahead of print].

We previously observed increased levels of adenosine-deaminase-acting-on-dsRNA (Adar)-dependent RNA editing during mesothelioma development in mice exposed to asbestos. The aim of this study was to characterize and assess the role of ADAR-dependent RNA editing in mesothelioma. We found that tumors and mesothelioma primary cultures have higher ADAR-mediated RNA editing compared to mesothelial cells. Unsupervised clustering of editing in different genomic regions revealed heterogeneity between tumor samples as well as mesothelioma primary cultures. ADAR2 expression levels are higher in BRCA1-associated protein 1 wild-type tumors, with corresponding changes in RNA editing in transcripts and 3'UTR. ADAR2 knockdown and rescue models indicated a role in cell proliferation, altered cell cycle, increased sensitivity to antifolate treatment and type-1 interferon signaling upregulation, leading to changes in the microenvironment in vivo. Our data indicate that RNA editing contributes to mesothelioma heterogeneity and highlights an important role of ADAR2 not only in growth regulation in mesothelioma but also chemotherapy response, in addition to regulating inflammatory response downstream of sensing nucleic acid structures.

RevDate: 2022-10-04

Kazi M, Vispute T, Shah P, et al (2022)

Localized gastric mesothelioma with nodal metastasis-an exceptionally rare entity.

Indian journal of surgical oncology, 13(3):612-615.

Localized mesothelioma is a rare disease with very few reports of presentation in visceral organs. We report a case of localized gastric mesothelioma with lymph node metastasis in a 32-year-old man without asbestos exposure. A failed attempt at resection was made before presentation at another center. He was given perioperative chemotherapy that was followed by a D2 radical subtotal gastrectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Histopathology showed epithelioid mesothelioma with nodal metastasis but without visceral peritoneal involvement. Cytoreductive surgery and regional chemotherapy are standard in diffuse mesothelioma. Management of localized mesothelioma is anecdotal; however aggressive surgery plays a central role with selective use of perioperative chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2022-10-04
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Cimen F, Agackiran Y, Düzgün S, et al (2022)

Factors affecting the life expectancy in malignant pleural mesothelioma: Our 10 years of studies and experience.

Medicine, 101(39):e30711.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In our study, we aimed to investigate the specific clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of the tumor and the prognostic effect of SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) according to PET/CT (positron emission tomography). Demographic, therapeutic, clinical, and survival information of patients diagnosed with histologically-validated pleural mesothelioma in our hospital between January 2010 to December 2019 will be retrospectively scanned from the hospital records. A total of 116 patients, 61 men (52.6%), and 55 women (47.4%), were analyzed. Thirty five patients (30.2%) were over the age of 65. Percentage of patients over 65 years of age, neutrophil count, and PET SUV Max values, asbestos exposure and pleural thickening rate were significantly higher in the deceased patients' group than in the living patients' group (P = .042, P = .039, P = .002, P = .004, P = .037). T stage (tumor stage), N stage (lymph nodes stage), metastasis stage, and Grade distribution were significantly higher in the deceased patients' group than in the living patients' group (P < .000, P < .000, P = .003, P < .000). The rates of chemotherapy and surgical treatment, right lung location, and epithelioid pathology were significantly lower in the deceased patients' group compared to the living patients' group (P = .016, P = .030, P = .018, P = .008). The mean follow-up time was 13 months. Key determinants of survival in MPM include age, male gender, neutrophil increase, pleural thickening, high PET SUV max values, stage, histological type, asbestos exposure, and treatment regimen.

RevDate: 2022-10-06
CmpDate: 2022-10-03

Wang X, Katz S, Miura J, et al (2022)

A single-center retrospective cohort study of perioperative systemic chemotherapy in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

PloS one, 17(9):e0275187.

BACKGROUND: Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) is a rare variant of malignant mesothelioma, representing 10-15% of malignant mesothelioma cases. The preferred therapeutic approach is cytoreductive surgery (CRS) accompanied by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC); the role of systemic chemotherapy is not well established. While some limited retrospective studies report worse outcomes with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, our institution has favored the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for symptom relief and surgical optimization. The aim of our study was to assess the outcomes of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, compared to those receiving adjuvant or no perioperative chemotherapy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of treatment-naïve, non-papillary DMPM patients seen at our institution between 1/1/2009 and 9/1/2019. We explored the effect of type of systemic therapy on clinical outcomes and estimated median overall survival (mOS) using Kaplan-Meier curves. Hazard ratios (HR) calculated by Cox proportional hazard model were used to estimate effect of the exposures on overall survival.

RESULTS: 47 patients were identified with DMPM (median age at diagnosis 61.2 years, 76.6% epithelioid histology, 74.5% white race, 55.3% known asbestos exposure). CRS was performed in 53.2% of patients (25/47); 76.0% of surgical patients received HIPEC (19/25). The majority received systemic chemotherapy (37/47, 78.7%); among patients receiving both CRS and chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was more common than adjuvant chemotherapy (12 neoadjuvant, 8 adjuvant). Overall mOS was 84.1 months. Among neoadjuvant patients, 10/12 underwent surgery, and 2 were lost to follow-up; the majority (9/10) had clinically stable or improved disease during the pre-operative period. There were numerical more issues with chemotherapy with the adjuvant patients (4/8: 2 switches in platinum agent, 2 patients stopped therapy) than with the neoadjuvant patients (2/10: 1 switch in platinum agent, 1 delay due to peri-procedural symptoms). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with worse mOS compared to adjuvant chemotherapy (mOS NR vs 95.1 mo, HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.18-4.5, p = 0.89).

CONCLUSIONS: When used preferentially, the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in DMPM patients was not associated with worse outcomes compared to adjuvant chemotherapy. It was well-tolerated and did not prevent surgical intervention.

RevDate: 2022-10-17
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Han Y, Zhang T, Chen H, et al (2022)

Global magnitude and temporal trend of mesothelioma burden along with the contribution of occupational asbestos exposure in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 179:103821.

Understanding the burden of mesothelioma with the contribution of occupational asbestos exposure globally provides essential foundations for cancer control, policy decisions and resource allocation. Globally, 34,511 incident cases, 29,251 deaths and 668,104 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of mesothelioma were estimated in 2019. The age-standardized rates of incidence, mortality and DALYs all showed a slightly declining trend over the past 30 years, but the latest absolute number of mesothelioma burden almost doubled since 1990. The burden rate decreased among the population aged under 70 years, but increased among the population aged over 80 years, especially in the High socio-demographic index (SDI) region. The burden rate of mesothelioma attributable to asbestos exposure was positively associated with SDI at the national level. This study depicted a continuous increase in mesothelioma burden globally over the past 30 years. Controlling occupational asbestos exposure will reduce the mesothelioma burden, especially for higher SDI regions.

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Golka K, Böthig R, Weistenhöfer W, et al (2022)

[Occupation-related cancer in urology-Current knowledge including environmental medical aspects].

Urologie (Heidelberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Occupation-related cancers are of considerable importance, which is not yet adequately recognized in the field of urology. The three numerically most significant entities are tumors of the urinary tract caused by carcinogenic aromatic amines or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, renal cell cancer after high exposure to the solvent trichloroethylene, and mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis of the testis after exposure to asbestos; however, these can only be recognized as occupation-related if an occupational history regarding the hazard relevant to the organ bearing the tumor is documented from the beginning of employment, e.g. by a questionnaire. This is because the relevant exposures generally date back several decades. With the exception of high exposure to trichloroethylene, the substances mentioned can also environmentally trigger the same tumors. In the context of environmental risk factors, it is of considerable importance that smoking is now considered to be a trigger for some 50% of all bladder cancers in men and women; however, smoking cessation results in a reduction in smoking-related cancer risk of over 30% after only 3-4 years. Work and commuting accidents, which are considered occupational risks, can lead to urological sequelae. For example, increased tumors of the bladder can occur after spinal cord injury lasting longer than 10 years.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Algranti E, Santana VS, Campos F, et al (2022)

Analysis of Mortality from Asbestos-Related Diseases in Brazil Using Multiple Health Information Systems, 1996-2017.

Safety and health at work, 13(3):302-307.

Background: In Brazil, asbestos was intensively used from the 1960s until its ban in 2017. Mesothelioma, asbestosis, and pleural plaques are typical asbestos-related diseases (ARD-T). To create an ARD-T national database, death records from 1996-2017 were retrieved from several health information systems (HIS).

Methods: All national HIS containing coded diagnoses (ICD-10) and death information were obtained. Linkage was performed to create a single database of ARD-T death records, either as underlying or contributory causes, in adults aged 30 years and older.

Results: A total of 3,057 ARD-T death records were found, 2,405 (76.4%) of which being malignant mesotheliomas (MM). Pleural MM (n = 1,006; 41.8%) and unspecified MM (n = 792; 32.9%) prevailed. Male to female MM ratio (M:F) was 1.4:1, and higher ratios were found for non-malignant ARD-T: 3.5:1 for asbestosis and 2.4:1 for pleural plaques. Male crude annual mesothelioma mortality (CMmm x1,000,000) was 0.98 in 1996 and 2.26 in 2017, a 131.1% increment, while for females it was 1.04 and 1.25, a 20.2% increase, correspondingly. The small number of deaths with asbestosis and pleural plaques records precluded conclusive interpretations.

Conclusions: Even with the linkage of several HIS, ARD-T in death records remained in low numbers. MM mortality in men was higher and showed a rapid increase and, along with non-malignant ARD-T, higher M:F ratios suggested a predominant pattern of work-related exposure. The monitoring of workplace and environmental asbestos exposure needs to be improved, as well as the workers surveillance, following the recent Brazilian ban.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Tedesco J, Jaradeh M, WT Vigneswaran (2022)

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Current Understanding of the Immune Microenvironment and Treatments of a Rare Disease.

Cancers, 14(18):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare disease with an annual incidence of around 3000 cases a year in the United States. Most cases are caused by asbestos exposure, with a latency period of up to 40 years. Pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive disease process with overall survival of roughly 6-12 months after the time of diagnosis. It is divided into three subtypes: epithelioid, mixed type, and sarcomatoid type, with the epithelioid subtype having the best overall survival. Often, the treatment is multimodality with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. The survival benefit is improved but remains marginal. New treatment options involving targeted immune therapies appear to offer some promise. The tumor microenvironment is the ecosystem within the tumor that interacts and influences the host immune system. Understanding this complex interaction and how the host immune system is involved in the progression of the disease process is important to define and guide potential treatment options for this devastating and rare disease.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-19

Hoang NTD, Hassan G, Suehiro T, et al (2022)

BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor regulate connective tissue growth factor controlling mesothelioma cell proliferation.

BMC cancer, 22(1):984.

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive mesothelial cell cancer type linked mainly to asbestos inhalation. MM characterizes by rapid progression and resistance to standard therapeutic modalities such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Our previous studies have suggested that tumor cell-derived connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) regulates the proliferation of MM cells as well as the tumor growth in mouse xenograft models.

METHODS: In this study, we knock downed the bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) and CTGF in MM cells and investigated the relationship between both and their impact on the cell cycle and cell proliferation.

RESULTS: The knockdown of CTGF or BAMBI reduced MM cell proliferation. In contrast to CTGF knockdown which decreased BAMBI, knockdown of BAMBI increased CTGF levels. Knockdown of either BAMBI or CTGF reduced expression of the cell cycle regulators; cyclin D3, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, and CDK4. Further, in silico analysis revealed that higher BAMBI expression was associated with shorter overall survival rates among MM patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that BAMBI is regulated by CTGF promoting mesothelioma growth by driving cell cycle progression. Therefore, the crosstalk between BAMBI and CTGF may be an effective therapeutic target for MM treatment.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Shi H, Rath EM, Lin RCY, et al (2022)

3-Dimensional mesothelioma spheroids provide closer to natural pathophysiological tumor microenvironment for drug response studies.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:973576.

Traditional studies using cancer cell lines are often performed on a two-dimensional (2D) cell culture model with a low success rate of translating to Phase I or Phase II clinical studies. In comparison, with the advent of developments three-dimensional (3D) cell culture has been championed as the latest cellular model system that better mimics in vivo conditions and pathological conditions such as cancer. In comparison to biospecimens taken from in vivo tissue, the details of gene expression of 3D culture models are largely undefined, especially in mesothelioma - an aggressive cancer with very limited effective treatment options. In this study, we examined the veracity of the 3D mesothelioma cell culture model to study cell-to-cell interaction, gene expression and drug response from 3D cell culture, and compared them to 2D cell and tumor samples. We confirmed via SEM analysis that 3D cells grown using the spheroid methods expressed highly interconnected cell-to-cell junctions. The 3D spheroids were revealed to be an improved mini-tumor model as indicated by the TEM visualization of cell junctions and microvilli, features not seen in the 2D models. Growing 3D cell models using decellularized lung scaffold provided a platform for cell growth and infiltration for all cell types including primary cell lines. The most time-effective method was growing cells in spheroids using low-adhesive U-bottom plates. However, not every cell type grew into a 3D model using the the other methods of hanging drop or poly-HEMA. Cells grown in 3D showed more resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, exhibiting reduced apoptosis. 3D cells stained with H&E showed cell-to-cell interactions and internal architecture that better represent that of in vivo patient tumors when compared to 2D cells. IHC staining revealed increased protein expression in 3D spheroids compared to 2D culture. Lastly, cells grown in 3D showed very different microRNA expression when compared to that of 2D counterparts. In conclusion, 3D cell models, regardless of which method is used. Showed a more realistic tumor microenvironment for architecture, gene expression and drug response, when compared to 2D cell models, and thus are superior preclinical cancer models.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Trassl L, GT Stathopoulos (2022)

KRAS Pathway Alterations in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: An Underestimated Player.

Cancers, 14(17):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, incurable cancer of the mesothelial cells lining the lungs and the chest wall that is mainly caused by asbestos inhalation. The molecular mechanisms of mesothelial carcinogenesis are still unclear despite comprehensive studies of the mutational landscape of MPM, and the most frequently mutated genes BAP1, NF2, CDKN2A, TP53, and TSC1 cannot cause MPM in mice in a standalone fashion. Although KRAS pathway alterations were sporadically detected in older studies employing targeted sequencing, they have been largely undetected by next generation sequencing. We recently identified KRAS mutations and copy number alterations in a significant proportion of MPM patients. Here, we review and analyze multiple human datasets and the published literature to show that, in addition to KRAS, multiple other genes of the KRAS pathway are perturbed in a significant proportion of patients with MPM.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Ranzato E, Bonsignore G, S Martinotti (2022)

ER Stress Response and Induction of Apoptosis in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: The Achilles Heel Targeted by the Anticancer Ruthenium Drug BOLD-100.

