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26 Jan 2022 at 01:35
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Bibliography on: Mitochondrial Evolution


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Jan 2022 at 01:35 Created: 

Mitochondrial Evolution

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Created with PubMed® Query: mitochondria AND evolution NOT 26799652[PMID] NOT 33634751[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-01-20

Tsai CY, Chiou SJ, Ko HJ, et al (2022)

Deciphering the evolution of composite-type GSKIP in mitochondria and Wnt signaling pathways.

PloS one, 17(1):e0262138 pii:PONE-D-21-20264.

We previously revealed the origin of mammalian simple-type glycogen synthase kinase interaction protein (GSKIP), which served as a scavenger and a competitor in the Wnt signaling pathway during evolution. In this study, we investigated the conserved and nonconserved regions of the composite-type GSKIP by utilizing bioinformatics tools, site-directed mutagenesis, and yeast two-hybrid methods. The regions were denoted as the pre-GSK3β binding site, which is located at the front of GSK3β-binding sites. Our data demonstrated that clustered mitochondria protein 1 (CLU1), a type of composite-type GSKIP that exists in the mitochondria of all eukaryotic organisms, possesses the protein known as domain of unknown function 727 (DUF727), with a pre-GSK3β-binding site and a mutant GSK3β-binding flanking region. Another type of composite-type GSKIP, armadillo repeat containing 4 (ARMC4), which is known for cilium movement in vertebrates, contains an unintegrated DUF727 flanking region with a pre-GSK3β-binding site (115SPxF118) only. In addition, the sequence of the GSK3β-binding site in CLU1 revealed that Q126L and V130L were not conserved, differing from the ideal GSK3β-binding sequence of simple-type GSKIP. We further illustrated two exceptions, namely 70 kilodalton heat shock proteins (Hsp70/DnaK) and Mitofilin in nematodes, that presented an unexpected ideal GSK3β-binding region with a pre-GSK3β sequence; this composite-type GSKIP could only occur in vertebrate species. Furthermore, we revealed the importance of the pre-GSK3β-binding site (118F or 118Y) and various mutant GSK3β-binding sites of composite-type GSKIP. Collectively, our data suggest that the new composite-type GSKIP starts with a DUF727 domain followed by a pre-GSK3β-binding site, with the subsequent addition of the GSK3β-binding site, which plays vital roles for CLU1, Mitofilin, and ARMC4 in mitochondria and Wnt signaling pathways during evolution.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Picca A, Guerra F, Calvani R, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Protein Misfolding and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease: Roads to Biomarker Discovery.

Biomolecules, 11(10):.

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease among older adults. PD neuropathology is marked by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the widespread accumulation of misfolded intracellular α-synuclein (α-syn). Genetic mutations and post-translational modifications, such as α-syn phosphorylation, have been identified among the multiple factors supporting α-syn accrual during PD. A decline in the clearance capacity of the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosomal systems, together with mitochondrial dysfunction, have been indicated as major pathophysiological mechanisms of PD neurodegeneration. The accrual of misfolded α-syn aggregates into soluble oligomers, and the generation of insoluble fibrils composing the core of intraneuronal Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites observed during PD neurodegeneration, are ignited by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS activate the α-syn aggregation cascade and, together with the Lewy bodies, promote neurodegeneration. However, the molecular pathways underlying the dynamic evolution of PD remain undeciphered. These gaps in knowledge, together with the clinical heterogeneity of PD, have hampered the identification of the biomarkers that may be used to assist in diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognostication. Herein, we illustrate the main pathways involved in PD pathogenesis and discuss their possible exploitation for biomarker discovery.

RevDate: 2022-01-17

Zhang H, Qin J, Lan X, et al (2022)

Handelin extends lifespan and healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans by reducing ROS generation and improving motor function.

Biogerontology [Epub ahead of print].

Aging and aging-related disorders contribute to formidable socioeconomic and healthcare challenges. Several promising small molecules have been identified to target conserved genetic pathways delaying aging to extend lifespan and healthspan in many organisms. We previously found that extract from an edible and medicinal plant Chrysanthemum indicum L. (C. indicum L.) protect skin from UVB-induced photoaging, partially by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Thus, we hypothesized that C. indicum L. and its biological active compound may extend lifespan and health span in vivo. We find that both water and ethanol extracts from C. indicum L. extended lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans, with better biological effect on life extending for ethanol extracts. As one of the major biological active compounds, handelin extended lifespan of C. elegans too. RNA-seq analysis revealed overall gene expression change of C. elegans post stimulation of handelin focus on several antioxidative proteins. Handelin significantly reduced ROS level and maintained the number and morphology of mitochondria. Moreover, handelin improveed many C. elegans behaviors related to healthspan, including increased pharyngeal pumping and body movement. Muscle fiber imaging analyses revealed that handelin maintains muscle architecture by stabilizing myofilaments. In conclusion, our present study finds a novel compound handelin, from C. indicum L., which bring about biologically beneficial effects by mild stress response, termed as hormetin, that can extend both lifespan and healthspan in vivo on C. elegans. Further study on mammal animal model of natural aging or sarcopenia will verify the potential clinical value of handelin.

RevDate: 2022-01-18
CmpDate: 2022-01-18

Han KL, FS Barreto (2021)

Pervasive Mitonuclear Coadaptation Underlies Fast Development in Interpopulation Hybrids of a Marine Crustacean.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(3):.

Cellular energy production requires coordinated interactions between genetic components from the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. This coordination results in coadaptation of interacting elements within populations. Interbreeding between divergent gene pools can disrupt coadapted loci and result in hybrid fitness breakdown. While specific incompatible loci have been detected in multiple eukaryotic taxa, the extent of the nuclear genome that is influenced by mitonuclear coadaptation is not clear in any species. Here, we used F2 hybrids between two divergent populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus to examine mitonuclear coadaptation across the nuclear genome. Using developmental rate as a measure of fitness, we found that fast-developing copepods had higher ATP synthesis capacity than slow developers, suggesting variation in developmental rates is at least partly associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Using Pool-seq, we detected strong biases for maternal alleles across 7 (of 12) chromosomes in both reciprocal crosses in high-fitness hybrids, whereas low-fitness hybrids showed shifts toward the paternal population. Comparison with previous results on a different hybrid cross revealed largely different patterns of strong mitonuclear coadaptation associated with developmental rate. Our findings suggest that functional coadaptation between interacting nuclear and mitochondrial components is reflected in strong polygenic effects on this life-history phenotype, and reveal that molecular coadaptation follows independent evolutionary trajectories among isolated populations.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Muñoz-Gómez SA, Susko E, Williamson K, et al (2022)

Site-and-branch-heterogeneous analyses of an expanded dataset favour mitochondria as sister to known Alphaproteobacteria.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Determining the phylogenetic origin of mitochondria is key to understanding the ancestral mitochondrial symbiosis and its role in eukaryogenesis. However, the precise evolutionary relationship between mitochondria and their closest bacterial relatives remains hotly debated. The reasons include pervasive phylogenetic artefacts as well as limited protein and taxon sampling. Here we developed a new model of protein evolution that accommodates both across-site and across-branch compositional heterogeneity. We applied this site-and-branch-heterogeneous model (MAM60 + GFmix) to a considerably expanded dataset that comprises 108 mitochondrial proteins of alphaproteobacterial origin, and novel metagenome-assembled genomes from microbial mats, microbialites and sediments. The MAM60 + GFmix model fits the data much better and agrees with analyses of compositionally homogenized datasets with conventional site-heterogenous models. The consilience of evidence thus suggests that mitochondria are sister to the Alphaproteobacteria to the exclusion of MarineProteo1 and Magnetococcia. We also show that the ancestral presence of the crista-developing mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (a mitofilin-domain-containing Mic60 protein) in mitochondria and the Alphaproteobacteria only supports their close relationship.

RevDate: 2022-01-13

Uzarska MA, Grochowina I, Soldek J, et al (2022)

During FeS-cluster biogenesis ferredoxin and frataxin use overlapping bindings sites on yeast cysteine desulfurase Nfs1.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(22)00010-2 [Epub ahead of print].

In mitochondria cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1) plays a central role in the biosynthesis of iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters, cofactors critical for activity of many cellular proteins. Nfs1 functions both as a sulfur donor for cluster assembly and as a binding platform for other proteins functioning in the process. These include, not only the dedicated scaffold protein (Isu1) on which FeS clusters are synthesized, but also but also accessory FeS cluster biogenesis proteins frataxin (Yfh1) and ferredoxin (Yah1). Yfh1 has been shown to activates cysteine desulfurase enzymatic activity, while Yah1 supplies electrons for the persulfide reduction. While Yfh1 interaction with Nfs1 is well understood, the Yah1-Nfs1 interaction is not. Here, based on the results of biochemical experiments involving purified wild-type and variant proteins, we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yah1 and Yfh1 share an evolutionary conserved interaction site on Nfs1. Consistent with this notion, Yah1 and Yfh1 can each displace the other from Nfs1, but are inefficient competitors when a variant with an altered interaction site is used. Thus, the binding mode of Yah1 and Yfh1 interacting with Nfs1 in mitochondria of S. cerevisiae resembles the mutually exclusive binding of ferredoxin and frataxin with cysteine desulfurase reported for the bacterial FeS cluster assembly system. Our findings are consistent with the generally accepted scenario that the mitochondrial FeS cluster assembly system was inherited from bacterial ancestors of mitochondria.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

De Gaetano A, Solodka K, Zanini G, et al (2021)

Molecular Mechanisms of mtDNA-Mediated Inflammation.

Cells, 10(11):.

Besides their role in cell metabolism, mitochondria display many other functions. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the own genome of the organelle, plays an important role in modulating the inflammatory immune response. When released from the mitochondrion to the cytosol, mtDNA is recognized by cGAS, a cGAMP which activates a pathway leading to enhanced expression of type I interferons, and by NLRP3 inflammasome, which promotes the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1beta and Interleukin-18. Furthermore, mtDNA can be bound by Toll-like receptor 9 in the endosome and activate a pathway that ultimately leads to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. mtDNA is released in the extracellular space in different forms (free DNA, protein-bound DNA fragments) either as free circulating molecules or encapsulated in extracellular vesicles. In this review, we discussed the latest findings concerning the molecular mechanisms that regulate the release of mtDNA from mitochondria, and the mechanisms that connect mtDNA misplacement to the activation of inflammation in different pathophysiological conditions.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Huang F, Ye X, Wang Z, et al (2021)

The prohibitins (PHB) gene family in tomato: Bioinformatic identification and expression analysis under abiotic and phytohormone stresses.

GM crops & food, 12(1):535-550.

The prohibitins (PHB) are SPFH domain-containing proteins found in the prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The plant PHBs are associated with a wide range of biological processes, including senescence, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The PHB proteins are identified and characterized in the number of plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice, maize, and soybean. However, no systematic identification of PHB proteins was performed in Solanum lycopersicum. In this study, we identified 16 PHB proteins in the tomato genome. The analysis of conserved motifs and gene structure validated the phylogenetic classification of tomato PHB proteins. It was observed that various members of tomato PHB proteins undergo purifying selection based on the Ka/Ks ratio and are targeted by four families of miRNAs. Moreover, SlPHB proteins displayed a very unique expression pattern in different plant parts including fruits at various development stages. It was found that SlPHBs processed various development-related and phytohormone responsive cis-regulatory elements in their promoter regions. Furthermore, the exogenous phytohormones treatments (Abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, methyl jasmonate) salt and drought stresses induce the expression of SlPHB. Moreover, the subcellular localization assay revealed that SlPHB5 and SlPHB10 were located in the mitochondria. This study systematically summarized the general characterization of SlPHBs in the tomato genome and provides a foundation for the functional characterization of PHB genes in tomato and other plant species.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Liu Y, Li Q, Gu M, et al (2022)

A Second Near-Infrared Ru(II) Polypyridyl Complex for Synergistic Chemo-Photothermal Therapy.

Journal of medicinal chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The clinical success of cisplatin ushered in a new era of the application of metallodrugs. When it comes to practice, however, drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and drug systemic toxicity make it implausible to completely heal the patients. Herein, we successfully transform an electron acceptor [1, 2, 5]thiadiazolo[3,4-g]quinoxaline into a novel second near-infrared (NIR-II) fluorophore H7. After PEGylation and chelation, HL-PEG2k exhibits a wavelength bathochromic shift, enhanced photothermal conversion efficiency (41.77%), and an antineoplastic effect against glioma. Its potential for in vivo tumor tracking and image-guided chemo-photothermal therapy is explored. High levels of uptake and high-resolution NIR-II imaging results are thereafter obtained. The hyperthermia effect could disrupt the lysosomal membranes, which in turn aggravate the mitochondria dysfunction, arrest the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and finally lead to cancer cell apoptosis. HL-PEG2k displays a superior biocompatibility and thus can be a potential theranostic platform to combat the growth and recurrence of tumors.

RevDate: 2022-01-05
CmpDate: 2022-01-05

Allouche J, Rachmin I, Adhikari K, et al (2021)

NNT mediates redox-dependent pigmentation via a UVB- and MITF-independent mechanism.

Cell, 184(16):4268-4283.e20.

Ultraviolet (UV) light and incompletely understood genetic and epigenetic variations determine skin color. Here we describe an UV- and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF)-independent mechanism of skin pigmentation. Targeting the mitochondrial redox-regulating enzyme nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) resulted in cellular redox changes that affect tyrosinase degradation. These changes regulate melanosome maturation and, consequently, eumelanin levels and pigmentation. Topical application of small-molecule inhibitors yielded skin darkening in human skin, and mice with decreased NNT function displayed increased pigmentation. Additionally, genetic modification of NNT in zebrafish alters melanocytic pigmentation. Analysis of four diverse human cohorts revealed significant associations of skin color, tanning, and sun protection use with various single-nucleotide polymorphisms within NNT. NNT levels were independent of UVB irradiation and redox modulation. Individuals with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation or lentigines displayed decreased skin NNT levels, suggesting an NNT-driven, redox-dependent pigmentation mechanism that can be targeted with NNT-modifying topical drugs for medical and cosmetic purposes.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Valdés-Aguayo JJ, Garza-Veloz I, Vargas-Rodríguez JR, et al (2021)

Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Levels Were Modulated by SARS-CoV-2 Infection Severity and Its Lessening Was Associated With Mortality Among Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:754708.

Introduction: During severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the virus hijacks the mitochondria causing damage of its membrane and release of mt-DNA into the circulation which can trigger innate immunity and generate an inflammatory state. In this study, we explored the importance of peripheral blood mt-DNA as an early predictor of evolution in patients with COVID-19 and to evaluate the association between the concentration of mt-DNA and the severity of the disease and the patient's outcome.

Methods: A total 102 patients (51 COVID-19 cases and 51 controls) were included in the study. mt-DNA obtained from peripheral blood was quantified by qRT-PCR using the NADH mitochondrial gene.

Results: There were differences in peripheral blood mt-DNA between patients with COVID-19 (4.25 ng/μl ± 0.30) and controls (3.3 ng/μl ± 0.16) (p = 0.007). Lower mt-DNA concentrations were observed in patients with severe COVID-19 when compared with mild (p= 0.005) and moderate (p= 0.011) cases of COVID-19. In comparison with patients with severe COVID-19 who survived (3.74 ± 0.26 ng/μl) decreased levels of mt-DNA in patients with severe COVID-19 who died (2.4 ± 0.65 ng/μl) were also observed (p = 0.037).

Conclusion: High levels of mt-DNA were associated with COVID-19 and its decrease could be used as a potential biomarker to establish a prognosis of severity and mortality of patients with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-01-01

Irwin NAT, Pittis AA, Richards TA, et al (2021)

Systematic evaluation of horizontal gene transfer between eukaryotes and viruses.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Gene exchange between viruses and their hosts acts as a key facilitator of horizontal gene transfer and is hypothesized to be a major driver of evolutionary change. Our understanding of this process comes primarily from bacteria and phage co-evolution, but the mode and functional importance of gene transfers between eukaryotes and their viruses remain anecdotal. Here we systematically characterized viral-eukaryotic gene exchange across eukaryotic and viral diversity, identifying thousands of transfers and revealing their frequency, taxonomic distribution and projected functions. Eukaryote-derived viral genes, abundant in the Nucleocytoviricota, highlighted common strategies for viral host-manipulation, including metabolic reprogramming, proteolytic degradation and extracellular modification. Furthermore, viral-derived eukaryotic genes implicate genetic exchange in the early evolution and diversification of eukaryotes, particularly through viral-derived glycosyltransferases, which have impacted structures as diverse as algal cell walls, trypanosome mitochondria and animal tissues. These findings illuminate the nature of viral-eukaryotic gene exchange and its impact on the evolution of viruses and their eukaryotic hosts.

RevDate: 2022-01-03
CmpDate: 2022-01-03

Vowinckel J, Hartl J, Marx H, et al (2021)

The metabolic growth limitations of petite cells lacking the mitochondrial genome.

Nature metabolism, 3(11):1521-1535.

