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26 Mar 2019 at 01:51
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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Mar 2019 at 01:51 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: asbestos AND mesothelioma NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-03-22

Punatar CB, Jadhav KK, Kumar V, et al (2019)

Malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis without any risk factors: An uncommon case.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 15(Supplement):S167-S169.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) of the tunica vaginalis (TV) is a rare tumor. It is seen in elderly patients, with painless scrotal swelling being the most common presentation. The exact etiology is unknown; a few risk factors have been suggested. Here, we present an uncommon case of MM of TV without any known predisposing factors. We also discuss the possible risk factors, clinical presentation, pathological features and the difficulties in diagnosis, and management of this rare malignancy.

RevDate: 2019-03-20

Levpuscek K, Goricar K, Kovac V, et al (2019)

The influence of genetic variability of DNA repair mechanisms on the risk of malignant mesothelioma.

Radiology and oncology pii:/j/raon.ahead-of-print/raon-2019-0016/raon-2019-0016.xml [Epub ahead of print].

Background Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare aggressive tumour of mesothelium caused by asbestos exposure. It has been suggested that the genetic variability of proteins involved in DNA repair mechanisms affects the risk of MM. This study investigated the influence of functional polymorphisms in ERCC1 and XRCC1 genes, the interactions between these polymorphisms as well as the interactions between these polymorphisms and asbestos exposure on MM risk. Patients and methods In total, 237 cases with MM and 193 controls with no asbestos-related disease were genotyped for ERCC1 and XRCC1 polymorphisms. Results ERCC1 rs3212986 polymorphism was significantly associated with a decreased risk of MM (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41-0.91; p = 0.014). No associations were observed between other genetic polymorphisms and MM risk. Interactions between polymorphisms did not significantly influence MM risk. Interaction between ERCC1 rs11615 and asbestos exposure significantly influenced MM risk (OR = 3.61; 95% CI = 1.12-11.66; p = 0.032). Carriers of polymorphic ERCC1 rs11615 allele who were exposed to low level of asbestos had a decreased risk of MM (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.19-0.84; p = 0.016). Interactions between other polymorphisms and asbestos exposure did not significantly influence MM risk. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the genetic variability of DNA repair mechanisms could contribute to the risk of developing MM.

RevDate: 2019-03-20

Dragani TA, Colombo F, Pavlisko EN, et al (2019)

Malignant mesothelioma diagnosed at a younger age is associated with heavier asbestos exposure.

Carcinogenesis pii:5404836 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-03-20

Wang Y, Jiang Z, Yan J, et al (2019)

HMGB1 as a Potential Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Malignant Mesothelioma.

Disease markers, 2019:4183157.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare, aggressive, and highly lethal cancer that is substantially induced by exposure to asbestos fibers. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an intriguing proinflammatory molecule involved in MM. In this review, we describe the possible crucial roles of HMGB1 in carcinogenic mechanisms based on in vivo and in vitro experimental evidence and outline the clinical findings of epidemiological investigations regarding the possible roles of HMGB1 as a biomarker for MM. We conclude that novel strategies targeting HMGB1 may suppress MM cells and interfere with asbestos-induced inflammation.

RevDate: 2019-03-20
CmpDate: 2019-02-19

Chellini E, Battisti F, Pellegri M, et al (2018)

[Health surveillance programme for workers with past asbestos exposure in Tuscany Region (Central Italy)].

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 42(2):171-177.

Asbestos-related diseases are characterized by a long latency time since exposure. This accounts for a health surveillance programme addressed to asbestos workers to be performed for decades after the cessation of occupational exposure. We describe the health surveillance programme for former asbestos-exposed workers in Tuscany Region (Central Italy), with particular attention to organization and related critical issues. The Deliberation of the Regional Administration of Tuscany (No. 396/2016) supports the programme, defined by a regional group of experts, and defines the public health services where the programme has to be implemented. The programme activities are classified in two levels: a first level for a basic health evaluation and a second level for in-depth analyses. The former asbestos workers, aged less than 80 years and with cessation of occupational asbestos exposure in the last 30 years, that might be included free of charge in the programme are about 5.600. The funds assigned to develop the programme from 2016 to 2024 were 2,044,808 euros. The Regional Administration of Tuscany decided to offer and guarantee a homogeneous programme in the whole region. The identification of a specific public health programme and the cooperation of social stakeholders, defined with specific regional agreements, might facilitate to overcome the problems which are still open, such as a broaden invitation to adhere to the programme, an extended knowledge on the service, and the application of a similar health programme for still-working former asbestos workers.

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Hino O, Abe M, Han B, et al (2019)

In Commemoration of the 2018 Mataro Nagayo Prize - A road to early diagnosis and monitoring of asbestos-related mesothelioma.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

Primarily caused by exposure to asbestos, mesothelioma is a typical occupational disease. The latency of mesothelioma is as long as 20-40 years, and the cancer initially progresses mainly along the surfaces of pleura or peritoneum without forming masses. Since the symptoms won't develop until late stages, it has been challenging to diagnose this disease in its early stages and to perform complete surgical removal. In responding to Japan's asbestos crisis in the mid-2000s, we've developed and improved ERC/MSLN-based serum and radiological markers and pioneered the use of an N-ERC ELISA kit for screening populations at risk for asbestos exposures. In this paper, we'll review our research toward early diagnosis of asbestos-related mesothelioma before symptoms develop and share our clinical experience of screening, diagnosing and monitoring of this disease. This paper is dedicated to the author (Dr. Okio Hino) to commemorate the honor bestowed upon him as the recipient of the Mataro Nagayo Prize in 2018. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Jeffery E, Lee YCG, Newton RU, et al (2019)

Body composition and nutritional status in malignant pleural mesothelioma: implications for activity levels and quality of life.

European journal of clinical nutrition pii:10.1038/s41430-019-0418-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an incurable cancer and optimizing daily physical activity and quality of life are key goals of patient management. Little is known about the prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and malnutrition in MPM or their associations with patient outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and malnutrition in MPM and investigate if activity levels and quality of life differed according to body composition and nutritional status.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of MPM were recruited. Pre-sarcopenia was defined as low appendicular skeletal muscle mass (≤ 7.26 kg/m2 for men and ≤ 5.45 kg/m2 for women), measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Malnutrition was defined as a rating of B or C on the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment. Outcome measures included objective activity levels (Actigraph GT3X) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy General).

RESULTS: Sixty-one people participated (79% male, median age 69 [IQR 62-74] years and median BMI 25.8 [IQR 24.3-28.4] kg/m2). Fifty-four percent were pre-sarcopenic and 38% were malnourished. Percent of time spent in light activity/day was lower in participants with pre-sarcopenia compared with non-sarcopenic participants (median 25.4 [IQR 19.8-32.1]% vs. 32.3 [27.1-35.6]%; p = 0.008). Participants with malnutrition had poorer HRQoL than well-nourished participants (mean 69.0 (16.3) vs. 84.4 (13.3); p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Participants with MPM had high rates of pre-sarcopenia and malnutrition. Pre-sarcopenia was associated with poorer activity levels, whilst malnutrition was associated with poorer quality of life. Interventions that aim to address reduced muscle mass and weight loss, should be tested in MPM to assess their impact on patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2019-03-19

Ahmadzada T, Lee K, Clarke C, et al (2019)

High BIN1 expression has a favorable prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma and is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 130:35-41.

OBJECTIVES: A number of key immune regulators show prognostic value in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but the association between Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1), indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and patient outcome has not been investigated. We aimed to determine the expression of BIN1 and IDO1, their association with other markers and impact on overall survival (OS) in MPM.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of BIN1, IDO1, CD3, CD20 and CD68 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 67 patients who underwent pleurectomy/decortication. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan Meier method and significant biomarkers were entered into a Cox Regression multivariate model, accounting for known prognostic factors such as age, gender, histological subtype, PD-L1 expression and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

RESULTS: Immune markers were variably expressed in tumor cells, ranging from 0% to 100% for BIN1 (median: 89%), and 0% to 77.5% for IDO1 (median: 0%). Expression of markers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and macrophages ranged from 0% to more than 50%. BIN1 expression was high in 35 patients (51%) and was associated with increased OS (median: 12 vs 6 months for high and low BIN1 respectively,p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed BIN1 remained an independent prognostic indicator (HR 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.82, p = 0.01). The majority of patients had immune inflamed tumors (77%) and there was a significant association between TILs and BIN1 (p = 0 < 0.01), PD-L1 (p=0.04) and CD68+ macrophages in the tumor (p < 0.01). There were no significant associations between PD-L1 and BIN1 or IDO1.

CONCLUSION: High BIN1 expression is a favorable prognostic biomarker and is associated with TILs in MPM.

RevDate: 2019-03-18

Nakai T, Matsumoto Y, Sasada S, et al (2019)

Cryobiopsy during flex-rigid pleuroscopy: an emerging alternative biopsy method in malignant pleural mesothelioma. A comparative study of pathology.

Japanese journal of clinical oncology pii:5382377 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is rarely an asbestos-related cancer with a poor prognosis that is difficult to distinguish from some benign conditions by using conventional biopsy techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a novel biopsy technique using a cryoprobe during flex-rigid pleuroscopy for diagnosing MPM.

METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent pleural cryobiopsy during flex-rigid pleuroscopy from June through November 2017 to diagnose the cause of pleural effusion were collected. From these, cases ultimately diagnosed as MPM were selected. Pleural biopsies were performed by using conventional instruments followed by a cryoprobe. The obtained samples were histologically examined and compared with regard to the quality (sample size, tissue depth, and crush rate), immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, and p16 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

RESULTS: In total, five patients ultimately diagnosed as MPM were enrolled. The sample collected was significantly larger for cryobiopsy than conventional biopsy (18.9 mm2 vs. 6.7 mm2, P < 0.001). Full-thickness biopsies were achieved in four cases by using cryobiopsy compared with one case by conventional biopsy. Moreover, the crush rate was significantly less for cryobiopsy than conventional biopsy (9% vs. 35%, P < 0.001). The results of IHC staining and p16 by FISH were similar between biopsy techniques. Cryobiopsy successfully led to accurate diagnosis of MPM in all cases, whereas conventional biopsy was diagnostic in one case. No severe complications developed after either biopsy technique.

CONCLUSION: Cryobiopsy during flex-rigid pleuroscopy is a feasible and convenient biopsy technique that supports precise diagnosis of MPM.

RevDate: 2019-03-18

Miyata T, Fujiwara Y, Nishijima K, et al (2019)

Localized multiple malignant epithelioid peritoneal mesotheliomas arising from the hepatoduodenal ligament and diaphragm: a case report.

Journal of medical case reports, 13(1):66 pii:10.1186/s13256-019-2008-9.

BACKGROUND: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare aggressive tumor of the peritoneum. We report a rare case of resection of multiple localized malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because liver tumors were detected by abdominal ultrasonography during a screening examination. Blood examination findings, including tumor makers, were within normal ranges. She had no evidence of exposure to asbestos. Computed tomography showed four hypervascular, round liver tumors, one in the lateral liver segment adjacent to the hepatic hilus, and the other three on the liver surface. Computed tomography angiography revealed that the tumor in the lateral segment had strong enhancement and was fed from the left gastric artery. In contrast, the other tumors showed no enhancement, and were fed from the right inferior phrenic artery. Abnormal accumulation was identified in the four tumors only with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. It was very difficult to obtain a definitive preoperative diagnosis, but surgical resection was performed because we considered potential malignancy. Laparotomy revealed the principal site of the tumor in the lateral segment was on the hepatoduodenal ligament, and all other tumors were on the diaphragm. A left lobectomy and partial diaphragmatic resection were performed. The final pathological diagnosis was multiple malignant epithelioid mesotheliomas. Our patient has had no recurrence for 20 months postoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS: In general, malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas are classified as diffuse tumors, which are often unresectable and have a poor prognosis. However, early diagnosis and treatment, particularly with the localized type, as in our patient, could lead to long-term survival of the patient. We recommend that multiple malignant epithelioid mesotheliomas be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with subcapsular hepatic tumors.

RevDate: 2019-03-15

Hutter HP, Waldhoer T, Müller K, et al (2019)

Cancer incidence in an Austrian alpine valley 1983-2012 : A descriptive study.

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift pii:10.1007/s00508-019-1476-7 [Epub ahead of print].

After one of Austria's largest environmental scandals in 2014, which involved the release of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the Carinthian valley Görtschitztal, concerns about increased cancer rates have arísen in the affected local population. A descriptive study was conducted to examine the cancer incidence rates between 1983 and 2012. Data from the affected area (Görtschitztal, district St. Veit) were compared to data from the neighboring area within the same district and Carinthia excluding St. Veit, considering incidence rates of liver, lung, kidney, thyroid cancer and mesothelioma. Prostate cancer and carcinoma in situ were both included and excluded from overall cancer incidents in order to prevent potential bias due to screening programs. Considering the observed variability at an overall level, no conspicuous differences in cancer incidences could be found (Carinthia: 495, St. Veit West: 408, St. Veit East: 572 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2012). For some cancer types, e. g. liver, thyroid cancer and mesothelioma, the affected region showed a higher increase in rates than the neighboring area or Carinthia overall; however, these increased rates date back to a time prior to the HCB exposure, suggesting other carcinogenic influences, such as asbestos exposure from antecedent years.

RevDate: 2019-03-15

Poland CA, R Duffin (2019)

The toxicology of chrysotile-containing brake debris: implications for mesothelioma.

Critical reviews in toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

The global use of "asbestos" in various commercial products has led to a wide range and pervasive legacy of disease. One such use of chrysotile asbestos was brake pads and was utilized commonly in automobiles and heavy vehicles. The result of incorporation of chrysotile into brake pads is associated with the exposure of mechanics fitting and servicing vehicles to liberated chrysotile fibers. Despite the proven exposure, the relative risk of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in this occupational population is broadly seen as low. The toxicity of particulates, including fibers such as chrysotile, is driven by a combination of dose and physicochemical properties. As such, it is plausible that chrysotile released from brake pads may have undergone modification, thereby altering the pathogenicity profile. The impact of high sheer stress causing shortening of long fibers, heat modification, binding of resin matrix to the fiber surface on the relative toxicity of brake debris with regards to MM is considered. It is apparent that released chrysotile can undergo significant modification, reducing the long fiber dose although not all modifications may lead to reduced toxicity.

RevDate: 2019-03-15

Baqui AA, Boire NA, Baqui TT, et al (2019)

Malignant Mesothelioma of the Tunica Vaginalis Testis-A Malignancy Associated With Asbestos Exposure and Trauma: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Journal of investigative medicine high impact case reports, 7:2324709619827335.

In this article, we report an unusual case of a malignant mesothelioma of the testis, presenting as hydrocele. The patient has a known medical history of trauma and occupational exposure to asbestos. The clinical features of this injury are discussed together with its immunohistochemistry. Surgical intervention is discussed due to the nature of this pathology.

RevDate: 2019-03-14

Cuccaro F, Nannavecchia AM, Silvestri S, et al (2019)

Mortality for Mesothelioma and Lung Cancer in a Cohort of Asbestos Cement Workers in BARI (Italy): Time Related Aspects of Exposure.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: In this cohort mortality study we used an exposure index to evaluate individual cumulative exposure as proxy of asbestos dose and we evaluated change in cancer mortality pattern after long time since the end of exposure.

METHODS: We calculated SMRs for several causes of death stratified by latency, cumulative exposure and time since last exposure (TSLE).