Cancers, 14(17):.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare cancer arising from the serosal surfaces of the body, mainly from the pleural layer. This cancer is strongly related to asbestos exposure and shows a very inauspicious prognosis, because there are scarce therapeutic options for this rare disease. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic approaches to treat this form of cancer. To explore the biology of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), we previously observed that MPM cell lines show high expression of the GRP78 protein, which is a chaperone protein and the master regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on our previous studies showing the importance of GRP78 in MPM, we observed that BOLD-100, a specific modulator of GRP78 and the UPR, shows cytotoxicity against MPM cells. Our studies demonstrated that BOLD-100 increases ROS production and Ca2+ release from the ER, leading to ER stress activation and, ultimately, to cell death. Our in vitro data strongly suggest that BOLD-100 inhibits the growth of MPM cell lines, proposing the application as a single agent, or in combination with other standard-of-care drugs, to treat MPM.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-12

Pietrofesa RA, Chatterjee S, Kadariya Y, et al (2022)

Synthetic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605) Prevents Asbestos-Induced Inflammation and Genotoxic Cell Damage in Human Mesothelial Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(17):.

Although alveolar macrophages play a critical role in malignant transformation of mesothelial cells following asbestos exposure, inflammatory and oxidative processes continue to occur in the mesothelial cells lining the pleura that may contribute to the carcinogenic process. Malignant transformation of mesothelial cells following asbestos exposure occurs over several decades; however, amelioration of DNA damage, inflammation, and cell injury may impede the carcinogenic process. We have shown in an in vitro model of asbestos-induced macrophage activation that synthetic secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (LGM2605), given preventively, reduced inflammatory cascades and oxidative/nitrosative cell damage. Therefore, it was hypothesized that LGM2605 could also be effective in reducing asbestos-induced activation and the damage of pleural mesothelial cells. LGM2605 treatment (50 µM) of huma n pleural mesothelial cells was initiated 4 h prior to exposure to asbestos (crocidolite, 20 µg/cm2). Supernatant and cells were evaluated at 0, 2, 4, and 8 h post asbestos exposure for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage (oxidized guanine), inflammasome activation (caspase-1 activity) and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine release (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNFα, and HMGB1), and markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (8-iso-PGF2α). Asbestos induced a time-dependent ROS increase that was significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced (29.4%) by LGM2605 treatment. LGM2605 pretreatment also reduced levels of asbestos-induced DNA damage by 73.6% ± 1.0%. Although levels of inflammasome-activated cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, reached 29.2 pg/mL ± 0.7 pg/mL and 43.9 pg/mL ± 0.8 pg/mL, respectively, LGM2605 treatment significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced cytokine levels comparable to baseline (non-asbestos exposed) values (3.8 pg/mL ± 0.2 pg/mL and 5.4 pg/mL ± 0.2 pg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, levels of IL-6 and TNFα in asbestos-exposed mesothelial cells were high (289.1 pg/mL ± 2.9 pg/mL and 511.3 pg/mL ± 10.2 pg/mL, respectively), while remaining undetectable with LGM2605 pretreatment. HMGB1 (a key inflammatory mediator and initiator of malignant transformation) release was reduced 75.3% ± 0.4% by LGM2605. Levels of MDA and 8-iso-PGF2α, markers of oxidative cell injury, were significantly (p < 0.001) reduced by 80.5% ± 0.1% and 76.6% ± 0.3%, respectively. LGM2605, given preventively, reduced ROS generation, DNA damage, and inflammasome-activated cytokine release and key inflammatory mediators implicated in asbestos-induced malignant transformation of normal mesothelial cells.

RevDate: 2022-10-21
CmpDate: 2022-10-21

Mai HL, Deshayes S, Nguyen TV, et al (2022)

IL-7 is expressed in malignant mesothelioma and has a prognostic value.

Molecular oncology, 16(20):3606-3619.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer mainly related to asbestos exposure. Despite recent therapeutic advances, notably immunotherapies, the benefit remains limited and restricted to a small percentage of patients. Thus, a better understanding of the disease is needed to identify new therapeutic strategies. Recently, interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) has been described as being expressed by MPM cells and associated with poorer patient survival. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the IL-7R/IL-7 pathway in MPM using patient samples. We found that, although more than 40% of MPM cells expressed IL-7R, IL-7 had no effect on their intracellular signaling. Accordingly, the addition of IL-7 to the culture medium did not affect MPM cell growth. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we showed that high IL7 gene expression in MPM tumors was associated with a higher overall patient survival and an induction of genes involved in the immune response. In pleural effusions (PEs), we found that IL-7 concentration was not a good diagnostic biomarker. However, we observed that high IL-7 levels in PEs were associated with shorter survival of MPM patients, but not of lung cancer patients. The prognostic value of IL-7 was also conserved when only patients with epithelioid mesothelioma, the most common histological type of MPM, were analyzed. Taken together, our study suggests that, although the IL-7R/IL-7 signaling pathway is not functional in MPM cells, IL-7 expression in PEs may have prognostic value in MPM patients.

RevDate: 2022-09-07
CmpDate: 2022-08-31

Kenchetty PK, Balasundaram S, K Rao (2022)

An uncommon aetiology for a common clinical problem: Primary pericardial mesothelioma.

The National medical journal of India, 35(1):14-16.

Mesothelioma is a tumour arising from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, or the tunica vaginalis of testes. Primary pericardial mesothelioma is a rare tumour that can have varied manifestations and survival in patients with malignant pericardial tumours is generally dismal. The role of asbestos in pericardial mesotheliomas is less well established compared to that in pleural or peritoneal mesotheliomas. The prognosis is generally poor with the treatment options available. We present a middle-aged man with large pericardial effusion secondary to primary pericardial mesothelioma with no previous exposure to asbestos.

RevDate: 2022-08-31

Kerosky ZP, Powell CR, PC Lindholm (2022)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Presenting with High Protein, High Serum-Ascites Albumin Gradient.

Cureus, 14(7):e27286.

Mesothelioma is a difficult-to-detect neoplasm that rarely develops in the peritoneum. In patients with unexplained ascites, pleural fluid analysis and ultrasonography is often the first step to achieving a diagnosis. This case report shares a unique presentation in which a patient who presented with unexplained ascites, was initially thought to have cirrhosis but was later found to have malignant peritoneal mesothelioma after cross-sectional imaging and tissue acquisition. This case illustrates the importance of a high clinical index of suspicion for mesothelioma given its variety of clinical presentations, as well as the utility of early cross-sectional imaging in such cases.

RevDate: 2022-08-30
CmpDate: 2022-08-29

Setlai BP, Mkhize-Kwitshana ZL, Mehrotra R, et al (2022)

Microbiomes, Epigenomics, Immune Response, and Splicing Signatures Interplay: Potential Use of Combination of Regulatory Pathways as Targets for Malignant Mesothelioma.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(16):.

Malignant mesotheliomas (MM) are hard to treat malignancies with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This cancer is highly misdiagnosed in Sub-Saharan African countries. According to literature, the incidence of MM is likely to increase particularly in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). The burden of asbestos-induced diseases was estimated to be about 231,000 per annum. Lack of awareness and implementation of regulatory frameworks to control exposure to asbestos fibers contributes to the expected increase. Exposure to asbestos fibers can lead to cancer initiation by several mechanisms. Asbestos-induced epigenetic modifications of gene expression machinery and non-coding RNAs promote cancer initiation and progression. Furthermore, microbiome-epigenetic interactions control the innate and adaptive immunity causing exacerbation of cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. This review discusses epigenetic mechanisms with more focus on miRNAs and their interaction with the microbiome. The potential use of epigenetic alterations and microbiota as specific biomarkers to aid in the early detection and/or development of therapeutic targets is explored. The advancement of combinatorial therapies to prolong overall patient survival or possible eradication of MM especially if it is detected early is discussed.

RevDate: 2022-10-13
CmpDate: 2022-08-25

Gregório PHP, Terra RM, Lima LP, et al (2022)

Mesothelioma in a developing country: a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic process.

Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia, 48(5):e20220064.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of diagnosing patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) at a tertiary care hospital.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving patients referred to a tertiary-care cancer center in Brazil between 2009 and 2020. The diagnostic process was divided into four steps: onset of symptoms, referral to a specialist visit, histopathological diagnosis, and beginning of treatment. The intervals between each phase and the factors for delays were evaluated. Data including clinical status, radiological examinations, staging, treatment modalities, and survival outcomes were collected.

RESULTS: During the study period, 66 patients (mean age = 64 years) were diagnosed with MPM and underwent treatment. Only 27 (41%) of the patients had knowledge of prior exposure to asbestos. The median number of months (IQR) between the onset of symptoms and the first specialist visit, between the specialist visit and histopathological characterization, and between definite diagnosis and beginning of treatment was, respectively, 6.5 (2.0-11.4), 1.5 (0.6-2.1), and 1.7 (1.2-3.4). The knowledge of prior asbestos exposure was associated with a shorter time to referral to a specialist (median: 214 vs. 120 days; p = 0.04). A substantial number of nondiagnostic procedures and false-negative biopsy results (the majority of which involved the use of Cope needle biopsy) were found to be decisive factors for the length of waiting time. The mean overall survival was 11.9 months.

CONCLUSIONS: The unfamiliarity of health professionals with MPM and the patient's lack of knowledge of prior asbestos exposure were the major factors to cause a long time interval between the onset of symptoms and beginning of treatment. An overall survival shorter than 1 year is likely to have been due to the aforementioned delays.

RevDate: 2022-08-26
CmpDate: 2022-08-23

Muti P, Sacconi A, Pulito C, et al (2022)

Artichoke phytocomplex modulates serum microRNAs in patients exposed to asbestos: a first step of a phase II clinical trial.

Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR, 41(1):255.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor associated with asbestos exposure. There are few effective treatment options for mesothelioma, and patients have a very poor prognosis. Mesothelioma has the potential to represent an appropriate disease to prevent because of its strong association with asbestos exposure and the long latency from exposure to the disease on-set.

METHODS: In the present study, we tested biological activity and toxicity of an artichoke freeze-dried extract (AWPC) as potential complementary preventive/early stage treatment agent for mesothelioma. This phase II clinical study then was conducted in 18 male-patients with evidence of radiographic characteristics related to asbestos exposure such as asbestosis or benign pleural disease as surrogate disease for mesothelioma clinical model.

RESULTS: We investigate AWPC biological activity assessing its effect on mesothelin serum level, a glycoprotein with low expression in normal mesothelial cells and high expression in mesothelioma and asbestos related diseases. We also assess the AWPC effect on circulating miRNAs, as novel biomarkers of both cancer risk and response to therapeutic targets. While we found a small and not significant effect of AWPC on mesothelin serum levels, we observed that AWPC intake modulated 11 serum miRNAs related to gene-pathways connected to mesothelioma etiology and development. In terms of toxicity, we also did not observe any severe adverse effects associated to AWPC treatment, only gastro-intestinal symptoms were reported by five study participants.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed an interesting AWPC effect on miRNAs which targets modulate mesothelioma development. New and much larger clinical studies based on follow-up of workers exposed to asbestos are needed to corroborate the role of AWPC in prevention and early treatment of mesothelioma.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02076672 . Registered 03/03/2014.

RevDate: 2022-08-19

Jiang Z, Chen J, Chen J, et al (2022)

Mortality due to respiratory system disease and lung cancer among female workers exposed to chrysotile in Eastern China: A cross-sectional study.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:928839.

Female workers in the asbestos processing industry of Eastern China are at high risk of developing multiple types of cancer, and more data are urgently needed to better understand and address this issue. Death certificate data were selected from an asbestos processing city in China from 2005 to 2006. Information was investigated using the relatives of those individuals who had died as sources of information. Individuals were classified into one of three asbestos exposure levels. Standardized mortality ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. A total of 2,964 individual deaths were identified from 2005 to 2006; of these, 21.4% were occupationally exposed to asbestos. The main cause of death was circulatory system diseases (21.2%). The proportion of individuals with respiratory system diseases increased by age among each exposure subgroup (P trend < 0.01). Among females, a significant trend was observed between increased asbestos exposure and mortality due to respiratory system diseases and lung cancer. Our study indicated that asbestos exposure was associated with excess mortality from lung cancer and respiratory diseases, particularly among female workers in an asbestos processing area in Eastern China.

RevDate: 2022-10-04
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Silvestri S, Ciapini C, A Innocenti (2022)

Past Asbestos Exposure in Rolling Stock Manufacturing in the Absence of Environmental Monitoring: An Original Method.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 64(10):e635-e640.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is the reconstruction of asbestos exposure in absence of environmental monitoring data, to use the results in a cohort study of railway rolling stock workers.

METHODS: To reconstruct past exposures, the production data (number of rolling stock and asbestos content) and working methods were reconstructed with former employees and company documentation, literature data, and author expertise.

RESULTS: The result of the work is a job/exposure matrix from 1956 to 1979, when sprayed asbestos was used as insulator of the metal bodies. Annual exposure estimate varies from 0.08 to 4.9 fb/mL depending on the specific jobs. Thirty-one mesotheliomas with occupational exposure, one with environmental and one with family exposures, were identified.

CONCLUSIONS: The originality of the study consists on the use of company production data to establish frequency duration of asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2022-09-21

Chun CP, Song LX, Zhang HP, et al (2022)

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

The American journal of the medical sciences pii:S0002-9629(22)00332-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, life-threatening malignant tumor. We present a report of a rare case of a 67-year-old male patient with MPM and severe abdominal pain, bloating, and bloody ascites as manifestations. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology of ascites aspiration fluid and further verified by laparoscopic exploratory biopsy. The characteristics of signs and clinical manifestations in this case are less common. As everyone knows, asbestos exposure is usually associated with pleural mesothelioma, but only 6%-10% of malignant mesothelioma cases originate from the peritoneum, which is far less than pleural mesothelioma. Generally, its non-specificity provides a huge challenge to medical professionals in its diagnosis, and this is also the main reason for delayed diagnosis. Patients should be vigilant, even though no clear risk factor is observed.

RevDate: 2022-08-12
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Shobana M, Balasraswathi VR, Radhika R, et al (2022)

Classification and Detection of Mesothelioma Cancer Using Feature Selection-Enabled Machine Learning Technique.

BioMed research international, 2022:9900668.

Cancer of the mesothelium, sometimes referred to as malignant mesothelioma (MM), is an extremely uncommon form of the illness that almost always results in death. Chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy are all potential treatments for multiple myeloma; however, the majority of patients are identified with the disease at an advanced stage, at which time it is resistant to these therapies. After obtaining a diagnosis of advanced multiple myeloma, the average length of time that a person lives is one year after hearing this news. There is a substantial link between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma (MM). Using an approach that enables feature selection and machine learning, this article proposes a classification and detection method for mesothelioma cancer. The CFS correlation-based feature selection approach is first used in the feature selection process. It acts as a filter, selecting just the traits that are relevant to the categorization. The accuracy of the categorization model is improved as a direct consequence of this. After that, classification is carried out with the help of naive Bayes, fuzzy SVM, and the ID3 algorithm. Various metrics have been utilized during the process of measuring the effectiveness of machine learning strategies. It has been discovered that the choice of features has a substantial influence on the accuracy of the categorization.

RevDate: 2022-09-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Røe OD, Creaney J, BAP1 Study Group (2022)

Response to "Revisiting 'BAP1ness' in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma".

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 17(8):e69-e70.