Eukaryotic cells can survive the loss of their mitochondrial genome, but consequently suffer from severe growth defects. 'Petite yeasts', characterized by mitochondrial genome loss, are instrumental for studying mitochondrial function and physiology. However, the molecular cause of their reduced growth rate remains an open question. Here we show that petite cells suffer from an insufficient capacity to synthesize glutamate, glutamine, leucine and arginine, negatively impacting their growth. Using a combination of molecular genetics and omics approaches, we demonstrate the evolution of fast growth overcomes these amino acid deficiencies, by alleviating a perturbation in mitochondrial iron metabolism and by restoring a defect in the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, caused by aconitase inhibition. Our results hence explain the slow growth of mitochondrial genome-deficient cells with a partial auxotrophy in four amino acids that results from distorted iron metabolism and an inhibited tricarboxylic acid cycle.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Lima-Silva LF, Lee J, PM Moraes-Vieira (2022)

Soluble Carrier Transporters and Mitochondria in the Immunometabolic Regulation of Macrophages.

Antioxidants & redox signaling [Epub ahead of print].

Significance: Immunometabolic regulation of macrophages is a growing area of research across many fields. Here, we review the contribution of solute carriers (SLCs) in regulating macrophage metabolism. We also highlight key mechanisms that regulate SLC function, their effects on mitochondrial activity, and how these intracellular activities contribute to macrophage fitness in health and disease. Recent Advances: SLCs serve as a major drug absorption pathway and represent a novel category of therapeutic drug targets. SLC dynamics affect cellular nutritional sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, and consequently alter the cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics within macrophages to adapt to a new functional phenotype. Critical Issues: SLC function affects macrophage phenotype, but their mechanisms of action and how their functions contribute to host health remain incompletely defined. Future Directions: Few studies focus on the impact of solute transporters on macrophage function. Identifying which SLCs are present in macrophages and determining their functional roles may reveal novel therapeutic targets with which to treat metabolic and inflammatory diseases.

RevDate: 2022-01-04
CmpDate: 2022-01-04

Ruíz-Rivero O, Garcia-Lor A, Rojas-Panadero B, et al (2021)

Insights into the origin of the invasive populations of Trioza erytreae in Europe using microsatellite markers and mtDNA barcoding approaches.

Scientific reports, 11(1):18651.

The African citrus psyllid Trioza erytreae is one of the major threats to citrus industry as the vector of the incurable disease known as huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening. The psyllid invaded the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula 6 years ago. The invasion alarmed citrus growers in the Mediterranean basin, the largest citrus producing area in Europe, which is still free of HLB. Before our study, no research had been carried out on the genetic diversity of T. erytreae populations that have invaded the Iberian Peninsula and the archipelagos of the Macaronesia (Madeira and the Canary Islands). In this study, combining microsatellites markers and mtDNA barcoding analysis, we characterize the genetic diversity, structure and maternal relationship of these new invasive populations of T. erytreae and those from Africa. Our results suggest that the outbreaks of T. erytreae in the Iberian Peninsula may have derived from the Canary Islands. The populations of T. erytreae that invaded Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula are likely to have originated from southern Africa. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for tracking the spread of this invasive pest outside of Africa and to be important for optimizing contingency and eradication plans in newly invaded and free areas.

RevDate: 2021-12-30
CmpDate: 2021-12-30

Wang T, He T, Ding X, et al (2021)

Confirmation of GmPPR576 as a fertility restorer gene of cytoplasmic male sterility in soybean.

Journal of experimental botany, 72(22):7729-7742.

In soybean, heterosis achieved through the three-line system has been gradually applied in breeding to increase yield, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We conducted a genetic analysis using the pollen fertility of offspring of the cross NJCMS1A×NJCMS1C. All the pollen of F1 plants was semi-sterile; in F2, the ratio of pollen-fertile plants to pollen-semi-sterile plants was 208:189. This result indicates that NJCMS1A is gametophyte sterile, and the fertility restoration of NJCMS1C to NJCMS1A is a quality trait controlled by a single gene locus. Using bulked segregant analysis, the fertility restorer gene Rf in NJCMS1C was located on chromosome 16 between the markers BARCSOYSSR_16_1067 and BARCSOYSSR_16_1078. Sequence analysis of genes in that region showed that GmPPR576 was non-functional in rf cultivars. GmPPR576 has one functional allele in Rf cultivars but three non-functional alleles in rf cultivars. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the GmPPR576 locus evolved rapidly with the presence of male-sterile cytoplasm. GmPPR576 belongs to the RFL fertility restorer gene family and is targeted to the mitochondria. GmPPR576 was knocked out in soybean N8855 using CRISPR/Cas9. The T1 plants showed sterile pollen, and T2 plants produced few pods at maturity. The results indicate that GmPPR576 is the fertility restorer gene of NJCMS1A.

RevDate: 2021-12-30
CmpDate: 2021-12-30

Riyaz M, Shah RA, Savarimuthu I, et al (2021)

Comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of Eudocima salaminia (Cramer, 1777) (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea), novel gene rearrangement and phylogenetic relationship within the superfamily Noctuoidea.

Molecular biology reports, 48(5):4449-4463.

The species Eudocima salaminia (Cramer, 1777) commonly known as the fruit-piercing moth belongs to family Erebidae. Its distribution varies from India and across South-east Asia, pacific islands and parts of Australia. The insect is a devastating pest of citrus, longans and lychees. In the present study, complete mitochondrial genome of Eudocima salaminia was sequenced and analyzed using Illumina sequencer. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed based on nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs using Maximum likelihood method-General Reversible mitochondrial (mtREV) model. The mitogenome has 15,597 base pairs (bp) in length, comprising of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and A + T-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with canonical start codon ATN. The gene order (trnQ-trnI-trnM) of tRNA shows a different rearrangement compared to ancestral insect gene order (trnI-trnQ-trnM). Almost all tRNAs have a typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine arm. At the beginning of the control region, we observed a conserved polyT", motif "ATTTA" and microsatellite (TA)n element. There are 21 intergenic regions and five overlapping regions ranging from 1 to 73 bp and 1 to 8 bp, respectively. The phylogenetic relationships based on nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs using Maximum likelihood method showed the family level relationships as (Notodontidae + (Euteliidae + Noctuidae + (Erebidae + Nolidae))). The present study represents the similarity to phylogenetic analysis of Noctuoidea mitogenome. Moreover, the family Erebidae is the sister to the families of (Euteliidae + Noctuidae + Nolidae).

RevDate: 2021-12-29

Rand DM, Mossman JA, Spierer AN, et al (2021)

Mitochondria as environments for the nuclear genome in Drosophila: mitonuclear G×G×E.

The Journal of heredity pii:6489023 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondria evolved from a union of microbial cells belonging to distinct lineages that were likely anaerobic. The evolution of eukaryotes required a massive reorganization of the 2 genomes and eventual adaptation to aerobic environments. The nutrients and oxygen that sustain eukaryotic metabolism today are processed in mitochondria through coordinated expression of 37 mitochondrial genes and over 1000 nuclear genes. This puts mitochondria at the nexus of gene-by-gene (G×G) and gene-by-environment (G×E) interactions that sustain life. Here we use a Drosophila model of mitonuclear genetic interactions to explore the notion that mitochondria are environments for the nuclear genome, and vice versa. We construct factorial combinations of mtDNA and nuclear chromosomes to test for epistatic interactions (G×G), and expose these mitonuclear genotypes to altered dietary environments to examine G×E interactions. We use development time and genome-wide RNAseq analyses to assess the relative contributions of mtDNA, nuclear chromosomes, and environmental effects on these traits (mitonuclear G×G×E). We show that the nuclear transcriptional response to alternative mitochondrial "environments" (G×G) has significant overlap with the transcriptional response of mitonuclear genotypes to altered dietary environments. These analyses point to specific transcription factors (e.g., giant) that mediated these interactions, and identified coexpressed modules of genes that may account for the overlap in differentially expressed genes. Roughly 20% of the transcriptome includes G×G genes that are concordant with G×E genes, suggesting that mitonuclear interactions are part of an organism's environment.

RevDate: 2021-12-28
CmpDate: 2021-12-28

Zhang B, Havird JC, Wang E, et al (2021)

Massive gene rearrangement in mitogenomes of phytoseiid mites.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 186:33-39.

Mitochondrial (mt) gene sequences have been widely used to infer phylogeny in animals. The relative order of mt genes in the mitogenome can also be a useful marker for evolution, but the propensity of mt gene rearrangements vary tremendously among taxa. Ticks and mites in Acari exemplify this trend as some families retain the ancestral arthropod gene order, while others show highly divergent gene orders. Mites in Phytoseiidae, many of which are effective biological control agents, show some of the most divergent gene orders. However, the diversity of mitogenome order within this family is little known. We thus sequenced three mt genomes of phytoseiid mites from two of the most speciose genera: Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot), Amblyseius tsugawai (Ehara) and Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha). We find differences in mt GC skew and nucleotide composition, especially between N. womersleyi and the two Amblyseius species. Each species within Phytoseiidae (including three previously available sequences) present a unique gene order. Phytoseiid mitogenomes show some of the highest numbers of breakpoints when compared to the ancestral arthropod order (up to 33), as well as high numbers of breakpoints within the family (14-30). This suggests a history of massive, ongoing mitogenome rearrangements in the family. Phylogenetic analyses of mt sequences confirm that the degree of gene rearrangements follows phylogenetic relatedness. We discuss possible causes for the high degree of mt gene rearrangement within phytoseiid mites as well as selection in the mt and nuclear genome tied to the independent evolution of many diverse feeding strategies in the family. Finally, we suggest N. womersleyi should be used instead of the synonym Amblyseius pseudolongispinosus.

RevDate: 2021-12-24

Singh LN, Kao SH, DC Wallace (2021)

Unlocking the Complexity of Mitochondrial DNA: A Key to Understanding Neurodegenerative Disease Caused by Injury.

Cells, 10(12): pii:cells10123460.

Neurodegenerative disorders that are triggered by injury typically have variable and unpredictable outcomes due to the complex and multifactorial cascade of events following the injury and during recovery. Hence, several factors beyond the initial injury likely contribute to the disease progression and pathology, and among these are genetic factors. Genetics is a recognized factor in determining the outcome of common neurodegenerative diseases. The role of mitochondrial genetics and function in traditional neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, is well-established. Much less is known about mitochondrial genetics, however, regarding neurodegenerative diseases that result from injuries such as traumatic brain injury and ischaemic stroke. We discuss the potential role of mitochondrial DNA genetics in the progression and outcome of injury-related neurodegenerative diseases. We present a guide for understanding mitochondrial genetic variation, along with the nuances of quantifying mitochondrial DNA variation. Evidence supporting a role for mitochondrial DNA as a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease is also reviewed and examined. Further research into the impact of mitochondrial DNA on neurodegenerative disease resulting from injury will likely offer key insights into the genetic factors that determine the outcome of these diseases together with potential targets for treatment.

RevDate: 2021-12-24

Key J, Torres-Odio S, Bach NC, et al (2021)

Inactivity of Peptidase ClpP Causes Primary Accumulation of Mitochondrial Disaggregase ClpX with Its Interacting Nucleoid Proteins, and of mtDNA.

Cells, 10(12): pii:cells10123354.

Biallelic pathogenic variants in CLPP, encoding mitochondrial matrix peptidase ClpP, cause a rare autosomal recessive condition, Perrault syndrome type 3 (PRLTS3). It is characterized by primary ovarian insufficiency and early sensorineural hearing loss, often associated with progressive neurological deficits. Mouse models showed that accumulations of (i) its main protein interactor, the substrate-selecting AAA+ ATPase ClpX, (ii) mitoribosomes, and (iii) mtDNA nucleoids are the main cellular consequences of ClpP absence. However, the sequence of these events and their validity in human remain unclear. Here, we studied global proteome profiles to define ClpP substrates among mitochondrial ClpX interactors, which accumulated consistently in ClpP-null mouse embryonal fibroblasts and brains. Validation work included novel ClpP-mutant patient fibroblast proteomics. ClpX co-accumulated in mitochondria with the nucleoid component POLDIP2, the mitochondrial poly(A) mRNA granule element LRPPRC, and tRNA processing factor GFM1 (in mouse, also GRSF1). Only in mouse did accumulated ClpX, GFM1, and GRSF1 appear in nuclear fractions. Mitoribosomal accumulation was minor. Consistent accumulations in murine and human fibroblasts also affected multimerizing factors not known as ClpX interactors, namely, OAT, ASS1, ACADVL, STOM, PRDX3, PC, MUT, ALDH2, PMPCB, UQCRC2, and ACADSB, but the impact on downstream metabolites was marginal. Our data demonstrate the primary impact of ClpXP on the assembly of proteins with nucleic acids and show nucleoid enlargement in human as a key consequence.

RevDate: 2021-12-27
CmpDate: 2021-12-27

Klink GV, O'Keefe H, Gogna A, et al (2021)

A broad comparative genomics approach to understanding the pathogenicity of Complex I mutations.

Scientific reports, 11(1):19578.

Disease caused by mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are highly variable in both presentation and penetrance. Over the last 30 years, clinical recognition of this group of diseases has increased. It has been suggested that haplogroup background could influence the penetrance and presentation of disease-causing mutations; however, to date there is only one well-established example of such an effect: the increased penetrance of two Complex I Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy mutations on a haplogroup J background. This paper conducts the most extensive investigation to date into the importance of haplogroup context in the pathogenicity of mtDNA mutations in Complex I. We searched for proven human point mutations across more than 900 metazoans finding human disease-causing mutations and potential masking variants. We found more than a half of human pathogenic variants as compensated pathogenic deviations (CPD) in at least in one animal species from our multiple sequence alignments. Some variants were found in many species, and some were even the most prevalent amino acids across our dataset. Variants were also found in other primates, and in such cases, we looked for non-human amino acids in sites with high probability to interact with the CPD in folded protein. Using this "local interactions" approach allowed us to find potential masking substitutions in other amino acid sites. We suggest that the masking variants might arise in humans, resulting in variability of mutation effect in our species.

RevDate: 2021-12-27
CmpDate: 2021-12-27

Fachi JL, Pral LP, Dos Santos JAC, et al (2021)

Hypoxia enhances ILC3 responses through HIF-1α-dependent mechanism.

Mucosal immunology, 14(4):828-841.

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) have a prominent role in the maintenance of intestine mucosa homeostasis. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is an important modulator of immune cell activation and a key mechanism for cellular adaptation to oxygen deprivation. However, its role on ILC3 is not well known. In this study, we investigated how a hypoxic environment modulates ILC3 response and the subsequent participation of HIF-1 signaling in this process. We found increased proliferation and activation of intestinal ILC3 at low oxygen levels, a response that was phenocopied when HIF-1α was chemically stabilized and was reversed when HIF-1 was blocked. The increased activation of ILC3 relied on a HIF-1α-dependent transcriptional program, but not on mTOR-signaling or a switch to glycolysis. HIF-1α deficiency in RORyt compartment resulted in impaired IL-17 and IL-22 production by ILC3 in vivo, which reflected in a lower expression of their target genes in the intestinal epithelium and an increased susceptibility to Clostridiodes difficile infection. Taken together, our results show that HIF-1α activation in intestinal ILC3 is relevant for their functions in steady state and infectious conditions.

RevDate: 2021-12-23

Bohálová N, Dobrovolná M, Brázda V, et al (2021)

Conservation and over-representation of G-quadruplex sequences in regulatory regions of mitochondrial DNA across distinct taxonomic sub-groups.

Biochimie pii:S0300-9084(21)00294-7 [Epub ahead of print].

G-quadruplexes have important regulatory roles in the nuclear genome but their distribution and potential roles in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are poorly understood. We analysed 11883 mtDNA sequences from 18 taxonomic sub-groups and identified their frequency and location within mtDNA. Large differences in both the frequency and number of putative quadruplex-forming sequences (PQS) were observed amongst all the organisms and PQS frequency was negatively correlated with an increase in evolutionary age. PQS were over-represented in the 3'UTRs, D-loops, replication origins, and stem loops, indicating regulatory roles for quadruplexes in mtDNA. Variations of the G-quadruplex-forming sequence in the conserved sequence block II (CSBII) region of the human D-loop were conserved amongst other mammals, amphibians, birds, reptiles, and fishes. This D-loop PQS was conserved in the duplicated control regions of some birds and reptiles, indicating its importance to mitochondrial function. The guanine tracts in these PQS also displayed significant length heterogeneity and the length of these guanine tracts were generally longest in bird mtDNA. This information provides further insights into how G4s may contribute to the regulation and function of mtDNA and acts as a database of information for future studies investigating mitochondrial G4s in organisms other than humans.

RevDate: 2021-12-23

Wade MJ, L Fogarty (2021)

Adaptive co-evolution of mitochondria and the Y-chromosome: A resolution to conflict between evolutionary opponents.

Ecology and evolution, 11(23):17307-17313 pii:ECE38366.

In most species with motile sperm, male fertility depends upon genes located on the Y-chromosome and in the mitochondrial genome. Coordinated adaptive evolution for the function of male fertility between genes on the Y and the mitochondrion is hampered by their uniparental inheritance in opposing sexes: The Y-chromosome is inherited uniparentally, father to son, and the mitochondrion is inherited maternally, mother to offspring. Preserving male fertility is problematic, because maternal inheritance permits mitochondrial mutations advantageous to females, but deleterious to male fertility, to accumulate in a population. Although uniparental inheritance with sex-restricted adaptation also affects genes on the Y-chromosome, females lack a Y-chromosome and escape the potential maladaptive consequences of male-limited selection. Evolutionary models have shown that mitochondrial mutations deleterious to male fertility can be countered by compensatory evolution of Y-linked mutations that restore it. However, direct adaptive coevolution of Y- and mitochondrial gene combinations has not yet been mathematically characterized. We use population genetic models to show that adaptive coevolution of Y and mitochondrial genes are possible when Y-mt gene combinations have positive effects on male fertility and populations are inbred.

