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19 Jun 2021 at 01:36
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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 19 Jun 2021 at 01:36 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: asbestos AND mesothelioma NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-06-14

Ramada Rodilla JM, Calvo Cerrada B, Serra Pujadas C, et al (2021)

Fiber burden and asbestos-related diseases: an umbrella review.

Gaceta sanitaria pii:S0213-9111(21)00082-0 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: What are the levels of asbestos exposure that cause each type of health effect? The objective of this study was to review the available scientific evidence on exposure levels for asbestos and their relationship to health effects.

METHOD: An umbrella review of English-language reviews and meta-analyses, from 1980 to March 2021 was conducted. We included reviews involving quantified asbestos exposures and health outcomes. The review has been adapted to the indications of the PRISMA declaration. Methodological quality of the selected studies was assessed using the AMSTAR instrument.

RESULTS: We retrieved 196 references. After applying the search strategy and quality analysis, 10 reviews were selected for in-depth analysis. For lung cancer, the highest risk was observed with exposure to amphiboles. Longer, thinner fibers had the greatest capacity to cause lung cancer, especially those > 10 μm in length. For mesothelioma, longer and thinner fibers were also more pathogenic; amphiboles ≥ 5 μm are especially associated with increased mesothelioma risk. No studies observed an increased risk for lung cancer or mesothelioma at asbestos exposure levels <0.1 f/ml. No reviews provided information on exposure concentrations for pulmonary fibrosis. Currently, there is limited evidence in humans to establish the causal relationship between gastrointestinal cancer and asbestos exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: Banning all asbestos exposure remains the best measure to preventing its negative health effects. The highest quality reviews and meta-analyses support that there is little risk of lung cancer or mesothelioma at daily exposure levels below 0.1 f/ml.

RevDate: 2021-06-11

Tsim S, Alexander L, Kelly C, et al (2021)


Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(21)02189-4 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is difficult to diagnose. An accurate blood biomarker could prompt specialist referral or be deployed in future screening. In earlier retrospective studies, SOMAscan® proteomics and Fibulin-3 appeared highly accurate, but SOMAscan® has not been validated prospectively and subsequent Fibulin-3 data have been contradictory.

METHODS: A multi-centre prospective observational study was performed in 22 centres, generating a large intention-to-diagnose cohort. Blood sampling, processing and diagnostic assessment were standardised, including 1-year follow-up. Plasma Fibulin-3 was measured using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs: CloudClone (used in previous studies) and BosterBio). Serum proteomics were measured using the SOMAscan® assay. Diagnostic performance (sensitivity at 95% specificity, area under the curve (AUC)) was benchmarked against serum Mesothelin (Mesomark®). Biomarkers were correlated against primary tumour volume, inflammatory markers and asbestos exposure.

RESULTS: 638 patients with suspected pleural malignancy (SPM) and 110 asbestos exposed controls (AECs) were recruited. SOMAscan® reliably differentiated MPM from AECs (75% sensitivity, 88.2% specificity, validation cohort AUC 0.855) but was not useful in differentiating non-MPM SPM patients. Fibulin-3 (by BosterBio following failed CloudClone validation) demonstrated 7.4% and 11.9% sensitivity at 95% specificity in MPM v. non-MPM SPM and AECs respectively (associated AUCs 0.611 (0.557-0.664), p=0.0015) and 0.516 (0.443-0.589), p=0.671), both inferior to Mesothelin. SOMAscan® proteins correlated with inflammatory markers but not with asbestos exposure. Neither biomarker correlated with tumour volume.

CONCLUSIONS: SOMAscan® may prove useful as a future screening test for MPM in asbestos exposed persons. Neither Fibulin-3 nor SOMAscan® should be used for diagnosis or pathway stratification.

RevDate: 2021-06-03

Vandenhoeck J, van Meerbeeck JP, Fransen E, et al (2021)

DNA methylation as a diagnostic biomarker for malignant mesothelioma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(21)02186-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer type linked to asbestos exposure. Due to several intrinsic challenges, mesothelioma is often diagnosed in an advanced disease stage. Therefore, there is need for diagnostic biomarkers that may contribute to early detection. Recently, the epigenome of tumours is extensively being investigated to identify biomarkers. This manuscript is a systematic review summarizing the state-of-the-art research investigating DNA methylation in mesothelioma.

METHODS: Four literature databases (Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, Medline) were systematically searched for studies investigating DNA methylation in mesothelioma up to October 16, 2020. A meta-analysis was performed per gene investigated in at least two independent studies.

RESULTS: Fifty-three studies investigated DNA methylation of 97 genes in mesothelioma and are described in a qualitative overview. Ten studies investigating 13 genes (APC, CDH1, CDKN2A, DAPK, ESR1, MGMT, miR-34b/c, PGR, RARβ, RASSF1, SFRP1, SFRP4, WIF1) were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. In this meta-analysis, the APC gene is significantly hypomethylated in mesothelioma, while CDH1, ESR1, miR-34b/c, PGR, RARβ, SFRP1 and WIF1 are significantly hypermethylated in mesothelioma. The three genes that are the most appropriate candidate biomarkers from this meta-analysis are APC, miR-34b/c and WIF1. However, both study number and study objects comprised in this meta-analysis are too low to draw final conclusions about their clinical applications.

CONCLUSION: The elucidation of the genome-wide DNA methylation profile of mesothelioma is desirable in the future, using a standardized genome-wide methylation analysis approach. The most informative CpG sites from this signature could then form the basis of a panel of highly sensitive and specific biomarkers that can be used for the diagnosis of mesothelioma and even for the screening of an at high-risk population of asbestos-exposed individuals.

RevDate: 2021-06-02

Napoli F, Listì A, Zambelli V, et al (2021)

Pathological Characterization of Tumor Immune Microenvironment (TIME) in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 13(11): pii:cancers13112564.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and highly aggressive disease that arises from pleural mesothelial cells, characterized by a median survival of approximately 13-15 months after diagnosis. The primary cause of this disease is asbestos exposure and the main issues associated with it are late diagnosis and lack of effective therapies. Asbestos-induced cellular damage is associated with the generation of an inflammatory microenvironment that influences and supports tumor growth, possibly in association with patients' genetic predisposition and tumor genomic profile. The chronic inflammatory response to asbestos fibers leads to a unique tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) composed of a heterogeneous mixture of stromal, endothelial, and immune cells, and relative composition and interaction among them is suggested to bear prognostic and therapeutic implications. TIME in MPM is known to be constituted by immunosuppressive cells, such as type 2 tumor-associated macrophages and T regulatory lymphocytes, plus the expression of several immunosuppressive factors, such as tumor-associated PD-L1. Several studies in recent years have contributed to achieve a greater understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms in tumor development and pathobiology of TIME, that opens the way to new therapeutic strategies. The study of TIME is fundamental in identifying appropriate prognostic and predictive tissue biomarkers. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge about the pathological characterization of TIME in MPM.

RevDate: 2021-06-02

Cugliari G, Allione A, Russo A, et al (2021)

New DNA Methylation Signals for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Risk Assessment.

Cancers, 13(11): pii:cancers13112636.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive neoplasm. Patients are usually diagnosed when current treatments have limited benefits, highlighting the need for noninvasive tests aimed at an MPM risk assessment tool that might improve life expectancy. Three hundred asbestos-exposed subjects (163 MPM cases and 137 cancer-free controls), from the same geographical region in Italy, were recruited. The evaluation of asbestos exposure was conducted considering the frequency, the duration and the intensity of occupational, environmental and domestic exposure. A genome-wide methylation array was performed to identify novel blood DNA methylation (DNAm) markers of MPM. Multiple regression analyses adjusting for potential confounding factors and interaction between asbestos exposure and DNAm on the MPM odds ratio were applied. Epigenome-wide analysis (EWAS) revealed 12 single-CpGs associated with the disease. Two of these showed high statistical power (99%) and effect size (>0.05) after false discovery rate (FDR) multiple comparison corrections: (i) cg03546163 in FKBP5, significantly hypomethylated in cases (Mean Difference in beta values (MD) = -0.09, 95% CI = -0.12|-0.06, p = 1.2 × 10-7), and (ii) cg06633438 in MLLT1, statistically hypermethylated in cases (MD = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04|0.10, p = 1.0 × 10-6). Based on the interaction analysis, asbestos exposure and epigenetic profile together may improve MPM risk assessment. Above-median asbestos exposure and hypomethylation of cg03546163 in FKBP5 (OR = 20.84, 95% CI = 8.71|53.96, p = 5.5 × 10-11) and hypermethylation of cg06633438 in MLLT1 (OR = 11.71, 95% CI = 4.97|29.64, p = 5.9 × 10-8) genes compared to below-median asbestos exposure and hyper/hypomethylation of single-CpG DNAm, respectively. Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) for Case-Control Discrimination showed a significant increase in MPM discrimination when DNAm information was added in the model (baseline model, BM: asbestos exposure, age, gender and white blood cells); area under the curve, AUC = 0.75; BM + cg03546163 at FKBP5. AUC = 0.89, 2.1 × 10-7; BM + cg06633438 at MLLT1. AUC = 0.89, 6.3 × 10-8. Validation and replication procedures, considering independent sample size and a different DNAm analysis technique, confirmed the observed associations. Our results suggest the potential application of DNAm profiles in blood to develop noninvasive tests for MPM risk assessment in asbestos-exposed subjects.

RevDate: 2021-06-02

Rossi G, Davoli F, Poletti V, et al (2021)

When the Diagnosis of Mesothelioma Challenges Textbooks and Guidelines.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(11): pii:jcm10112434.

The diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MPM) does not pose difficulties when presenting with usual clinico-radiologic features and morphology. Pathology textbooks and national/international guidelines generally describe the findings of classic MPM, underlining common clinical presentation, the gold standard of sampling techniques, usual morphologic variants, immunohistochemical results of several positive and negative primary antibodies in the differential diagnosis, and the role of novel molecular markers. Nevertheless, MPM often does not follow the golden rules in routine practice, while the literature generally does not sufficiently emphasize unusual features of its manifestation. This gap may potentially create problems for patients in sustaining a difficult diagnosis of MPM in clinical practice and during legal disputes. Indeed, the guidelines accidentally tend to favor the job of lawyers and pathologists defending asbestos-producing industries against patients suffering from MPM characterized by uncommon features. The current review is aimed at underlining the wide spectrum of clinical and radiological presentation of MPM, the possibility to consistently use cytology for diagnostic intent, the aberrant immunohistochemical expression using so-called specific negative and positive primary antibodies, and finally proposing some alternative and more unbiased approaches to the diagnosis of MPM.

RevDate: 2021-06-02

Lee KM, Godderis L, Furuya S, et al (2021)

Comparison of Asbestos Victim Relief Available Outside of Conventional Occupational Compensation Schemes.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(10): pii:ijerph18105236.

The asbestos victim relief schemes were introduced to resolve the issue of victims of asbestos-related diseases not receiving compensation through conventional legal orders. This article seeks to derive the differences and commonalities of various asbestos victim relief schemes available outside of the conventional occupational compensation system along with a systematic understanding and to propose plans for improvement through a comparative study. After the degree of asbestos exposure, the population, and the period of implementation were corrected, the recognized claims of the total of conventional occupational compensation schemes and the asbestos victim relief schemes could be ranked in the order of South Korea (KOR) (1867, total), France (FRA) (1571), Japan (JPN) (966), KOR (847, asbestosis grade 2,3 excluded), the United Kingdom (GBR) (670), and the Netherlands (NLD) (95). The average amount of compensation per person, in the case of mesothelioma, was higher in the order of FRA (4.60 times), KOR (1.46 times), GBR (1.03 times), and NLD (0.73 times) of the median income per year. The differences between countries were largely caused by the purpose of institutional design and influenced by the level of qualification, the existence of an expiration date, type of disease, type of benefit, level of judgment criteria, the existence of a procedure for appeals, and recognition rate (GBR: 102%, FRA: 84%, NLD: 81%, JPN: 76%, KOR: 73%, and BEL: 54%). Based on this analysis, suggestions could be made regarding the expansion of disease types, benefit types, and the overall review of judgment criteria.

RevDate: 2021-06-02

Vimercati L, Cavone D, Delfino MC, et al (2021)

Primary Ovarian Mesothelioma: A Case Series with Electron Microscopy Examination and Review of the Literature.

Cancers, 13(9): pii:cancers13092278.

Primary ovarian mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic disease with a poor prognosis. At onset, the tumor is only rarely limited to the ovaries and usually already widespread in the peritoneum. The rarity of this entity and the difficulties differentiating it from either ovarian carcinoma or peritoneal mesothelioma may lead to frequent misdiagnoses and may raise some concerns about its histogenesis. Thus, reporting such rare cases is fundamental to gain greater awareness of this neoplasm and try to answer unsolved questions. Herein, we described four cases of histological diagnoses of ovarian mesothelioma extrapolated by the regional mesothelioma register of Apulia (southern Italy). In all cases, a detailed medical history was collected according to national mesothelioma register guidelines. A broad panel of antibodies was used for immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnoses. Moreover, ovarian tissue samples were also examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, detecting asbestos fibers and talc crystals in two cases. Because of the few cases described, we reviewed the English literature in the Medline database, focusing on articles about ovarian mesothelioma "misclassification", "misdiagnosis", "diagnostic challenge" or "diagnostic pitfall" and on unsolved questions about its histogenesis and possible risk factors.

RevDate: 2021-06-02

Anobile DP, Bironzo P, Picca F, et al (2021)

Evaluation of the Preclinical Efficacy of Lurbinectedin in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 13(10): pii:cancers13102332.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly aggressive cancer generally diagnosed at an advanced stage and characterized by a poor prognosis. The absence of alterations in druggable kinases, together with an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment, limits the use of molecular targeted therapies, making the treatment of MPM particularly challenging. Here we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of MPM to lurbinectedin (PM01183), a marine-derived drug that recently received accelerated approval by the FDA for the treatment of patients with metastatic small cell lung cancer with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy.

METHODS: A panel of primary MPM cultures, resembling the three major MPM histological subtypes (epithelioid, sarcomatoid, and biphasic), was characterized in terms of BAP1 status and histological markers. Subsequently, we explored the effects of lurbinectedin at nanomolar concentration on cell cycle, cell viability, DNA damage, genotoxic stress response, and proliferation.

RESULTS: Stabilized MPM cultures exhibited high sensitivity to lurbinectedin independently from the BAP1 mutational status and histological classification. Specifically, we observed that lurbinectedin rapidly promoted a cell cycle arrest in the S-phase and the activation of the DNA damage response, two conditions that invariably resulted in an irreversible DNA fragmentation, together with strong apoptotic cell death. Moreover, the analysis of long-term treatment indicated that lurbinectedin severely impacts MPM transforming abilities in vitro.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our data provide evidence that lurbinectedin exerts a potent antitumoral activity on primary MPM cells, independently from both the histological subtype and BAP1 alteration, suggesting its potential activity in the treatment of MPM patients.

RevDate: 2021-06-01

Ierardi AM, Mathis C, Urban A, et al (2021)

Potential airborne asbestos exposures in dentistry: a comprehensive review and risk assessment.

Critical reviews in toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Chrysotile was formerly used in the manufacture of casting ring liner (CRL) and periodontal dressing powder (PDP). The purpose of this study was to describe the potential for airborne asbestos exposure among dental professionals who may have used these products and to assess their risk of asbestos-related disease (ARD). Task-specific exposure data associated with CRL and PDP were identified and compared to regulatory standards for asbestos and health-based benchmarks. Personal airborne fiber concentrations ranged from 0.008-3.5 f/cc by PCM (duration: 3-420 minutes) for CRL (tearing, placement), and from <0.0044-<0.297 f/cc by PCM (duration: 5-28 minutes) for PDP (mixing). Eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were calculated using the reported task-based airborne fiber concentrations and associated sampling durations. For CRL tasks, the upper-bound calculated 8-hour TWA of 0.022 f/cc (tearing, placement) did not exceed regulatory standards for asbestos (≥0.1 f/cc). All samples collected during the mixing of PDP resulted in non-measurable fiber concentrations. The greatest estimated cumulative asbestos exposure for dental professionals using CRL (tearing, placement) of 0.33 f/cc-years is well below "best estimate", published chrysotile no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAEL) for ARD (lung cancer = 89-168 f/cc-years; pleural mesothelioma = 208-415 f/cc-years). As such, the use of asbestos-containing CRL and/or PDP is not expected to pose an increased risk of ARD among dental professionals. This conclusion is consistent with the lack of an increased risk of ARD reported in epidemiological studies of these occupations.

RevDate: 2021-06-01

Haakensen VD, Nowak AK, Ellingsen EB, et al (2021)

NIPU: a randomised, open-label, phase II study evaluating nivolumab and ipilimumab combined with UV1 vaccination as second line treatment in patients with malignant mesothelioma.

Journal of translational medicine, 19(1):232.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive tumour. For patients with inoperable disease, few treatment options are available after first line chemotherapy. The combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab has recently shown increased survival compared to standard chemotherapy, but most patients do not respond and improvements are called for. Telomerase is expressed in mesothelioma cells, but only sparsely in normal tissues and is therefore an attractive target for therapeutic vaccination. Vaccination against telomerase is tolerable and has shown to induce immune responses associated with increased survival in other cancer types. There is a well-founded scientific rationale for the combination of a telomerase vaccine and checkpoint inhibition to improve treatment response in MPM patients.