RevDate: 2022-09-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Yang H, Gaudino G, Bardelli F, et al (2022)

Does the Amount of Asbestos Exposure Influence Prognosis?.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 17(8):949-952.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Tachibana M, Nozawa M, Kamimura K, et al (2022)

Synchronous Jejunal Sarcomatoid Carcinoma and Incidentally Associated Localized Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma.

Cureus, 14(6):e26270.

Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SCA) of the small bowel is a rare aggressive variant of small intestinal cancer accompanying a poor prognosis. The tumor primarily affects middle-aged and elderly patients. We report herein a 67-year-old Japanese male who manifested anemia. He had a history of asbestos exposure 30 years earlier. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 6.5-cm aneurysmal, dilated mass of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy revealed a large circumferential hemorrhagic ulcerative lesion in the jejunum. Biopsy indicated sarcomatoid carcinoma, and partial resection of the small bowel and adjacent transverse colon and omentum was performed. In addition to the T3N0M0 jejunal giant sarcomatoid carcinoma (SCA), a 3-mm small localized peritoneal (omental) malignant mesothelioma (LMM) was also incidentally included. Synchronous presentation of small intestinal and mesothelial malignancies is extremely rare, and the avoidance of incorrect clinical staging is critically important. Surgical resection is still considered the best first-line therapy, because of a poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Dual-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for p16/CDKN2A and chromosome 9 indicated homologous deletion of p16/CDKN2A in SCA and a normal pattern in LMM. Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) was negative in SCA but positive in LMM. Both tumors consistently expressed BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1). Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7) was suppressed, and neural cell adhesion molecule L1 precursor (NCAML1/L1CAM) was agitated in both tumors. Diffuse and strong expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and the association of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in SCA may indicate a potential for PD-L1-targeted immunotherapy for treating this type of aggressive cancer. PD-L1 was focally expressed in LMM. The postoperative course was uneventful for two years.

RevDate: 2022-08-23
CmpDate: 2022-08-23

Parvathaneni V, Chilamakuri R, Kulkarni NS, et al (2022)

Repurposing clofazimine for malignant pleural mesothelioma treatment - In-vitro assessment of efficacy and mechanism of action.

Life sciences, 306:120843.

AIMS: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer of lungs' pleural cavity, with minimally effective therapies available. Thus, there exists a necessity for drug repurposing which is an attractive strategy for drug development in MPM. Repurposing of an old FDA-approved anti-leprotic drug, Clofazimine (CFZ), presents an outstanding opportunity to explore its efficacy in treating MPM.

MAIN METHODS: Cytotoxicity, scratch assay, and clonogenic assays were employed to determine CFZ's ability to inhibit cell viability, cell migration, and colony growth. 3D Spheroid cell culture studies were performed to identify tumor growth inhibition potential of CFZ in MSTO-211H cell line. Gene expression analysis was performed using RT-qPCR assays to determine the CFZ's effect of key genes. Western blot studies were performed to determine CFZ's ability to induce apoptosis its effect to induce autophagy marker.

KEY FINDINGS: CFZ showed significant cytotoxicity against both immortalized and primary patient-derived cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 3.4 μM (MSTO-211H) to 7.1 μM (HAY). CFZ significantly impaired MPM cell cloning efficiency, migration, and tumor spheroid formation. 3D Spheroid model showed that CFZ resulted in reduction in spheroid volume. RT-qPCR data showed downregulation of genes β-catenin, BCL-9, and PRDX1; and upregulation of apoptosis markers such as PARP, Cleaved caspase 3, and AXIN2. Additionally, immunoblot analysis showed that CFZ down-regulates the expression of β-catenin (apoptosis induction) and up-regulates p62, LC3B protein II (autophagy inhibition).

SIGNIFICANCE: It can be concluded that CFZ could be a promising molecule to repurpose for MPM treatment which needs numerous efforts from further studies.

RevDate: 2022-08-30
CmpDate: 2022-08-04

Dubois F, Bazille C, Levallet J, et al (2022)

Molecular Alterations in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Hope for Effective Treatment by Targeting YAP.

Targeted oncology, 17(4):407-431.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, which has primarily been attributed to the exposure to asbestos fibers (83% of cases); yet, despite a ban of using asbestos in many countries, the incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma failed to decline worldwide. While little progress has been made in malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis, bevacizumab at first, then followed by double immunotherapy (nivolumab plus ipilumumab), were all shown to improve survival in large phase III randomized trials. The morphological analysis of the histological subtyping remains the primary indicator for therapeutic decision making at an advanced disease stage, while a platinum-based chemotherapy regimen combined with pemetrexed, either with or without bevacizumab, is still the main treatment option. Consequently, malignant pleural mesothelioma still represents a significant health concern owing to poor median survival (12-18 months). Given this context, both diagnosis and therapy improvements require better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant pleural mesothelioma's carcinogenesis and progression. Hence, the Hippo pathway in malignant pleural mesothelioma initiation and progression has recently received increasing attention, as the aberrant expression of its core components may be closely related to patient prognosis. The purpose of this review was to provide a critical analysis of our current knowledge on these topics, the main focus being on the available evidence concerning the role of each Hippo pathway's member as a promising biomarker, enabling detection of the disease at earlier stages and thus improving prognosis.

RevDate: 2022-07-31

Sculco M, La Vecchia M, Aspesi A, et al (2022)

Diagnostics of BAP1-Tumor Predisposition Syndrome by a Multitesting Approach: A Ten-Year-Long Experience.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(7):.

Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) lead to BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS), characterized by high susceptibility to several tumor types, chiefly melanoma, mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Here, we present the results of our ten-year experience in the molecular diagnosis of BAP1-TPDS, along with a clinical update and cascade genetic testing of previously reported BAP1-TPDS patients and their relatives. Specifically, we sequenced germline DNA samples from 101 individuals with suspected BAP1-TPDS and validated pathogenic variants (PVs) by assessing BAP1 somatic loss in matching tumor specimens. Overall, we identified seven patients (7/101, 6.9%) carrying six different germline BAP1 PVs, including one novel variant. Consistently, cascade testing revealed a total of seven BAP1 PV carriers. In addition, we explored the mutational burden of BAP1-TPDS tumors by targeted next-generation sequencing. Lastly, we found that certain tumors present in PV carriers retain a wild-type BAP1 allele, suggesting a sporadic origin of these tumors or a functional role of heterozygous BAP1 in neoplastic development. Altogether, our findings have important clinical implications for therapeutic response of BAP1-TPDS patients.

RevDate: 2022-08-10
CmpDate: 2022-07-28

Pandey SK, Machlof-Cohen R, Santhanam M, et al (2022)

Silencing VDAC1 to Treat Mesothelioma Cancer: Tumor Reprograming and Altering Tumor Hallmarks.

Biomolecules, 12(7):.

Mesothelioma, an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis, is linked to asbestos exposure. However, carbon nanotubes found in materials we are exposed to daily can cause mesothelioma cancer. Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to support increased biosynthetic and energy demands required for their growth and motility. Here, we examined the effects of silencing the expression of the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), controlling the metabolic and energetic crosstalk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. We demonstrate that VDAC1 is overexpressed in mesothelioma patients; its levels increase with disease stage and are associated with low survival rates. Silencing VDAC1 expression using a specific siRNA identifying both mouse and human VDAC1 (si-m/hVDAC1-B) inhibits cell proliferation of mesothelioma cancer cells. Treatment of xenografts of human-derived H226 cells or mouse-derived AB1 cells with si-m/hVDAC1-B inhibited tumor growth and caused metabolism reprogramming, as reflected in the decreased expression of metabolism-related proteins, including glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (-)cycle enzymes and the ATP-synthesizing enzyme. In addition, tumors depleted of VDAC1 showed altered microenvironments and inflammation, both associated with cancer progression. Finally, tumor VDAC1 silencing also eliminated cancer stem cells and induced cell differentiation to normal-like cells. The results show that silencing VDAC1 expression leads to reprogrammed metabolism and to multiple effects from tumor growth inhibition to modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inflammation, inducing differentiation of malignant cells. Thus, silencing VDAC1 is a potential therapeutic approach to treating mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Di Marzio N, Ananthanarayanan P, Guex AG, et al (2022)

Sound-based assembly of a microcapillary network in a saturn-like tumor model for drug testing.

Materials today. Bio, 16:100357.

The tumor microenvironment (TME), consisting of extracellular matrix, proteins, stromal cells, and a vascular system, is reported to have a key role in cancer progression and prognosis. Thereby, the interaction between the vascular network and tumor mass is an important feature of the TME since the anticancer agents which are delivered to the TME can trigger the vascular response and influence the therapeutic outcome of the treatment. To identify and develop new therapeutic strategies, 3D in vitro models that recapitulate the complexity of the TME are urgently needed. Among them, vascularized tumor models are a promising approach, allowing to target tumor angiogenesis and reduce tumor growth. By using sound patterning, cells can be condensed locally into highly reproducible patterns through the action of mild hydrodynamic forces. Here, we use a soundwave-driven cell assembly approach to create a ring-shaped microcapillary network in fibrin hydrogel. Then, we generate a 3D vascularized tumor model by combining a tumor heterotypic spheroid, consisting of fibroblasts and Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) cells, with the surrounding vascular ring. Based on its shape, we name it Saturn-like vascularized Tumor Model (STM). The growth of the microcapillary network is monitored over time by fluorescence imaging. The area covered by the microcapillary network, and its continuous increase in presence of the heterotypic tumor spheroid was monitored. Interestingly, this effect is enhanced when treating the STM with the anticancer agent Cisplatin. Overall, we show the use of sound patterning as a fast and cell-friendly approach to spatially organize and condense cells, to generate a 3D in vitro platform from which simple readouts of drug tests can be extracted by image analysis, with the potential to provide a model system for tailored tumor therapy.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Urban M, Pelclová D, Urban P, et al (2022)

Asbestos danger in central Europe is not yet over - the situation in the Czech Republic.

Central European journal of public health, 30(2):67-73.

OBJECTIVES: In the Czech Republic, asbestos has been classified as a known human carcinogen since 1984. The use of asbestos-containing products was limited to scenarios where the use of other materials was not possible. Since 1997, the manufacture of asbestos materials has been forbidden, and in 1999, the import, manufacture and distribution of all types of asbestos fibres was legally banned by Act No. 157/1998 Coll. Although the use of asbestos is forbidden, the risk of exposure still exists given the ongoing demolition and reconstruction of buildings in which asbestos has been used. In addition, a novel risk has arisen through the quarrying of asbestos-containing aggregates and their subsequent use. The aim of this paper was to describe and evaluate asbestos in terms of history, legislation, current risk of occupational exposure and its health consequences in the Czech Republic over the last three decades.

METHODS: This retrospective descriptive study used the collected data on occupational exposure and occupational diseases. The counts of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos were obtained from the Registry of Work Categorization; the numbers and structure of occupational diseases caused by asbestos were taken from the Czech National Registry of Occupational Diseases. Data on the total number of mesothelioma cases recorded in the Czech National Cancer Registry was provided by the Institute of Health Information and Statistics of the Czech Republic.

RESULTS: A total of 13,112 subjects were registered as occupationally exposed to asbestos during the period 2001-2020. A total of 687 cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases were reported in the period 1991-2020 in the Czech Republic, comprising 178 cases of asbestosis, 250 cases of pleural hyalinosis, 168 cases of pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma, 90 cases of lung cancer, and one case of laryngeal cancer. The data from the Czech National Cancer Registry, available for a shorter period (1991-2018), reveal 1,389 cases of mesothelioma, of which only ~11% were recognised as occupational, despite the fact that the occupational causality of mesotheliomas is estimated to be up to 90% of mesotheliomas. Moreover, the latency of mesotheliomas since the last occupational exposure reached up to 50 years and this trend is still slightly increasing, unlike asbestosis, where a high cumulative dose of inhaled asbestos is needed. The real proportion of occupational lung cancers may obviously be even higher, especially in smokers, where occupational causes including asbestos are not suspected by most physicians.

CONCLUSION: Czech data on asbestos-related occupational diseases, especially cancers, are grossly underestimated, which is most apparent through the low proportion of mesotheliomas diagnosed as occupational. Asbestos materials in older buildings remained in situ and may represent a danger during reconstruction works. The current source of exposure appears to be quarrying of asbestos-containing aggregate and its subsequent use. Awareness of the professional community is therefore crucial, not only for the possibility of compensating those affected, but also for the early detection of the diseases through the dispensary of exposed persons.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Mazzoni E, Bononi I, Rotondo JC, et al (2022)

Sera from Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Tested Positive for IgG Antibodies against SV40 Large T Antigen: The Viral Oncoprotein.

Journal of oncology, 2022:7249912.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a fatal tumor, is mainly linked to the asbestos exposure. It has been reported that together with the inhalation of asbestos fibers, other factors are involved in the MPM onset, including simian virus 40 (SV40). SV40, a polyomavirus with oncogenic potential, induces (i) in vitro the mesenchymal cell transformation, whereas (ii) in vivo the MPM onset in experimental animals. The association between MPM and SV40 in humans remains to be elucidated. Sera (n = 415) from MPM-affected patients (MPM cohort 1; n = 152) and healthy subjects (HSs, n = 263) were investigated for their immunoglobulin G (IgG) against simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (Tag), which is the transforming protein. Sera were investigated with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two synthetic peptides from SV40 Tag protein. SV40 Tag protein was evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining on MPM samples (MPM cohort 2; n = 20). Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples were obtained from MPM patients unrelated to MPM serum donors. The proportion of sera, from MPM patients, showing antibodies against SV40 Tag (34%) was significantly higher compared to HSs (20%) (odds ratio 2.049, CI 95% 1.32-3.224; p=0.0026). Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) assays showed SV40 Tag expression in 8/20, 40% of MPM specimens. These results indicate that SV40 is linked to a large fraction of MPM. It is worth noting that the prevalence of SV40 Tag antibodies detected in sera from cohort 1 of MPM patients is similar to the prevalence of SV40 Tag found to be expressed in FFPE tissues from MPM cohort 2.

RevDate: 2022-08-19
CmpDate: 2022-08-19

Thives LP, Ghisi E, Thives Júnior JJ, et al (2022)

Is asbestos still a problem in the world? A current review.

Journal of environmental management, 319:115716.

