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30 Mar 2023 at 01:59
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Bibliography on: Mesothelioma and Asbestos


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Mar 2023 at 01:59 Created: 

Mesothelioma and Asbestos

Mesothelioma is a rare, but deadly form of cancer that is often (nearly always) associated with prior exposure to asbestos. The latency between exposure and disease onset is long, usually 20-50 years, making this a difficult cause-effect system to study.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( asbestos AND mesothelioma ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-03-29

Gaitens JM, Culligan M, Friedberg JS, et al (2023)

Laying the Foundation for a Mesothelioma Patient Registry: Development of Data Collection Tools.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20064950.

Mesothelioma, a cancer of mesothelial cells that line the chest, lungs, heart, and abdomen, is a relatively rare disease. In the United States, approximately 3000 individuals are diagnosed with mesothelioma annually. The primary risk factor for mesothelioma is occupational asbestos exposure which can occur decades prior to disease development, though in approximately 20% of cases, known asbestos exposure is lacking. While several other countries have developed mesothelioma registries to collect key clinical and exposure data elements to allow better estimation of incidence, prevalence, and risk factors associated with disease development, no national mesothelioma registry exists in the U.S. Therefore, as part of a larger feasibility study, a patient exposure questionnaire and a clinical data collection tool were created using a series of key informant interviews. Findings suggest that risk factor and clinical data collection via an on-line questionnaire is feasible, but specific concerns related to confidentiality, in the context of employer responsibility for exposure in the unique U.S. legal environment, and timing of enrollment must be addressed. Lessons learned from piloting these tools will inform the design and implementation of a mesothelioma registry of national scope.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Doyle E, Blanchon D, Wells S, et al (2023)

Internal Transcribed Spacer and 16S Amplicon Sequencing Identifies Microbial Species Associated with Asbestos in New Zealand.

Genes, 14(3): pii:genes14030729.

Inhalation of asbestos fibres can cause lung inflammation and the later development of asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma, and the use of asbestos is banned in many countries. In most countries, large amounts of asbestos exists within building stock, buried in landfills, and in contaminated soil. Mechanical, thermal, and chemical treatment options do exist, but these are expensive, and they are not effective for contaminated soil, where only small numbers of asbestos fibres may be present in a large volume of soil. Research has been underway for the last 20 years into the potential use of microbial action to remove iron and other metal cations from the surface of asbestos fibres to reduce their toxicity. To access sufficient iron for metabolism, many bacteria and fungi produce organic acids, or iron-chelating siderophores, and in a growing number of experiments these have been found to degrade asbestos fibres in vitro. This paper uses the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 16S amplicon sequencing to investigate the fungal and bacterial diversity found on naturally-occurring asbestos minerals, asbestos-containing building materials, and asbestos-contaminated soils with a view to later selectively culturing promising species, screening them for siderophore production, and testing them with asbestos fibres in vitro. After filtering, 895 ITS and 1265 16S amplicon sequencing variants (ASVs) were detected across the 38 samples, corresponding to a range of fungal, bacteria, cyanobacterial, and lichenized fungal species. Samples from Auckland (North Island, New Zealand) asbestos cement, Auckland asbestos-contaminated soils, and raw asbestos rocks from Kahurangi National Park (South Island, New Zealand) were comprised of very different microbial communities. Five of the fungal species detected in this study are known to produce siderophores.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Mensi C, Stella S, Dallari B, et al (2023)

Second Primary Cancers in a Population-Based Mesothelioma Registry.

Cancers, 15(6): pii:cancers15061746.

BACKGROUND: The presence of a second primary cancer (SPC) in patients with pleural mesothelioma (PM) may impact overall survival and suggest a common mechanism of carcinogenesis or an underlying germline genetic alteration.

METHODS: We evaluated the occurrence of SPCs within PM cases collected from 2000 to 2018 by the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry and their prognostic implications. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate median survival times, together with univariate and multivariate Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of death.

RESULTS: The median overall survival (OS) of the entire study population (N = 6646) was 10.9 months (95% CI: 10.4-11.2); patient age and histotype were the strongest prognostic factors. No substantial survival difference was observed by the presence of an SPC (10.5 months in 1000 patients with an SPC vs. 10.9 months in 5646 patients in the non-SPC group, HR 1.03, p = 0.40). Shorter OS in the SPC group was only observed in 150 patients with the non-epithelioid subtype (median OS of 5.4 vs. 7.1 months, HR 1.21, p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of an SPC did not influence the outcome of PM patients in the overall study population but was associated with shorter OS in non-epithelioid cases. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of SPCs as markers of genetic susceptibility in mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Marcu A, McGregor F, Egan B, et al (2023)

Developing sustainable patient and public involvement in mesothelioma research: multi-method exploration with researchers, patients, carers, and patient organisations.

Research involvement and engagement, 9(1):15.

BACKGROUND: Rare diseases where prognosis is poor provide limited scope for patient and public involvement (PPI). One such disease is mesothelioma, a cancer of the lung pleura or of the peritoneum caused by exposure to asbestos, where PPI is poorly documented. We undertook to explore how PPI could be facilitated in mesothelioma research.

METHODS: An online survey with mesothelioma researchers (n = 23) assessed the perceived benefits and challenges of PPI in mesothelioma. Six online workshops and thirteen in-depth interviews with patients and the public explored their views on how PPI could be increased in mesothelioma and their motivations to become PPI representatives in the future. The survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the interviews, using Thematic Analysis.

RESULTS: In the survey, 26% (n = 6) of the researchers did not include PPI in their research, while 74% (n = 17) did, finding it most beneficial at the stages of applying for funding and dissemination. The main perceived benefits of PPI were clarifying the research question and outcome measures, making research more credible and relevant to patients' needs, and increasing its impact. The main perceived challenges to PPI were the general poor prognosis in mesothelioma, and funding timescales which hindered timely recruitment of PPI representatives. The analysis of the interviews with the patients and public revealed three main themes: "Motivations to become a PPI representative in the future", "Understanding the nature of PPI during the project", and "Perceived challenges to PPI in mesothelioma". Altruism and the need for hope were the main reasons to wish to become involved in PPI in the future. For many participants, the project proved to be a journey of understanding the nature of PPI, a concept that was not easy to grasp from the start. The participants perceived certain barriers to PPI such as high symptom burden in mesothelioma, the abstract concept of PPI, and the use of scientific language.

CONCLUSIONS: The present research provides a detailed picture of the benefits and challenges of PPI in mesothelioma. We recommend long-term engagement with mesothelioma support groups so that researchers achieve meaningful and sustainable PPI in mesothelioma research.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Gao Y, Mazurek JM, Li Y, et al (2022)

Industry, occupation, and exposure history of mesothelioma patients in the U.S. National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank, 2006-2022.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)02412-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma is associated with environmental and occupational exposure to certain mineral fibers, especially asbestos. This study aims to examine work histories of mesothelioma patients and their survival time.

METHOD: Using the NIOSH Industry and Occupation Computerized Coding System, we mapped occupations and industries recorded for 748 of 1444 patients in the U.S. National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank (NMVB) during the period 2006-2022. Descriptive and survival analyses were conducted.

RESULTS: Among the 1023 industries recorded for those having mesothelioma, the most frequent cases were found for those in manufacturing (n = 225, 22.0%), construction (138, 13.5%), and education services (66, 6.5%); among the 924 occupation records, the most frequent cases were found for those in construction and extraction (174, 18.8%), production (145, 15.7%), and management (84, 9.1%). Males (583) or persons aged >40 years (658) at the time of diagnosis tended to have worked in industries traditionally associated with mesothelioma (e.g., construction), while females (163) or persons aged 20-40 years (27) tended to have worked in industries not traditionally associated with mesothelioma (e.g., health care). Asbestos, unknown substances, and chemical solvents were the most frequently reported exposure, with females most often reporting an unknown substance. A multi-variable Cox Hazard Regression analysis showed that significant prognostic factors associated with decreased survival in mesothelioma cases are sex (male) and work experience in utility-related industry, while factor associated with increased survival are epithelial or epithelioid histological type, prior history of surgery and immunotherapy, and industry experience in accommodation and food services.

CONCLUSION: The NMVB has the potential of serving as a sentinel surveillance mechanism for identifying industries and occupations not traditionally associated with mesothelioma. Results indicate the importance of considering all potential sources of asbestos exposures including occupational, environmental, and extra-occupational exposures when evaluating mesothelioma patients and advising family members.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Bogen KT (2022)

Ultrasensitive dose-response for asbestos cancer risk implied by new inflammation-mutation model.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)02374-X [Epub ahead of print].

Alterations in complex cellular phenotype each typically involve multistep activation of an ultrasensitive molecular switch (e.g., to adaptively initiate an apoptosis, inflammasome, Nrf2-ARE anti-oxidant, or heat-shock activation pathway) that triggers expression of a suite of target genes while efficiently limiting false-positive switching from a baseline state. Such switches exhibit nonlinear signal-activation relationships. In contrast, a linear no-threshold (LNT) dose-response relationship is expected for damage that accumulates in proportion to dose, as hypothesized for increased risk of cancer in relation to genotoxic dose according to the multistage somatic mutation/clonal-expansion theory of cancer, e.g., as represented in the Moolgavkar-Venzon-Knudsen (MVK) cancer model by a doubly stochastic nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Mesothelioma and lung cancer induced by exposure to carcinogenic (e.g., certain asbestos) fibers in humans and experimental animals are thought to involve modes of action driven by mutations, cytotoxicity-associated inflammation, or both, rendering ambiguous expectations concerning the nature of model-implied shape of the low-dose response for above-background increase in risk of incurring these endpoints. A recent Inflammation Somatic Mutation (ISM) theory of cancer posits instead that tissue-damage-associated inflammation that epigenetically recruits, activates and orchestrates stem cells to engage in tissue repair does not merely promote cancer, but rather is a requisite co-initiator (acting together with as few as two somatic mutations) of the most efficient pathway to any type of cancer in any reparable tissue (Dose-Response 2019; 17(2):1-12). This theory is reviewed, implications of this theory are discussed in relation to mesothelioma and lung cancer associated with chronic asbestos inhalation, one of the two types of ISM-required mutations is here hypothesized to block or impede inflammation resolution (e.g., by doing so for GPCR-mediated signal transduction by one or more endogenous autacoid specialized pro-resolving mediators or SPMs), and supporting evidence for this hypothesis is discussed.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Sanchez MS, McGrath-Koerner M, BD McNamee (2022)

"Characterization of elongate mineral particles including talc, amphiboles, and biopyriboles observed in mineral derived powders: Comparisons of analysis of the same talcum powder samples by two laboratories".

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)02118-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Elongate mineral particles, including asbestos, have long been screened in talc and other mineral powders. In recent years, there has been a renewed scrutiny of talc containing asbestos due to allegations in civil litigation in the United States as well as reports, proposals, and white papers by international laboratories and government bodies related to this subject. This study demonstrates the importance of the fundamental understanding of both mineralogy and its application, using microscopy with empirical examples from conflicting analyses of the same talc powders by two independent laboratories in civil litigation in the United States. Methods include polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the accurate measurement of morphological, optical, compositional, and structural data to characterize mineral-based samples. Discussions in this study include: 1) contrasting the interlaboratory findings of amphibole and amphibole asbestos by PLM and TEM using various preparation techniques, 2) the use of multiple analytical tools on a singular particle for identification, 3) the misidentification of anthophyllite asbestos by inexpert use of electron diffraction using TEM, and 4) the misidentification of chrysotile in talc by PLM. These examples emphasize the importance of not only maintaining the existing requirements, but of the need for even more rigorous analytical requirements in routine monitoring of elongate mineral particles that may occur in mineral-based powders.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Darnton L (2022)

Quantitative assessment of mesothelioma and lung cancer risk based on Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM) exposure to asbestos: An update of 2000 data.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)02080-1 [Epub ahead of print].

An earlier meta-analysis of mortality studies of asbestos-exposed worker populations, quantified excess mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to cumulative exposure to the three main commercial asbestos types. The aim of this paper was to update these analyses incorporating new data based on increased follow-up of studies previously included, as well as studies of worker populations exposed predominantly to single fibre types published since the original analysis. Mesothelioma as a percentage of expected mortality due to all causes of death, percentage excess lung cancer and mean cumulative exposure were abstracted from available mortality studies of workers exposed predominantly to single asbestos types. Average excess mesothelioma and lung cancer per unit of cumulative exposure were summarised for groupings of studies by fibre type; models for pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma risk and lung cancer risk in terms of cumulative exposure for the different fibre types were fitted using Poisson regression. The average mesothelioma risks (per cent of total expected mortality) per unit cumulative exposure (f/cc.yr), RM, were 0.51 for crocidolite, 0.12 for amosite, and 0.03 for the Libby mixed amphiboles cohort. Significant heterogeneity was present for cohorts classed as chrysotile, with RM values of 0.01 for chrysotile textiles cohorts and 0.0011 for other chrysotile-exposed cohorts. Average percentage excess lung cancer risks per unit cumulative exposure, RL, were 4.3 for crocidolite and amosite combined, 0.82 for Libby. Very significant heterogeneity was present for chrysotile-exposed cohorts with RL values spanning two orders of magnitude from 0.053 for the Balangero mine to 4.8 for the South Carlina textiles cohort. Best fitting models suggest a non-linear exposure-response in which the peritoneal mesothelioma risk is proportional to approximately the square of cumulative exposure. Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risk were proportion to powers of cumulative exposure slightly less than one and slightly higher than one respectively.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Nel A (2022)

Carbon nanotube pathogenicity conforms to a unified theory for mesothelioma causation by pathogenic elongate materials and fibers.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)01907-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of this review is to elucidate how dimensional and durability characteristics of high aspect ratio nanomaterials (HARN), including carbon nanotubes (CNT) and metal nanowires (MeNW), contribute to understanding the fiber pathogenicity paradigm (FPP), including by explaining the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a diverse range of natural and synthetic elongate materials that may or may not contribute to mesothelioma development in the lung. While the FPP was originally developed to explain the critical importance of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fiber length, width, aspect ratio and biopersistence in mesothelioma development, there are a vast number of additional inhalable materials that need to be considered in terms of pathogenic features that may contribute to mesothelioma or lack thereof. Not only does the ability to exert more exact control over the length and biopersistence of HARNs allowed confirming the tenets of the FPP, but could be studied by implementating more appropriate toxicological tools for SAR analysis. This includes experimentation with carefully assembled libraries of CNTs and MeNWs, helping to establish more precise dimensional features for interfering in lymphatic drainage from the parietal pleura, triggering of lysosomal damage, frustrated phagocytosis and generation of chronic inflammation. The evidence includes data that long and rigid, but not short and flexible multi-wall CNTs are capable of generating mesotheliomas in rodents based on an adverse outcome pathway requiring access to pleural cavity, obstruction of pleural stomata, chronic inflammation and transformation of mesothelial cells. In addition to durability and dimensional characteristics, bending stiffness of CNTs is a critical factor in determining the shape and rigidity of pathogenic MWCNTs. While no evidence has been obtained in humans that CNT exposure leads to a mesothelioma outcome, it is important to monitor exposure levels and health effect impacts in workers to prevent adverse health outcomes in humans.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Roggl VL, Green CL, Liu B, et al (2022)

Chronological trends in the causation of malignant mesothelioma: Fiber burden analysis of 619 cases over four decades.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)01857-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma is a relatively rare malignancy with a strong association with prior asbestos exposure. A percentage of cases is not related to asbestos, and fiber analysis of lung tissue is a useful methodology for identifying idiopathic or spontaneous cases. We have performed fiber analyses in more than 600 cases of mesothelioma over the past four decades and were interested in looking for trends in terms of fiber types and concentrations as well as percentages of cases not related to asbestos. Demographic information was also considered including patient age, gender, and tumor location (pleural vs. peritoneal). The histologic pattern of the tumor and the presence or absence of pleural plaques or asbestosis were noted. Fiber analysis was performed in 619 cases, using the sodium hypochlorite technique for digestion of lung tissue samples. Asbestos bodies were counted by light microscopy (LM) and coated and uncoated fibers by scanning electron microscopy (EM). The results were stratified over four decades. Trends that were observed included increasing patient age, increasing percentage of women, increasing percentage of peritoneal cases, and increasing percentage of epithelial histological type. There was a decreasing trend in the percentage of patients with concomitant asbestosis (p < 0.001). The percentage of cases with an elevated lung asbestos content decreased from 90.5% in the 1980s to 54.1% in the 2010s (p < 0.001). This trend also held when the analysis was limited to 490 cases of pleural mesothelioma in men (91.8% in the 1980s vs. 65.1% in the 2010s). There was a decrease in the median asbestos body count by LM from 1390 asbestos bodies per gram of wet lung in the 1980s to 38 AB/gm in the 2010s. Similar trends were observed for each of the asbestos fiber types as detected by EM. We conclude that there has been a progressive decrease in lung fiber content of mesothelioma patients during the past four decades, with an increasing percentage of cases not related to asbestos and an increase in median patient age.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Moolgavkar SH, Chang ET, EG Luebeck (2022)

Multistage carcinogenesis: Impact of age, genetic, and environmental factors on the incidence of malignant mesothelioma.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)01909-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The current paradigm of carcinogenesis as a cellular evolutionary process driven by mutations of a few critical driver genes has immediate logical implications for the epidemiology of cancer. These include the impact of age on cancer risk, the role played by inherited tumor predisposition syndromes, and the interaction of genetics and environmental exposures on cancer risk. In this paper, we explore the following logical epidemiological consequences of carcinogenesis as a clonal process of mutation accumulation, with special emphasis on asbestos-related cancers, specifically malignant mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Goodman JE, Becich MJ, Bernstein DM, et al (2022)

Non-asbestiform elongate mineral particles and mesothelioma risk: Human and experimental evidence.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)01905-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The presentations in this session of the Monticello II conference were aimed at summarizing what is known about asbestiform and non-asbestiform elongate mineral particles (EMPs) and mesothelioma risks based on evidence from experimental and epidemiology studies. Dr. Case discussed case reports of mesothelioma over the last several decades. Dr. Taioli indicated that the epidemiology evidence concerning non-asbestiform EMPs is weak or lacking, and that progress would be limited unless mesothelioma registries are established. One exception discussed is that of taconite miners, who are exposed to grunerite. Drs. Mandel and Odo noted that studies of taconite miners in Minnesota have revealed an excess rate of mesothelioma, but the role of non-asbestiform EMPs in this excess incidence of mesothelioma is unclear. Dr. Becich discussed the National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank (NMVB), a virtual mesothelioma patient registry that includes mesothelioma patients' lifetime work histories, exposure histories, biospecimens, proteogenomic information, and imaging data that can be used in epidemiology research on mesothelioma. Dr. Bernstein indicated that there is a strong consensus that long, highly durable respirable asbestiform EMPs have the potential to cause mesothelioma, but there is continued debate concerning the biodurability required, and the dimensions (both length and diameter), the shape, and the dose associated with mesothelioma risk. Finally, Dr. Nel discussed how experimental studies of High Aspect Ratio Engineered Nanomaterials have clarified dimensional and durability features that impact disease risk, the impact of inflammation and oxidative stress on the epigenetic regulation of tumor suppressor genes, and the generation of immune suppressive effects in the mesothelioma tumor microenvironment. The session ended with a discussion of future research needs.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Chatfield EJ (2022)

Asbestiform fibers and cleavage Fragments: Conceptual approaches for differentiation in laboratory practice and data analysis.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)01856-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The respirable fractions from 46 different crushed amphibole samples were separated by water elutriation. The dimensions of approximately 200 elongate mineral particles (EMPs) longer than 5 μm in each of these fractions were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The data were used to address three questions: 1. Can amphiboles be classified on a scale that represents the level of inhalation hazard they present? 2. Can prismatic amphibole be discriminated from amphibole asbestos on the basis of EMP size distributions and concentration measurements? 3. How do different exposure indices (Phase Contrast Microscopy Equivalent (PCME), Berman & Crump protocol fibers, Chatfield extra-criteria EMPs) compare when applied to these amphibole samples? For each sample, the number of respirable EMPs longer than 5 μm per gram of respirable dust and the number of extra-criteria EMPs per gram of respirable dust were calculated. The number of respirable EMPs longer than 5 μm per gram of respirable dust and the proportion of those with dimensions associated with mesothelioma in animal studies were considered to be contributors to the inhalation hazard presented by amphibole dust. In addition to these concentration measurements, the median EMP width, median aspect ratio and the aspect ratio geometric standard deviation (GSD) were considered to be relevant parameters in discriminating prismatic amphibole from asbestiform amphibole. A plot of the aspect ratio GSD against either the concentration of respirable EMPs per gram of respirable dust, the median aspect ratio or the median width allowed discrimination. The data showed a close correspondence between exposures in terms of Chatfield extra-criteria EMPs and Berman and Crump protocol structures for all of the amphibole samples. However, although for commercial asbestos varieties exposures in terms of PCME fibers were comparable to those of the other two metrics, they greatly exceeded those for non-asbestiform amphiboles.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Cox LA, Bogen K, Conolly R, et al (2023)

Mechanisms and shapes of causal exposure-response functions for asbestos in mesotheliomas and lung cancers.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)00399-7 [Epub ahead of print].