METHODS: NIPU is a randomized, multi-centre, open-label, phase II study comparing the efficacy and safety of nivolumab and ipilimumab with or without telomerase vaccine in patients with inoperable malignant pleural mesothelioma after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Participants (n = 118) are randomized 1:1 into two treatment arms. All participants receive treatment with nivolumab (240 mg every 2 weeks) and ipilimumab (1 mg/kg every 6 weeks) until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or for a maximum of 2 years. Patients randomised to the experimental arm receive 8 intradermal injections of UV1 vaccine during the first three months of treatment. Tumour tissue, blood, urine, faeces and imaging will be collected for biomarker analyses and exploration of mechanisms for response and resistance to therapy.

DISCUSSION: Checkpoint inhibition is used for treatment of mesothelioma, but many patients still do not respond. Increasing therapy response to immunotherapy is an important goal. Possible approaches include combination with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, targeted therapy and other immunotherapeutic agents. Predictive biomarkers are necessary to ensure optimal treatment for each patient and to prevent unnecessary side effects. This trial seeks to improve treatment response by combining checkpoint inhibition with a telomerase vaccine and also to explore mechanisms for treatment response and resistance. Knowledge gained in the NIPU study may be transferred to the first line setting and to other cancers with limited benefit from immunotherapy.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04300244, registered March 8th, 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04300244?term=NIPU&draw=2&rank=1 .

RevDate: 2021-05-30

Scarselli A, Marinaccio A, S Iavicoli (2021)

Ophiolitic outcrops, naturally occurring asbestos exposure and mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma in Calabria (Southern Italy).

Public health, 195:57-60 pii:S0033-3506(21)00152-9 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Naturally occurring asbestos from ophiolitic outcrops can pose a health risk to the resident population. Some studies have documented this risk of exposure in many areas around the world. The aim of the study is to estimate the possible impact on health caused by asbestos outcrops present in some areas of Calabria, a region of southern Italy.

STUDY DESIGN: The design of the study is observational and uses routinely collected data on employment, compensations and mortality.

METHODS: Data from archives of mortality in the period 2005-2015 were selected. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for malignant mesothelioma (MM) by municipalities of residence with reference to the regional population was estimated assuming a Poisson distribution of the data. Administrative archives of companies' employment records and occupational disease compensation data were used to exclude occupational origin cases.

RESULTS: A total of 163 cases of MM were identified. Statistically significant excess risks (P-value <0.05) were observed for several municipalities, some of which were located in areas where asbestos outcrops had previously been identified. Significant SMRs vary between 44.0 and 5.2. The mean age at death in the areas at risk of ophiolitic outcrops ranges from 65.4 to 77.1 years, and the gender ratio (male/female) ranges from 0.66 to 1.3.

CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of areas most involved in the risk of environmental contamination from ophiolitic outcrops is highly suggested. Full implementation of the local MM surveillance system is strongly encouraged. Further investigations are recommended to specifically identify the cause of exposure and confirm the hypothesis of a causal association with asbestos naturally occurring in these risk areas.

RevDate: 2021-05-27

Thomas A, Karakattu S, Cagle J, et al (2021)

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Epidemiology in the United States From 2000 to 2016.

Cureus, 13(4):e14605.

Introduction Pleural mesothelioma constitutes about 80% of all mesotheliomas. The peak incidence of malignant mesothelioma estimated using the cancer registries was in early 1990 to 2000 in the United States. The disease is primarily associated with asbestos exposure. The latency period between asbestos exposure and the development of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can range anywhere from 15 to 60 years. Asbestos exposure was peaked during the industrial revolution and World War II due to military and shipyard exposures. It is often difficult for the pathologist to distinguish different histological subtypes; due to the disease's rarity and the inadequate tissue sample obtained. There is no available data on the difference in epidemiology of different subtypes of MPM. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), cancer incidence data include population-based registries covering approximately 34.6% of the U.S. population. Here in our study, we analyze malignant pleural mesothelioma epidemiology in the United States, emphasizing different histological subtypes. Methods SEER data from 2000 to 2016 was used in our study. The primary site of cancer is selected as pleura, and malignant behavior only is selected as the filter. Data were analyzed using the SEER stat program. Overall epidemiology of MPM and epidemiology of epithelioid, fibrous, and biphasic histological subtypes were analyzed separately. We used annual percentage change (APC) to evaluate the trend in the epidemiology of MPM. Results summary A total of 11,857 cases of MPM were included in the primary cohort from the SEER 18 registry from 2000 to 2016. The total prevalence of MPM was highest in 2009 and was lowest in 2016. The APC in MPM incidence during this period is -2.0. After removing 5,989 cases with non-specified histology during the same period, the APC for each histological type is -0.7 for fibrous type, 1.8 for epithelioid type, and 2.9 for biphasic type. Out of 17 regional registries included in the study, the greatest statistically significant change in APC was seen in the Hawaiian registry -4.1. In contrast, the lowest statistically significant difference was seen in Seattle (Puget Sound) registry -1.7. The APC in the incidence of MPM among males during the study period was -2.4 while that of females was -0.9. The Iowa registry showed a statistically significant increase in APC of the epithelioid malignant mesothelioma with a statistically insignificant reduction in the overall MPM APC. Conclusion The overall incidence of MPM in the United States is declining, while the data showed an increase in the incidence of epithelioid and biphasic histological subtypes. The authors believe that these conflicting results can be attributed to improved histological diagnosis and improved biopsy techniques.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Baur X, Frank AL, Soskolne CL, et al (2021)

Malignant mesothelioma: Ongoing controversies about its etiology in females.

American journal of industrial medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is one of the most aggressive cancers with the poorest of outcomes. There is no doubt that mesothelioma in males is related to asbestos exposure, but some authors suggest that most of the cases diagnosed in females are "idiopathic." In our assessment of the science, the "low risk" of mesothelioma in females is because of the nonsystematic recording of exposure histories among females. Indeed, asbestos exposure is mentioned in only some of the studies that include females. We estimate the risk of MM among females to be close to that in males. The absence of detailed exposure histories should be rectified in future studies involving ​women. As a matter of social justice, the ongoing failure to recognize asbestos as the cause of a majority of cases of MM in females does them, and their kin, a profound disservice.

RevDate: 2021-05-25

Louw A, Lee YG, Acott N, et al (2021)

Diagnostic utility of BAP1 for malignant pleural mesothelioma in pleural fluid specimens with atypical morphology.

Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of BRCA-1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in pleural fluid samples with atypical cytology.

METHODS: Pleural fluid samples received between January 2015 and March 2018 at a tertiary referral centre with a diagnosis of atypical mesothelial proliferation (diagnostic categories: 'atypical' and 'suspicious') were identified. Results of 'routine' IHC testing were recorded for each case. BAP1 by IHC was performed and a final diagnosis sought from subsequent pathology specimens, medical records or consensus clinical diagnosis.

RESULTS: 50 cases were identified, 41 cases were reported as atypical and 9 suspicious. Seven (14%) demonstrated loss of BAP1 staining, 40 retained BAP1 staining, 1 had heterogeneous staining and 2 had insufficient cells for analysis. All seven cases with BAP1 loss were diagnosed with MPM on follow up. Of those with retained BAP1, 52.5% (21) were subsequently diagnosed with MPM, while 40% (16) had non-MPM diagnoses after a median follow up of 24 months. Three cases were not further investigated based on patient and clinician decision. The case with heterogeneous staining was diagnosed as mesothelioma by clinical consensus.

CONCLUSIONS: BAP1 IHC loss is highly specific for malignancy and has value as a rule in test. Even in a tertiary centre with clinical interest in the cytological diagnosis of MPM this investigation can increase diagnostic accuracy beyond routine IHC studies. Cytological criteria remain valuable as retained BAP1 in an atypical or suspicious mesothelial proliferation cannot exclude malignancy.

RevDate: 2021-05-25
CmpDate: 2021-05-25

García López V (2021)

[Programs for Asbestos Abatement. Lessons from Poland].

Archivos de prevencion de riesgos laborales, 24(1):62-73.

The commercialization of asbestos in Europe in the second half of the 20th century translated into consumption of millions of tons of this material. Occupational exposure to asbestos is controlled under the 2009 European Union Directive. Currently, through epidemiological surveillance and pathology registries (mainly mesotheliomas), it is possible to record past exposures. Despite prohibiting its use, large amounts of asbestos remain in buildings, infrastructures and vehicles, among others. The road to elimination of existing asbestos began with a 2013 European Parliament Resolution and the Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (2015 / C 251/03).To better understand barriers to implementing these plans, we reviewed the experience in Poland the only country that to date has implemented an action plan with great financial support, together with actions carried out in Spain generally, and Navarre specifically, given the latter's exhaustive registry of exposed workers.The enormous economic effort required to implement these plans, along with the environmental risks associated with asbestos abatement, require detailed planning, which should consider understanding why the objectives set by Poland, a benchmark country, have not been achieved to date.

RevDate: 2021-05-20

Schumann SO, Kocher G, F Minervini (2021)

Epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of the malignant pleural mesothelioma, a narrative review of literature.

Journal of thoracic disease, 13(4):2510-2523.

The malignant pleural mesothelioma is a very aggressive tumor which is arising from mesothelial cells and is associated with asbestos exposure. It is a heterogeneous cancer that shows a complex pattern of molecular changes, including genetic, chromosomic, and epigenetic abnormalities. The malignant pleural mesothelioma is characterized by a silent and slow clinical progression with an average period of 20-40 years from the asbestos exposure phase to the start of the symptoms. Unfortunately, to date, the therapeutic options are very limited, especially if the tumor is detected late. This narrative review provides an extended overview of the present evidence in the literature regarding the epidemiology, diagnostic pathways and treatment approaches of the malignant pleural mesothelioma. The treatment of mesothelioma has evolved slowly over the last 20 years not only from a surgical point of view but also radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy play nowadays a key role. Several surgical strategies are available ranging from extrapleural pneumonectomy to cytoreductive surgery but a multidisciplinary approach seems to be mandatory because a single approach has not proved to date to be resolutive. New non-surgical treatment options appear to be promising but the results have to be taken in account with caution because clear evidence with high-quality studies is still lacking.

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Cheung M, Kadariya Y, Sementino E, et al (2021)

Novel LRRK2 mutations and other rare, non-BAP1-related candidate tumor predisposition gene variants in high-risk cancer families with mesothelioma and other tumors.

Human molecular genetics pii:6277787 [Epub ahead of print].

There is irrefutable evidence that germline BAP1 mutations contribute to malignant mesothelioma (MM) susceptibility. However, BAP1 mutations are not found in all cases with evidence of familial MM or in other high-risk cancer families affected by various cancers, including MM. The goal of this study was to use whole genome sequencing (WGS) to determine the frequency and types of germline gene variants occurring in 12 MM patients selected from a series of 141 asbestos-exposed MM patients with a family history of cancer but without a germline BAP1 mutation. WGS was also performed on 2 MM cases, a proband and sibling, from a previously reported family with multiple cases of MM without inheritance of a predisposing BAP1 mutation. Altogether, germline DNA sequencing variants were identified in 20 cancer-related genes in 10 of the 13 probands. Germline indel, splice site, and missense mutations and two large deletions were identified. Among the 13 MM index cases, 6 (46%) exhibited one or more predicted pathogenic mutations. Affected genes encode proteins involved in DNA repair (ATM, ATR, BRCA2, BRIP1, CHEK2, MLH3, MUTYH, POLE, POLE4, POLQ, XRCC1), chromatin modification (ARID1B, DNMT3A, JARID2, SETD1B) or other cellular pathways: LRRK2 (2 cases) and MSH4. Notably, somatic truncating mutation or deletions of LRRK2 were occasionally found in MMs in The Cancer Genome Atlas, and expression of LRRK2 was undetectable or downregulated in a majority of primary MMs and MM cell lines we examined, implying that loss of LRRK2 expression is a newly recognized tumor suppressor alteration in MM.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Wilk E, M Krówczyńska (2021)

Malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in Europe: Evidence of spatial clustering.

Geospatial health, 16(1):.

Exposure to asbestos causes a wide range of diseases, such as asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma (MM) and other types of cancer. Many European countries have reduced production and use of asbestos and some have banned it altogether. Based on data derived from the World Health Organisation (WHO) Cancer Mortality Database, we investigated whether some regions in Europe could have a higher relative risk of MM incidence than others. The data were compared, including the number of MM deaths per million inhabitants and aged-standardized mortality rates. Applying Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi statistic on the agedstandardized mortality rates of MM cases assisted the spatial analysis of the occurrence of health events leading to an assessment of the heterogeneity of distribution and cluster detection of MM. We found a statistically significant positive autocorrelation for the male population and also the general population, while there was no statistically significant positive one for the female population. Hotspots of relative risk of developing MM were found in northwestern Europe. For the general population, Great Britain and the Netherlands stood out with high levels at the 99% and 95% confidence levels, respectively. For the male population, the results were similar, but with addition of risk also in Belgium and Switzerland. However, in many European countries with high asbestos use per capita, the MM incidence was found to still be low. The reasons for this are not yet clear, but part of the problem is certainly due to incomplete data in registers and databases. The latency time can be longer than 40 years and is related to the intensity and time of exposure (occupational, para-occupational and environmental). In Europe, even though peak production occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, a significant decrease in production did not occur until 25 years later, which means that the impact will continue for as late as The mid 2030s.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Tanrıverdi Z, Meteroglu F, Yüce H, et al (2021)

The usefulness of biomarkers in diagnosis of asbestos-induced malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Human & experimental toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a malignant tumor that is associated mostly with asbestos exposure. The present study was to evaluates the diagnostic value of neopterin, periostin, YKL-40, Tenascin-C (TNC), and Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) as noninvasive markers of malign pleural mesothelioma.

METHODS: Included in the study were 30 patients diagnosed with malign pleural mesothelioma, and 25 people as a control group. Biomarker levels were determined using an enzyme immunoassay . A Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation methods were used for the statistical analysis.

RESULTS: All evaluated biomarkers were found to be significantly higher in the MPM group than in the control group (p < 0.05). There was no effect of such variables as gender, age or MPMsubtype on the parameters (p > 0.05) in the patient group. All biomarkers were positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The current non-invasive biomarkers that can be used in the diagnosis of MPM yielded significant results and can make important contributions to the early diagnosis of MPM.

RevDate: 2021-05-10

Zhou N, Rice DC, Tsao AS, et al (2021)

Extrapleural Pneumonectomy versus Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

The Annals of thoracic surgery pii:S0003-4975(21)00846-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Whether extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or extended pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) is the optimal resection for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains controversial. We therefore compared perioperative outcomes and long-term survival of patients who underwent EPP vs P/D.

METHODS: Patients with the diagnosis of MPM who underwent either EPP or P/D from 2000 to 2019 were identified from our departmental database. Propensity score matching was performed to minimize potential confounders for EPP or P/D. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multivariable analysis.

RESULTS: Of 282 patients, 187 (66%) underwent EPP and 95 (34%) P/D. Even with propensity score matching, perioperative mortality was significantly higher for EPP than for P/D (11% vs. 0%; P=0.031), when adjusted for perioperative mortality, median overall survival between EPP and P/D was 15 vs. 22 months, respectively (P=0.276). Cox multivariable analysis for the matched cohort identified epithelioid histology (hazard ratio [HR], 0.56; P=0.029), macroscopic complete resection (HR, 0.41; P=0.004), adjuvant radiation therapy (HR, 0.57; P=0.019), and more recent operative years (HR, 0.93; P=0.011)-but not P/D-to be associated with better survival. Asbestos exposure (HR, 2.35; P=0.003) and pathological nodal disease (HR, 1.61; P=0.048) were associated with worse survival.

CONCLUSIONS: In a multimodality treatment setting, P/D and EPP had comparable long-term oncological outcomes, although P/D had much lower perioperative mortality. The goal of surgical cytoreduction should be macroscopic complete resection achieved by the safest operation a patient can tolerate.

RevDate: 2021-05-08

Arrieta O, Muñoz-Montaño W, Muñiz-Hernández S, et al (2021)

Efficacy, Safety, and Cost-Minimization Analysis of Continuous Infusion of Low-Dose Gemcitabine Plus Cisplatin in Patients With Unresectable Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Frontiers in oncology, 11:641975.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is rare and aggressive neoplasia, with a poor prognosis; furthermore, the monetary cost of its treatment represents a major challenge for many patients. The economic burden this malignancy imposes is underscored by the fact that asbestos exposure, which is the most frequent risk factor, is much more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic population of developing countries. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost of continuous infusion of low-dose Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin (CIGC) as a treatment strategy for patients with unresectable MPM.

Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study to determine efficacy and safety of continuous infusion gemcitabine at a dose of 250 mg/m2 in a 6-h continuous infusion plus cisplatin 35 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle in patients with unresectable MPM. We also performed a cost-minimization analysis to determine if this chemotherapy regimen is less expensive than other currently used regimens.

Results: The median number of chemotherapy cycles was six (range 1-11 cycles); objective response rate was documented in 46.2%, and disease control rate was seen in 81.2%. Median PFS was 8.05 months (CI 95% 6.97-9.13); median OS was 16.16 months (CI 95% 12.5-19.9). The cost minimization analysis revealed savings of 66.4, 61.9, and 97.7% comparing CIGC with short-infusion gemcitabine plus cisplatin (SIGC), cisplatin plus pemetrexed (CP), and cisplatin plus pemetrexed and bevacizumab (CPB), respectively. Furthermore, this chemotherapy regimen proved to be safe at the administered dosage.