RevDate: 2021-12-22

Donoso-Fuentes A, D Arriagada-Santis (2021)

Organ dysfunction syndrome and mitochondrial adaptation in the septic patient.

Boletin medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico, 78(6):597-611.

The ability to maintain an adequate energy balance and to respond and adapt to environmental stress at the cellular level are cornerstones for the survival and evolution of organisms. Therefore, in the presence of various factors, a cellular protection response is triggered by activation of mitochondrial function-dependent signaling. However, this essential reaction for individual cell survival can be detrimental to organ function (maladaptation), transforming the close balance between the two into the pathogenetic axis of organ dysfunction and eventual recovery in septic patients. Macrocirculatory and microcirculatory disruption undoubtedly contributes to organ dysfunction in the early stage of septic shock, while intrinsic metabolic-bioenergetic failure (cytopathic hypoxia) perpetuates inadequate cellular function. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is a key process in the induction of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in the septic patient. This syndrome can be considered as a complex hypometabolic adaptive phenomenon in the face of excessive and prolonged inflammatory stimulus to achieve regulation of energy homeostasis and preservation of organ function. In the future, there should be a transition from the current consensus therapeutic options, which are limited to control of the infectious focus, hemodynamic and life support, to metabolic resuscitation based on the molecular and genetic alterations triggered by the infection.

RevDate: 2021-12-22
CmpDate: 2021-12-22

Lin Y, Xiao Q, Hao Q, et al (2021)

Genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family in Pomacea canaliculata.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 193(Pt B):2062-2069.

Cold causes oxidative stress in living organisms, mainly caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the antioxidant defense systems, Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in the regulation of detoxification and redox balance of ROS. In this study, the P. canaliculata GST gene family were characterized using a genome-wide search of the conserved domain. Phylogenetic tree and domain composition analysis revealed that 30 PcGSTs belong to seven classes, including five in MAPEG, two in Mu, nine in Omega, 11 in Sigma, one in Rho, Theta and Alpha class, respectively. RNA-seq analysis revealed that most PcGSTs localized in mitochondria highly expressed in hepatopancreas, and most PcGSTs localized in cytoplasm highly expressed in kidney. A total of 12 PcGST genes were significantly up-regulated and PcGST12 was significantly down-regulated after cold acclimation. Ten PcGSTs were identified as DEGs under cold stress after cold acclimation. qRT-PCR revealed that the expression level of five PcGST genes were significantly varied during the cold acclimation. The present study investigated the characterization of the P. canaliculata GST gene family, extending our understanding of GST mediated cold acclimation and cold stress-response mechanisms in this invasive snail.

RevDate: 2021-12-23
CmpDate: 2021-12-23

Harada R, Y Inagaki (2021)

Phage Origin of Mitochondrion-Localized Family A DNA Polymerases in Kinetoplastids and Diplonemids.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(2):.

Mitochondria retain their own genomes as other bacterial endosymbiont-derived organelles. Nevertheless, no protein for DNA replication and repair is encoded in any mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) assessed to date, suggesting that the nucleus primarily governs the maintenance of mtDNA. As the proteins of diverse evolutionary origins occupy a large proportion of the current mitochondrial proteomes, we anticipate finding the same evolutionary trend in the nucleus-encoded machinery for mtDNA maintenance. Indeed, none of the DNA polymerases (DNAPs) in the mitochondrial endosymbiont, a putative α-proteobacterium, seemingly had been inherited by their descendants (mitochondria), as none of the known types of mitochondrion-localized DNAP showed a specific affinity to the α-proteobacterial DNAPs. Nevertheless, we currently have no concrete idea of how and when the known types of mitochondrion-localized DNAPs emerged. We here explored the origins of mitochondrion-localized DNAPs after the improvement of the samplings of DNAPs from bacteria and phages/viruses. Past studies have revealed that a set of mitochondrion-localized DNAPs in kinetoplastids and diplonemids, namely PolIB, PolIC, PolID, PolI-Perk1/2, and PolI-dipl (henceforth designated collectively as "PolIBCD+") have emerged from a single DNAP. In this study, we recovered an intimate connection between PolIBCD+ and the DNAPs found in a particular group of phages. Thus, the common ancestor of kinetoplastids and diplonemids most likely converted a laterally acquired phage DNAP into a mitochondrion-localized DNAP that was ancestral to PolIBCD+. The phage origin of PolIBCD+ hints at a potentially large contribution of proteins acquired via nonvertical processes to the machinery for mtDNA maintenance in kinetoplastids and diplonemids.

RevDate: 2021-12-23
CmpDate: 2021-12-23

Ettahi K, Lhee D, Sung JY, et al (2021)

Evolutionary History of Mitochondrial Genomes in Discoba, Including the Extreme Halophile Pleurostomum flabellatum (Heterolobosea).

Genome biology and evolution, 13(2):.

Data from Discoba (Heterolobosea, Euglenozoa, Tsukubamonadida, and Jakobida) are essential to understand the evolution of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes), because this clade includes the most primitive-looking mitogenomes known, as well some extremely divergent genome information systems. Heterolobosea encompasses more than 150 described species, many of them from extreme habitats, but only six heterolobosean mitogenomes have been fully sequenced to date. Here we complete the mitogenome of the heterolobosean Pleurostomum flabellatum, which is extremely halophilic and reportedly also lacks classical mitochondrial cristae, hinting at reduction or loss of respiratory function. The mitogenome of P. flabellatum maps as a 57,829-bp-long circular molecule, including 40 coding sequences (19 tRNA, two rRNA, and 19 orfs). The gene content and gene arrangement are similar to Naegleria gruberi and Naegleria fowleri, the closest relatives with sequenced mitogenomes. The P. flabellatum mitogenome contains genes that encode components of the electron transport chain similar to those of Naegleria mitogenomes. Homology searches against a draft nuclear genome showed that P. flabellatum has two homologs of the highly conserved Mic60 subunit of the MICOS complex, and likely lost Mic19 and Mic10. However, electron microscopy showed no cristae structures. We infer that P. flabellatum, which originates from high salinity (313‰) water where the dissolved oxygen concentration is low, possesses a mitochondrion capable of aerobic respiration, but with reduced development of cristae structure reflecting limited use of this aerobic capacity (e.g., microaerophily).

RevDate: 2021-12-21
CmpDate: 2021-12-21

Sanchez-Contreras M, Sweetwyne MT, Kohrn BF, et al (2021)

A replication-linked mutational gradient drives somatic mutation accumulation and influences germline polymorphisms and genome composition in mitochondrial DNA.

Nucleic acids research, 49(19):11103-11118.

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause maternally inherited diseases, while somatic mutations are linked to common diseases of aging. Although mtDNA mutations impact health, the processes that give rise to them are under considerable debate. To investigate the mechanism by which de novo mutations arise, we analyzed the distribution of naturally occurring somatic mutations across the mouse and human mtDNA obtained by Duplex Sequencing. We observe distinct mutational gradients in G→A and T→C transitions delimited by the light-strand origin and the mitochondrial Control Region (mCR). The gradient increases unequally across the mtDNA with age and is lost in the absence of DNA polymerase γ proofreading activity. In addition, high-resolution analysis of the mCR shows that important regulatory elements exhibit considerable variability in mutation frequency, consistent with them being mutational 'hot-spots' or 'cold-spots'. Collectively, these patterns support genome replication via a deamination prone asymmetric strand-displacement mechanism as the fundamental driver of mutagenesis in mammalian DNA. Moreover, the distribution of mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans and the distribution of bases in the mtDNA across vertebrate species mirror this gradient, indicating that replication-linked mutations are likely the primary source of inherited polymorphisms that, over evolutionary timescales, influences genome composition during speciation.

RevDate: 2021-12-21
CmpDate: 2021-12-21

Su HJ, Liang SL, DL Nickrent (2021)

Plastome variation and phylogeny of Taxillus (Loranthaceae).

PloS one, 16(8):e0256345.

Several molecular phylogenetic studies of the mistletoe family Loranthaceae have been published such that now the general pattern of relationships among the genera and their biogeographic histories are understood. Less is known about species relationships in the larger (> 10 species) genera. This study examines the taxonomically difficult genus Taxillus composed of 35-40 Asian species. The goal was to explore the genetic diversity present in Taxillus plastomes, locate genetically variable hotspots, and test these for their utility as potential DNA barcodes. Using genome skimming, complete plastomes, as well as nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences, were newly generated for eight species. The plastome sequences were used in conjunction with seven publicly available Taxillus sequences and three sequences of Scurrula, a close generic relative. The Taxillus plastomes ranged from 121 to 123 kbp and encoded 90-93 plastid genes. In addition to all of the NADH dehydrogenase complex genes, four ribosomal genes, infA and four intron-containing tRNA genes were lost or pseudogenized in all of the Taxillus and Scurrula plastomes. The topologies of the plastome, mitochondrial rDNA and nuclear rDNA trees were generally congruent, though with discordance at the position of T. chinensis. Several variable regions in the plastomes were identified that have sufficient numbers of parsimony informative sites as to recover the major clades seen in the complete plastome tree. Instead of generating complete plastome sequences, our study showed that accD alone or the concatenation of accD and rbcL can be used in future studies to facilitate identification of Taxillus samples and to generate a molecular phylogeny with robust sampling within the genus.

RevDate: 2021-12-20

Fonseca PLC, De-Paula RB, Araújo DS, et al (2021)

Global Characterization of Fungal Mitogenomes: New Insights on Genomic Diversity and Dynamism of Coding Genes and Accessory Elements.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:787283.

Fungi comprise a great diversity of species with distinct ecological functions and lifestyles. Similar to other eukaryotes, fungi rely on interactions with prokaryotes and one of the most important symbiotic events was the acquisition of mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles found in eukaryotic cells whose main function is to generate energy through aerobic respiration. Mitogenomes (mtDNAs) are double-stranded circular or linear DNA from mitochondria that may contain core genes and accessory elements that can be replicated, transcribed, and independently translated from the nuclear genome. Despite their importance, investigative studies on the diversity of fungal mitogenomes are scarce. Herein, we have evaluated 788 curated fungal mitogenomes available at NCBI database to assess discrepancies and similarities among them and to better understand the mechanisms involved in fungal mtDNAs variability. From a total of 12 fungal phyla, four do not have any representative with available mitogenomes, which highlights the underrepresentation of some groups in the current available data. We selected representative and non-redundant mitogenomes based on the threshold of 90% similarity, eliminating 81 mtDNAs. Comparative analyses revealed considerable size variability of mtDNAs with a difference of up to 260 kb in length. Furthermore, variation in mitogenome length and genomic composition are generally related to the number and length of accessory elements (introns, HEGs, and uORFs). We identified an overall average of 8.0 (0-39) introns, 8.0 (0-100) HEGs, and 8.2 (0-102) uORFs per genome, with high variation among phyla. Even though the length of the core protein-coding genes is considerably conserved, approximately 36.3% of the mitogenomes evaluated have at least one of the 14 core coding genes absent. Also, our results revealed that there is not even a single gene shared among all mitogenomes. Other unusual genes in mitogenomes were also detected in many mitogenomes, such as dpo and rpo, and displayed diverse evolutionary histories. Altogether, the results presented in this study suggest that fungal mitogenomes are diverse, contain accessory elements and are absent of a conserved gene that can be used for the taxonomic classification of the Kingdom Fungi.

RevDate: 2021-12-17

Nunes JPS, Moraes-Vieira PM, Chevillard C, et al (2021)

Editorial: Mitochondria at the Crossroads of Immunity and Inflammatory Tissue Damage.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:810787.

RevDate: 2021-12-20
CmpDate: 2021-12-20

Pamplona R, Jové M, Mota-Martorell N, et al (2021)

Is the NDUFV2 subunit of the hydrophilic complex I domain a key determinant of animal longevity?.

The FEBS journal, 288(23):6652-6673.

Complex I, a component of the electron transport chain, plays a central functional role in cell bioenergetics and the biology of free radicals. The structural and functional N module of complex I is one of the main sites of the generation of free radicals. The NDUFV2 subunit/N1a cluster is a component of this module. Furthermore, the rate of free radical production is linked to animal longevity. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that NDUFV2 is the only conserved core subunit designed with a regulatory function to ensure correct electron transfer and free radical production, that low gene expression and protein abundance of the NDUFV2 subunit is an evolutionary adaptation needed to achieve a longevity phenotype, and that these features are determinants of the lower free radical generation at the mitochondrial level and a slower rate of aging of long-lived animals.

RevDate: 2021-12-16

Lewis AJO, RS Hegde (2021)

A unified evolutionary origin for the ubiquitous protein transporters SecY and YidC.

BMC biology, 19(1):266.

BACKGROUND: Protein transporters translocate hydrophilic segments of polypeptide across hydrophobic cell membranes. Two protein transporters are ubiquitous and date back to the last universal common ancestor: SecY and YidC. SecY consists of two pseudosymmetric halves, which together form a membrane-spanning protein-conducting channel. YidC is an asymmetric molecule with a protein-conducting hydrophilic groove that partially spans the membrane. Although both transporters mediate insertion of membrane proteins with short translocated domains, only SecY transports secretory proteins and membrane proteins with long translocated domains. The evolutionary origins of these ancient and essential transporters are not known.

RESULTS: The features conserved by the two halves of SecY indicate that their common ancestor was an antiparallel homodimeric channel. Structural searches with SecY's halves detect exceptional similarity with YidC homologs. The SecY halves and YidC share a fold comprising a three-helix bundle interrupted by a helical hairpin. In YidC, this hairpin is cytoplasmic and facilitates substrate delivery, whereas in SecY, it is transmembrane and forms the substrate-binding lateral gate helices. In both transporters, the three-helix bundle forms a protein-conducting hydrophilic groove delimited by a conserved hydrophobic residue. Based on these similarities, we propose that SecY originated as a YidC homolog which formed a channel by juxtaposing two hydrophilic grooves in an antiparallel homodimer. We find that archaeal YidC and its eukaryotic descendants use this same dimerisation interface to heterodimerise with a conserved partner. YidC's sufficiency for the function of simple cells is suggested by the results of reductive evolution in mitochondria and plastids, which tend to retain SecY only if they require translocation of large hydrophilic domains.

CONCLUSIONS: SecY and YidC share previously unrecognised similarities in sequence, structure, mechanism, and function. Our delineation of a detailed correspondence between these two essential and ancient transporters enables a deeper mechanistic understanding of how each functions. Furthermore, key differences between them help explain how SecY performs its distinctive function in the recognition and translocation of secretory proteins. The unified theory presented here explains the evolution of these features, and thus reconstructs a key step in the origin of cells.

RevDate: 2021-12-14

Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej P, Bębnowska D, Kołacz R, et al (2021)

Mitochondria, pattern recognition receptors and autophagy under physiological and pathological conditions, including viral infections.

Acta biochimica Polonica pii:5807 [Epub ahead of print].

Research on the health of mammals invariably shows how dynamic immunology is and how the role of many elements and immune processes of the macroorganism, developed in the process of evolution in protecting against threats, including infections, is changing. Among these elements conditioning the homeostasis of the macroorganism are mitochondria, PRR receptors (pattern recognition receptors) and the phenomenon of autophagy. In the context of physiological and pathological states in the body, mitochondria perform various functions. The primary function of these organelles is to produce energy in the cell, but on the other hand, they are heavily involved in various cellular processes, including ROS production and calcium homeostasis. They are largely involved in the activation of immune mechanisms during infectious and non-infectious conditions through mtDNA and the mitochondrial MAVS protein. Mitochondrial involvement has been also determined in PRR-related mechanisms as mtDNA has the ability to directly stimulate TLRs. On the other hand, mitochondria are also associated with apoptotic cell death and autophagy.

RevDate: 2021-12-15

Gopan A, MS Sarma (2021)

Mitochondrial hepatopathy: Respiratory chain disorders- 'breathing in and out of the liver'.

World journal of hepatology, 13(11):1707-1726.

Mitochondria, the powerhouse of a cell, are closely linked to the pathophysiology of various common as well as not so uncommon disorders of the liver and beyond. Evolution supports a prokaryotic descent, and, unsurprisingly, the organelle is worthy of being labeled an organism in itself. Since highly metabolically active organs require a continuous feed of energy, any dysfunction in the structure and function of mitochondria can have variable impact, with the worse end of the spectrum producing catastrophic consequences with a multisystem predisposition. Though categorized a hepatopathy, mitochondrial respiratory chain defects are not limited to the liver in time and space. The liver involvement is also variable in clinical presentation as well as in age of onset, from acute liver failure, cholestasis, or chronic liver disease. Other organs like eye, muscle, central and peripheral nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, hematological, endocrine, and renal systems are also variably involved. Diagnosis hinges on recognition of subtle clinical clues, screening metabolic investigations, evaluation of the extra-hepatic involvement, and role of genetics and tissue diagnosis. Treatment is aimed at both circumventing the acute metabolic crisis and long-term management including nutritional rehabilitation. This review lists and discusses the burden of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects, including various settings when to suspect, their evolution with time, including certain specific disorders, their tiered evaluation with diagnostic algorithms, management dilemmas, role of liver transplantation, and the future research tools.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Skuza L (2022)

Primer Design for the Analysis of Closely Related Species: Application of Noncoding mtDNA and cpDNA Sequences.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2392:83-91.