Asbestos has been used by automobile, construction, manufacturing, power, and chemical industries for many years due to its particular properties, i.e. high tensile strength, non-flammable, thermal and electrical resistance and stability, and chemical resistance. However, such a mineral causes harmful effects to human health, including different types of cancer (e.g., mesothelioma). As a result, the use of asbestos has been banned since the 1980s in many countries. Nonetheless, asbestos is still part of the daily life of the population as asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) are still present in many buildings constructed and renovated before the 1990s. This work aims to present a current literature review about asbestos. The literature review was composed mainly of research articles published in international journals from the medical and engineering disciplines to provide an overview of asbestos use effects reported in interdisciplinary areas. The literature review comprised asbestos characteristics and its relationship to the risks of human exposure, countries where asbestos use is permitted or banned, reducing asbestos in the built environment, and environmental impact due to use and disposal of asbestos. The main findings were that ACMs are still responsible for severe human diseases, particularly in areas where there is a lack of coordinated asbestos management plans, reduced awareness about asbestos health risks, or even a delay in the implementation of asbestos-ban. Such issues may be more prevailing in developing countries. The current research in many countries contemplates several methodologies and techniques to process ACMs into inert and recyclable materials. The identification and coordinated management of ACM hazardous waste is a significant challenge to be faced by countries, and its inadequate disposal causes severe risk of exposure to asbestos fibres. Based on this work, it was concluded that banning asbestos is indicated in all countries in the world.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Kumar N, Natrayan L, Kasirajan G, et al (2022)

Development of Novel Bio-mulberry-Reinforced Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Fibre Organic Brake Friction Composite Materials.

Bioinorganic chemistry and applications, 2022:6426763.

Natural fibre reinforcement is used in important sectors such as medical, aerospace, automobile, and many other fields. Many articles have reported that natural fibre has the potential to replace synthetic fibres. Natural fibre reinforcement has given good results as a brake friction material. It has already been proven that asbestos causes lung cancer and mesothelioma in brakes. Many people died from the effects of asbestos. According to the World Health Organization's trending brake report, this material leads to serious health issues. This work is going on for the replacement of these materials. Mulberry fibre is a unique material, and PAN fibre is combined with mulberry fibre and used as a brake reinforcement material to replace Kevlar fibre. The brake pads were fabricated with the various wt% of mulberry fibres and PAN fibre [3-12%] with an equal ratio and aramid fibre [3-6%] in the hydraulic hind brake moulding machine. The mechanical, chemical, physical, tribological, and thermal properties were evaluated. MF-2 [6 wt%] mulberry-PAN-fibre-based brake pad composites have shown better results for ultimate shear strength and proof stress, tensile strength, compressive strength, and impact energy.

RevDate: 2022-10-06
CmpDate: 2022-09-22

Price B (2022)

Projection of future numbers of mesothelioma cases in the US and the increasing prevalence of background cases: an update based on SEER data for 1975 through 2018.

Critical reviews in toxicology, 52(4):317-324.

Historically, mesothelioma, which is almost exclusively a cancer of the pleura or peritoneum, has been referred to as a sentinel disease for asbestos exposure meaning that the disease is an epidemiologic marker for asbestos. This description of mesothelioma often has been misinterpreted to mean that the only risk factor for mesothelioma is asbestos. In addition to a few risk factors other than asbestos, in the US, background mesotheliomas, i.e. mesothelioma cases that are a consequence of spontaneous tumor formation, are the most prevalent number of cases after asbestos-associated cases.1 My analysis of SEER data for 1973 through 2005 published in 2009 projected that around 2040 virtually all mesothelioma cases in the US will be background cases. The update here, which is based on the most current SEER data, 1975 through 2018, and the same methods used in 2009 shows that the pattern of mesothelioma incidence is unchanged. Further, in general agreement with the analysis published in 2009, after 2040 virtually all mesothelioma cases, currently estimated to be approximately 1600 per year, will be background cases.

RevDate: 2022-08-10

Henshall C, Dawson P, Rahman N, et al (2022)

Understanding clinical decision-making in mesothelioma care: a mixed methods study.

BMJ open respiratory research, 9(1):.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare, incurable cancer arising from previous asbestos exposure; patients have a poor prognosis, with a median survival rate of 8-14 months. Variation in mesothelioma clinical decision-making remains common with a lack of multidisciplinary knowledge sharing, leading to inconsistencies in treatment decisions. The study aimed to explore which factors impacted on clinicians' decision-making in mesothelioma care, with a view to optimising the mesothelioma care pathway.

METHODS: This mixed methods study consisted of documentary analysis of local and national guidelines, policies or documents pertaining to mesothelioma care pathways, secondary analysis of mesothelioma patient data, and interviews with clinicians attending lung cancer and/or mesothelioma-specific multidisciplinary team meetings. The study took place at three National Health Service trusts in England. Documentations relating to patients' treatment pathways were collated and reviewed qualitatively. Records of patients with mesothelioma were extracted from hospital patient records and data collected on diagnosis date, treatment, mortality rates, survival postdiagnosis, age and clinical care team. Data were statistically analysed. Interviews with clinicians explored influences on clinical decision-making, including challenges or barriers involved. Data were thematically analysed. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology reporting checklist was used.

RESULTS: There were differences in the structure and delivery of mesothelioma treatment and care between trusts. Four main themes were identified: 'collaboration and communication', 'evidence base and knowledge', 'role of the clinician' and 'role of the patient'. Two cross-cutting themes relating to the role of the mesothelioma nurse specialist and the impact of COVID-19 were identified.

DISCUSSION: There is a need to review the structure of mesothelioma multidisciplinary team meetings to ensure patients are reviewed by clinicians with appropriate knowledge, expertise and understanding of how, why and when decisions should be made. There is a need for expert clinicians in mesothelioma care to promote an up-to-date evidence and knowledge base within the wider multidisciplinary team.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Ma GY, Shi S, Wang P, et al (2022)

Clinical significance of 9P21 gene combined with BAP1 and MTAP protein expression in diagnosis and prognosis of mesothelioma serous effusion.

Biomedical reports, 17(2):66.

The diagnostic value of the 9P21 gene determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) and methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) expression detection by immunohistochemistry, was investigated in serous effusion samples of malignant mesothelioma. A total of 70 serous disease samples with serous effusion were collected from June 2017 to June 2020. Following biopsy specimen pathological diagnosis, samples were divided into malignant mesothelioma and benign mesothelioma. Differential expression of BAP1 and MTAP genes were identified in mesothelioma and mesenchymal hyperplasia. The 9P21 gene fragment was lost in mesothelioma. The positive rates of FISH, BAP1 and MTAP in biopsy specimens were 98.00, 94.00 and 90.00%. The specificity of the three were 96.00, 85.71 and 77.27%, the sensitivity were 90.00, 95.92 and 93.75%, and the positive rate of the combined detection of the three was 93.33%. The positive rate of serous fluid samples detected by the three methods (9P21 FISH probe combined with BAP1 and MTAP expression detected immunohistochemically) was 96.00, 92.00 and 88.00%, the specificity were 90.00, 77.27 and 71.43%, the sensitivity was 96.00, 93.75 and 89.80%, and the positive rate of the three combined detections was 91.33%. It was demonstrated that there was a high consistency between serous fluid samples and biopsy samples. According to clinicopathological analysis, sex, age, lesion site, Ki67 had little association with the occurrence and development of malignant mesothelioma, while asbestos exposure history was closely associated to the occurrence of mesothelioma. A high level of BAP1 gene was positively associated with the prognosis of mesothelioma, while a high level of MTAP gene was negatively associated with the prognosis of mesothelioma (P<0.05). Therefore, 9P21 FISH probe combined with BAP1 and MTAP can be used as a new method for the detection of malignant mesothelioma, and provide an important basis for the early diagnosis of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Janssens E, Schillebeeckx E, Zwijsen K, et al (2022)

External Validation of a Breath-Based Prediction Model for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 14(13):.

During the past decade, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath have emerged as promising biomarkers for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, as these biomarkers lack external validation, no breath test for MPM has been implemented in clinical practice. To address this issue, we performed the first external validation of a VOC-based prediction model for MPM. The external validation cohort was prospectively recruited, consisting of 47 MPM patients and 76 asbestos-exposed (AEx) controls. The predictive performance of the previously developed model was assessed by determining the degree of agreement between the predicted and actual outcome of the participants (patient/control). Additionally, to optimise the performance, the model was updated by refitting it to the validation cohort. External validation revealed a poor performance of the original model as the accuracy was estimated at only 41%, indicating poor generalisability. However, subsequent updating of the model improved the differentiation between MPM patients and AEx controls significantly (73% accuracy, 92% sensitivity, and 92% negative predictive value), substantiating the validity of the original predictors. This updated model will be more generalisable to the target population and exhibits key characteristics of a potential screening test for MPM, which could significantly impact MPM management.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Song Y, Baxter SS, Dai L, et al (2022)

Mesothelioma Mouse Models with Mixed Genomic States of Chromosome and Microsatellite Instability.

Cancers, 14(13):.

Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a rare malignancy originating from the linings of the pleural, peritoneal and pericardial cavities. The best-defined risk factor is exposure to carcinogenic mineral fibers (e.g., asbestos). Genomic studies have revealed that the most frequent genetic lesions in human MMe are mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Several genetically engineered mouse models have been generated by introducing the same genetic lesions found in human MMe. However, most of these models require specialized breeding facilities and long-term exposure of mice to asbestos for MMe development. Thus, an alternative model with high tumor penetrance without asbestos is urgently needed. We characterized an orthotopic model using MMe cells derived from Cdkn2a+/-;Nf2+/- mice chronically injected with asbestos. These MMe cells were tumorigenic upon intraperitoneal injection. Moreover, MMe cells showed mixed chromosome and microsatellite instability, supporting the notion that genomic instability is relevant in MMe pathogenesis. In addition, microsatellite markers were detectable in the plasma of tumor-bearing mice, indicating a potential use for early cancer detection and monitoring the effects of interventions. This orthotopic model with rapid development of MMe without asbestos exposure represents genomic instability and specific molecular targets for therapeutic or preventive interventions to enable preclinical proof of concept for the intervention in an immunocompetent setting.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Tanaka T, Asakura S, Hisamatsu K, et al (2022)

Thrombocytopenia as an Immune-Related Adverse Event in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Case Report.

JTO clinical and research reports, 3(7):100351.

A 69-year-old man presented with a pulmonary opacity at a regular medical check-up. He had been exposed to asbestos in a chemical fiber manufacturing setting. Result of positron emission tomography with computed tomography (CT) revealed fluorodeoxyglucose accumulations along the right pleura in areas with multiple nodules and irregular pleural thickening. On the basis of analysis of a CT-guided needle biopsy result, he had been diagnosed with having epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. He received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and subsequently, a pleurectomy and decortication. After 6 months, malignant pleural mesothelioma recurred with multiple tumors in the pleural cavity. Nivolumab was administered as salvage immunotherapy. A CT scan result revealed marked tumor reduction; however, his platelet count was low (8000/μL), and he was diagnosed with having nivolumab-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Oral prednisone and thrombopoietin receptor agonist were delivered, and the platelet count improved; therefore, a sustained cycle of nivolumab was resumed. This case revealed that nivolumab could be readministered for continued antitumor effects, with careful management of immune-related adverse events.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Kuryk L, Rodella G, Staniszewska M, et al (2022)

Novel Insights Into Mesothelioma Therapy: Emerging Avenues and Future Prospects.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:916839.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive cancer that develops in the thin layer surrounding the mesothelium and is mainly caused by asbestos exposure. Despite improvements in patient prognosis with conventional cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, there are still no curative treatment modalities for advanced disease. In recent years, new therapeutic avenues have been explored. Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying the dynamic tumor interaction with the immune system has led to the development of immunotherapeutic approaches. Numerous recent clinical trials have shown a desire to develop more effective treatments that can be used to fight against the disease. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, oncolytic adenoviruses, and their combination represent a promising strategy that can be used to synergistically overcome immunosuppression in the mesothelioma tumor microenvironment. This review provides a synthesized overview of the current state of knowledge on new therapeutic options for mesothelioma with a focus on the results of clinical trials conducted in the field.

RevDate: 2022-09-06
CmpDate: 2022-08-24

Fennell DA, Dulloo S, J Harber (2022)

Immunotherapy approaches for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Nature reviews. Clinical oncology, 19(9):573-584.

Over the past decade, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment of cancer. In mesothelioma, a rare cancer with a dismal prognosis generally caused by exposure to asbestos, treatment with single or dual ICIs results in robust improvements in overall survival over previous standard-of-care therapies, both in the first-line and relapsed disease settings. Predictive biological features that underpin response to ICIs remain poorly understood; however, insights into the immune microenvironment and genomic landscape of mesothelioma as well as into their association with response or acquired resistance to ICIs are emerging. Several studies of rational combinations involving ICIs with either another ICI or a different agent are ongoing, with emerging evidence of synergistic antitumour activity. Non-ICI-based immunotherapies, such as peptide-based vaccines and mesothelin-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cells, have demonstrated promising efficacy. Moreover, results from pivotal trials of dendritic cell vaccines and viral cytokine delivery, among others, are eagerly awaited. In this Review, we comprehensively summarize the key steps in the development of immunotherapies for mesothelioma, focusing on strategies that have led to randomized clinical evaluation and emerging predictors of response. We then forecast the future treatment opportunities that could arise from ongoing research.

RevDate: 2022-07-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Locher BN, Barresi F, Kuhn BK, et al (2022)

Occupations and geographical distribution of mesothelioma in Switzerland 1989-2018 - record linkage of an asbestos-exposed population with the Swiss National Cohort.

Swiss medical weekly, 152:w30164 pii:Swiss Med Wkly. 2022;152:w30164.

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the possibility of linking the data of the Swiss Laboratory for Particle Analysis (Silag), a valuable but incomplete data source in the field of asbestos-related diseases, to the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). With the resulting comprehensive dataset, we intended to provide a source for further research in the field. We also conducted preliminary analyses of data focusing on occupations and regional distribution of malignant pleural mesothelioma cases.

METHODS: Data of asbestos-exposed individuals available from the Silag were anonymously linked with the SNC by means of deterministic record linkage. From this linkage, data on occupation classified according to the international standard classification of occupations (ISCO) as well as the canton of residence in Switzerland could be retrieved.

RESULTS: Of 838 eligible individuals from the Silag data, 788 (94.0%) could be linked to the SNC database, including 476 mesothelioma cases. In 340 cases of the latter, data on occupation and industries were available. Although the majority of them were blue-collar workers, a significant proportion (n = 44, 12.9%) had executive professions. The Canton of residence in 1990 was established in 430 of subjects with mesothelioma. A cluster could be identified in eastern Switzerland, especially in the canton of Glarus.

CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to link the datasets to a large extent thereby creating a data source for further research. Of note, the linkage provided data on occupation of a selection of mesothelioma cases in Switzerland.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Nagamatsu Y, Sakyo Y, Barroga E, et al (2022)

Depression and Complicated Grief, and Associated Factors, of Bereaved Family Members of Patients Who Died of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Japan.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(12):.

OBJECTIVES: we investigated the prevalence and associated factors of depression and complicated grief (CG) among bereaved family members of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients in Japan.

METHODS: Bereaved family members of MPM patients (n = 72) were surveyed. The Japanese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Japanese version of the Brief Grief Questionnaire (BGQ) were used to assess depression and complicated grief (CG), respectively. Socio-economic factors, anger toward asbestos, care satisfaction, achievement of good death, and quality of end-of-life care were assessed in relation to depression and CG.