RESULTS: Latency: we observed a peak and then a decrease in SMR for lung, pleural and peritoneal cancer. CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE:: we observed a peak and then a decrease in SMR for lung and pleural cancer, not for peritoneal cancer. TSLE:: pleural cancer SMR peaked at 20-29 years, then decreased, peritoneal cancer SMR reached a plateau after 20 years and lung cancer mortality was in excess in each class.

CONCLUSIONS: We found different patterns in mortality in the main asbestos-related tumours.

RevDate: 2019-03-13

Liang Y, Zheng G, Yin W, et al (2019)

Significance of EGFR and PTEN Expression and PLR and NLR for Predicting the Prognosis of Epithelioid Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

Gastroenterology research and practice, 2019:7103915.

Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of EGFR and PTEN in tissues and measure the serum platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to evaluate the prognostic factors of patients with epithelioid malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM).

Methods: 33 patients of pathologically diagnosed epithelioid MPeM tissues were analyzed using immunohistochemistry to detect EGFR and PTEN; the PLR and NLR were determined by using a routine blood test. We analyzed the relationships of these markers to age, sex, asbestos exposure, elevated platelet count, ascites, and clinical stage.

Results: EGFR and PTEN expressions were positive in 22 (66.67%) and 7 (21.21%) epithelioid MPeM patients, respectively. However, these two markers as well as PLR and NLR were not significantly associated with age, sex, asbestos exposure, elevated platelet counts, ascites, and clinical stage (P > 0.05). The correlation between EGFR and PTEN was negative (r = -0.577, P < 0.001), but the correlation between NLR and PLR was positive (r = 0.456, P = 0.008). The median survival of all patients was 6 months. In univariate analysis, PTEN (P < 0.001), PLR (P = 0.014), and NLR (P = 0.015) affected the overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that PTEN and PLR were validated as predictive for overall survival of epithelioid MPeM (HR = 0.070, P = 0.001, and HR = 3.379, P = 0.007, respectively).

Conclusion: On the basis of these results, it is suggested that PTEN and PLR are risk factors for the prognosis of epithelioid MPeM, which may be targets for selective therapies and improve the outcomes of patients with epithelioid MPeM.

RevDate: 2019-03-13

Baird AM, Easty D, Jarzabek M, et al (2019)

When RON MET TAM in Mesothelioma: All Druggable for One, and One Drug for All?.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 10:89.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive inflammatory cancer with a poor survival rate. Treatment options are limited at best and drug resistance is common. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify novel therapeutic targets in this disease in order to improve patient outcomes and survival times. MST1R (RON) is a trans-membrane receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), which is part of the c-MET proto-oncogene family. The only ligand recognized to bind MST1R (RON) is Macrophage Stimulating 1 (MST1), also known as Macrophage Stimulating Protein (MSP) or Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Like Protein (HGFL). In this study, we demonstrate that the MST1-MST1R (RON) signaling axis is active in MPM. Targeting this pathway with a small molecule inhibitor, LCRF-0004, resulted in decreased proliferation with a concomitant increase in apoptosis. Cell cycle progression was also affected. Recombinant MST1 treatment was unable to overcome the effect of LCRF-0004 in terms of either proliferation or apoptosis. Subsequently, the effect of an additional small molecular inhibitor, BMS-777607 (which targets MST1R (RON), MET, Tyro3, and Axl) also resulted in a decreased proliferative capacity of MPM cells. In a cohort of MPM patient samples, high positivity for total MST1R by IHC was an independent predictor of favorable prognosis. Additionally, elevated expression levels of MST1 also correlated with better survival. This study also determined the efficacy of LCRF-0004 and BMS-777607 in xenograft MPM models. Both LCRF-0004 and BMS-777607 demonstrated significant anti-tumor efficacy in vitro, however BMS-777607 was far superior to LCRF-0004. The in vivo and in vitro data generated by this study indicates that a multi-TKI, targeting the MST1R/MET/TAM signaling pathways, may provide a more effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MPM as opposed to targeting MST1R alone.

RevDate: 2019-03-12

Wallen T, Jagan N, Krishnan M, et al (2019)

A 75 year old male with recurrent unilateral pleural effusion and positive ANA.

Respiratory medicine case reports, 26:301-303 pii:S2213-0071(19)30016-4.

This case report describes the clinical course and diagnostic challenges arising in a 75 year old man who initially presented with progressive shortness of breath. Imaging revealed a pleural effusion, which was recurrent following thoracentesis. While his initial workup suggested an autoimmune etiology, further diagnostic testing revealed a diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Curiously, the patient had no known asbestos exposure, which is classically associated with acquired mesothelioma. There are a small number of similar cases with a possible overlap between positive autoimmune serologies and mesothelioma; however, the underlying pathophysiology remains elusive. It is the authors' goal to contribute this case to the few cases describing such overlap syndromes.

RevDate: 2019-03-09

Mandel JH, Odo NU, BH Alexander (2019)

Potential Problems with Determining Elongate Mineral Particle (EMP) Potency (Comments on article entitled, "A Comparison of Asbestos Fiber Potency and Elongate Mineral Particle (EMP) Potency for Mesothelioma in Humans").

Toxicology and applied pharmacology pii:S0041-008X(19)30084-5 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-03-06

Senk B, Goricar K, Kovac V, et al (2019)

Genetic polymorphisms in aquaporin 1 as risk factors for malignant mesothelioma and biomarkers of response to cisplatin treatment.

Radiology and oncology, 53(1):96-104 pii:/j/raon.2019.53.issue-1/raon-2019-0009/raon-2019-0009.xml.

Background Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos related aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate if aquaporin 1 (AQP1) genetic polymorphisms influence the risk of MM and the response to cisplatin based MM treatment. Patients and methods The case-control study included 231 patients with MM and a control group of 316 healthy blood donors. All subjects were genotyped for three AQP1polymorphisms (rs1049305, rs1476597 and rs28362731). Logistic and Cox regression were used in statistical analysis. Results AQP1 rs1049305 polymorphism was significantly associated with MM risk in dominant model adjusted for gender and age (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37-0.96, Padj = 0.033). This polymorphism was also significantly associated with cisplatin based treatment related anaemia (unadjusted: OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27-0.90, P = 0.021; adjusted: for CRP: OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27-0.99, P = 0.046), with leukopenia (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.00-4.35, P = 0.049) in dominant model and with thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.01-9.28, P = 0.048) and alopecia (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.00-8.46, P = 0.049) in additive model. AQP1 rs28362731 was significantly associated with thrombocytopenia (unadjusted: OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.00-13.84, P = 0.049; adjusted for pain: OR = 4.63, 95% CI = 1.13-19.05, P = 0.034) in additive model. Conclusions AQP1 may play a role in the risk of MM. Furthermore, AQP1 genotype information could improve the prediction of MM patients at increased risk for cisplatin toxicity.

RevDate: 2019-03-05

Abbas H, Rodriguez JC, Tariq H, et al (2019)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Without Asbestos Exposure.

Gastroenterology research, 12(1):48-51.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare neoplasm of the serosal linings. Mesothelioma has been linked to asbestos exposure, with prior asbestos exposure linked to 33-50% of malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas. We describe a case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) without any prior exposure to asbestos in a 40-year-old Hispanic female who presented to the emergency department with worsening abdominal pain and distension. She had a history of beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anemia. Examination revealed a distended abdomen with protruding umbilicus and positive shifting dullness. Laboratory tests showed anemia. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed massive complex ascites suspicious of a malignant process. Ascitic fluid analysis showed serum ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) of 1.1 g/dL with a total protein of 5.2 g/dL. She underwent laparoscopic peritoneal biopsy which yielded epithelioid type malignant mesothelioma. She was started on chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed. The last follow-up was 27 months after the diagnosis. MPM is a rare and life-threatening malignancy. Frequently, the symptoms are non-specific. This poses a diagnostic challenge for physicians and probably the reason why the diagnosis is often delayed, especially in the absence of risk factors.

RevDate: 2019-03-04
CmpDate: 2019-03-04

Terracini B (2018)

[Parliamentary committee of inquiry about health of Italian soldiers exposed to uranium, asbestos, and vaccines].

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 42(2):114-115.

RevDate: 2019-02-28

Pasetto R, Zona A, Fazzo L, et al (2019)

Proportion of mesothelioma attributable to living in industrially contaminated areas in Italy.

Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health pii:3809 [Epub ahead of print].

Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the attributable proportion (AP) of mesothelioma resulting from living in or close to major Italian industrially contaminated areas. Methods For populations living close to 39 sites of "national priority for remediation", incident mesothelioma cases were extracted from the Italian National Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) in the period 2000‒2011. Each site was classified in one of seven asbestos risk groups (RG) on the basis of the type of industrial plants. RG were ranked by the a priori evidence on asbestos risk. The AP for each RG was calculated as the meta-analytic estimate of AP of sites of the same group by gender and age class (0-64, 65-74, ≥75 years). The sex ratio (men/women) was computed for each RG. Results Among men, the AP by age class had the same gradient in each RG, with the highest values in the age class 0-64 years and the lowest in the ≥75 class; in the age class 0-64 years, the AP was positive in each RG, >90% in the presence of asbestos cement factories and harbors with shipyards. Among women, the overall AP decreased by RG, with negative values in the last two ranked RG; the AP by age class was variable without a definite gradient. The sex ratio was close to one only in the RG "only asbestos-cement factories"; the highest value (9.6) was observed in the age class 0-64 years in the RG "harbors with shipyard". Conclusions The integration of a geographic- and case-based approach provides valuable insights into occupational and environmental determinants of mesothelioma risk in industrially contaminated sites.

RevDate: 2019-02-27

Biersack B (2018)

Relations between approved platinum drugs and non-coding RNAs in mesothelioma.

Non-coding RNA research, 3(4):161-173 pii:S2468-0540(18)30076-3.

Malignant mesothelioma diseases feature an increasing risk due to their severe forms and their association with asbestos exposure. Platinum(II) complexes such as cisplatin and carboplatin are clinically approved for the therapy of mesothelioma often in combination with antimetabolites such as pemetrexed or gemcitabine. It was observed that pathogenic properties of mesothelioma cells and the response of mesothelioma tumors towards platinum-based drugs are strongly influenced by non-coding RNAs, in particular, by small microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). These non-coding RNAs controlled drug sensitivity and the development of tumor resistance towards platinum drugs. An overview of the interactions between platinum drugs and non-coding RNAs is given and the influence of non-coding RNAs on platinum drug efficacy in mesothelioma is discussed. Suitable non-coding RNA-modulating agents with potentially beneficial effects on cisplatin treatment of mesothelioma diseases are mentioned. The understanding of mesothelioma diseases concerning the interactions of non-coding RNAs and platinum drugs will optimize existing therapy schemes and pave the way to new treatment options in future.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Farioli A, Boffetta P, Curti S, et al (2019)

Response to: 'Are children more vulnerable to mesothelioma than adults? A comparison of mesothelioma risk among children and adults exposed non-occupationally to blue asbestos at Wittenoom' by Reid et al.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Dalsgaard SB, Würtz ET, Hansen J, et al (2019)

Environmental asbestos exposure in childhood and risk of mesothelioma later in life: a long-term follow-up register-based cohort study.

Occupational and environmental medicine pii:oemed-2018-105392 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in former pupils who attended primary school near an asbestos cement plant.

METHODS: A cohort of 12 111 former pupils, born 1940-1970, was established from individual historical records from four primary schools located at a distance of 100-750 m in the prevailing wind direction from an asbestos cement plant operating from 1928 to 1984 in Aalborg, Denmark. The school cohort and a comparison cohort consisting of 108 987 gender and 5-year frequency-matched subjects were followed up (2015) for MM in the Danish Cancer Registry. Using Cox regression, HRs were estimated for the incidence of MM. Adjustments for occupational and familial asbestos exposure were made with a job exposure matrix. An SIR analysis including latency periods testing the cancer incidence rate was performed with the comparison cohort as the reference rate.

RESULTS: The median person-years of follow-up were 62.5 years in the school cohort and 62.2 years in the comparison cohort. There were 32 males and 6 females of the former pupils who developed MM during the follow-up: HRmale 7.01 (95% CI 4.24 to 11.57), HRfemale 7.43 (95% CI 2.50 to 22.13). Those who attended school 250 m north of the plant had the highest HR for MM, 10.65 (95% Cl 5.82 to 19.48). No significant trend between school distance and risk of MM was established (p=0.35).

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that boys and girls who attended schools and lived in the neighbourhood of an asbestos cement plant later in life have a significantly increased risk of MM.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Kim M, HS Kim (2019)

Clinicopathological Characteristics of Well-differentiated Papillary Mesothelioma of The Peritoneum: A Single-institutional Experience of 12 Cases.

In vivo (Athens, Greece), 33(2):633-642.

BACKGROUND/AIM: Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma (WDPM) is histologically characterized by papillary architecture with fibrovascular cores, lined by bland mesothelial cells. We recently experienced a case of WDPM associated with multiple peritoneal inclusion cysts, which prompted us to initiate a comprehensive review of previously diagnosed WDPM cases.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinicopathological characteristics and immunophenotype of 12 cases of peritoneal WDPM were investigated using a review of electronic medical records, pathological examination, and immunostaining.

RESULTS: The patients' ages ranged from 23 to 75 years. No patient had endometriosis or a previous history of asbestos exposure. Ten tumors were detected incidentally during surgery for other causes. Most tumors appeared as a small, single nodule on the peritoneal surface, but in three cases, WDPM presented as multiple lesions. All but one patient had no symptoms. All the patients examined are still well without postoperative recurrence. Histologically, all cases demonstrated typical papillary architecture with fibrovascular cores. The mesothelial cells lining the papillae consisted mostly of single row of cells, although areas of proliferation to multiple layers were observed in a few cases. Their nuclei appeared bland, but two cases exhibited mild nuclear atypia and prominent nucleoli. Immunostaining revealed that the mesothelial cells were positive for D2-40, cytokeratin 5/6, cytokeratin 7, and Wilms' tumor 1.

CONCLUSION: We herein demonstrated the clinicopathological characteristics of peritoneal WDPMs. WDPM has distinct pathological features. Although all cases we examined were uneventful after surgery, further surveillance is recommended since the biological behavior of WDPM is still uncertain.

RevDate: 2019-02-19

Wang F, Chen Y, Wang Y, et al (2019)

Ultra-long silver nanowires induced mitotic abnormalities and cytokinetic failure in A549 cells.

Nanotoxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Asbestos fiber has been associated with mesothelioma and lung cancer. However, the carcinogenic risks of other fiber nanomaterials with morphological similarities to asbestos have not been fully studied. Ultra-long silver nanowires (AgNWs) are increasingly used fiber-shaped nanomaterials with a high aspect ratio, but very few studies have investigated their health risks. Here, proliferation abnormalities of lung epithelial cells induced by ultra-long AgNWs were investigated. Ultra-long AgNW treatment induced dose- and diameter-dependent increase in the ratio of multinucleated cells. Further, proteins involved in mitosis and cytokinesis, including Aurora A, p-Histone 3 (ser10), RhoA, p-MLC, and myosin IIb, were significantly upregulated after an ultra-long AgNW treatment, leading to mitotic abnormalities and cytokinetic failure. Meanwhile, exposure to ultra-long AgNWs induced cell cycle arrest. Interestingly, a series of experiments demonstrated that ROS generation and Ag+ release were not responsible for the multinucleation induced by ultra-long AgNWs, but ultra-long AgNWs in the intercellular bridge might obstruct the contractile ring and inhibit abscission of the cytokinetic furrow by direct physical contact. Altogether, our findings indicate that ultra-long AgNWs can induce chromosomal instability, which has important consequences for the safety of ultra-long AgNWs to human health.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Cova E, Pandolfi L, Colombo M, et al (2019)

Pemetrexed-loaded nanoparticles targeted to malignant pleural mesothelioma cells: an in vitro study.