Noncoding regions of the chloroplast (cpDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes are commonly used in plant phylogenetic and population studies. Consensus primers, which are homologous to most coding regions, but amplify variable noncoding regions, are very useful for this purpose. However, high genetic diversity of plants poses a problem in developing molecular methods that require conserved DNA sequences between species.This chapter describes the protocol for designing PCR primers suitable for analysis of closely related plant species. As an example, we used PCR primer design for cpDNA noncoding regions of the rye (Secale).

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-09

Erinjeri AP, J Labbadia (2021)

The importance of long-lived proteins: Not just nuclear anymore.

Developmental cell, 56(21):2925-2927.

The significance of mitochondrial long-lived proteins (mitoLLPs) to tissue health has remained mysterious for over a decade. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Krishna et al. demonstrate that mitochondrial lifetimes are highly heterogeneous and that mitoLLPs promote respiratory capacity by facilitating supercomplex assembly within the electron transport chain.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Wu Y, Wang XH, Li XH, et al (2021)

Common mtDNA variations at C5178a and A249d/T6392C/G10310A decrease the risk of severe COVID-19 in a Han Chinese population from Central China.

Military Medical Research, 8(1):57.

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria have been shown to play vital roles during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) development. Currently, it is unclear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants, which define mtDNA haplogroups and determine oxidative phosphorylation performance and reactive oxygen species production, are associated with COVID-19 risk.

METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted to compare the distribution of mtDNA variations defining mtDNA haplogroups between healthy controls (n = 615) and COVID-19 patients (n = 536). COVID-19 patients were diagnosed based on molecular diagnostics of the viral genome by qPCR and chest X-ray or computed tomography scanning. The exclusion criteria for the healthy controls were any history of disease in the month preceding the study assessment. MtDNA variants defining mtDNA haplogroups were identified by PCR-RFLPs and HVS-I sequencing and determined based on mtDNA phylogenetic analysis using Mitomap Phylogeny. Student's t-test was used for continuous variables, and Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables. To assess the independent effect of each mtDNA variant defining mtDNA haplogroups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustments for possible confounding factors of age, sex, smoking and diseases (including cardiopulmonary diseases, diabetes, obesity and hypertension) as determined through clinical and radiographic examinations.

RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the most common investigated mtDNA variations (> 10% in the control population) at C5178a (in NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene, ND2) and A249d (in the displacement loop region, D-loop)/T6392C (in cytochrome c oxidase I gene, CO1)/G10310A (in ND3) were associated with a reduced risk of severe COVID-19 (OR = 0.590, 95% CI 0.428-0.814, P = 0.001; and OR = 0.654, 95% CI 0.457-0.936, P = 0.020, respectively), while A4833G (ND2), A4715G (ND2), T3394C (ND1) and G5417A (ND2)/C16257a (D-loop)/C16261T (D-loop) were related to an increased risk of severe COVID-19 (OR = 2.336, 95% CI 1.179-4.608, P = 0.015; OR = 2.033, 95% CI 1.242-3.322, P = 0.005; OR = 3.040, 95% CI 1.522-6.061, P = 0.002; and OR = 2.890, 95% CI 1.199-6.993, P = 0.018, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to explore the association of mtDNA variants with individual's risk of developing severe COVID-19. Based on the case-control study, we concluded that the common mtDNA variants at C5178a and A249d/T6392C/G10310A might contribute to an individual's resistance to developing severe COVID-19, whereas A4833G, A4715G, T3394C and G5417A/C16257a/C16261T might increase an individual's risk of developing severe COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-07

Rothmann-Meyer W, Naidoo K, PJ de Waal (2021)

Comparative mitogenomics of Spirocerca lupi from South Africa and China: Variation and possible heteroplasmy.

Veterinary parasitology, 300:109595.

The complete mitochondrial genome of Spirocerca lupi isolated from a dog in South Africa was sequenced using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and the 12 protein coding genes along with the two rRNA genes were compared to 18 other nematode species as well as S. lupi from China. The mitochondrial genome of S. lupi South Africa had a mean genetic diversity of 6.1 % compared to S. lupi China with some variation in nucleotide composition, gene positioning and size. Pairwise distance results indicated slightly higher variation when compared to the pairwise distances of other closely related species, however, this variation was not high enough for it to be considered a cryptic species. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. lupi from the two continents are very similar. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the nad2 gene with ten sequence variants identified from 10 clones from a single nematode, suggesting possible heteroplasmy. The origin of the heteroplasmy is currently unknown but it is speculated to have arisen from accumulated mutations in the mitochondria during somatic replication.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-07

Yu M, Yu Y, Song T, et al (2022)

Characterization of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its potential mechanism in response to drought and salinity stresses.

Gene, 809:146031.

Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are major transport proteins localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria and play critical roles in regulating plant growth and responding to stress. In this study, a total of 26 VDAC genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were identified. TaVDACs that contained β-barrel structures were classified into three groups with phylogenetic and sequence alignment. Additionally, the gene structure and protein conserved motif composition varied among diverse subfamilies but were relatively conserved within the same subfamily. The basic elements that were stress- and hormone-related, including TATA-box, CAAT-box, MBS, LTR, TC-rich repeats, ABRE, P-box and TATC-box, were predicted within the promoter region of TaVDAC genes. TaVDAC expression patterns differed among tissues, organs and abiotic stress conditions. Overexpression (OE) of TaVDAC1-B conferred high tolerance to salinity and less resistance to drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. TaVDAC1-B interacted with Nucleoredoxin-D1 (TaNRX-D1) protein. Furthermore, compared with WT lines, salinity stress further upregulated the level of AtNRX1 (homologous gene of TaNRX-D1 in Arabidopsis) expression and the activity of superoxide dismutase in TaVDAC1-B OE lines, which led to a decrease in superoxide radical accumulation; drought stress further downregulated AtNRX1 expression and superoxide dismutase activity in TaVDAC1-B OE lines, resulting in the accumulation of superoxide radicals. Our study not only presents comprehensive information for understanding the VDAC gene family in wheat but also proposes a potential mechanism in response to drought and salinity stress.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-06

Szoke T, Nussbaum-Shochat A, O Amster-Choder (2021)

Evolutionarily conserved mechanism for membrane recognition from bacteria to mitochondria.

FEBS letters, 595(22):2805-2815.

The mechanisms controlling membrane recognition by proteins with one hydrophobic stretch at their carboxyl terminus (tail anchor, TA) are poorly defined. The Escherichia coli TAs of ElaB and YqjD, which share sequential and structural similarity with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TA of Fis1, were shown to localize to mitochondria. We show that YqjD and ElaB are directed by their TAs to bacterial cell poles. Fis1(TA) expressed in E. coli localizes like the endogenous TAs. The yeast and bacterial TAs are inserted in the E. coli inner membrane, and they all show affiliation to phosphatidic acid (PA), found in the membrane of the bacterial cell poles and of the yeast mitochondria. Our results suggest a mechanism for TA membrane recognition conserved from bacteria to mitochondria and raise the possibility that through their interaction with PA, and TAs play a role across prokaryotes and eukaryotes in controlling cell/organelle fate.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-14

Latimer S, Keene SA, Stutts LR, et al (2021)

A dedicated flavin-dependent monooxygenase catalyzes the hydroxylation of demethoxyubiquinone into ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) in Arabidopsis.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 297(5):101283.

Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) is a vital respiratory cofactor and liposoluble antioxidant. In plants, it is not known how the C-6 hydroxylation of demethoxyubiquinone, the penultimate step in ubiquinone biosynthesis, is catalyzed. The combination of cross-species gene network modeling along with mining of embryo-defective mutant databases of Arabidopsis thaliana identified the embryo lethal locus EMB2421 (At1g24340) as a top candidate for the missing plant demethoxyubiquinone hydroxylase. In marked contrast with prototypical eukaryotic demethoxyubiquinone hydroxylases, the catalytic mechanism of which depends on a carboxylate-bridged di-iron domain, At1g24340 is homologous to FAD-dependent oxidoreductases that instead use NAD(P)H as an electron donor. Complementation assays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli demonstrated that At1g24340 encodes a functional demethoxyubiquinone hydroxylase and that the enzyme displays strict specificity for the C-6 position of the benzoquinone ring. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy also showed that GFP-tagged At1g24340 is targeted to mitochondria. Silencing of At1g24340 resulted in 40 to 74% decrease in ubiquinone content and de novo ubiquinone biosynthesis. Consistent with the role of At1g24340 as a benzenoid ring modification enzyme, this metabolic blockage could not be bypassed by supplementation with 4-hydroxybenzoate, the immediate precursor of ubiquinone's ring. Unlike in yeast, in Arabidopsis overexpression of demethoxyubiquinone hydroxylase did not boost ubiquinone content. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that plant demethoxyubiquinone hydroxylase is most closely related to prokaryotic monooxygenases that act on halogenated aromatics and likely descends from an event of horizontal gene transfer between a green alga and a bacterium.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Yu X, Yang H, Liu J, et al (2022)

A strategy for a high enrichment of insect mitochondrial DNA for mitogenomic analysis.

Gene, 808:145986.

Next-generation sequencing has dramatically fostered insect mitogenomic research in recent years. However, studies on the insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) assembly mainly rely on the sequencing data from total DNA, which is not cost-effective as a huge data from nuclear DNA are wasted. Besides, many mitogenomic studies require genomic information from individual organisms, whereas the DNA yield from small individual insects is too low to meet the sequencing requirements. Here, we describe a strategy for a high enrichment of insect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using rolling circle amplification (RCA) technique. This strategy consists of standard DNA extraction, RCA enrichment, next-generation sequencing and mitogenome assembly. We have evaluated the performance of this strategy on nine insect species representing eight families of insecta, three other invertebrates, and even two vertebrate specimens. Results show that our strategy is especially suitable for insects, which allows almost all tested insect mtDNA contents to reach 80% and above. A further examination of enrichment efficiency of our strategy among different taxa shows that it is also applicable to other invertebrates and even some vertebrates such as Rhacophorus and ptyas species, although its enrichment efficiency in these groups is lower than that of insects. After treatment with our strategy, small flux sequencing data can realize the assembly of mitogenome with deep coverage, providing a solid base for subsequent mitogenome-based studies.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Li Y, Wang S, Zhou J, et al (2022)

The phylogenic position of aschiphasmatidae in euphasmatodea based on mitochondrial genomic evidence.

Gene, 808:145974.

The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) has been regarded as significant source of data to better understand the phylogenetic relationships within the Euphasmatodea, but no mitogenome in Aschiphasmatoidea has been sequenced to date. In this study, two mitogenomes of Orthomeria smaragdinum and Nanhuaphasma hamicercum of Aschiphasmatidae were sequenced and annotated for the first time. The same mitochondrial gene rearrangement structure was present in the two mitogenomes sequenced, showing as the translocation of tRNA-Arg and tRNA-Asn, which conformed to the tandem duplication-random loss and could be used as a possible synapomorphy for Aschiphasmatidae. The phylogenetic results based on the maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) methods both showed that Aschiphasmatidae and Neophasmatodea in Euphasmatodea are sister taxa. Although the monophyly of Oriophasmata, Occidophasmata, Diapheromeridae, Phasmatidae, Lonchodidae and Bacilloidea has not been solved, the monophyly of Neophasmatodea and Phyllioidea was well supported.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-10

Bunmee K, Thaenkham U, Saralamba N, et al (2021)

Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles minimus in Thailand based on mitochondrial DNA markers.

Parasites & vectors, 14(1):496.

BACKGROUND: The malaria vector Anopheles minimus has been influenced by external stresses affecting the survival rate and vectorial capacity of the population. Since An. minimus habitats have continuously undergone ecological changes, this study aimed to determine the population genetic structure and the potential gene flow among the An. minimus populations in Thailand.

METHODS: Anopheles minimus was collected from five malaria transmission areas in Thailand using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps. Seventy-nine females from those populations were used as representative samples. The partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and cytochrome b (Cytb) gene sequences were amplified and analyzed to identify species and determine the current population genetic structure. For the past population, we determined the population genetic structure from the 60 deposited COII sequences in GenBank of An. minimus collected from Thailand 20 years ago.

RESULTS: The current populations of An. minimus were genetically divided into two lineages, A and B. Lineage A has high haplotype diversity under gene flow similar to the population in the past. Neutrality tests suggested population expansion of An. minimus, with the detection of abundant rare mutations in all populations, which tend to arise from negative selection.

CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the population genetic structure of An. minimus lineage A was similar between the past and present populations, indicating high adaptability of the species. There was substantial gene flow between the eastern and western An. minimus populations without detection of significant gene flow barriers.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-09

Gul S, Shah KN, Rana RM, et al (2021)

Phylogenetic and expression dynamics of tomato ClpB/Hsp100 gene under heat stress.

PloS one, 16(8):e0255847.

Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are stress-responsive molecular chaperones, which uphold proper protein folding in response to external and internal stresses. The Hsp100 gene family plays a substantial role in thermos-tolerance of plants. This study investigated evolutionary relationship and expression of ClpB/Hsp100 gene family in tomato under heat stress. Six SlHsp100 genes were identified using bioinformatics tools. In silico sub-cellular localization indicated that of these 6 ClpB/Hsp100 members, 4 are found in chloroplast, 1 in mitochondria and 1 in the cytoplasm. For evolutionary study, 36 SlHsp100 genes were included in the phylogenetic tree showing a hierarchical clustering shared by the members of the kingdoms Plantae, Archaea, Chromista, Fungi and Bacteria. A total 4 pairs of orthologous and 5 pairs of paralogous genes were identified. Functional divergence between different Hsp100 clusters showed considerable functional homology. Thermo-tolerance measured in terms of cell viability, cell membrane stability and pollen viability indicated that it was paralleled by thermal resistance of Hsps. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze gene expression in leaves of five-week-old tomato seedlings following exposure to heat stress (45°C) and control (25°C). Chloroplastic LeHSP110/ClpB gene was upregulated in all tomato genotypes after exposure to heat stress highlighting the crucial role of this gene family in acquired thermo-tolerance.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Liu X, Xu L, Hu K, et al (2021)

New isolate of Loma psittaca (Microsporidia: Glugeidae) infecting the stomach wall of cultured hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀) in South China.

The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 68(6):e12868.

Loma psittaca, previously described as inhabiting the intestinal mucosa of an anadromous fish, Colomesus pisttacus, from the Amazon Basin, is reported as being found for the first time in a marine fish, the hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂×Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀), from Lingshui city, Hainan Province, China, expanding the geographical distribution and host range of this parasite. Numerous whitish xenomas (0.5-0.7 mm in diameter) of this new isolate of L. psittaca were found distinctly in the muscle layer of the host stomach wall. Electron microscopic observations showed a monokaryotic nucleus in all developmental stages. Round or elongated multinucleate merogonial plasmodia surrounded by numerous mitochondria were observed initially, subsequently transforming into uninucleate sporonts through multiple fissions. Sporonts, each with a large centrally positioned nucleus, further developed into sporoblasts. Each sporoblast mother cell gave rise to two uninucleate sporoblasts by binary fission. Mature spores were ellipsoidal, measuring 4.0 ± 0.3 (3.7-4.3) μm in length and 2.2 ± 0.2 (2.1-2.5) μm in width. Spores possessed a mushroom-like anchoring disk, a bipartite polarplast, isofilar polar filaments arranged in 12-14 turns in one row, and a trilaminar spore wall. The obtained partial SSU rRNA gene sequence of the new isolate was 1330 bp in length and showed 99.4% sequence similarity with an estuary isolate of L. psittaca previously reported in South America. SSU rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the two L. psittaca isolates first clustered together and then formed a dichotomy that included the digestive-tract-infecting Loma species, L. acerinae, with high support values within group I.

RevDate: 2021-12-15
CmpDate: 2021-12-15

Costa JH, Roque ALM, Aziz S, et al (2021)

Genome-wide identification of ascorbate-glutathione cycle gene families in soybean (Glycine max) reveals gene duplication events and specificity of gene members linked to development and stress conditions.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 187:528-543.

Ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle plays an important role in tuning beneficial ROS accumulation for intracellular signals and imparts plant tolerance to oxidative stress by detoxifying excess of ROS. Here, we present genome-wide identification of AsA-GSH cycle genes (APX, MDHAR, DHAR, and GR) in several leguminous species and expression analyses in G. max during stress, germination and tissue development. Our data revealed 24 genes in Glycine genus against the maximum of 15 in other leguminous species, which was due to 9 pars of duplicated genes mostly originated from sub/neofunctionalization. Cytosolic APX and MDHAR genes were highly expressed in different tissues and physiological conditions. Germination induced genes encoding AsA-GSH proteins from different cell compartments, whereas vegetative phase (leaves) stimulated predominantly genes related to chloroplast/mitochondria proteins. Moreover, cytosolic APX-1, 2, MDHAR-1a, 1b and GR genes were the primary genes linked to senescence and biotic stresses, while stAPX-a, b and GR (from organelles) were the most abiotic stress related genes. Biotic and abiotic stress tolerant genotypes generally showed increased MDHAR, DHAR and/or GR mRNA levels compared to susceptible genotypes. Overall, these data clarified evolutionary events in leguminous plants and point to the functional specificity of duplicated genes of the AsA-GSH cycle in G. max.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Parrot C, Moulinier L, Bernard F, et al (2021)

Peculiarities of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from trypanosomatids.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 297(2):100913.