RESULTS: In the family members of MPM patients, the frequencies of depression and CG were 19.4% and 15.3%, respectively. The bereaved family members who were not compensated by the asbestos-related health-damage relief system (p = 0.018) and who felt the financial impacts of the patient's MPM on the family (p = 0.006) had a higher likelihood of depression. The bereaved family members who were not satisfied with the care given when the patient became critical (p = 0.034), who were not compensated by the asbestos-related health-damage relief system (p = 0.020), who felt the financial impact of the patient's MPM on the family (p = 0.016), and whose deceased relative underwent surgery (p = 0.030) had a higher likelihood of CG.

CONCLUSIONS: For bereaved family members of MPM patients, routine screening for depression and CG and the provision of grief care are suggested. In addition, for family members of MPM patients, financial support, including the promotion of the asbestos-related health-damage relief system, and improved care for patients who undergo surgery and when patients become critical, are recommended.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Bellini A, Mazzarra S, Sterrantino S, et al (2022)

Second Surgery for Recurrent Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma after Multimodality Treatment: A Systematic Review.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(12):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive asbestos-related tumour with poor prognosis. To date, a multimodality treatment, including chemotherapy and surgery, with or without radiotherapy, is the gold standard therapy for selected patients with epithelioid and early-stage MPM. In this setting, the goal of surgery is to achieve the macroscopic complete resection, obtained by either extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy/decortication. Failure, in local and/or distant sites, is one of the major concerns; in fact, there has been no established treatment for the recurrence of MPM after the multimodal approach, and the role of surgery in this context is still controversial. By using electronic databases, studies that included recurrent MPM patients who underwent a second surgery were identified. The endpoints included were: a pattern of recurrence, post-recurrence survival (PRS), and the type of second surgery. When available, factors predicting better PRS and perioperative mortality and morbidity were collected. This systematic review offers an overview of the results that are currently obtained in patients undergoing a second surgery for relapsed MPM, with the aim to provide a comprehensive view on this subject that explores if a second surgery leads to an improvement in survival.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Pellavio G, Martinotti S, Patrone M, et al (2022)

Aquaporin-6 May Increase the Resistance to Oxidative Stress of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cells.

Cells, 11(12):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer of the pleural surface and is associated with previous asbestos exposure. The chemotherapy drug is one of the main treatments, but the median survival ranges from 8 to 14 months from diagnosis. The redox homeostasis of tumor cells should be carefully considered since elevated levels of ROS favor cancer cell progression (proliferation and migration), while a further elevation leads to ferroptosis. This study aims to analyze the functioning/role of aquaporins (AQPs) as a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) channel in epithelial and biphasic MPM cell lines, as well as their possible involvement in chemotherapy drug resistance. Results show that AQP-3, -5, -6, -9, and -11 were expressed at mRNA and protein levels. AQP-6 was localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular structures. Compared to normal mesothelial cells, the water permeability of mesothelioma cells is not reduced by exogenous oxidative stress, but it is considerably increased by heat stress, making these cells resistant to ferroptosis. Functional experiments performed in mesothelioma cells silenced for aquaporin-6 revealed that it is responsible, at least in part, for the increase in H2O2 efflux caused by heat stress. Moreover, mesothelioma cells knocked down for AQP-6 showed a reduced proliferation compared to mock cells. Current findings suggest the major role of AQP-6 in providing mesothelioma cells with the ability to resist oxidative stress that underlies their resistance to chemotherapy drugs.

RevDate: 2022-10-15
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Lee JT, Mittal DL, Warby A, et al (2022)

Dying of mesothelioma: A qualitative exploration of caregiver experiences.

European journal of cancer care, 31(5):e13627.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of family caregivers of people with mesothelioma with focus on end-of-life issues.

METHODS: A qualitative sub-study using semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis.

RESULTS: Fourteen caregivers were interviewed; 11 were bereaved. The overarching theme was the impact of patients' diagnosis, treatment and death on caregivers and families. Three main themes were identified: (i) information provision and decision-making; (ii) grief and bereavement; and (iii) involvement and timing of palliative care. Caregivers initially had minimal knowledge of mesothelioma and wanted more information. Prognostic uncertainty caused distress. Grief and bereavement sub-themes were (i) coping and personal priorities; (ii) reflections on dying; and (iii) reflections on care. Caregivers highlighted the importance of creating meaningful events, having hope, 'doing something' and support from family and external sources. Reflections on dying contrasted regret after a 'bad', often unexpected death, with 'good' deaths. Care was made difficult by challenges navigating the health system and perceived gaps. Caregivers reported late referral to palliative care.

CONCLUSION: Lack of information caused challenges for caregivers. Grief and bereavement outcomes varied and may have been adversely impacted by lack of engagement with palliative care. Integrated care with lung cancer coordinators and improved palliative care access may reduce caregiver burden.

RevDate: 2022-08-23
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Migliore E, Consonni D, Peters S, et al (2022)

Pleural mesothelioma risk by industry and occupation: results from the Multicentre Italian Study on the Etiology of Mesothelioma (MISEM).

Environmental health : a global access science source, 21(1):60.

BACKGROUND: The Italian mesothelioma registry (ReNaM) estimates mesothelioma incidence and addresses its etiology by assessing cases' exposures but cannot provide relative risk estimates.

OBJECTIVES: i) To estimate pleural mesothelioma relative risk by industry and occupation and by ReNaM categories of asbestos exposure; and ii) to provide quantitative estimates of the exposure-response relationship.

METHODS: A population-based mesothelioma case-control study was conducted in 2012-2014 in five Italian regions. Cases and age and gender frequency-matched controls were interviewed using a standard ReNaM questionnaire. Experts coded work histories according to international standard classifications of industries/occupations and assigned asbestos exposure according to ReNaM categories. Job codes were further linked to SYN-JEM, a quantitative job-exposure matrix. Cumulative exposure (CE, f/mL-years) was computed by summing individual exposures over lifetime work history. Unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusted by gender, centre and age were fitted to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: Among men we observed increased risks of mesothelioma in many industries and associated occupations, including: asbestos-cement (OR = 3.43), manufacture of railroad equipment (OR = 8.07), shipbuilding and repairing (OR = 2.34), iron and steel mills (OR = 2.15), and construction (OR = 1.94). ORs by ReNaM exposure categories were as follows: definite/probable occupational exposure (OR = 15.8, men; OR = 8.80, women), possible occupational (OR = 2.82, men; OR = 3.70, women), sharing home with an exposed worker (OR = 2.55, men; OR = 10.3, women), residential (OR = 2.14, men; OR = 3.24, women). Based on SYN-JEM, mesothelioma risk increased by almost 30% per f/mL-year (OR = 1.28, CI 1.16-1.42).

CONCLUSIONS: Out study involved five regions with historically different types and levels of industrial development, encompassing one third of the Italian population and half of Italian mesothelioma cases. As expected, we found increased pleural mesothelioma risk in the asbestos industry and in trades with large consumption of asbestos materials. Clear associations were found using both qualitative (ReNaM classifications) and quantitative estimates (using SYN-JEM) of past asbestos exposure, with clear evidence of an exposure-response relationship.

RevDate: 2022-09-30
CmpDate: 2022-09-20

Malpica A, Euscher ED, Marques-Piubelli ML, et al (2022)

Localized Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma (LMPeM) in Women: A Clinicopathologic Study of 18 Cases.

The American journal of surgical pathology, 46(10):1352-1363.

Localized malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor with limited information in the literature. In this study, we present our experience with 18 cases seen in our hospital over a period of 43 years (1978 to 2021). Patients' median age was 55 years (y) (range: 33 to 79 y) and most of them were Caucasians. Patients presented with abdominal pain (11), ascites and right leg swelling (1), abdominal mass (1), and as incidental finding (1). Thirty percent of patients reported asbestos exposure, and all patients with available information had family history of tumors; a third had personal history of tumors. Seventy-seven percent had some form of abdominopelvic surgery and/or inflammatory process. Most cases had microscopic features typically seen in malignant mesothelioma; however, some cases had confounding features such as signet-ring cells, spindle cells, clear cell changes, and adenomatoid tumor-like appearance. BAP-1 by immunohistochemistry was lost in 1/3 cases. Only 1 patient underwent genetic testing and had an MSH2 germline mutation. Homozygous deletion of CDKN2A by FISH was not found in 1 tested case, although next-generation sequencing identified a CDKN2A pathogenic mutation. 16/18 (88%) had surgical treatment, and some also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The mean overall survival (OS) of our patients was 80.4 months (95% confidence interval: 54.3-106.52); the 3-year OS was 79%, while the 5-year OS was 52.6%. Fifty-three percent of patients had recurrences and 20% had tumor progression. Although the limited sample precludes definitive conclusions, small tumor size, low-grade cytology, and low mitotic index appeared to be associated with an indolent behavior.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Bernstein DM (2022)

The health effects of short fiber chrysotile and amphibole asbestos.

Critical reviews in toxicology, 52(2):89-112.

The potential toxic effects of short chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers with lengths <5 to ∼10 µm have been debated over the years. This stems from the large database of epidemiology, toxicology, and in-vitro studies, each of which often provides different information in understanding and differentiating the effects of short fibers. The epidemiology studies in which the cancer potency estimates were based upon relatively high exposure concentrations provide a conservative assessment that shorter fibers would have little if any effect, especially under controlled exposure or environmental conditions that may occur today. The QSAR models have shown that fiber aspect ratio and Mg content are excellent predictors of cancer potency and that short fibers/particles of amphibole would have no effect. The studies of motor vehicle mechanics and in particular workers who serviced chrysotile containing brakes with the majority of the fibers being short provides evidence that motor vehicle mechanics, including workers who were engaged in brake repair, are not at an increased risk of mesothelioma. Several inhalation toxicology studies clearly differentiated that short chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers did not produce a significant carcinogenic effect in the lung or pleural cavity. Because of dosing and lack of sensitivity to biosolubility, in vitro studies can be difficult to interpret; however, a number have differentiated short chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers from long fibers. Integral to understanding the importance of fiber length in determining possible health effects is an understanding of the biological and physiological function of the respiratory system. Short asbestos fibers, like innocuous dust, can be cleared through the tracheobronchial ciliated mucous transport, phagocytized by macrophages and cleared via the bronchial tree, and can also be removed through the lymphatic system. While the first two methods can remove them from the lung, with lymphatic transport through one-way valves, fibers are removed from the active area of the lung where the fiber-related disease has been shown to develop and can accumulate in lymphatic sumps and lymph nodes. While short asbestos fibers are present in most occupational or environmental exposures, the large body of studies strongly supports that they do not contribute to the health effects of asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2022-08-05

Napoli F, Rapa I, Izzo S, et al (2022)

Correction to: Micro-RNA-215 and -375 regulate thymidylate synthase protein expression in pleural mesothelioma and mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology, 481(2):331.

RevDate: 2022-09-23
CmpDate: 2022-08-05

Dermawan JK, Torrence D, Lee CH, et al (2022)

EWSR1::YY1 fusion positive peritoneal epithelioid mesothelioma harbors mesothelioma epigenetic signature: Report of 3 cases in support of an emerging entity.

Genes, chromosomes & cancer, 61(10):592-602.

Mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive malignant neoplasm of mesothelial origin. A small subset of peritoneal mesothelioma is driven by recurrent gene fusions, mostly EWSR1/FUS::ATF1 fusions, with predilection for young adults. To date, only two cases of mesothelioma harboring EWSR1::YY1 fusions have been described. We present three additional cases of EWSR1::YY1-fused peritoneal mesotheliomas, two localized and one diffuse, all occurring in the peritoneum of middle-aged adults (2 females and 1 male), and discovered incidentally by imaging or during surgery performed for unrelated reasons. None presented with symptoms or had a known history of asbestos exposure. All three cases were cellular epithelioid neoplasms with heterogeneous architectural patterns comprising mostly solid nests and sheets with variably papillary and trabecular areas against collagenous stroma. Cytologically, the cells were monomorphic, polygonal, epithelioid cells with dense eosinophilic cytoplasm and centrally located nuclei. Overt mitotic activity or tumor necrosis was absent. All cases showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for pancytokeratin, CK7, and nuclear WT1, patchy to negative calretinin, retained BAP1 expression, and were negative for Ber-EP4 and MOC31. RNA-sequencing confirmed in-frame gene fusion transcripts involving EWSR1 exon 7/8 and YY1 exon 2/3. By unsupervised clustering analysis, the methylation profiles of EWSR1::YY1-fused mesotheliomas clustered similarly with EWSR1/FUS::ATF1-fused mesotheliomas and conventional mesotheliomas, suggesting a mesothelioma epigenetic signature. All three patients underwent surgical resection or cytoreductive surgery of the masses. On follow-up imaging, no recurrence or progression of disease was identified. Our findings suggest that EWSR1::YY1-fusion defines a small subset of peritoneal epithelioid mesothelioma in middle-aged adults without history of asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Usuda K, Niida Y, Ishikawa M, et al (2022)

Genomics of Tumor Origin and Characteristics for Adenocarcinoma and Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Case Report.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:858094.

A female underwent a right middle lobectomy for a pulmonary adenocarcinoma (AD). She eventually died of a right malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM; sarcomatoid type) 4 years and 7 months after the removal of the AD even though she did not have any history of asbestos exposure, smoking, or radiation exposure. Her chest CT revealed multiple pulmonary nodules and bilateral pleural effusion with a right pleural tumor directly invading into the abdominal cavity. The genomics of tumor origin and characteristics were examined for the AD and the MPM. As a result, 50 somatic variants were detected in the AD, and 29 somatic variants were detected in the MPM. The variants which were common in both the AD and the MPM were not present, which suggested that the AD and the MPM had occurred independently in different origins. The MPM had two driver oncogenes of TP53 and EP300, but the AD did not. Two driver oncogenes of TP53 and EP300 were hypothesized to make the MPM aggressive. The speed at which the MPM progressed without the patient having a history of asbestos exposure, smoking, or radiation exposure was alarming.

RevDate: 2022-09-05
CmpDate: 2022-08-09

Barbieri PG, Consonni D, A Somigliana (2022)

Asbestos Lung Burden Does Not Predict Survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Necropsy-Based Study of 185 Cases.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 17(8):1042-1049.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an asbestos-related disease with poor survival. The prognostic role of histologic subtype is well established. Some studies (without a biological hypothesis) suggested that higher asbestos lung burden is associated with reduced survival.

METHODS: We selected subjects from two series of necropsies: residents in Brescia province (North-West Italy) and workers (or persons living with them) employed in the Monfalcone shipyards (North-East Italy). Asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in lung samples were counted using a scanning electron and an optical microscope, respectively. Separately in the two series, we analyzed median survival time and fitted multivariable Cox regression models (adjusted for sex, period and age at diagnosis, and histopatholocical diagnosis) to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for three levels of asbestos fiber counts (reference: <1 million fibers/g of dry lung tissue).

RESULTS: We analyzed 185 necropsies, 83 in Brescia and 102 in Monfalcone. Despite a much higher lung burden in Monfalcone patients, median survival was slightly shorter in Brescia (8.3 mo) than in Monfalcone (10.2 mo). In Brescia, medium (1.0-9.9) and high (10+) fiber burden HRs were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.54-1.53) and 1.23 (95% CI: 0.41-3.70), respectively. In Monfalcone, the corresponding HRs were 1.18 (95% CI: 0.59-2.35) and 1.63 (95% CI: 0.77-3.45), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: No relationship between asbestos lung burden and survival was found. Histologic subtype was the strongest prognostic determinant.