International journal of nanomedicine, 14:773-785 pii:ijn-14-773.

Purpose: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor characterized by poor prognosis. Its incidence is steadily increasing due to widespread asbestos exposure. There is still no effective therapy for MPM. Pemetrexed (Pe) is one of the few chemotherapeutic agents approved for advanced-stage disease, although the objective response to the drug is limited. The use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a drug delivery system promises several advantages, including specific targeting of malignant cells, with increased intracellular drug accumulation and reduced systemic toxicity, and, in the case of MPM, direct treatment administration into the pleural space. This study aims at exploring CD146 as a potential MPM cell-specific target for engineered Pe-loaded GNPs and to assess their effectiveness in inhibiting MPM cell line growth.

Methods: MPM cell lines and primary cultures obtained by pleural effusions from MPM patients were assayed for CD146 expression by flow cytometry. Internalization by MPM cell lines of fluorescent dye-marked GNPs decorated with a monoclonal anti CD146 coated GNPs (GNP-HC) was proven by confocal microscopy. The effects of anti CD146 coated GNPs loaded with Pe (GNP-HCPe) on MPM cell lines were evaluated by cell cycle (flow cytometry), viability (MTT test), clonogenic capacity (soft agar assay), ROS production (electric paramagnetic resonance), motility (wound healing assay), and apoptosis (flow cytometry).

Results: GNP-HC were selectively uptaken by MPM cells within 1 hour. MPM cell lines were blocked in the S cell cycle phase in the presence of GNP-HCPe. Both cell viability and motility were significantly affected by nanoparticle treatment compared to Pe. Apoptotic rate and ROS production were significantly higher in the presence of nanoparticles. Clonogenic capacity was completely inhibited following nanoparticle internalization.

Conclusion: GNP-HCPe treatment displays in vitro antineoplastic action and is more effective than Pe alone in inhibiting MPM cell line malignant phenotype. The innovative use of specifically targeted GNPs opens the perspective of local intrapleural administration to avoid normal cell toxicity and enhance chemotherapy efficacy.

RevDate: 2019-02-16

Douglas T, L Van den Borre (2019)

Asbestos neglect: Why asbestos exposure deserves greater policy attention.

Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands) pii:S0168-8510(18)30375-0 [Epub ahead of print].

While many public health threats are now widely appreciated by the public, the risks from asbestos exposure remain poorly understood, even in high-risk groups. This article makes the case that asbestos exposure is an important, ongoing global health threat, and argues for greater policy efforts to raise awareness of this threat. It also proposes the extension of asbestos bans to developing countries and increased public subsidies for asbestos testing and abatement.

RevDate: 2019-02-14

Bertrand P, Blanquart C, V Héroguez (2019)

The ROMP: A Powerful Approach to Synthesize Novel pH-Sensitive Nanoparticles for Tumor Therapy.

Biomolecules, 9(2): pii:biom9020060.

Fast clearance, metabolism, and systemic toxicity are major limits for the clinical use of anti-cancer drugs. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) present these defects, despite displaying promising anti-tumor properties on tumor cells in vitro and in in vivo models of cancer. The specific delivery of anti-cancer drugs into the tumor should improve their clinical benefit by limiting systemic toxicity and by increasing the anti-tumor effect. This paper deals with the synthesis of the polymeric nanoparticle platform, which was produced by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP), able to release anti-cancer drugs in dispersion, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, into mesothelioma tumors. The core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) have stealth properties due to their poly(ethylene oxide) shell and can be viewed as universal nano-carriers on which any alkyne-modified anti-cancer molecule can be grafted by click chemistry. A cleavage reaction of the chemical bond between NPs and drugs through the contact of NPs with a medium presenting an acidic pH, which is typically a cancer tumor environment or an acidic intracellular compartment, induces a controlled release of the bioactive molecule in its native form. In our in vivo syngeneic model of mesothelioma, a highly selective accumulation of the particles in the tumor was obtained. The release of the drugs led to an 80% reduction of tumor weight for the best compound without toxicity. Our work demonstrates that the use of theranostic nanovectors leads to an optimized delivery of epigenetic inhibitors in tumors, which improves their anti-tumor properties in vivo.

RevDate: 2019-02-13

Pelclová D (2019)

Diagnostics and acknowledgement of occupational diseases - topics and challenges in the Czech Republic.

Casopis lekaru ceskych, 157(8):396-399.

The causes of occupational diseases are changing, thats why a regular update of Czech List of Occupational Diseases is needed. New compensable occupational diseases, such as cancer of the larynx and ovarian cancer due to asbestos, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases due to black coal dust were included in the last two updates of the Czech List. The need of an early examination at the Centers of Occupational Diseases is stressed in this article, especially before a surgery or other treatment of epicondylitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. These treatments may suppress the diagnostic hallmarks requested for acknowledgements of these disorders. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma are underdiagnosed, and isocyanates belong among the key factors. Only about 10 % patients with mesotheliomas due to asbestos are compensated. The latency in cancers due to asbestos may reach more than 50 years. Keywords: COPD, mesothelioma, lung cancer, larynx cancer, ovarian cancer, isocyanates, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, epicondylitis, carpal tunnel.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Weber DG, Brik A, Casjens S, et al (2019)

Are circulating microRNAs suitable for the early detection of malignant mesothelioma? Results from a nested case-control study.

BMC research notes, 12(1):77 pii:10.1186/s13104-019-4113-7.

OBJECTIVE: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer of the serous membranes. For the detection of the tumor at early stages non- or minimally-invasive biomarkers are needed. The circulating biomarkers miR-132-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-103a-3p were analyzed in a nested case-control study using plasma samples from 17 prediagnostic mesothelioma cases and 34 matched asbestos-exposed controls without a malignant disease.

RESULTS: Using prediagnostic plasma samples collected in median 8.9 months prior the clinical diagnosis miR-132-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-103a-3p revealed 0% sensitivity on a defined specificity of 98%. Thus, the analyzed miRNAs failed to detect the cancer in prediagnostic samples, showing that they are not feasible for the early detection of malignant mesothelioma. However, the miRNAs might still serve as possible markers for prognosis and response to therapy, but this needs to be analyzed in appropriate studies.

RevDate: 2019-02-11

García-Ibáñez J, Cayuelas-Rubio C, Durán-Rivera A, et al (2019)

[Report of two cases of malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis.].

Archivos espanoles de urologia, 72(1):85-88.

OBJECTIVE: Paratesticular mesothelioma isan infrequent tumor and only 250 cases have been published.It originates in the scrotal tunica vaginalis. It represents0.3-1.4% of mesotheliomas and it predominates inpatients with history of asbestos exposure and old age. Itsdiagnosis is usually casual. Our objective is to present thecases that occurred in our service with malignant paratesticularmesothelioma and to carry out a review of the currentliterature on this pathology.

METHODS: We report two cases diagnosed with malignantparatesticular mesothelioma that happened in the lasttwo years.

RESULT: The first case was a 73-year-old male with asymptomatichydrocele. The second was a 57-year-oldmale who had testicular pain and hydrocele. Both werediagnosed of mesothelioma after hydrocelectomy. The firsttreatment was radical orchiectomy in both cases. The firstpatient did not need more treatments. The second patientpresented pulmonary nodules, lymphadenopathy and localrelapse, which was treated with chemotherapy and localresection.

CONCLUSION: Paratesticular mesothelioma is an infrequenttumor. Scrotal mass associated with hydrocele is thetypical form of presentation. Surgical treatment consists ofradical orchiectomy. They have poor prognosis because inmost cases there is rapid local and dissemination.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Guo X, Watanabe J, Takahashi K, et al (2019)

Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma arising in the interlobar fissure: a unique surgical case masquerading clinicopathologically as primary lung adenocarcinoma.

SAGE open medical case reports, 7:2050313X18824802 pii:10.1177_2050313X18824802.

An 80-year-old male with previous workplace exposure to asbestos presented with a history of an increase in the pulmonary-to-hilar mass, measuring more than 50 mm in diameter, likely in the right lower lobe. We first interpreted it as suspicious of primary lung adenocarcinoma with direct invasion to the right hilar lymph node. A right middle and lower lobectomy with partial resection of upper lobe was performed, and gross examination showed a hilar tumor lesion, involving the middle/lower lobe to hilar lymph node and looking whitish to yellow-grayish, partly adjacent to the right pulmonary artery. On microscopic examination, the tumor was located on the extrapulmonary, interlobar pleural fissure, predominantly composed of a proliferation of atypical epithelioid cells, often arranged in an irregular and fused tubular growth pattern with an involvement of pulmonary artery. Immunohistochemically, these atypical cells are positive for several mesothelial markers, including calretinin, cytokeratin 5/6, and WT-1, whereas negative for thyroid transcription factor 1. Furthermore, p16 deletions were specifically detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy showed numerous, significantly elongated microvilli. Taken together, we finally made a diagnosis of localized malignant pleural mesothelioma, epithelioid-type, arising in the right interlobar fissure between lower and middle lobes. We should be aware that, owing to its characteristic features, clinicians and pathologists might be able to raise interlobar fissure localized malignant pleural mesothelioma as one of the differential diagnoses, based on careful clinicopathological examinations.

RevDate: 2019-02-03

Salo SAS, Ilonen I, Laaksonen S, et al (2019)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: Treatment Options and Survival.

Anticancer research, 39(2):839-845.

BACKGROUND: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a rare type of cancer with a poor prognosis. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been shown to improve survival. Treatment and survival of patients with MPeM have not been previously studied in Finland.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data consisted of all patients diagnosed with MPeM during years 2000-2012 in Finland, including cancer notifications, death certificates and information about asbestos exposure.

RESULTS: Among 50/94 (53.2%) patients treated for MPeM, 44/50 (88.0%) were treated palliatively, 4/50 (8.0%) with radical surgery and chemotherapy, and 2/50 (4.0%) with CRS plus HIPEC. Five-year survival was 50.0% for those treated with CRS plus HIPEC and 75.0% for those treated with radical surgery and chemotherapy. Radical surgery with chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer survival compared to radiation (p=0.008), chemotherapy and radiation (p=0.043), surgery, chemotherapy and radiation (p=0.039), and palliative surgery (p=0.009).

CONCLUSION: Treatment of MPeM is heterogenic in Finland. CRS plus HIPEC, and radical surgery with chemotherapy seem to increase the survival. Patients considered candidates for radical surgery should be sent to specialized centers for further assessment.

RevDate: 2019-02-01

Rojas L, Cardona AF, Trejo-Rosales R, et al (2019)

Characteristics and long-term outcomes of advanced pleural mesothelioma in Latin America (MeSO-CLICaP).

Thoracic cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor, associated with poor prognosis. There is a lack of information about the clinical and pathological features related with survival in the Latin American population.

METHODS: The MeSO-CLICaP registry identified 302 patients with advanced MPM diagnosed and treated between January 2008 and March 2016. The Cox model was applied to determine the variables associated with survival. A random forest tree model was built to predict the response to first-line chemotherapy among Latin American patients.

RESULTS: The median age was 61.1 years (SD 10.6 years), 191 (63.2%) were men, 65.9% were ever smokers, and 38.7% had previous exposure to asbestos. A total of 237 (78.5%) had epithelioid tumors, and 188 (62.3%) and 114 (37.7%) cases had stage III or IV MPM, respectively. A total of 49 patients (16.2%) underwent pleurectomy, 57 (18.9%) received radiotherapy, and 279 patients received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. The overall response rate to first-line chemotherapy was 40.4%, progression-free survival to first-line treatment was 5.7 months (95% CI 4.9-6.5), and 63 (20.8%) patients had pemetrexed maintenance. The median overall survival was 16.8 months (95% CI 13.0-20.5), and multivariate analysis found that stage (P = 0.013), and pleurodesis (P = 0.048), were independent prognostic factors for first-line overall survival. The model to predict response to first-line chemotherapy obtained a 0.98 area under the curve, a sensitivity of 93%, and a specificity of 95% for detecting responders and non-responders.

CONCLUSION: This study identifies factors associated with clinical benefit from chemotherapy among advanced MPM Latin American patients, emphasizing the impact of histology and the clinical benefit of chemotherapy on outcomes.

RevDate: 2019-02-01

Sun H (2019)

North-south gradient of mesothelioma and asbestos consumption-production in the United States-Progresses since the 1st asbestos partial ban in 1973.

American journal of industrial medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Temporal trends and broad geographical distributions of asbestos use and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in the US still need to be studied.

METHODS: Data on asbestos consumption and production between 1900 and 2015 and MM mortality and incidence rates between 1975 and 2015 in the US were examined. Spatial distributions of MM mortality and incidence rates and their association with climate zone were analyzed.

RESULTS: Decline of MM incidence and mortality rates in the US occurred about 20 years after the peak of asbestos consumption-production in 1973. There are apparent north-south (N-S) gradients in MM mortality and incidence rates in the US.

CONCLUSION: Recent decline of MM incidence and mortality rates in the US may be associated with reduced US asbestos consumption. N-S MM gradients between 1999 and 2015 were likely related to larger asbestos requirements in building materials in the northern states.

RevDate: 2019-01-31

Germine M, JH Puffer (2019)

Analytical transmission electron microscopy of amosite asbestos from South Africa.

Archives of environmental & occupational health [Epub ahead of print].

Using the recognized amosite standard, we have performed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analyses. We use high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and zone-axis selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to describe the molecular structure of the fibers. We find that both microscopic observational evidence and statistical dimensional characteristics indicate that the amosite fibers are formed by longitudinal splitting, with surfaces produced by fine twinning and lateral boundaries formed by parting parallel to the planes of double and triple sheets of amphibole chain structures. Our findings indicate that amosite would not be regulated under current asbestos regulations, which define amphibole asbestos as whole crystals that are not split and that form fibril bundles, not found in our standard. However, it is fully documented that amosite causes mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis.

RevDate: 2019-01-30

Visonà SD, Villani S, Manzoni F, et al (2018)

Impact of asbestos on public health: a retrospective study on a series of subjects with occupational and non-occupational exposure to asbestos during the activity of Fibronit plant (Broni, Italy).

Journal of public health research, 7(3):1519.

The goal of this study is to understand more about the role of asbestos in causing human diseases, first of all mesothelioma, by investigating a large series of deaths due to asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The main aim is to clarify if even very low amounts of asbestos can cause mesothelioma and other ARDs, as well as to find out if a different individual vulnerability can be important. This retrospective study included 188 subjects who died from asbestos related diseases in 2000-2017 in the area around Broni, Italy, where an important asbestos cement factory had been active from 1932 until 1993. In each case, a forensic autopsy has been performed. In order to perform the present study, the records were retrieved, including the clinical files, the autopsy, and the histological report. The statistical analysis performed showed that there was a significant relation between the cause of death (mesothelioma, lung cancer or asbestosis) and the kind of exposure (occupational, neighborhood or household), showing that all the subjects not exposed occupationally (and, therefore, exposed to lower amounts of asbestos) died from mesothelioma, whereas the individuals who used to work at the plant died also from other caused (asbestosis, lung cancer). Significant differences were highlighted examining the distribution of the causes of death according to the smoking habits. Moreover, among the mesothelioma patients, the survival time was shorter in the subjects with a neighborhood or household exposure than in the occupationally exposed individuals. The study provided meaningful data about the role of asbestos in causing human pathologies. In particular, the present data appear to support the hypothesis that even an exposure to a very little amount of asbestos can cause mesothelioma in hypersusceptible subjects (probably, on a genetic basis).