Conclusion: CIGC is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with unresectable MPM; besides, this combination is a cost-saving option when compared with other frequently used chemotherapy schemes. Therefore, this treatment scheme should be strongly considered for patients with unresectable MPM and limited economic resources.

RevDate: 2021-05-09

Gray SG (2021)

Emerging avenues in immunotherapy for the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

BMC pulmonary medicine, 21(1):148.

BACKGROUND: The role of immunotherapy in cancer is now well-established, and therapeutic options such as checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being approved in many cancers such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare orphan disease associated with prior exposure to asbestos, with a dismal prognosis. Evidence from clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors in this rare disease, suggest that such therapies may play a role as a treatment option for a proportion of patients with this cancer.

MAIN TEXT: While the majority of studies currently focus on the established checkpoint inhibitors (CTLA4 and PD1/PDL1), there are many other potential checkpoints that could also be targeted. In this review I provide a synopsis of current clinical trials of immunotherapies in MPM, explore potential candidate new avenues that may become future targets for immunotherapy and discuss aspects of immunotherapy that may affect the clinical outcomes of such therapies in this cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: The current situation regarding checkpoint inhibitors in the management of MPM whilst encouraging, despite impressive durable responses, immune checkpoint inhibitors do not provide a long-term benefit to the majority of patients with cancer. Additional studies are therefore required to further delineate and improve our understanding of both checkpoint inhibitors and the immune system in MPM. Moreover, many new potential checkpoints have yet to be studied for their therapeutic potential in MPM. All these plus the existing checkpoint inhibitors will require the development of new biomarkers for patient stratification, response and also for predicting or monitoring the emergence of resistance to these agents in MPM patients. Other potential therapeutic avenues such CAR-T therapy or treatments like oncolytic viruses or agents that target the interferon pathway designed to recruit more immune cells to the tumor also hold great promise in this hard to treat cancer.

RevDate: 2021-05-04

Aigner C, Brüning T, Eberhardt WEE, et al (2021)

[The Current Therapy of Asbestos-Associated Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma - An Expert Consensus Paper].

Pneumologie (Stuttgart, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Asbestos-related mesotheliomas belong to the group of the most frequent occupational diseases in Germany, reaching about 1,000 new cases per year. The disease has a dismal prognosis because most tumors remain asymptomatic for a long time and therefore are diagnosed as incidental findings at later stages.During the last decade the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) has made considerable efforts to prepone the diagnosis in order to detect the disease at earliest possible stages. These efforts resulted in new findings showing that, in a high-risk group, a combination of the biomarkers calretinin and mesothelin was able to advance the diagnosis up to 12 months.Ideally, the diagnosis of a mesothelioma at an early stage has to be accompanied by the best possible individualized therapy. Standard therapeutic strategies are surgery and chemotherapy, added by radiotherapy and psycho-oncology. In recent years, several new therapeutic avenues are being explored. This review comprehensively presents both old and new therapeutic options in mesothelioma, based on international Leitlinien and new studies.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Ejegi-Memeh S, Robertson S, Taylor B, et al (2021)

Gender and the experiences of living with mesothelioma: A thematic analysis.

European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society, 52:101966 pii:S1462-3889(21)00072-7 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Mesothelioma is a terminal cancer caused by exposure to asbestos. As a cancer with a higher rate in men than women, women's experiences of living with mesothelioma are often underexplored. Furthermore, men's experiences are often taken for granted and therefore have remained underexplored. This paper considers men's and women's experiences across the mesothelioma pathway.

METHODS: This qualitative study incorporated semi-structured interviews with 13 men and 11 women living with mesothelioma. Telephone interviews took place between July and December 2019, and were audio recorded, transcribed and anonymised. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.

RESULTS: Three themes were developed in relation to the gendered experience of mesothelioma: familial responsibility and social perceptions; support preferences; and treatment and trials. Analysis suggests that men and women's sense of familial responsibility varied. Differences in priorities and motivations influenced approaches to seeking support, compensation and, making decisions around treatments and clinical trials.

CONCLUSIONS: The current study reports on how gender can influence the experience of living with mesothelioma. The findings indicate how the patients' role in their families and society can more broadly influence their experiences, choices and preferences. Nurses caring for mesothelioma patients need high quality research on which to base their practice. Recognition and an understanding of the underlyingfactors influencing patients' decision-making will enable nurses and other professionals to support their patients better.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Davis AP, Kao SC, Clarke SJ, et al (2021)

Emerging biological therapies for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Expert opinion on emerging drugs [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has limited treatment options with minimal new therapy approvals for unresectable disease in the past 15 years. However, considerable work has occurred to develop immunotherapies and biomarker driven therapy to improve patient outcomes over this period.Areas covered: This review examines current standard of care systemic therapy in the first- and second line setting. The last 12 months has seen 2 significant trials (Checkmate 743 and CONFIRM) which provide evidence supporting the role of immunotherapy in the management of MPM. Further trials are underway to assess the role of combination chemoimmunotherapy and personalized therapy. Additionally, a large number of clinical trials are ongoing to assess the efficacy of oncoviral, dendritic cell, anti-mesothelin and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in the treatment of MPM.Expert opinion: Recent Phase III trial results have established a role for immunotherapy in the management of MPM. The optimal sequencing and combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy remains to be determined. Novel therapies for MPM are promising however efficacy remains to be determined and issues remain regarding access to and delivery of these therapies.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Muralidhar V (2021)

An unusual presentation of acute abdomen: infarcted peritoneal cyst-a probable asbestos-related benign cystic mesothelioma.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2021(4):rjab129.

This is a report of a rare case of an infarcted pelvic intra-abdominal cyst, having no mesenteric connection presenting as an acute abdomen. The patient had significant asbestos exposure. The cyst was treated successfully by surgical excision. Histopathology showed an infarcted cyst; the lining was destroyed, precluding marker studies. A diagnosis of benign cystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BCPM) was made by excluding other causes of solitary pelvic intra-abdominal cysts. BCPM has been classified as an asbestos-related neoplasm and is usually seen in the pelvis adjunct to the urinary bladder. One-year post-surgery, there was no recurrence. The case report shows that infarcted pelvic mesothelial cysts can present as an acute abdomen and can be treated successfully by total excision with no recurrence.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Brcic L, Mathilakathu A, Walter RFH, et al (2021)

Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Epithelioid and Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma Reveals Differences in Immunogenicity.

Cancers, 13(8):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignancy associated with asbestos exposure. Median survival ranges from 14 to 20 months after initial diagnosis. As of November 2020, the FDA approved a combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors after promising intermediate results. Nonetheless, responses remain unsatisfying. Adequate patient stratification to improve response rates is still lacking. This retrospective study analyzed formalin fixed paraffin embedded specimens from a cohort of 22 MPM. Twelve of those samples showed sarcomatoid, ten epithelioid differentiation. Complete follow-up, including radiological assessment of response by modRECIST and time to death, was available with reported deaths of all patients. RNA of all samples was isolated and subjected to digital gene expression pattern analysis. Our study revealed a notable difference between epithelioid and sarcomatoid mesothelioma, showing differential gene expression for 304/698 expressed genes. Whereas antigen processing and presentation to resident cytotoxic T cells as well as phagocytosis is highly affected in sarcomatoid mesothelioma, cell-cell interaction via cytokines seems to be of greater importance in epithelioid cases. Our work reveals the specific role of the immune system within the different histologic subtypes of MPM, providing a more detailed background of their immunogenic potential. This is of great interest regarding therapeutic strategies including immunotherapy in mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2021-04-30
CmpDate: 2021-04-30

Li N, Wang D, Chen ZJ, et al (2021)

[Asbestos-induced malignant peritoneal mesothelioma complicated with lung cancer:a case report].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 39(4):305-307.

Asbestos is harmful to human, and populations with occupational and environmental exposure to respirable asbestos fibers have higher risk of cancers like malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. At present, patient with asbestos-induced malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and lung cancer is rare. In this study, we analyzed the clinical data of a case of asbestos-induced malignant peritoneal mesothelioma complicated with lung cancer to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

RevDate: 2021-05-05
CmpDate: 2021-05-05

Ouafki I, Nouiakh L, Boujarnija R, et al (2021)

[Malignant mesothelioma of the ovary: a case report].

The Pan African medical journal, 38:92.

Primary malignant mesothelioma of the ovary (PMMO) is an extremely rare tumor which can develop from mesothelial cells. This neoplasia is caused predominantly by exposure to asbestos or other cancer-causing agents. Preoperative assessment, based on computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, is essential for cancer staging. Anatomopathological diagnosis is based on immunohistochemical findings. PMMO is an exceptional disease involving a multidisciplinary therapeutic strategy including the use of chemotherapy which improves the management and prognosis of patients. This study reports the case of a female patient undergoing suboptimal surgery complemented by adjuvant chemotherapy with complete radiological response and 1-year disease-free survival.

RevDate: 2021-04-23
CmpDate: 2021-04-23

Kumagai-Takei N, Nishimura Y, Matsuzaki H, et al (2021)

Effect of IL-15 addition on asbestos-induced suppression of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte induction.

Environmental health and preventive medicine, 26(1):50.

BACKGROUND: Asbestos fibers possess tumorigenicity and are thought to cause mesothelioma. We have previously reported that exposure to asbestos fibers causes a reduction in antitumor immunity. Asbestos exposure in the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) showed suppressed induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), accompanied by a decrease in proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Recently, we reported that asbestos-induced suppression of CTL induction is not due to insufficient levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2). In this study, we continue to investigate the mechanism responsible for the effect of asbestos fibers on the differentiation of CTLs and focus on interleukin-15 (IL-15) which is known to be a regulator of T lymphocyte proliferation.

METHODS: For MLR, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with irradiated allogenic PBMCs upon exposure to chrysotile B asbestos at 5 μg/ml for 7 days. After 2 days of culture, IL-15 was added at 1 ng/ml. After 7 days of MLR, PBMCs were collected and analyzed for phenotypic and functional markers of CD8+ T cells with fluorescence-labeled anti-CD3, anti-CD8, anti-CD45RA, anti-CD45RO, anti-CD25, and anti-granzyme B antibodies using flow cytometry. To examine the effect of IL-15 on the expression level of intracellular granzyme B in proliferating and non-proliferating CD8+ lymphocytes, PBMCs were stained using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and then washed and used for the MLR.

RESULTS: IL-15 addition partially reversed the decrease in CD3+CD8+ cell numbers and facilitated complete recovery of granzyme B+ cell percentages. IL-15 completely reversed the asbestos-induced decrease in percentage of granzyme B+ cells in both non-proliferating CFSE-positive and proliferating CFSE-negative CD8+ cells. The asbestos-induced decrease in the percentage of CD25+ and CD45RO+ cells in CD8+ lymphocytes was not reversed by IL-15.

CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that CTLs induced upon exposure to asbestos possess dysfunctional machinery that can be partly compensated by IL-15 supplementation, and that IL-15 is more effective in the recovery of proliferation and granzyme B levels from asbestos-induced suppression of CTL induction compared with IL-2.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Ezeka G, Adhikary G, Kandasamy S, et al (2021)

Sulforaphane inhibits PRMT5 and MEP50 function to suppress the mesothelioma cancer cell phenotype.

Molecular carcinogenesis [Epub ahead of print].

Mesothelioma is a highly aggressive cancer of the mesothelial lining that is caused by exposure to asbestos. Surgical resection followed by chemotherapy is the current treatment strategy, but this is marginally successful and leads to drug-resistant disease. We are interested in factors that maintain the aggressive mesothelioma cancer phenotype as therapy targets. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) functions in concert with the methylosome protein 50 (MEP50) cofactor to catalyze symmetric dimethylation of key arginine resides in histones 3 and 4 which modifies the chromatin environment to alter tumor suppressor and oncogene expression and enhance cancer cell survival. Our studies show that PRMT5 or MEP50 loss reduces H4R3me2s formation and that this is associated with reduced cancer cell spheroid formation, invasion, and migration. Treatment with sulforaphane (SFN), a diet-derived anticancer agent, reduces PRMT5/MEP50 level and H4R3me2s formation and suppresses the cancer phenotype. We further show that SFN treatment reduces PRMT5 and MEP50 levels and that this reduction is required for SFN suppression of the cancer phenotype. SFN treatment also reduces tumor formation which is associated with reduced PRMT5/MEP50 expression and activity. These findings suggest that SFN may be a useful mesothelioma treatment agent that operates, at least in part, via suppression of PRMT5/MEP50 function.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

DeBono NL, Warden H, Logar-Henderson C, et al (2021)

Incidence of mesothelioma and asbestosis by occupation in a diverse workforce.

American journal of industrial medicine, 64(6):476-487.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize detailed patterns of mesothelioma and asbestosis incidence in the workforce as part of an occupational disease surveillance program in Ontario, Canada.

METHODS: The Occupational Disease Surveillance System (ODSS) cohort was established using workers' compensation claims data and includes 2.18 million workers employed from 1983 to 2014. Workers were followed for mesothelioma and asbestosis diagnoses in Ontario Cancer Registry, physician, hospital, and ambulatory care records through 2016. Trends in incidence rates were estimated over the study period. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: A total of 854 mesothelioma and 737 asbestosis cases were diagnosed during follow-up. Compared with all other workers in the ODSS, those employed in construction trades occupations had the greatest adjusted incidence rate of both mesothelioma (223 cases; HR, 2.38; 95% CI: 2.03-2.78) and asbestosis (261 cases; HR, 3.64; 95% CI: 3.11-4.25). Rates were particularly elevated for insulators, pipefitters and plumbers, and carpenters. Workers in welding and flame cutting, boiler making, and mechanic and machinery repair occupations, as well as those in industrial chemical and primary metal manufacturing industries, had strongly elevated rates of both diseases. Rates were greater than anticipated for workers in electrical utility occupations and education and related services.

CONCLUSIONS: Results substantiate the risk of mesothelioma and asbestosis in occupation and industry groups in the Ontario workforce with known or suspected asbestos exposure. Sustained efforts to prevent the occurrence of additional cases of disease in high-risk groups are warranted.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Mizuhashi K, Okamoto K, T Kishimoto (2021)

A patient with epithelioid pleural mesothelioma (Myxoid variant) who survived for a long period without treatment.

Respiratory medicine case reports, 33:101381.

Pleural mesothelioma is a disease with a very poor prognosis. Here, we report a mesothelioma patient who survived for 5 years and a half. As a result of the autopsy, the tumor was diagnosed as a myxoid variant, which is internationally proposed as a histological subtype of epithelioid mesothelioma with a relatively favorable prognosis. Since patients with this disease are expected to survive for a long period even without treatment, careful determination of the therapeutic approach is considered necessary. This report is considered to be the first of a myxoid variant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma in Japan.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Barbarino M, A Giordano (2021)

Assessment of the Carcinogenicity of Carbon Nanotubes in the Respiratory System.

Cancers, 13(6):.

In 2014, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified the first type of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as possibly carcinogenic to humans, while in the case of other CNTs, it was not possible to ascertain their toxicity due to lack of evidence. Moreover, the physicochemical heterogeneity of this group of substances hamper any generalization on their toxicity. Here, we review the recent relevant toxicity studies produced after the IARC meeting in 2014 on an homogeneous group of CNTs, highlighting the molecular alterations that are relevant for the onset of mesothelioma. Methods: The literature was searched on PubMed and Web of Science for the period 2015-2020, using different combinations keywords. Only data on normal cells of the respiratory system after exposure to fully characterized CNTs for their physico-chemical characteristics were included. Recent studies indicate that CNTs induce a sustained inflammatory response, oxidative stress, fibrosis and histological alterations. The development of mesothelial hyperplasia, mesothelioma, and lungs tumors have been also described in vivo. The data support a strong inflammatory potential of CNTs, similar to that of asbestos, and provide evidence that CNTs exposure led to molecular alterations known to have a key role in mesothelioma onset. These evidences call for an urgent improvement of studies on exposed human populations and adequate systems for monitoring the health of workers exposed to this putative carcinogen.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Lettieri S, Bortolotto C, Agustoni F, et al (2021)

The Evolving Landscape of the Molecular Epidemiology of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(5):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive malignancy that most commonly affects the pleural lining of the lungs. It has a strong association with exposure to biopersistent fibers, mainly asbestos (80% of cases) and-in specific geographic regions-erionite, zeolites, ophiolites, and fluoro-edenite. Individuals with a chronic exposure to asbestos generally have a long latency with no or few symptoms. Then, when patients do become symptomatic, they present with advanced disease and a worse overall survival (about 13/15 months). The fibers from industrial production not only pose a substantial risk to workers, but also to their relatives and to the surrounding community. Modern targeted therapies that have shown benefit in other human tumors have thus far failed in MPM. Overall, MPM has been listed as orphan disease by the European Union. However, molecular high-throughput profiling is currently unveiling novel biomarkers and actionable targets. We here discuss the natural evolution, mainly focusing on the novel concept of molecular epidemiology. The application of innovative endpoints, quantification of genetic damages, and definition of genetic susceptibility are reviewed, with the ultimate goal to point out new tools for screening of exposed subject and for designing more efficient diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Schiavello M, Gazzano E, Bergandi L, et al (2021)

Identification of Redox-Sensitive Transcription Factors as Markers of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 13(5):.