This paper summarizes recent insights into causal biological mechanisms underlying the carcinogenicity of asbestos. It addresses their implications for the shapes of exposure-response curves and considers recent epidemiologic trends in malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) and lung fiber burden studies. Since the commercial amphiboles crocidolite and amosite pose the highest risk of MMs and contain high levels of iron, endogenous and exogenous pathways of iron injury and repair are discussed. Some practical implications of recent developments are that: (1) Asbestos-cancer exposure-response relationships should be expected to have non-zero background rates; (2) Evidence from inflammation biology and other sources suggests that there are exposure concentration thresholds below which exposures do not increase inflammasome-mediated inflammation or resulting inflammation-mediated cancer risks above background risk rates; and (3) The size of the suggested exposure concentration threshold depends on both the detailed time patterns of exposure on a time scale of hours to days and also on the composition of asbestos fibers in terms of their physiochemical properties. These conclusions are supported by complementary strands of evidence including biomathematical modeling, cell biology and biochemistry of asbestos-cell interactions in vitro and in vivo, lung fiber burden analyses and epidemiology showing trends in human exposures and MM rates.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Smith SR (2023)

An updated review of diffuse mesothelioma of the pleura - A sentinel health event of potential EMP pathogenicity.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)00400-0 [Epub ahead of print].

There are approximately 400 inorganic minerals in the Earth's crust, some of which can be encountered as elongate mineral particles [EMPs] with dimensional characteristics similar to the six minerals known as asbestos and other asbestiform amphiboles with established human pathogenicity. In addition, the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology is producing an ever-increasing array of high aspect ratio engineered nanomaterials [HARNs] with physical dimensions and biodurability similar to the asbestos fiber types with recognized pathogenic potential. Many of these non-asbestos/non-asbestiform EMPs and HARNs with the potential for aerosolization into the breathing zones of workers and in individuals in non-occupational environments have not yet been thoroughly studied with respect to their potential human pathogenicity, a fact which obviously poses concerns for both occupational health and public health professionals. On the basis of dose-response considerations it seems reasonable to infer that if any of these non-regulated EMPs or HARNs actually are pathogenic, then those mineral fiber exposure-induced disorders associated with the lowest cumulative exposure doses of the commercial amphibole types of asbestos, that is, diffuse mesothelioma of the pleura, and its non-malignant correlate of benign parietal pleural plaques, are those which are most likely to occur following inhalational exposures to any of the non-regulated EMPs and HARNs. Because of that observation, this paper reviews certain aspects of diffuse mesothelioma, including a summary of recent changes in the nomenclature of diffuse mesothelioma of the pleura; of both the descriptive and the analytical epidemiology of the disease; of the etiologies of mesothelioma, both "exposure" related and endogenous in nature; and of the asbestos population attributable fraction for diffuse mesotheliomas in the USA, both historically and in the future.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Belcaid L, Bertelsen B, Wadt K, et al (2023)

New pathogenic germline variants identified in mesothelioma.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 179:107172 pii:S0169-5002(23)00095-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Mesothelioma (MM) is associated with asbestos exposure, tumor heterogeneity and aggressive clinical behavior. Identification of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in mesothelioma is relevant for identifying potential actionable targets and genetic counseling.

METHODS: 44 patients underwent whole exome sequencing (WES) or whole genome sequencing (WGS). Germline variants were selected according to association with inherited cancer using a 168-gene in silico panel, and variants classified according to ACMG/AMP classification as pathogenic (class 5) or likely pathogenic (class 4).

RESULTS: In total, 16 patients (36%) were found to carry pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in 13 cancer associated genes (ATM, BAP1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, FANCA, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCM, MUTYH, NBN, RAD51B, SDHA and XPC). The germline PVs occurred in DNA repair pathways, including homologous recombination repair (HRR) (75%), nucleotide excision repair (6%), cell cycle regulatory (7%), base excision repair (6%), and hypoxic pathway (6%). Five (31%) patients with a germline PV had a first or second degree relative with mesothelioma compared to none for patients without a germline PV. Previously undiagnosed BRCA2 germline PVs were identified in two patients. Potential actionable targets based on the germline PVs were found in four patients (9%).

CONCLUSION: This study revealed a high frequency of germline PVs in patients with mesothelioma. Furthermore, we identified germline PVs in two genes (NBN & RAD51B) not previously associated with mesothelioma. The data support germline testing in mesothelioma and provide a rationale for additional investigation of the HRR pathway as a potential actionable target.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Taioli E, Wolf A, Alpert N, et al (2023)

Malignant pleural mesothelioma characteristics and outcomes: A SEER-Medicare analysis.

Journal of surgical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Pleural mesothelioma is rare cancer linked to asbestos exposure. Previous research has indicated that female individuals have better survival than male individuals, but this has never been examined in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Malignant pleural mesothelioma cases diagnosed from 1992 to 2015 were queried from the linked SEER-Medicare database. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the clinical and demographic factors associated with sex. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model and propensity matching methods were used to assess sex differences in overall survival (OS) while accounting for potential confounders.

RESULTS: Among 4201 patients included in the analysis, 3340 (79.5%) were males and 861 (20.5%) females. Females were significantly older, with more epithelial histology than males were, and had significantly better OS, adjusted for confounders (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.90). Other variables independently associated with improved survival included younger age at diagnosis, having a spouse/domestic partner, epithelial histology, lower comorbidity score, and receipt of surgery or chemotherapy.

CONCLUSIONS: The study describes sex differences in mesothelioma occurrence, treatment, and survival and is the first to examine SEER-Medicare. It provides directions for future research into potential therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Spaziani E, Di Filippo AR, Valle G, et al (2023)

A rare case of primary gastric Burkitt's lymphoma associated with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Annali italiani di chirurgia, 12: pii:S2239253X23039221.

BACKGROUND: Primary gastric Burkitt lymphoma (PG BL) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are rare and aggressive tumors with poor prognosis. HIV and EBV infection have a link in the aetiology of PG BL, while MPM is usually associated with asbestos exposure. Endoluminal bleeding from massive solid tumor, and dyspnea usually due to pleural effusion, are the typical clinical manifestations respectively of PG BL and MPM. In most patients just palliative treatment is indicated.

CASE REPORT: A caucasian elderly male, negative for the proven risk factors, presenting respiratory failure due to massive left pleural effusion with severe mediastinal shift. Contrast enhanced - Computed Tomography (CE-CT) showed a large mass causing circumferential thickening of the gastric fundus, infiltrating the left diaphragmatic dome and the ipsilateral crus. Macroscopically, on endoscopy the gastric fundus appeared completely occupied by an ulcerated large mass protunding in the gastric lumen. Histopathological examination from biopsy specimens taken during esophagogastroduodenoscopy and thoracoscopy allowed to make diagnosis of PG BL and MPM. The patient first underwent a placement of a chest tube drainage for the pleural effusion and then a thoracoscopic talc insufflation (TTI) in the left hemithorax. A surgical treatment of the gastric lesion was planned, due to the rapid growth and the high risk of bleeding. The patient died because of fatal cardiac arrhythmia, before undergoig abdominal surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: This report presents an unique case of PG BL associated with MPM and highlights the real challenge for the physicians to identify them in early stage, especially in patients without the proved risk factors. The onset symptoms make it a very singular case, characterized by severe dyspnea up to respiratory failure, due to massive left pleural effusion and contralateral mediastinal fluttering, without an active bleeding from the gastric mass, while CE-CT findings were instead negative for pleural thickening and positive for circumferential thickening of the gastric fundus.

KEY WORDS: Burkitt Lymphoma, Case Report, Gastric, Pleural Mesothelioma, Pleural Effusion, Respiratory Failure.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Borgeaud M, Kim F, Friedlaender A, et al (2023)

The Evolving Role of Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(5): pii:jcm12051757.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer usually caused by asbestos exposure and associated with a very poor prognosis. After more than a decade without new therapeutic options, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) demonstrated superiority over standard chemotherapy, with improved overall survival in the first and later-line settings. However, a significant proportion of patients still do not derive benefit from ICIs, highlighting the need for new treatment strategies and predictive biomarkers of response. Combinations with chemo-immunotherapy or ICIs and anti-VEGF are currently being evaluated in clinical trials and might change the standard of care in the near future. Alternatively, some non-ICI immunotherapeutic approaches, such as mesothelin targeted CAR-T cells or denditric-cells vaccines, have shown promising results in early phases of trials and are still in development. Finally, immunotherapy with ICIs is also being evaluated in the peri-operative setting, in the minority of patients presenting with resectable disease. The goal of this review is to discuss the current role of immunotherapy in the management of malignant pleural mesothelioma, as well as promising future therapeutic directions.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Buralli RJ, Pinheiro RDC, Susviela LL, et al (2023)

The Brazilian System for Monitoring Workers and General Population Exposed to Asbestos: Development, Challenges, and Opportunities for Workers' Health Surveillance.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(5): pii:ijerph20054295.

UNLABELLED: The lack of safe levels of asbestos exposure and the long latency of asbestos-related disease (ARD) makes workers' health surveillance challenging, especially in lower-income countries. This paper aims to present the recently developed Brazilian system for monitoring workers and general population exposed to asbestos (Datamianto), and to discuss the main challenges and opportunities for workers' health surveillance.

METHODS: a descriptive study of the Datamianto development process, examining all the stages of system planning, development, improvement, validation, availability, and training of health services for its use, in addition to presenting the main challenges and opportunities for its implementation.

RESULTS: The system was developed by a group of software developers, workers' health specialists, and practitioners, and it was recently incorporated by the Ministry of Health to be used for workers' health surveillance. It can facilitate the monitoring of exposed individuals, epidemiological data analysis, promote cooperation between health services, and ensure periodical medical screening guaranteed to workers by labor legislation. Moreover, the system has a Business Intelligence (BI) platform to analyze epidemiologic data and produce near real-time reports.

CONCLUSIONS: Datamianto can support and qualify the healthcare and surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers and ARD, promoting a better quality of life for workers and improving companies' compliance with legislation. Even so, the system's significance, applicability, and longevity will depend on the efforts aimed at its implementation and improvement.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Al Khatib MO, Pinton G, Moro L, et al (2023)

Benefits and Challenges of Inhibiting EZH2 in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cancers, 15(5): pii:cancers15051537.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive thoracic cancer that is mainly associated with prior exposure to asbestos fibers. Despite being a rare cancer, its global rate is increasing and the prognosis remains extremely poor. Over the last two decades, despite the constant research of new therapeutic options, the combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed has remained the only first-line therapy for MPM. The recent approval of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB)-based immunotherapy has opened new promising avenues of research. However, MPM is still a fatal cancer with no effective treatments. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone methyl transferase that exerts pro-oncogenic and immunomodulatory activities in a variety of tumors. Accordingly, a growing number of studies indicate that EZH2 is also an oncogenic driver in MPM, but its effects on tumor microenvironments are still largely unexplored. This review describes the state-of-the-art of EZH2 in MPM biology and discusses its potential use both as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. We highlight current gaps of knowledge, the filling of which will likely favor the entry of EZH2 inhibitors within the treatment options for MPM patients.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Scarselli A, Corfiati M, A Marinaccio (2023)

Occupational exposure register-based cohort study on mortality among asbestos-related workers in Italy after the ban.

European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) pii:00008469-990000000-00039 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Asbestos is a human carcinogen and can cause some types of cancer, including mesothelioma. A relevant number of workers are still engaged in asbestos removal and disposal activities, whose actual risk of asbestos-related diseases is still scarcely recognized. The main objective of this study is to assess the cause-specific mortality among workers involved in asbestos removal and disposal after the ban in Italy.

METHODS: Data from the Information System on Occupational Exposure to carcinogens (SIREP) in the period 1996-2018 were selected. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) by cause of death were calculated by linking exposure occupational information to national mortality statistics (2005-2018), assuming a Poisson distribution of the data.

RESULTS: A total of 142 deaths (all men) were identified among 13 715 asbestos removal and disposal workers. A significant excess (P < 0.05) of mesothelioma deaths was found among male workers, about five-fold the expected. A significant increase in the mortality ratio was also found for malignant melanoma of skin.

CONCLUSIONS: A risk of mesothelioma has been found among workers involved in asbestos removal and disposal. Epidemiological surveillance and promotion of prevention action plans are highly recommended for workers engaged in asbestos removal and disposal activities, to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and reduce the still relevant risk of contracting the related tumor pathology.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Janosikova M, Nakladalova M, L Stepanek (2023)

Current causes of mesothelioma: how has the asbestos ban changed the perspective?.

Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia [Epub ahead of print].

The association of mesothelioma, a lethal lung disease, with asbestos has led to an absolute ban on asbestos in at least 55 countries worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to review residual exposure to asbestos as well as other emerging causes of mesothelioma outside asbestos. The review provides detailed description of asbestos minerals, their geographical locations, mesothelioma in these areas, as well as contemporary possible sources of asbestos exposure. Second, we examine other emerging causes of mesothelioma including: ionizing radiation as the second most important risk factor after asbestos, particularly relevant to patients undergoing radiotherapy, third, carbon nanotubes which are under investigation and fourth, Simian virus 40. In the case of asbestos per se, the greatest risk is from occupational exposure during mining and subsequent processing. Of the non-occupational exposures, environmental exposure is most serious, followed by exposure from indoor asbestos minerals and secondary familial exposure. Overall, asbestos is still a major risk factor, but alternative causes should not be neglected, especially in young people, in women and those with a history of radiotherapy or living in high-risk locations.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Walther D, Hunziker S, Boichat Burdy S, et al (2023)

[Asbestos related cancers: burden and recognition as occupational diseases].

Revue medicale suisse, 19(816):422-425.

Although asbestos has been banned in Switzerland since 1989, diseases caused by asbestos are still present and increasing today. In Switzerland, per year, occupational exposure to asbestos is responsible for approximately 135 deaths from mesothelioma and 930 deaths from lung cancer, though the latter is rarely recognized as an occupational disease. Taking an occupational history is essential for all such diagnosis, especially in smokers, whose risk of lung cancer increases due to the synergistic effect of asbestos and tobacco exposure. The medical practitioner can play an important role in occupational diseases being recognized as such, which is essential for the reimbursement of medical expenses by the accident insurance companies and the allocation of indemnities and pensions for the patient or their family.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Han J, Park S, Yon DK, et al (2023)

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Mesothelioma 1990-2019: A Systematic Analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Annals of the American Thoracic Society [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: Mesothelioma has become a major health burden since the second world war due to the use of asbestos. Although many countries have imposed a ban on asbestos, there remains significant mortality and morbidity from mesothelioma owing to its long latent period and aggressiveness. Also, the use of asbestos is increasing in low-income countries, potentiating risk of mesothelioma in the upcoming decades. Assessment of global burden of mesothelioma is required to take proper measures against the disease.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the burden of mesothelioma from 1990 to 2019 at the global, regional, and national level and investigate patterns according to sex, age, socio-demographic index (SDI) and risk factors Methods: The numbers, rates, and age-standardised rates of incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of mesothelioma in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019 were estimated using vital registration and cancer registry data. Relationship between SDI and age-standardised DALY rates was determined and DALYs attributable to occupational exposure to asbestos were calculated.

RESULTS: In 2019, there were 34511 (95% UI 31199 to 37771) incident cases of mesothelioma globally, with an age-standardised rate of 0.43 per 100 000 persons (0.38 to 0.47) which decreased between 1990 and 2019 by -12.6% (-21.8 to -2.3). Mesothelioma was responsible for 29251(26668 to 31006) deaths in 2019, with an age-standardised rate of 0.36 deaths per 100 000 persons (0.33 to 0.39), which decreased between 1990 and 2019 by -9.6% (-17.8 to -1.1). The age-standardised incidence rate increased in central Europe between 1990 and 2019 by 46.1% (16.6 to 72.4). Netherlands, Australia, and UK had the highest age-standardised incidence rates. The incidence rates were higher in males than in females from ages 45-49 to 90-94, peaking at ages 85-89. Occupational exposure to asbestos contributed to 91.9% (90.0 to 93.6) of DALYs.

CONCLUSION: Global burden of mesothelioma is decreasing in terms of age-standardised incidence and mortality rates. Mesothelioma remains a substantial public health challenge in many parts of the world.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Lai H, Hu C, Qu M, et al (2023)

Mesothelioma Due to Workplace Exposure: A Comprehensive Bibliometric Analysis of Current Situation and Future Trends.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(4): pii:ijerph20042833.

Background: This article provides an overview of the current status and research progress of mesothelioma. Methods: A total of 2638 documents published from 1 January 2004 to 30 November 2022 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection and analyzed via Microsoft Office Excel 2019, VOSviewer 1.6.18, and Tableau 2022.2. Results: There was an obvious increase in the number of publications regarding mesothelioma in the last 18 years, with the United States dominating the research field with 715 publications and 23,882 citations, while the University of Turin contributed the most (118). Occupational & Environmental Medicine was the most popular journal (80), with Corrado Magnani being the most prolific author (52) and Michele Carbone obtaining the most citations (4472). "Oncology" and "Health Science of Environment & Occupation" were the two main subjects, while the keywords "asbestos", "lung cancer", "gene expression", "apoptosis", "survival", and "cisplatin" were the most popular. Conclusions: The containment of mesothelioma calls for more participation from low- and middle-income countries, and further attention needs to be paid to clinical research.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Filetti V, Lombardo C, Loreto C, et al (2023)

Small RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiling of Mesothelial and Mesothelioma Cell Lines Revealed microRNA Dysregulation after Exposure to Asbestos-like Fibers.

Biomedicines, 11(2): pii:biomedicines11020538.