RevDate: 2022-06-03
CmpDate: 2022-06-03

Tomita R, Nishijo N, Hayama T, et al (2022)

Discrimination of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cell Lines Using Amino Acid Metabolomics with HPLC.

Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, 45(6):724-729.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a malignancy closely associated with asbestos exposure. Although early diagnosis provides a chance of effective treatment and better prognosis, invasive biopsy and cytological procedure are required for definitive diagnosis. In this study, we developed a method to differentiate between MPM and control cell lines, named "amino acid metabolomics," consisting in the assessment of the balance of their amino acid levels in the cell culture medium. Culture media of MESO-1 (MPM cell line) and Met-5A (control) cells were used in this study to evaluate amino acid levels using HPLC, following the fluorescence derivatization method. The time-dependent changes in amino acid levels were visualized on the score plot following principal component analysis, and the results revealed differential changes in amino acid levels between the two cell culture supernatants. A discriminative model based on linear discriminant analysis could distinguish MPM and control cells.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-03

Johnson M, Allmark P, A Tod (2022)

Living beyond expectations: a qualitative study into the experience of long-term survivors with pleural mesothelioma and their carers.

BMJ open respiratory research, 9(1):.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is characterised by poor prognosis and limited treatment options. However, a minority of patients can survive well beyond these bleak estimates. Little is known about the specific experiences and needs of long-term survivors and families.

STUDY PURPOSE: The study aimed to gain in-depth understanding of the experiences of patients diagnosed with MPM 3 or more years, along with their main carer, and to determine the care and support needs of this group.

PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: People diagnosed with MPM 3 or more years were recruited via asbestos and mesothelioma social media and support groups. Potential participants were asked to identify someone who acted as their main carer.

METHOD: The study employed a cross-sectional qualitative interview design. A topic guide aided a conversational interview style, conducted remotely and recorded. Patient and carer pairs were interviewed jointly when possible, but were given an option for separate interviews if preferred. Fifteen patients, with 14 identifying a main carer, consented to participation.

ANALYSIS: Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim, and then anonymised by the interviewer. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data iteratively and to develop final themes.

FINDINGS: Three themes were developed. Participants 'Living beyond expectations' remained acutely aware that MPM was incurable, but developed a range of coping strategies. Periods of disease stability were punctuated with crises of progression or treatment ending, straining coping. 'Accessing treatment' was important for patients and carers, despite the associated challenges. They were aware options were limited, and actively sought new treatments and clinical trials. 'Support needs' were met by healthcare professionals, voluntary groups and social media networks.

CONCLUSIONS: Managing patients via regional MPM multidisciplinary teams, facilitating equal access to treatment and trials, could reduce patient and carer burden. Greater awareness and support around crisis points for this group could improve care.

RevDate: 2022-08-11
CmpDate: 2022-07-14

Taeger D, Wichert K, Lehnert M, et al (2022)

Lung cancer and mesothelioma risks in a prospective cohort of workers with asbestos-related lung or pleural diseases.

American journal of industrial medicine, 65(8):652-659.

BACKGROUND: Asbestos causes mesothelioma and lung cancer. In the European Union, asbestos was banned in 2005, but it is still in use in many other countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the lung cancer and mesothelioma incidence risk of men with benign asbestos-related lung or pleural diseases.

METHODS: Between 2008 and 2018, 2439 male participants of a German surveillance program for asbestos workers were included in the cohort. All participants had a recognized occupational asbestos-related disease of the pleura or lung. We estimated the mesothelioma and lung cancer risks by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).

RESULTS: We observed 64 incident lung cancer and 40 mesothelioma cases in the cohort. An SIR of 17.60 (95% CI: 12.57-23.96) was estimated for mesothelioma and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.98-1.62) for lung cancer. The presence of pleural plaques was associated with a strongly increased risk (SIR: 13.14; 95% CI: 8.51-19.40) for mesothelioma, but not for lung cancer (SIR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.76-1.41). The highest lung-cancer risk (SIR: 2.56; 95% CI 1.10-5.04) was revealed for cohort members with less than 40 years since first asbestos exposure. Lung cancer risks by duration of asbestos exposure did not show a consistent time trend, but for time since last exposure a trend for mesothelioma was seen.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the general population, we demonstrated an association between benign asbestos-related lung or pleural disease and mesothelioma risk in workers with a history of occupational asbestos exposure. Because lung-cancer risk is dominated by smoking habits, a possible effect of asbestos exposure may have been masked. Efforts should be made to ban production and use of asbestos worldwide and to establish safe handling rules of legacy asbestos.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Rhazari M, Moueqqit O, Gartini S, et al (2022)

Unexplained Pleural Effusion Leads to the Revelation of a Malignant Mesothelioma: A Case Report.

Cureus, 14(4):e24478.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive cancer that usually affects subjects with prior asbestos exposure, a major risk factor that has been widely known as carcinogenic, and its use is now controlled if not banned in many areas of the world. Malignant mesothelioma originates from mesothelial surface cells covering the serous cavities, and the pleura is its most common site. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) typically presents with pleural effusion and chest wall pain with wide pleural thickening at radiological investigation. Although the histological examination along with immunohistochemistry helps yield the diagnosis, clinicians and experts face many challenges in diagnosing malignant mesothelioma not only due to the rarity of the disease but also due to the similarities that the disease share with other malignancies. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old male patient with a history of chronic asbestos work exposure for 12 years who initially presented with unexplained pleural effusion and chest wall pain and was lost to follow-up but came back later with a worsening clinical state. This case is specially presented to raise awareness against cases of unexplained pleural effusion and chest pain.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-02

Creaney J, Patch AM, Addala V, et al (2022)

Comprehensive genomic and tumour immune profiling reveals potential therapeutic targets in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Genome medicine, 14(1):58.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a poor overall survival with few treatment options. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) combined with the immune features of MPM offers the prospect of identifying changes that could inform future clinical trials.

METHODS: We analysed somatic mutations from 229 MPM samples, including previously published data and 58 samples that had undergone WGS within this study. This was combined with RNA-seq analysis to characterize the tumour immune environment.

RESULTS: The comprehensive genome analysis identified 12 driver genes, including new candidate genes. Whole genome doubling was a frequent event that correlated with shorter survival. Mutational signature analysis revealed SBS5/40 were dominant in 93% of samples, and defects in homologous recombination repair were infrequent in our cohort. The tumour immune environment contained high M2 macrophage infiltrate linked with MMP2, MMP14, TGFB1 and CCL2 expression, representing an immune suppressive environment. The expression of TGFB1 was associated with overall survival. A small subset of samples (less than 10%) had a higher proportion of CD8 T cells and a high cytolytic score, suggesting a 'hot' immune environment independent of the somatic mutations.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose accounting for genomic and immune microenvironment status may influence therapeutic planning in the future.

RevDate: 2022-09-19
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Porcel JM (2022)

Pleural mesothelioma.

Medicina clinica, 159(5):240-247.

The diagnosis of diffuse pleural mesothelioma requires in most cases a pleural biopsy, performed either under imaging guidance (ultrasound or computed tomography) or thoracoscopy. Loss of BAP1 or MTAP expression (immunohistochemistry) and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (fluorescence in situ hybridization) are the basic molecular markers for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. The histologic type and patient's performance status are the most important prognostic factors. Pleural effusion can be managed by the insertion of tunneled pleural catheters, either as a stand-alone measure (e.g., patients not amenable to multimodality therapy who have been diagnosed by pleural fluid cytology or image-guided biopsy) or combined with the administration of aerosolized talc during a diagnostic thoracoscopy. Immunotherapy is one of the front-line approaches in inoperable patients, particularly in biphasic or sarcomatous histologic varieties.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-02

Principe N, Aston WJ, Hope DE, et al (2022)

Comprehensive Testing of Chemotherapy and Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Preclinical Cancer Models Identifies Additive Combinations.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:872295.

Antibodies that target immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed cell death protein 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) are now a treatment option for multiple cancer types. However, as a monotherapy, objective responses only occur in a minority of patients. Chemotherapy is widely used in combination with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Although a variety of isolated immunostimulatory effects have been reported for several classes of chemotherapeutics, it is unclear which chemotherapeutics provide the most benefit when combined with ICB. We investigated 10 chemotherapies from the main canonical classes dosed at the clinically relevant maximum tolerated dose in combination with anti-CTLA-4/anti-PD-L1 ICB. We screened these chemo-immunotherapy combinations in two murine mesothelioma models from two different genetic backgrounds, and identified chemotherapies that produced additive, neutral or antagonistic effects when combined with ICB. Using flow cytometry and bulk RNAseq, we characterized the tumor immune milieu in additive chemo-immunotherapy combinations. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or cisplatin were additive when combined with ICB while vinorelbine and etoposide provided no additional benefit when combined with ICB. The combination of 5-FU with ICB augmented an inflammatory tumor microenvironment with markedly increased CD8+ T cell activation and upregulation of IFNγ, TNFα and IL-1β signaling. The effective anti-tumor immune response of 5-FU chemo-immunotherapy was dependent on CD8+ T cells but was unaffected when TNFα or IL-1β cytokine signaling pathways were blocked. Our study identified additive and non-additive chemotherapy/ICB combinations and suggests a possible role for increased inflammation in the tumor microenvironment as a basis for effective combination therapy.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Shrestha B, Handa R, Poudel B, et al (2022)

Pericardial Mesothelioma Presenting as Constrictive Pericarditis.

Cureus, 14(4):e24270.

This case report presents a 60-year-old gentleman with a significant smoking history and possible asbestos exposure who was referred to the emergency department for atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular rate and symptoms of heart failure. Labs showed normal brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I. His echocardiography finding suggested constrictive pericarditis with an ejection fraction of 60%. A computed tomography scan was concerning for a pericardial mass. Left and right heart catheterization hinted more toward constrictive physiology; however, some findings were concerning for restrictive physiology. Hence, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was done, which established the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. Pericardiectomy was planned with a maze procedure for atrial fibrillation. However, a malignant neoplasm was seen on a frozen biopsy. Hence, surgery was limited to partial pericardiectomy, as the patient had advanced infiltrative neoplasm that had resulted in constrictive pericarditis. The final pathology report confirmed the diagnosis of malignant pericardial mesothelioma mixed type. Malignancy is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage, like in our case, due to nonspecific initial presentation. A literature review suggests that there is a lack of established consensus on treatment. The response to therapy also seems to be poor and results only in palliation of symptoms, with a median survival of six months from diagnosis despite optimum medical management.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Mielgo-Rubio X, Cardeña Gutiérrez A, Sotelo Peña V, et al (2022)

Tsunami of immunotherapy reaches mesothelioma.

World journal of clinical oncology, 13(4):267-275.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common type of malignant mesothelioma. It is a rare tumor linked to asbestos exposure and is associated with a poor prognosis. Until very recently, patients with advanced or unresectable disease had limited treatment options, primarily based on doublet chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed. In 2020 and 2021, after more than a decade with no major advances or new drugs, two phase III clinical trials published results positioning immunotherapy as a promising option for the first- and second-line treatment of MPM. Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of many cancers and is also showing encouraging results in malignant mesothelioma. Both immune checkpoint inhibition and dual cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed death-ligand 1 pathway blockade resulted in significantly improved overall survival in randomized phase III trials. In the CheckMate 743 trial, first-line therapy with nivolumab plus ipilimumab outperformed standard chemotherapy, while in the CONFIRM trial, nivolumab outperformed placebo in patients previously treated with chemotherapy. These two trials represent a major milestone in the treatment of MPM and are set to position immunotherapy as a viable alternative for treatment-naïve patients and patients with progressive disease after chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Nagamatsu Y, Sakyo Y, Barroga E, et al (2022)

Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Good Death and Quality of End-of-Life Care for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(9):.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients achieved good deaths and good quality of end-of-life care compared with other cancer patients from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was part of a larger study on the achievement of good deaths of MPM patients and the bereavement of their family members. Bereaved family members of MPM patients in Japan (n = 72) were surveyed. The Good Death Inventory (GDI) was used to assess the achievement of good death. The short version of the Care Evaluation Scale (CES) version 2 was used to assess the quality of end-of-life care. The GDI and CES scores of MPM patients were compared with those of a Japanese cancer population from a previous study.

RESULTS: MPM patients failed to achieve good deaths. Only 12.5% of the MPM patients were free from physical pain. The GDI scores of most of the MPM patients were significantly lower than those of the Japanese cancer population. The CES scores indicated a significantly poorer quality of end-of-life care for the MPM patients than the Japanese cancer population. The total GDI and CES scores were correlated (r = 0.55).

CONCLUSIONS: The quality of end-of-life care for MPM patients remains poor. Moreover, MPM patients do not achieve good deaths from the perspective of their bereaved family members.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Holzknecht A, Illini O, Hochmair MJ, et al (2022)

Multimodal Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Real-World Experience with 112 Patients.

Cancers, 14(9):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare pleural cancer associated with asbestos exposure. According to current evidence, the combination of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy improves patients' survival. However, the optimal sequence and weighting of the respective treatment modalities is unclear. In anticipation of the upcoming results of the MARS-2 trial, we sought to determine the relative impact of the respective treatment modalities on complications and overall survival in our own consecutive institutional series of 112 patients. Fifty-seven patients (51%) underwent multimodality therapy with curative intent, while 55 patients (49%) were treated with palliative intent. The median overall survival (OS) of the entire cohort was 16.9 months (95% CI: 13.4-20.4) after diagnosis; 5-year survival was 29% for patients who underwent lung-preserving surgery. In univariate analysis, surgical treatment (p < 0.001), multimodality therapy (p < 0.001), epithelioid subtype (p < 0.001), early tumor stage (p = 0.02) and the absence of arterial hypertension (p = 0.034) were found to be prognostic factors for OS. In multivariate analysis, epithelioid subtype was associated with a survival benefit, whereas the occurrence of complications was associated with worse OS. Multimodality therapy including surgery significantly prolonged the OS of MPM patients compared with multimodal therapy without surgery.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Vidican P, Perol O, Fevotte J, et al (2022)

Frequency of Asbestos Exposure and Histological Subtype of Ovarian Carcinoma.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(9):.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer established a causal link between asbestos exposure and ovarian cancer. However, the exposure frequency and histological characteristics of asbestos-associated ovarian cancers remain to be investigated in detail. This multicenter case-case study assessed the asbestos exposure in ovarian carcinoma (OC) patients, alongside its association with histological subtype. Women were recruited in four hospitals in Lyon, France. Histological reports were reviewed by a pathologist. Patient and family members' data were collected by phone-based questionnaires. Asbestos exposure was defined as direct (occupational and environmental) and indirect (via parents, partners, and children). An industrial hygienist assessed the probability and level of exposure. The 254 enrolled patients (mean age 60 years) reported having an average of 2.3 different jobs (mean working duration 29 years). The prevalence of direct and indirect asbestos exposure was 13% (mean exposure duration 11 years) and 46%, respectively. High-grade serous carcinoma accounted for 73% of all OCs and 82% of histological subtypes in women with direct exposure. After adjustment on a familial history of OC, no significant associations between asbestos exposure (direct and/or indirect) and high-grade serous carcinoma were found. Women with OC had a high prevalence of asbestos exposure. Establishing risk profiles, as reported here, is important in facilitating compensation for asbestos-related OCs and for the surveillance of women at risk.