Although asbestos has been banned in most countries around the world, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a current problem. MPM is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis, so it is crucial to identify new markers in the preventive field. Asbestos exposure induces oxidative stress and its carcinogenesis has been linked to a strong oxidative damage, event counteracted by antioxidant systems at the pulmonary level. The present study has been focused on some redox-sensitive transcription factors that regulate cellular antioxidant defense and are overexpressed in many tumors, such as Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), Ref-1 (Redox effector factor 1), and FOXM1 (Forkhead box protein M1). The research was performed in human mesothelial and MPM cells. Our results have clearly demonstrated an overexpression of Nrf2, Ref-1, and FOXM1 in mesothelioma towards mesothelium, and a consequent activation of downstream genes controlled by these factors, which in turn regulates antioxidant defense. This event is mediated by oxidative free radicals produced when mesothelial cells are exposed to asbestos fibers. We observed an increased expression of Nrf2, Ref-1, and FOXM1 towards untreated cells, confirming asbestos as the mediator of oxidative stress evoked at the mesothelium level. These factors can therefore be considered predictive biomarkers of MPM and potential pharmacological targets in the treatment of this aggressive cancer.

RevDate: 2021-04-01

Fujihira H, Takakura D, Matsuda A, et al (2021)

Bisecting-GlcNAc on Asn388 is characteristic to ERC/mesothelin expressed on epithelioid mesothelioma cells.

Journal of biochemistry pii:6207972 [Epub ahead of print].

Mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor associated with asbestos exposure and is histologically classified into three types: epithelioid-type, sarcomatoid-type, and biphasic-type. The prognosis of mesothelioma patients is poor and there is no effective molecular-targeting therapy as yet. ERC/mesothelin is a glycoprotein that is highly expressed on several types of cancers including epithelioid mesothelioma, but also expressed on normal mesothelial cells. This is a predicted reason why there is no clinically approved therapeutic antibody targeting ERC/mesothelin. In the present study, we focused on the differential glycosylation between ERC/mesothelin present on epithelioid mesothelioma and that on normal mesothelial cells and aimed to reveal a distinct feature of epithelioid mesothelioma cells. Lectin microarray analysis of ERC/mesothelin using cells and patient specimens showed significantly stronger binding of PHA-E4 lectin, which recognizes complex-type N-glycans having a so-called bisecting-GlcNAc structure, to ERC/mesothelin from epithelioid mesothelioma cells than that from normal mesothelial cells. Further, LC/MS analysis on ERC/mesothelin from epithelioid mesothelioma cells confirmed the presence of a bisecting-GlcNAc attached to Asn388 of ERC/mesothelin. These results suggest that this glycoproteome could serve as a potential target for the generation of a highly selective and safe therapeutic antibody for epithelioid mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2021-04-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-31

Huang XY, Q Ye (2021)

[Asbestos exposure and asbestos-related malignant diseases:an epidemiological review].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 39(3):233-236.

Asbestos has high fire resistance, electrical insulation and thermal insulation. It is an important fire prevention, insulation and insulation material. It is widely used in industrial production and daily life. In 1987, the international agency for research on cancer (IARC) has listed asbestos as a class I carcinogen; in 2012, IARC confirmed that all types of asbestos have carcinogenic effect. By 2019, asbestos has been banned in 66 countries and regions around the world. Asbestos exposure increases the risk of human malignant tumor. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are known asbestos induced tumors. Epidemiological studies also support that asbestos exposure is related to the incidence of malignant tumors in reproductive system, digestive system, urinary system, nasopharynx head and neck. We summarized the epidemiological studies of asbestos induced tumors in order to provide reference for further research.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Gill RR, Murphy DJ, Seethamraju RT, et al (2020)

Interobserver Variability of Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment Using MRI in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Radiology. Cardiothoracic imaging, 2(2):e190066.

Purpose: To evaluate the interobserver variability associated with quantitative and qualitative MRI assessments of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).

Materials and Methods: Patients with MPM who underwent uniform-protocol preoperative MRI between 2009 and 2014 were included. The MRI-derived tumor volume was estimated. Unidimensional measurements of maximal pleural thickness (Pmax) and average pleural thickness (Pavg) on axial MR images; maximal fissural thickness (Fmax); maximal diaphragmatic thickness (Dmax); and average diaphragmatic thickness (Davg) on sagittal reconstructed images were acquired. Interobserver agreement regarding the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage at each criterion level was assessed by using Cohen κ statistics. Agreement between quantitative measurements was assessed by using Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).

Results: The study cohort included 349 patients (median age, 68 years [age range, 30-90 years), 273 (78%) of whom were men and 203 (58%) of whom had epithelioid-subtype tumors. Qualitative assessment performed by using the AJCC staging criteria (eighth edition) was concordant in 31% of cases and yielded considerable disagreement (κ = 0.177). Inspection of the Bland-Altman plots led to decisive agreement between the two reviewers regarding MRI-derived tumor volume (ICC, 0.979). There was also a good degree of agreement between the two reviewers regarding unidimensional measurements of Dmax (ICC, 0.807), Davg (ICC, 0.823), Pmax (ICC, 0.787), Pavg (ICC, 0.787), and Fmax (ICC, 0.659).

Conclusion: Quantitative assessment can enhance the clinical staging of MPM. Compared with qualitative assessment, quantitative assessment has low interobserver variability and could yield a tumor size criterion that is currently lacking in the AJCC clinical staging of MPM.Supplemental material is available for this article.© RSNA, 2020.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Klebe S, Nakatani Y, Dobra K, et al (2021)

The concept of mesothelioma in situ, with consideration of its potential impact on cytology diagnosis.

Pathology, 53(4):446-453.

Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an incurable tumour of the serosal membranes, which is often caused by exposure to asbestos and commonly diagnosed at advanced stage. Malignant mesothelioma in situ (MMIS) is now included as diagnostic category by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, our international survey of 34 pulmonary pathologists with an interest in MM diagnosis highlights inconsistency regarding how the diagnosis is being made by experts, despite published guidelines. Whilst the WHO restricts the diagnosis to surgical samples, the very concept has implication for cytological diagnosis, which is already regarded as controversial in itself by some. MMIS is currently only applicable as precursor to MM with an epithelioid component, and raises the possibility for different molecular pathways for different histological MM subtypes. The clinical implications of MMIS at this stage are uncertain, but aggressive therapies are being initiated in some instances. Based on the results of the survey we here present a critical appraisal of the concept, its clinical and conceptual implications and provide practice suggestions for diagnosis. A low threshold for ancillary testing is suggested. The designations of 'malignant mesothelioma, cannot exclude MMIS' or 'atypical mesothelial proliferation with molecular indicators of malignancy, so-called MMIS' could be used on cytology samples, adding 'no evidence of invasion in sample provided' for surgical samples. Clinical and radiological correlation are integral to diagnosis and best done at multidisciplinary meetings. Finally, collaborative studies are required to improve our understanding of MMIS.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Reid G, Klebe S, van Zandwijk N, et al (2021)

Asbestos and Zeolites: from A to Z via a Common Ion.

Chemical research in toxicology, 34(4):936-951.

Asbestos and zeolites are silicate-based minerals, linked inextricably via paradoxical similarities and differences which have emanated from different geological epochs. Both have been employed in the service of humanity through millennia: asbestos, for its "inextinguishable" quality of being an insulator against heat and fire; zeolite, a "boiling stone" with its volcanic and marine sedimentary rock origins, for its propensity to adsorb water and remove metals and toxins. Serious adverse health effects observed in asbestos miners as long ago as the 1st Century AD did not halt the rising popularity of asbestos. As the miracle material of the 1900s, asbestos production and consumption exploded, culminating in its ubiquity in ships, vehicles, homes, commercial buildings, and over 3000 different industrial and household products. Through the 1940s and 1950s, epidemiological studies concluded that asbestos was a likely cause of asbestosis, lung cancer, and malignant mesothelioma, and it is now banned in many but far from all countries. The long latency between exposure to asbestos and the occurrence of cancer has obscured the deadly consequences of asbestos exposure for centuries. Even today, a considerable part of the world population is insufficiently aware of the dangers of asbestos, and millions of tons of this carcinogen continue to be mined and used worldwide. Zeolites, both natural and synthetic, are microporous aluminosilicate minerals commonly used in a myriad of processes, in the petrochemical industry, in domestic appliances and cleaning agents, as commercial adsorbents and exchangers for toxins and pollutants, and as catalysts. Zeolites are found in agriculture, veterinary science, and human health. More recently, new materials such as carbon nanotubes are being employed in materials requiring durability and thermal and electrical conductivity, yet nanotubes are now joining the ranks of more established particulates such as asbestos and silica, in causing human disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the similarities and differences of these two groups of silicate minerals and their waxing and waning use in the employ of humanity.

RevDate: 2021-04-17
CmpDate: 2021-04-05

Zhang M, Luo JL, Sun Q, et al (2021)

Clonal architecture in mesothelioma is prognostic and shapes the tumour microenvironment.

Nature communications, 12(1):1751.

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is typically diagnosed 20-50 years after exposure to asbestos and evolves along an unknown evolutionary trajectory. To elucidate this path, we conducted multi-regional exome sequencing of 90 tumour samples from 22 MPMs acquired at surgery. Here we show that exomic intratumour heterogeneity varies widely across the cohort. Phylogenetic tree topology ranges from linear to highly branched, reflecting a steep gradient of genomic instability. Using transfer learning, we detect repeated evolution, resolving 5 clusters that are prognostic, with temporally ordered clonal drivers. BAP1/-3p21 and FBXW7/-chr4 events are always early clonal. In contrast, NF2/-22q events, leading to Hippo pathway inactivation are predominantly late clonal, positively selected, and when subclonal, exhibit parallel evolution indicating an evolutionary constraint. Very late somatic alteration of NF2/22q occurred in one patient 12 years after surgery. Clonal architecture and evolutionary clusters dictate MPM inflammation and immune evasion. These results reveal potentially drugable evolutionary bottlenecking in MPM, and an impact of clonal architecture on shaping the immune landscape, with potential to dictate the clinical response to immune checkpoint inhibition.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Schiopu SRI, Käsmann L, Schönermarck U, et al (2021)

Pembrolizumab-induced myocarditis in a patient with malignant mesothelioma: plasma exchange as a successful emerging therapy-case report.

Translational lung cancer research, 10(2):1039-1046.

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer associated with prior exposure to asbestos and dismal prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for pre-treated malignant pleural mesothelioma. We describe a 75-year-old patient with disseminated, progressive malignant mesothelioma receiving 2 cycles of pembrolizumab who presented with generalized muscle weakness, shortness of breath, double vision and ptosis. There was no previous history of cardiovascular disease. The clinical picture, supported by the detection of anti-titin autoantibodies suggested myasthenia gravis (MG). Also, cardiac biomarkers were elevated. Echocardiography showed new severely reduced ejection fraction. A 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed ST segment elevation in the posterior leads with polymorphic ventricular extrasystoles. Because cardiac catheterization revealed no relevant coronary lesions, immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated myocarditis and MG were suspected. Management and Outcome: The patient was started on steroids. Within a few days of presentation respiratory failure set in and the patient was intubated. Recurrent arrhythmias followed, which were treated by repeated emergency electrical cardioversion. In order to relieve myasthenic symptoms, plasma exchange was initiated and 10 cycles were carried out. This consequently also led to an improvement of myocarditis. Upon discharge, the ejection fraction recovered. The patient recovered and was alive at 1-year follow-up, without relevant limitations to his quality of life. Discussion and Conclusion: The article further discusses the use of plasma exchange for immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated myocarditis based on a review of literature. We conclude that patients showing no improvement after steroid therapy for immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myocarditis should be evaluated for plasma exchange, which appears to be an effective treatment option.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Sun S, Frontini F, Qi W, et al (2021)

Endogenous retrovirus expression activates type-I interferon signaling in an experimental mouse model of mesothelioma development.

Cancer letters, 507:26-38.

Early events in an experimental model of mesothelioma development include increased levels of editing in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). We hypothesised that expression of endogenous retroviruses (ERV) contributes to dsRNA formation and type-I interferon signaling. ERV and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) expression were significantly higher in tumor compared to non-tumor samples. 12 tumor specific ERV ("MesoERV1-12") were identified and verified by qPCR in mouse tissues. "MesoERV1-12" expression was lower in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) compared to mesothelioma cells. "MesoERV1-12" levels were significantly increased by demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment and were accompanied by increased levels of dsRNA and ISGs. Basal ISGs expression was higher in mesothelioma cells compared to MEF and was significantly decreased by JAK inhibitor Ruxolitinib, by blocking Ifnar1 and by silencing Mavs. "MesoERV7" promoter was demethylated in asbestos-exposed compared to sham mice tissue as well as in mesothelioma cells and MEF upon 5-Aza-CdR treatment. These observations uncover novel aspects of asbestos-induced mesothelioma whereby ERV expression increases due to promoter demethylation and is paralleled by increased levels of dsRNA and activation of type-I IFN signaling. These features are important for early diagnosis and therapy.

RevDate: 2021-03-11

Shamseddin M, Obacz J, Garnett MJ, et al (2021)

Use of preclinical models for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Thorax pii:thoraxjnl-2020-216602 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer most commonly caused by prior exposure to asbestos. Median survival is 12-18 months, since surgery is ineffective and chemotherapy offers minimal benefit. Preclinical models that faithfully recapitulate the genomic and histopathological features of cancer are critical for the development of new treatments. The most commonly used models of MPM are two-dimensional cell lines established from primary tumours or pleural fluid. While these have provided some important insights into MPM biology, these cell models have significant limitations. In order to address some of these limitations, spheroids and microfluidic chips have more recently been used to investigate the role of the three-dimensional environment in MPM. Efforts have also been made to develop animal models of MPM, including asbestos-induced murine tumour models, MPM-prone genetically modified mice and patient-derived xenografts. Here, we discuss the available in vitro and in vivo models of MPM and highlight their strengths and limitations. We discuss how newer technologies, such as the tumour-derived organoids, might allow us to address the limitations of existing models and aid in the identification of effective treatments for this challenging-to-treat disease.

RevDate: 2021-03-15
CmpDate: 2021-03-12

Yu M, Yu M, Zhu LJ, et al (2021)

[Expression and clinical significance of SETD2 in maligant pleural mesothelioma].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 39(2):91-98.

Objective: To analyze the gene mutation profile in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and investigate the expression of high-frequency mutant genes and its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. To screen out key genes and clinicopathologic factors related to the prognosis of MPM patients. Methods: The second generation sequencing data, somatic mutation data and clinical pathological data of 86 MPM cases and gene chip expression data of 89 MPM cases were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) in March 2020. Summarize the gene mutation profile of tissue samples in the TCGA database and analyze the relationship between the expression level of high-frequency mutation genes and the clinicopathological characteristics, asbestos exposure history and prognosis of MPM patients. The genes significantly related to MPM prognosis were screened out for gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) . Survival analysis and GSEA were performed for the selected key genes and clinicopathological features verification using the microarray expression data from the GEO database. Results: The top 10 genes with highest single nucleotide variations frequencies were BAP1, NF2, TP53, TTN, SETD2, LATS2, CCDC168, FAT4, PTCH1 and ZNF469. The high expression rates of NF2, TP53, SETD2 and CCDC168 genes in wild type were higher than those of mutated type, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Cox multivariate analysis of TCGA data showed that MPM patients with epithelial type (HR=0.425, 95%CI: 0.235-0.767, P<0.01) and SETD2 low expression (HR=0.516, 95%CI: 0.307-0.868, P=0.011) had lower risk of death. The survival analysis of GEO data verified that patients with epithelial type MPM had longer survival time, while patients with sarcoma type MPM had shortest survival time (P<0.01) . GSEA showed that SETD2 was involved in G2M checkpoint, E2F targets, MYC signaling pathways, protein secretion, mitotic spindle, MTORC1 pathway, TGF-β pathway, androgen response and uv response. Conclusion: MPM is accompanied with higher frequency of gene mutations represented by BAP1, NF2, TP53, TTN, SETD2, LATS2 and so on. SETD2 expression level and epithelia type of MPM may be influential factors for MPM prognosis.

RevDate: 2021-03-15
CmpDate: 2021-03-12

Yu M, Yu M, Ying SB, et al (2021)

[The impact of CD8 and CTLA-4 expression on histopathological character and survival in mesothelioma].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 39(2):85-90.