Trypanosomatid parasites are responsible for various human diseases, such as sleeping sickness, animal trypanosomiasis, or cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. The few available drugs to fight related parasitic infections are often toxic and present poor efficiency and specificity, and thus, finding new molecular targets is imperative. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are essential components of the translational machinery as they catalyze the specific attachment of an amino acid onto cognate tRNA(s). In trypanosomatids, one gene encodes both cytosolic- and mitochondrial-targeted aaRSs, with only three exceptions. We identify here a unique specific feature of aaRSs from trypanosomatids, which is that most of them harbor distinct insertion and/or extension sequences. Among the 26 identified aaRSs in the trypanosome Leishmania tarentolae, 14 contain an additional domain or a terminal extension, confirmed in mature mRNAs by direct cDNA nanopore sequencing. Moreover, these RNA-Seq data led us to address the question of aaRS dual localization and to determine splice-site locations and the 5'-UTR lengths for each mature aaRS-encoding mRNA. Altogether, our results provided evidence for at least one specific mechanism responsible for mitochondrial addressing of some L. tarentolae aaRSs. We propose that these newly identified features of trypanosomatid aaRSs could be developed as relevant drug targets to combat the diseases caused by these parasites.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-10

Vrzoňová R, Tóth R, Siváková B, et al (2021)

OCT1 - a yeast mitochondrial thiolase involved in the 3-oxoadipate pathway.

FEMS yeast research, 21(5):.

The 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolases catalyze the last step of the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. In yeasts and plants, this pathway takes place exclusively in peroxisomes, whereas in animals it occurs in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In contrast to baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast species from the Debaryomycetaceae family also encode a thiolase with predicted mitochondrial localization. These yeasts are able to utilize a range of hydroxyaromatic compounds via the 3-oxoadipate pathway the last step of which is catalyzed by 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase and presumably occurs in mitochondria. In this work, we studied Oct1p, an ortholog of this enzyme from Candida parapsilosis. We found that the cells grown on a 3-oxoadipate pathway substrate exhibit increased levels of the OCT1 mRNA. Deletion of both OCT1 alleles impairs the growth of C. parapsilosis cells on 3-oxoadipate pathway substrates and this defect can be rescued by expression of the OCT1 gene from a plasmid vector. Subcellular localization experiments and LC-MS/MS analysis of enriched organellar fraction-proteins confirmed the presence of Oct1p in mitochondria. Phylogenetic profiling of Oct1p revealed an intricate evolutionary pattern indicating multiple horizontal gene transfers among different fungal groups.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-06

Takusagawa M, Kobayashi Y, Fukao Y, et al (2021)

HBD1 protein with a tandem repeat of two HMG-box domains is a DNA clip to organize chloroplast nucleoids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(20):.

Compaction of bulky DNA is a universal issue for all DNA-based life forms. Chloroplast nucleoids (chloroplast DNA-protein complexes) are critical for chloroplast DNA maintenance and transcription, thereby supporting photosynthesis, but their detailed structure remains enigmatic. Our proteomic analysis of chloroplast nucleoids of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii identified a protein (HBD1) with a tandem repeat of two DNA-binding high mobility group box (HMG-box) domains, which is structurally similar to major mitochondrial nucleoid proteins transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM), and ARS binding factor 2 protein (Abf2p). Disruption of the HBD1 gene by CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing resulted in the scattering of chloroplast nucleoids. This phenotype was complemented when intact HBD1 was reintroduced, whereas a truncated HBD1 with a single HMG-box domain failed to complement the phenotype. Furthermore, ectopic expression of HBD1 in the mitochondria of yeast Δabf2 mutant successfully complemented the defects, suggesting functional similarity between HBD1 and Abf2p. Furthermore, in vitro assays of HBD1, including the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNA origami/atomic force microscopy, showed that HBD1 is capable of introducing U-turns and cross-strand bridges, indicating that proteins with two HMG-box domains would function as DNA clips to compact DNA in both chloroplast and mitochondrial nucleoids.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Louro M, Kuzmina TA, Bredtmann CM, et al (2021)

Genetic variability, cryptic species and phylogenetic relationship of six cyathostomin species based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

Scientific reports, 11(1):8245.

Cyathostomins are important intestinal nematode parasites of equines and include 50 accepted species. Their taxonomy has been frequently revised and the presence of cryptic species suggested. Furthermore, usually molecular- and morphology-based phylogenetic analyses give divergent results. In this study, the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) and the mitochondrial partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) were determined for adults of six cyathostomin species (Coronocyclus coronatus, Coronocyclus labiatus, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus minutus) collected from different equine species within two geographic regions. Maximum likelihood trees were calculated for ITS-2, COI, and concatenated data. No obvious differentiation was observed between geographic regions or equine host species. As previously reported, Coronocyclus coronatus and Cylicostephanus calicatus revealed a close relationship. Cryptic species were detected in Cylicostephanus minutus and Cylicostephanus calicatus. Cylicocyclus nassatus and Coronocyclus labiatus showed diverse mitochondrial and nuclear haplotypes occurring in different combinations, while Cylicostephanus longibursatus was comparatively homogenous. In conclusion, a combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial haplotypes improved resolution of the phylogeny and should be applied to the remaining cyathostomin species and across additional equine host species and geographic regions.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-13

Cabrera VM (2021)

Human molecular evolutionary rate, time dependency and transient polymorphism effects viewed through ancient and modern mitochondrial DNA genomes.

Scientific reports, 11(1):5036.

Human evolutionary genetics gives a chronological framework to interpret the human history. It is based on the molecular clock hypothesis that suppose a straightforward relationship between the mutation rate and the substitution rate with independence of other factors as demography dynamics. Analyzing ancient and modern human complete mitochondrial genomes we show here that, along the time, the substitution rate can be significantly slower or faster than the average germline mutation rate confirming a time dependence effect mainly attributable to changes in the effective population size of the human populations, with an exponential growth in recent times. We also detect that transient polymorphisms play a slowdown role in the evolutionary rate deduced from haplogroup intraspecific trees. Finally, we propose the use of the most divergent lineages within haplogroups as a practical approach to correct these molecular clock mismatches.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-08

Cainzos M, Marchetti F, Popovich C, et al (2021)

Gamma carbonic anhydrases are subunits of the mitochondrial complex I of diatoms.

Molecular microbiology, 116(1):109-125.

Diatoms are unicellular organisms containing red algal-derived plastids that probably originated as result of serial endosymbioses between an ancestral heterotrophic organism and a red alga or cryptophyta algae from which has only the chloroplast left. Diatom mitochondria are thus believed to derive from the exosymbiont. Unlike animals and fungi, diatoms seem to contain ancestral respiratory chains. In support of this, genes encoding gamma type carbonic anhydrases (CAs) whose products were shown to be intrinsic complex I subunits in plants, Euglena and Acanthamoeba were found in diatoms, a representative of Stramenopiles. In this work, we experimentally show that mitochondrial complex I in diatoms is a large complex containing gamma type CA subunits, supporting an ancestral origin. By using a bioinformatic approach, a complex I integrated CA domain with heterotrimeric subunit composition is proposed.

RevDate: 2021-12-13

Anoar S, Woodling NS, T Niccoli (2021)

Mitochondria Dysfunction in Frontotemporal Dementia/Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Lessons From Drosophila Models.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 15:786076.

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by declining motor and cognitive functions. Even though these diseases present with distinct sets of symptoms, FTD and ALS are two extremes of the same disease spectrum, as they show considerable overlap in genetic, clinical and neuropathological features. Among these overlapping features, mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with both FTD and ALS. Recent studies have shown that cells derived from patients' induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)s display mitochondrial abnormalities, and similar abnormalities have been observed in a number of animal disease models. Drosophila models have been widely used to study FTD and ALS because of their rapid generation time and extensive set of genetic tools. A wide array of fly models have been developed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of toxicity for mutations associated with FTD/ALS. Fly models have been often instrumental in understanding the role of disease associated mutations in mitochondria biology. In this review, we discuss how mutations associated with FTD/ALS disrupt mitochondrial function, and we review how the use of Drosophila models has been pivotal to our current knowledge in this field.

RevDate: 2021-12-10

Guberovic I, Hurtado-Bagès S, Rivera-Casas C, et al (2021)

Evolution of a histone variant involved in compartmental regulation of NAD metabolism.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 28(12):1009-1019.

NAD metabolism is essential for all forms of life. Compartmental regulation of NAD+ consumption, especially between the nucleus and the mitochondria, is required for energy homeostasis. However, how compartmental regulation evolved remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the evolution of the macrodomain-containing histone variant macroH2A1.1, an integral chromatin component that limits nuclear NAD+ consumption by inhibiting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in vertebrate cells. We found that macroH2A originated in premetazoan protists. The crystal structure of the macroH2A macrodomain from the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki allowed us to identify highly conserved principles of ligand binding and pinpoint key residue substitutions, selected for during the evolution of the vertebrate stem lineage. Metabolic characterization of the Capsaspora lifecycle suggested that the metabolic function of macroH2A was associated with nonproliferative stages. Taken together, we provide insight into the evolution of a chromatin element involved in compartmental NAD regulation, relevant for understanding its metabolism and potential therapeutic applications.

RevDate: 2021-12-04

Dai SD, Wang S, Qin YN, et al (2021)

Multiomics Landscape Uncovers the Molecular Mechanism of the Malignant Evolution of Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells to Chronic Low Dose Cadmium Exposure.

Frontiers in oncology, 11:654687.

Cadmium (Cd) from cigarette smoke and polluted air can lead to lung adenocarcinoma after long-term inhalation. However, most studies are based on short-term exposure to this toxic metal at high concentrations. Here, we investigate the effects of long-term exposure of A549 cells (lung adenocarcinoma) to cadmium at low concentrations using morphological and multiomics analyses. First, we treated A549 cells continuously with CdCl2 at 1μM for 8 months and found that CdCl2 promoted cellular migration and invasion. After that, we applied transmission electron and fluorescence microscopies and did not observe significant morphological changes in Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, or mitochondria on Cd treated cells; microfilaments, in contrast, accumulated in lamellipodium and adhesion plaques, which suggested that Cd enhanced cellular activity. Second, by using whole-exome sequencing (WES) we detected 4222 unique SNPs in Cd-treated cells, which included 382 unique non-synonymous mutation sites. The corresponding mutated genes, after GO and KEGG enrichments, were involved mainly in cell adhesion, movement, and metabolic pathways. Third, by RNA-seq analysis, we showed that 1250 genes (784 up and 466 down), 1623 mRNAs (1023 up and 591 down), and 679 lncRNAs (375 up and 304 down) were expressed differently. Furthermore, GO enrichment of these RNA-seq results suggested that most differentially expressed genes were related to cell adhesion and organization of the extracellular matrix in biological process terms; KEGG enrichment revealed that the differentially expressed genes took part in 26 pathways, among which the metabolic pathway was the most significant. These findings could be important for unveiling mechanisms of Cd-related cancers and for developing cancer therapies in the future.

RevDate: 2021-12-03

Perez MF, P Sarkies (2021)

Malignancy and NF-κB signalling strengthen coordination between expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded oxidative phosphorylation genes.

Genome biology, 22(1):328.

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are ancient endosymbiotic organelles crucial to eukaryotic growth and metabolism. The mammalian mitochondrial genome encodes for 13 mitochondrial proteins, and the remaining mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome. Little is known about how coordination between the expression of the two sets of genes is achieved.

RESULTS: Correlation analysis of RNA-seq expression data from large publicly available datasets is a common method to leverage genetic diversity to infer gene co-expression modules. Here we use this method to investigate nuclear-mitochondrial gene expression coordination. We identify a pitfall in correlation analysis that results from the large variation in the proportion of transcripts from the mitochondrial genome in RNA-seq data. Commonly used normalisation techniques based on total read counts, such as FPKM or TPM, produce artefactual negative correlations between mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded transcripts. This also results in artefactual correlations between pairs of nuclear-encoded genes, with important consequences for inferring co-expression modules beyond mitochondria. We show that these effects can be overcome by normalizing using the median-ratio normalisation (MRN) or trimmed mean of M values (TMM) methods. Using these normalisations, we find only weak and inconsistent correlations between mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes in the majority of healthy human tissues from the GTEx database.

CONCLUSIONS: We show that a subset of healthy tissues with high expression of NF-κB show significant coordination, suggesting a role for NF-κB in ensuring balanced expression between mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Contrastingly, most cancer types show robust coordination of nuclear and mitochondrial OXPHOS gene expression, identifying this as a feature of gene regulation in cancer.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Fernández Casafuz AB, De Rossi MC, L Bruno (2021)

Morphological fluctuations of individual mitochondria in living cells.

Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal [Epub ahead of print].

Uncovering the link between mitochondrial morphology, dynamics, positioning and function is challenging. Mitochondria are very flexible organelles that are subject to tension and compression within cells. Recent findings highlighted the importance of these mechanical aspects in the regulation of mitochondria dynamics, arising the question on which are the processes and mechanisms involved in their shape remodeling. In this work we explored in detail the morphological changes and spatio- temporal fluctuations of these organelles in living Xenopus laevis melanophores, a well- characterized cellular model. We developed an automatic method for the classification of mitochondria shapes based on the analysis of the curvature of the contour shape from confocal microscopy images. A persistence length of 2.1 μm was measured, quantifying, for the first time, the bending plasticity of mitochondria in their cellular environment. The shape evolution at the single organelle level was followed during a few minutes revealing that mitochondria can bend and unbend in the seconds timescale. Furthermore, the inspection of confocal movies simultaneously registering fluorescent mitochondria and microtubules suggests that the cytoskeleton network architecture and dynamics play a significant role in mitochondria shape remodeling and fluctuations. For instance changes from sinuous to elongated organelles related to transitions from confined behavior to fast directed motion along microtubule tracks were observed.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Feng JT, Xia LP, Yan CR, et al (2021)

Characterization of four mitochondrial genomes of family Neritidae (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha) and insight into its phylogenetic relationships.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11748.

Neritidae is one of the most diverse families of Neritimorpha and possesses euryhaline properties. Members of this family usually live on tropical and subtropical coasts and are mainly gregarious. The phylogenetic relationships between several subclasses of Gastropoda have been controversial for many years. With an increase in the number of described species of Neritidae, the knowledge of the evolutionary relationships in this family has improved. In the present study, we sequenced four complete mitochondrial genomes from two genera (Clithon and Nerita) and compared them with available complete mitochondrial genomes of Neritidae. Gene order exhibited a highly conserved pattern among three genera in the Neritidae family. Our results improved the phylogenetic resolution within Neritidae, and more comprehensive taxonomic sampling of subclass Neritimorpha was proposed. Furthermore, we reconstructed the divergence among the main lineages of 19 Neritimorpha taxa under an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Baluška F, S Lyons (2021)

Archaeal Origins of Eukaryotic Cell and Nucleus.

Bio Systems, 203:104375.

Symbiosis is a major evolutionary force, especially at the cellular level. Here we discuss several older and new discoveries suggesting that besides mitochondria and plastids, eukaryotic nuclei also have symbiotic origins. We propose an archaea-archaea scenario for the evolutionary origin of the eukaryotic cells. We suggest that two ancient archaea-like cells, one based on the actin cytoskeleton and another one based on the tubulin-centrin cytoskeleton, merged together to form the first nucleated eukaryotic cell. This archaeal endosymbiotic origin of eukaryotic cells and their nuclei explains several features of eukaryotic cells which are incompatible with the currently preferred autogenous scenarios of eukaryogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Esteves AR, Munoz-Pinto MF, Nunes-Costa D, et al (2021)

Footprints of a microbial toxin from the gut microbiome to mesencephalic mitochondria.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2021-326023 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by alpha-synuclein (aSyn) aggregation and death of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Recent evidence posits that PD may initiate in the gut by microbes or their toxins that promote chronic gut inflammation that will ultimately impact the brain. In this work, we sought to demonstrate that the effects of the microbial toxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in the gut may trigger some PD cases, which is especially worrying as this toxin is present in certain foods but not routinely monitored by public health authorities.

DESIGN: To test the hypothesis, we treated wild-type mice, primary neuronal cultures, cell lines and isolated mitochondria with BMAA, and analysed its impact on gut microbiota composition, barrier permeability, inflammation and aSyn aggregation as well as in brain inflammation, dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor behaviour. To further examine the key role of mitochondria, we also determined the specific effects of BMAA on mitochondrial function and on inflammasome activation.

RESULTS: BMAA induced extensive depletion of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) that regulate gut immunity, thus triggering gut dysbiosis, immune cell migration, increased intestinal inflammation, loss of barrier integrity and caudo-rostral progression of aSyn. Additionally, BMAA induced in vitro and in vivo mitochondrial dysfunction with cardiolipin exposure and consequent activation of neuronal innate immunity. These events primed neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor deficits.

CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results demonstrate that chronic exposure to dietary BMAA can trigger a chain of events that recapitulate the evolution of the PD pathology from the gut to the brain, which is consistent with 'gut-first' PD.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Vargas-Mendoza N, Angeles-Valencia M, Morales-González Á, et al (2021)

Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Function and Adaptation to Exercise: New Perspectives in Nutrition.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 11(11): pii:life11111269.