RevDate: 2019-01-30

Matthews C, Freeman C, Sharples LD, et al (2019)

MesoTRAP: a feasibility study that includes a pilot clinical trial comparing video-assisted thoracoscopic partial pleurectomy decortication with indwelling pleural catheter in patients with trapped lung due to malignant pleural mesothelioma designed to address recruitment and randomisation uncertainties and sample size requirements for a phase III trial.

BMJ open respiratory research, 6(1):e000368 pii:bmjresp-2018-000368.

Introduction: One of the most debilitating symptoms of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is dyspnoea caused by pleural effusion. MPM can be complicated by the presence of tumour on the visceral pleura preventing the lung from re-expanding, known as trapped lung (TL). There is currently no consensus on the best way to manage TL. One approach is insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) under local anaesthesia. Another is video-assisted thoracoscopic partial pleurectomy/decortication (VAT-PD). Performed under general anaesthesia, VAT-PD permits surgical removal of the rind of tumour from the visceral pleura thereby allowing the lung to fully re-expand.

Methods and analysis: MesoTRAP is a feasibility study that includes a pilot multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial comparing VAT-PD with IPC in patients with TL and pleural effusion due to MPM. The primary objective is to measure the SD of visual analogue scale scores for dyspnoea following randomisation and examine the patterns of change over time in each treatment group. Secondary objectives include documenting survival and adverse events, estimating the incidence and prevalence of TL in patients with MPM, examining completion of alternative forms of data capture for economic evaluation and determining the ability to randomise 38 patients in 18 months.

Ethics and dissemination: This study was approved by the East of England-Cambridge Central Research Ethics Committee and the Health Research Authority (reference number 16/EE/0370). We aim to publish the outputs of this work in international peer-reviewed journals compliant with an Open Access policy.

Trial registration: NCT03412357.

RevDate: 2019-01-28

Neviere Z, Berthet P, Polycarpe F, et al (2019)

[Malignant mesothelioma and constitutional BAP1 gene mutations].

Revue des maladies respiratoires pii:S0761-8425(18)30970-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumour, usually the result of asbestos exposure. Several cases of familial aggregation have been reported and recently shown to be associated with constitutional mutations of the BAP1 gene. BAP1 is a deubiquitinating enzyme implicated in several different cellular mechanisms such as the repair or differentiation of DNA. About a half of malignant mesotheliomas present a somatic, bi-allelic inactivation of BAP1, demonstrated by nuclear extinction on histochemistry. Constitutional alterations of BAP1 are extremely rare. Present in the heterozygous state they are transmitted as an autosomal dominant. They are associated with a risk of developing other tumours such as uveal and cutaneous melanomas, benign melanocytic tumours (melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumour or MBAITS) and clear cell renal carcinomas. The causal link between mesothelioma and germinal mutations of BAP1 has still not been clearly identified. At present there is, in France, no consensus on recommendations for the management of patients with these mutations. This article is a synthesis of the literature on the functions of the BAP1 gene, the tumour risks related to its alteration and the follow up of patients bearing a constitutional mutation.

RevDate: 2019-02-09

Abayasiriwardana KS, Wood MK, Prêle CM, et al (2019)

Inhibition of collagen production delays malignant mesothelioma tumor growth in a murine model.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 510(2):198-204.

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive fibrous tumor, predominantly of the pleura, with a very poor prognosis. Cell-matrix interactions are recognized important determinants of tumor growth and invasiveness but the role of the extracellular matrix in mesothelioma is unknown. Mesothelioma cells synthesize collagen as well as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), a key regulator of collagen production. This study examined the effect of inhibiting collagen production on mesothelioma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Collagen production by mesothelioma cells was inhibited by incubating cells in vitro with the proline analogue thiaproline (thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) or by oral administration of thiaproline in a murine tumor model. Cell cytotoxicity was measured using neutral red uptake and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Proliferation was measured by tritiated thymidine incorporation, and inflammatory cell influx, proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis in tumors examined by immunohistochemical labelling. Tumor size was determined by tumor weight and collagen production was measured by HPLC. Thiaproline at non-toxic doses significantly reduced basal and TGF-β-induced collagen production by over 50% and cell proliferation by over 65%. In vivo thiaproline administration inhibited tumor growth at 10 days, decreasing the median tumor weight by 80%. The mean concentration of collagen was 50% lower in the thiaproline-treated tumors compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in vasculature or inflammatory cell infiltration but apoptosis was increased in thiaproline treated tumors at day 10. In conclusion, these observations strongly support a role for collagen in mesothelioma growth and establish the potential for inhibitors of collagen synthesis in mesothelioma treatment.

RevDate: 2019-01-26

Warby A, Dhillon HM, Kao S, et al (2019)

Managing malignant pleural mesothelioma: experience and perceptions of health care professionals caring for people with mesothelioma.

Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer pii:10.1007/s00520-019-4648-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a poor prognosis and heavy symptom burden. Here, we investigate health professionals' attitudes to management and decision-making in people with MPM.

METHODS: Survey questions were based on previous interviews with health professionals, MPM patients, and caregivers. Surveys were sent to specialist doctors and nurses who treat MPM.

RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 107 doctors and 19 nurses from January-September 2014. Most doctors were respiratory physicians (50%) or medical oncologists (35%). Overall, 90% of doctors estimated > 10% of eligible MPM patients did not receive chemotherapy; 43% estimated the rate was > 20%. Doctors believed clinical barriers to chemotherapy were clinician nihilism (70%); non-referral to medical oncology (49%); and lack of specialists in rural/regional areas (44%). Nurses perceived barriers as follows: delayed diagnosis (74%); non-referral to medical oncology (63%); lack of clinician knowledge (58%). Patient-related barriers were negative perception of chemotherapy (83%) and belief survival benefit not worthwhile (63%). Doctors' preference in decision-making was for the patient to make the decision while strongly considering the doctor's opinion (33%); equally with the doctor (29%); and using knowledge gained (23%). Nurses described their roles as providing patient support (100%); information (95%); intermediary (74%); and link to palliative care (74%). Overall, 95% believed they enabled better resource allocation and provided patients with holistic care (95%); clearer communication (89%); more time (89%); additional information (89%); timely referrals (89%).

CONCLUSIONS: Caring for patients with MPM is challenging and complex. Health care professionals believe under-utilisation of chemotherapy is occurring, primarily due to clinician nihilism and lack of medical oncology referral.

RevDate: 2019-01-21

Wang QQ, Zheng GQ, Yang DL, et al (2019)

Pretreatment Controlling Nutritional Status Score and Lactate Dehydrogenase as Predictive Markers of Survival in Patients with Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

Nutrition and cancer [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score and ascites fluid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and prognosis in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM).

METHODS: A total of 125 patients with MPeM were selected for the study using a pathological screening method. Once the diagnosis is established, before the treatment their clinical characteristics and nutritional evaluations were recorded including CONUT score and ascites LDH level. The associations between CONUT, ascites LDH, and other clinicopathological features including body mass index, asbestos exposure, pathological type, and treatment method were analyzed. Prognostic parameters predicting overall survival (OS) were analyzed by Cox regression.

RESULTS: High CONUT score, high ascites LDH level were positively associated with poor prognosis in patients with MPeM according to univariate analyses (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively), and CONUT score and ascites LDH were independent predictors of a poor prognosis according to multivariate analysis. When the CONUT score is greater than 3 and the ascites LHD is greater than 474 IU/l, it indicates a poor prognosis.

CONCLUSIONS: CONUT score and ascites LDH are important factors influencing the prognosis of MPeM patients and should thus be considered in clinical applications.

RevDate: 2019-02-16

Villanova T, Gesmundo I, Audrito V, et al (2019)

Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) inhibit the growth of human malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(6):2226-2231.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with exposure to asbestos, with poor prognosis and no effective therapies. The strong inhibitory activities of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists have been demonstrated in different experimental human cancers, including lung cancer; however, their role in MPM remains unknown. We assessed the effects of the GHRH antagonists MIA-602 and MIA-690 in vitro in MPM cell lines and in primary MPM cells, and in vivo in MPM xenografts. GHRH, GHRH receptor, and its main splice variant SV1 were found in all the MPM cell types examined. In vitro, MIA-602 and MIA-690 reduced survival and proliferation in both MPM cell lines and primary cells and showed synergistic inhibitory activity with the chemotherapy drug pemetrexed. In MPM cells, GHRH antagonists also regulated activity and expression of apoptotic molecules, inhibited cell migration, and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. These effects were accompanied by impairment of mitochondrial activity and increased production of reactive oxygen species. In vivo, s.c. administration of MIA-602 and MIA-690 at the dose of 5 μg/d for 4 wk strongly inhibited the growth of MPM xenografts in mice, along with reduction of tumor insulin-like growth factor-I and vascular endothelial growth factor. Overall, these results suggest that treatment with GHRH antagonists, alone or in association with chemotherapy, may offer an approach for the treatment of MPM.

RevDate: 2019-01-17

Sépult C, Bellefroid M, Rocks N, et al (2019)

ADAM10 mediates malignant pleural mesothelioma invasiveness.

Oncogene pii:10.1038/s41388-018-0669-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with limited therapeutic options and treatment efficiency. Even if the latency period between asbestos exposure, the main risk factor, and mesothelioma development is very long, the local invasion of mesothelioma is very rapid leading to a mean survival of one year after diagnosis. ADAM10 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) sheddase targets membrane-bound substrates and its overexpression is associated with progression in several cancers. However, nothing is known about ADAM10 implication in MPM. In this study, we demonstrated higher ADAM10 expression levels in human MPM as compared to control pleural samples and in human MPM cell line. This ADAM10 overexpression was also observed in murine MPM samples. Two mouse mesothelioma cell lines were used in this study including one primary cell line obtained by repeated asbestos fibre injections. We show, in vitro, that ADAM10 targeting through shRNA and pharmacological (GI254023X) approaches reduced drastically mesothelioma cell migration and invasion, as well as for human mesothelioma cells treated with siRNA targeting ADAM10. Moreover, ADAM10 downregulation in murine mesothelioma cells significantly impairs MPM progression in vivo after intrapleural cell injection. We also demonstrate that ADAM10 sheddase downregulation decreases the production of a soluble N-cadherin fragment through membrane N-cadherin, which stimulated mesothelioma cell migration. Taken together, we demonstrate that ADAM10 is overexpressed in MPM and takes part to MPM progression through the generation of N-cadherin fragment that stimulates mesothelioma cell migration. ADAM10 inhibition is worth considering as a therapeutic perspective in mesothelioma context.

RevDate: 2019-02-13

Harris EJA, Musk A, de Klerk N, et al (2019)

Diagnosis of asbestos-related lung diseases.

Expert review of respiratory medicine, 13(3):241-249.

INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of lung disease in asbestos-exposed individuals is a process that not only requires a detailed occupational and tobacco smoking history, but the correlation with physical signs, appropriate imaging, detailed lung function assessment and histology/cytology when required. Worldwide, the total quantity of asbestos mined is static, having decreased dramatically in developed countries but increased in countries where there is no restriction on mining: for example, Russia, China, Brazil, and Kazakhstan. The predominant diagnostic challenge in most cases of possible asbestos-related disease is the significant interval between exposure and development of the disease. Also challenging is the estimation of an individual's risk of disease, not least because asbestos-induced malignancy can be rapidly fatal, and, in the case of lung cancer, early detection can lead to treatment with curative intent. Areas covered: Discussion of quantitative asbestos exposure estimation and risk assessment, selection of the most appropriate imaging modality and frequency of imaging. Expert commentary: Consideration of the future for asbestos-related lung disease includes screening those at highest risk particularly in relation to ongoing mining operations and the management of in-situ asbestos. In the future, screening programs designed with estimation of risk of malignancy, based on quantitative estimates of asbestos exposure, and smoking history are indicated.

RevDate: 2019-01-15

Wu L, Dell'Anno I, Lapidot M, et al (2019)

Progress of malignant mesothelioma research in basic science: A review of the 14th international conference of the international mesothelioma interest group (iMig2018).

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 127:138-145.

Here we summarize the most recent update of mesothelioma research in basic science presented at the 14th iMig2018 international conference. The symposium of basic science track mainly focused on the drivers of mesothelioma initiation and progression, molecular pathogenesis, and perspectives on potential therapeutic approaches. This review covers several promising fields including strategies efficiently inhibiting YAP/TAZ functions or their critical downstream targets, heparanase inhibitors, RAN depletion, and MIF/CD74 inhibitors that may be developed as novel therapeutic approaches. In addition, targeting mesothelioma stem cells by depleting M2-polarized macrophages in tumor microenvironment or blocking Tnfsf18 (GITRL)-GITR signalling might be translated into therapeutic modalities in mesothelioma treatment.

RevDate: 2019-02-03

Chicco D, C Rovelli (2019)

Computational prediction of diagnosis and feature selection on mesothelioma patient health records.

PloS one, 14(1):e0208737 pii:PONE-D-18-17601.

BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma is a lung cancer that kills thousands of people worldwide annually, especially those with exposure to asbestos. Diagnosis of mesothelioma in patients often requires time-consuming imaging techniques and biopsies. Machine learning can provide for a more effective, cheaper, and faster patient diagnosis and feature selection from clinical data in patient records.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed a dataset of health records of 324 patients having mesothelioma symptoms from Turkey. The patients had prior asbestos exposure and displayed symptoms consistent with mesothelioma. We compared probabilistic neural network, perceptron-based neural network, random forest, one rule, and decision tree classifiers to predict diagnosis of the patient records. We measured classifiers' performance through standard confusion matrix scores such as Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). Random forest outperformed all models tried, obtaining MCC = +0.37 on the complete imbalanced dataset and MCC = +0.64 on the under-sampled balanced dataset. We then employed random forest feature selection to identify the two most relevant dataset traits associated with mesothelioma: lung side and platelet count. These two risk factors resulted so predictive, that decision tree focusing on them achieved the second top accuracy on the complete dataset diagnosis prediction (MCC = +0.28), outperforming all other methods and even decision tree itself applied to all features.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that machine learning can predict diagnoses of patients having mesothelioma symptoms with high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, in few minutes. Additionally, random forest can efficiently select the most important features of this clinical dataset (lung side and platelet count) in few seconds. The importance of pleural plaques in lung sides and blood platelets in mesothelioma diagnosis indicates that physicians should focus on these two features when reading records of patients with mesothelioma symptoms. Moreover, doctors can exploit our machinery to predict patient diagnosis when only lung side and platelet data are available.

RevDate: 2019-01-09

Taghizadeh F, Jafari AJ, Gholami M, et al (2019)

Monitoring of airborne asbestos fibers in an urban ambient air of Shahryar City, Iran: levels, spatial distribution, seasonal variations, and health risk assessment.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-018-4029-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Asbestos, as with other pollutants in the air, has adverse effects on the health of human beings and animals. Today, the relationship between presence of asbestos fibers in the air breathed by humans and developing serious diseases such as lung cancer (asbestosis) and mesothelioma has been proven. This study was designed and conducted within the time period of August 2017 and June 2018 to determine the concentration of asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City and to evaluate their health effects for the general population of the city. For this purpose, samples were taken from four points, and overall 32 air samples were taken along the year. The samples were then analyzed by the phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method. Also, to investigate the type of asbestos and for more accurate counting of fibers, SEM analysis was utilized. Finally, based on the EPA IRIS method, the health effects resulting from asbestos risks were also evaluated. The results of this study indicated that the mean annual concentration of asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City was obtained as 0.0019 f/ml PCM and 0.0072 f/ml SEM. Furthermore, the most polluted point was S1 point (0.0119 -0.0026 f/ml, PCM), while the lowest concentration was related to S4 point (0.001 f/ml PCM-0.0021 f/ml SEM). The mean annual risk resulting from airborne asbestos fiber in the ambient air of Shahryar City for all samples was obtained as 1.72 × 10-6 to 2.2 × 10-4, which was higher than the recommended risk range in some points.