Environmental exposure to fibers of respirable size has been identified as a risk for public health. Experimental evidence has revealed that a variety of fibers, including fluoro-edenite, can develop chronic respiratory diseases and elicit carcinogenic effects in humans. Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a silicate mineral first found in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) in 1997. Environmental exposure to its fibers has been correlated with a cluster of malignant pleural mesotheliomas. This neoplasm represents a public health problem due to its long latency and to its aggression not alerted by specific symptoms. Having several biomarkers providing us with data on the health state of those exposed to FE fibers or allowing an early diagnosis on malignant pleural mesothelioma, still asymptomatic patients, would be a remarkable goal. To these purposes, we reported the miRNA transcriptome in human normal mesothelial cell line (MeT-5A) and in the human malignant mesothelioma cell line (JU77) exposed and not exposed to FE fibers. The results showed a difference in the number of deregulated miRNAs between tumor and nontumor samples both exposed and not exposed to FE fibers. As a matter of fact, the effect of exposure to FE fibers is more evident in the expression of miRNA in the tumor samples than in the nontumor samples. In the present paper, several pathways involved in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma have been analyzed. We especially noticed the involvement of pathways that have important functions in inflammatory processes, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and necrosis. Besides this amount of data, further studies will be designed for the selection of the most significant miRNAs to test and validate their diagnostic potential, alone or in combination with other protein biomarkers, in high-risk individuals' liquid biopsy to have a noninvasive tool of diagnosis for this neoplasm.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Zona A, Fazzo L, Benedetti M, et al (2023)

[SENTIERI - Epidemiological Study of Residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites. Sixth Report].

Epidemiologia e prevenzione, 47(1-2 Suppl 1):1-286.

INTRODUCTION ADN OBJECTIVES: The Sixth Report presents the results of the "SENTIERI Project: implementation of the permanent epidemiological surveillance system of populations residing in Italian Sites of Remediation Interest", promoted and financed by the Italian Ministry of Health (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention - CCM Project 2018). The aim of this study is to update the mortality and hospitalization analyses concerning the 6,227,531 inhabitants (10.4% of the Italian population) residing in 46 contaminated sites (39 of national interest and 7 of regional interest). The sites include 316 municipalities distributed as follows: 15 in the North-East (20.3% of the investigated population); 104 in the North-West (12% of the investigated population), 32 in the Centre (12.6% of the investigated population), 165 in the South and Islands (55.5% of the investigated population). Analyses were carried out on the paediatric-adolescent (1,128,396 residents) and youth (665,284 residents) population, and a study on congenital anomalies (CA) was carried out at sites covered by congenital malformation registers. Accompanying the epidemiological assessments, site-specific socioeconomic conditions were examined and an overall estimate of excess risk for populations residing at contaminated sites was drawn up. By means of a systematic review of the scientific literature, the epidemiological evidence on causal links between sources of environmental exposure and health effects was updated to identify pathologies of a priori interest.

METHODOLOGY: In the 46 sites included in the SENTIERI Project, mortality (time window: 2013-2017) and hospital admissions (time window: 2014-2018) of the general population of all ages, divided by gender, and of the paediatric-adolescent (0-1 year, 0-14 years, 0-19 years), youth (20-29 years), and overall (0-29 years) age groups, divided by gender, were analysed. In 21 sites, CA diagnosed within the first year of life were studied. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and hospitalization ratios (SHR) were calculated with reference to the rates in the regions to which the sites belong. The reference population was calculated net of residents in the sites. CA were studied by calculating the prevalence per 10,000 births and the ratio, multiplied by 100, between the cases observed at the site and those expected on the basis of the prevalences observed in the reference area (region or sub-regional area of belonging, according to the geographical coverage of the registry). The socioeconomic condition studied in the 46 sites is based on the convergence of three deprivation indicators with respect to the reference region: deprivation index at municipal level, deprivation index at census section level, premature mortality indicator (age range 30-69 years) for chronic non-communicable diseases. For the estimation of excess risk for the entire study population, meta-analysis of the mortality and hospitalization risk estimates for each site was carried out and the number of excess deaths estimated for the sites as a whole. The epidemiological evidence was updated through a systematic literature review (January 2009-May 2020), following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The search was carried out on the search engines MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science; the quality of the studies included in the review was assessed using the AMSTAR 2 checklist for systematic reviews and the NewCastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies in the case of cohort and case-control studies and a modified version thereof for ecological and cross-sectional studies. The update was based on the selection of 14 systematic reviews, 15 primary studies, 6 monographs/reports from international scientific organisations on health effects due to the presence of environmental exposure sources.

RESULTS: Mortality. The a priori causes of interest that occur most frequently in excess are, in descending order: malignant lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura, malignant bladder cancer, respiratory diseases, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, malignant liver cancer, all malignant tumours, malignant colorectal cancer, malignant stomach cancer, total mesotheliomas, malignant breast cancer, and asbestosis. Hospitalization. The a priori causes of interest that occur most frequently in excess are represented in descending order by: respiratory diseases, malignant lung cancer, malignant tumours of the pleura, malignant bladder cancer, malignant breast cancer, malignant liver cancer, asthma, malignant colorectal cancer, all malignant tumours, malignant stomach cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, acute respiratory diseases, leukaemias. The differences observed between mortality and hospitalization can be attributed to the intrinsic characteristics of the diseases (higher or lower lethality, gender differences in incidence), lifestyles, and occupational phenomena. Age classes. Excesses of general mortality were observed in the first year of life at the Manfredonia, Basso Bacino Fiume Chienti, Litorale Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano sites; in the 0-1 year and 0-19 year age groups at Casale Monferrato; in the paediatric age group at Serravalle Scrivia and at the Trento Nord site; in the 0-19 year age group at Sassuolo Scandiano; in the young age group (0-29 years) at the two municipalities of Cerchiara and Cassano (Crotone-Cassano-Cerchiara site). With regard to hospitalization due to natural causes, risk excesses in both genders are found in the first year of life in 35% of the sites (Porto Torres industrial areas, Bari-Fibronit, Basso bacino fiume Chienti, Bolzano, Crotone-Cassano-Cerchiara, Cerro al Lambro, Bologna ETR large repair workshop, Gela, Manfredonia, Massa Carrara, Pioltello Rodano, Pitelli, Priolo, Sesto San Giovanni, Trento Nord, and Trieste). These same sites, with the addition of Casale Monferrato, Cengio e Saliceto, Serravalle Scrivia, and Sulcis-Iglesiente-Guspinese (total: 43% of sites), show excesses for all natural causes, in both genders, even in the paediatric-adolescent age group (0-19 years). Among young adults (20-29 years), the analyses show excesses of hospitalization for all natural causes in both genders in the Bolzano, Crotone-Cassano-Cerchiara, Gela, Manfredonia, Pitelli, Priolo, and Sulcis-Iglesiente-Guspinese sites. Among young women only, excesses for all natural causes are also found in Brescia Caffaro, Brindisi, Broni, Casale Monferrato, Crotone-Cassano-Cerchiara, Falconara Marittima, Fidenza, and Massa Carrara. Congenital anomalies. In the 21 sites investigated for CA, 10,126 cases of CA, validated by participating registers, were analysed out of 304,620 resident births. Genital CA is the subgroup for which the greatest number of excesses was observed (in 6 out of 21 sites). The available evidence does not allow a causal link to be established between the excesses observed for specific subgroups of ACs and exposure to industrial sources, but the results suggest further action. The interpretation of the results appears, in fact, particularly complex as the scientific literature on the association between exposure to industrial sources and AC is very limited. Socioeconomic status. The sites in which the indicators converge to show the presence of fragility are: Litorale Vesuviano area, Val Basento industrial areas, Basso Bacino fiume Chienti, Biancavilla, Crotone-Cassano-Cerchiara, Litorale Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano, Livorno, Massa Carrara, Trieste. Global impact. Over the period 2013-2017, an estimated 8,342 excess deaths (CI90% 1,875-14,809) or approximately 1,668 excess cases/year, 4,353 excess deaths among males (CI90% 334-8,372) and 3,989 among females (CI90% -1,122;9,101). The pooled excess risk of general mortality is 2% in both genders (pooled SMR 1.02; CI90% 1.00-1.04). The proportion of excess deaths to total observed deaths is almost constant over time, rising from 2.5% in 1995-2002 to 2.6% in 2013-2017. The number of deaths in absolute value is also very similar between the periods analysed. Deaths from all malignant tumours contribute the most by accounting for 56% of the observed excesses, the excess risk of mortality from malignant tumours across all sites, compared to the reference populations, is 4% in the male population (pooled SMR 1.04; CI90% 1.01-1.06) and 3% among the female population (pooled SMR 1.03; CI90% 1.01-1.05). Hospitalization (2014-2018) in the 46 sites as a whole was in excess of 3% for all causes, in both genders, for all major disease groups (males: SHR pooled 1.03; CI90% 1.01-1.04 - females: SHR pooled 1.03; CI90% 1.01-1.05). The results for the pooled estimates at the 46 sites on the general population, both with regard to mortality and hospitalization, are consistent in indicating excess risk in both genders for all the diseases considered and, in particular, for all malignancies. A total of 1,409 paediatric-adolescent deaths and 999 young adult deaths were observed, and the pooled analysis of mortality across the 46 sites showed no critical issues, with pooled estimates for all causes, perinatal morbid conditions and all malignancies falling short of expectations. The analysis of hospitalizations, on the other hand, showed an excess risk of 8% (males: SHR pooled 1.08; CI90% 1.03-1.13 - females: SHR pooled 1.08; CI90% 1.03-1.14) for all causes in the first year of life, and in paediatric-adolescent and juvenile age of 3-4% among males (age 0-19 years: SHR pooled 1.04; CI90% 1.02-1.06 - age 20-29 years: SHR pooled 1.03; CI90% 1.00-1.05) and 5% among females (in both age groups; SHR pooled 1.05; CI90% 1.02-1.08). The pooled analysis of mortality for the a priori identified diseases reported excesses for specific diseases in the group of sites with sources of exposure associated with them. Mortality from total mesotheliomas is three times higher at sites with asbestos present (males: pooled SMR 3.02; CI90% 2.18-3.87 - females: pooled SMR 3.61; CI90% 2.33-4.88) and that from pleural mesotheliomas more than two times higher at the group of sites with asbestos and port areas (males: pooled SMR 2.47; CI90% 1.94-3.00 - females: pooled SMR 2.43; CI90% 1.67-3.19). Lung cancer was in excess by 6% among males (pooled SMR 1.06; CI90% 1.03-1.10) and 7% among females (pooled SMR 1.07; CI90% 1.00-1.13). In addition, there are excess mortalities for colorectal cancer at sites with chemical plants, by 4 % among males (SMR pooled 1.04; CI90% 1.01-1.08) and 3 % among females (SMR pooled 1.03; CI90% 1.00-1.07) and for bladder cancer among the male population of sites with landfills (+6 %: SMR pooled 1.06; CI90% 1.02-1.11). Among the diseases of a priori interest, stomach and soft tissue cancers are at fault as a cause of death among all the sites considered.

LITERATURE REVIEW: The update of the epidemiological evidence underlying the Sixth SENTIERI Report has highlighted in the general population a possible association, previously undiscovered, between certain diseases and residence near petrochemical and steel plants, landfills, coal mines and asbestos sources.

CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Despite the fact that this is an ecological study, and the excesses of pathologies with multifactorial aetiology can never be mechanically attributed solely to the environmental pressure factors that exist or existed in the areas studied, the ability to identify the excesses found in the contaminated sites investigated by the SENTIERI Project confirms the validity of this method of assessing the site-specific health profile, based on the use of epidemiological evidence to identify pathologies of interest a priori. In interpreting the data and lending robustness to what has been observed, comparison with the results obtained in previous Reports is essential. The global estimates give an overall picture that shows excess mortality and hospitalization in these populations compared to the rest of the population, and show how, for specific pathologies, comparable effects are produced at sites with similar contamination characteristics. The themes developed in the in-depth chapters broaden the vision and understanding of the complex interactions between environment and health, describe the possibilities offered by new ways of communicating the results, and confirm the modernity of a Project that began way back in 2006, and that could be grafted onto the objectives of the National Recovery and Resilience Plan within the framework of the Operational Programme Health, Environment, Biodiversity and Climate.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Gariazzo C, Gasparrini A, A Marinaccio (2023)

Asbestos Consumption and Malignant Mesothelioma Mortality Trends in the Major User Countries.

Annals of global health, 89(1):11.

BACKGROUND: The causal association between mesothelioma and asbestos exposure is conclusive, and many studies have proved that the trend in asbestos use is a strong predictor of the pattern in mesothelioma cases with an adequate latency time (generally around 30-40 years or more). Recently, a novel approach for predicting malignant pleural mesothelioma, based on asbestos consumption trend and using distributed non-linear models, has been applied.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to analyse trends in asbestos consumption and malignant mesothelioma mortality in the major asbestos-user countries. Furthermore, we applied distributed non-linear models to estimate and compare epidemiological relationships between asbestos consumption and mesothelioma mortality across these countries.

METHODS: The study involves major asbestos-user countries in which historical asbestos consumption and mesothelioma mortality data are available. Data on asbestos consumption were derived from worldwide asbestos supply and mesothelioma mortality data from World Health Organization (WHO) mortality archives. A quasi-Poisson generalized linear model was used to model past asbestos exposure and male mesothelioma mortality rates in each country. Exposure-response associations have been modelled using distributed lag non-linear models.

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: According to the criteria defined above, we selected 18 countries with raw asbestos cumulative consumptions higher than two million tons in the period 1933-2012. Overall, a clear linear relationship can be observed between total consumption and total deaths for mesothelioma. Country-specific exposure, lag and age-response relationships were identified and common functions extracted by a meta-analysis procedure. Non-linear models appear suitable and flexible tools for investigating the association between mesothelioma mortality and asbestos consumption. There is a need to improve the global epidemiological surveillance of asbestos-related diseases, particularly mesothelioma mortality, and the absence of reliable data for some major asbestos-user countries is a real concern. A reliable assessment of mesothelioma mortality is a fundamental step towards increasing the awareness of related risks and the need of an international ban on asbestos.

RevDate: 2023-02-22

Sejben A, Pancsa T, Tiszlavicz L, et al (2023)

Highlighting the immunohistochemical differences of malignant mesothelioma subtypes via case presentations.

Thoracic cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare tumor of mesothelial cells, with an increasing incidence both in developed and developing countries. MM has three major histological subtypes, in order of frequency, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of 2021: epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid MM. Distinction may be a challenging task for the pathologist, due to the unspecific morphology. Here, we present two cases of diffuse MM subtypes to emphasize the immunohistochemical (IHC) differences, and to facilitate diagnostic difficulties. In our first case of epithelioid mesothelioma, the neoplastic cells showed cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), calretinin, and Wilms-tumor-1 (WT1) expression, while remaining negative with thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) negativity was seen in the neoplastic cells' nucleus, reflecting loss of the tumor suppressor gene. In the second case of biphasic mesothelioma, expression of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CKAE1/AE3, and mesothelin was observed, while WT1, BerEP4, CD141, TTF1, p63, CD31, calretinin, and BAP1 expressions were not detected. Due to the absence of specific histological features, the differentiation between MM subtypes could be a challenging task. In routine diagnostic work, IHC may be the proper method in distinction. According to our results and literature data, CK5/6, mesothelin, calretinin, and Ki-67 should be applied in subclassification.

RevDate: 2023-02-17

Hocking AJ, Thomas EM, Prabhakaran S, et al (2023)

Molecular Characterization of Testicular Mesothelioma and the Role of Asbestos as a Causative Factor.

Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine pii:490871 [Epub ahead of print].

CONTEXT.—: Mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis (TVT) is an extremely rare form of mesothelioma.

OBJECTIVE.—: To compare the clinical and molecular characteristics of mesothelioma of the TVT with those of mesothelioma at other more common sites, including the relationship with exposure to asbestos.

DESIGN.—: We present clinical and pathological data for 9 cases of primary TVT mesothelioma. We performed whole-genome sequencing on 3 cases for the first time.

RESULTS.—: The majority (7 of 9 cases) of TVT mesotheliomas were epithelioid, with the remaining 2 cases showing biphasic morphology. Morphology and immunohistochemical profiles were indistinguishable from mesothelioma elsewhere. Asbestos exposure was documented for 7 of the 9 cases, with no information for 2 cases. The 3 TVT mesothelioma cases that underwent whole-genome sequencing displayed a mutational profile similar to that of mesothelioma at other sites, including NF2 and TP53 mutations.

CONCLUSIONS.—: The clinical and molecular profile of TVT mesothelioma is similar to that of mesothelioma elsewhere.

RevDate: 2023-02-14

Kapila D, Panwar S, Raja MKMM, et al (2023)

Applications of Neural Network-Based Plan-Cancer Method for Primary Diagnosis of Mesothelioma Cancer.

BioMed research international, 2023:3164166.

"Malignant mesothelioma (MM)" is an uncommon although fatal form of cancer. The proper MM diagnosis is crucial for efficient therapy and has significant medicolegal implications. Asbestos is a carcinogenic material that poses a health risk to humans. One of the most severe types of cancer induced by asbestos is "malignant mesothelioma." Prolonged shortness of breath and continuous pain are the most typical symptoms of the condition. The importance of early treatment and diagnosis cannot be overstated. The combination "epithelial/mesenchymal appearance of MM," however, makes a definite diagnosis difficult. This study is aimed at developing a deep learning system for medical diagnosis MM automatically. Otherwise, the sickness might cause patients to succumb to death in a short amount of time. Various forms of artificial intelligence algorithms for successful "Malignant Mesothelioma illness" identification are explored in this research. In relation to the concept of traditional machine learning, the techniques support "Vector Machine, Neural Network, and Decision Tree" are chosen. SPSS has been used to analyze the result regarding the applications of Neural Network helps to diagnose MM.

RevDate: 2023-02-13

Vasuri F, Deserti M, Corradini AG, et al (2023)

Asbestos exposure as an additional risk factor for small duct intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a pilot study.

Scientific reports, 13(1):2580.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a rare malignancy, recently classified in small duct and large duct morphological subtypes. Growing evidence suggests asbestos as a putative risk factor for iCCA, albeit no correlation between asbestos and iCCA morphology has been investigated so far. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between asbestos exposure and iCCA morphological subtype. Forty patients with surgically removed iCCA were prospectively enrolled: asbestos exposure was assessed according to the Italian National Mesothelioma Register questionnaire. From the surgical iCCA specimens the main histopathological variables were collected, including the small duct (sd-iCCA, 32 patients) and large duct subtypes (ld-iCCA, 8 patients). Five sd-iCCA cases had a definite/probable occupational exposure to asbestos, while no cases of ld-iCCA were classified as being occupationally exposed (definite/probable). Other kind of asbestos exposure (i.e. possible occupational, familial, environmental) were recorded in 16 sd-iCCA and 3 ld-iCCA. Cases with unlikely exposure to asbestos were 11 sd-iCCA (35.5%) and 5 ld-iCCA (62.5%). In conclusion, these findings seem to indicate that sd-iCCA might be more frequently associated to asbestos exposure rather than ld-iCCA, suggesting that asbestos fibres might represent a parenchymal, rather than a ductal risk factor for iCCA. This pilot study must be confirmed by further case-control studies or large independent cohorts.

RevDate: 2023-02-13

Iwadare T, Kimura T, Nagata Y, et al (2023)

A case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with a Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome-like imaging finding.