Cells have the ability to adapt to stressful environments as a part of their evolution. Physical exercise induces an increase of a demand for energy that must be met by mitochondria as the main (ATP) provider. However, this process leads to the increase of free radicals and the so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are necessary for the maintenance of cell signaling and homeostasis. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis is influenced by exercise in continuous crosstalk between the mitochondria and the nuclear genome. Excessive workloads may induce severe mitochondrial stress, resulting in oxidative damage. In this regard, the objective of this work was to provide a general overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial adaptation during exercise and to understand if some nutrients such as antioxidants may be implicated in blunt adaptation and/or an impact on the performance of exercise by different means.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Hernández-Camacho JD, García-Corzo L, Fernández-Ayala DJM, et al (2021)

Coenzyme Q at the Hinge of Health and Metabolic Diseases.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:antiox10111785.

Coenzyme Q is a unique lipidic molecule highly conserved in evolution and essential to maintaining aerobic metabolism. It is endogenously synthesized in all cells by a very complex pathway involving a group of nuclear genes that share high homology among species. This pathway is tightly regulated at transcription and translation, but also by environment and energy requirements. Here, we review how coenzyme Q reacts within mitochondria to promote ATP synthesis and also integrates a plethora of metabolic pathways and regulates mitochondrial oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q is also located in all cellular membranes and plasma lipoproteins in which it exerts antioxidant function, and its reaction with different extramitochondrial oxidoreductases contributes to regulate the cellular redox homeostasis and cytosolic oxidative stress, providing a key factor in controlling various apoptosis mechanisms. Coenzyme Q levels can be decreased in humans by defects in the biosynthesis pathway or by mitochondrial or cytosolic dysfunctions, leading to a highly heterogeneous group of mitochondrial diseases included in the coenzyme Q deficiency syndrome. We also review the importance of coenzyme Q levels and its reactions involved in aging and age-associated metabolic disorders, and how the strategy of its supplementation has had benefits for combating these diseases and for physical performance in aging.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Olson KR (2021)

A Case for Hydrogen Sulfide Metabolism as an Oxygen Sensing Mechanism.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:antiox10111650.

The ability to detect oxygen availability is a ubiquitous attribute of aerobic organisms. However, the mechanism(s) that transduce oxygen concentration or availability into appropriate physiological responses is less clear and often controversial. This review will make the case for oxygen-dependent metabolism of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and polysulfides, collectively referred to as reactive sulfur species (RSS) as a physiologically relevant O2 sensing mechanism. This hypothesis is based on observations that H2S and RSS metabolism is inversely correlated with O2 tension, exogenous H2S elicits physiological responses identical to those produced by hypoxia, factors that affect H2S production or catabolism also affect tissue responses to hypoxia, and that RSS efficiently regulate downstream effectors of the hypoxic response in a manner consistent with a decrease in O2. H2S-mediated O2 sensing is then compared to the more generally accepted reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated O2 sensing mechanism and a number of reasons are offered to resolve some of the confusion between the two.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Parrinha D, Marques MP, Heinicke MP, et al (2021)

A revision of Angolan species in the genus Pedioplanis Fitzinger (Squamata: Lacertidae), with the description of a new species.

Zootaxa, 5032(1):1-46.

The genus Pedioplanis reaches its northernmost limit in western Angola, where it is represented by three species, Pedioplanis benguelensis, P. haackei and P. huntleyi. The taxonomic status of P. benguelensis remains problematic, mainly due to the vague original description and the loss of the original type material. Here we provide a revision of the Angolan representatives of the genus, with the description of a new species, Pedioplanis serodioi sp. nov., from the lowlands of southwestern Angola. Phylogenetic analyses using a combination of mitochondrial (16S and ND2) and nuclear (RAG-1) markers, as well as morphological data, support the recognition of the new species. For purposes of nomenclatural stability, we designate a neotype for P. benguelensis and provide motivation to correct the spelling of the specific epithet to benguelensis. The clarification of the status of P. benguelensis and the description of a new species contribute to a better understanding of the taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Pedioplanis, as well as the general biogeographic context of southwestern Angola, adding to the growing evidence in favor of the recognition of this region as a hotspot of lizard diversity and endemism. An updated key to the genus is also provided.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Mousavi-Sabet H, Eagderi S, Vatandoust S, et al (2021)

Five new species of the sisorid catfish genus Glyptothorax from Iran (Teleostei: Sisoridae).

Zootaxa, 5067(4):451-484.

Five new species of Glyptothorax are described from Iran. Glyptothorax alidaeii, new species, from the Seimare in the Karkheh drainage, G. galaxias, new species, from the upper Karun drainage, G. hosseinpanahii, new species, from the Zohreh drainage, G. pallens, new species, from the Sirvan drainage, and G. shapuri, new species, from Shapur in the Helleh drainage. Glyptothorax silviae from the Jarrahi drainage is re-diagnosed. All six species are morphologically distinguishable by the structure of the thoracic adhesive apparatus, as well as morphometric characters and details in the colour pattern. They form distinct mitochondrial clades between 1.2% and 4.1% minimum K2P distance based on the mitochondrial DNA barcode region.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Yang H, Li W, Yu X, et al (2021)

Insights into molecular structure, genome evolution and phylogenetic implication through mitochondrial genome sequence of Gleditsia sinensis.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14850.

Gleditsia sinensis is an endemic species widely distributed in China with high economic and medicinal value. To explore the genomic evolution and phylogenetic relationships of G. sinensis, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of G. sinensis was sequenced and assembled, which was firstly reported in Gleditsia. The mt genome was circular and 594,121 bp in length, including 37 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 19 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and 3 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The overall base composition of the G. sinensis mt genome was 27.4% for A, 27.4% for T, 22.6% for G, 22.7% for C. The comparative analysis of PCGs in Fabaceae species showed that most of the ribosomal protein genes and succinate dehydrogenase genes were lost. In addition, we found that the rps4 gene was only lost in G. sinensis, whereas it was retained in other Fabaceae species. The phylogenetic analysis based on shared PCGs of 24 species (22 Fabaceae and 2 Solanaceae) showed that G. sinensis is evolutionarily closer to Senna species. In general, this research will provide valuable information for the evolution of G. sinensis and provide insight into the phylogenetic relationships within the family Fabaceae.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Vendramin R, Katopodi V, Cinque S, et al (2021)

Activation of the integrated stress response confers vulnerability to mitoribosome-targeting antibiotics in melanoma.

The Journal of experimental medicine, 218(9):.

The ability to adapt to environmental stress, including therapeutic insult, contributes to tumor evolution and drug resistance. In suboptimal conditions, the integrated stress response (ISR) promotes survival by dampening cytosolic translation. We show that ISR-dependent survival also relies on a concomitant up-regulation of mitochondrial protein synthesis, a vulnerability that can be exploited using mitoribosome-targeting antibiotics. Accordingly, such agents sensitized to MAPK inhibition, thus preventing the development of resistance in BRAFV600E melanoma models. Additionally, this treatment compromised the growth of melanomas that exhibited elevated ISR activity and resistance to both immunotherapy and targeted therapy. In keeping with this, pharmacological inactivation of ISR, or silencing of ATF4, rescued the antitumoral response to the tetracyclines. Moreover, a melanoma patient exposed to doxycycline experienced complete and long-lasting response of a treatment-resistant lesion. Our study indicates that the repurposing of mitoribosome-targeting antibiotics offers a rational salvage strategy for targeted therapy in BRAF mutant melanoma and a therapeutic option for NRAS-driven and immunotherapy-resistant tumors.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Miyake T, Nakajima J, Umemura K, et al (2021)

Genetic diversification of the Kanehira bitterling Acheilognathus rhombeus inferred from mitochondrial DNA, with comments on the phylogenetic relationship with its sister species Acheilognathus barbatulus.

Journal of fish biology, 99(5):1677-1695.

The Kanehira bitterling, Acheilognathus rhombeus, is a freshwater fish, discontinuously distributed in western Japan and the Korean Peninsula. Unusually among bitterling it is an autumn-spawning species and shows developmental diapause. Consequently, the characterization of its evolutionary history is significant not only in the context of the fish assemblage of East Asia, but also for understanding life-history evolution. This study aimed to investigate the phylogeography of A. rhombeus and its sister species Acheilognathus barbatulus, distributed in China, using a mitochondrial analysis of the ND1 gene from 311 samples collected from 50 localities in Japan and continental Asia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. barbatulus is included in A. rhombeus and genetically closer to Japanese A. rhombeus than to Korean A. rhombeus. Divergence of Korean A. rhombeus and A. barbatulus from Japanese A. rhombeus was estimated to be from the late Pliocene (3.44 Mya) and the early Pleistocene (1.98 Mya), respectively. Each event closely coincided with the time of the Japan Sea opening. Japanese A. rhombeus comprised seven lineages: three in Honshu and four in Kyushu. One lineage in central Kyushu was genetically closer to the Honshu lineages than to other lineages in northern Kyushu. Divergence of Japanese lineages was estimated to be from the early to middle Pleistocene (0.55-0.93 Mya), during a period of geological and paleoclimatic change, including volcanic activity. Population expansion in the late Pleistocene (<0.10 Ma) was suggested in many of the lineages, which accords with other freshwater fishes. Biogeographically the ancestral A. rhombeus/A. barbatulus was likely to have repeatedly colonized Japan from the continent through land bridges in the late Pliocene and the early Pleistocene. However, the close genetic relationship between Japanese A. rhombeus and A. barbatulus suggests another possibility, with the second colonization occurring in reverse, from Japan to China. The small genetic distance between them indicates that the colonization occurred later than colonization events of other freshwater fishes, including other bitterling species.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

Proust B, Radić M, Vidaček NŠ, et al (2021)

NME6 is a phosphotransfer-inactive, monomeric NME/NDPK family member and functions in complexes at the interface of mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix.

Cell & bioscience, 11(1):195.

BACKGROUND: NME6 is a member of the nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK/NME/Nm23) family which has key roles in nucleotide homeostasis, signal transduction, membrane remodeling and metastasis suppression. The well-studied NME1-NME4 proteins are hexameric and catalyze, via a phospho-histidine intermediate, the transfer of the terminal phosphate from (d)NTPs to (d)NDPs (NDP kinase) or proteins (protein histidine kinase). For the NME6, a gene/protein that emerged early in eukaryotic evolution, only scarce and partially inconsistent data are available. Here we aim to clarify and extend our knowledge on the human NME6.

RESULTS: We show that NME6 is mostly expressed as a 186 amino acid protein, but that a second albeit much less abundant isoform exists. The recombinant NME6 remains monomeric, and does not assemble into homo-oligomers or hetero-oligomers with NME1-NME4. Consequently, NME6 is unable to catalyze phosphotransfer: it does not generate the phospho-histidine intermediate, and no NDPK activity can be detected. In cells, we could resolve and extend existing contradictory reports by localizing NME6 within mitochondria, largely associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix space. Overexpressing NME6 reduces ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and complex III abundance, thus linking NME6 to dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation. However, it did not alter mitochondrial membrane potential, mass, or network characteristics. Our screen for NME6 protein partners revealed its association with NME4 and OPA1, but a direct interaction was observed only with RCC1L, a protein involved in mitochondrial ribosome assembly and mitochondrial translation, and identified as essential for oxidative phosphorylation.

CONCLUSIONS: NME6, RCC1L and mitoribosomes localize together at the inner membrane/matrix space where NME6, in concert with RCC1L, may be involved in regulation of the mitochondrial translation of essential oxidative phosphorylation subunits. Our findings suggest new functions for NME6, independent of the classical phosphotransfer activity associated with NME proteins.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Bykov YS, Flohr T, Boos F, et al (2021)

Widespread use of unconventional targeting signals in mitochondrial ribosome proteins.

The EMBO journal [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondrial ribosomes are complex molecular machines indispensable for respiration. Their assembly involves the import of several dozens of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs), encoded in the nuclear genome, into the mitochondrial matrix. Proteomic and structural data as well as computational predictions indicate that up to 25% of yeast MRPs do not have a conventional N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS). We experimentally characterized a set of 15 yeast MRPs in vivo and found that five use internal MTSs. Further analysis of a conserved model MRP, Mrp17/bS6m, revealed the identity of the internal targeting signal. Similar to conventional MTS-containing proteins, the internal sequence mediates binding to TOM complexes. The entire sequence of Mrp17 contains positive charges mediating translocation. The fact that these sequence properties could not be reliably predicted by standard methods shows that mitochondrial protein targeting is more versatile than expected. We hypothesize that structural constraints imposed by ribosome assembly interfaces may have disfavored N-terminal presequences and driven the evolution of internal targeting signals in MRPs.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Miyazawa H, Osigus HJ, Rolfes S, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial Genome Evolution of Placozoans: Gene Rearrangements and Repeat Expansions.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(1):.

Placozoans, nonbilaterian animals with the simplest known metazoan bauplan, are currently classified into 20 haplotypes belonging to three genera, Polyplacotoma, Trichoplax, and Hoilungia. The latter two comprise two and five clades, respectively. In Trichoplax and Hoilungia, previous studies on six haplotypes belonging to four different clades have shown that their mtDNAs are circular chromosomes of 32-43 kb in size, which encode 12 protein-coding genes, 24 tRNAs, and two rRNAs. These mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) also show unique features rarely seen in other metazoans, including open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function, and group I and II introns. Here, we report seven new mitogenomes, covering the five previously described haplotypes H2, H17, H19, H9, and H11, as well as two new haplotypes, H23 (clade III) and H24 (clade VII). The overall gene content is shared between all placozoan mitochondrial genomes, but genome sizes, gene orders, and several exon-intron boundaries vary among clades. Phylogenomic analyses strongly support a tree topology different from previous 16S rRNA analyses, with clade VI as the sister group to all other Hoilungia clades. We found small inverted repeats in all 13 mitochondrial genomes of the Trichoplax and Hoilungia genera and evaluated their distribution patterns among haplotypes. Because Polyplacotoma mediterranea (H0), the sister to the remaining haplotypes, has a small mitochondrial genome with few small inverted repeats and ORFs, we hypothesized that the proliferation of inverted repeats and ORFs substantially contributed to the observed increase in the size and GC content of the Trichoplax and Hoilungia mitochondrial genomes.

RevDate: 2021-11-16

Holehouse AS, Ginell GM, Griffith D, et al (2021)

Clustering of Aromatic Residues in Prion-like Domains Can Tune the Formation, State, and Organization of Biomolecular Condensates.

Biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

In immature oocytes, Balbiani bodies are conserved membraneless condensates implicated in oocyte polarization, the organization of mitochondria, and long-term organelle and RNA storage. In Xenopus laevis, Balbiani body assembly is mediated by the protein Velo1. Velo1 contains an N-terminal prion-like domain (PLD) that is essential for Balbiani body formation. PLDs have emerged as a class of intrinsically disordered regions that can undergo various different types of intracellular phase transitions and are often associated with dynamic, liquid-like condensates. Intriguingly, the Velo1 PLD forms solid-like assemblies. Here we sought to understand why Velo1 phase behavior appears to be biophysically distinct from that of other PLD-containing proteins. Through bioinformatic analysis and coarse-grained simulations, we predict that the clustering of aromatic residues and the amino acid composition of residues between aromatics can influence condensate material properties, organization, and the driving forces for assembly. To test our predictions, we redesigned the Velo1 PLD to test the impact of targeted sequence changes in vivo. We found that the Velo1 design with evenly spaced aromatic residues shows rapid internal dynamics, as probed by fluorescent recovery after photobleaching, even when recruited into Balbiani bodies. Our results suggest that Velo1 might have been selected in evolution for distinctly clustered aromatic residues to maintain the structure of Balbiani bodies in long-lived oocytes. In general, our work identifies several tunable parameters that can be used to augment the condensate material state, offering a road map for the design of synthetic condensates.

RevDate: 2021-11-16
CmpDate: 2021-11-16

Liu Y, Qu J, Shi Z, et al (2021)

Comparative genomic analysis of the tricarboxylic acid cycle members in four Solanaceae vegetable crops and expression pattern analysis in Solanum tuberosum.

BMC genomics, 22(1):821.

BACKGROUND: The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is crucial for energy supply in animal, plant, and microbial cells. It is not only the main pathway of carbohydrate catabolism but also the final pathway of lipid and protein catabolism. Some TCA genes have been found to play important roles in the growth and development of tomato and potato, but no comprehensive study of TCA cycle genes in Solanaceae crops has been reported.

RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed TCA cycle genes in four important Solanaceae vegetable crops (potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum)) based on comparative genomics. The four Solanaceae crops had a total of 180 TCA cycle genes: 43 in potato, 44 in tomato, 40 in eggplant, and 53 in pepper. Phylogenetic analysis, collinearity analysis, and tissue expression patterns revealed the conservation of and differences in TCA cycle genes between the four Solanaceae crops and found that there were unique subgroup members in Solanaceae crops that were independent of Arabidopsis genes. The expression analysis of potato TCA cycle genes showed that (1) they were widely expressed in various tissues, and some transcripts like Soltu.DM.01G003320.1(SCoAL) and Soltu.DM.04G021520.1 (SDH) mainly accumulate in vegetative organs, and some transcripts such as Soltu.DM.12G005620.3 (SDH) and Soltu.DM.02G007400.4 (MDH) are preferentially expressed in reproductive organs; (2) several transcripts can be significantly induced by hormones, such as Soltu.DM.08G023870.2 (IDH) and Soltu.DM.06G029290.1 (SDH) under ABA treatment, and Soltu.DM.07G021850.2 (CSY) and Soltu.DM.09G026740.1 (MDH) under BAP treatment, and Soltu.DM.02G000940.1 (IDH) and Soltu.DM.01G031350.4 (MDH) under GA treatment; (3) Soltu.DM.11G024650.1 (SDH) can be upregulated by the three disease resistance inducers including Phytophthora infestans, acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH), and DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA); and (4) the levels of Soltu.DM.01G045790.1 (MDH), Soltu.DM.01G028520.3 (CSY), and Soltu.DM.12G028700.1 (CSY) can be activated by both NaCl and mannitol. The subcellular localization results of three potato citrate synthases showed that Soltu.DM.01G028520.3 was localized in mitochondria, while Soltu.DM.12G028700.1 and Soltu.DM.07G021850.1 were localized in the cytoplasm.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a scientific foundation for the comprehensive understanding and functional studies of TCA cycle genes in Solanaceae crops and reveals their potential roles in potato growth, development, and stress response.

RevDate: 2021-11-16
CmpDate: 2021-11-16

Phadungsaksawasdi K, Sunantaraporn S, Seatamanoch N, et al (2021)

Molecular analysis of mitochrondrial cytb of Pediculus humanus capitis in Thailand revealed potential historical connection with South Asia.

PloS one, 16(9):e0257024.

BACKGROUND: Pediculus humanus capitis or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite and its infestation remains a major public health issue worldwide. Molecular analysis divides head lice into six clades and intra-clade genetic differences have been identified. Several hypotheses have been formulated to elucidate the discrepancies of the variety of head lice among different regions of the world. It is currently concluded that head lice distribution might be associated with human migration history. This study aims to investigate genetic data of human head lice in Thailand. We believe that the analysis could help establish the correlation between local and global head lice populations.

METHOD: We investigated mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene of the collected 214 head lice to evaluate genetic diversity from 15 provinces among 6 regions of Thailand. The head lice genes were added to the global pool for the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian tree, Skyline plot, and median joining network construction. The biodiversity, neutrality tests, and population genetic differentiation among the 6 Thailand geographic regions were analyzed by DNAsp version 6.

RESULTS: The phylogenetic tree analysis of 214 collected head lice are of clade A and clade C accounting for roughly 65% and 35% respectively. The Bayesian tree revealed a correlation of clade diversification and ancient human dispersal timeline. In Thailand, clade A is widespread in the country. Clade C is confined to only the Central, Southern, and Northeastern regions. We identified 50 novel haplotypes. Statistical analysis showed congruent results between genetic differentiation and population migration especially with South Asia.

CONCLUSIONS: Pediculosis remains problematic among children in the rural areas in Thailand. Cytb gene analysis of human head lice illustrated clade distribution and intra-clade diversity of different areas. Our study reported novel haplotypes of head lice in Thailand. Moreover, the statistic calculation provided a better understanding of their relationship with human, as an obligate human parasite and might help provide a better insight into the history of human population migration. Determination of the correlation between phylogenetic data and pediculicide resistance gene as well as residing bacteria are of interest for future studies.

RevDate: 2021-11-11
CmpDate: 2021-11-11

Comandatore F, Radaelli G, Montante S, et al (2021)

Modeling the Life Cycle of the Intramitochondrial Bacterium "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii" Using Electron Microscopy Data.

mBio, 12(3):e0057421.

"Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii" is a Gram-negative bacterium that lives in strict intracellular symbiosis with the hard tick Ixodes ricinus, forming one of the most intriguing endosymbiosis described to date. The bacterium is capable of durably colonizing the host mitochondria, a peculiar tropism that makes "Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii" a very interesting tool to study the physiology of these cellular organelles. The interaction between the symbiont and the organelle has, however, been difficult to characterize. A parallelism with the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus has been drawn, suggesting the hypothesis that "Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii" could prey on mitochondria and consume them to multiply. We studied the life cycle of the bacterium within the host oocytes using a multidisciplinary approach, including electron microscopy, molecular biology, statistics, and systems biology. Our results were not coherent with a predatory-like behavior by "Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii" leading us to propose a novel hypothesis for its life cycle. Based on our results, we here present a novel model called the "mitochondrion-to-mitochondrion hypothesis." Under this model, the bacterium would be able to move from mitochondrion to mitochondrion, possibly within a mitochondrial network. We show that this model presents a good fit with quantitative electron microscopy data. IMPORTANCE Our results suggest that "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii," the intramitochondrial bacterium, does not invade mitochondria like predatory bacteria do but instead moves from mitochondrion to mitochondrion within the oocytes of Ixodes ricinus. A better understanding of the lifestyle of "Ca. Midichloria mitochondrii" will allow us to better define the role of this bacterial symbiont in the host physiology.

RevDate: 2021-11-15
CmpDate: 2021-11-15

Jacome Burbano MS, E Gilson (2021)

The Power of Stress: The Telo-Hormesis Hypothesis.

Cells, 10(5):.

Adaptative response to stress is a strategy conserved across evolution to promote survival. In this context, the groundbreaking findings of Miroslav Radman on the adaptative value of changing mutation rates opened new avenues in our understanding of stress response. Inspired by this work, we explore here the putative beneficial effects of changing the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, the telomeres, in response to stress. We first summarize basic principles in telomere biology and then describe how various types of stress can alter telomere structure and functions. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of stress-induced telomere signaling with hormetic effects.

RevDate: 2021-11-10
CmpDate: 2021-11-10

Sucháčková Bartoňová A, Konvička M, Marešová J, et al (2021)

Wolbachia affects mitochondrial population structure in two systems of closely related Palaearctic blue butterflies.

Scientific reports, 11(1):3019.

The bacterium Wolbachia infects many insect species and spreads by diverse vertical and horizontal means. As co-inherited organisms, these bacteria often cause problems in mitochondrial phylogeny inference. The phylogenetic relationships of many closely related Palaearctic blue butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae) are ambiguous. We considered the patterns of Wolbachia infection and mitochondrial diversity in two systems: Aricia agestis/Aricia artaxerxes and the Pseudophilotes baton species complex. We sampled butterflies across their distribution ranges and sequenced one butterfly mitochondrial gene and two Wolbachia genes. Both butterfly systems had uninfected and infected populations, and harboured several Wolbachia strains. Wolbachia was highly prevalent in A. artaxerxes and the host's mitochondrial structure was shallow, in contrast to A. agestis. Similar bacterial alleles infected both Aricia species from nearby sites, pointing to a possible horizontal transfer. Mitochondrial history of the P. baton species complex mirrored its Wolbachia infection and not the taxonomical division. Pseudophilotes baton and P. vicrama formed a hybrid zone in Europe. Wolbachia could obscure mitochondrial history, but knowledge on the infection helps us to understand the observed patterns. Testing for Wolbachia should be routine in mitochondrial DNA studies.

RevDate: 2021-11-10
CmpDate: 2021-11-10

Pabis K (2021)

Triplex and other DNA motifs show motif-specific associations with mitochondrial DNA deletions and species lifespan.

Mechanisms of ageing and development, 194:111429.

The "theory of resistant biomolecules" posits that long-lived species show resistance to molecular damage at the level of their biomolecules. Here, we test this hypothesis in the context of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as it implies that predicted mutagenic DNA motifs should be inversely correlated with species maximum lifespan (MLS). First, we confirmed that guanine-quadruplex and direct repeat (DR) motifs are mutagenic, as they associate with mtDNA deletions in the human major arc of mtDNA, while also adding mirror repeat (MR) and intramolecular triplex motifs to a growing list of potentially mutagenic features. What is more, triplex motifs showed disease-specific associations with deletions and an apparent interaction with guanine-quadruplex motifs. Surprisingly, even though DR, MR and guanine-quadruplex motifs were associated with mtDNA deletions, their correlation with MLS was explained by the biased base composition of mtDNA. Only triplex motifs negatively correlated with MLS even after adjusting for body mass, phylogeny, mtDNA base composition and effective number of codons. Taken together, our work highlights the importance of base composition for the comparative biogerontology of mtDNA and suggests that future research on mitochondrial triplex motifs is warranted.

RevDate: 2021-11-08

Thomas LW, M Ashcroft (2021)

The Contextual Essentiality of Mitochondrial Genes in Cancer.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 9:695351.

Mitochondria are key organelles in eukaryotic evolution that perform crucial roles as metabolic and cellular signaling hubs. Mitochondrial function and dysfunction are associated with a range of diseases, including cancer. Mitochondria support cancer cell proliferation through biosynthetic reactions and their role in signaling, and can also promote tumorigenesis via processes such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The advent of (nuclear) genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 deletion screens has provided gene-level resolution of the requirement of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes (NEMGs) for cancer cell viability (essentiality). More recently, it has become apparent that the essentiality of NEMGs is highly dependent on the cancer cell context. In particular, key tumor microenvironmental factors such as hypoxia, and changes in nutrient (e.g., glucose) availability, significantly influence the essentiality of NEMGs. In this mini-review we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of NEMGs to cancer from CRISPR-Cas9 deletion screens, and discuss emerging concepts surrounding the context-dependent nature of mitochondrial gene essentiality.

RevDate: 2021-11-09
CmpDate: 2021-11-09

Collado GA, Torres-Díaz C, MA Valladares (2021)

Phylogeography and molecular species delimitation reveal cryptic diversity in Potamolithus (Caenogastropoda: Tateidae) of the southwest basin of the Andes.

Scientific reports, 11(1):15735.

The species of the genus Potamolithus inhabiting the southwestern basin of the Andes are difficult to distinguish due to small size and similar shell morphology. Only Potamolithus australis and Potamolithus santiagensis have been traditionally recognized in this region, but the occurrence of several morphologically similar undescribed populations could increase the regional richness. Here we delimit described and potentially undescribed cryptic species of the genus using partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Network analysis and diversity indices inferred six highly differentiated haplogroups, many of them sympatric and widespread in the study area. Phylogeographic analyses suggest a scenario of recent diversification and the occurrence of multiple refuges during the successive Pleistocene glaciations. Phylogenetic analysis also recovered six major clades that showed no relationship with physiography. Species delimitation analyses consistently recognized three or four candidate species apart from P. australis and P. santiagensis. Divergence times indicate that speciation of Chilean Potamolithus began at the end of the Pliocene, probably driven by climatic rather than geographic events. Considering the high inter- and intra-basin genetic diversity, conservation efforts should be focused on protecting sympatric taxa in the basins with the highest species richness.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Scarpassa VM, Cunha-Machado AS, RB Alencar (2021)

Multiple evolutionary lineages for the main vector of Leishmania guyanensis, Lutzomyia umbratilis (Diptera: Psychodidae), in the Brazilian Amazon.

Scientific reports, 11(1):15323.

Lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of Leishmania guyanensis in the Brazilian Amazon and in neighboring countries. Previous biological and molecular investigations have revealed significant differences between L. umbratilis populations from the central Brazilian Amazon region. Here, a phylogeographic survey of L. umbratilis populations collected from nine localities in the Brazilian Amazon was conducted using two mitochondrial genes. Statistical analyses focused on population genetics, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitations. COI genetic diversity was very high, whereas Cytb diversity was moderate. COI genealogical haplotypes, population structure and phylogenetic analyses identified a deep genetic differentiation and three main genetic groups. Cytb showed a shallower genetic structure, two main haplogroups and poorly resolved phylogenetic trees. These findings, allied to absence of isolation by distance, support the hypothesis that the Amazon and Negro Rivers and interfluves are the main evolutionary forces driving L. umbratilis diversification. The main three genetic groups observed represent three evolutionary lineages, possibly species. The first lineage occurs north of the Amazon River and east of Negro River, where Le. guyanensis transmission is intense, implying that L. umbratilis is an important vector there. The second lineage is in the interfluve between north of Amazon River and west of Negro River, an area reported to be free of Le. guyanensis transmission. The third lineage, first recorded in this study, is in the interfluve between south of Amazonas River and west of Madeira River, and its involvement in the transmission of this parasite remains to be elucidated.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Ye L, Yao T, Lu J, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial genomes of two Polydora (Spionidae) species provide further evidence that mitochondrial architecture in the Sedentaria (Annelida) is not conserved.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13552.

Contrary to the early evidence, which indicated that the mitochondrial architecture in one of the two major annelida clades, Sedentaria, is relatively conserved, a handful of relatively recent studies found evidence that some species exhibit elevated rates of mitochondrial architecture evolution. We sequenced complete mitogenomes belonging to two congeneric shell-boring Spionidae species that cause considerable economic losses in the commercial marine mollusk aquaculture: Polydora brevipalpa and Polydora websteri. The two mitogenomes exhibited very similar architecture. In comparison to other sedentarians, they exhibited some standard features, including all genes encoded on the same strand, uncommon but not unique duplicated trnM gene, as well as a number of unique features. Their comparatively large size (17,673 bp) can be attributed to four non-coding regions larger than 500 bp. We identified an unusually large (putative) overlap of 14 bases between nad2 and cox1 genes in both species. Importantly, the two species exhibited completely rearranged gene orders in comparison to all other available mitogenomes. Along with Serpulidae and Sabellidae, Polydora is the third identified sedentarian lineage that exhibits disproportionally elevated rates of mitogenomic architecture rearrangements. Selection analyses indicate that these three lineages also exhibited relaxed purifying selection pressures.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Soukal P, Hrdá Š, Karnkowska A, et al (2021)

Heterotrophic euglenid Rhabdomonas costata resembles its phototrophic relatives in many aspects of molecular and cell biology.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13070.

Euglenids represent a group of protists with diverse modes of feeding. To date, only a partial genomic sequence of Euglena gracilis and transcriptomes of several phototrophic and secondarily osmotrophic species are available, while primarily heterotrophic euglenids are seriously undersampled. In this work, we begin to fill this gap by presenting genomic and transcriptomic drafts of a primary osmotroph, Rhabdomonas costata. The current genomic assembly length of 100 Mbp is 14× smaller than that of E. gracilis. Despite being too fragmented for comprehensive gene prediction it provided fragments of the mitochondrial genome and comparison of the transcriptomic and genomic data revealed features of its introns, including several candidates for nonconventional types. A set of 39,456 putative R. costata proteins was predicted from the transcriptome. Annotation of the mitochondrial core metabolism provides the first data on the facultatively anaerobic mitochondrion of R. costata, which in most respects resembles the mitochondrion of E. gracilis with a certain level of streamlining. R. costata can synthetise thiamine by enzymes of heterogenous provenances and haem by a mitochondrial-cytoplasmic C4 pathway with enzymes orthologous to those found in E. gracilis. The low percentage of green algae-affiliated genes supports the ancestrally osmotrophic status of this species.

RevDate: 2021-11-09
CmpDate: 2021-11-09

Machkour-M'Rabet S, Hanes MM, Martínez-Noguez JJ, et al (2021)

The queen conch mitogenome: intra- and interspecific mitogenomic variability in Strombidae and phylogenetic considerations within the Hypsogastropoda.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11972.

Aliger gigas is an economically important and vulnerable marine species. We present a new mitogenome of A. gigas from the Mexican Caribbean and use the eight publicly available Strombidae mitogenomes to analyze intra- and interspecific variation. We present the most complete phylogenomic understanding of Hypsogastropoda to date (17 superfamilies, 39 families, 85 genera, 109 species) to revisit the phylogenetic position of the Stromboidea and evaluate divergence times throughout the phylogeny. The A. gigas mitogenome comprises 15,460 bp including 13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs. Nucleotide diversity suggested divergence between the Mexican and Colombian lineages of A. gigas. Interspecific divergence showed high differentiation among Strombidae species and demonstrated a close relationship between A. gigas and Strombus pugilis, between Lambis lambis and Harpago chiragra, and among Tridentarius dentatus/Laevistrombus canarium/Ministrombus variabilis. At the intraspecific level, the gene showing the highest differentiation is ATP8 and the lowest is NAD4L, whereas at the interspecific level the NAD genes show the highest variation and the COX genes the lowest. Phylogenomic analyses confirm that Stromboidea belongs in the non-Latrogastropoda clade and includes Xenophoridea. The phylogenomic position of other superfamilies, including those of previously uncertain affiliation, is also discussed. Finally, our data indicated that Stromboidea diverged into two principal clades in the early Cretaceous while Strombidae diversified in the Paleocene, and lineage diversification within A. gigas took place in the Pleistocene.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Van Keuren AM, Tsai CW, Balderas E, et al (2020)

Mechanisms of EMRE-Dependent MCU Opening in the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Complex.

Cell reports, 33(10):108486.

The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is a multi-subunit Ca2+-activated Ca2+ channel, made up of the pore-forming MCU protein, a metazoan-specific EMRE subunit, and MICU1/MICU2, which mediate Ca2+ activation. It has been established that metazoan MCU requires EMRE binding to conduct Ca2+, but how EMRE promotes MCU opening remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that EMRE controls MCU activity via its transmembrane helix, while using an N-terminal PKP motif to strengthen binding with MCU. Opening of MCU requires hydrophobic interactions mediated by MCU residues near the pore's luminal end. Enhancing these interactions by single mutation allows human MCU to transport Ca2+ without EMRE. We further show that EMRE may facilitate MCU opening by stabilizing the open state in a conserved MCU gating mechanism, present also in non-metazoan MCU homologs. These results provide insights into the evolution of the uniporter machinery and elucidate the mechanism underlying the physiologically crucial EMRE-dependent MCU activation process.