RevDate: 2019-01-11

Lo Russo G, Tessari A, Capece M, et al (2018)

MicroRNAs for the Diagnosis and Management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: A Literature Review.

Frontiers in oncology, 8:650.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive tumor with a variable incidence among different countries. Occupational asbestos exposure is the most important etiological factor and a very long latency period is widely reported. In the early phase of the disease, clinical signs are absent or not specific. For this reason, the diagnosis is frequently achieved only in the advanced stages. The histopathological diagnosis per se is also very complex, and no known factor can predict the prognosis with certainty. Nonetheless, current survival rates remain very low, despite the use of standard treatments, which include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The identification of new prognostic and/or diagnostic biomarkers, and the discovery of therapeutic targets is a priority and could lead to a real significant impact on the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma. In this scenario, the role of microRNAs is becoming increasingly relevant, with the promise of a quick translation in the current clinical practice. Despite the relative novelty of this field, the number of works and candidate microRNAs that are present in literature is striking. Unfortunately, to date the microRNAs with the most clinical relevance for MPM are still matter of debate, probably due to the variety of approaches, techniques, and collected samples. Although specific microRNAs (e.g., let-7, miR-15 and miR-16, miR-21, miR-34a, and the miR-200 family) have been reported several times from different groups, the heterogeneity of published data reinforces the need of more comprehensive and unified studies on this topic. In this review we collect and discuss the studies focused on the involvement of microRNAs in different aspects of MPM, from their biological role in tumorigenesis and progression, to their possible application as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Lastly, we examine their potential value as for the design of therapeutic approaches that could benefit MPM patients.

RevDate: 2019-02-07

Zha L, Kitamura Y, Kitamura T, et al (2019)

Population-based cohort study on health effects of asbestos exposure in Japan.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

Occupational asbestos exposure occurs in many workplaces and is a well-known cause of mesothelioma and lung cancer. However, the association between nonoccupational asbestos exposure and those diseases is not clearly described. The aim of this study was to investigate cause-specific mortality among the residents of Amagasaki, a city in Japan with many asbestos factories, and evaluate the potential excess mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. The study population consisted of 143 929 residents in Amagasaki City before 1975 until 2002, aged 40 years or older on January 1, 2002. Follow-up was carried out from 2002 to 2015. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by sex, using the mortality rate of the Japanese population as reference. A total of 38 546 deaths (including 303 from mesothelioma and 2683 from lung cancer) were observed. The SMRs in the long-term residents' cohort were as follows: death due to all causes, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.10-1.13) in men and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.06-1.09) in women; lung cancer, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.23-1.34) in men and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.14-1.32) in women; and mesothelioma, 6.75 (95% CI, 5.83-7.78) in men and 14.99 (95% CI, 12.34-18.06) in women. These SMRs were significantly higher than expected. The increased SMR of mesothelioma suggests the impact of occupational asbestos exposure among men and nonoccupational asbestos exposure among women in the long-term residents' cohort. In addition, the high level of excess mortality from mesothelioma has persisted, despite the mixture of crocidolite and chrysotile no longer being used for three or four decades.

RevDate: 2019-01-23

Turini S, Bergandi L, Gazzano E, et al (2019)

Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Mesothelial Cells Exposed to Asbestos Fibers: Role of TGF-β as Mediator of Malignant Mesothelioma Development or Metastasis via EMT Event.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(1): pii:ijms20010150.

Asbestos exposure increases the risk of asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma (MM). Both fibrosis and cancer have been correlated with the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)-an event involved in fibrotic development and cancer progression. During EMT, epithelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype by modulating some proteins. Different factors can induce EMT, but Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) plays a crucial role in promoting EMT. In this work, we verified if EMT could be associated with MM development. We explored EMT in human mesothelial cells (MeT-5A) exposed to chrysotile asbestos: we demonstrated that asbestos induces EMT in MeT-5A cells by downregulating epithelial markers E-cadherin, β-catenin, and occludin, and contemporarily, by upregulating mesenchymal markers fibronectin, α-SMA, and vimentin, thus promoting EMT. In these cells, this mechanism is mediated by increased TGF-β secretion, which in turn downregulates E-cadherin and increases fibronectin. These events are reverted in the presence of TGF-β antibody, via a Small Mother Against Decapentaplegic (SMAD)-dependent pathway and its downstream effectors, such as Zinc finger protein SNAI1 (SNAIL-1), Twist-related protein (Twist), and Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox 1 (ZEB-1), which downregulate the E-cadherin gene. Since SNAIL-1, Twist, and ZEB-1 have been shown to be overexpressed in MM, these genes could be considered possible predictive or diagnostic markers of MM development.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Shehata M, Zaid F, Ottaviano P, et al (2019)

Case report: Steroid responsive mesothelioma-related pleural effusion.

Respiratory medicine case reports, 26:131-135 pii:S2213-0071(18)30324-1.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related tumor arising in the pleural cavity. Symptoms reflect extension of disease and include shortness of breath and chest pain. Unexplained pleural effusion and pleural pain in patients exposed to asbestos should raise the suspicion of MPM. The most common radiologic presentation is ipsilateral pleural effusion with or without pleural thickening or a mass. Thoracoscopic biopsy remains the most appropriate procedure for definitive diagnosis of mesothelioma. Despite advancement in diagnostic procedures and biomolecular research, this tumor nevertheless has poor prognosis. Mesothelioma remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is likely to remain one in the years to come. Here we present the first reported case of steroid treatment responsive pleural effusion in a 72 year-old-male that initially was misdiagnosed as rheumatoid related effusion. However, Pleuroscopy with biopsy revealed mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2019-01-28

Ye L, Ma S, Robinson BW, et al (2019)

Immunotherapy strategies for mesothelioma - the role of tumor specific neoantigens in a new era of precision medicine.

Expert review of respiratory medicine, 13(2):181-192.

INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has long been considered a potential therapy for malignant mesothelioma and is currently being pursued as such. Some of the early phase clinical trials involving immunomodulators have demonstrated encouraging results and numerous clinical trials are underway to further investigate this treatment approach in various treatment settings and larger patient cohorts. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current and emerging clinical evidence for checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapeutic strategies in mesothelioma. The mesothelioma tumor immune microenvironment and mutational landscape are also discussed, including their impact on treatment strategies. We also provide an evaluation of the current evidence for neoantigen targeted personalized immunotherapy. Expert opinion: Immune checkpoint inhibitors work by unleashing the host immune response against probable neoantigens. Despite impressive activity in a small subset of patients and the potential for prolonged responses, most patients experience treatment failure. Neoantigen vaccines provide a potential complementary therapeutic strategy by increasing the immunogenic antigen load, which can lead to an increased tumor specific immune response. Further research is needed explore this treatment option in mesothelioma and technological advances are required to translate this concept into clinical practice.

RevDate: 2019-02-24

McGehee E, Gerber DE, Reisch J, et al (2019)

Treatment and Outcomes of Primary Pericardial Mesothelioma: A Contemporary Review of 103 Published Cases.

Clinical lung cancer, 20(2):e152-e157.

Primary pericardial mesothelioma (PPM) is a rare cancer for which there is no consensus on treatment. We evaluated and summarized a large contemporary population of published PPM cases to characterize risk factors, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes. Using Ovid and PubMed, literature published from 2000 through 2016 was searched using the terms "primary pericardial mesothelioma," "pericardial mesothelioma," and "malignant pericardial mesothelioma." We identified 6 case series and 84 case reports for a total of 103 PPM cases published from 2000 through 2016. The median age at diagnosis was 55 years, and the median overall survival was 6 months. In univariate analyses of clinical characteristics including gender, asbestos exposure, tobacco use, prior radiation exposure, histologic subtype, and metastasis and/or mediastinal spread, only the presence of metastasis and/or mediastinal spread was a significant predictor of decreased survival (P = .015). Surgery did not provide a statistically significant survival benefit (P = .12). A survival benefit was noted in those who received chemotherapy (median survival, 13 months vs. 0.5 months, P = .002), specifically chemotherapy with a platinum agent with or without pemetrexed. In multivariate analysis, only the receipt of chemotherapy was associated with improved survival. PPM remains a rare and poorly understood malignancy with unclear etiology and a poor prognosis. In this retrospective systematic review, a survival benefit was seen in patients who received chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2019-02-15
CmpDate: 2019-02-13

Merlo DF, Bruzzone M, Bruzzi P, et al (2018)

Mortality among workers exposed to asbestos at the shipyard of Genoa, Italy: a 55 years follow-up.

Environmental health : a global access science source, 17(1):94 pii:10.1186/s12940-018-0439-1.

BACKGROUND: Exposure to asbestos remains a global issue due to its massive use in the twentieth century and its long environmental persistence. Exposure to asbestos still occurs during dismantling of ships and vessels, buildings renovation, mining operations, and is reported in developing countries. Current estimate report exposure of hundreds of million people in occupational settings in countries where its use remains unregulated.

METHODS: We conducted a historical prospective cohort mortality study aimed at estimating mortality from specific causes, the temporal changes of pleural and lung cancer mortality, and the attributable fraction (AF) of lung cancer deaths following asbestos exposure. The study included 3984 shipyard workers employed at the shipyard of Genoa, Italy, between 1960 and 1981 and followed up to December 2014. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed.

RESULTS: Overall deaths recorded were 3331 (83.6%). Excess mortality was observed for all cancers (SMR = 127, 95%CI:120-134), pleural mesothelioma (575, 469-697), cancers of the larynx (183, 134-244) and of the lung (154, 139-170), and for respiratory tract diseases (127, 114-141), including asbestosis (2277, 1525-3270). Ninety out of 399 deaths (22.6%) from lung cancer were attributed to asbestos exposure. The estimated lung cancer AF was 49.3% in workers with the highest SMR for pleural cancer. Median latency times for pleural and lung cancer were 42.8 years (minimum latency: 9.3 years) and 38.7 years (minimum latency: 6 years). The peak of mesothelioma incidence, expected in Italy in the period 2015-2024, was confirmed.

CONCLUSIONS: The long follow-up period of our study allowed the detection of a substantial disease burden following asbestos exposure. These findings support the urgent need for the prevention of asbestos related diseases through the implementation of asbestos ban worldwide, including those countries where asbestos is still mined, manufactured and used.

RevDate: 2019-02-15
CmpDate: 2019-02-13

Xu R, Barg FK, Emmett EA, et al (2018)

Association between mesothelioma and non-occupational asbestos exposure: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environmental health : a global access science source, 17(1):90 pii:10.1186/s12940-018-0431-9.

BACKGROUND: The risk of mesothelioma has been shown to be associated with exposure to asbestos fibers. Most of the existing literature focuses on occupational exposure; however, non-occupational asbestos exposure has also been identified as an important risk factor.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between mesothelioma and non-occupational asbestos exposure, and evaluate control recruitment and exposure measurement methods.

METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify case-control (CC) and cohort studies that examined the association between mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos, including neighborhood, domestic, and household exposure. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) and 95% confidence interval using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by exposure type, gender, region, and fiber type.

RESULTS: Twenty CC and 7 cohort studies were selected. Controls in CC studies were selected from the general population (55%), hospital records (18%), cancer registry (23%) and a combination of population and hospital records (5%). Multiple methods were used to measure neighborhood exposure (e.g., linear distance and direction of residence from an asbestos factory), domestic (e.g., whether living with an asbestos worker) and household exposure (e.g., whether involved in asbestos-containing home improvement projects). Primary meta-analyses suggested a SRRE of mesothelioma of 5.33 (95%CI: 2.53, 11.23) from neighborhood exposure, 4.31 (95%CI, 2.58, 7.20) from domestic exposure, and 2.41 (95%CI, 1.30, 4.48) from household exposure with large I2 statistics ranging from 83-99%.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-occupational asbestos exposure is significantly associated with an elevated risk of mesothelioma. Funnel plots indicated a potential of publication bias. Some SRREs should be interpreted with cautions because of high between-studies heterogeneity.

RevDate: 2019-01-10

Oddone E, Terracini B, Mirabelli D, et al (2018)

Comment on: Malignant mesothelioma diagnosed at a younger age is associated with heavier asbestos exposure.

Carcinogenesis pii:5250919 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-12-18

Kai Y, Tsutani Y, Ito M, et al (2019)

Metachronous Lung Cancer After Pleurectomy/Decortication.

The Annals of thoracic surgery, 107(1):e1-e3.

Pleurectomy/decortication is a surgical procedure for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and has been proposed as an alternative to extrapleural pneumonectomy. We report a second primary lung cancer developing after pleurectomy/decortication for MPM. A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with MPM on the right side and underwent pleurectomy/decortication. Follow-up computed tomography detected a nodule in the right upper lobe that was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma by wedge resection. Lung cancer and MPM are associated with asbestos exposure. However, predicting lung cancer after treatment for MPM is difficult. Careful follow-up of the spared lung is necessary for detecting second primary lung cancer or MPM recurrence.

RevDate: 2018-12-17

Schnatter AR, Wojcik NC, G Jorgensen (2018)

Mortality Update of a Cohort of Canadian Petroleum Workers.

Journal of occupational and environmental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This study updates the mortality experience of over 25,000 workers in a large Canadian petroleum company through December 31, 2006.

METHODS: Standardized Mortality Ratios were generated for all cause and specific cause mortality.

RESULTS: All cause and all cancer mortality were favorable compared to the general Canadian population. Cancers of previous interest were largely consistent with expectation. There is a continuing excess of mesothelioma, which is of similar magnitude as the previous update, although based on larger numbers. This excess is mostly attributable to men who died in their 50's and 60's and who worked in the refining sector.

CONCLUSIONS: Most causes of death show mortality rates lower than the Canadian general population. Given the excess of mesothelioma observed, this study supports ongoing vigilance in asbestos exposure control programs as refineries continue to remove asbestos from their facilities.

RevDate: 2019-01-08

Wörthmüller J, Oberson A, Salicio V, et al (2018)

Calretinin Functions in Malignant Mesothelioma Cells Cannot Be Replaced by the Closely Related Ca2+-Binding Proteins Calbindin-D28k and Parvalbumin.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(12): pii:ijms19124015.

Calretinin (CR; CALB2) belonging to the family of EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBP) is widely used as a positive marker for the identification of human malignant mesothelioma (MM) and functionally was suggested to play a critical role during carcinogenesis of this highly aggressive asbestos-associated neoplasm. Increasing evidence suggests that CR not only acts as a prototypical Ca2+ buffer protein, i.e., limiting the amplitude of Ca2+ signals but also as a Ca2+ sensor. No studies have yet investigated whether other closely related CaBPs might serve as substitutes for CR's functions(s) in MM cells. Genetically modified MM cell lines with medium (MSTO-211H and ZL5) or low (SPC111) endogenous CR expression levels were generated that overexpress either CR's closest homologue calbindin-D28k (CB) or parvalbumin (PV), the latter considered as a "pure" Ca2+ buffer protein. After lentiviral shCALB2-mediated CR downregulation, in both MSTO-211H and ZL5 cells expressing CB or PV, the CR deficiency-mediated increase in cell death was not prevented by CB or PV. With respect to proliferation and cell morphology of SPC111 cells, CB was able to substitute for CR, but not for CR's other functions to promote cell migration or invasion. In conclusion, CR has a likely unique role in MM that cannot be substituted by "similar" CaBPs.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Yamazoe M, Tomioka H, Kamada T, et al (2019)

Simultaneous presence of lung adenocarcinoma and malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report.

Respiratory medicine case reports, 26:45-49.

The co-presence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and lung cancer is rare. We report a 70-year-old male with exposure to asbestos. Chest computed tomography revealed a right mediastinal mass combined with an enlarged ipsilateral lymph node and left pleural effusion. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma. Thoracoscopic examination revealed multiple left pleural nodules, leading to the diagnosis of MPM. Despite aggressive anticancer drug therapy, he expired due to disease progression 2.5 years after diagnosis. Autopsy confirmed an epithelioid MPM in the left pleura. MPM comorbidity in patients diagnosed with lung cancer should be considered, especially in those exposed to asbestos.

RevDate: 2019-01-08

Lee LJ, Lin CK, Pan CH, et al (2018)

Clustering of malignant pleural mesothelioma in asbestos factories: a subgroup analysis in a 29-year follow-up study to identify high-risk industries in Taiwan.

BMJ open, 8(12):e021063 pii:bmjopen-2017-021063.

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to asbestos is the major cause for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but the causal link of individual cases is difficult to establish for lack of exposure information and long disease latency.

METHODS: We established a retrospective cohort of workers employed in asbestos industries during the period of 1950-1989 and the occurrence of MPM during the period of 1980-2009 was examined with the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Estimated rate ratios (eRRs) were computed for each factory where any case of MPM was diagnosed by assuming Poisson distribution with a minimal latency of 20 years.

RESULTS: A total of 18 MPM (17 males, 1 female) in eight factories were found. The incidence rate of MPM for the eight factories was 18.0 per million, ranging from 6.2 per million (military factory) to 268.2 per million (asbestos cement). We observed significantly increased risks for MPM in asbestos cement, thermal insulation and shipbuilding industries, with eRR (genders combined) of 113.6, 87.5 and 15.8, respectively. The sensitivity analyses considering latency showed similar findings in latency ≥30 years, and the shipbuilding industry presented a significant eRR given a latency ≥40 years. The gender-specific eRR showed similar results in men, but high eRR of 729.6 was observed in an asbestos cement factory where a female MPM was diagnosed.

CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study in Taiwan comprehensively shows that different asbestos manufacturing processes, including asbestos cement, thermal insulation and shipbuilding industries, were at significantly increased risks for MPM. We recommend to establish a medical screening programme for workers previously exposed to asbestos to identify MPM and other asbestos-related diseases at an earlier stage.

RevDate: 2018-12-11

Serio G, Vimercati L, Pennella A, et al (2018)

Genomic changes of chromosomes 8p23.1 and 1q21: Novel mutations in malignant mesothelioma.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 126:106-111.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy of the thoracic cavity caused by prior asbestos exposure. In the peritoneum the mesothelioma is an extremely rare condition. In the present preliminary study, high-resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) was performed to identify genetic imbalances in a series of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cases.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2008, among the cases recorded in the Apulia Mesothelioma Register, we found 22 peritoneal mesothelioma cases. CGH-array was performed on samples from all patients.

RESULTS: The CGH-array analysis revealed multiple chromosomal imbalances. Interestingly, deletion at 8p23.1 was observed in 12 cases. Furthermore, another novel deletion at 1q21 was present in 11. Often, 1q21 and 8p23.1 losses were present in the same patient (7 cases). Losses of BAP1 and CDKN2A loci were not detected.

DISCUSSION: The region at 8p23.1 contains the beta-defensin gene cluster (DEF) and 1q21 contains ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBE2Q1). We hypotesized that the loss of function of ubiquitination, as well as of the defensins, could play an important role in the initial development and subsequent progression of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2018-12-17

Chee J, Watson MW, Chopra A, et al (2018)

Tumour associated lymphocytes in the pleural effusions of patients with mesothelioma express high levels of inhibitory receptors.

BMC research notes, 11(1):864.

OBJECTIVE: Pleural effusion (PE) is a common feature of malignant pleural mesothelioma. These effusions typically contain lymphocytes and malignant cells. We postulated that the PE would be a source of lymphocytes for analysis of tumor immune milieu. The aim of this study was to compare the phenotype and T cell receptor usage of pleural effusion T cells with paired concurrently drawn peripheral blood lymphocytes. We used multi-parameter flow cytometry and high-throughput T cell receptor sequencing to analyse peripheral blood and pleural effusion mononuclear cells.

RESULTS: Both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from effusion showed increased expression of T cell inhibitory receptors PD-1, LAG-3 and Tim-3 compared to blood. Comprehensive T cell receptor sequencing on one of the patients showed a discordant distribution of clonotypes in the antigen-experienced (PD-1+) compartment between effusion and blood, suggesting an enrichment of antigen specific clonotypes in the effusion, with potential as an immunological response biomarker.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Okita R, Nojima Y, Saisho S, et al (2018)

Deciduoid type malignant pleural mesothelioma: a case report.

AME case reports, 2:43.

Here, we report a patient with deciduoid type malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), which rapidly progressed. A 55-year-old man who might have been exposed to asbestos a few decades ago had severe back pain. The chest X-ray scanning and computed tomography (CT) revealed pleural thickness on his right thoracic space, without the presence of a lung mass. A pleural biopsy was performed and the patient was histologically diagnosed with deciduoid type MPM. Although he received two cycles of chemotherapy, his disease rapidly progressed and he died within two months of the diagnosis of deciduoid type MPM.

RevDate: 2019-01-15

Izquierdo-Sánchez V, Muñiz-Hernández S, Vázquez-Becerra H, et al (2018)

Biodistribution and Tumor Uptake of 67Ga-Nimotuzumab in a Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Xenograft.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(12): pii:molecules23123138.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common tumor of the pulmonary pleura. It is a rare and aggressive malignancy, generally associated with continuous occupational exposure to asbestos. Only a multimodal-approach to treatment, based on surgical resection, chemotherapy and/or radiation, has shown some benefits. However, the survival rate remains low. Nimotuzumab (h-R3), an anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) humanized antibody, is proposed as a promising agent for the treatment of MPM. The aim of this research was to implement a procedure for nimotuzumab radiolabeling to evaluate its biodistribution and affinity for EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptors present in a mesothelioma xenograft. Nimotuzumab was radiolabeled with 67Ga; radiolabel efficiency, radiochemical purity, serum stability, and biodistribution were evaluated. Biodistribution and tumor uptake imaging studies by microSPECT/CT in mesothelioma xenografts revealed constant nimotuzumab uptake at the tumor site during the first 48 h after drug administration. In vivo studies using MPM xenografts showed a significant uptake of this radioimmunoconjugate, which illustrates its potential as a biomarker that could promote its theranostic use in patients with MPM.

RevDate: 2018-12-04

Till JE, Beck HL, Boice JD, et al (2018)

Asbestos Exposure and Mesothelioma Mortality among Atomic Veterans.

International journal of radiation biology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: During the Cold War the United States (U.S.) conducted 230 above-ground atmospheric nuclear weapons tests between 1945 and 1962 at the Nevada Test Site and the Pacific Proving Grounds. These tests involved over 250,000 military personnel. Asbestos was used on the naval vessels for insulation in the boiler room, engine room, and other areas. This is the first quantitative assessment of asbestos-related mesothelioma, including cancers of the pleura and peritoneum, among military personnel who participated in above-ground nuclear weapons testing.

METHODS: Approximately 114,000 atomic veterans were selected for an epidemiological study because they were in one of eight series of weapons tests that were associated with somewhat higher personnel exposures than the other tests and because they have been previously studied. We were able to categorize specific jobs into potential for asbestos exposure based on a detailed database of the military activities of the atomic veterans, developed using historical records provided by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by service, rank(officer/enlisted) and ratings (occupation code and work location aboard ship) after 65 years of follow-up… Results: Mesothelioma deaths were significantly increased overall (SMR 1.56; 95% CI 1.32-1.82; n= 153). This increase was seen only among those serving in the Pacific Proving Ground (SMR 1.97; 95% CI 1.65-2.34; n= 134), enlisted men (SMR 1.81; 95% CI 1.53-2.13; n= 145) and the 70,309 navy personnel (SMR 2.15; 95% CI 1.80-2.56; n= 130). No increased mortality rates were seen among the other services: army (SMR 0.45), air force (SMR 0.85) or marines (SMR 0.75). Job categories with the highest potential for asbestos exposure (machinist's mates, boiler technicians, water tender, pipe fitters, and fireman) had an of SMR 6.47. Job categories with lower potential (SMR =1.35) or no potential (SMR =1.28) for asbestos exposure had non-significantly elevated mesothelioma mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Although jobs with high potential for exposure to asbestos products were held by only 20% of the enlisted naval population, sailors with these jobs (machinist's mate, pipe fitter, boiler technician, water tender and fireman) experienced 55% of mesothelioma deaths. The significantly higher mortality rate overall was explained by asbestos exposure among enlisted naval personnel in this low-dose radiation exposed cohort.

RevDate: 2018-11-30

Regragui M, NB Guebessi (2018)

Primary Malignant Deciduoid Mesothelioma: A Challenging Diagnosis.

Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Primary malignant deciduoid mesothelioma is a rare subtype of epithelioid mesothelioma that was first described in the peritoneum in young women without a history of asbestos exposure. It was thought to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity with ominous prognosis; recent studies have better characterized this entity. On morphology, primary malignant deciduoid mesothelioma is characterized by cytomorphologic features resembling decidualized tissue. Pleomorphism is variable. The immunoprofile is similar to other epithelioid mesotheliomas. The prognosis is the same as other epithelioid mesotheliomas and seems to depend on histological grade.

RevDate: 2018-11-29

Dournes G, Dubois A, Benlala I, et al (2018)

3-Dimensional Quantification of Composite Pleural Plaque Volume in Patients Exposed to Asbestos Using High-resolution Computed Tomography: A Validation Study.

Journal of thoracic imaging [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: As pleural plaque has been reported as a risk factor in the occurrence of lung cancer and mesothelioma, a reproducible and precise method of measurement of pleural plaque volume (PPV) is needed to further describe these relationships. The aim of the study was to assess the reproducibility of a 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetric analysis of PPV in patients with occupational exposure to asbestos.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 28 patients were retrospectively randomly selected from the multicenter APEXS (Asbestos Post Exposure Survey) study, which was held between 2003 and 2005. All patients underwent a 3D-CT scan. Two readers specialized in chest radiology completed the 3D semiautomated quantification of lung volume using dedicated software. They also had to categorize the visual extent of pleural plaque in terms of thickness and circumference. Reproducibility of the continuous PPV variable was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Reproducibility of categorical variables was assessed using the κ test.

RESULTS: Intraobserver reproducibility of PPV was almost perfect (ICC=0.98 [95% interval: 0.97-0.99]), and interobserver reproducibility was very good (ICC=0.93 [0.88-0.97]). At Bland-Altman analysis, the mean differences were 0.1 (limit of agreement: -11.0 to 11.2) and 3.7 cc (-17.8 to 25.2), respectively. Visual analysis of both plaque in terms of thickness and circumference were fair to moderate, with κ values ranging from 0.30 to 0.60.

CONCLUSIONS: 3D semiautomatic quantification of PPV is feasible and reproducible using CT in patients with occupational exposure to asbestos. PPV measurement may be useful to correlate with other asbestos-related disease outcomes and prognosis.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Park S, Park J, Lee E, et al (2018)

Ovarian cancer in a former asbestos textile factory worker: a case report.

Annals of occupational and environmental medicine, 30:65.

Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) defined that asbestos is a group 1 substance that causes lung cancer, mesothelioma (pleura and peritoneum), laryngeal cancer, and ovarian cancer in humans. Many studies on lung cancer, and mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure have been conducted, but there was no case report of ovarian cancer due to asbestos exposure in Korea. We describe a case of ovarian cancer caused by asbestos exposure in a worker who worked at an asbestos textile factory for 3 years and 7 months in the late 1970s.

Case presentation: A 57-year-old woman visited the hospital because she had difficulty urinating. Ovarian cancer was suspected in radiologic examination, and exploratory laparotomy was performed. She was diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. The patient did not undergo postoperative chemotherapy and recovered. She joined the asbestos factory in March 1976 and engaged in asbestos textile twisting and spinning for 1 year, 2 years and 7 months respectively. In addition, she lived near the asbestos factory for more than 20 years. There was no other specificity or family history.

Conclusion: Considering the patient's occupational and environmental history, it is estimated that she had been exposed to asbestos significantly, so we determined that ovarian cancer in the patient is highly correlated with the occupational exposure of asbestos and environmental exposure is a possible cause as well. Social devices are needed to prevent further exposure to asbestos. It is also necessary to recognize that ovarian cancer can occur in workers who have previously been exposed to asbestos, and the education and social compensation for those workers are needed.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Tlotleng N, Sidwell Wilson K, Naicker N, et al (2019)

The significance of non-occupational asbestos exposure in women with mesothelioma.

Respirology case reports, 7(1):e00386.

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive pleural or peritoneal tumour almost always caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. Exposure to asbestos can cause malignant mesothelioma 30-40 years after exposure. A description of sources of exposure is important for prevention and possible financial compensation. Three women with cases of histologically confirmed malignant mesothelioma diagnosed from non-occupational asbestos exposure are described. Patients were contacted for an interview to assess their exposure history to asbestos. All three cases had mixed exposure histories related to secondary, environmental contamination, and domestic exposure. This case series highlight how ubiquitous asbestos is in the environment and how diverse the exposures may be. It is anticipated that a significant number of cases of non-occupational mesothelioma will be seen in many countries for several decades given the extent of asbestos containing materials.

RevDate: 2019-02-22

Consonni D, C Mensi (2019)

Comment on the paper 'Boffetta et al. Validation of the diagnosis of mesothelioma and BAP1 protein expression in a cohort of asbestos textile workers from Northern Italy. Ann Oncol 2018; 29(2): 484-489'.

Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology, 30(2):340-341.

RevDate: 2018-12-05

Krówczyńska M, Wilk E, Pabjanek P, et al (2018)

Pleural mesothelioma in Poland: Spatial analysis of malignant mesothelioma prevalence in the period 1999-2013.

Geospatial health, 13(2):.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM), a rare and very deadly tumour, can be due to asbestos exposure. To better understand the cause of incidence of MM, spatial autocorrelation analysis with reference to the quantity of asbestos-cement products in use and the localisation of former asbestos manufacturing plants was applied. Geostatistical analysis shows that strong spatial clustering of MM incidence (referring to the general population as well as females and males separately) during the period 1999-2013 in the administrative units of Poland (provinces and counties). Incidence hotspots were found to be concentrated primarily in southern Poland but also seen in the county of Szczecin, which stands out in local autocorrelation analysis in north-western Poland. High incidence rates were discovered, in particular with reference to counties around former plants manufacturing asbestos-containing products, mainly asbestos-cement manufacturers. The highest frequency of MM incidence rate was found in within a 55 km radius of plants in or near the towns Trzebinia, Ogrodzieniec and Szczucin in the South, where asbestos-cement products had been manufactured for close to 40 years. Areas with significantly high incidence rates were also discovered in the provinces of Śląskie, Małopolskie and Świętokrzyskie in southern Poland.

RevDate: 2018-12-07

Broeckx G, P Pauwels (2018)

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: a review.