Objective: To investigate the survival and death risk factors of mesothelioma cases stratified by the expression levels of CD8 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) , providing new clue to evaluate disease progression and clinical outcome. Methods: This was a retrospective case report, which included 47 clinically and pathologically confirmed mesothelioma cases on November 2016. Their clinical and pathological information, asbestos exposure history and survival data were collected. Infiltrated lymphocyte, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) , CTLA-4, CD8 and Ki-67 antigen were detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Survival time and death risk factors of mesothelioma patients with different CD8 and CTLA-4 protein expression characteristics were analyzed. And analyze the influence of Ki-67 expression on the survival of patients with different CD8 and CTLA-4 protein and gene expression characteristics. Results: Among the 47 cases, 63.8% (30/47) had low/medium level of infiltrated lymphocyte. The immunohistochemistry scores of CTLA-4, CD8, 5-mC and Ki-67 were 92.97 (54.95, 120.65) , 72.41 (36.62, 89.82) , 11.09 (3.40, 52.89) and 5.88 (2.41, 11.48) , respectively. Patients with CD8(high) CTLA-4(high) had higher 5-mC level than those with CD8(high) CTLA-4(low) (P<0.01) . The median survival time of 27 cases was 0.83±0.29 year. The median survival times of those with CD8(high) CTLA-4(high) and CD8(high) CTLA-4(low) were 0.58±0.51 year and 0.83±0.30 year, respectively (P=0.521) . The immunohistochemistry score of Ki-67 ≥5.88 was an independent death risk factor for patients with CD8(high) CTLA-4(low) (HR=8.40, P=0.01) . Under different CD8 and CTLA-4 protein expression characteristics, in the patients with CD8(high) CTLA-4(low), the median survival times of those with high and low Ki-67 expression were 0.57±0.11 years and 2.31±0.46 years, respectively (P<0.01) . Under different CD8 and CTLA-4 mRNA expression characteristics, in the patients with CD8(high) CTLA-4(low), the median survival times of those with high and low Ki-67 mRNA expression were 1.20±0.36 years and 3.38±0.43 years, respectively (P=0.018) . Conclusion: Mesothelioma case with high CD8 but low CTLA-4 content might coexist DNA hypomethylation. In the presence of high Ki-67 expression, their survival time appears to be shortened with increased death risk.

RevDate: 2021-04-08
CmpDate: 2021-04-08

Zhang X (2021)

[Indispensable urgency for prevention and control of asbestos-related cancer].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 39(2):81-84.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Carey RN, Pfau JC, Fritzler MJ, et al (2021)

Autoantibodies and cancer among asbestos-exposed cohorts in Western Australia.

Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A, 84(11):475-483.

Asbestos exposure is associated with many adverse health conditions including malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer as well as production of autoantibodies. Autoantibodies may serve as biomarkers for asbestos exposure in patients with cancer, and autoimmune dysfunction has been linked to increased rates of various cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that autoantibodies are more frequent in asbestos-exposed individuals with either lung cancer or mesothelioma than those without these conditions. Asbestos-exposed individuals from Western Australia who had lung cancer (n = 24), malignant mesothelioma (n = 24), or no malignancy (n = 51) were tested for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) using indirect immunofluorescence and specific extractable nuclear autoantibodies (ENA) employing a multiplexed addressable laser bead immunoassay. Contrary to the hypothesis, data demonstrated that individuals without malignancy were more likely to be positive for ANA compared to those with cancer. However, autoantibodies to histone and Ro-60 were found to be associated with lung cancer. These results support a possible predictive value for specific autoantibodies in the early detection of lung cancer and/or in our understanding of the role of autoimmune processes in cancer. However, further studies are needed to identify specific target antigens for the antibodies.

RevDate: 2021-04-23
CmpDate: 2021-04-23

Arachi D, Furuya S, David A, et al (2021)

Development of the "National Asbestos Profile" to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in 195 Countries.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(4):.

Worldwide, 230,000+ people die annually from asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries develop a National Asbestos Profile (NAP) to eliminate ARDs. For 195 countries, we assessed the global status of NAPs (A: bona fide NAP, B: proxy NAP, C: relevant published information, D: no relevant information) by national income (HI: high, UMI: upper-middle, LMI: lower-middle, LI: low), asbestos bans (banned, no-ban) and public data availability. Fourteen (7% of 195) countries were category A (having a bona fide NAP), while 98, 51 and 32 countries were categories B, C and D, respectively. Of the 14 category-A countries, 8, 3 and 3 were LMI, UMI and HI, respectively. Development of a bona fide NAP showed no gradient by national income. The proportions of countries having a bona fide NAP were similar between asbestos-banned and no-ban countries. Public databases useful for developing NAPs contained data for most countries. Irrespective of the status of national income or asbestos ban, most countries have not developed a NAP despite having the potential. The global status of NAP is suboptimal. Country-level data on asbestos and ARDs in public databases can be better utilized to develop NAPs for globally eliminating ARDs.

RevDate: 2021-04-26
CmpDate: 2021-04-26

Visonà SD, Capella S, Bodini S, et al (2021)

Inorganic Fiber Lung Burden in Subjects with Occupational and/or Anthropogenic Environmental Asbestos Exposure in Broni (Pavia, Northern Italy): An SEM-EDS Study on Autoptic Samples.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(4):.

Increased mortality due to malignant mesothelioma has been demonstrated by several epidemiologic studies in the area around Broni (a small town in Lombardy, northern Italy), where a factory producing asbestos cement was active between 1932 and 1993. Until now, the inorganic fiber burden in lungs has not been investigated in this population. The aim of this study is to assess the lung fiber burden in 72 individuals with previous occupational and/or anthropogenic environmental exposure to asbestos during the activity of an important asbestos cement factory. Inorganic fiber lung burden was assessed in autoptic samples taken from individuals deceased from asbestos-related diseases using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. Significant differences in the detected amount of asbestos were pointed out among the three types of exposure. In most lung samples taken from patients who died of mesothelioma, very little asbestos (or, in some cases, no fibers) was found. Such subjects showed a significantly lower median amount of asbestos as compared to asbestosis. Almost no chrysotile was detected in the examined samples. Overall, crocidolite was the most represented asbestos, followed by amosite, tremolite/actinolite asbestos, and anthophyllite asbestos. There were significant differences in the amount of crocidolite and amosite fibers according to the kind of exposure. Overall, these findings provide novel insights into the link between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma, as well as the different impacts of the various types of asbestos on human health in relation to their different biopersistences in the lung microenvironment.

RevDate: 2021-04-26
CmpDate: 2021-04-26

Gariazzo C, Binazzi A, Alfò M, et al (2021)

Predictors of Lung Cancer Risk: An Ecological Study Using Mortality and Environmental Data by Municipalities in Italy.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(4):.

Lung cancer (LC) mortality remains a consistent part of the total deaths occurring worldwide. Its etiology is complex as it involves multifactorial components. This work aims in providing an epidemiological assessment on occupational and environmental factors associated to LC risk by means of an ecological study involving the 8092 Italian municipalities for the period 2006-2015. We consider mortality data from mesothelioma as proxy of asbestos exposure, as well as PM2.5 and radon levels as a proxy of environmental origin. The compensated cases for occupational respiratory diseases, urbanization and deprivation were included as predictors. We used a negative binomial distribution for the response, with analysis stratified by gender. We estimated that asbestos is responsible for about 1.1% (95% CI: 0.8, 1.4) and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) of LC mortality in males and females, respectively. The corresponding figures are 14.0% (95% CI: 12.5, 15.7) and 16.3% (95% CI: 16.2, 16.3) for PM2.5 exposure, and 3.9% (95% CI: 3.5, 4.2) and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.4, 1.7) for radon exposure. The assessment of determinants contribution to observed LC deaths is crucial for improving awareness of its origin, leading to increase the equity of the welfare system.

RevDate: 2021-04-23
CmpDate: 2021-04-23

Wortzel JD, Wiebe DJ, Elahi S, et al (2021)

Ascertainment Bias in a Historic Cohort Study of Residents in an Asbestos Manufacturing Community.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(5):.

This paper describes follow-up for a cohort of 4530 residents living in the asbestos manufacturing community of Ambler, PA, U.S. in 1930. Using re-identified census data, cause and date of death data obtained from the genealogic website Ancestry.com, along with geospatial analysis, we explored relationships among demographic characteristics, occupational, paraoccupational and environmental asbestos exposures. We identified death data for 2430/4530 individuals. Exposure differed significantly according to race, gender, age, and recency of immigration to the U.S. Notably, there was a significant difference in the availability of year of death information for non-white vs. white individuals (odds ratio (OR) = 0.62 p-value < 0.001), females (OR = 0.53, p-value < 0.001), first-generation immigrants (OR = 0.67, p-value = 0.001), second-generation immigrants (OR = 0.31, p-value < 0.001) vs. non-immigrants, individuals aged less than 20 (OR = 0.31 p-value < 0.001) and individuals aged 20 to 59 (OR = 0.63, p-value < 0.001) vs. older individuals. Similarly, the cause of death was less often available for non-white individuals (OR = 0.42, p-value <0.001), first-generation immigrants and (OR = 0.71, p-value = 0.009), second-generation immigrants (OR = 0.49, p-value < 0.001), individuals aged less than 20 (OR = 0.028 p-value < 0.001), and individuals aged 20 to 59 (OR = 0.26, p-value < 0.001). These results identified ascertainment bias that is important to consider in analyses that investigate occupational, para-occupational and environmental asbestos exposure as risk factors for mortality in this historic cohort. While this study attempts to describe methods for assessing itemized asbestos exposure profiles for a community in 1930 using Ancestry.com and other publicly accessible databases, it also highlights how historic cohort studies likely underestimate the impact of asbestos exposure on vulnerable populations. Future work will aim to assess mortality patterns in this cohort.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Kotsiou OS, Gourgoulianis KI, SG Zarogiannis (2021)

The role of nitric oxide in pleural disease.

Respiratory medicine, 179:106350.

Nitric oxide (NO) regulates various physiological and pathophysiological functions in the lungs. However, there is much less information about the effects of NO in the pleura. The present review aimed to explore the available evidence regarding the role of NO in pleural disease. NO, has a double-edged role in the pleural cavity. It is an essential signaling molecule mediating various physiological cell functions such as lymphatic drainage of the serous cavities, the immune response to intracellular multiplication of pathogens, and downregulation of neutrophil migration, but also induces genocytotoxic and mutagenic effects when present in excess. NO is implicated in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related or exudative pleural disease and mesothelioma. From a clinical point of view, the fraction of exhaled NO has been suggested as a potential non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of benign asbestos-related disorders. Under experimental conditions, NO-mimetics were found to attenuate hypoxia-induced therapy resistance in mesothelioma. Similarly, hybrid agents consisting of an NO donor coupled with a parent anti-inflammatory drug showed an enhancement of the anti-inflammatory activity of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, given the paucity of research work performed over the last years in this area, further research should be undertaken to establish reliable conclusions with respect to the feasibility of determining or targeting the NO signaling pathway for pleural disease diagnosis and therapeutic management.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Guzmán-Casta J, Carrasco-CaraChards S, Guzmán-Huesca J, et al (2021)

Prognostic factors for progression-free and overall survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Thoracic cancer, 12(7):1014-1022.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an infrequent neoplasia with a poor prognosis and the majority of patients already have advanced disease at the time of presentation. Exposure to asbestos is the most important risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is a neoplasia with a long preclinical stage that can span from 15 to 40 years.

METHODS: This was a descriptive, observational, retrospective study of 136 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of mesothelioma, which compared histological subtypes, immunohistochemical biomarkers, concomitant chronic degenerative diseases, tobacco use, age at the time of diagnosis, clinical stage and chemotherapy agents used or other treatments such as radiotherapy and surgery to identify all the factors that impact in the prognosis of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).

RESULTS: A total of 136 patients were included in the study. In the total study population, 84 patients were male (61.8%) and 52 were female (38.2%). Median PFS was nine months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.4-9.5 months) and median OS was 12 months (95% CI: 11.3-12.6). The results indicated that the most determining prognostic factors for OS and PFS were cell differentiation measured by immunohistochemical biomarkers, the treatment chosen, and that RECIST was the most significant in the evaluation of patient response to treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a cancer with a poor prognosis usually diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease. Our study revealed that the prognostic factors for OS and PS were cell differentiation, the treatment chosen and RECIST.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Sridharan S, Taylor-Just A, JC Bonner (2021)

Osteopontin mRNA expression by rat mesothelial cells exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a potential biomarker of chronic neoplastic transformation in vitro.

Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA, 73:105126.

Mesothelioma is a cancer of the lung pleura primarily associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are engineered nanomaterials that pose a potential risk for mesothelioma due to properties that are similar to asbestos. Inhaled MWCNTs migrate to the pleura in rodents and some types cause mesothelioma. Like asbestos, there is a diversity of MWCNT types. We investigated the neoplastic potential of tangled (tMWCNT) versus rigid (rMWCNT) after chronic exposure using serial passages of rat mesothelial cells in vitro. Normal rat mesothelial (NRM2) cells were exposed to tMWCNTs or rMWCNTs for 45 weeks over 85 passages to determine if exposure resulted in transformation to a neoplastic phenotype. Rat mesothelioma (ME1) cells were used as a positive control. Osteopontin (OPN) mRNA was assayed as a biomarker of transformation by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and transformation was determined by a cell invasion assay. Exposure to rMWCNTs, but not tMWCNTs, resulted in transformation of NRM2 cells into an invasive phenotype that was similar to ME1 cells. Moreover, exposure of NRM2 cells to rMWCNTs increased OPN mRNA that correlated with cellular transformation. These data suggest that OPN is a potential biomarker that should be further investigated to screen the carcinogenicity of MWCNTs in vitro.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Niu X, Zhou C, Hu A, et al (2021)

Malignant mesothelioma without asbestos exposure diagnosed during EGFR-TKI treatment of lung adenocarcinoma: A case report.

Cancer treatment and research communications, 27:100345.

Synchronous malignant mesothelioma (MM) and lung carcinoma are extremely rare in patients without a history of asbestos exposure and poses tremendous difficulties in clinical management. We report a patient without asbestos exposure diagnosed with MM during EGFR-TKI treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), who responded to first-line chemotherapy with pemetrexed plus carboplatin and failed to subsequent systemic therapy. Clinicians should be careful about the possibility of MM comorbidity in LUAD patients whose lesions respond differently to EGFR-TKI, even in those without a history of asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

Hoton D, Luyckx M, Galant C, et al (2021)

Hibernoma-like Changes and TFE3 Expression in Mesothelioma Mimicking TFE3-Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Pitfall.

International journal of surgical pathology [Epub ahead of print].

The long delay between asbestos exposure and the development of mesothelioma will likely result in an increased incidence of mesothelioma in our industrialized societies. Radiation therapy is another factor known to induce these tumors. We describe a rare case of foamy looking mesothelioma in a 63-year-old patient with a long oncology history of a supposed peritoneal carcinomatosis. The pathologist was faced with a diagnostic pitfall as this peritoneal clear cell tumor expressed transcription factor binding to immunoglobulin heavy constant mu enhancer 3 (TFE3) at the nuclear level. Fortunately, the pathologist performed an extensive panel of immunomarkers, leading to a final diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma. Thus, we describe the first case of mesothelioma expressing TFE3. Note that there was no rearrangement of TFE3 in fluorescence in situ hybridization.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Rossi G, Caroli G, Caruso D, et al (2021)

Pseudocarcinomatous Mesothelioma: A Hitherto Unreported Presentation closely simulating primary lung cancer.

International journal of surgical pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) has a wide range of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic presentations, mimicking lung cancer or interstitial lung diseases when predominantly involving the lung parenchyma. The case herein refers to a 79-year-old man, active smoker without asbestos exposure, incidentally discovered to have a pulmonary nodule in the right upper lobe (1.5 cm). The lesion was misinterpreted as primary lung adenocarcinoma at the frozen section in light of the predominant lepidic growth pattern. Definitive examination confirmed neoplastic proliferation along alveolar structures. However, the unusual globous shape of tumor cells along the alveoli abruptly merging with normal pneumocytes prompted us to perform some immunostains that surprisingly revealed a mesothelial differentiation (positive staining with calretinin, cytokeratins (CK5/6), D2-40, and negativity with BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1), Thyroid Transcription Factor 1 [TTF-1], claudin-4, carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA], and napsin). MM represents the pathologic counterpart of so-called pseudomesotheliomatous carcinoma, since it appears as a localized pulmonary neoplastic nodule displaying a predominant lepidic growth pattern (pseudocarcinomatous mesothelioma). The challenging diagnostic features of this unique case and a review of similar cases in the literature are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Baur X, AL Frank (2021)

Ongoing downplaying of the carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos by vested interests.

Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 16(1):6.

Industries that mine, manufacture and sell asbestos or asbestos-containing products have a long tradition of promoting the use of asbestos, while placing the burden of economic and health costs on workers and society. This has been successfully done in recent years and decades in spite of the overwhelming evidence that all asbestos types are carcinogenic and cause asbestosis. In doing so, the asbestos industry has undermined the WHO campaign to reach a worldwide ban of asbestos and to eliminate asbestos-related diseases. Even worse, in recent years they succeeded in continuing asbestos mining and consuming in the range of about 1.3 million tons annually. Nowadays, production takes place predominantly in Russia, Kazakhstan and China. Chrysotile is the only asbestos type still sold and represents 95% of asbestos traded over the last century.The asbestos industry, especially its PR agency, the International Chrysotile Association, ICA, financed by asbestos mining companies in Russia, Kazakhstan and Zimbabwe and asbestos industrialists in India and Mexico, continues to be extremely active by using slogans such as chrysotile can be used safely.Another approach of the asbestos industry and of some of its insurance agencies is to broadly defeat liability claims of asbestos victims.In doing so they systematically use inappropriate science produced by their own and/or by industry-affiliated researchers. Some of the latter were also engaged in producing defense material for other industries including the tobacco industry. Frequent examples of distributing such disinformation include questioning or denying established scientific knowledge about adverse health effects of asbestos. False evidence continues to be published in scientific journals and books.The persisting strong influence of vested asbestos-related interests in workers and public health issues including regulations and compensation necessitate ongoing alertness, corrections and appropriate reactions in scientific as well as public media and policy advisory bodies.