RevDate: 2022-06-07
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Murphy F, Dekkers S, Braakhuis H, et al (2021)

An integrated approach to testing and assessment of high aspect ratio nanomaterials and its application for grouping based on a common mesothelioma hazard.

NanoImpact, 22:100314.

Here we describe the development of an Integrated Approach to Testing and Assessment (IATA) to support the grouping of different types (nanoforms; NFs) of High Aspect Ratio Nanomaterials (HARNs), based on their potential to cause mesothelioma. Hazards posed by the inhalation of HARNs are of particular concern as they exhibit physical characteristics similar to pathogenic asbestos fibres. The approach for grouping HARNs presented here is part of a framework to provide guidance and tools to group similar NFs and aims to reduce the need to assess toxicity on a case-by-case basis. The approach to grouping is hypothesis-driven, in which the hypothesis is based on scientific evidence linking critical physicochemical descriptors for NFs to defined fate/toxicokinetic and hazard outcomes. The HARN IATA prompts users to address relevant questions (at decision nodes; DNs) regarding the morphology, biopersistence and inflammatory potential of the HARNs under investigation to provide the necessary evidence to accept or reject the grouping hypothesis. Each DN in the IATA is addressed in a tiered manner, using data from simple in vitro or in silico methods in the lowest tier or from in vivo approaches in the highest tier. For these proposed methods we provide justification for the critical descriptors and thresholds that allow grouping decisions to be made. Application of the IATA allows the user to selectively identify HARNs which may pose a mesothelioma hazard, as demonstrated through a literature-based case study. By promoting the use of alternative, non-rodent approaches such as in silico modelling, in vitro and cell-free tests in the initial tiers, the IATA testing strategy streamlines information gathering at all stages of innovation through to regulatory risk assessment while reducing the ethical, time and economic burden of testing.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Martens M, Kreidl F, Ehrhart F, et al (2022)

A Community-Driven, Openly Accessible Molecular Pathway Integrating Knowledge on Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:849640.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive malignancy mainly triggered by exposure to asbestos and characterized by complex biology. A significant body of knowledge has been generated over the decades by the research community which has improved our understanding of the disease toward prevention, diagnostic opportunities and new treatments. Omics technologies are opening for additional levels of information and hypotheses. Given the growing complexity and technological spread of biological knowledge in MPM, there is an increasing need for an integrating tool that may allow scientists to access the information and analyze data in a simple and interactive way. We envisioned that a platform to capture this widespread and fast-growing body of knowledge in a machine-readable and simple visual format together with tools for automated large-scale data analysis could be an important support for the work of the general scientist in MPM and for the community to share, critically discuss, distribute and eventually advance scientific results. Toward this goal, with the support of experts in the field and informed by existing literature, we have developed the first version of a molecular pathway model of MPM in the biological pathway database WikiPathways. This provides a visual and interactive overview of interactions and connections between the most central genes, proteins and molecular pathways known to be involved or altered in MPM. Currently, 455 unique genes and 247 interactions are included, derived after stringent manual curation of an initial 39 literature references. The pathway model provides a directly employable research tool with links to common databases and repositories for the exploration and the analysis of omics data. The resource is publicly available in the WikiPathways database (Wikipathways : WP5087) and continues to be under development and curation by the community, enabling the scientists in MPM to actively participate in the prioritization of shared biological knowledge.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Mazurek JM, Blackley DJ, DN Weissman (2022)

Malignant Mesothelioma Mortality in Women - United States, 1999-2020.

MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 71(19):645-649.

Inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause malignant mesothelioma, a rapidly progressing and lethal cancer of the mesothelium, the thin layer of tissues surrounding internal organs in the chest and abdomen. Patients with malignant mesothelioma have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 1 year from diagnosis. The estimated median interval from initial occupational asbestos exposure to death is 32 years (range = 13-70 years) (1). Occupational asbestos exposure is most often reported in men working in industries such as construction and manufacturing; however, women are also at risk for exposure to asbestos fibers, and limited data exist on longer-term trends in mesothelioma deaths among women. To characterize deaths associated with mesothelioma and temporal trends in mesothelioma mortality among women in the United States, CDC analyzed annual Multiple Cause of Death records from the National Vital Statistics System for 1999-2020, the most recent years for which complete data are available. The annual number of mesothelioma deaths among women increased significantly, from 489 in 1999 to 614 in 2020; however, the age-adjusted death rate per 1 million women declined significantly, from 4.83 in 1999 to 4.15 in 2020. The largest number of deaths was associated with the health care and social assistance industry (89; 15.7%) and homemaker occupation (129; 22.8%). Efforts to limit exposure to asbestos fibers, including among women, need to be maintained.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Li X, Wang D, Liu A, et al (2022)

Epidemiological Characteristics of Occupational Cancers Reported - China, 2006-2020.

China CDC weekly, 4(17):370-373.

Introduction: Occupational cancers are a major threat to workers' health in China. The latest version of the Classification and Catalogue of the Occupational Diseases includes 11 occupational cancers. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of occupational cancers in China reported to the National Occupational Disease Reporting System during 2006-2020.

Methods: Occupational cancers reported during 2016-2020 were obtained from the National Occupational Disease Reporting System. Epidemiological characteristics were analyzed by year, region, industry, gender, age at diagnosis, and exposure duration to occupational hazards.

Results: Overall, a total of 1,116 cases of occupational cancers were reported between 2006 and 2020. The main types reported were leukemia caused by benzene exposure (511, 45.79%), lung cancer caused by coke oven exhaust exposure (266, 23.84%), and lung cancer and mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure (226, 20.25%). There were 6 provincial-level administrative divisions (PLADs) that had reported over 50 new cases in the last 15 years. Most cases (913, 81.18%) were distributed in the manufacturing industry. There were 870 (77.96%) male cases and 246 (22.04%) female cases. The average age at diagnosis of all reported cases was 51.91±15.85 years, and the median exposure duration to occupational hazards was 12 (5.29-23.25) years.

Conclusions: There is a large discrepancy between the high morbidity of occupational cancers and a low number of cases diagnosed and reported cases. Occupational cancers in China may be underestimated, and comprehensive measures should be taken to improve the diagnosis and reporting of occupational cancers.

RevDate: 2022-06-08
CmpDate: 2022-05-26

Anobile DP, Montenovo G, Pecoraro C, et al (2022)

Splicing deregulation, microRNA and notch aberrations: fighting the three-headed dog to overcome drug resistance in malignant mesothelioma.

Expert review of clinical pharmacology, 15(3):305-322.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is an aggressive rare cancer of the mesothelium, associated with asbestos exposure. MMe is currently an incurable disease at all stages mainly due to resistance to treatments. It is therefore necessary to elucidate key mechanisms underlying chemoresistance, in an effort to exploit them as novel therapeutic targets.

AREAS COVERED: Chemoresistance is frequently elicited by microRNA (miRNA) alterations and splicing deregulations. Indeed, several miRNAs, such as miR-29c, have been shown to exert oncogenic or oncosuppressive activity. Alterations in the splicing machinery might also be involved in chemoresistance. Moreover, the Notch signaling pathway, often deregulated in MMe, plays a key role in cancer stem cells formation and self-renewal, leading to drug resistance and relapses.

EXPERT OPINION: The prognosis of MMe in patients varies among different tumors and patient characteristics, and novel biomarkers and therapies are warranted. This work aims at giving an overview of MMe, with a special focus on state-of-the-art treatments and new therapeutic strategies against vulnerabilities emerging from studies on epigenetics factors. Besides, this review is also the first to discuss the interplay between miRNAs and alternative splicing as well as the role of Notch as new promising frontiers to overcome drug resistance in MMe.

RevDate: 2022-08-11
CmpDate: 2022-06-14

Almeida GC, Santos UP, Parente YDM, et al (2022)

Mesothelioma in situ with regressive malignant pleural effusion and an unexpected evolution: A case report.

American journal of industrial medicine, 65(7):620-623.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasm that originates from hyperplasia and metaplasia of the mesothelial cells that cover the pleural cavity. Previous exposure to asbestos is the main risk factor. Since MPM is often diagnosed at an advanced stage with rapid evolution and resistance to treatment, it is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Mesothelioma in situ (MIS) has been postulated as a preinvasive phase of MPM; however, its diagnostic criteria have been defined only recently. Diagnosis of MIS may represent an opportunity for early therapies with better results, but the optimal approach has not been defined thus far. Here, we report on a case of a 74-year-old man with right-sided pleural effusion and a previous history of occupational exposure to asbestos for 9 years who was diagnosed with MIS after a latency of 36 years. During follow-up, spontaneous disease regression was observed 5 months after the initial diagnosis; however, it recurred in the form of invasive epithelioid MPM. There is a paucity of literature on MIS and its evolution; however, our case provides relevant knowledge of this unusual behavior, which is important to define follow-up and therapeutic strategies for future cases.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Malakoti F, Targhazeh N, Abadifard E, et al (2022)

DNA repair and damage pathways in mesothelioma development and therapy.

Cancer cell international, 22(1):176.

Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is an aggressive neoplasm that occurs through the transformation of mesothelial cells. Asbestos exposure is the main risk factor for MMe carcinogenesis. Other important etiologies for MMe development include DNA damage, over-activation of survival signaling pathways, and failure of DNA damage response (DDR). In this review article, first, we will describe the most important signaling pathways that contribute to MMe development and their interaction with DDR. Then, the contribution of DDR failure in MMe progression will be discussed. Finally, we will review the latest MMe therapeutic strategies that target the DDR pathway.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Kambara T, Amatya VJ, Kushitani K, et al (2022)

Downregulation of FTL decreases proliferation of malignant mesothelioma cells by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest.

Oncology letters, 23(6):174.

Pleural malignant mesothelioma is a malignant tumor with a poor prognosis that is strongly associated with asbestos exposure during its development. Because there is no adequate treatment for malignant mesothelioma, investigation of its molecular mechanism is important. The ferritin light chain (FTL) is a subunit of ferritin, and its high expression in malignant tumors, including malignant mesothelioma, has recently been reported; however, its role in malignant mesothelioma is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the function of FTL in malignant mesothelioma. The expression levels of FTL in malignant mesothelioma were examined using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database and our previous data. The short interfering (si)RNA against FTL was transfected into two mesothelioma cell lines, ACC-MESO-1 and CRL-5915, and functional analysis was performed. Expression of p21, p27, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb) associated with the cell cycle were examined as candidate genes associated with FTL. The expression levels of the FTL mRNA were higher in malignant mesothelioma compared with other tumors in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database, and among other genes in our previous study. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting demonstrated suppression of FTL expression in two cell lines transfected with FTL siRNA compared with cells transfected with negative control (NC) siRNA. In the two cell lines transfected with FTL siRNA, proliferation was significantly suppressed, and cell cycle arrest was observed in the G1 phase. The levels of p21 and p27 were increased, while those of CDK2 and pRb were decreased compared with NC. However, no significant differences in invasion and migration ability were revealed between FTL siRNA-transfected cells and NC. In conclusion, FTL may increase the proliferative capacity of malignant mesothelioma cells by affecting p21, p27, CDK2 and pRb, and promoting the cell cycle at the G1 phase.

RevDate: 2022-09-05
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Louw A, Panou V, Szejniuk WM, et al (2022)

BAP1 Loss by Immunohistochemistry Predicts Improved Survival to First-Line Platinum and Pemetrexed Chemotherapy for Patients With Pleural Mesothelioma: A Validation Study.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 17(7):921-930.

INTRODUCTION: Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is an aggressive malignancy with no identified predictive biomarkers. We assessed whether tumor BAP1 status is a predictive biomarker for survival in patients receiving first-line combination platinum and pemetrexed therapy.

METHODS: PM cases (n = 114) from Aalborg, Denmark, were stained for BAP1 on tissue microarrays. Demographic, clinical, and survival data were extracted from registries and medical records. Surgical cases were excluded. BAP1 status was associated with overall survival (OS) by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier methods. Results were validated in an independent cohort from Perth, Australia (n = 234).

RESULTS: BAP1 loss was found in 62% and 60.3% of all Danish and Australian samples, respectively. BAP1 loss was an independent predictor of OS in multivariate analyses corrected for histological subtype, performance status, age, sex, and treatment (hazard ratio = 2.49, p < 0.001, and 1.48, p = 0.01, respectively). First-line platinum and pemetrexed-treated patients with BAP1 loss had significantly longer median survival than those with retained BAP1 in both the Danish (20.1 versus 7.3 mo, p < 0.001) and Australian cohorts (19.6 versus 11.1 mo, p < 0.01). Survival in patients with BAP1 retained and treated with platinum and pemetrexed was similar as in those with best supportive care. There was a higher OS in patients with best supportive care with BAP1 loss, but it was significant only in the Australian cohort (16.8 versus 8.3 mo, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: BAP1 is a predictive biomarker for survival after first-line combination platinum and pemetrexed chemotherapy and a potential prognostic marker in PM. BAP1 in tumor is a promising clinical tool for treatment stratification.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Maghin F, Antonietti A, Cerri N, et al (2022)

Assessment protocol of mesothelioma and relevance of SEM-EDS analysis through a case studies of legal medicine of Brescia (Italy).

Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 57:102076.

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates the assessment protocol that allows the correlation between the development of mesothelioma to a specific exposure, with particular focus on investigations with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy.

METHODS: This retrospective study includes 80 subjects who died from mesothelioma in the period 2001-2019. A judicial autopsy was performed for each case to confirm cause of death and correlate the disease with specific asbestos exposure. In 28 cases investigations were carried out to determine the pulmonary load of the asbestos fibres and corpuscles in the lung tissue through microscopic investigations, in order to confirm the suspicion of occupational exposure.

RESULTS: Our data agree with the scientific literature reported, but it is interesting to underline how the present study uses a different systematic approach than others, which are mainly based on epidemiological and environmental studies without considering the lung content of fibres and corpuscles.

CONCLUSION: It would be desirable that the use of the microscopic analysis was introduced in the evaluation protocol: it should always be carried out if the suspicion of asbestos-related disease is raised and not only as a possible integration to the less expensive anamnestic evaluation, even more so if the work or personal history should be suggestive of exposure to asbestos fibres.

RevDate: 2022-08-11

Carbone M, Pass HI, Ak G, et al (2022)

Medical and Surgical Care of Patients With Mesothelioma and Their Relatives Carrying Germline BAP1 Mutations.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 17(7):873-889.