Translational lung cancer research, 7(5):537-542.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a very rare malignancy of the peritoneum and has a poor prognosis. Of all mesotheliomas, pleural mesothelioma is more common than MPM. In comparison to pleural mesothelioma, the link with asbestos exposure is weaker (33-50% vs. >80%), but it is still the best-defined risk factor. MPM spreads predominantly expansive rather than infiltrative and symptoms are related to tumor spread within the abdominal cavity. Often, MPM is encountered incidentally by diagnostic imaging or by surgery. Computed tomography scan is widely accepted as a first line modality in diagnostic imaging. In diagnostic histopathology, MPM presents some challenges. Firstly, adequate clinical information is of utmost importance to consider the possibility of the diagnosis of MPM. Furthermore, a few morphological subtypes and variants exist. The most sensitive immunohistochemical markers are calretinin (100%), WT1 (94%) and CK5/6 (89%). The malignant character of immunohistochemically demonstrated mesothelial cells is not always obvious. This paradigm somewhat changed with the advent of immunohistochemical demonstration of BAP1 (BRCA-1 associated protein 1). Loss of BAP1 expression supports a diagnosis of malignancy. The gold standard in treatment remains cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Targetable molecular pathways in MPM are being identified. An exciting finding was the demonstration of ALK rearrangements in a small subset of patients with MPM and it is hoped for that at least this small subgroup of patients could benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitors. First-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) did not show any significant activity in MPM. In contrast, nintedanib, an angiokinase inhibitor, improved progression-free survival and bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody increased overall survival in patients with MPM, when administered in combination with cisplatin and pemetrexed. Ongoing immunotherapy trials will offer a possible new treatment.

RevDate: 2018-12-07

Brusselmans L, Arnouts L, Millevert C, et al (2018)

Breath analysis as a diagnostic and screening tool for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a systematic review.

Translational lung cancer research, 7(5):520-536.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumour related to a historical exposure to asbestos fibres. Currently, the definite diagnosis is made only by the histological examination of a biopsy obtained through an invasive thoracoscopy. However, diagnosis is made too late for curative treatment because of non-specific symptoms mainly appearing at advanced stage disease. Hence, due to its biologic aggressiveness and the late diagnosis, survival rate is low and the patients' outcome poor. In addition, radiological imaging, like computed tomographic scans, and blood biomarkers are found not to be sensitive enough to be used as an early diagnostic tool. Detection in an early stage is assumed to improve the patients' outcome but is hampered due to non-specific and late symptomology. Hence, there is a need for a new screening and diagnostic test which could improve the patients' outcome. Despite extensive research has focused on blood biomarkers, not a single has been shown clinically useful, and therefore research recently shifted to "breathomics" techniques to recognize specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of the patient as potential non-invasive biomarkers for disease. In this review, we summarize the acquired knowledge about using breath analysis for diagnosing and monitoring MPM and asbestos-related disorders (ARD). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the gold standard of breath analysis, appears to be the method with the highest accuracy (97%) to differentiate MPM patients from at risk asbestos-exposed subjects. There have already been found some interesting biomarkers that are significantly elevated in asbestosis (NO, 8-isoprostane, leukotriene B4, α-Pinene…) and MPM (cyclohexane) patients. Regrettably, the different techniques and the plethora of studies suffer some limitations. Most studies are pilot studies with the inclusion of a limited number of patients. Nevertheless, given the promising results and easy sampling methods, we can conclude that breath analysis may become a useful tool in the future to screen for MPM, but further research is warranted.

RevDate: 2018-12-07

Nuyts V, Nawrot T, Nemery B, et al (2018)

Hotspots of malignant pleural mesothelioma in Western Europe.

Translational lung cancer research, 7(5):516-519.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma, a highly invasive tumour, has been epidemiologically linked to an occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos. Although asbestos has been widely used in diverse industrial applications and in construction, some industrial sectors have been affected much more than others. The objective of this review was to describe the existence of clusters of malignant pleural mesothelioma in Western European countries, based on epidemiological studies published between 2000 and 2015. MEDLINE (PubMed) and Embase were searched for relevant studies on spatial clustering of mesothelioma in Western European countries. Eventually, 16 different studies published between 2000 and 2015 were selected for a comprehensive analysis. Relevant studies on spatial clustering of mesothelioma were found for Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, Italy and Denmark. Clustering of pleural mesothelioma was found mainly around shipyards (16 studies) and asbestos cement industries (10 studies). Although malignant pleural mesothelioma may be found throughout Western Europe, the present study indicates specific areas with higher past and also probable future incidence.

RevDate: 2018-12-20

Feder IS, Jülich M, Tannapfel A, et al (2018)

[The German Mesothelioma Register : Current pathological diagnostics and services].

Der Pathologe, 39(Suppl 2):241-246.

BACKGROUND: In Germany, asbestos-related diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma) are recognised and compensated occupational diseases. The histologic diagnosis of mesothelioma is sometimes a challenge; additional immunohistochemical and molecular methods are needed. With lung dust analysis, the current asbestos fibre burden of the lung is measured (biomonitoring). Identification of grade I asbestosis (minimal asbestosis) requires directed histological examinations with up to 400-fold magnification, additional iron staining and possibly in connection with a lung dust analysis.

OBJECTIVES: Demonstration of current pathologic diagnostics in association with mesothelioma and lung dust analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of routine data from the German Mesothelioma Register.

RESULTS: Contrary to reactive mesothelial hyperplasia, malignant mesotheliomas have a nuclear BAP1 loss-of-expression in up to 66% of cases. For differential diagnosis between reactive versus malignant, a p16-FISH test may be helpful. BAP1 loss-of-expression and p16-deletion are independent markers. Evaluation of the dataset of the German Mesothelioma Register of patients with repeated tissue sampling proves the detection of asbestos fibres at the same level even after 40 years. The asbestos fibre burden in the human lung remains stable over this long period of time. In the electron microscopic analysis, white asbestos was predominantly found.

CONCLUSIONS: The well-known and industrially appreciated characteristics of asbestos fibres (in ancient ἄσβεστος asbestos "imperishable") as biopersistent have also been experimentally confirmed in human lungs.

RevDate: 2019-01-11
CmpDate: 2019-01-11

Kumagai-Takei N, Nishimura Y, Matsuzaki H, et al (2018)

Decrease in Intracellular Perforin Levels and IFN-γ Production in Human CD8+ T Cell Line following Long-Term Exposure to Asbestos Fibers.

Journal of immunology research, 2018:4391731.

Although the tumorigenicity of asbestos, which is thought to cause mesothelioma, has been clarified, its effect on antitumor immunity requires further investigation. We previously reported a decrease in the percentage of perforin+ cells of stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes derived from patients with malignant mesothelioma. Therefore, we examined the effects of long-term exposure to asbestos on CD8+ T cell functions by comparing long-term cultures of the human CD8+ T cell line EBT-8 with and without exposure to chrysotile (CH) asbestos as an in vitro model. Exposure to CH asbestos at 5 μg/ml or 30 μg/ml did not result in a decrease in intracellular granzyme B in EBT-8 cells. In contrast, the percentage of perforin+ cells decreased at both doses of CH exposure. CH exposure at 30 μg/ml did not suppress degranulation following stimulation with antibodies to CD3. Secreted production of IFN-γ stimulated via CD3 decreased by CH exposure at 30 μg/ml, although the percentage of IFN-γ+ cells induced by PMA/ionomycin did not decrease. These results indicate that long-term exposure to asbestos can potentially suppress perforin levels and the production of IFN-γ in human CD8+ T cells.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Røe OD (2018)

[Asbestos and mesothelioma in Denmark 2017: status of a man-made cancer epidemic].

Ugeskrift for laeger, 180(46):.

Asbestos-induced cancer is an increasing problem in Denmark, and 32 years after the closure of the Danish Eternit Factory in Aalborg there are > 140 new mesothelioma cases diagnosed yearly, numbers rapidly increasing. Asbestos-induced lung cancer may be six times this number. The non-occupational exposure and even neighborhood exposure as a risk factor suggests, that compensation for mesothelioma should be universal. At the Aalborg University Hospital a multidisciplinary research team has been formed to do epidemiological, translational and clinical studies through national and international collaborations. Transformative research on asbestos cancer should be stimulated.

RevDate: 2018-12-26

Berzenji L, P Van Schil (2018)

Multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

F1000Research, 7:.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease of the pleura and is largely related to asbestos exposure. Despite recent advancements in technologies and a greater understanding of the disease, the prognosis of MPM remains poor; the median overall survival rate is about 6 to 9 months in untreated patients. The main therapeutic strategies for MPM are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy (RT). The two main surgical approaches for MPM are extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), in which the lung is removed en bloc, and pleurectomy/decortication, in which the lung stays in situ. Chemotherapy usually consists of a platinum-based chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, often combined with a folate antimetabolite, such as pemetrexed. More recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a possible therapeutic strategy for MPM. Evidence suggests that single-modality treatments are not an effective therapeutic approach for MPM. Therefore, researchers have started to explore different multimodality treatment approaches, in which often combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and RT are investigated. There is still no definitive answer to the question of which multimodality treatment combinations are most effective in improving the poor prognosis of MPM. Research into the effects of trimodality treatment approaches have found that radical approaches such as EPP and hemithoracic RT post-EPP are less effective than was previously assumed. In general, there are still a great number of unanswered questions and unknown factors regarding the ideal treatment approach for MPM. Hopefully, more research into multimodality therapy will provide insight into which combination of treatment modalities is most effective.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Guarrera S, Viberti C, Cugliari G, et al (2019)

Peripheral Blood DNA Methylation as Potential Biomarker of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Asbestos-Exposed Subjects.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 14(3):527-539.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Patients are usually diagnosed when current treatments have limited benefits, highlighting the need for noninvasive early diagnostic tests to monitor asbestos-exposed people.

METHODS: We used a genome-wide methylation array to identify, in asbestos-exposed subjects, novel blood DNA methylation markers of MPM in 163 MPM cases and 137 cancer-free controls (82 MPM cases and 68 controls, training set; replication in 81 MPM cases and 69 controls, test set) sampled from the same areas.

RESULTS: Evidence of differential methylation between MPM cases and controls was found (more than 800 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites, false discovery rate p value (pfdr) < 0.05), mainly in immune system-related genes. Considering the top differentially methylated signals, seven single- cytosine-guanine dinucleotides and five genomic regions of coordinated methylation replicated with similar effect size in the test set (pfdr < 0.05). The top hypomethylated single-CpG (cases versus controls effect size less than -0.15, pfdr < 0.05 in both the training and test sets) was detected in FOXK1 (Forkhead-box K1) gene, an interactor of BAP1 which was found mutated in MPM tissue and as germline mutation in familial MPM. In the test set, comparison of receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) of two models, including or excluding methylation, showed a significant increase in case/control discrimination when considering DNA methylation together with asbestos exposure (AUC = 0.81 versus AUC = 0.89, DeLong's test p = 0.0013).

CONCLUSIONS: We identified signatures of differential methylation in DNA from whole blood between asbestos exposed MPM cases and controls. Our results provide the rationale to further investigate, in prospective studies, the potential use of blood DNA methylation profiles for the identification of early changes related to the MPM carcinogenic process.

RevDate: 2018-11-07

Matsushita A, Sato T, Mukai S, et al (2018)

TAZ activation by Hippo pathway dysregulation induces cytokine gene expression and promotes mesothelial cell transformation.

Oncogene pii:10.1038/s41388-018-0417-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) constitutes a very aggressive tumor that is caused by asbestos exposure after long latency. The NF2 tumor suppressor gene is mutated in 40-50% of MM; moreover, one of its downstream signaling cascades, the Hippo signaling pathway, is also frequently inactivated in MM cells. Although the YAP transcriptional coactivator, which is regulated by the Hippo pathway, can function as a pro-oncogenic protein, the role of TAZ, a paralog of YAP, in MM cells has not yet been clarified. Here, we show that TAZ is expressed and underphosphorylated (activated) in the majority of MM cells compared to immortalized mesothelial cells. ShRNA-mediated TAZ knockdown highly suppressed cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell motility, and invasion in MM cells harboring activated TAZ. Conversely, transduction of an activated form of TAZ in immortalized mesothelial cells enhanced these in vitro phenotypes and conferred tumorigenicity in vivo. Microarray analysis determined that activated TAZ most significantly enhanced the transcription of genes related to "cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction." Among selected cytokines, we found that IL-1 signaling activation plays a major role in proliferation in TAZ-activated MM cells. Both IL1B knockdown and an IL-1 receptor antagonist significantly suppressed malignant phenotypes of immortalized mesothelial cells and MM cells with activated TAZ. Overall, these results indicate an oncogenic role for TAZ in MMs via transcriptional induction of distinct pro-oncogenic genes including cytokines. Among these, IL-1 signaling appears as one of the most important cascades, thus potentially serving as a target pathway in MM cells harboring Hippo pathway inactivation.

RevDate: 2018-10-30

Pastorino S, Yoshikawa Y, Pass HI, et al (2018)

A Subset of Mesotheliomas With Improved Survival Occurring in Carriers of BAP1 and Other Germline Mutations.

Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that four criteria could help identify malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) most likely linked to germline mutations of BAP1 or of other genes: family history of MM, BAP1-associated cancers, or multiple malignancies; or age younger than 50 years.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over the course of 7 years, 79 patients with MM met the four criteria; 22 of the 79 (28%) reported possible asbestos exposure. They were screened for germline BAP1 mutations by Sanger sequencing and by targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) for germline mutations in 55 additional cancer-linked genes. Deleterious mutations detected by tNGS were validated by Sanger sequencing.

RESULTS: Of the 79 patients, 43 (16 probands and 27 relatives) had deleterious germline BAP1 mutations. The median age at diagnosis was 54 years and median survival was 5 years. Among the remaining 36 patients with no BAP1 mutation, median age at diagnosis was 45 years, median survival was 9 years, and 12 had deleterious mutations of additional genes linked to cancer. When compared with patients with MMs in the SEER cohort, median age at diagnosis (72 years), median survival for all MM stages (8 months), and stage I (11 months) were significantly different from the 79 patients with MM in the current study (P < .0001).

CONCLUSION: We provide criteria that help identify a subset of patients with MM who had significantly improved survival. Most of these patients were not aware of asbestos exposure and carried either pathogenic germline mutations of BAP1 or of additional genes linked to cancer, some of which may have targeted-therapy options. These patients and their relatives are susceptible to development of additional cancers; therefore, genetic counseling and cancer screening should be considered.

RevDate: 2019-02-15

Laaksonen S, Ilonen I, Kuosma E, et al (2019)

Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Finland: regional and gender variation.

Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden), 58(1):38-44.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare occupational cancer with a poor prognosis. Even with a multimodality treatment approach, the treatment outcomes remain unsatisfactory. The use of asbestos has been banned in most developed countries, but MPM continues to be a significant occupational disease also in these countries. Aim of this study is to identify modern epidemiology and assess equality in care.

METHODS: Our study cohort consists of 1010 patients diagnosed with MPM in Finland during 2000-2012. The data were collected from the Finnish Cancer Registry, the National Workers' Compensation Center Registry and the National Registry of Causes of Death, Statistics Finland.

RESULTS: Women were diagnosed a mean of 4.5 years later than males (p = .001), but survival did not differ (overall median survival 9.7 months). A workers' compensation claim was more common in males (OR 11.0 [95% CI 7.5-16.2]) and in regions with a major asbestos industry (OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.3-2.2]). One-year and three-year survivals did not differ regionally. Patients without chemotherapy treatment had an inferior survival (RR 1.8 [95% CI 1.5-2.0]). The initial survival benefit gained with pemetrexed was diluted at 51 months.

CONCLUSIONS: MPM is a disease with a poor prognosis, although chemotherapy appears to improve survival time. Significant gender and regional variation exists among patients, with notable differences in diagnostic and treatment practices. Long-term outcomes with pemetrexed remain indeterminate.

IMPACT: Emphasize centralized consult services for the diagnosis, treatment and support that patients receive for MPM, facilitating equal outcomes and compensation.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Plato N, Martinsen JI, Kjaerheim K, et al (2018)

Mesothelioma in Sweden: Dose-Response Analysis for Exposure to 29 Potential Occupational Carcinogenic Agents.

Safety and health at work, 9(3):290-295.

Background: There is little information on the dose-response relationship between exposure to occupational carcinogenic agents and mesothelioma. This study aimed to investigate this association as well as the existence of agents other than asbestos that might cause mesothelioma.

Methods: The Swedish component of the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) study consists of 6.78 million individuals with detailed information on occupation. Mesothelioma diagnoses recorded in 1961-2009 were identified through linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. We determined cumulative exposure, time of first exposure, and maximum exposure intensity by linking data on occupation to the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix, which includes 29 carcinogenic agents and corresponding exposure for 283 occupations. To assess the risk of mesothelioma, we used conditional logistic regression models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

Results: 2,757 mesothelioma cases were identified in males, including 1,416 who were exposed to asbestos. Univariate analyses showed not only a significant excess risk for maximum exposure intensity, with a hazard ratio of 4.81 at exposure levels 1.25-2.0 fb/ml but also a clear dose-response effect for cumulative exposure with a 30-, 40-, and 50-year latency time. No convincing excess risk was revealed for any of the other carcinogenic agents included in the Swedish NOCCA job-exposure matrix.

Conclusion: When considering asbestos exposure, past exposure, even for short periods, might be enough to cause mesothelioma of the pleura later in life.

RevDate: 2019-01-26

Harris EJA, Kao S, McCaughan B, et al (2019)

Prediction modelling using routine clinical parameters to stratify survival in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 14(2):288-293.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon cancer with a poor prognosis and heterogeneous survival. Surgery for MPM is offered in some specialist centers to highly selected patients. A previously described classification and regression tree (CART) model stratified survival in unselected MPM patients using routinely collected clinical data. This study aimed to examine the performance of this CART model on a highly selected surgical population.

METHODS: Data were collected from subjects undergoing cytoreductive surgery for MPM from specialist centers in Hyõgo, Japan, and Sydney, Australia, between 1991 and 2016. The CART model was applied using the combination of clinical variables to stratify subjects into risk groups (1 through 4); survival characteristics were then compared.

RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-nine cases were included (205 from Australia, 84 from Japan). Overall median survival was 34.6 (interquartile range: 17.5-56.1) months; median age was 63.0 (interquartile range: 57.0-67.8) years, and 83.0% (n = 240) were male. There were no clinically meaningful differences between the two cohorts. Survival across the four risk groups was significantly different (p < 0.0001); the model stratified survival well with a Harrell's concordance statistic of 0.62 (95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.66) at 36 months. The group with the longest survival (median, 82.5 months) had: no weight loss, hemoglobin > 153 g/L and serum albumin > 43 g/L at time of referral to the surgical center.

CONCLUSIONS: Using routinely available clinical variables, the CART model was able to stratify surgical patients into risk groups with statistically different survival characteristics with fair to good performance. Presence of weight loss, anemia, and low albumin should confer caution when considering surgical therapy for MPM.

RevDate: 2018-10-26

Trenti E, Palermo SM, D'Elia C, et al (2018)

Malignant mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis: Report of a very rare case with review of the literature.

Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica, 90(3):212-214.

INTRODUCTION: Mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis is a extremely rare tumor and represents 0.3 to 0.5% of all malignant mesotheliomas. Exposure to asbestos often precedes illness. Because of its low incidence and nonspecific clinical presentation, it is mostly diagnosed accidentally during surgery for other reasons and the prognosis is usually poor. We present a case of a patient with a mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis, diagnosed secondarily during hydrocele surgery, with long-term survival after radical surgery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: a 40 years old patient was admitted to our department for routine surgery of a left hydrocele. During the operation a frozen section analysis was requested because of the unusual nodular thickening of the tunica vaginalis: the examination revealed a diffuse malignant mesothelioma with epithelioid structure and tubular-papillary proliferation. Therefore a left hemi-scrotectomy with left inguinal lymph node dissection was performed.

RESULTS: The definitive histology confirmed the previous report of diffuse malignant mesothelioma with angio-invasion but normal testicle findings and negative lymph nodes. No metastases were found on the CT-scan. For the first 2 years a CT was repeated every 4 months, for other 3 years every 6 months and then yearly. Six years after surgery the patient is classified as no evidence of disease.

CONCLUSIONS: malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis is a rare entity, often initially thought to be a hydrocele or an epididymal cyst. An aggressive approach with hemiscrotectomy with or without inguinal and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy can reduce the risk of recurrence.

RevDate: 2019-01-17

Matboli M, Shafei AE, Ali MA, et al (2019)

Clinical significance of serum DRAM1 mRNA, ARSA mRNA, hsa-miR-2053 and lncRNA-RP1-86D1.3 axis expression in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Journal of cellular biochemistry, 120(3):3203-3211.

AIM AND BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a lethal cancer mainly caused by chronic exposure of asbestos. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess the expression of serum RNA-based biomarker panel exploring their clinical utility as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for MPM.

METHODS: We have selected an MPM-specific RNA-based biomarker panel through bioinformatics analysis based on the integration of DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 1 (DRAM1) and arylsulfatase A (ARSA) gene expression with their epigenetic regulators microRNA (miR-2053) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA-RP1-86D1.3). Then, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validation in sera of 60 MPM patients, 20 chronic asbestos exposure patients, and 20 healthy volunteers was done. Lastly, the prognostic power of the selected panel was assessed.

RESULTS: The expression of serum DRAM1 messenger RNA (mRNA), ARSA mRNA, hsa-miR-2053 and lncRNA-RP1-86D1.3 were positive in 78.3%, 90%, 85%, and 83.3% of MPM patients, respectively. The RNA-based biomarker panel was able to discriminate between MPM patients and controls with high accuracy and their combined sensitivity reached 100% for the diagnosis of MPM. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that hsa-miR-2053 is an independent prognostic factor of MPM.

CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data revealed that the chosen RNAs play an important role in driving MPM development and progression.

RevDate: 2018-12-17

Pascotto E, Gianoncelli A, Calligaro C, et al (2018)

Ferruginous bodies resolved by synchrotron XRF in a dog with peritoneal malignant mesothelioma.

Environmental science and pollution research international, 25(35):35707-35714.

Mesothelioma is a malignant tumor mainly correlated to occupational asbestos exposure. Rare reports describe its occurrence also in animals, mainly linked to asbestos in the environment. Asbestos exposure is demonstrated by the appearance of characteristic histological hallmarks: asbestos containing ferruginous bodies that are iron-based structures forming around fibers and also other dust particles. Here we present a clinical case of a suspect of mesothelioma in the peritoneum of a dog with parallel histological observation of ferruginous bodies. To possibly correlate the dog tumor to environmental exposure, we performed X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses at two different synchrotrons to resolve the ferruginous bodies' composition. While the histological examination diagnoses a tubulo-papillary mesothelioma, the XRF analyses show that ferruginous bodies contain Si particles, resembling formations of exogenous origin; however, the morphology is unlikely that of asbestos fibers. We speculate that the peritoneal mesothelioma of this dog could be related to environmental exposure to non-asbestos material.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Ibrahim AM, Al-Akchar M, Obaidi Z, et al (2018)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: A Rare Cause of Ascites.

Journal of investigative medicine high impact case reports, 6:2324709618807506.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare diagnosis that presents with difficulties in diagnosis and management. This article reports a case of an 88-year-old male who presented with a 2-week history of abdominal distention and bloating. He worked at an insulation production factory between the ages of 23 and 25 years with presumed asbestos exposure. On the computed tomography scan of the abdomen/pelvis, the patient was found to have diffuse omental, peritoneal, and mesenteric nodularity with moderate to large ascites. Omental biopsy revealed MPM. The overall prognosis of MPM remains poor, with a median survival time of 12 months at the time of diagnosis. Treatment modalities offered in the United States include chemotherapy alone, cytoreductive surgery alone, or cytoreductive surgery/chemotherapy combination.

RevDate: 2019-02-26

Grosso F, Roveta A, Gallizzi G, et al (2018)

Management of recurrent pleural mesothelioma: Successful rechallenge with nintedanib in combination with chemotherapy.

Clinical case reports, 6(10):2000-2004.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare neoplasm, generally caused by asbestos exposure. This case details how a patient treated with nintedanib during the LUME-Meso study was rechallenged with nintedanib. The findings highlight the benefit of nintedanib rechallenge and the potential use of continuous anti-angiogenic therapy in MPM treatment.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Adhikary G, Grun D, Alexander HR, et al (2018)

Transglutaminase is a mesothelioma cancer stem cell survival protein that is required for tumor formation.

Oncotarget, 9(77):34495-34505.

Mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the mesothelial cell layer of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium and tunica vaginalis. It is typically caused by asbestos, notoriously resistant to chemotherapy and generally considered incurable with a poor life expectancy. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a GTP binding regulatory protein, is an important cancer stem cell survival and therapy resistance factor. We show that TG2 is highly expressed in human mesothelioma tumors and in mesothelioma cancer stem cells (MCS cells). TG2 knockdown or TG2 inhibitor treatment reduces MCS cell spheroid formation, matrigel invasion, migration and tumor formation. Time to tumor first appearance is doubled in TG2 knockout cells as compared to wild-type. In addition, TG2 loss is associated with reduced expression of stemness, and epithelial mesenchymal transition markers, and enhanced apoptosis. These studies indicate that TG2 is an important MCS cell survival protein and suggest that TG2 may serve as a mesothelioma cancer stem cell therapy target.

RevDate: 2018-12-11
CmpDate: 2018-12-11

Betti M, Aspesi A, Ferrante D, et al (2018)

Sensitivity to asbestos is increased in patients with mesothelioma and pathogenic germline variants in BAP1 or other DNA repair genes.

Genes, chromosomes & cancer, 57(11):573-583.

Pathogenic germline variants in the BAP1 tumor suppressor gene can cause a cancer syndrome called BAP1 tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS), which is characterized by predisposition to mesothelioma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and other tumors. Other genes that may predispose to mesothelioma are CDKN2A and DNA repair genes. Asbestos exposure has often been reported in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and germline variants in BAP1, but this exposure has never been quantified. We aimed to search for germline variants in BAP1 among 25 new Italian probands with suspected BAP1-TPDS, summarize the prevalence of these variants in 39 Italian patients with familial MPM and other tumors recruited over a 5-year period, and compare cumulative asbestos exposure in 14 patients with MPM and pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, CDKN2A, or DNA repair genes with that of 67 patients without germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes. We report here a new pathogenic germline variant in BAP1: c.783 + 2 T > C. The prevalence of pathogenic germline variants in BAP1 was 7.7% among patients with familial MPM (3/39). Patients with pathogenic germline variants in BAP1, CDKN2A, or DNA repair genes showed lower cumulative asbestos exposure than patients without germline variants in 94 cancer-predisposing genes (P = .00002). This suggests an interaction between genetic risk factors and asbestos in the development of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2018-12-31

Brentisci C, Gangemi M, Migliore E, et al (2018)

Comment on 'Validation of the diagnosis of mesothelioma and BAP1 protein expression in a cohort of asbestos textile workers from Northern Italy'.

Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology, 29(12):2395-2396.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Jargin SV (2018)

Asbestos and Mesothelioma: A Comment.

Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 22(2):113-114.

RevDate: 2019-02-20

Duke KS, Thompson EA, Ihrie MD, et al (2018)

Role of p53 in the chronic pulmonary immune response to tangled or rod-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

Nanotoxicology, 12(9):975-991.

The fiber-like shape of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is reminiscent of asbestos, suggesting they pose similar health hazards when inhaled, including pulmonary fibrosis and mesothelioma. Mice deficient in the tumor suppressor p53 are susceptible to carcinogenesis. However, the chronic pathologic effect of MWCNTs delivered to the lungs of p53 heterozygous (p53+/-) mice has not been investigated. We hypothesized that p53+/- mice would be susceptible to lung tumor development after exposure to either tangled (t-) or rod-like (r-) MWCNTs. Wild-type (p53+/+) or p53+/- mice were exposed to MWCNTs (1 mg/kg) via oropharyngeal aspiration weekly over four consecutive weeks and evaluated for cellular and pathologic outcomes 11-months post-initial exposure. No lung or pleural tumors were observed in p53+/+ or p53+/- mice exposed to either t- or rMWCNTs. In comparison to tMWCNTs, the rMWCNTs induced the formation of larger granulomas, a greater number of lymphoid aggregates and greater epithelial cell hyperplasia in terminal bronchioles in both p53+/- and p53+/+ mice. A constitutively larger area of CD45R+/CD3+ lymphoid tissue was observed in p53+/- mice compared to p53+/+ mice. Importantly, p53+/- mice had larger granulomas induced by rMWCNTs as compared to p53+/+ mice. These findings indicate that a combination of p53 deficiency and physicochemical characteristics including nanotube geometry are factors in susceptibility to MWCNT-induced lymphoid infiltration and granuloma formation.

RevDate: 2019-02-25
CmpDate: 2019-02-25

Fournel L, Janet-Vendroux A, Canny-Hamelin E, et al (2018)

[Malignant pleural mesothelioma: The role of surgery].

Revue de pneumologie clinique, 74(5):351-358.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and highly aggressive disease, whose incidence is increasing. Asbestos is the primary causal agent.

STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge about MPM has evolved. Thoracoscopy is essential for diagnosis of MPM. It allows performing pleural biopsies, to study the extent of the disease and to relieve dyspnea. The pathological diagnosis is also better codified with immunohistochemistry and with analysis by expert of Mesopath group. Curative surgical treatments are pleurectomy decortication and extended pneumonectomy in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Those heavy treatments improve survival in highly selected patients. For the other patients, supportive measures will be considered to reduce pain and dyspnea.

PROSPECT: Radical surgical treatment is only offered in therapeutic trials or multimodal treatment. Its place is not formally established. New therapies associated to surgical treatment are being studied.

CONCLUSIONS: Surgical management of MPM has to be operated in specialized teams where the survival benefit and quality of life is discussed case by case.

RevDate: 2019-01-29

Mansfield AS, Peikert T, Smadbeck JB, et al (2019)

Neoantigenic Potential of Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Mesothelioma.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, 14(2):276-287.

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a disease primarily associated with exposure to the carcinogen asbestos. Whereas other carcinogen-related tumors are associated with a high tumor mutation burden, mesothelioma is not. We sought to resolve this discrepancy.

METHODS: We used mate-pair (n = 22), RNA (n = 28), and T cell receptor sequencing along with in silico predictions and immunologic assays to understand how structural variants of chromosomes affect the transcriptome.

RESULTS: We observed that inter- or intrachromosomal rearrangements were present in every specimen and were frequently in a pattern of chromoanagenesis such as chromoplexy or chromothripsis. Transcription of rearrangement-related junctions was predicted to result in many potential neoantigens, some of which were proven to bind patient-specific major histocompatibility complex molecules and to expand intratumoral T cell clones. T cells responsive to these predicted neoantigens were also present in a patient's circulating T cell repertoire. Analysis of genomic array data from the mesothelioma cohort in The Cancer Genome Atlas suggested that multiple chromothriptic-like events negatively impact survival.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings represent the discovery of potential neoantigen expression driven by structural chromosomal rearrangements. These results may have implications for the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies and the selection of patients to receive immunotherapies.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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