RevDate: 2021-05-10
CmpDate: 2021-05-10

Ierardi AM, Urban A, GM Marsh (2021)

A quantitative weight of evidence assessment of Hill's guidelines for causal inference for cosmetic talc as a cause of mesothelioma.

Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 417:115461.

Cosmetic talc has been suggested to cause mesothelioma. To assess a potential causal relationship between cosmetic talc and mesothelioma, a quantitative weight of evidence analysis was performed in accordance with Hill's nine original guidelines for causal inference using a published empirical model to weight each respective guideline. Various epidemiological, toxicological, and exposure studies related to cosmetic talc and risk of mesothelioma were included in an evaluation of each of Hill's guidelines. Probabilities that the guidelines were true were assigned based on expert judgment. We applied a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the variability of our probability estimates. The overall probability of causality for cosmetic talc and mesothelioma was approximately 1.29% (range: 0.73%-3.96%). This low probability of causality supports the conclusion that cosmetic talc is not related to the development of mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Cheng YY, Yuen ML, H Jin (2021)

Editorial: Epigenetic Modifications in Mesothelioma.

Frontiers in oncology, 11:650136.

RevDate: 2021-03-25

Pestak CR, Boyce TW, Myers OB, et al (2021)

A Population-Based Feasibility Study of Occupation and Thoracic Malignancies in New Mexico.

Southwest journal of pulmonary & critical care, 22(1):23-25.

Background: Occupational exposures in mining and oil/gas extraction are known risk factors for thoracic malignancies (TMs). Given the relatively high proportion of these industries in New Mexico (NM), we conducted a feasibility study of adult lifetime occupational history among TM cases. We hypothesized a higher proportion of occupational TM in NM relative to the estimated national average of 10-14%.

Methods: We identified incident TM cases through the population-based New Mexico Tumor Registry (NMTR), from 2017-2018. Cases completed a telephone interview. An adjudication panel reviewed case histories and classified cancers as probable, possible, or non-occupational related, taking into account the presence, duration, and latency of exposures. We characterized recruitment and describe job titles and exposures among those with occupational TMs. We also compared the distributions of industry between those with and without occupational TM.

Results: The NMTR identified 400 eligible TM cases, 290 of which were available to be recruited (n=285 lung/bronchial cancer; n=5 mesotheliomas). Of the latter, 60% refused and 18% were deceased, 9% had invalid addresses, 11% were unable to be reached by telephone, and 3% were too ill to participate. The 43 cases who completed an interview held 236 jobs. A total of 33% of cases were classified as probable occupational TM and 5% as possible occupational TM.

Conclusions: High rates of early mortality and refusals were significant barriers to study participation. Nonetheless, the proportion of probable occupational TMs greatly exceeded the estimated national average, highlighting the need for further study of occupational TM in the state.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Malpica A, Euscher ED, Marques-Piubelli ML, et al (2021)

Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Associated With Endometriosis: A Clinicopathologic Study of 15 Cases.

International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists pii:00004347-900000000-98967 [Epub ahead of print].

Only a few cases of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) associated with endometriosis have been published; with chronic inflammation of the peritoneum associated with the latter being postulated as an inducing factor in the pathogenesis of this tumor. We assessed the clinicopathologic characteristics of MPeM associated with endometriosis to determine if there were other factors besides inflammation that may contribute to the pathogenesis in this patient population. Fifteen MPeM associated with endometriosis were retrieved from our files. Most presented with abdominal/pelvic pain, mass or distention; median age was 45 yr. Only 16% of patients had a history of asbestos exposure. In contrast, a third of the patients had a personal history of other neoplasms, and >80% had a family history of malignancies. Although most tumors had gross and microscopic features typical of MPeM, some had confounding features including "adhesion-like" appearance or gelatinous cysts/nodules, and signet ring cells. Tumors were epithelioid (9) and biphasic (6). MPeM was misdiagnosed as Müllerian carcinoma in 40% of cases. All patients (n=15) had cytoreductive surgery in addition to other therapies. Only 2/12 patients died of disease (17%). The 3- and 5-yr overall survival was 90%. MPeM associated with endometriosis tends to occur in patients with personal/familial history of malignancies, which may be a predisposing factor. In light of this finding, the role of endometriosis in the pathogenesis of MPeM is likely less relevant. The favorable outcome seen in these patients may be related to germline mutations or the hormonal milieu and needs further investigation.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Sato T, Mukai S, Ikeda H, et al (2021)

Silencing of SmgGDS, a Novel mTORC1 Inducer That Binds to RHEBs, Inhibits Malignant Mesothelioma Cell Proliferation.

Molecular cancer research : MCR, 19(5):921-931.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor that typically develops after a long latency following asbestos exposure. Although mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation enhances MM cell growth, the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus has shown limited efficacy in clinical trials of MM patients. We explored the mechanism underlying mTORC1 activation in MM cells and its effects on cell proliferation and progression. Analysis of the expression profiles of 87 MMs from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that 40 samples (46%) displayed altered expression of RPTOR (mTORC1 component) and genes immediately upstream that activate mTORC1. Among them, we focused on RHEB and RHEBL1, which encode direct activators of mTORC1. Exogenous RHEBL1 expression enhanced MM cell growth, indicating that RHEB-mTORC1 signaling acts as a pro-oncogenic cascade. We investigated molecules that directly activate RHEBs, identifying SmgGDS as a novel RHEB-binding protein. SmgGDS knockdown reduced mTORC1 activation and inhibited the proliferation of MM cells with mTORC1 activation. Interestingly, SmgGDS displayed high binding affinity with inactive GDP-bound RHEBL1, and its knockdown reduced cytosolic RHEBL1 without affecting its activation. These findings suggest that SmgGDS retains GDP-bound RHEBs in the cytosol, whereas GTP-bound RHEBs are localized on intracellular membranes to promote mTORC1 activation. We revealed a novel role for SmgGDS in the RHEB-mTORC1 pathway and its potential as a therapeutic target in MM with aberrant mTORC1 activation. IMPLICATIONS: Our data showing that SmgGDS regulates RHEB localization to activate mTORC1 indicate that SmgGDS can be used as a new therapeutic target for MM exhibiting mTORC1 activation.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Keller M, Reis K, Hjerpe A, et al (2021)

Cytoskeletal Organization Correlates to Motility and Invasiveness of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells.

Cancers, 13(4):.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare but highly aggressive cancer that primarily originates from the pleura, peritoneum or pericardium. There is a well-established link between asbestos exposure and progression of MM. Direct invasion of the surrounding tissues is the main feature of MM, which is dependent on dysregulated communication between the mesothelium and the microenvironment. This communication is dependent on the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton. We have analyzed the organization and function of key cytoskeletal components in MM cell lines of increasing malignancies measured as migratory and invasive properties, and we show that highly malignant and invasive MM cells have an organization of the actin filament and vimentin systems that is distinct from the less malignant MM cell lines. In addition, the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway was inactivated in the invasive MM cells, which was seen as increased YAP nuclear localization.

RevDate: 2021-03-02

Lococo F (2021)

Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: Time Is Running Out.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(4):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but highly malignant disease of the pleura usually related to asbestos exposure [...].

RevDate: 2021-04-27
CmpDate: 2021-04-27

Emmett EA (2021)

Asbestos in High-Risk Communities: Public Health Implications.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(4):.

Asbestos-related diseases (ARDs)-mesothelioma, lung cancer, and asbestosis-are well known as occupational diseases. As industrial asbestos use is eliminated, ARDs within the general community from para-occupational, environmental, and natural exposures are more prominent. ARD clusters have been studied in communities including Broni, Italy; Libby, Montana; Wittenoom, Western Australia; Karain, Turkey; Ambler, Pennsylvania; and elsewhere. Community ARDs pose specific public health issues and challenges. Community exposure results in higher proportions of mesothelioma in women and a younger age distribution than occupational exposures. Exposure amount, age at exposure, fiber type, and genetic predisposition influence ARD expression; vulnerable groups include those with social and behavioral risk, exposure to extreme events, and genetic predispositions. To address community exposure, regulations should address all carcinogenic elongated mineral fibers. Banning asbestos mining, use, and importation will not reduce risks from asbestos already in place. Residents of high-risk communities are characteristically exposed through several pathways differing among communities. Administrative responsibility for controlling environmental exposures is more diffuse than for workplaces, complicated by diverse community attitudes to risk and prevention and legal complexity. The National Mesothelioma Registries help track the identification of communities at risk. High-risk communities need enhanced services for screening, diagnosis, treatment, and social and psychological support, including for retired asbestos workers. Legal settlements could help fund community programs. A focus on prevention, public health programs, particularization to specific community needs, and participation is recommended.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Vogl M, Rosenmayr A, Bohanes T, et al (2021)

Biomarkers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma-A Novel View on Inflammation.

Cancers, 13(4):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease with limited treatment response and devastating prognosis. Exposure to asbestos and chronic inflammation are acknowledged as main risk factors. Since immune therapy evolved as a promising novel treatment modality, we want to reevaluate and summarize the role of the inflammatory system in MPM. This review focuses on local tumor associated inflammation on the one hand and systemic inflammatory markers, and their impact on MPM outcome, on the other hand. Identification of new biomarkers helps to select optimal patient tailored therapy, avoid ineffective treatment with its related side effects and consequently improves patient's outcome in this rare disease. Additionally, a better understanding of the tumor promoting and tumor suppressing inflammatory processes, influencing MPM pathogenesis and progression, might also reveal possible new targets for MPM treatment. After reviewing the currently available literature and according to our own research, it is concluded that the suppression of the specific immune system and the activation of its innate counterpart are crucial drivers of MPM aggressiveness translating to poor patient outcome.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Miyagawa C, Takaya H, Sakai K, et al (2021)

A Novel Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma with STRN Exon 2 and ALK Exon 20: A Case Report and Literature Review.

The oncologist, 26(5):356-361.

Recently, several malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas (MPMs), occurring in young women without asbestos exposure and with fusion genes such as anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1, have been reported. In the present case, we encountered MPM with STRN-ALK fusion in a 17-year-old female adolescent. The case did not respond to chemotherapy and is currently in a clinical trial of alectinib. This is the fourth reported case of MPM with STRN-ALK fusion. Of the 45 cancer cases with STRN-ALK fusion in which the fusion partners were examined, all cases except for the current case showed fusion of exon 3 of STRN and exon 20 of ALK. This is the first case with fusion of exon 2 of STRN and exon 20 of ALK. Further advances in cancer genomic medicine may help clarify the clinical significance of this new fusion. KEY POINTS: Malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas (MPMs) can occur in young women without asbestos exposure and show fusion genes that activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) by gene rearrangement. ALK rearrangement and the fusion partner can be detected by companion diagnostics and by next generation sequencing. Patients with MPMs with ALK rearrangement may benefit from target therapy.

RevDate: 2021-05-03

Franko A, Goricar K, Dodic Fikfak M, et al (2021)

The role of polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes in asbestos-related diseases.

Radiology and oncology, 55(2):179-186.

BACKGROUND: The study investigated the influence of GCLC, GCLM, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms, as well as the influence of interactions between polymorphism and interactions between polymorphisms and asbestos exposure, on the risk of developing pleural plaques, asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma (MM).

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross sectional study included 940 asbestos-exposed subjects, among them 390 subjects with pleural plaques, 147 subjects with asbestosis, 225 subjects with MM and 178 subjects with no asbestos-related disease. GCLC rs17883901, GCLM rs41303970, GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, GSTP1 rs1695 and GSTP1 rs1138272 genotypes were determined using PCR based methods. In statistical analysis, logistic regression was used.

RESULTS: GSTT1 null genotype was associated with the decreased risk for pleural plaques (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.40-0.98; p = 0.026) and asbestosis (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28-0.93; p = 0.028), but not for MM. A positive association was found between GSTP1 rs1695 AG + GG vs. AA genotypes for MM when compared to pleural plaques (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.00-1.94; p = 0.049). The interactions between different polymorphisms showed no significant influence on the risk of investigated asbestos-related diseases. The interaction between GSTT1 null polymorphism and asbestos exposure decreased the MM risk (OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.03-0.85; p = 0.031).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with a decreased risk for pleural plaques and asbestosis, may modify the association between asbestos exposure and MM and may consequently act protectively on MM risk. This study also revealed a protective effect of the interaction between GSTP1 rs1695 polymorphism and asbestos exposure on MM risk.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

De Rienzo A, Coleman MH, Yeap BY, et al (2021)

Association of RERG Expression with Female Survival Advantage in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 13(3):.

Sex differences in incidence, prognosis, and treatment response have been described for many cancers. In malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a lethal disease associated with asbestos exposure, men outnumber women 4 to 1, but women consistently live longer than men following surgery-based therapy. This study investigated whether tumor expression of genes associated with estrogen signaling could potentially explain observed survival differences. Two microarray datasets of MPM tumors were analyzed to discover estrogen-related genes associated with survival. A validation cohort of MPM tumors was selected to balance the numbers of men and women and control for competing prognostic influences. The RAS like estrogen regulated growth inhibitor (RERG) gene was identified as the most differentially-expressed estrogen-related gene in these tumors and predicted prognosis in discovery datasets. In the sex-matched validation cohort, low RERG expression was significantly associated with increased risk of death among women. No association between RERG expression and survival was found among men, and no relationship between estrogen receptor protein or gene expression and survival was found for either sex. Additional investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this association and its sex specificity.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Nadal E, Bosch-Barrera J, Cedrés S, et al (2021)

SEOM clinical guidelines for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (2020).

Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico, 23(5):980-987.

Mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive tumour with dismal prognosis arising in the pleura and associated with asbestos exposure. Its incidence is on the rise worldwide. In selected patients with early-stage MPM, a maximal surgical cytoreduction in combination with additional antitumour treatment may be considered in selected patients assessed by a multidisciplinary tumor board. In patients with unresectable or advanced MPM, chemotherapy with platinum plus pemetrexed is the standard of care. Currently, no standard salvage therapy has been approved yet, but second-line chemotherapy with vinorelbine or gemcitabine is commonly used. Novel therapeutic approaches based on dual immunotherapy or chemotherapy plus immunotherapy demonstrated promising survival benefit and will probably be incorporated in the future.

RevDate: 2021-02-06

Rossini M, Martini F, Torreggiani E, et al (2020)

Metformin Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Notch1 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cells.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:534499.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive asbestos-related cancer arising from the mesothelial cells lining the pleural cavity. MPM is characterized by a silent clinical progression and a highly resistance to conventional chemo/radio-therapies. MPM patients die in a few months/years from diagnosis. Notch signaling is a well-conserved cell communication system, which regulates many biological processes. In humans, the dysregulation of Notch pathway potentially contributes to cancer onset/progression, including MPM. Metformin is the first-line drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is proven to be an effective antitumor drug in preclinical models of different types of cancer. To date, clinical efficacy is being studied in many clinical trials. In this study, the anti-proliferative effect of metformin on MPM cells and the putative involvement of Notch1 as a mediator of metformin activities, were investigated. MPM cells showed high levels of Notch1 activation compared to normal pleural mesothelial cells. Furthermore, metformin treatment hampered MPM cell proliferation and enhanced the apoptotic process, accompanied by decreased Notch1 activation.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Fukui T, Okubo T, Tanimoto N, et al (2021)

Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a patient with pneumothorax: A cumbersome subtype both clinically and pathologically.

Thoracic cancer, 12(6):974-977.

Here, we report a case of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) that was very difficult to diagnose. A 62-year-old woman with a surgical history of recurrent bilateral pneumothorax was admitted to our hospital with severe dysphagia. Computed tomography (CT) detected stenosis in the lower esophagus. Immunohistochemical examination of a biopsy sample from the stenotic region was suggestive of MPM. Chemotherapy was initiated, but the patient soon weakened and died. Autopsy revealed atypical cells, identical to those seen in the biopsy sample which had spread into the stenotic esophagus and entire thoracic cavity. Although neither pleural thickening/nodules nor asbestos bodies were observed, we finally diagnosed the tumor as a biphasic-type MPM. We re-examined previous surgical specimens of pneumothorax and acknowledged foci of bland mesothelial cell proliferation which had the same pathological findings as tumor cells at autopsy. The lack of asbestos exposure and pleural thickening, an initial manifestation of pneumothorax, and faint cytological atypia prevented an early diagnosis. In cases of recurrent pneumothorax in elderly patients, MPM should be included in the differential diagnosis.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Piro R, Fontana M, Livrieri F, et al (2021)

Pleural mesothelioma: When echo-endoscopy (EUS-B-FNA) leads to diagnosis in a minimally invasive way.

Thoracic cancer, 12(6):981-984.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related and locally invasive tumor with poor prognosis. The acquisition of histological material is mandatory in order to establish a diagnosis. In this situation, the sampling of tissue is generally performed via a thoracoscopic pleural biopsy, either medically or surgically. The use of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) or transesophageal fine needle aspiration with an EBUS scope (EUS-B-FNA) of pleural lesions have only rarely been reported due to the theoretical limitations of tissue acquisition in such cases. We herein report a rare case of MPM successfully diagnosed via EUS-B-FNA in a 49-year-old woman with an unusual presentation characterized by solid thickening in the right mediastinal pleura.