The most common malignancies that develop in carriers of BAP1 germline mutations include diffuse malignant mesothelioma, uveal and cutaneous melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and less frequently, breast cancer, several types of skin carcinomas, and other tumor types. Mesotheliomas in these patients are significantly less aggressive, and patients require a multidisciplinary approach that involves genetic counseling, medical genetics, pathology, surgical, medical, and radiation oncology expertise. Some BAP1 carriers have asymptomatic mesothelioma that can be followed by close clinical observation without apparent adverse outcomes: they may survive many years without therapy. Others may grow aggressively but very often respond to therapy. Detecting BAP1 germline mutations has, therefore, substantial medical, social, and economic impact. Close monitoring of these patients and their relatives is expected to result in prolonged life expectancy, improved quality of life, and being cost-effective. The co-authors of this paper are those who have published the vast majority of cases of mesothelioma occurring in patients carrying inactivating germline BAP1 mutations and who have studied the families affected by the BAP1 cancer syndrome for many years. This paper reports our experience. It is intended to be a source of information for all physicians who care for patients carrying germline BAP1 mutations. We discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic and treatment challenges, and our recommendations of how to best care for these patients and their family members, including the potential economic and psychosocial impact.

RevDate: 2022-09-15
CmpDate: 2022-08-03

Napoli F, Rapa I, Izzo S, et al (2022)

Micro-RNA-215 and -375 regulate thymidylate synthase protein expression in pleural mesothelioma and mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology, 481(2):233-244.

The standard front-line treatment for pleural mesothelioma (PM) is pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, whose major target is thymidylate synthase (TS). In several cancer models, miR-215 and miR-375 have been shown to target TS, while information on these miRNAs in PM are still limited although suggest their role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Seventy-one consecutive PM tissues (4 biphasic, 7 sarcomatoid, and 60 epithelioid types) and 16 commercial and patient-derived PM cell lines were screened for TS, miR-215, and miR-375 expression. REN and 570B cells were selected for miR-215 and miR-375 transient transfections to test TS modulation. ZEB1 protein expression in tumor samples was also tested. Moreover, genetic profile was investigated by means of BAP1 and p53 immunohistochemistry. Expression of both miR-215 and miR-375 was significantly higher in epithelioid histotype. Furthermore, inverse correlation between TS protein and both miR-215 and miR-375 expression was found. Efficiently transfected REN and 570B cell lines overexpressing miR-215 and miR-375 showed decreased TS protein levels. Epithelioid PM with a mesenchymal component highlighted by reticulin stain showed significantly higher TS and ZEB1 protein and lower miRNA expression. A better survival was recorded for BAP1 lost/TS low cases. Our data indicate that miR-215 and miR-375 are involved in TS regulation as well as in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in PM.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-04-22

Ziółkowska B, Cybulska-Stopa B, Papantoniou D, et al (2022)

Systemic treatment in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma - real life experience.

BMC cancer, 22(1):432.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, aggressive malignancy of the pleural cavity linked to asbestos exposure. The combination of pemetrexed and platinum is a standard first-line therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Despite some progress, almost all MPM patients experience progression after first-line therapy. The second-line treatment is still being under discussion and there are very limited data available on the second-line and subsequent treatments.

METHODS: The retrospective analysis included 57 patients (16 females and 41 males) from two Polish oncological institutions treated for advanced mesothelioma between 2013 and 2019. We analysed the efficacy of first-line and second-line therapy: progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR).

RESULTS: In the first-line treatment, 55 patients received pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (PBC) and two cisplatin in monotherapy. Patients' characteristics at baseline: median age was 64.2 years, ECOG PS ≤ 1 (86.2%), epithelial histology (85.7%). Median PFS and OS were 7.6 months and 14 months, respectively. Patients with ECOG PS ≤ 1 vs > 1 had a longer median OS (14.8 months vs 9.7 months, p = 0.057). One-year OS and PFS were 60.9% and 32.0%, respectively. Disease control rate (DCR) was 82.5%. Response to first-line therapy: PFS ≥ 6 months and PFS ≥ 12 months had a significant impact on median OS. Twelve patients received second-line therapy (seven PBC and five other cytotoxic single agents: navelbine, gemcitabine, or adriamycin/vincristine/methotrexate triplet). Median PFS and OS were 3.7 months and 7.2 months, respectively. DCR was 83%. One-year OS and PFS were 37% and 16.7%, respectively. In the group receiving PBC, OS was prolonged by 4.5 months compared to the non-PBC group (6.0 months vs 10.5 months, p = 0.47).

CONCLUSION: Patients who benefited from first-line therapy and had prolonged PFS at first-line and achieve PFS longer than 6 months at first-line should be offered second-line treatment. Consideration of retreatment with the same cytotoxic agent could to be a viable option when no other treatment are available.

RevDate: 2022-04-21
CmpDate: 2022-04-21

Jin MY, ZQ Jiang (2022)

[Research progress on the role of lncRNA in the occurrence and development of malignant mesothelioma].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 40(3):231-235.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a long latency, poor prognosis and asbestos exposure related malignant disease. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a kind of RNA with a length of more than 200 nucleotides that does not encode protein. It plays an important role in epigenetic regulation, cell cycle regulation and cell differentiation regulation. Recent studies have shown that the abnormal expression or function of lncRNA is closely related to the diagnosis and prognosis of MM. In this paper, the lncRNA research on MM is reviewed to better understand the role of lncRNA in MM.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Robinson BWS, Redwood AJ, J Creaney (2022)

How Our Continuing Studies of the Pre-clinical Inbred Mouse Models of Mesothelioma Have Influenced the Development of New Therapies.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:858557.

Asbestos-induced preclinical mouse models of mesothelioma produce tumors that are very similar to those that develop in humans and thus represent an ideal platform to study this rare, universally fatal tumor type. Our team and a number of other research groups have established such models as a stepping stone to new treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and other approaches that have been/are being translated into clinical trials. In some cases this work has led to changes in mesothelioma treatment practice and over the last 30 years these models and studies have led to trials which have improved the response rate in mesothelioma from less than 10% to over 50%. Mouse models have had a vital role in that improvement and will continue to play a key role in the future success of mesothelioma immunotherapy. In this review we focus only on these original inbred mouse models, the large number of preclinical studies conducted using them and their contribution to current and future clinical therapy for mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-04-12

Dawson AG, Kutywayo K, Mohammed SB, et al (2022)

Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review.

Thorax pii:thoraxjnl-2021-218214 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Cytoreductive surgery has been used a part of multimodality treatment in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The residual microscopic disease that remains will lead to disease progression in the majority of patients. Delivery of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy at the time of surgery has been used to address this microscopic disease, however it's effect and place in the multimodality treatment sphere is unknown. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of surgery and hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy in patients with MPM on overall survival and disease-free interval.

METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from database inception through to June 2021. Studies reporting overall survival and/or disease-free interval in patients with MPM undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy were considered. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A narrative review was performed.

RESULTS: Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion comprising 598 patients. Surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy was associated with a median overall survival and disease-free interval ranging from 11 to 75 months and 7.2 to 57 months, respectively. These appeared to be superior to patients not receiving hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (overall survival: 5-36 months and disease-free interval: 12.1-21 months). A higher dose of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy was associated with an improvement in overall survival compared with a lower dose: 18-31 months versus 6-18 months, respectively. The most common morbidity was atrial fibrillation followed by renal complications.

CONCLUSION: Surgery with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy offers a safe and effective therapy with an improvement in disease-free interval and overall survival, particularly when hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy is administered at a higher dose.


RevDate: 2022-05-11
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Berry TA, Belluso E, Vigliaturo R, et al (2022)

Asbestos and Other Hazardous Fibrous Minerals: Potential Exposure Pathways and Associated Health Risks.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(7):.

There are six elongate mineral particles (EMPs) corresponding to specific dimensional and morphological criteria, known as asbestos. Responsible for health issues including asbestosis, and malignant mesothelioma, asbestos has been well researched. Despite this, significant exposure continues to occur throughout the world, potentially affecting 125 million people in the workplace and causing thousands of deaths annually from exposure in homes. However, there are other EMPS, such as fibrous/asbestiform erionite, that are classified as carcinogens and have been linked to cancers in areas where it has been incorporated into local building materials or released into the environment through earthmoving activities. Erionite is a more potent carcinogen than asbestos but as it is seldom used for commercial purposes, exposure pathways have been less well studied. Despite the apparent similarities between asbestos and fibrous erionite, their health risks and exposure pathways are quite different. This article examines the hazards presented by EMPs with a particular focus on fibrous erionite. It includes a discussion of the global locations of erionite and similar hazardous minerals, a comparison of the multiple exposure pathways for asbestos and fibrous erionite, a brief discussion of the confusing nomenclature associated with EMPs, and considerations of increasing global mesothelioma cases.

RevDate: 2022-04-19
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Henzi T, Diep KL, Oberson A, et al (2022)

Forchlorfenuron and Novel Analogs Cause Cytotoxic Effects in Untreated and Cisplatin-Resistant Malignant Mesothelioma-Derived Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(7):.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a currently incurable, aggressive cancer derived from mesothelial cells, most often resulting from asbestos exposure. The current first-line treatment in unresectable MM is cisplatin/pemetrexed, which shows very little long-term effectiveness, necessitating research for novel therapeutic interventions. The existing chemotherapies often act on the cytoskeleton, including actin filaments and microtubules, but recent advances indicate the 'fourth' form consisting of the family of septins, representing a novel target. The septin inhibitor forchlorfenuron (FCF) and FCF analogs inhibit MM cell growth in vitro, but at concentrations which are too high for clinical applications. Based on the reported requirement of the chloride group in the 2-position of the pyridine ring of FCF for MM cell growth inhibition and cytotoxicity, we systematically investigated the importance (cell growth-inhibiting capacity) of the halogen atoms fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine in the 2- or 3-position of the pyridine ring. The MM cell lines ZL55, MSTO-211H, and SPC212, and-as a control-immortalized Met-5A mesothelial cells were used. The potency of the various halogen substitutions in FCF was mostly correlated with the atom size (covalent radius); the small fluoride analogs showed the least effect, while the largest one (iodide) most strongly decreased the MTT signals, in particular in MM cells derived from epithelioid MM. In the latter, the strongest effects in vitro were exerted by the 2-iodo and, unexpectedly, the 2-trifluoromethyl (2-CF3) FCF analogs, which were further tested in vivo in mice. However, FCF-2-I and, more strongly, FCF-2-CF3 caused rapidly occurring strong symptoms of systemic toxicity at doses lower than those previously obtained with FCF. Thus, we investigated the effectiveness of FCF (and selected analogs) in vitro in MM cells which were first exposed to cisplatin. The slowly appearing population of cisplatin-resistant cells was still susceptible to the growth-inhibiting/cytotoxic effect of FCF and its analogs, indicating that cisplatin and FCF target non-converging pathways in MM cells. Thus, a combination therapy of cisplatin and FCF (analogs) might represent a new avenue for the treatment of repopulating chemo-resistant MM cells in this currently untreatable cancer.

RevDate: 2022-04-13

Tilsed CM, Casey TH, de Jong E, et al (2022)

Retinoic Acid Induces an IFN-Driven Inflammatory Tumour Microenvironment, Sensitizing to Immune Checkpoint Therapy.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:849793.

With immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) having reshaped the treatment of many cancers, the next frontier is to identify and develop novel combination therapies to improve efficacy. Previously, we and others identified beneficial immunological effects of the vitamin A derivative tretinoin on anti-tumour immunity. Although it is known that tretinoin preferentially depletes myeloid derived suppressor cells in blood, little is known about the effects of tretinoin on the tumour microenvironment, hampering the rational design of clinical trials using tretinoin in combination with ICT. Here, we aimed to identify how tretinoin changed the tumour microenvironment in mouse tumour models, using flow cytometry and RNAseq, and we sought to use that information to establish optimal dosing and scheduling of tretinoin in combination with several ICT antibodies in multiple cancer models. We found that tretinoin rapidly induced an interferon dominated inflammatory tumour microenvironment, characterised by increased CD8+ T cell infiltration. This phenotype completely overlapped with the phenotype that was induced by ICT itself, and we confirmed that the combination further amplified this inflammatory milieu. The addition of tretinoin significantly improved the efficacy of anti-CTLA4/anti-PD-L1 combination therapy, and staggered scheduling was more efficacious than concomitant scheduling, in a dose-dependent manner. The positive effects of tretinoin could be extended to ICT antibodies targeting OX40, GITR and CTLA4 monotherapy in multiple cancer models. These data show that tretinoin induces an interferon driven, CD8+ T cell tumour microenvironment that is responsive to ICT.

RevDate: 2022-07-07
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Nakashima K, Sakai Y, Hoshino H, et al (2022)

Sulfated Glycans Recognized by S1 Monoclonal Antibody can Serve as a Diagnostic Marker for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Lung, 200(3):339-346.

PURPOSE: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a malignant neoplasm of the pleura caused by asbestos exposure. For diagnosis of MPM, immunohistochemistry using multiple markers is recommended to rule out differential diagnoses, such as pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, the specificity of currently used markers is not fully satisfactory. We previously developed a monoclonal antibody named S1, which recognizes 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis x, an L-selectin ligand expressed on high endothelial venules. During the screening process, we discovered that this antibody stained normal pleural mesothelium. This finding prompted us to hypothesize that the epitope recognized by S1 might serve as a new diagnostic marker for MPM.

METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we immunostained human MPM (n = 22) and lung adenocarcinoma (n = 25) tissues using S1 antibody.

RESULTS: 77.3% of MPM were S1 positive, and if limited to epithelioid type, the positivity rate was 100%, while that of lung adenocarcinoma was only 36.0%. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the S1 positivity rate between each disease. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry using a series of anti-carbohydrate antibodies combined with glycosidase digestion revealed the structure of sulfated glycans expressed in MPM to be 6-sulfo sialyl N-acetyllactosamine attached to core 2-branched O-glycans.

CONCLUSION: We propose that the S1 glycoepitope could serve as a new diagnostic marker for MPM.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-05-03

Cameron JK, Aitken J, Reid A, et al (2022)

Geographic distribution of malignant mesothelioma incidence and survival in Australia.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 167:17-24.

OBJECTIVES: To understand the geographic distribution of and area-level factors associated with malignant mesothelioma incidence and survival in Australia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Generalised linear models and Bayesian spatial models were fitted using population registry data. Area-level covariates were socioeconomic quintile, remoteness category and state or territory. The maximised excess events test was used to test for spatial heterogeneity.

RESULTS: There was strong evidence of spatial differences in standardised incidence rates for malignant mesothelioma but survival was uniformly poor. Incidence rates varied by state or territory and were lower in remote areas. Patterns in the geographic distribution of modelled incidence counts for malignant mesothelioma differed substantially from patterns of standardised incidence rates.

CONCLUSIONS: Geographic variation in the modelled incidence counts of malignant mesothelioma demonstrates varying demand for diagnostic and management services. The long latency period for this cancer coupled with migration complicates any associations with patterns of exposure, however some of the geographic distribution of diagnoses can be explained by the location of historical mines and asbestos-related industries.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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