Clinical journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a rare disease with a poor prognosis that develops in the mesothelial cells of the peritoneum. We encountered a 48-year-old man with no prior asbestos exposure who visited our hospital with abdominal pain. Laboratory findings showed elevated C-reactive protein of 15.5 mg/dL. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) detected a Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome-like contrast effect on the liver surface and thickening of the peritoneum. Blood culture, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific IFN-γ release assay, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA testing, and antinuclear antibody were all negative. CA125 was high at 124.8 U/mL. The laparoscopy for diagnostic purposes revealed adhesions between the liver surface and peritoneum in addition to numerous small and large white nodules on the peritoneum. Biopsy of the nodules confirmed the diagnosis of epithelial-type MPeM. Treatment was initiated with combined cisplatin and pemetrexed, and CT 6 months later showed a reduced contrast effect on the liver surface and improved peritoneal thickening. A Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome-like contrast effect on the liver surface on contrast-enhanced CT may help identify MPeM.

RevDate: 2023-02-12

Huang J, Chan SC, Pang WS, et al (2023)

Global Incidence, Risk Factors, and Temporal Trends of Mesothelioma: a population-based study.

Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer pii:S1556-0864(23)00125-9 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Mesothelioma is an uncommon type of cancer which has received little attention. This study aims to evaluate the global disease burden, trends of mesothelioma by age, sex and geographical locations, and investigate its risk factors on the population level.

METHODS: Global Cancer Observatory (GLOBOCAN), Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Plus (CI5 Plus), Global Burden of Disease (GBD) were accessed for mesothelioma incidence and its risk factors worldwide. The associations between mesothelioma incidence and asbestos were examined for each country by multivariable linear regression analysis by sex and age. Average Annual Percentage Change (AAPC) was calculated using Joinpoint regression to examine epidemiological trends of mesothelioma.

RESULTS: The age-standardised rate of mesothelioma was 0.30 per 100,000 persons with Northern Europe reporting the highest incidence rates. The incidence rate of the male population was much higher than females. Countries with higher HDI (β=0.119, CI 0.073 to 0.166, p<0.001), GDP per capita (β=0.133, CI 0.106 to 0.161, p<0.001), and asbestos exposure (β=0.087, CI 0.073 to 0.102, p<0.001; Figure) had higher mesothelioma. The overall trend of mesothelioma incidence was decreasing although an increase was observed in Bulgaria (AAPC: 5.56, 95% CI: 2.94 to 8.24, p=0.001) and Korea (AAPC: 3.24, 95% CI 0.08 to 6.49, p=0.045).

CONCLUSION: There was a significant declining incidence trend of mesothelioma for the past decade possibly related to the restriction of the use of asbestos in some countries. Meanwhile, the increasing trend in mesothelioma incidence observed in females might be indicative of an increase in environmental exposure to mineral fibres.

RevDate: 2023-02-11

Palstrøm NB, Overgaard M, Licht P, et al (2023)

Identification of Highly Sensitive Pleural Effusion Protein Biomarkers for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma by Affinity-Based Quantitative Proteomics.

Cancers, 15(3): pii:cancers15030641.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-associated, highly aggressive cancer characterized by late-stage diagnosis and poor prognosis. Gold standards for diagnosis are pleural biopsy and cytology of pleural effusion (PE), both of which are limited by low sensitivity and markedly inter-observer variations. Therefore, the assessment of PE biomarkers is considered a viable and objective diagnostic tool for MPM diagnosis. We applied a novel affinity-enrichment mass spectrometry-based proteomics method for explorative analysis of pleural effusions from a prospective cohort of 84 patients referred for thoracoscopy due to clinical suspicion of MPM. Protein biomarkers with a high capability to discriminate MPM from non-MPM patients were identified, and a Random Forest algorithm was applied for building classification models. Immunohistology of pleural biopsies confirmed MPM in 40 patients and ruled out MPM in 44 patients. Proteomic analysis of pleural effusions identified panels of proteins with excellent diagnostic properties (90-100% sensitivities, 89-98% specificities, and AUC 0.97-0.99) depending on the specific protein combination. Diagnostic proteins associated with cancer growth included galactin-3 binding protein, testican-2, haptoglobin, Beta ig-h3, and protein AMBP. Moreover, we also confirmed previously reported diagnostic accuracies of the MPM markers fibulin-3 and mesothelin measured by two complementary mass spectrometry-based methods. In conclusion, a novel affinity-enrichment mass spectrometry-based proteomics identified panels of proteins in pleural effusion with extraordinary diagnostic accuracies, which are described here for the first time as biomarkers for MPM.

RevDate: 2023-02-11

Yang H, Gao Y, Xu D, et al (2023)

MEK1 drives oncogenic signaling and interacts with PARP1 for genomic and metabolic homeostasis in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Cell death discovery, 9(1):55.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a lethal malignancy etiologically caused by asbestos exposure, for which there are few effective treatment options. Although asbestos carcinogenesis is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), the bona fide oncogenic signaling pathways that regulate ROS homeostasis and bypass ROS-evoked apoptosis in MPM are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK is hyperactive and a molecular driver of MPM, independent of histological subtypes and genetic heterogeneity. Suppression of MAPK signaling by clinically approved MEK inhibitors (MEKi) elicits PARP1 to protect MPM cells from the cytotoxic effects of MAPK pathway blockage. Mechanistically, MEKi induces impairment of homologous recombination (HR) repair proficiency and mitochondrial metabolic activity, which is counterbalanced by pleiotropic PARP1. Consequently, the combination of MEK with PARP inhibitors enhances apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo that occurs through coordinated upregulation of cytotoxic ROS in MPM cells, suggesting a mechanism-based, readily translatable strategy to treat this daunting disease. Collectively, our studies uncover a previously unrecognized scenario that hyperactivation of the MAPK pathway is an essential feature of MPM and provide unprecedented evidence that MAPK signaling cooperates with PARP1 to homeostatically maintain ROS levels and escape ROS-mediated apoptosis.

RevDate: 2023-02-09

Bonde A, Singh R, Prasad SR, et al (2023)

Mesotheliomas and Benign Mesothelial Tumors: Update on Pathologic and Imaging Findings.

Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc, 43(3):e220128.

A diverse spectrum of benign entities and malignant neoplasms originate from the monotonous mesothelium that lines the serosal membranes of the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. The mesothelium of myriad sites shows a common origin from the lateral plate mesoderm; primary mesothelial tumors thus demonstrate similar pathogenesis, imaging findings, and treatment options. Significant changes have been made in the 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) classification schemata of the pleural and pericardial tumors on the basis of recent advances in pathology and genetics. While malignant mesotheliomas are biologically aggressive malignancies that occur primarily in patients exposed to asbestos with attendant poor survival rates, well-differentiated papillary mesothelial tumors and adenomatoid tumors charter a benign clinical course with an excellent prognosis. Mesothelioma in situ is a newly characterized entity represented by recurrent unexplained pleural effusions without any identifiable mass at imaging or thoracoscopy. Immunohistochemical markers based on BAP1, MTAP, CDKN2A, and TRAF7 gene mutations help differentiate diffuse mesotheliomas from benign mesothelial proliferations and localized mesotheliomas. Cross-sectional imaging modalities, including US, CT, MRI, and fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, permit diagnosis and play a major role in staging and assessing surgical resectability. Imaging studies are invaluable in providing noninvasive and quantitative assessment of tumor response in patients with unresectable disease. Owing to significant overlap in patient characteristics and pathomorphology, accurate diagnosis based on advanced histopathology techniques and genetic abnormalities is imperative for optimal management and prognostication. While patients with nonepithelioid pleural mesotheliomas benefit from immunotherapy, novel targeted therapies for CDKN2A-, NF2-, and BAP1-altered mesotheliomas are under consideration. [©] RSNA, 2023 Quiz questions for this article are available through the Online Learning Center.

RevDate: 2023-02-08

Walker-Bone K, Benke G, MacFarlane E, et al (2023)

Incidence and mortality from malignant mesothelioma 1982-2020 and relationship with asbestos exposure: the Australian Mesothelioma Registry.

Occupational and environmental medicine pii:oemed-2022-108669 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon cancer associated with asbestos exposure, predominantly occupational. Asbestos has been banned in Australia since 2003 but mesothelioma has a long latency and incident cases continue to present. The Australian Mesothelioma Registry was incepted to collect systematic data about incidence and mortality alongside asbestos exposure.

METHODS: Benefiting from the Australian national system of cancer notification, all incident cases of mesothelioma in all states and territories are fast-tracked and notified regularly. Notified patients are contacted asking for consent to collect exposure information, initially by postal questionnaire and subsequently by telephone interview. Age-standardised annual incidence rates and mortality rates were calculated. Asbestos exposure was categorised as occupational, non-occupational, neither or, both; and as low, or high, probability of exposure.

RESULTS: Mesothelioma incidence appears to have peaked. The age-standardised incidence rates have declined steadily since the early 2000s (peaking in males at 5.9/100 000 and in all-persons at 3.2/100 000), driven by rates in males, who comprise the majority of diagnosed cases. Rates in women have remained fairly stable since that time. Age-standardised mortality rates have followed similar trends. Mesothelioma remains the most common in those aged over 80 years. Nearly all (94%) cases were linked with asbestos exposure (78% occupational in men; 6.8% in women).

CONCLUSIONS: With effective control of occupational asbestos use, the decline in age-standardised incidence and death rates has occurred. Incidence rates among women, in whom occupational asbestos exposure is rarely detectable, remain unchanged, pointing to the role of household and /or environmental asbestos exposure.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Cunningham R, Jia S, Purohit K, et al (2023)

YAP/TAZ activation predicts clinical outcomes in mesothelioma and is conserved in in vitro model of driver mutations.

Clinical and translational medicine, 13(2):e1190.

The Hippo signalling pathway is dysregulated across a wide range of cancer types and, although driver mutations that directly affect the core Hippo components are rare, a handful is found within pleural mesothelioma (PM). PM is a deadly disease of the lining of the lung caused by asbestos exposure. By pooling the largest-scale clinical datasets publicly available, we here interrogate associations between the most prevalent driver mutations within PM and Hippo pathway disruption in patients, while assessing correlations with a variety of clinical markers. This analysis reveals a consistent worse outcome in patients exhibiting transcriptional markers of YAP/TAZ activation, pointing to the potential of leveraging Hippo pathway transcriptional activation status as a metric by which patients may be meaningfully stratified. Preclinical models recapitulating disease are transformative in order to develop new therapeutic strategies. We here establish an isogenic cell-line model of PM, which represents the most frequently mutated genes and which faithfully recapitulates the molecular features of clinical PM. This preclinical model is developed to probe the molecular basis by which the Hippo pathway and key driver mutations affect cancer initiation and progression. Implementing this approach, we reveal the role of NF2 as a mechanosensory component of the Hippo pathway in mesothelial cells. Cellular NF2 loss upon physiological stiffnesses analogous to the tumour niche drive YAP/TAZ-dependent anchorage-independent growth. Consequently, the development and characterisation of this cellular model provide a unique resource to obtain molecular insights into the disease and progress new drug discovery programs together with future stratification of PM patients.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Slavik CE, Demers PA, Tamburic L, et al (2023)

Do patterns of past asbestos use and production reflect current geographic variations of cancer risk?: mesothelioma in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada.

Cancer causes & control : CCC [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Canada was a major global asbestos producer and consumer. Geographic patterns of Canadian asbestos use and mesothelioma, a highly fatal cancer linked to asbestos exposure, have not been previously reported. This study summarized key trends in mesothelioma incidence by geography and time in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), and explored how past workforce characteristics and geographic trends in asbestos production and use may shape variations in regional rates of mesothelioma.

METHODS: We report trends in mesothelioma incidence (1993-2016) for Ontario and British Columbia using population-based incidence data that were age-standardized to the 2011 Canadian population. Historical records of asbestos production and use were analyzed to geo-locate industrial point sources of asbestos in Ontario and BC. The prevalence of occupations in regions with the highest and lowest rates of mesothelioma in Ontario and BC were calculated using labor force statistics from the 1981 Canadian Census.

RESULTS: Regional mesothelioma rates varied in both provinces over time; more census divisions in both Ontario and BC registered mesothelioma rates in the highest quintile of incidences during the period 2009 to 2016 than in any prior period examined. Certain occupations such as construction trades workers were more likely to be overrepresented in regions with high mesothelioma rates.

CONCLUSION: This work explored how studying asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence at small-scale geographies could direct cancer surveillance and research to more targeted areas. Findings indicated that regional variations in mesothelioma could signal important differences in past occupational and potentially environmental exposures.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Endo I, Amatya VJ, Kushitani K, et al (2023)

miR-142-3p Suppresses Invasion and Adhesion of Mesothelioma Cells by Downregulating ITGAV.

Pathobiology : journal of immunopathology, molecular and cellular biology pii:000528670 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer associated with asbestos exposure. Currently, the efficacy of therapeutics is limited in malignant mesothelioma, and developing more effective therapies is the need of the hour. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), have attracted attention as therapeutic targets. To explore potential therapeutic targets, we focused on miR-142-3p expression, which was found to be significantly downregulated in mesothelioma cell lines in our previous study.

METHODS: Mesothelioma cell lines and tissues were validated for expression of miR-142-3p or integrin subunit alpha-V (ITGAV). We transfected mesothelioma cell lines with miR-142-3p mimic and ITGAV siRNA and analyzed their biological functions.

RESULTS: We found that miR-142-3p was significantly downregulated in mesothelioma tissues. Transfection with miR-142-3p mimic significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Bioinformatics analysis of potential targets of miR-142-3p identified ITGAV. Membrane ITGAV expression in mesothelioma cell lines was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. ITGAV was significantly upregulated in mesothelioma tissues. Moreover, transfection of miR-142-3p mimics into mesothelioma cell lines significantly suppressed ITGAV expression, indicating that miR-142-3p targets ITGAV. Next, ITGAV siRNA transfection into mesothelioma cell lines inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Further investigation of cell adhesion mechanisms showed that the miR-142-3p/ITGAV axis specifically affects mesothelioma cell adhesion via vitronectin in the extracellular matrix.

CONCLUSION: This study proposed that the miR-142-3p/ITGAV axis is involved in tumor progression in malignant mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Del Monaco A, Dimitriadis C, Xie S, et al (2023)

Workers in Australian prebake aluminium smelters: update on risk of mortality and cancer incidence in the Healthwise cohort.

Occupational and environmental medicine pii:oemed-2022-108605 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To investigate mortality and the rates of incident cancer among a cohort of aluminium industry workers.

METHODS: Among 4507 male employees who worked in either of two Australian prebake smelters for at least 3 months, data linkage was undertaken with the Australian National Death Index and Australian Cancer Database. Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Standardised Incidence Rates (SIRs) were estimated for the whole cohort and for: production; maintenance and office workers. SMRs and SIRs were calculated by time since first employment.

RESULTS: Among production workers, there was an excess risk of mortality from mesothelioma (SMR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.2), lung (SMR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8), prostate (SMR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.7) and liver cancer (SMR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.4) and the SIR was also increased for overall respiratory cancers, specifically lung cancers. An excess risk of death from stomach cancer (SMR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.1) and Alzheimer's disease (SMR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 7.9) was seen among maintenance workers. The overall risk of death was similar to that of the Australian general population, as was mortality from cancers overall and non-malignant respiratory disease.

CONCLUSIONS: No excess risk of death from bladder cancer or non-malignant respiratory disease was found. Excess lung cancer mortality and incidence may be explained by smoking and excess mortality from mesothelioma may be explained by asbestos exposure. An excess risk of mortality from liver and prostate cancer has been shown in production workers and requires further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Di Genova A, Mangiante L, Sexton-Oates A, et al (2022)

A molecular phenotypic map of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

GigaScience, 12:.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare understudied cancer associated with exposure to asbestos. So far, MPM patients have benefited marginally from the genomics medicine revolution due to the limited size or breadth of existing molecular studies. In the context of the MESOMICS project, we have performed the most comprehensive molecular characterization of MPM to date, with the underlying dataset made of the largest whole-genome sequencing series yet reported, together with transcriptome sequencing and methylation arrays for 120 MPM patients.

RESULTS: We first provide comprehensive quality controls for all samples, of both raw and processed data. Due to the difficulty in collecting specimens from such rare tumors, a part of the cohort does not include matched normal material. We provide a detailed analysis of data processing of these tumor-only samples, showing that all somatic alteration calls match very stringent criteria of precision and recall. Finally, integrating our data with previously published multiomic MPM datasets (n = 374 in total), we provide an extensive molecular phenotype map of MPM based on the multitask theory. The generated map can be interactively explored and interrogated on the UCSC TumorMap portal (https://tumormap.ucsc.edu/?p=RCG_MESOMICS/MPM_Archetypes).

CONCLUSIONS: This new high-quality MPM multiomics dataset, together with the state-of-art bioinformatics and interactive visualization tools we provide, will support the development of precision medicine in MPM that is particularly challenging to implement in rare cancers due to limited molecular studies.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Schelch K, Eder S, Zitta B, et al (2022)

YB-1 regulates mesothelioma cell migration via snail but not EGFR, MMP1, EPHA5 or PARK2.

Molecular oncology [Epub ahead of print].

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is characterized by rapid growth, local invasion, and limited therapeutic options. The multifunctional oncoprotein Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) is frequently overexpressed in cancer and its inhibition reduces aggressive behavior in multiple tumor types. Here, we investigated the effects of YB-1 on target gene regulation and PM cell behavior. Whereas siRNA-mediated YB-1 knockdown reduced cell motility, YB-1 overexpression resulted in scattering, increased migration, and intravasation in vitro. Furthermore, YB-1 stimulated PM cell spreading in zebrafish. Combined knockdown and inducible overexpression of YB-1 allowed bidirectional control and rescue of cell migration, the pattern of which was closely followed by the mRNA and protein levels of EGFR and the protein level of snail, whereas the mRNA levels of MMP1, EPHA5, and PARK2 showed partial regulation by YB-1. Finally, we identified snail as a critical regulator of YB-1-mediated cell motility in PM. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying the aggressive nature of PM and highlights the important role of YB-1 in this cancer. In this context, we found that YB-1 closely regulates EGFR and snail, and, moreover, that YB-1-induced cell migration depends on snail.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Romano M, Pinto P, Afonso R, et al (2023)

Pleural Mesothelioma: A Rapid Evolution of an Indolent Disease.

Cureus, 15(1):e33965.

Mesothelioma is a rare and insidious neoplasm and is characterized by its highly malignant and aggressive nature. The most common etiology is asbestos exposure, but there are some reports without known asbestos exposure and other factors leading to malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old woman with pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, and fever on presentation to the emergency department (ED), which caused several admissions to the ED in 20 days. The patient was then admitted to the internal medicine department with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia with parapneumonic effusion. During hospitalization, a positron emission tomography (PET) scan, thoracic computed tomography (CT), and pleural biopsy were performed and a final diagnosis of malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma was made. Six weeks after the onset of symptoms, the patient presented with an exponential disease progression, dying two months after the diagnosis, despite the initiation of chemotherapy. MPM remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with a very poor prognosis. However, studies show that mesothelioma patients who undergo treatment live at least twice as long as patients who do not receive treatment. This case report is particularly significant because, although it was epithelioid mesothelioma, multiple solid masses were noted on CT and the patient exhibited rapid disease progression, dying a few weeks after starting treatment.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Magnani C, Mensi C, Binazzi A, et al (2023)

The Italian Experience in the Development of Mesothelioma Registries: A Pathway for Other Countries to Address the Negative Legacy of Asbestos.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(2): pii:ijerph20020936.

Asbestos (all forms, including chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite) is carcinogenic to humans and causally associated with mesothelioma and cancer of the lung, larynx, and ovary. It is one of the carcinogens most diffuse in the world, in workplaces, but also in the environment and is responsible for a very high global cancer burden. A large number of countries, mostly with high-income economies, has banned the use of asbestos which, however, is still widespread in low- and middle-income countries. It remains, thus, one of the most common occupational and environmental carcinogens worldwide. Italy issued an asbestos ban in 1992, following the dramatic observation of a large increase in mortality from mesothelioma and other asbestos-related diseases in exposed workers and also in subjects with non-occupational exposure. A mesothelioma registry was also organized and still monitors the occurrence of mesothelioma cases, conducting a case-by-case evaluation of asbestos exposure. In this report, we describe two Italian communities, Casale Monferrato and Broni, that faced an epidemic of mesothelioma resulting from the production of asbestos cement and the diffuse environmental exposure; we present the activity and results of the Italian mesothelioma registry (ReNaM), describe the risk-communication activities at the local and national level with a focus on international cooperation and also describe the interaction between mesothelioma registration and medical services specialized in mesothelioma diagnosis and treatment in an area at high risk of mesothelioma. Finally, we assess the potential application of the solutions and methods already developed in Italy in a city in Colombia with high mesothelioma incidence associated with the production of asbestos-cement materials and the presence of diffuse environmental asbestos pollution.

RevDate: 2023-01-18

Moline J, Patel K, AL Frank (2023)

Exposure to cosmetic talc and mesothelioma.

Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England), 18(1):1.

AIM: Mesothelioma is associated with asbestos exposure. In this case series, we present 166 cases of individuals who had substantial asbestos exposure to cosmetic talc products as well as some who had potential or documented additional exposures to other asbestos-containing products and who subsequently developed mesothelioma.

METHODS: Data were gathered for all subjects referred to an occupational and environmental medicine specialist as part of medicolegal review. Years of total cosmetic talcum powder usage was noted as well as the latency from the onset of talcum powder use to the mesothelioma diagnosis. Alternate asbestos exposure in addition to the exposure from cosmetic talc was categorized as none, possible, likely, and definite.

RESULTS: In 122 cases, the only known exposure to asbestos was from cosmetic talc. For 44 cases, potential or documented alternate exposures in addition to the cosmetic talc were described.

CONCLUSION: Cumulative exposure to asbestos leads to mesothelioma; for individuals with mixed exposures to asbestos, all exposures should be considered. Use of cosmetic talc is often overlooked as a source of asbestos exposure. All individuals with mesothelioma should have a comprehensive history of asbestos exposure, including cosmetic talc exposure.

RevDate: 2023-01-16

Piao ZH, Zhou XC, X Zhang (2022)

[Updates in the pathological diagnosis of Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma in the WHO classification of thoracic tumors (5(th) edition)].

Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 40(12):956-960.

The WHO Classification of Thoracic Tumors (5(th) edition) mainly has the following changes in the chapter of pleural malignant mesothelioma. (1) The concept of mesothelioma in situ and its diagnostic method have been established for the first time; (2) The tumour grading of pleural malignant mesothelioma was added, it was divided into low grade and high grade according to the cellular atypia, mitotic activity and presence of necrosis. (3) The morphological features of pleural malignant mesothelioma was classified into architectural pattern, cellular and stromal features, the correlation between histological features and prognosis was refined, and some of the controversial cellular types have been reclassified. In this review, we introduced the changes of related pathologic diagnosis, in the WHO Classification of Thoracic Tumors (5(th) edition) and discussed its clinical significance.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Neff D, Padberg Sgier BC, Dietze H, et al (2022)

Unusually Aggressive Presentation of Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma: Two Case Reports.

Case reports in oncology, 15(3):1001-1008.

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease. Patients mainly present with abdominal distension, pain, nausea, and weight loss with or without an exposure history of asbestos. Diagnosis may be difficult from a clinical and histopathologic perspective. Treatment options are surgery in early stages, radiotherapy and/or intraperitoneal or systemic therapy. Prognosis depends on TNM stage and histologic subtype with epithelioid subtype being the most favorable one but in general remains poor. We present a 59-year-old male (patient 1) and a 79-year-old female (patient 2) with progressive dyspnea. PET-CT of patient 1 revealed metastatic spread in the pleura and extensive peritoneal carcinomatosis. PET-CT of patient 2 displayed FDG-avid lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm, polyserositis, and FDG uptake along the peritoneum. Both patients were eventually diagnosed with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. Patient 1 was treated with carboplatin and gemcitabine, and patient 2 received no systemic therapy. Even though the epithelioid subtype was found, both patients succumbed due to rapid tumor progression in a matter of a few weeks only. Presentation with polyserositis even in the absence of relevant asbestos exposure may represent malignant peritoneal mesothelioma if ascites is present, and rapid invasive diagnostic (excision biopsy) should be performed. These two unusual cases emphasize that even in epithelioid subtype, clinicians ought to be aware of possible rapid clinical deterioration, and timely diagnosis with initiation of therapy is crucial. Further research is necessary to better understand tumor biology, establish predictive markers, and develop new treatment options.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Dusseault SK, Okobi OE, Thakral N, et al (2022)

Primary Peritoneal Mesothelioma: Diagnostic Challenges of This Lethal Imposter.

Case reports in gastroenterology, 16(3):588-594.

Primary Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a rapidly aggressive and rare neoplasm that arises from the lining of mesothelial cells of the peritoneum and spreads extensively within the confines of the abdominal cavity. The pathogenesis of all forms of mesothelioma is strongly associated with industrial pollutants, of which asbestos is the principal carcinogen. Characteristically, asbestos exposure has a strong relationship with mesothelioma of the pleura, but the peritoneal cavity is the second most commonly affected site. Additionally, in contrast to pleural mesothelioma, which has a male predominance (male-female ratio of between four and five to one), women comprise approximately one-half of all cases of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. A thorough history of occupational/paraoccupational exposure along with histopathology is the key to timely diagnosis and treatment.

RevDate: 2023-01-12

Kurth L, Mazurek JM, DJ Blackley (2023)

Malignant mesothelioma among US Medicare beneficiaries: incidence, prevalence and therapy, 2016-2019.

Occupational and environmental medicine pii:oemed-2022-108706 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Mesothelioma is a rare, aggressive cancer caused by exposure to asbestos fibres. Mesothelioma patients who receive trimodal therapy (chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiation) survive longer than those who receive two or fewer therapy modalities. This study analyses the 2016-2019 Medicare claims data to estimate the burden of malignant mesothelioma and describe therapy patterns (when available) among continuously enrolled fee-for-service (FFS; Medicare parts A and B) beneficiaries.

METHODS: We analysed claims and enrolment information from 42 529 117 FFS Medicare beneficiaries using three mesothelioma case definitions (broad, intermediate and narrow) with varying levels of diagnostic requirements. Results are presented as ranges of values for the three definitions.

RESULTS: Among FFS beneficiaries, 8213-19 036 beneficiaries with mesothelioma were identified depending on the case definition. The annual prevalence per 100 000 beneficiaries ranged from 8.8 in 2016 (narrow) to 31.3 in 2019 (broad) and annual incidence per 100 000 beneficiaries ranged from 4.5 in 2019 (narrow) to 12.6 in 2017 (broad). Depending on the mesothelioma case definition, 41.8%-81.5% had available therapy claim information indicating that 7.6%-11.3% received chemotherapy alone, 1.3%-1.5% received radiation alone, and 14.3%-27.0% underwent surgery only, with 4.6%-10.5% receiving all three therapy modalities.

CONCLUSIONS: Mesothelioma was a prevalent disease among FFS Medicare beneficiaries during 2016-2019, and a limited proportion of beneficiaries received all three therapy modalities. Medicare data build on findings from cancer registry data to enhance our understanding of the mesothelioma burden and therapy patterns.

RevDate: 2023-01-11

Caceres JD, AN Venkata (2023)

Asbestos-associated pulmonary disease.

Current opinion in pulmonary medicine [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure to asbestos can cause both benign and malignant, pulmonary and pleural diseases. In the current era of low asbestos exposure, it is critical to be aware of complications from asbestos exposure; as they often arise after decades of exposure, asbestos-related pulmonary complications include asbestosis, pleural plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, benign asbestos-related pleural effusions and malignant pleural mesothelioma.

RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple recent studies are featured in this review, including a study evaluating imaging characteristics of asbestos with other fibrotic lung diseases, a study that quantified pleural plaques on computed tomography imaging and its impact on pulmonary function, a study that examined the risk of lung cancer with pleural plaques among two large cohorts and a review of nonasbestos causes of malignant mesothelioma.

SUMMARY: Asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review summarizes the current advances in this field and highlights areas that need additional research.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Moscadelli A, Martini A, Angelini A, et al (2022)

[Mortality study in a cohort of entertainment workers].

Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia, 44(3):360-359.

Introduction. Malignant mesotheliomas have been observed in entertainment workers in the last decades. They have been evaluated as occupationally exposed to asbestos contained in tools used for fireproof and sound-absorbing purposes. Aim of the study. To evaluate the mortality of workers engaged in a Florentine theatre where a large quantity of asbestos was found in the '80s, put in place 20 years earlier. Methods. It is a cohort study on entertainment workers with follow-up period ranged from 1-1-1970 till 31-12-2018. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% IC) were calculated by gender and job ("manual workers" and "all other jobs"), using age and sex specific mortality rates of Tuscan population. Results. The cohort includes 826 workers (389 manual workers and 437 engaged in other jobs) engaged by the Florentine theatre between 01/01/1937 and 31/12/1990. Excesses of mortality for all causes are observed in manual workers, either males (301 cases; SMR 304,0; 95% IC 271,5-340,3) or females (86 cases; SMR 429,8; 95% IC 348,0-531,0). The group of the other workers presents deficits of mortality by all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases in both genders. One death for pleural cancer is observed in a manual worker. Discussion. The results are in line with previous observations in similar occupations. In the examined Florentine theatre the asbestos exposures were important only for the manual workers who worked in the technical rooms characterized by the presence of friable asbestos sprinkled and in a bad state of maintenance.

RevDate: 2023-01-08

Mutetwa B, Moyo D, D Brouwer (2022)

Prediction of Asbestos-Related Diseases (ARDs) and Chrysotile Asbestos Exposure Concentrations in Asbestos-Cement (AC) Manufacturing Factories in Zimbabwe.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(1): pii:ijerph20010058.

The use of historical asbestos measurement data in occupational exposure assessment is essential as it allows more quantitative analysis of possible exposure response relationships in asbestos-related disease (ARD) occurrence. The aim of this study was to predict possible ARDs, namely lung cancer, mesothelioma, gastrointestinal cancer, and asbestosis, in two chrysotile asbestos cement (AC) manufacturing factories. Prediction of ARDs was done using a specific designed job-exposure matrix for airborne chrysotile asbestos fibre concentrations obtained from the Harare and Bulawayo AC factories and through application of OSHA's linear dose effect model in which ARDs were estimated through extrapolation at 1, 10, 20, and 25 years of exposure. The results show that more cancer and asbestosis cases are likely to be experienced among those exposed before 2008 as exposure levels and subsequently cumulative exposure were generally much higher than those experienced after 2008. After a possible exposure period of 25 years, overall cancer cases predicted in the Harare factory were 325 cases per 100,000 workers, while for the Bulawayo factory, 347 cancer cases per 100,000 workers exposed may be experienced. Possible high numbers of ARDs are likely to be associated with specific tasks/job titles, e.g., saw cutting, kollergang, fettling table, ground hard waste, and possibly pipe-making operations, as cumulative exposures, though lower than reported in other studies, may present higher risk of health impairment. The study gives insights into possible ARDs, namely lung cancer, mesothelioma, gastrointestinal cancer, and asbestosis, that may be anticipated at various cumulative exposures over 1, 10, 20, and 25 years of exposure in AC manufacturing factories in Zimbabwe. Additionally, results from the study can also form a basis for more in-depth assessment of asbestos cancer morbidity studies in the AC manufacturing industries.

RevDate: 2023-01-08

Casalone E, Birolo G, Pardini B, et al (2022)

Serum Extracellular Vesicle-Derived microRNAs as Potential Biomarkers for Pleural Mesothelioma in a European Prospective Study.

Cancers, 15(1): pii:cancers15010125.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer with a dismal prognosis. Early therapeutic interventions could improve patient outcomes. We aimed to identify a pattern of microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential early non-invasive markers of MPM. In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we screened the whole miRNome in serum extracellular vesicles (EVs) of preclinical MPM cases. In a subgroup of 20 preclinical samples collected five years prior MPM diagnosis, we observed an upregulation of miR-11400 (fold change (FC) = 2.6, adjusted p-value = 0.01), miR-148a-3p (FC = 1.5, p-value = 0.001), and miR-409-3p (FC = 1.5, p-value = 0.04) relative to matched controls. The 3-miRNA panel showed a good classification capacity with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.81 (specificity = 0.75, sensitivity = 0.70). The diagnostic ability of the model was also evaluated in an independent retrospective cohort, yielding a higher predictive power (AUC = 0.86). A signature of EV miRNA can be detected up to five years before MPM; moreover, the identified miRNAs could provide functional insights into the molecular changes related to the late carcinogenic process, preceding MPM development.

RevDate: 2023-01-05

Mankidy B, Sparkman J, Boddu S, et al (2022)

Simultaneous Use of Endobronchial and Endoscopic Ultrasound Guidance as Primary Tools in the Diagnosis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Cureus, 14(12):e32110.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is related to exposure to asbestos. It is insidious in nature and is generally diagnosed at an advanced stage. MPM is aggressive and portends a poor prognosis. Definitive diagnosis is usually established by obtaining pathological samples of the pleura by medical or surgical thoracoscopy. However, these procedures are invasive and carry a risk of seeding of biopsy sites with tumors. We herein report an infrequently encountered case of simultaneous use of endobronchial ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy of malignant pleural mesothelioma in a 48-year-old female patient.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Caraballo-Arias Y, Zunarelli C, Caffaro P, et al (2022)

Quantitative Assessment of Asbestos Fibers in Normal and Pathological Peritoneal Tissue-A Scoping Review.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(12):.

Peritoneal tissue is the second most affected site by malignant mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. This scoping review aims to summarize the findings of the studies in which asbestos fibers in the peritoneum were quantified by electron microscopy, occasionally associated with spectroscopy, both in neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue. The 9 studies selected comprised 62 cases, out of whom 100 samples were analyzed. Asbestos fibers were detected in 58 samples (58%). In addition, 28 cases had diagnosis of peritoneal mesothelioma. For 32 cases, a lung tumor sample was available: 28/32 samples analyzed presented asbestos fibers; 18/32 reported amphiboles with a range from not detected to 14.2 million fibers per gram of dry tissue (mfgdt); 18/32 reported chrysotile, with a range of 0 to 90 mfgdt. The studies were heterogeneous for type of samples, analytical technology, and circumstances of exposure to asbestos. To evaluate asbestos fibers in the peritoneum and to better understand the association between asbestos exposure and malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, it is desirable that the search for asbestos fibers becomes a routine process every time peritoneal tissue is accessible.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Gardner M, Cross M, Reed S, et al (2022)

Pathogenic Potential of Respirable Spodumene Cleavage Fragments following Application of Regulatory Counting Criteria for Asbestiform Fibres.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(24): pii:ijerph192416649.

Health risks from exposure to lithium-bearing spodumene cleavage fragments are unknown. While asbestiform fibres can lead to fibrosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer, controversy remains whether non-asbestiform cleavage fragments, having equivalent dimensions, elicit similar pathologic responses. The mineralogy of respirable particles from two alpha (α)-spodumene concentrate grades (chemical and technical) were characterised using semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particles were measured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the dimensions (length [L], diameter [D], aspect ratio [AR]) applied to regulatory counting criteria for asbestiform fibres. Application of the current World Health Organization (WHO) and National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) counting criteria, L ˃ 5 µm, D ˂ 3 µm, AR ˃ 3:1, to 10 SEM images of each grade identified 47 countable particles in the chemical and 37 in the technical concentrate test samples. Of these particles, 17 and 16 in the chemical and technical test samples, respectively, satisfied the more rigorous, previously used Mines Safety and Inspection Regulations 1995 (Western Australia [WA]) criteria, L ˃ 5 µm and D ≤ 1 µm. The majority of the countable particles were consistent with α-spodumene cleavage fragments. These results suggest elongated α-spodumene particles may pose a health risk. It is recommended the precautionary principle be applied to respirable α-spodumene particles and the identification and control of dust hazards in spodumene extraction, handling and processing industries be implemented.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Moro J, Sobrero S, Cartia CF, et al (2022)

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(12): pii:diagnostics12123009.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare cancer characterized by a very poor prognosis. Exposure to asbestos is the leading cause of malignant pleural mesothelioma. The preinvasive lesions, the mesothelial hyperplasia and its possible evolution are the focus of the majority of the studies aiming to identify the treatable phase of the disease. The role of BAP-1 and MTAP in the diagnosis of mesothelioma in situ and in the prognosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma is the main topic of recent studies. The management of preinvasive lesions in mesothelioma is still unclear and many aspects are the subject of debate. The diagnosis, the disease staging and the accurate, comprehensive assessment of patients are three key instants for an appropriate management of patients/the disease.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Rihs HP, Casjens S, Raiko I, et al (2022)

Mesothelin Gene Variants Affect Soluble Mesothelin-Related Protein Levels in the Plasma of Asbestos-Exposed Males and Mesothelioma Patients from Germany.

Biology, 11(12): pii:biology11121826.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a severe disease mostly caused by asbestos exposure. Today, one of the best available biomarkers is the soluble mesothelin-related protein (SMRP), also known as mesothelin. Recent studies have shown that mesothelin levels are influenced by individual genetic variability. This study aimed to investigate the influence of three mesothelin (MSLN) gene variants (SNPs) in the 5'-untranslated promoter region (5'-UTR), MSLN rs2235503 C > A, rs3764246 A > G, rs3764247 A > C, and one (rs1057147 G > A) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the MSLN gene on plasma concentrations of mesothelin in 410 asbestos-exposed males without cancer and 43 males with prediagnostic MM (i.e., with MM diagnosed later on) from the prospective MoMar study, as well as 59 males with manifest MM from Germany. The mesothelin concentration differed significantly between the different groups (p < 0.0001), but not between the prediagnostic and manifest MM groups (p = 0.502). Five to eight mutations of the four SNP variants studied were associated with increased mesothelin concentrations (p = 0.001). The highest mesothelin concentrations were observed for homozygous variants of the three promotor SNPs in the 5'-UTR (p < 0.001), and the highest odds ratio for an elevated mesothelin concentration was observed for MSLN rs2235503 C > A. The four studied SNPs had a clear influence on the mesothelin concentration in plasma. Hence, the analysis of these SNPs may help to elucidate the diagnostic background of patients displaying increased mesothelin levels and might help to reduce false-positive results when using mesothelin for MM screening in high-risk groups.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

Chimed-Ochir O, Rath EM, Kubo T, et al (2022)

Must countries shoulder the burden of mesothelioma to ban asbestos? A global assessment.

BMJ global health, 7(12):.

INTRODUCTION: Mesothelioma is a key asbestos-related disease (ARD) but can be difficult to diagnose. Countries presumably ban asbestos to reduce future ARD burdens, but it is unknown if countries ban asbestos as a consequence of ARD burdens. We assessed if and to what extent mesothelioma burden has an impact on a country banning asbestos and obtaining targets for preventative strategies.

METHODS: We analysed the status of asbestos ban and mesothelioma burden during 1990-2019 in 198 countries. We assessed mesothelioma burden by age-adjusted mortality rates (MRs) estimated by the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) and mesothelioma identification by the WHO mortality database. For GBD-estimated mesothelioma MR, the pre-ban period in the asbestos-banned countries was compared with the 1990-2019 period in the not-banned countries. For mesothelioma identification, the 1990-2019 period was applied to both banned and not-banned countries.

RESULTS: The association of mesothelioma MR with ban status increased as the ban year approached. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of a country banning asbestos increased 14.1-fold (95% CI 5.3 to 37.9) for mesothelioma identification combined with a 26% (12% to 42%) increase per unit increase of mesothelioma MR (one death per million per year) during the period 1-5 year before ban (model p<0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Mesothelioma burden had an impact on, and together with its identification, explained the banning of asbestos in many countries. Asbestos-banned countries likely learnt lessons from their historical policies of using asbestos because mesothelioma burden and identification follow historical asbestos use. Prevention targets for ARD elimination should combine asbestos ban with mesothelioma identification.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

Luo Y, Akatsuka S, Motooka Y, et al (2022)

BRCA1 haploinsufficiency impairs iron metabolism to promote chrysotile-induced mesothelioma via ferroptosis-resistance.

Cancer science [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is still a social burden associated with asbestos exposure. Local iron accumulation thereby represents the major pathogenesis, followed by oxidative DNA strand breaks and genomic alterations in the mesothelium. BRCA1 is a critical component of homologous recombination repair directed to DNA double-strand breaks. Whereas BRCA1 germline mutation is an established risk for breast/ovarian cancer, its role in MM development remains to be elucidated. Murine Brca1 mutant models thus far have not reproduced human phenotypes. However, a rat Brca1 mutant model (Mut; L63X/+) recently reproduced them at least partially. Here we describe the differential induction of MM in Brca1 mutant rats by intraperitoneal injection of chrysotile or crocidolite. Only Mut males injected with chrysotile revealed a promotional effect on mesothelial carcinogenesis in comparison to wild-type and/or females, with all the MMs Brca1-haploinsufficient. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization of MMs disclosed a greater extent of chromosomal deletions in Brca1 mutants, including Cdkn2a/2b accompanied by Tfr2 amplification, in comparison to wild-type tumors. Mutant MMs indicated iron metabolism dysregulation, such as increase in catalytic Fe(II) and Ki67-index as well as decrease in Fe(III) and ferritin expression. Simultaneously, mutant MMs revealed ferroptosis-resistance by upregulation of Slc7A11 and Gpx4. At an early carcinogenic stage of 4 weeks, induced Brca1 expression in mesothelial cells was significantly suppressed in chrysotile/Mut in comparison to crocidolite/Mut whereas significant preference to iron with decrease in Fe(III) has been already established. In conclusion, chrysotile exposure can be a higher risk for MM in BRCA1 mutant males, considering the rat results.

RevDate: 2022-12-16

Gazzano E, Petriglieri JR, Aldieri E, et al (2022)

Cytotoxicity of fibrous antigorite from New Caledonia.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)02373-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Exposure to asbestos and asbestos-like minerals has been related to the development of severe lung diseases, including cancer and malignant mesothelioma (MM). A high incidence of non-occupational MM was observed in New Caledonia (France) in people living in proximity of serpentinite outcrops, containing chrysotile and fibrous antigorite. Antigorite is a magnesium silicate, which shares with chrysotile asbestos the chemical formula. To achieve information on antigorite toxicity, we investigated the physico-minero-chemical features relevant for toxicity and cellular effects elicited on murine macrophages (MH-S) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549) of three fibrous antigorites (f-Atg) collected in a Caledonian nickel lateritic ore and subjected to supergene alteration. Field Atg were milled to obtain samples suitable for toxicological studies with a similar particle size distribution. UICC chrysotile (Ctl) and a non-fibrous antigorite (nf-Atg) were used as reference minerals. A high variability in toxicity was observed depending on shape, chemical alteration, and surface reactivity. The antigorites shared with Ctl a similar surface area (16.3, 12.1, 20.3, 13.4, and 15.6 m[2]/g for f-Atg1, 2, 3, nf-Atg, and Ctl). f-Atg showed different level of pedogenetic weathering (Ni depletion f-Atg1 ≪ f-Atg2 and 3) and contained about 50% of elongated mineral particles, some of which exhibited high aspect ratios (AR > 10 μm, 20%, 26%, 31% for f-Atg1, 2, and 3, respectively). The minerals differed in bio-accessible iron at pH 4.5 (f-Atg1 ≪ f-Atg3, < f-Atg2, nf-Atg < Ctl), and surface reactivity (ROS release in solution, f-Atg1 ≪ f-Atg2, 3, nf-Atg, and Ctl). f-Atg2 and f-Atg3 induced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory responses, while the less altered, poorly reactive sample (f-Atg1) induced negligible effects, as well nf-Atg. The slow dissolution kinetics observed in simulated body fluids may signal a high biopersistence. Overall, our work revealed a significative cellular toxicity of f-Atg that correlates with fibrous habit and surface reactivity.

RevDate: 2022-12-15

Klotz LV, Hoffmann H, Shah R, et al (2022)

Multimodal therapy of epithelioid pleural mesothelioma: improved survival by changing the surgical treatment approach.

Translational lung cancer research, 11(11):2230-2242.

BACKGROUND: The exact role and type of surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains controversial. This study aimed at analyzing a 20-year single center perioperative experience in MPM surgery at our high-volume thoracic surgery center and comparing the overall survival after trimodal extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) and extended pleurectomy and decortication combined with hyperthermic intrathoracic chemoperfusion (EPD/HITOC) and adjuvant chemotherapy with that after chemotherapy (CTx) alone.

METHODS: Patients with epithelioid MPM treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, EPP and adjuvant radiotherapy within a trimodal concept or EPD/HITOC in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy between 2001 and 2018 were included in this retrospective analysis. Surgical cohorts were compared to patients treated with standard chemotherapy.

RESULTS: Overall, 182 patients (69 EPP, 57 EPD/HITOC, 56 CTx) were analyzed. Due to occupational exposure to asbestos for most of the patients, 154 patients (84.6%) were male. The patients in the surgical cohorts were significantly younger than those in the CTx cohort. There was no significant difference between the proportion of patient age and side. The median overall survival of the EPD/HITOC cohort with 38.1 months was significantly longer than that of the EPP and CTx cohorts (24.0 and 15.8 months). Better survival was significantly associated with an ECOG 0 performance status, age below 70 years, and negative lymph node status. In the multivariate analysis, EPD/HITOC was significantly associated with improved overall survival. Perioperative morbidity was lower in the EPD/HITOC group than in the EPP cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: EPD/HITOC is feasible and safe for localized epithelioid pleural mesothelioma. Changing the surgical approach to a less radical lung-sparing technique may improve overall survival compared to trimodal EPP.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Guglielmucci F, Bonafede M, Azzolina D, et al (2022)

Preliminary validation of a brief PROM assessing psychological distress in patients with malignant mesothelioma: The mesothelioma psychological distress tool-Patients.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:974982.

OBJECTIVE: Psychological suffering in malignant mesothelioma (MM) differs from that in other cancers because of its occupational etiology, and we aimed to develop specific patient-reported outcome measures to assess it.

METHODS: We used a multi-method prospective observational multicentric study (N = 149), and a preliminary questionnaire validation was performed through a Bayesian approach.

RESULTS: Item analysis showed a good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach alpha = 0.79 [95% CI = 0.74-0.93]. Twenty of the 41 initial items were selected as posterior 95% highest density interval factor loading standardized effect size fell outside of the region of practical equivalence. Bayesian exploratory factor analysis showed a two-factor structure: (1) Trauma-related reactions (TR, 13 items) and (2) Claim for justice (CJ, 7 items), confirmed by the Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis. Latent factors were poorly correlated (Posterior median: 0.13; 95% CI = -0.079 to 0.323). The 90% root mean square error of approximation posterior median was 0.04 [90% CI = 0.03-0.58]; the 90% chi-square posterior median was 242 [90% CI = 209-287].

CONCLUSION: Psychological suffering in MM patients implies negative cognitive, emotional, and somatic reactions related to the traumatic impact of the disease and the need to obtain justice through economic compensation. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that the Mesothelioma Psychological Distress Tool-Patients could be a promising and reliable instrument to assess MM patients' psychological distress.

RevDate: 2022-12-11

Munson P, A Shukla (2022)

Potential Roles of Exosomes in the Development and Detection of Malignant Mesothelioma: An Update.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(23): pii:ijms232315438.

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a devastating cancer of mesothelial cells, caused by asbestos exposure. Limited knowledge regarding the detection of asbestos exposure and the early diagnosis of MM, as well as a lack of successful treatment options for this deadly cancer, project an immediate need to understand the mechanism(s) of MM development. With the recent discovery of nano-vesicles, namely exosomes, and their enormous potential to contain signature molecules representative of different diseases, as well as to communicate with distant targets, we were encouraged to explore their role(s) in MM biology. In this review, we summarize what we know so far about exosomes and MM based on our own studies and on published literature from other groups in the field. We expect that the information contained in this review will help advance the field of MM forward by revealing the mechanisms of MM development and survival. Based on this knowledge, future therapeutic strategies for MM can potentially be developed. We also hope that the outcome of our studies presented here may help in the detection of MM.

RevDate: 2022-12-11

Huh DA, Chae WR, Choi YH, et al (2022)

Disease Latency according to Asbestos Exposure Characteristics among Malignant Mesothelioma and Asbestos-Related Lung Cancer Cases in South Korea.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(23): pii:ijerph192315934.

Korea was one of the major consumers of asbestos in the late 1900s, and asbestos-related disease patients have been reported continuously to date, owing to long disease latency. Several studies have been conducted to predict the future incidence of malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in Korea, but little is understood about the latency time. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the latency period of malignant mesothelioma and asbestos-related lung cancer in Korea and its determinants. We obtained information from the Environmental Health Centers for Asbestos in Korea on the history of asbestos exposure and demographic characteristics of 1933 patients with malignant mesothelioma and asbestos-related lung cancer. In our study, the latency periods for malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer were 33.7 and 40.1 years, respectively. Regardless of the disease type, those with a history of exposure related to the production of asbestos-containing products or asbestos factories had the shortest latency period. In addition, we observed that those who worked in or lived near asbestos mines tended to have a relatively long disease latency. Smoking was associated with shorter latency, but no linear relationship between the lifetime smoking amount (expressed in pack years) and latent time was observed. In addition, the age of initial exposure showed a negative linear association with the latency period for mesothelioma and lung cancer.

RevDate: 2022-12-07

Ferrari L, Iodice S, Cantone L, et al (2022)

Identification of a new potential plasmatic biomarker panel for the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

La Medicina del lavoro, 113(6):e2022052.

BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare highly aggressive tumor strongly associated with asbestos exposure and characterized by poor prognosis. Currently, diagnosis is based on invasive techniques, thus there is a need of identifying non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of the disease among asbestos-exposed subjects. In the present study, we measured the plasmatic concentrations of Mesothelin, Fibulin-3, and HMGB1 protein biomarkers, and of hsa-miR-30e-3p and hsa-miR-103a-3p Extracellular-Vesicles- embedded micro RNAs (EV-miRNAs). We tested the ability of these biomarkers to discriminate between MPM and PAE subjects alone and in combination.

METHODS: the study was conducted on a population of 26 patients with MPM and 54 healthy subjects with previous asbestos exposure (PAE). Mesothelin, Fibulin-3, and HMGB1 protein biomarkers were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique; the levels of hsa-miR-30e-3p and hsa-miR-103a-3p EV-miRNAs was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR).

RESULTS: the most discriminating single biomarker resulted to be Fibulin-3 (AUC 0.94 CI 95% 0.88-1.0; Sensitivity 88%; Specificity 87%). After investigating the different possible combinations, the best performance was obtained by the three protein biomarkers Mesothelin, Fibulin-3, and HMGB1 (AUC 0.99 CI 95% 0.97-1.0; Sensitivity 96%; Specificity 93%).

CONCLUSIONS: the results obtained contribute to identifying new potential non-invasive biomarkers for the early diagnosis of MPM in high-risk asbestos-exposed subjects. Further studies are needed to validate the evidence obtained, in order to assess the reliability of the proposed biomarker panel.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Graham PT, Nowak AK, Cornwall SMJ, et al (2022)

The STING agonist, DMXAA, reduces tumor vessels and enhances mesothelioma tumor antigen presentation yet blunts cytotoxic T cell function in a murine model.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:969678.

We assessed the murine Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) agonist, DMXAA, for anti-mesothelioma potential using the AE17-sOVA model that expresses ovalbumin (OVA) as a neo tumor antigen. Dose response experiments alongside testing different routes of administration identified a safe effective treatment regimen that induced 100% cures in mice with small or large tumors. Three doses of 25mg/kg DMXAA given intra-tumorally every 9 days induced tumor regression and long-term survival (>5 months). Re-challenge experiments showed that tumor-free mice developed protective memory. MTT and propidium-iodide assays showed that DMXAA exerted direct cytotoxic effects at doses >1mg/ml on the murine AE17 and AB1 mesothelioma cell lines. In-vivo studies using a CFSE-based in-vivo proliferation assay showed that DMXAA improved tumor-antigen presentation in tumor-draining lymph nodes, evidenced by OVA-specific OT-1 T cells undergoing more divisions. An in-vivo cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) assay showed that DMXAA blunted the lytic quality of CTLs recognizing the dominant (SIINFEKL) and a subdominant (KVVRFDKL) OVA epitopes. DMXAA reduced tumor vessel size in-vivo and although the proportion of T cells infiltrating tumors reduced, the proportion of tumor-specific T cells increased. These data show careful dosing and treatment protocols reduce mesothelioma cell viability and modulate tumor vessels such that tumor-antigen specific CTLs access the tumor site. However, attempts to enhance DMXAA-induced anti-tumor responses by combination with an agonist anti-CD40 antibody or IL-2 reduced efficacy. These proof-of-concept data suggest that mesothelioma patients could benefit from treatment with a STING agonist, but combination with immunotherapy should be cautiously undertaken.

RevDate: 2022-12-06

Patel JP, Brook MS, Kah M, et al (2022)

Global geological occurrence and character of the carcinogenic zeolite mineral, erionite: A review.

Frontiers in chemistry, 10:1066565.

As with the six regulated asbestos minerals (chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite), the zeolite mineral, erionite, can exhibit a fibrous morphology. When fibrous erionite is aerosolized and inhaled, it has been linked to cases of lung cancers, such as malignant mesothelioma. Importantly, fibrous erionite appears to be more carcinogenic than the six regulated asbestos minerals. The first health issues regarding erionite exposure were reported in Cappadocia (Turkey), and more recently, occupational exposure issues have emerged in the United States. Erionite is now classified as a Group 1 carcinogen. Thus, identifying the geological occurrence of erionite is a prudent step in determining possible exposure pathways, but a global review of the geological occurrence of erionite is currently lacking. Here, we provide a review of the >100 global locations where erionite has been reported, including: 1) geological setting of host rocks; 2) paragenetic sequence of erionite formation, including associated zeolite minerals; 3) fiber morphological properties and erionite mineral series (i.e., Ca, K, Na); and 4) a brief overview of the techniques that have been used to identify and characterize erionite. Accordingly, erionite has been found to commonly occur within two major rock types: felsic and mafic. Within felsic rocks (in particular, tuffaceous layers within lacustrine paleoenvironments), erionite is disseminated through the layer as a cementing matrix. In contrast, within mafic (i.e., basaltic) rocks, erionite is typically found within vesicles. Nevertheless, aside from detailed studies in Italy and the United States, there is a paucity of specific information on erionite geological provenance or fiber morphology. The latter issue is a significant drawback given its impact on erionite toxicity. Future erionite studies should aim to provide more detailed information, including variables such as rock type and lithological properties, quantitative geochemistry, and fiber morphology.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Handra CM, Chirila M, Smarandescu RA, et al (2022)

Near Missed Case of Occupational Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma, a Case Report and Latest Therapeutic Options.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(22): pii:ijerph192214763.

Asbestos use started to be gradually banned in Europe from 1991 onwards, and there are currently strict occupational exposure limits for asbestos. However, malignant mesothelioma has a long latency time (in some cases up to 50-60 years), so the risks related to asbestos exposure should not be forgotten. Considering the increased risk of lung cancer following the inhalation of asbestos fibers, lifetime health monitoring should be considered in people occupationally exposed to asbestos, with an emphasis on the respiratory system. An assessment of their occupational history should be performed rigorously, especially in the areas with a history of asbestos production/use, as this is a key element for an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. This case report presents a near-missed case of occupational pleural malignant mesothelioma. The latency time between the first asbestos exposure and the diagnosis of occupational pleural malignant mesothelioma was 49 years. The accurate diagnosis was made two years after the first symptoms appeared.

RevDate: 2022-11-25

Keam S, MacKinnon KM, D'Alonzo RA, et al (2022)

Effects of Photon Radiation on DNA Damage, Cell Proliferation, Cell Survival, and Apoptosis of Murine and Human Mesothelioma Cell Lines.

Advances in radiation oncology, 7(6):101013.

PURPOSE: To characterize the cellular responses of murine and human mesothelioma cell lines to different doses of photon radiation with a long-term aim of optimizing a clinically relevant in vivo model in which to study the interaction of radiation therapy and immunotherapy combinations.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two murine mesothelioma cell lines (AB1 and AE17) and 3 human cell lines (BYE, MC, and JU) were used in the study. Cells were treated with increasing doses of photon radiation. DNA damage, DNA repair, cell proliferation, and apoptosis at different time points after irradiation were quantified by flow cytometry, and cell survival probability was examined using clonogenic survival assay.

RESULTS: DNA damage increased with escalating dose in all cell lines. Evident G2/M arrest and reduced cell proliferation were observed after irradiation with 8 Gy. DNA repair was uniformly less efficient at higher compared with lower radiation-fraction doses. The apoptosis dose response varied between cell lines, with greater apoptosis observed at 16 Gy with human BYE and murine AB1 cell lines but less for other studied cell lines, regardless of dose and time. The α/β ratio from the cell survival fraction of human mesothelioma cell lines was smaller than from murine ones, suggesting human cell lines in our study were more sensitive to a change of dose per fraction than were murine mesothelioma cell lines. However, in all studied cell lines, colony formation was completely inhibited at 8 Gy.

CONCLUSIONS: A threshold dose of 8 Gy appeared to be appropriate for hypofractionated radiation therapy. However, the radiation therapy doses between 4 and 8 Gy remain to be systematically analyzed. These observations provide an accurate picture of the in vitro response of mesothelioma cell lines to photon irradiation and characterize the heterogeneity between human and murine cell lines. This information may guide in vivo experiments and the strengths and limitations of extrapolation from murine experimentation to potential human translation.

RevDate: 2022-11-25

Yabuuchi Y, Hiroshima K, Oshima H, et al (2022)

Usefulness of malignant pleural effusion for early cytological diagnosis of mesothelioma in situ: A case report.

Oncology letters, 24(6):440.

Mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is defined as a preinvasive mesothelioma that forms a single layer of mild atypical mesothelial cells lining on the serosa surface of pleura. The atypical mesothelial cells present loss of BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP-1) and/or methylthioadenosine phosphorylase as examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or homozygous deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/p16 as examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. It is difficult to diagnose because of the unremarkable clinical findings except for pleural effusion. The present report describes a case in which MIS was diagnosed at the time of sampling due to the presence of clearly malignant mesothelial cells in the pleural fluid. In 2016, a 74-year-old man with a history of past exposure to asbestos was admitted to Ibaraki Higashi National Hospital (Tokai-mura, Japan) with dyspnea. Chest CT indicated only right pleural effusion. Malignant mesothelial cells were suspected in a cell block made using pleural effusion; therefore, right pleural biopsy was performed. Pathologically, there was proliferation of mesothelial cells with mild atypia that formed a single-flat layer on the pleural surface; however, there was no invasion. Furthermore, IHC revealed loss of BAP-1 in cells from the biopsied pleura and pleural effusion. MIS was suspected at the time; however, the patient arbitrarily quit his medical check-ups. After 44 months, the patient was readmitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea. CT indicated a large right pleural mass. A specimen of the mass obtained via CT-guided needle biopsy revealed malignant mesothelioma. The patient continued to deteriorate and eventually died. This case indicated that pleural effusion could be used to demonstrate overtly malignant mesothelial cells and diagnose MIS at the time of sampling. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report of MIS with overtly malignant mesothelial cells in pleural effusion. Pleural effusion may serve an important role in MIS diagnosis.

RevDate: 2022-11-23

Walter M, Schenkeveld WDC, Tomatis M, et al (2022)

The Potential Contribution of Hexavalent Chromium to the Carcinogenicity of Chrysotile Asbestos.

Chemical research in toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

Chrysotile asbestos is a carcinogenic mineral that has abundantly been used in industrial and consumer applications. The carcinogenicity of the fibers is partly governed by reactive Fe surface sites that catalyze the generation of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals (HO[•]) from extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Chrysotile also contains Cr, typically in the low mass permille range. In this study, we examined the leaching of Cr from fibers at the physiological lung pH of 7.4 in the presence and absence of H2O2. Furthermore, we investigated the potential of cells from typical asbestos-burdened tissues and cancers to take up Cr leached from chrysotile in PCR expression, immunoblot, and cellular Cr uptake experiments. Finally, the contribution of Cr to fiber-mediated H2O2 decomposition and HO[•] generation was studied. Chromium readily dissolved from chrysotile fibers in its genotoxic and carcinogenic hexavalent redox state upon oxidation by H2O2. Lung epithelial, mesothelial, lung carcinoma, and mesothelioma cells expressed membrane-bound Cr(VI) transporters and accumulated Cr up to 10-fold relative to the Cr(VI) concentration in the spiked medium. Conversely, anion transporter inhibitors decreased cellular Cr(VI) uptake up to 45-fold. Finally, chromium associated with chrysotile neither decomposed H2O2 nor contributed to fiber-mediated HO[•] generation. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that Cr may leach from inhaled chrysotile in its hexavalent state and subsequently accumulate in cells of typically asbestos-burdened tissues, which could contribute to the carcinogenicity of chrysotile fibers. However, unlike Fe, Cr did not significantly contribute to the adverse radical production of chrysotile.

RevDate: 2022-11-18

Chang F, Keam S, Hoang TS, et al (2022)

Immune marker expression of irradiated mesothelioma cell lines.

Frontiers in oncology, 12:1020493.

BACKGROUND: Though immune checkpoint inhibition has recently shown encouraging clinical efficacy in mesothelioma, most patients do not respond. Combining immune checkpoint inhibition with radiotherapy presents an attractive option for improving treatment responses owing to the various immunomodulatory effects of radiation on tumors. However, the ideal dosing and scheduling of combined treatment remains elusive, as it is poorly studied in mesothelioma. The present study characterizes the dose- and time-dependent changes to expression of various immune markers and cytokines important to antitumor responses following irradiation of mesothelioma cell lines.

METHODS: Two murine (AB1, AE17) and two human (BYE, JU77) mesothelioma cell lines were treated with titrated gamma-radiation doses (1-8 Gy) and the expression of MHC class-I, MHC class-II and PD-L1 was measured over a series of post-irradiation timepoints (1-72 hours) by flow cytometry. Levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IL-23, IL-27, MCP-1, IFN-β, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and GM-CSF were measured by multiplex immunoassay in murine cell lines following 8 Gy radiation.

RESULTS: Following irradiation, a dose-dependent upregulation of MHC-I and PD-L1 was observed on three of the four cell lines studied to varying extents. For all cell lines, the increase in marker expression was most pronounced 72 hours after radiation. At this timepoint, increases in levels of cytokines IFN-β, MCP-1 and IL-6 were observed following irradiation with 8 Gy in AB1 but not AE17, reflecting patterns in marker expression.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study establishes the dose- and time-dependent changes in immune marker expression of commonly studied mesothelioma cell lines following radiation and will inform future study into optimal dosing and scheduling of combined radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibition for mesothelioma.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Crovella S, Moura RR, Brandão L, et al (2022)

Variant Enrichment Analysis to Explore Pathways Disruption in a Necropsy Series of Asbestos-Exposed Shipyard Workers.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(21):.

The variant enrichment analysis (VEA), a recently developed bioinformatic workflow, has been shown to be a valuable tool for whole-exome sequencing data analysis, allowing finding differences between the number of genetic variants in a given pathway compared to a reference dataset. In a previous study, using VEA, we identified different pathway signatures associated with the development of pulmonary toxicities in mesothelioma patients treated with radical hemithoracic radiation therapy. Here, we used VEA to discover novel pathways altered in individuals exposed to asbestos who developed or not asbestos-related diseases (lung cancer or mesothelioma). A population-based autopsy study was designed in which asbestos exposure was evaluated and quantitated by investigating objective signs of exposure. We selected patients with similar exposure to asbestos. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues were used as a source of DNA and whole-exome sequencing analysis was performed, running VEA to identify potentially disrupted pathways in individuals who developed thoracic cancers induced by asbestos exposure. By using VEA analysis, we confirmed the involvement of pathways considered as the main culprits for asbestos-induced carcinogenesis: oxidative stress and chromosome instability. Furthermore, we identified protective genetic assets preserving genome stability and susceptibility assets predisposing to a worst outcome.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Paajanen J, Bueno R, A De Rienzo (2022)

The Rocky Road from Preclinical Findings to Successful Targeted Therapy in Pleural Mesothelioma.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(21):.

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is a rare and aggressive disease that arises from the mesothelial cells lining the pleural cavity. Approximately 80% of PM patients have a history of asbestos exposure. The long latency period of 20-40 years from the time of asbestos exposure to diagnosis, suggests that multiple somatic genetic alterations are required for the tumorigenesis of PM. The genomic landscape of PM has been characterized by inter- and intratumor heterogeneity associated with the impairment of tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN2A, NF2, and BAP1. Current systemic therapies have shown only limited efficacy, and none is approved for patients with relapsed PM. Advances in understanding of the molecular landscape of PM has facilitated several biomarker-driven clinical trials but so far, no predictive biomarkers for targeted therapies are in clinical use. Recent advances in the PM genetics have provided optimism for successful molecular strategies in the future. Here, we summarize the molecular mechanism underlying PM pathogenesis and review potential therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2022-11-17
CmpDate: 2022-11-14

Vorster T, Mthombeni J, teWaterNaude J, et al (2022)

The Association between the Histological Subtypes of Mesothelioma and Asbestos Exposure Characteristics.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(21):.

Asbestos mining operations have left South Africa with a legacy of asbestos contamination and asbestos-related diseases continue to be a problem. The large-scale mining of three types of asbestos presents a unique opportunity to study malignant mesothelioma of the pleura (mesothelioma) in South Africa. This study aimed to describe the demographics of deceased individuals diagnosed with mesothelioma and explore any associations between the histological morphology of mesothelioma and asbestos characteristics. We reviewed the records of all deceased miners and ex-miners from the Pathology Automation System (PATHAUT) database of the National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) that were histologically diagnosed with mesothelioma in the period from January 2006-December 2016 (11 years). The study population does not include all cases of mesothelioma in South Africa but rather those that reached the compensation system. Crocidolite asbestos fibres were identified in the majority of mesothelioma cases (n = 140; 53.4%). The epithelioid subtype was most commonly present in both occupational and environmental cases. Cases with the sarcomatous subtype were older at death and fewer female cases were diagnosed with this subtype. No relationship between mesothelioma subtype and asbestos type or asbestos burden or fibre size was established.

RevDate: 2022-11-10

Azzolina D, Consonni D, Ferrante D, et al (2022)

Rate advancement measurement for lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma in asbestos-exposed workers.

Thorax pii:thorax-2021-217862 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to asbestos increases the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma. Few studies quantified the premature occurrence of these diseases in asbestos-exposed workers. Focus on premature disease onset (rate advancement or acceleration) can be useful in risk communication and for the evaluation of exposure impact. We estimated rate advancement for total mortality, lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma deaths, by classes of cumulative asbestos exposure in a pooled cohort of asbestos cement (AC) workers in Italy.

METHOD: The cohort study included 12 578 workers from 21 cohorts, with 6626 deaths in total, 858 deaths from lung cancer and 394 from pleural malignant neoplasm (MN). Rate advancement was estimated by fitting a competitive mortality Weibull model to the hazard of death over time since first exposure (TSFE).

RESULT: Acceleration time (AT) was estimated at different TSFE values. The highest level of cumulative exposure compared with the lowest, for pleural MN AT was 16.9 (95% CI 14.9 to 19.2) and 33.8 (95% CI 29.8 to 38.4) years at TSFE of 20 and 40 years, respectively. For lung cancer, it was 13.3 (95% CI 12.0 to 14.7) and 26.6 (95% CI 23.9 to 29.4) years, respectively. As for total mortality, AT was 3.35 (95% CI 2.98 to 3.71) years at 20 years TSFE, and 6.70 (95% CI 5.95 to 7.41) at 40 years TSFE.

CONCLUSION: The current study observed marked rate advancement after asbestos exposure for lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma, as well as for total mortality.

RevDate: 2022-11-10

Kadariya Y, Sementino E, Shrestha U, et al (2022)

Inflammation as a chemoprevention target in asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma.

Carcinogenesis pii:6820973 [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an incurable cancer of the serosal lining that is often caused by exposure to asbestos. Therefore, novel agents for the prevention and treatment of this disease are urgently needed. Asbestos induces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6, which play a role in MM development. IL-6 is a component of the JAK-STAT3 pathway that contributes to inflammation-associated tumorigenesis. Glycoprotein 130 (gp130), the signal transducer of this signaling axis, is an attractive drug target because of its role in promoting neoplasia via the activation of downstream STAT3 signaling. The anticancer drug, SC144, inhibits the interaction of gp130 with the IL-6 receptor (IL6R), effectively blunting signaling from this inflammatory axis. To test whether the inflammation-related release of IL-6 plays a role in the formation of MM, we evaluated the ability of SC144 to inhibit asbestos-induced carcinogenesis in a mouse model. The ability of sulindac and anakinra, an IL6R antagonist/positive control, to inhibit MM formation in this model were tested in parallel. Asbestos-exposed Nf2 +/-;Cdkn2a +/- mice treated with SC144, sulindac, or anakinra showed significantly prolonged survival compared to asbestos-exposed vehicle-treated mice. STAT3 activity was markedly decreased in MM specimens from SC144-treated mice. Furthermore, SC144 inhibited STAT3 activation by IL-6 in cultured normal mesothelial cells, and in vitro treatment of MM cells with SC144 markedly decreased the expression of STAT3 target genes. The emerging availability of newer, more potent SC144 analogs showing improved pharmacokinetic properties holds promise for future trials, benefitting individuals at high risk of this disease.

RevDate: 2022-11-10
CmpDate: 2022-11-10

Fassio F, Bussa M, Oddone E, et al (2022)

Health status of petrochemical workers: a narrative review.

Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia, 44(1):51-58.

Professional exposure to benzene has been extensively investigated by occupational medicine, leading to strict regulation of exposure threshold values. However, the petrochemical industry utilizes many chemical substances, whose exposure, without effective control and mitigation actions, could influence the health status over time. The aim of this narrative review is to describe health status of petrochemical workers related to occupational exposures, inquiring literature from 1980 to present. We used the PubMed and Web of Science search engines. As regards non-neoplastic diseases, despite heterogeneous prevalence estimates, we could say that standardized mortality rate (SMR) for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes does not increase overall, compared to reference populations; a possible explanation may be the "healthy worker effect". Attention should be paid to color disperception and respiratory symptoms, due to toxic or irritating substances exposure. Studies concerning neoplastic pathology have mainly investigated mortality outcomes, finding no increase in cancer, except for melanoma or other skin cancers and leukemia. As regards the former, however, it is not excluded that other risk factors may contribute (e.g. UV rays in offshore workers), while for leukemia, only the most recent studies have analyzed various subtypes of hematopoietic tumors, highlighting a possible risk for the development of myelodysplastic syndrome. The risk of pleural mesothelioma was also increased, likely due to asbestos exposures, while the risk of death from prostate cancer remains controversial.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Ge T, Phung AL, Jhala G, et al (2022)

Diabetes induced by checkpoint inhibition in nonobese diabetic mice can be prevented or reversed by a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor.

Clinical & translational immunology, 11(11):e1425.

OBJECTIVES: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have achieved clinical success in cancer treatment, but this treatment causes immune-related adverse events, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our aim was to test whether a JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, effective at treating spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, can prevent diabetes secondary to PD-L1 blockade.

METHODS: Anti-PD-L1 antibody was injected into NOD mice to induce diabetes, and JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor LN3103801 was administered by oral gavage to prevent diabetes. Flow cytometry was used to study T cells and beta cells. Mesothelioma cells were inoculated into BALB/c mice to induce a transplantable tumour model.

RESULTS: Anti-PD-L1-induced diabetes was associated with increased immune cell infiltration in the islets and upregulated MHC class I on islet cells. Anti-PD-L1 administration significantly increased islet T cell proliferation and islet-specific CD8[+] T cell numbers in peripheral lymphoid organs. JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor treatment blocked IFNγ-mediated MHC class I upregulation on beta cells and T cell proliferation mediated by cytokines that use the common γ chain receptor. As a result, anti-PD-L1-induced diabetes was prevented by JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor administered before or after checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Diabetes was also reversed when the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor was administered after the onset of anti-PD-L1-induced hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor intervention after checkpoint inhibitors did not reverse or abrogate the antitumour effects in a transplantable tumour model.

CONCLUSION: A JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor can prevent and reverse anti-PD-L1-induced diabetes by blocking IFNγ and γc cytokine activities. Our study provides preclinical validation of JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor use in checkpoint inhibitor-induced diabetes.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Caporali S, Butera A, I Amelio (2022)

BAP1 in cancer: epigenetic stability and genome integrity.

Discover. Oncology, 13(1):117.

Mutations in BAP1 have been identified in a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome and in sporadic tumours. Individuals carrying familiar BAP1 monoallelic mutations display hypersusceptibility to exposure-associated cancers, such as asbestos-driven mesothelioma, thus BAP1 status has been postulated to participate in gene-environment interaction. Intriguingly, BAP1 functions display also a high degree of tissue dependency, associated to a peculiar cancer spectrum and cell types of specific functions. Mechanistically, BAP1 functions as an ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase (UCH) and controls regulatory ubiquitination of histones as well as degradative ubiquitination of a range of protein substrates. In this article we provide an overview of the most relevant findings on BAP1, underpinning its tissue specific tumour suppressor function. We also discuss the importance of its epigenetic role versus the control of protein stability in the regulation of genomic integrity.

RevDate: 2022-11-30

Allione A, Viberti C, Cotellessa I, et al (2022)

Blood cell DNA methylation biomarkers in preclinical malignant pleural mesothelioma: The EPIC prospective cohort.

International journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive cancer mainly caused by asbestos exposure. Specific and sensitive noninvasive biomarkers may facilitate and enhance screening programs for the early detection of cancer. We investigated DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in MPM prediagnostic blood samples in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort, aiming to characterise DNAm biomarkers associated with MPM. From the EPIC cohort, we included samples from 135 participants who developed MPM during 20 years of follow-up and from 135 matched, cancer-free, controls. For the discovery phase we selected EPIC participants who developed MPM within 5 years from enrolment (n = 36) with matched controls. We identified nine differentially methylated CpGs, selected by 10-fold cross-validation and correlation analyses: cg25755428 (MRI1), cg20389709 (KLF11), cg23870316, cg13862711 (LHX6), cg06417478 (HOOK2), cg00667948, cg01879420 (AMD1), cg25317025 (RPL17) and cg06205333 (RAP1A). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the model including baseline characteristics (age, sex and PC1wbc) along with the nine MPM-related CpGs has a better predictive value for MPM occurrence than the baseline model alone, maintaining some performance also at more than 5 years before diagnosis (area under the curve [AUC] < 5 years = 0.89; AUC 5-10 years = 0.80; AUC >10 years = 0.75; baseline AUC range = 0.63-0.67). DNAm changes as noninvasive biomarkers in prediagnostic blood samples of MPM cases were investigated for the first time. Their application can improve the identification of asbestos-exposed individuals at higher MPM risk to possibly adopt more intensive monitoring for early disease identification.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Lam SK, Yan S, Lam JS, et al (2022)

Disturbance of the Warburg effect by dichloroacetate and niclosamide suppresses the growth of different sub-types of malignant pleural mesothelioma in vitro and in vivo.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:1020343.

Background: Inhalation of asbestos fibers is the most common cause of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved a combination of cisplatin with pemetrexed to treat unresectable MPM. Nonetheless novel treatment is urgently needed. The objective of this study is to report the combination effect of dichloroacetate (DCA) or niclosamide (Nic) Nic in MPM. Materials and methods: The effect of a combination of DCA and Nic was studied using a panel of MPM cell lines (H28, MSTO-211H, H226, H2052, and H2452). Cell viability was monitored by MTT assay. Glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, glucose, glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, citrate, succinate and ATP levels were determined by corresponding ELISA. Apoptosis, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cell cycle analysis, hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were investigated by flow cytometry. Cell migration and colony formation were investigated by transwell migration and colony formation assays respectively. The in vivo effect was confirmed using 211H and H226 nude mice xenograft models. Results and conclusion: Cell viability was reduced. Disturbance of glycolysis and/or oxidative phosphorylation resulted in downregulation of glycogen, citrate and succinate. DCA and/or Nic increased apoptosis, mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization, G2/M arrest and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, DCA and/or Nic suppressed cell migration and colony formation. Furthermore, a better initial tumor suppressive effect was induced by the DCA/Nic combination compared with either drug alone in both 211H and H226 xenograft models. In H226 xenografts, DCA/Nic increased median survival of mice compared with single treatment. Single drug and/or a combination disturbed the Warburg effect and activated apoptosis, and inhibition of migration and proliferation in vivo. In conclusion, dichloroacetate and/or niclosamide showed a tumor suppressive effect in MPM in vitro and in vivo, partially mediated by disturbance of glycolysis/oxidative phosphorylation, apoptosis, ROS production, G2/M arrest, and suppression of migration and proliferation.

RevDate: 2022-10-30
CmpDate: 2022-10-28

Chernova T, Grosso S, Sun XM, et al (2022)

Extracellular Vesicles Isolated from Malignant Mesothelioma Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Induce Pro-Oncogenic Changes in Healthy Mesothelial Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(20):.

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of the pleura (MPM) or peritoneum with a clinical presentation at an advanced stage of the disease. Current therapies only marginally improve survival and there is an urgent need to identify new treatments. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent the main component of a vast stroma within MPM and play an important role in the tumour microenvironment. The influence of CAFs on cancer progression, aggressiveness and metastasis is well understood; however, the role of CAF-derived extracellular vesicles (CAF-EVs) in the promotion of tumour development and invasiveness is underexplored. We purified CAF-EVs from MPM-associated cells and healthy dermal human fibroblasts and examined their effect on cell proliferation and motility. The data show that exposure of healthy mesothelial cells to EVs derived from CAFs, but not from normal dermal human fibroblasts (NDHF) resulted in activating pro-oncogenic signalling pathways and increased proliferation and motility. Consistent with its role in suppressing Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) activation (which in MPM is a result of Hippo pathway inactivation), treatment with Simvastatin ameliorated the pro-oncogenic effects instigated by CAF-EVs by mechanisms involving both a reduction in EV number and changes in EV cargo. Collectively, these data determine the significance of CAF-derived EVs in mesothelioma development and progression and suggest new targets in cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2022-11-16
CmpDate: 2022-10-27

Mangone L, Storchi C, Pinto C, et al (2022)

Incidence of malignant mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

La Medicina del lavoro, 113(5):e2022047.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and asbestos exposure in an Italian region in the period 1996-June 2021.

METHODS: The study included cases with microscopic confirmation and those with instrumental confirmation. For each case, information on sex, age, tumour site, morphology and date of diagnosis was collected, along with details of exposure to asbestos.

RESULTS: 3,097 cases of MM (2,233 males and 864 females) were registered: 90.8% with microscopic confirmation. A total of 2,840 cases involved the pleura (92%), 230 cases the peritoneum (7%), and a small number of cases the pericardium and testis (9 and 18, respectively). Most cases (78.0%) occurred after 65 years of age, while only 1.5% concerned individuals with age < 45 years. The standardized incidence rate for the entire period (adjusted to the 2000 Italian standard population and calculated per 100,000 person-years) was equal to 3.9 in males and 1.4 in females, and the trend showed an increase with age in both sexes. Concerning asbestos exposure, 79.7% of cases were exposed (86.7% males and 60.1% females). In 70.3%, exposure was occupational (83.4% males and 33.2% females), while 20.7% of females and 0.8% of males had familial exposure. Building construction, rolling stock manufacture/repair and metalworking were the most prevalent economic activities associated with occupational exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: This study offers an overview of MM in an Italian region characterized by high incidence and high exposure due to its particular production activities.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Quigley N, Lang-Lazdunski L, Boily-Daoust C, et al (2022)

An unusual isolated anterior mediastinal lesion.

Respirology case reports, 10(11):e01059.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an infrequent tumour of poor prognosis with a strong association with asbestos exposure. Pleural effusion or thickening is the most common radiological finding. Thoracoscopic biopsy is the diagnostic modality of choice. In our report, we present the case of a career welder who consulted with vocal cord palsy and an atypical anterior mediastinal lesion. An EBUS-TBNA-guided biopsy and a thorough cytological assessment led to an unexpected diagnosis of epithelioid MPM. A localized anterior mediastinal lesion is an extremely infrequent presentation of MPM that deserves clinical recognition.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-10-18

Jiménez-Ramírez C, Gilbert Weber D, Aguilar-Madrid G, et al (2022)

Assessment of miR-103a-3p in leukocytes-No diagnostic benefit in combination with the blood-based biomarkers mesothelin and calretinin for malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis.

PloS one, 17(10):e0275936.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a cancer associated with asbestos exposure and its diagnosis is challenging due to the moderate sensitivities of the available methods. In this regard, miR-103a-3p was considered to increase the sensitivity of established biomarkers to detect MPM. Its behavior and diagnostic value in the Mexican population has not been previously evaluated. In 108 confirmed MPM cases and 218 controls, almost all formerly exposed to asbestos, we quantified miR-103-3a-3p levels in leukocytes using quantitative Real-Time PCR, together with mesothelin and calretinin measured in plasma by ELISA. Sensitivity and specificity of miR-103-3a-3p alone and in combination with mesothelin and calretinin were determined. Bivariate analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman correlation. Non-conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate the area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for the combination of biomarkers. Mesothelin and calretinin levels were higher among cases, remaining as well among males and participants ≤60 years old (only mesothelin). Significant differences for miR-103a-3p were observed between male cases and controls, whereas significant differences between cases and controls for mesothelin and calretinin were observed in men and women. At 95.5% specificity the individual sensitivity of miR-103a-3p was 4.4% in men, whereas the sensitivity of mesothelin and calretinin was 72.2% and 80.9%, respectively. Positive correlations for miR-103a-3p were observed with age, environmental asbestos exposure, years with diabetes mellitus, and glucose levels, while negative correlations were observed with years of occupational asbestos exposure, creatinine, erythrocytes, direct bilirubin, and leukocytes. The addition of miR-103a-3p to mesothelin and calretinin did not increase the diagnostic performance for MPM diagnosis. However, miR-103a-3p levels were correlated with several characteristics in the Mexican population.

RevDate: 2022-10-19
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Gesmundo I, Pedrolli F, Vitale N, et al (2022)

Antagonist of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Potentiates the Antitumor Effect of Pemetrexed and Cisplatin in Pleural Mesothelioma.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(19):.

Pleural mesothelioma (PM) is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis and no effective therapies, mainly caused by exposure to asbestos. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) display strong antitumor effects in many experimental cancers, including lung cancer and mesothelioma. Here, we aimed to determine whether GHRH antagonist MIA-690 potentiates the antitumor effect of cisplatin and pemetrexed in PM. In vitro, MIA-690, in combination with cisplatin and pemetrexed, synergistically reduced cell viability, restrained cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis, compared with drugs alone. In vivo, the same combination resulted in a strong growth inhibition of MSTO-211H xenografts, decreased tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Mechanistically, MIA-690, particularly with chemotherapeutic drugs, inhibited proliferative and oncogenic pathways, such as MAPK ERK1/2 and cMyc, and downregulated cyclin D1 and B1 mRNAs. Inflammatory pathways such as NF-kB and STAT3 were also reduced, as well as oxidative, angiogenic and tumorigenic markers (iNOS, COX-2, MMP2, MMP9 and HMGB1) and growth factors (VEGF and IGF-1). Overall, these findings strongly suggest that GHRH antagonists of MIA class, such as MIA-690, could increase the efficacy of standard therapy in PM.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Johnson B, Zhuang L, Rath EM, et al (2022)

Exploring MicroRNA and Exosome Involvement in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Drug Response.

Cancers, 14(19):.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly thoracic malignancy and existing treatment options are limited. Chemotherapy remains the most widely used first-line treatment regimen for patients with unresectable MPM, but is hampered by drug resistance issues. The current study demonstrated a modest enhancement of MPM cell sensitivity to chemotherapy drug treatment following microRNA (miRNA) transfection in MPM cell lines, albeit not for all tested miRNAs. This effect was more pronounced for FAK (PND-1186) small molecule inhibitor treatment; consistent with previously published data. We previously established that MPM response to survivin (YM155) small molecule inhibitor treatment is unrelated to basal survivin expression. Here, we showed that MPM response to YM155 treatment is enhanced following miRNA transfection of YM155-resistant MPM cells. We determined that YM155-resistant MPM cells secrete a higher level of exosomes in comparison to YM155-sensitive MPM cells. Despite this, an exosome inhibitor (GW4896) did not enhance MPM cell sensitivity to YM155. Additionally, our study showed no evidence of a correlation between the mRNA expression of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) gene family members and MPM cell sensitivity to YM155. However, two drug transporter genes, ABCA6 and ABCA10, were upregulated in the MPM cell lines and correlated with poor sensitivity to YM155.

RevDate: 2022-12-06
CmpDate: 2022-12-06

Hariharan A, Qi W, Rehrauer H, et al (2022)

Heterogeneous RNA editing and influence of ADAR2 on mesothelioma chemoresistance and the tumor microenvironment.

Molecular oncology, 16(22):3949-3974.

We previously observed increased levels of adenosine-deaminase-acting-on-dsRNA (Adar)-dependent RNA editing during mesothelioma development in mice exposed to asbestos. The aim of this study was to characterize and assess the role of ADAR-dependent RNA editing in mesothelioma. We found that tumors and mesothelioma primary cultures have higher ADAR-mediated RNA editing compared to mesothelial cells. Unsupervised clustering of editing in different genomic regions revealed heterogeneity between tumor samples as well as mesothelioma primary cultures. ADAR2 expression levels are higher in BRCA1-associated protein 1 wild-type tumors, with corresponding changes in RNA editing in transcripts and 3'UTR. ADAR2 knockdown and rescue models indicated a role in cell proliferation, altered cell cycle, increased sensitivity to antifolate treatment, and type-1 interferon signaling upregulation, leading to changes in the microenvironment in vivo. Our data indicate that RNA editing contributes to mesothelioma heterogeneity and highlights an important role of ADAR2 not only in growth regulation in mesothelioma but also in chemotherapy response, in addition to regulating inflammatory response downstream of sensing nucleic acid structures.

RevDate: 2022-10-27
CmpDate: 2022-10-27

Gualtieri AF (2023)

Journey to the centre of the lung. The perspective of a mineralogist on the carcinogenic effects of mineral fibres in the lungs.

Journal of hazardous materials, 442:130077.

This work reviews the bio-chemical mechanisms leading to adverse effects produced when mineral fibres are inhaled and transported in the lungs from the perspective of a mineralogist. The behaviour of three known carcinogenic mineral fibres (crocidolite, chrysotile, and fibrous-asbestiform erionite) during their journey through the upper respiratory tract, the deep respiratory tract and the pleural cavity is discussed. These three fibres have been selected as they are the most socially and economically relevant mineral fibres representative of the classes of chain silicates (amphiboles), layer silicates (serpentine), and framework silicates (zeolites), respectively. Comparison of the behaviour of these fibres is made according to their specific crystal-chemical assemblages and properties. Known biological and subsequent pathologic effects which lead and contribute to carcinogenesis are critically reviewed under the mineralogical perspective and in relation to recent progress in this multidisciplinary field of research. Special attention is given to the understanding of the cause-effect relationships for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. Comparison with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, or "asbestosis", will also be made here. This overview highlights open issues, data gaps, and conflicts in the literature for these topics, especially as regards relative potencies of the three mineral fibres under consideration for lung cancer and mesothelioma. Finally, an attempt is made to identify future research lines suitable for a general comprehensive model of the carcinogenicity of mineral fibres.

RevDate: 2022-10-04

Kazi M, Vispute T, Shah P, et al (2022)

Localized gastric mesothelioma with nodal metastasis-an exceptionally rare entity.

Indian journal of surgical oncology, 13(3):612-615.

Localized mesothelioma is a rare disease with very few reports of presentation in visceral organs. We report a case of localized gastric mesothelioma with lymph node metastasis in a 32-year-old man without asbestos exposure. A failed attempt at resection was made before presentation at another center. He was given perioperative chemotherapy that was followed by a D2 radical subtotal gastrectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Histopathology showed epithelioid mesothelioma with nodal metastasis but without visceral peritoneal involvement. Cytoreductive surgery and regional chemotherapy are standard in diffuse mesothelioma. Management of localized mesothelioma is anecdotal; however aggressive surgery plays a central role with selective use of perioperative chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2022-10-04
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Cimen F, Agackiran Y, Düzgün S, et al (2022)

Factors affecting the life expectancy in malignant pleural mesothelioma: Our 10 years of studies and experience.

Medicine, 101(39):e30711.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. In our study, we aimed to investigate the specific clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of the tumor and the prognostic effect of SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) according to PET/CT (positron emission tomography). Demographic, therapeutic, clinical, and survival information of patients diagnosed with histologically-validated pleural mesothelioma in our hospital between January 2010 to December 2019 will be retrospectively scanned from the hospital records. A total of 116 patients, 61 men (52.6%), and 55 women (47.4%), were analyzed. Thirty five patients (30.2%) were over the age of 65. Percentage of patients over 65 years of age, neutrophil count, and PET SUV Max values, asbestos exposure and pleural thickening rate were significantly higher in the deceased patients' group than in the living patients' group (P = .042, P = .039, P = .002, P = .004, P = .037). T stage (tumor stage), N stage (lymph nodes stage), metastasis stage, and Grade distribution were significantly higher in the deceased patients' group than in the living patients' group (P < .000, P < .000, P = .003, P < .000). The rates of chemotherapy and surgical treatment, right lung location, and epithelioid pathology were significantly lower in the deceased patients' group compared to the living patients' group (P = .016, P = .030, P = .018, P = .008). The mean follow-up time was 13 months. Key determinants of survival in MPM include age, male gender, neutrophil increase, pleural thickening, high PET SUV max values, stage, histological type, asbestos exposure, and treatment regimen.

RevDate: 2022-10-06
CmpDate: 2022-10-03

Wang X, Katz S, Miura J, et al (2022)

A single-center retrospective cohort study of perioperative systemic chemotherapy in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

PloS one, 17(9):e0275187.

BACKGROUND: Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) is a rare variant of malignant mesothelioma, representing 10-15% of malignant mesothelioma cases. The preferred therapeutic approach is cytoreductive surgery (CRS) accompanied by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC); the role of systemic chemotherapy is not well established. While some limited retrospective studies report worse outcomes with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, our institution has favored the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for symptom relief and surgical optimization. The aim of our study was to assess the outcomes of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, compared to those receiving adjuvant or no perioperative chemotherapy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of treatment-naïve, non-papillary DMPM patients seen at our institution between 1/1/2009 and 9/1/2019. We explored the effect of type of systemic therapy on clinical outcomes and estimated median overall survival (mOS) using Kaplan-Meier curves. Hazard ratios (HR) calculated by Cox proportional hazard model were used to estimate effect of the exposures on overall survival.

RESULTS: 47 patients were identified with DMPM (median age at diagnosis 61.2 years, 76.6% epithelioid histology, 74.5% white race, 55.3% known asbestos exposure). CRS was performed in 53.2% of patients (25/47); 76.0% of surgical patients received HIPEC (19/25). The majority received systemic chemotherapy (37/47, 78.7%); among patients receiving both CRS and chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was more common than adjuvant chemotherapy (12 neoadjuvant, 8 adjuvant). Overall mOS was 84.1 months. Among neoadjuvant patients, 10/12 underwent surgery, and 2 were lost to follow-up; the majority (9/10) had clinically stable or improved disease during the pre-operative period. There were numerical more issues with chemotherapy with the adjuvant patients (4/8: 2 switches in platinum agent, 2 patients stopped therapy) than with the neoadjuvant patients (2/10: 1 switch in platinum agent, 1 delay due to peri-procedural symptoms). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with worse mOS compared to adjuvant chemotherapy (mOS NR vs 95.1 mo, HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.18-4.5, p = 0.89).

CONCLUSIONS: When used preferentially, the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in DMPM patients was not associated with worse outcomes compared to adjuvant chemotherapy. It was well-tolerated and did not prevent surgical intervention.

RevDate: 2022-10-17
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Han Y, Zhang T, Chen H, et al (2022)

Global magnitude and temporal trend of mesothelioma burden along with the contribution of occupational asbestos exposure in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 179:103821.

Understanding the burden of mesothelioma with the contribution of occupational asbestos exposure globally provides essential foundations for cancer control, policy decisions and resource allocation. Globally, 34,511 incident cases, 29,251 deaths and 668,104 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of mesothelioma were estimated in 2019. The age-standardized rates of incidence, mortality and DALYs all showed a slightly declining trend over the past 30 years, but the latest absolute number of mesothelioma burden almost doubled since 1990. The burden rate decreased among the population aged under 70 years, but increased among the population aged over 80 years, especially in the High socio-demographic index (SDI) region. The burden rate of mesothelioma attributable to asbestos exposure was positively associated with SDI at the national level. This study depicted a continuous increase in mesothelioma burden globally over the past 30 years. Controlling occupational asbestos exposure will reduce the mesothelioma burden, especially for higher SDI regions.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Golka K, Böthig R, Weistenhöfer W, et al (2022)

[Occupation-related cancer in urology-Current knowledge including environmental medical aspects].

Urologie (Heidelberg, Germany), 61(11):1198-1207.

Occupation-related cancers are of considerable importance, which is not yet adequately recognized in the field of urology. The three numerically most significant entities are tumors of the urinary tract caused by carcinogenic aromatic amines or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, renal cell cancer after high exposure to the solvent trichloroethylene, and mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis of the testis after exposure to asbestos; however, these can only be recognized as occupation-related if an occupational history regarding the hazard relevant to the organ bearing the tumor is documented from the beginning of employment, e.g. by a questionnaire. This is because the relevant exposures generally date back several decades. With the exception of high exposure to trichloroethylene, the substances mentioned can also environmentally trigger the same tumors. In the context of environmental risk factors, it is of considerable importance that smoking is now considered to be a trigger for some 50% of all bladder cancers in men and women; however, smoking cessation results in a reduction in smoking-related cancer risk of over 30% after only 3-4 years. Work and commuting accidents, which are considered occupational risks, can lead to urological sequelae. For example, increased tumors of the bladder can occur after spinal cord injury lasting longer than 10 years.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Algranti E, Santana VS, Campos F, et al (2022)

Analysis of Mortality from Asbestos-Related Diseases in Brazil Using Multiple Health Information Systems, 1996-2017.

Safety and health at work, 13(3):302-307.

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, asbestos was intensively used from the 1960s until its ban in 2017. Mesothelioma, asbestosis, and pleural plaques are typical asbestos-related diseases (ARD-T). To create an ARD-T national database, death records from 1996-2017 were retrieved from several health information systems (HIS).

METHODS: All national HIS containing coded diagnoses (ICD-10) and death information were obtained. Linkage was performed to create a single database of ARD-T death records, either as underlying or contributory causes, in adults aged 30 years and older.

RESULTS: A total of 3,057 ARD-T death records were found, 2,405 (76.4%) of which being malignant mesotheliomas (MM). Pleural MM (n = 1,006; 41.8%) and unspecified MM (n = 792; 32.9%) prevailed. Male to female MM ratio (M:F) was 1.4:1, and higher ratios were found for non-malignant ARD-T: 3.5:1 for asbestosis and 2.4:1 for pleural plaques. Male crude annual mesothelioma mortality (CMmm x1,000,000) was 0.98 in 1996 and 2.26 in 2017, a 131.1% increment, while for females it was 1.04 and 1.25, a 20.2% increase, correspondingly. The small number of deaths with asbestosis and pleural plaques records precluded conclusive interpretations.

CONCLUSIONS: Even with the linkage of several HIS, ARD-T in death records remained in low numbers. MM mortality in men was higher and showed a rapid increase and, along with non-malignant ARD-T, higher M:F ratios suggested a predominant pattern of work-related exposure. The monitoring of workplace and environmental asbestos exposure needs to be improved, as well as the workers surveillance, following the recent Brazilian ban.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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