RevDate: 2021-02-21

Dell LD, Gallagher AE, Yost LJ, et al (2021)

Integration of Evidence on Community Cancer Risks from Elongate Mineral Particles in Silver Bay, Minnesota.

Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis [Epub ahead of print].

The potential for cancer-related risks to community members from ambient exposure to elongate mineral particles (EMPs) in taconite processing has not been formally evaluated. We evaluated 926 ambient air samples including 12,928 EMPs (particle structures with length-to-width ratio ≥3:1) collected over 26 years near a taconite processing facility in Silver Bay, Minnesota. Eighty-two percent of EMPs were ≤3 μm in length and 97% of EMPs had an average aspect ratio <20:1. A total of 935 (7.3%) EMPs had length >5 μm and AR ≥3:1. Average ambient concentration of NIOSH countable amphibole EMPs over all years was 0.000387 EMPs per cubic centimeter (EMP/cm3). Of 12,765 nonchrysotile EMPs, the number of amphiboles with length and width dimensions that correlate best with asbestos-related carcinogenicity ranged from four (0.03%) to 13 (0.1%) and the associated ambient amphibole air concentrations ranged from 0.000003 to 0.000007 EMP/cm3 . After 65 years of taconite processing in Silver Bay, evidence of an increased risk of mesothelioma and lung cancer in community members who did not work in the taconite industry is lacking. The absence of an increased risk of asbestos-related cancer in the Silver Bay community is coherent with supporting evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies, as well as ambient exposure data and lake sediment data collected in Minnesota Iron Range communities. Collectively, the data provide consistent evidence that nonasbestiform amphibole minerals lack the carcinogenic potential exhibited by amphibole asbestos.

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Nowak AK (2021)

New and old treatments for malignant mesothelioma: not just immunotherapy.

The Lancet. Respiratory medicine pii:S2213-2600(20)30516-6 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Cook AM, McDonnell A, Millward MJ, et al (2021)

A phase 1b clinical trial optimizing regulatory T cell depletion in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy in thoracic cancers.

Expert review of anticancer therapy, 21(5):465-474.

Background: Single-agent cyclophosphamide can deplete regulatory T-cells (Treg). We aimed to determine optimal dosing and scheduling of oral cyclophosphamide, alongside pemetrexed-based chemotherapy, to deplete Treg in mesothelioma or non-small-cell lung cancer patients.Methods: 31 Patients received pemetrexed ± cisplatin or carboplatin on day 1 of a 21-day cycle (maximum 6 cycles). From cycle two, patients received cyclophosphamide, 50 mg/day, with intrapatient escalation to maximum 100/150 mg/day alternately. Immunological changes were examined by flow cytometry. Primary endpoint was Treg proportion of CD4+ T-cells, with doses tailored to target Treg nadir <4%.Results: Reduction in Treg proportion was observed on day 8 of all cycles, and was not augmented by cyclophosphamide. Few patients achieved the <4% Treg target. Treg proliferation reached nadir one week after chemotherapy, and peaked on day 1 of the subsequent cycle. Efficacy parameters were similar to chemotherapy alone. Seventeen percent of patients ceased cyclophosphamide due to toxicity.Conclusions: Specific Treg depletion to the degree seen with single-agent cyclophosphamide was not observed during pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. This study highlights the poor evidence basis for use of cyclophosphamide as an immunotherapeutic in combination with chemotherapy, and the importance of detailed flow cytometry studies.Trial registration: Clinical trial registration: www.anzctr.org.au identifier is ACTRN12609000260224.

RevDate: 2021-01-28

Barone Adesi F, Bruno C, Calisti R, et al (2020)

[Effects of Asbestos on Human Health. Document of the Italian Epidemiological Association (AIE)].

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 44(5-6):In press.

OBJECTIVES: the Italian Epidemiological Association (AIE) intends to formulate assessments and recommendations on the most relevant and critical aspects in the preparation, conduct, and interpretation of epidemiological investigations on the health effects of exposure to asbestos and asbestos-like fibres.

the document was prepared by a working group of AIE associates, with a broad curriculum of epidemiological investigations, starting from the evaluation of scientific evidence, and was subsequently evaluated by the AIE governing body.

RESULTS: the topics covered included: • consumption and presence of asbestos; • association between asbestos exposure and disease; • epidemiological surveillance of asbestos related diseases in Italy; • risk function for asbestos related diseases; • increased risk and anticipation of the disease; • interaction between asbestos and other carcinogens; • diagnosis in epidemiological studies; • assessment of exposure to asbestos; • epidemiological evidence on asbestos related diseases.

CONCLUSIONS: the document ends with a summary of the conclusions of scientific research shared by AIE, with reflection on the methodology to be followed for the application at individual level of the results of epidemiological studies, and the proposal of themes on which to direct research.

RevDate: 2021-04-01

Ringgaard Petersen T, Panou V, Meristoudis C, et al (2021)

Clinical prognostic factors in pleural mesothelioma: best supportive care and anti-tumor treatments in a real-life setting.

Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden), 60(4):521-527.

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate patient- and disease characteristics associated with survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients with anti-tumor treatment or with best supportive care (BSC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive MPM cases diagnosed in North Denmark Region from 1972 to 2015 were reevaluated and verified by two pathologists using modern immunohistochemical techniques. Danish registries and hospital records were used to gather patient-, asbestos exposure-, and disease information.

RESULTS: Of the 279 patients, anti-tumor treatment was administered to 184 patients (66.0%). All of those received chemotherapy alone or as part of a multimodal treatment, where pemetrexed was given to 126 (68.5%) patients. Asbestos exposure was documented in 92.5% of all patients. In the treated group, mean age was lower (66 years versus 74 years, p < 0.01), rate of occupational asbestos exposure was higher (74.5 versus 54.7%, p < 0.01), more patients had better performance score (98.4 versus 60%, p < 0.01) and stage was lower (81 versus 63.2%, p < 0.01) compared to the BSC group. Multivariate analysis showed that epithelioid subtype was the only common prognostic factor for OS in both groups. In BSC patients, good PS and female gender was associated with improved OS. Median overall survival (OS) was 17 versus 4 months (p < 0.01), and independently of the histopathological subtype, the median and 2-year survival was higher in the treated versus the BSC group (p < 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study showed that epithelioid subtype is the only independent positive prognostic factor of survival in treated patients with MPM. For BSC patients, the epithelioid subtype, good PS, and female gender were positive prognostic factors, while age and comorbidities were not significant. This study with long-term follow-up of treated and BSC MPM patients can contribute to the clinical stratification of patients. Further validation is appropriate to verify these findings.

RevDate: 2021-04-23
CmpDate: 2021-04-23

Kwak K, Zoh KE, D Paek (2021)

Incidence of Cancer and Asbestos-Related Diseases among Residents Living near Abandoned Asbestos Mines in South Korea: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using National Health Insurance Database.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(3):.

The use of asbestos has been banned since 2009 in South Korea. However, there is still a risk of exposure to environmental asbestos originating from abandoned asbestos mines. We constructed a retrospective dynamic cohort using the National Health Insurance Database of South Korea. We determined the risk of developing asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) among residents living near asbestos mines compared with those living in the control area and the general population. The risks of asbestosis (adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 65.40, 95% CI = 35.02-122.12) and pleural plaques (adjusted HR 3.55, 95% CI = 1.96-6.41) were significantly increased among residents living near the asbestos mines compared with the control area. The risk of malignant mesothelioma was increased near asbestos mines compared with the control area; however, it was not significant (adjusted HR 1.83, 95% CI = 0.61-5.47). When a separate analysis according to sex was conducted, the risk of mesothelioma among male residents was statistically significant (adjusted HR 8.30, 95% CI = 1.04-66.63), and the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was significantly increased (SIR 3.48, 95% CI = 1.50-6.85). The risk of ARDs was increased due to environmental asbestos exposure near abandoned asbestos mines in South Korea.

RevDate: 2021-01-21

Asciak R, George V, NM Rahman (2021)

Update on biology and management of mesothelioma.

European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society, 30(159): pii:30/159/200226.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive, incurable cancer that is usually caused by asbestos exposure several decades before symptoms arise. Despite widespread prohibition of asbestos production and supply, its incidence continues to increase. It is heterogeneous in its presentation and behaviour, and diagnosis can be notoriously difficult. Identification of actionable gene mutations has proven challenging and current treatment options are largely ineffective, with a median survival of 10-12 months.However, the past few years have witnessed major advances in our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of mesothelioma. This has also revealed the limitations of existing diagnostic algorithms and identified new treatment targets.Recent clinical trials have re-examined the role of surgery, provided new options for the management of associated pleural effusions and heralded the addition of targeted therapies. The increasing complexity of mesothelioma management, along with a desperate need for further research, means that a multidisciplinary team framework is essential for the delivery of contemporary mesothelioma care.This review provides a synthesised overview of the current state of knowledge and an update on the latest research in the field.

RevDate: 2021-02-18

Marcq E, Van Audenaerde JRM, De Waele J, et al (2021)

The Search for an Interesting Partner to Combine with PD-L1 Blockade in Mesothelioma: Focus on TIM-3 and LAG-3.

Cancers, 13(2):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer that is causally associated with previous asbestos exposure in most afflicted patients. The prognosis of patients remains dismal, with a median overall survival of only 9-12 months, due to the limited effectiveness of any conventional anti-cancer treatment. New therapeutic strategies are needed to complement the limited armamentarium against MPM. We decided to focus on the combination of different immune checkpoint (IC) blocking antibodies (Abs). Programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) blocking Abs were tested as monotherapies, and as part of a combination strategy with a second IC inhibitor. We investigated their effect in vitro by examining the changes in the immune-related cytokine secretion profile of supernatant collected from treated allogeneic MPM-peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) co-cultures. Based on our in vitro results of cytokine secretion, and flow cytometry data that showed a significant upregulation of PD-L1 on PBMC after co-culture, we chose to further investigate the combinations of anti PD-L1 + anti TIM-3 versus anti PD-L1 + anti LAG-3 therapies in vivo in the AB1-HA BALB/cJ mesothelioma mouse model. PD-L1 monotherapy, as well as its combination with LAG-3 blockade, resulted in in-vivo delayed tumor growth and significant survival benefit.

RevDate: 2021-02-24
CmpDate: 2021-02-24

Mensi C, Dallari B, Polonioli M, et al (2021)

Mesothelioma in Agriculture in Lombardy, Italy: An Unrecognized Risk.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(1):.

Cohort studies showed consistently low risks for malignant mesothelioma (MM) among agricultural workers, however the investigated exposures did not include asbestos. Our aim is to describe sources of asbestos exposure of MM in agriculture. Twenty-six MM cases in agricultural or seed trades workers were identified through the MM registry of the Lombardy region, Italy in 2000-2016. Asbestos exposures were investigated through a standardized questionnaire. The most frequent exposure circumstances were recycled jute bags previously containing asbestos (11 cases) and maintenance and repair of asbestos roofs (12 subjects). Three subjects performed maintenance and repair of tractor asbestos brakes and two used asbestos filters for wine production. Our data suggest asbestos exposure opportunities in the agricultural setting, underlining the need to look for this exposure in subjects affected with mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Eccher A, Girolami I, Lucenteforte E, et al (2021)

Diagnostic mesothelioma biomarkers in effusion cytology.

Cancer cytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis whose development is related to asbestos fiber exposure. An increasing role of genetic predisposition has been recognized recently. Pleural biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis, in which the identification of pleural invasion by atypical mesothelial cell is a major criterion. Pleural effusion is usually the first sign of disease; therefore, a cytological specimen is often the initial or the only specimen available for diagnosis. Given that reactive mesothelial cells may show marked atypia, the diagnosis of mesothelioma on cytomorphology alone is challenging. Accordingly, cell block preparation is encouraged, as it permits immunohistochemical staining. Traditional markers of mesothelioma such as glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) are informative, but difficult to interpret when reactive proliferations aberrantly stain positive. BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) nuclear staining loss is highly specific for mesothelioma, but sensitivity is low in sarcomatoid tumors. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A)/p16 homozygous deletion, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, is more specific for mesothelioma with better sensitivity, even in the sarcomatoid variant. The surrogate marker methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) has been found to demonstrate excellent diagnostic correlation with p16. The purpose of this review is to provide an essential appraisal of the literature regarding the diagnostic value of many of these emerging biomarkers for malignant mesothelioma in effusion cytology.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Borrelli EP, CG McGladrigan (2021)

A Review of Pharmacologic Management in the Treatment of Mesothelioma.

Current treatment options in oncology, 22(2):14.

OPINION STATEMENT: Mesothelioma is a rare and severe form of cancer that is associated with asbestos exposure. Approximately 2500 Americans die annually from this condition with a median survival of 1 year. The latency period of this disease ranges anywhere from 20 to 70 years, with shorter latency periods associated with a higher exposure intensity to asbestos. Therefore, cases of mesothelioma are expected in the coming decades. This highlights the need for clinicians to understand the pharmacologic regimens available for treating this rare, yet serious malignancy. With multiple treatment regimens available in the treatment of this condition, clinicians should take an evidence-based approach and consider the totality of evidence and safety information while considering the best patient-centered approach for treatment. This article provides a review of current pharmacologic treatment options available for mesothelioma and goes into detail about the recommended medication regimens and dosages and the available evidence of efficacy, effectiveness, and/or safety and estimates the annual cost of treatment for these medications on the U.S. healthcare system per patient. A brief introduction is provided for several promising agents currently under investigation for mesothelioma as well.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Germine M, JH Puffer (2021)

Anthophyllite asbestos from Staten Island, New York: Longitudinal fiber splitting.

Archives of environmental & occupational health [Epub ahead of print].

Asbestos ore was sampled from a historical anthophyllite mine in Staten Island, New York. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to image the structure of nineteen fibers of the anthophyllite asbestos. The anthophyllite was characterized by a high level of chain width disorder, involving wide chain multiplicity faults (CMFs) that were frequent in fibers, randomly spaced, and ranged from one to eight chains in width. This chain width disorder was manifest by streaking of electron diffraction rows of chain width. The anthophyllite asbestos fibers were found to be produced by longitudinal splitting rather than crystal growth. Such splitting is a function of cleavage along CMFs rather than crystal boundaries. The morphology of the fibers is consistent with anthophyllite asbestos mined in Finland associated with lung cancer and mesothelioma. These findings may have regulatory implications.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Ejegi-Memeh S, Darlison L, Moylan A, et al (2021)

Living with mesothelioma: A qualitative study of the experiences of male military veterans in the UK.

European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society, 50:101889.

PURPOSE: The UK has the highest incidence of mesothelioma in the world. Evidence in the United States suggests that mesothelioma may disproportionately affect military veterans. However, there has been no investigation of the experience of UK veterans living with mesothelioma. The Military Mesothelioma Experience Study (MiMES) aimed to understand the experience and health/support needs of British Armed Forces personnel/veterans with mesothelioma.

METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 veterans living with mesothelioma, and nine family members of veterans living with mesothelioma. Participants were recruited via charities and asbestos support groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.

RESULTS: Participants' experiences are presented using three themes, i) exposure to asbestos and awareness of asbestos related diseases, ii) using military strategies to cope with mesothelioma and iii) preferences for information and support. MiMES indicates that the nature and range of UK military veterans' asbestos exposure is varied and not limited to high risk occupations. Participants' knowledge of asbestos and experience of mesothelioma influenced their experiences of diagnosis. Participants had coping strategies influenced by their military experiences. Assistance in navigating health and military systems was considered beneficial, especially if support was provided by professionals with knowledge or experience of the military. Attributes which may inhibit veterans from seeking professional support are discussed.

CONCLUSION: MiMES provides insight into how UK military veterans experience and cope with mesothelioma. Key implications focus on the role that Mesothelioma Nurse Specialists, Asbestos Support Groups and veterans groups play in providing acceptable support for UK veterans.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Affatato R, Mendogni P, Del Gobbo A, et al (2020)

Establishment and Characterization of Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs) of Different Histology from Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Patients.

Cancers, 12(12):.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a very aggressive tumor originating from mesothelial cells. Although several etiological factors were reported to contribute to MPM onset, environmental exposure to asbestos is certainly a major risk factor. The latency between asbestos (or asbestos-like fibers) exposure and MPM onset is very long. MPM continues to be a tumor with poor prognosis despite the introduction of new therapies including immunotherapy. One of the major problems is the low number of preclinical models able to recapitulate the features of human tumors. This impacts the possible discovery of new treatments and combinations.

METHODS: In this work, we aimed to generate patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) from MPM patients covering the three major histotypes (epithelioid, sarcomatoid, and mixed) occurring in the clinic. To do this, we obtained fresh tumors from biopsies or pleurectomies, and samples were subcutaneously implanted in immunodeficient mice within 24 h.

RESULTS: We successfully isolated different PDXs and particularly concentrated our efforts on three covering the three histotypes. The tumors that grew in mice compared well histologically with the tumors of origin, and showed stable growth in mice and a low response to cisplatin, as was observed in the clinic.

CONCLUSIONS: These models are helpful in testing new drugs and combinations that, if successful, could rapidly translate to the clinical setting.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Granieri A, Bonafede M, Marinaccio A, et al (2020)

SARS-CoV-2 and Asbestos Exposure: Can Our Experience With Mesothelioma Patients Help Us Understand the Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 and Develop Interventions?.

Frontiers in psychology, 11:584320.

Since its emergence, the novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has had enormous physical, social, and psychological impacts worldwide. The aim of this article was to identify elements of our knowledge on asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma (MM) that can provide insight into the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and be used to develop adequate interventions. Although the etiology of Covid-19 and MM differs, their psychological impacts have common characteristics: in both diseases, there is a feeling of being exposed through aerial contagion to an "invisible killer" without boundaries that can strike even the strongest individuals. In both cases, affected persons can experience personality dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms; helplessness, hopelessness, and projection of destructive thoughts onto external forces often emerge, while defense mechanisms such as denial, splitting, repression, and reduced emotional expression are used by individuals to contain their overwhelming anxieties. We believe that in both diseases, an integrated multidimensional intervention offered by hospitals and other public health services is the most effective approach to alleviating patients' and caregivers' psychological distress. In particular, we emphasize that in the context of both MM and COVID-19, Brief Psychoanalytic Group therapy can help patients and caregivers attribute meaning to the significant changes in their lives related to the experience of the disease and identify adaptive strategies and more realistic relational modalities to deal with what has happened to them. We also highlight the importance of developing a surveillance system that includes individual anamnestic evaluation of occupational risk factors for COVID-19 disease.

RevDate: 2021-01-22

Gunatilake S, Lodge D, Neville D, et al (2021)

Predicting survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma using routine clinical and laboratory characteristics.

BMJ open respiratory research, 8(1):.

INTRODUCTION: The prognosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is poor, with a median survival of 8-12 months. The ability to predict prognosis in MPM would help clinicians to make informed decisions regarding treatment and identify appropriate research opportunities for patients. The aims of this study were to examine associations between clinical and pathological information gathered during routine care, and prognosis of patients with MPM, and to develop a 6-month mortality risk prediction model.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with MPM at Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth, UK between December 2009 and September 2013. Multivariate analysis was performed on routinely available histological, clinical and laboratory data to assess the association between different factors and 6-month survival, with significant associations used to create a model to predict the risk of death within 6 months of diagnosis with MPM.

RESULTS: 100 patients were included in the analysis. Variables significantly associated with patient survival in multivariate analysis were age (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.56), smoking status (current smoker HR 3.42, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.20), chest pain (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.72), weight loss (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.72), platelet count (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), urea (HR 2.73, 95% CI 1.31 to 5.69) and adjusted calcium (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.94). The resulting risk model had a c-statistic value of 0.76. A Hosmer-Lemeshow test confirmed good calibration of the model against the original dataset.

CONCLUSION: Risk of death at 6 months in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of MPM can be predicted using variables readily available in clinical practice. The risk prediction model we have developed may be used to influence treatment decisions in patients with MPM. Further validation of the model requires evaluation of its performance on a separate dataset.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Reis K, Arbiser JL, Hjerpe A, et al (2020)

Inhibitors of cytoskeletal dynamics in malignant mesothelioma.

Oncotarget, 11(50):4637-4647.

Malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) are highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors that originate from mesothelial cells lining serosal cavities; i.e., the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. Classically, there is a well-established link between asbestos exposure, oxidative stress, release of reactive oxygen species, and chronic inflammatory mediators that leads to progression of MMs. MMs have an intermediate phenotype, with co-expression of mesenchymal and epithelial markers and dysregulated communication between the mesothelium and the microenvironment. We have previously shown that the organization and function of key cytoskeletal components can distinguish highly invasive cell lines from those more indolent. Here, we used these tools to study three different types of small-molecule inhibitors, where their common feature is their influence on production of reactive oxygen species. One of these, imipramine blue, was particularly effective in counteracting some key malignant properties of highly invasive MM cells. This opens a new possibility for targeted inhibition of MMs based on well-established molecular mechanisms.

RevDate: 2021-05-10
CmpDate: 2021-05-10

Argani P, Lian DWQ, Agaimy A, et al (2021)

Pediatric Mesothelioma With ALK Fusions: A Molecular and Pathologic Study of 5 Cases.

The American journal of surgical pathology, 45(5):653-661.

Pediatric mesotheliomas are rare and their pathogenesis remains undefined. In this study, we report 5 cases of malignant mesothelioma in children, characterized by fusions involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. Four cases occurred in females involving the abdominal cavity and were characterized by a pure epithelioid morphology. The fifth arose in the tunica vaginalis of a 15-year-old male and displayed a biphasic epithelioid-sarcomatoid phenotype. All cases demonstrated the classic morphologic and immunohistochemical features of malignant mesothelioma, including tubulopapillary architecture and cuboidal epithelioid cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and uniform nuclei with vesicular chromatin. Immunohistochemically, all cases showed labeling for ALK, cytokeratins, WT1, and calretinin, while lacking expression of adenocarcinoma immunomarkers. Four cases demonstrated weak-moderate labeling for PAX8 protein, which resulted in diagnostic challenges with primary peritoneal serous carcinoma. The ALK genetic abnormalities were investigated by a combination of molecular methods. Archer FusionPlex was performed in 2 cases, showing fusions between ALK with either STRN or TPM1 genes, resulting in a transcript that retained the ALK kinase domain. One case was further studied by DNA targeted sequencing, but no additional genetic alterations were observed. In 1 case, cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a t(2;15)(p23;q22) and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the ALK gene break-apart. In the remaining 2 cases, ALK gene rearrangements were demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Unlike adult mesotheliomas, which are tightly linked to asbestos exposure, often show loss of BAP1 expression and have complex karyotypes, ALK-rearranged mesothelioma appears to be similar to other fusion-positive mesotheliomas, such as those harboring EWSR1/FUS-ATF1 fusions, sharing significant morphologic overlap, occurring in young patients and displaying a simple, translocation-driven genetic profile.

RevDate: 2021-01-14

Marinaccio A, Consonni D, Mensi C, et al (2021)

Authors' response: Mezei et al's "Comments on a recent case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis testis".

Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 47(1):87-89.

Mezei et al's letter (1) is an opportunity to provide more details about our study on pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis (TVT) mesothelioma (2), which is based on the Italian national mesothelioma registry (ReNaM): a surveillance system on mesothelioma, with individual asbestos exposure assessment. Incidence of pericardial mesothelioma has been estimated around 0.5 and 0.2 cases per 10 million person-years in men and women, respectively, and around 1 case for TVT mesothelioma. ReNaM collected 138 cases thanks to its long period of observation (1993-2015) and national coverage. Conducting a population-based case-control study with incidence-density sampling of controls across Italy and over a 23 year time-span should have been planned in 1993 and would have been beyond feasibility and ReNaM scope. We rather exploited two existing series of controls (3). The resulting incomplete time- and spatial matching of cases and controls is a limitation of our study and has been acknowledged in our article. The analysis of case-control studies can nevertheless be accomplished in logistic models accounting for the variables of interest, in both individually and frequency matched studies (4). Furthermore, analyses restricted to (i) regions with enrolled controls, (ii) cases with definite diagnosis, (iii) incidence period 2000-2015, and (iv) subjects born before 1950 have been provided in the manuscript, confirming the strength of the association with asbestos exposure (supplemental material tables S4-7). Following Mezei et al's suggestion, we performed further sensitivity analyses by restriction to regions with controls and fitting conditional regression models using risk-sets made of combinations of age and year of birth categories (5-year classes for both). We confirmed positive associations with occupational exposure to asbestos of pericardial mesothelioma, with odds ratios (OR) (adjusted for region) of 9.16 among women [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-150] and 5.63 (95% CI 1.02-31.0) among men; for TVT mesothelioma the OR was 7.70 (95% CI 2.89-20.5). Using risk sets of age categories and introducing year of birth (5-year categories) as a covariate (dummy variables) the OR were similar: OR (adjusted for region) of 9.17 among women (95% CI 0.56-150) and 5.76 (95% CI 1.07-31.0) among men; for TVT the OR was 9.86 (95% CI 3.46-28.1). Possible bias from incomplete geographical overlap between cases and controls has been addressed in the paper (table S4) and above. In spatially restricted analyses, OR were larger than in those including cases from the whole country, indicating that bias was towards the null. Mezei et al further noted that "the regional distribution of controls is different from that of person-time observed". This objection is not relevant because the above analyses were adjusted by region. Our controls were provided by a population-based study on pleural mesothelioma (called MISEM) and a hospital-based study on cholangiocarcinoma (called CARA). In MISEM, the response rate was 48.4%, a low but not unexpected rate as participation among population controls is usually lower and has been declining over time (5). It is important to underline that ReNaM applied the same questionnaire that was used for interviews and carried out the same exposure assessment as both MISEM and CARA. As repeatedly stated in ReNaM papers (6-7), each regional operating center assesses asbestos exposure based on the individual questionnaire, other available information, and knowledge of local industries. Occupational exposure to asbestos is classified as definite, probable or possible. Occupational exposure is (i) definite when the subject`s work was reported or otherwise known to have involved the use of asbestos or asbestos-containing materials (MCA); (ii) probable when subjects worked in factories where asbestos or MCA were used, but their personal exposure could not be documented; and (iii) possible when they were employed in industrial activities known to entail the use of asbestos or MCA. Hence, the definite and probable categories are closer to one another and were combined in our analyses. In any case, restricting analyses to subjects with definite occupational exposure and using each set of controls separately, as suggested by Mezei et al, yielded elevated OR for TVT and pericardial mesothelioma among men using both the above described modelling strategies; the OR could not be calculated for women. There were 70 (25 pericardial and 45 TVT) occupationally exposed mesothelioma cases. In population-based studies, analyses by occupation are limited by the low prevalence of most specific jobs. As briefly reported in our paper, for purely descriptive purposes, the industrial activity of exposure (cases may have multiple exposures), were construction (22 exposures, 7 and 15 for pericardial and TVT mesotheliomas, respectively), steel mills and other metal working industries (4 and 11), textile industries (2 and 3), and agriculture (2 and 5); other sectors had lower exposure frequencies. The absence of industries like asbestos-cement production, shipbuilding and railway carriages production/repair should not be surprising and had already been observed (7). In the Italian multicenter cohort study of asbestos workers (8), given the person-years of observation accrued by workers employed in these industries and gender- and site-specific crude incidence rates, approximately 0.1 case of pericardial and 0.2 of TVT mesothelioma would have been expected from 1970 to 2010. Even increasing ten-fold such figures to account for higher occupational risks among these workers would not change much. Asbestos exposure in agriculture has been repeatedly discussed in ReNaM reports (9: pages 70, 73, 128, 164 and 205). Exposure opportunities included the presence of asbestos in wine production, reuse of hessian bags previously containing asbestos, or construction and maintenance of rural buildings. Similarly, mesothelioma cases and agricultural workers exposed to asbestos have been noted in France (10). In conclusion, the additional analyses we performed according to Mezei et al's suggestions confirm the association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and TVT mesothelioma, supporting the causal role of asbestos for all mesotheliomas. ReNaM`s continuing surveillance system with national coverage is a precious platform for launching analytical studies on pleural and extra pleural mesothelioma. References 1. Mezei G, Chang ET, Mowat FS, Moolgavkar SH. Comments on a recent case-control study of malignant mesothelioma of the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis testis Scand J Work Environ Health. 2021;47(1):85-86. https://doi.org/10.5271/3909 2. Marinaccio A, Consonni D, Mensi C, Mirabelli D, Migliore E, Magnani C et al.; ReNaM Working Group. Association between asbestos exposure and pericardial and tunica vaginalis testis malignant mesothelioma: a case-control study and epidemiological remarks. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2020;46(6):609-617. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3895. 3. Greenland S. Control-initiated case-control studies. Int J Epidemiol 1985 Mar;14(1):130-4. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/14.1.130. 4. Pearce N. Analysis of matched case-control studies. BMJ 2016 Feb;352:i969. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i969. 5. Bigert C, Gustavsson P, Straif K, Pesch B, Brüning T, Kendzia B et al. Lung cancer risk among cooks when accounting for tobacco smoking: a pooled analysis of case-control studies from Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China. J Occup Environ Med 2015 Feb;57(2):202-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000337. 6. Marinaccio A, Binazzi A, Marzio DD, Scarselli A, Verardo M, Mirabelli D et al.; ReNaM Working Group. Pleural malignant mesothelioma epidemic: incidence, modalities of asbestos exposure and occupations involved from the Italian National Register. Int J Cancer 2012 May;130(9):2146-54. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.26229. 7. Marinaccio A, Binazzi A, Di Marzio D, Scarselli A, Verardo M, Mirabelli D et al. Incidence of extrapleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, from the Italian national register. Occup Environ Med 2010 Nov;67(11):760-5. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2009.051466. 8. Ferrante D, Chellini E, Merler E, Pavone V, Silvestri S, Miligi L et al.; the working group. Italian pool of asbestos workers cohorts: mortality trends of asbestos-related neoplasms after long time since first exposure. Occup Environ Med 2017 Dec;74(12):887-98. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2016-104100. 9. ReNaM VI Report. Available from: https://www.inail.it/cs/internet/docs/alg-pubbl-registro-nazionale-mesoteliomi-6-rapporto.pdf. Italian 10. Marant Micallef C, Shield KD, Vignat J, Baldi I, Charbotel B, Fervers B et al. Cancers in France in 2015 attributable to occupational exposures. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 Jan;222(1):22-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.07.015.

RevDate: 2021-01-01

Yoshikawa Y, Kuribayashi K, Minami T, et al (2020)

Epigenetic Alterations and Biomarkers for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors-Current Standards and Future Perspectives in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Treatment.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:554570.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is strongly associated with occupational or environmental asbestos exposure and arises from neoplastic transformation of mesothelial cells in the pleural cavity. The only standard initial treatment for unresectable MPM is combination chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP) and pemetrexed (PEM). Further, CDDP/PEM is the only approved regimen with evidence of prolonged overall survival (OS), although the median OS for patients treated with this regimen is only 12 months after diagnosis. Thus, the development of new therapeutic strategies has been investigated for approximately 20 years. In contrast to recent advances in personalized lung cancer therapies, diagnostic and prognostic biomarker research has just started in mesothelioma. Epigenetic alterations include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and other chromatin-remodeling events. These processes are involved in numerous cellular processes including differentiation, development, and tumorigenesis. Epigenetic modifications play an important role in gene expression and regulation related to malignant MPM phenotypes and histological subtypes. An immune checkpoint PD-1 inhibitor, nivolumab, was approved as second-line therapy for patients who had failed initial chemotherapy, based on the results of the MERIT study. Various clinical immunotherapy trials are ongoing in patients with advanced MPM. In this review, we describe recent knowledge on epigenetic alterations, which might identify candidate therapeutic targets and immunotherapeutic regimens under development for MPM.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Seastedt KP, Pruett N, CD Hoang (2020)

Mouse models for mesothelioma drug discovery and development.

Expert opinion on drug discovery [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Mesothelioma is an aggressive mesothelial lining tumor. Available drug therapies include chemotherapeutic agents, targeted molecular therapies, and immune system modulators. Mouse models were instrumental in the discovery and evaluation of such therapies, but there is need for improved understanding of the role of inflammation, tumor heterogeneity, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and the tumor microenvironment. Novel mouse models may provide new insights and drive drug therapy discovery that improves efficacy.

AREAS COVERED: This review concerns available mouse models for mesothelioma drug discovery and development including the advantages and disadvantages of each. Gaps in current knowledge of mesothelioma are highlighted, and future directions for mouse model research are considered.

EXPERT OPINION: Soon, CRISPR-Cas gene-editing will improve understanding of mesothelioma mechanisms foundational to the discovery and testing of efficacious therapeutic targets. There are at least two likely areas of upcoming methodology development. One is concerned with precise modeling of inflammation - is it a causal process whereby inflammatory signals contribute to tumor initiation, or is it a secondary passenger process driven by asbestos exposure effects? The other area of methods improvement regards the availability of humanized immunocompromised mice harboring patient-derived xenografts. Combining human tumors in an environment with human immune cells will enable rapid innovation in immuno-oncology therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-02-16
CmpDate: 2021-02-16

Oddone E, Bollon J, Nava CR, et al (2020)

Forecast of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mortality in Italy up to 2040.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(1):.

Despite their differences, pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma are frequently lumped together to describe epidemic curves and to forecast future mesothelioma trends. This study aims to describe the malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) epidemic in Italy (1996-2016) and to forecast future trends up to 2040 in order to contribute to the assessment of MPeM future burden. All MPeM deaths in Italy from 1996-2016 were collected (as provided by the Italian National Statistical Institute (ISTAT)) in order to estimate MPeM mortality rates for each 3-year period from 1996 to 2016. Poisson age-period-cohort (APC) models were then used to forecast MPeM future trends. Between 2017 and 2040, 1333 MPeM deaths are expected. The number of MPeM deaths, as well as mortality rates, are expected to constantly decrease throughout the considered period. Based on considering the information from this study, it can be concluded that the MPeM epidemic has probably already reached its peak in Italy.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Brahim D, Mechergui N, Ben Said H, et al (2020)

Peritoneal mesothelioma associated with bladder cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: A case report.

Clinical case reports, 8(12):3529-3532.

Mesothelioma is a rare tumor usually located on the pleura. In this typical location, it is closely linked to asbestos exposure. However, in other locations such as in peritoneal mesothelioma, the association to asbestos remains unusual.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

963 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226


E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

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