RevDate: 2021-11-05
CmpDate: 2021-11-05

Kloss-Brandstätter A, Summerer M, Horst D, et al (2021)

An in-depth analysis of the mitochondrial phylogenetic landscape of Cambodia.

Scientific reports, 11(1):10816.

Cambodia harbours a variety of human aboriginal populations that have scarcely been studied in terms of genetic diversity of entire mitochondrial genomes. Here we present the matrilineal gene pool of 299 Cambodian refugees from three different ethnic groups (Cham, Khmer, and Khmer Loeu) deriving from 16 Cambodian districts. After establishing a DNA-saving high-throughput strategy for mitochondrial whole-genome Sanger sequencing, a HaploGrep based workflow was used for quality control, haplogroup classification and phylogenetic reconstruction. The application of diverse phylogenetic algorithms revealed an exciting picture of the genetic diversity of Cambodia, especially in relation to populations from Southeast Asia and from the whole world. A total of 224 unique haplotypes were identified, which were mostly classified under haplogroups B5a1, F1a1, or categorized as newly defined basal haplogroups or basal sub-branches of R, N and M clades. The presence of autochthonous maternal lineages could be confirmed as reported in previous studies. The exceptional homogeneity observed between and within the three investigated Cambodian ethnic groups indicates genetic isolation of the whole population. Between ethnicities, genetic barriers were not detected. The mtDNA data presented here increases the phylogenetic resolution in Cambodia significantly, thereby highlighting the need for an update of the current human mtDNA phylogeny.

RevDate: 2021-11-04

Hüdig M, Tronconi MA, Zubimendi JP, et al (2021)

Respiratory and C4-photosynthetic NAD-malic enzyme coexist in bundle sheath cell mitochondria and evolved via association of differentially adapted subunits.

The Plant cell pii:6420711 [Epub ahead of print].

In plant mitochondria, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD)-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) has a housekeeping function in malate respiration. In different plant lineages, NAD-ME was independently co-opted in C4 photosynthesis. In the C4 Cleome species Gynandropsis gynandra and Cleome angustifolia, all NAD-ME genes (NAD-MEα, NAD-MEβ1, and NAD-MEβ2) were affected by C4 evolution and are expressed at higher levels than their orthologs in the C3 species Tarenaya hassleriana. In Tarenaya hassleriana, the NAD-ME housekeeping function is performed by two heteromers, NAD-MEα/β1 and NAD-MEα/β2, with similar biochemical properties. In both C4 species, this role is restricted to NAD-MEα/β2. In the C4 species, NAD-MEα/β1 is exclusively present in the leaves, where it accounts for most of the enzymatic activity. GgNAD-MEα/β1 exhibits high catalytic efficiency and is differentially activated by the C4 intermediate aspartate, confirming its role as the C4-decarboxylase. During C4 evolution, NAD-MEβ1 lost its catalytic activity; its contribution to the enzymatic activity results from a stabilizing effect on the associated α-subunit and the adquisition of regulatory properties. We conclude that in bundle sheath cell mitochondria of C4 species, the functions of NAD-ME as C4 photosynthetic decarboxylase and as a housekeeping enzyme coexist and are performed by isoforms that combine the same α subunit with differentially adapted β subunits.

RevDate: 2021-11-04
CmpDate: 2021-11-04

Elfekih S, Tay WT, Polaszek A, et al (2021)

On species delimitation, hybridization and population structure of cassava whitefly in Africa.

Scientific reports, 11(1):7923.

The Bemisia cassava whitefly complex includes species that cause severe crop damage through vectoring cassava viruses in eastern Africa. Currently, this whitefly complex is divided into species and subgroups (SG) based on very limited molecular markers that do not allow clear definition of species and population structure. Based on 14,358 genome-wide SNPs from 62 Bemisia cassava whitefly individuals belonging to sub-Saharan African species (SSA1, SSA2 and SSA4), and using a well-curated mtCOI gene database, we show clear incongruities in previous taxonomic approaches underpinned by effects from pseudogenes. We show that the SSA4 species is nested within SSA2, and that populations of the SSA1 species comprise well-defined south-eastern (Madagascar, Tanzania) and north-western (Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi) putative sub-species. Signatures of allopatric incipient speciation, and the presence of a 'hybrid zone' separating the two putative sub-species were also detected. These findings provide insights into the evolution and molecular ecology of a highly cryptic hemipteran insect complex in African, and allow the systematic use of genomic data to be incorporated in the development of management strategies for this cassava pest.

RevDate: 2021-11-04
CmpDate: 2021-11-04

Dallai R, Fanciulli PP, Lupetti P, et al (2021)

The ultrastructure of sperm and female sperm storage organs in the water strider Gerris lacustris L. (Heteroptera) and a possible example of genital coevolution.

Arthropod structure & development, 61:101043.

The fine structural organization of the male and the female inner reproductive apparatuses of the water-strider Gerris lacustris was studied. The sperm of the species shows a long helicoidal acrosome provided with longitudinal tubules, and a short nucleus. The flagellum is characterized by crescent mitochondrial derivatives and a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme, as occurs in all Heteroptera. The female reproductive apparatus is characterized by an extremely long spermathecal duct, filled with sperm, which plays the role of the main sperm storage organ. The duct has a thin epithelium surrounded by a complex of secretory and duct-forming cells. The spermathecal duct flows into the gynatrial sac. This region, together with the fertilization chamber, exhibits a simple epithelium with deep apical plasma membrane invaginations, and it does not show conspicuous secretions. The basal cell region shows plasma membrane infoldings forming thin cytoplasmic bands hosting mitochondria and large intercellular spaces. This organization is typical of epithelia active in fluid reabsorption. Two lateral large gynatrial glands open into the gynatrial sac. Such glands also exhibit secretory and duct forming cells. The same structure of these glands is also present along the proximal region of the fecundation canal. The duct forming cells of these regions have very wide ducts with peculiar cuticular finger-like structures at their opening into the gland duct lumen. The results of the present study suggest the occurrence of a coevolution between the sperm and the spermathecal duct lengths.

RevDate: 2021-11-04
CmpDate: 2021-11-04

Pacheco MA, Ceríaco LMP, Matta NE, et al (2020)

A phylogenetic study of Haemocystidium parasites and other Haemosporida using complete mitochondrial genome sequences.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 85:104576.

Haemosporida are diverse vector-borne parasites associated with terrestrial vertebrates. Driven by the interest in species causing malaria (genus Plasmodium), the diversity of avian and mammalian haemosporidian species has been extensively studied, relying mostly on mitochondrial genes, particularly cytochrome b. However, parasites from reptiles have been neglected in biodiversity surveys. Reptilian haemosporidian parasites include Haemocystidium, a genus that shares morphological features with Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Here, the first complete Haemocystidium mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes are studied. In particular, three mtDNA genomes from Haemocystidium spp. sampled in Africa, Oceania, and South America, are described. The Haemocystidium mtDNA genomes showed a high A + T content and a gene organization, including an extreme fragmentation of the rRNAs, found in other Haemosporida. These Haemocystidium mtDNA genomes were incorporated in phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses together with a representative sample of haemosporidian parasites from birds, mammals, and reptiles. The recovered phylogeny supported Haemocystidium as a monophyletic group apart from Plasmodium and other Haemosporida. Both the phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses yielded results consistent with a scenario in which haemosporidian parasites radiated with modern birds. Haemocystidium, like mammalian parasite clades, seems to originate from host switches by avian Haemosporida that allowed for the colonization of new vertebrate hosts. This hypothesis can be tested by investigating additional parasite species from all vertebrate hosts, particularly from reptiles. The mtDNA genomes reported here provide baseline data that can be used to scale up studies in haemosporidian parasites of reptiles using barcode approaches.

RevDate: 2021-11-03
CmpDate: 2021-11-03

Sarkar BK, Sharma AR, Bhattacharya M, et al (2021)

Determination of k-mer density in a DNA sequence and subsequent cluster formation algorithm based on the application of electronic filter.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13701.

We describe a novel algorithm for information recovery from DNA sequences by using a digital filter. This work proposes a three-part algorithm to decide the k-mer or q-gram word density. Employing a finite impulse response digital filter, one can calculate the sequence's k-mer or q-gram word density. Further principal component analysis is used on word density distribution to analyze the dissimilarity between sequences. A dissimilarity matrix is thus formed and shows the appearance of cluster formation. This cluster formation is constructed based on the alignment-free sequence method. Furthermore, the clusters are used to build phylogenetic relations. The cluster algorithm is in good agreement with alignment-based algorithms. The present algorithm is simple and requires less time for computation than other currently available algorithms. We tested the algorithm using beta hemoglobin coding sequences (HBB) of 10 different species and 18 primate mitochondria genome (mtDNA) sequences.

RevDate: 2021-11-03
CmpDate: 2021-11-03

Castro-Pereira D, Peres EA, R Pinto-da-Rocha (2021)

Systematics and phylogeography of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest endemic harvestmen Neosadocus Mello-Leitão, 1926 (Arachnida: Opiliones: Gonyleptidae).

PloS one, 16(6):e0249746.

Neosadocus harvestmen are endemic to the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Although they are conspicuous and display great morphological variation, their evolutionary history and the biogeographical events underlying their diversification and distribution are still unknown. This contribution about Neosadocus includes the following: a taxonomic revision; a molecular phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear markers; an investigation of the genetic structure and species' diversity in a phylogeographical framework. Our results show that Neosadocus is a monophyletic group and comprises four species: N. bufo, N. maximus, N. robustus and N. misandrus (which we did not find on fieldwork and only studied the female holotype). There is astonishing male polymorphism in N. robustus, mostly related to reproductive strategies. The following synonymies have resulted from this work: "Bunoweyhia" variabilis Mello-Leitão, 1935 = Neosadocus bufo (Mello-Leitão, 1926); and "Bunoweyhia" minor Mello-Leitão, 1935 = Neosadocus maximus (Giltay, 1928). Most divergences occurred during the Miocene, a geological epoch marked by intense orogenic and climatic events in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Intraspecific analyses indicate strong population structure, a pattern congruent with the general behavior and physiological constraints of Neotropical harvestmen.

RevDate: 2021-11-02
CmpDate: 2021-11-02

Jaimes Díaz H, Martínez Covarrubias EI, Murcia Garzón JE, et al (2021)

Phylogenomic study and classification of mitochondrial DNA through virtual genomic fingerprints.

Mitochondrion, 57:294-299.

In the present study, we evaluated the ability of the Virtual Analysis Method for Phylogenomic fingerprint Estimation (VAMPhyRE) toolkit to classify human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. In total, 357 random mtDNA sequences were obtained from different haplogroups, based on the classification of PhyloTree. Additionally, we included a control group of five sequences (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, Yoruba15, and the revised Cambridge reference sequence). VAMPhyRE employs a virtual hybridization technique, using probes that specifically bind to their complementary sequences in the genome. We used 65,536 probes of 8 nucleotides to identify potential sites where hybridization occurs between the mtDNA and the specific probe, forming different heteroduplexes and thus, creating a unique and specific genomic fingerprint for each sequence. Genomic fingerprints were compared, and a table of distances was calculated to obtain a mitochondrial phylogenomic tree with the macrohaplogroups, L, N, M, and R, and their corresponding haplogroups, according to universal nomenclature. The results obtained suggest an accuracy of 97.25% for the distribution of the 357 mtDNA sequences in the four macrohaplogroups and their corresponding haplogroups when compared with other mtDNA classification tools that require reference sequences and do not offer an analysis based on an evolutionary approach. These data are available online at http://biomedbiotec.encb.ipn.mx/VAMPhyRE/.

RevDate: 2021-10-29

Hochberg I, Demain LAM, Richer J, et al (2021)

Bi-allelic variants in the mitochondrial RNase P subunit PRORP cause mitochondrial tRNA processing defects and pleiotropic multisystem presentations.

American journal of human genetics pii:S0002-9297(21)00379-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Human mitochondrial RNase P (mt-RNase P) is responsible for 5' end processing of mitochondrial precursor tRNAs, a vital step in mitochondrial RNA maturation, and is comprised of three protein subunits: TRMT10C, SDR5C1 (HSD10), and PRORP. Pathogenic variants in TRMT10C and SDR5C1 are associated with distinct recessive or x-linked infantile onset disorders, resulting from defects in mitochondrial RNA processing. We report four unrelated families with multisystem disease associated with bi-allelic variants in PRORP, the metallonuclease subunit of mt-RNase P. Affected individuals presented with variable phenotypes comprising sensorineural hearing loss, primary ovarian insufficiency, developmental delay, and brain white matter changes. Fibroblasts from affected individuals in two families demonstrated decreased steady state levels of PRORP, an accumulation of unprocessed mitochondrial transcripts, and decreased steady state levels of mitochondrial-encoded proteins, which were rescued by introduction of the wild-type PRORP cDNA. In mt-tRNA processing assays performed with recombinant mt-RNase P proteins, the disease-associated variants resulted in diminished mitochondrial tRNA processing. Identification of disease-causing variants in PRORP indicates that pathogenic variants in all three subunits of mt-RNase P can cause mitochondrial dysfunction, each with distinct pleiotropic clinical presentations.

RevDate: 2021-10-29

Balparda M, Elsässer M, Badia MB, et al (2021)

Acetylation of conserved lysines fine-tunes mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase activity in land plants.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Plants need to rapidly and flexibly adjust their metabolism to changes of their immediate environment. Since this necessity results from the sessile lifestyle of land plants, key mechanisms for orchestrating central metabolic acclimation are likely to have evolved early. Here, we explore the role of lysine acetylation as a posttranslational modification to directly modulate metabolic function. We generated a lysine acetylome of the moss Physcomitrium patens and identified 638 lysine acetylation sites, mostly found in mitochondrial and plastidial proteins. A comparison with available angiosperm data pinpointed lysine acetylation as a conserved regulatory strategy in land plants. Focusing on mitochondrial central metabolism, we functionally analyzed acetylation of malate dehydrogenase (mMDH), which acts as a hub of plant metabolic flexibility. In P. patens mMDH1, we detected a single acetylated lysine located next to one of the four acetylation sites detected in Arabidopsis thaliana mMDH1. We assessed the kinetic behavior of recombinant A. thaliana and P. patens mMDH1 with site-specifically incorporated acetyl-lysines. Acetylation of A. thaliana mMDH1 at K169, K170, and K334 decreases its oxaloacetate reduction activity, while acetylation of P. patens mMDH1 at K172 increases this activity. We found modulation of the malate oxidation activity only in A. thaliana mMDH1, where acetylation of K334 highly activated it. Comparative homology modelling of MDH proteins revealed that evolutionarily conserved lysines serve as hotspots of acetylation. Our combined analyses indicate lysine acetylation as a common strategy to fine-tune the activity of central metabolic enzymes with likely impact on plant acclimation capacity.

RevDate: 2021-10-28

Stairs CW, Táborský P, Salomaki ED, et al (2021)

Anaeramoebae are a divergent lineage of eukaryotes that shed light on the transition from anaerobic mitochondria to hydrogenosomes.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(21)01364-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Discoveries of diverse microbial eukaryotes and their inclusion in comprehensive phylogenomic analyses have crucially re-shaped the eukaryotic tree of life in the 21st century.1 At the deepest level, eukaryotic diversity comprises 9-10 "supergroups." One of these supergroups, the Metamonada, is particularly important to our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of eukaryotic cells, including the remodeling of mitochondrial function. All metamonads thrive in low-oxygen environments and lack classical aerobic mitochondria, instead possessing mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) with metabolisms that are adapted to low-oxygen conditions. These MROs lack an organellar genome, do not participate in the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation,2 and often synthesize ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation coupled to hydrogen production.3,4 The events that occurred during the transition from an oxygen-respiring mitochondrion to a functionally streamlined MRO early in metamonad evolution remain largely unknown. Here, we report transcriptomes of two recently described, enigmatic, anaerobic protists from the genus Anaeramoeba.5 Using phylogenomic analysis, we show that these species represent a divergent, phylum-level lineage in the tree of metamonads, emerging as a sister group of the Parabasalia and reordering the deep branching order of the metamonad tree. Metabolic reconstructions of the Anaeramoeba MROs reveal many "classical" mitochondrial features previously not seen in metamonads, including a disulfide relay import system, propionate production, and amino acid metabolism. Our findings suggest that the cenancestor of Metamonada likely had MROs with more classical mitochondrial features than previously anticipated and demonstrate how discoveries of novel lineages of high taxonomic rank continue to transform our understanding of early eukaryote evolution.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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In 1994 Bryan Sykes was called in as an expert to examine the frozen remains of a man trapped in glacial ice in northern Italy for over 5000 years―the Ice Man. Sykes succeeded in extracting DNA from the Ice Man, but even more important, writes Science News, was his "ability to directly link that DNA to Europeans living today." In this groundbreaking book, Sykes reveals how the identification of a particular strand of DNA — mitochondrial DNA — that passes unbroken through the maternal line allows scientists to trace our genetic makeup all the way back to prehistoric times―to seven primeval women, the "seven daughters of Eve."

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )