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Bibliography on: Mitochondrial Evolution

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 15 Jan 2021 at 01:47 Created: 

Mitochondrial Evolution

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Created with PubMed® Query: mitochondria AND evolution NOT 26799652[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-01-13

Koch RE, Buchanan KL, Casagrande S, et al (2021)

Integrating Mitochondrial Aerobic Metabolism into Ecology and Evolution.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(20)30354-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Biologists have long appreciated the critical role that energy turnover plays in understanding variation in performance and fitness among individuals. Whole-organism metabolic studies have provided key insights into fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, constraints operating at subcellular levels, such as those operating within the mitochondria, can also play important roles in optimizing metabolism over different energetic demands and time scales. Herein, we explore how mitochondrial aerobic metabolism influences different aspects of organismal performance, such as through changing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We consider how such insights have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning key ecological and evolutionary processes, from variation in life-history traits to adaptation to changing thermal conditions, and we highlight key areas for future research.

RevDate: 2021-01-13
CmpDate: 2021-01-13

Bi YH, Du AY, Li JL, et al (2021)

Isolation and characterization of a γ-carbonic anhydrase localized in the mitochondria of Saccharina japonica.

Chemosphere, 266:129162.

Saccharina japonica is an ecologically and economically important seaweed that is dominant in the rocky shores of cold-temperate regions, forms the major component of productive beds, and affects marine environments. S. japonica exhibits a high photosynthetic efficiency in natural seawater with low dissolved CO2 concentration, thus suggesting the presence of its carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM). However, the genes, proteins, and pathways involved in the CCM of S. japonica have not been fully identified and characterized. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a crucial component of CCM in macroalgae. In this study, the cloning, characterization, and subcellular localization of a specific CA were described. Multisequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this CA belonged to the gamma (Sjγ-CA) class. This enzyme has a full-length cDAN of 1370 bp, encodes a protein with 246 amino acids (aa; ca. 25.7 kDa), and contains the mitochondrial transit peptide of 16 aa and LbH_gama_CA_like domain of 159 aa that defined the γ-CA region. The Sjγ-CA was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 and purified as an active recombinant CA. Immunogold electron microscopy and fluorescence localization illustrated that this enzyme is localized in the mitochondria, and its transcription level is up-regulated by low CO2 concentration. These findings showed that Sjγ-CA is a possible component of the CCM in S. japonica. This work is the first to report about the mtCA of macroalgae and provides a basis for further analysis on seaweed CCM.

RevDate: 2021-01-12
CmpDate: 2021-01-12

Glare T, Campbell M, Biggs P, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial evolution in the entomopathogenic fungal genus Beauveria.

Archives of insect biochemistry and physiology, 105(4):e21754.

Species in the fungal genus Beauveria are pathogens of invertebrates and have been commonly used as the active agent in biopesticides. After many decades with few species described, recent molecular approaches to classification have led to over 25 species now delimited. Little attention has been given to the mitochondrial genomes of Beauveria but better understanding may led to insights into the nature of species and evolution in this important genus. In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of four new strains belonging to Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria caledonica and Beauveria malawiensis, and compared them to existing mitochondrial sequences of related fungi. The mitochondrial genomes of Beauveria ranged widely from 28,806 to 44,135 base pairs, with intron insertions accounting for most size variation and up to 39% (B. malawiensis) of the mitochondrial length due to introns in genes. Gene order of the common mitochondrial genes did not vary among the Beauveria sequences, but variation was observed in the number of transfer ribonucleic acid genes. Although phylogenetic analysis using whole mitochondrial genomes showed, unsurprisingly, that B. bassiana isolates were the most closely related to each other, mitochondrial codon usage suggested that some B. bassiana isolates were more similar to B. malawiensis and B. caledonica than the other B. bassiana isolates analyzed.

RevDate: 2021-01-12
CmpDate: 2021-01-12

Kornilios P, Jablonski D, Sadek RA, et al (2020)

Multilocus species-delimitation in the Xerotyphlops vermicularis (Reptilia: Typhlopidae) species complex.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 152:106922.

Scolecophidia (worm snakes) are a vertebrate group with high ecomorphological conservatism due to their burrowing lifestyle. The Eurasian or Greek blindsnake Xerotyphlops vermicularis is their only European representative, a species-complex with an old diversification history. However, its systematics and taxonomy has remained untouched. Here, we extend previous work that relied heavily on mitochondrial markers, following a multi-locus approach and applying several species-delimitation methods, including a Bayesian coalescence-based approach (STACEY). Four "species" delimitation analyses based on the mtDNA (ABGD, bGMYC, mPTP, parsimony networks) returned 14, 11, 9 and 10 clusters, respectively. By mitotyping twice as many specimens as before, we have a complete picture of each cluster's distribution. With the exception of the highly-divergent Levantine lineage, the three independent nuclear markers did not help with phylogenetic resolution, as demonstrated in haplotype networks, concatenated and species-trees, a result of incomplete lineage sorting. The prevailing model from the coalescence-based species-delimitation identified two species: the lineage from the Levant and all others. We formally recognize them as distinct species and resurrect Xerotyphlops syriacus (Jan, 1864) to include the Levantine blindsnakes. Finally, X. vermicularis and X. syriacus may represent species-complexes themselves, since they include high levels of cryptic diversity.

RevDate: 2021-01-12
CmpDate: 2021-01-12

Dupuis JR, FAH Sperling (2020)

Phylogenomic test of mitochondrial clues to archaic ancestors in a group of hybridizing swallowtail butterflies.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 152:106921.

Genomics has revolutionized our understanding of hybridization and introgression, but most of the early evidence for these processes came from studies of mitochondrial introgression. To expand these evolutionary insights from mitochondrial patterns, we evaluate phylogenetic discordance across the nuclear genomes of a hybridizing system, the Papilio machaon group of swallowtail butterflies. This species group contains three hybrid lineages (P. brevicauda, P. joanae, and P. m. kahli) that are geographically disjunct across North America and have complete fixation of a mitochondrial lineage that is otherwise primarily found in P. m. hudsonianus, a boreal subspecies of the Holarctic P. machaon. Genome-wide nuclear markers place the three hybrid lineages as a monophyletic group that is sister to P. polyxenes/P. zelicaon rather than P. machaon, although ancient hybridization between a subspecies of P. machaon and the ancestor of these three lineages is also shown by their greater nuclear affinity to P. m. hudsonianus than to other subspecies of P. machaon. Individuals from contemporary hybrid swarms in Alberta, where mitochondrial DNA fixation has not occurred, were more intermediate between their respective parent species, demonstrating diversity in mito-nuclear discordance following hybrid interactions. Our new phylogenetic findings for the P. machaon species group also include: subspecific paraphyly within P. machaon itself across its Holarctic distribution; paraphyly of P. zelicaon relative to P. polyxenes; and more divergent placement of a Mediterranean species, P. hospiton. These results provide the first comprehensive genomic evaluation of relationships within this species group and provide insight into the evolutionary dynamics of hybridization and mitochondrial introgression.

RevDate: 2021-01-11
CmpDate: 2021-01-11

Le TH, Pham LTK, Doan HTT, et al (2020)

Comparative mitogenomics of the zoonotic parasite Echinostoma revolutum resolves taxonomic relationships within the 'E. revolutum' species group and the Echinostomata (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).

Parasitology, 147(5):566-576.

The complete mitochondrial sequence of 17,030 bp was obtained from Echinostoma revolutum and characterized with those of previously reported members of the superfamily Echinostomatoidea, i.e. six echinostomatids, one echinochasmid, five fasciolids, one himasthlid, and two cyclocoelids. Relationship within suborders and between superfamilies, such as Echinostomata, Pronocephalata, Troglotremata, Opisthorchiata, and Xiphiditata, are also considered. It contained 12 protein-coding, two ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA genes and a tandem repetitive consisting non-coding region (NCR). The gene order, one way-positive transcription, the absence of atp8 and the overlapped region by 40 bp between nad4L and nad4 genes were similar as in common trematodes. The NCR located between tRNAGlu (trnE) and cox3 contained 11 long (LRUs) and short repeat units (SRUs) (seven LRUs of 317 bp, four SRUs of 207 bp each), and an internal spacer sequence between LRU7 and SRU4 specifying high-level polymorphism. Special DHU-arm missing tRNAs for Serine were found for both tRNAS1(AGN) and tRNAS2(UCN). Echinostoma revolutum indicated the lowest divergence rate to E. miyagawai and the highest to Tracheophilus cymbius and Echinochasmus japonicus. The usage of ATG/GTG start and TAG/TAA stop codons, the AT composition bias, the negative AT-skewness, and the most for Phe/Leu/Val and the least for Arg/Asn/Asp codons were noted. Topology indicated the monophyletic position of E. revolutum to E. miyagawai. Monophyly of Echinostomatidae and Fasciolidae was clearly solved with respect to Echinochasmidae, Himasthlidae, and Cyclocoelidae which were rendered paraphyletic in the suborder Echinostomata.

RevDate: 2021-01-10

Austin S, K Nowikovsky (2021)

Mitochondrial osmoregulation in evolution, cation transport and metabolism.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Bioenergetics pii:S0005-2728(21)00001-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This review provides a retrospective on the role of osmotic regulation in the process of eukaryogenesis. Specifically, it focuses on the adjustments which must have been made by the original colonizing α-proteobacteria that led to the evolution of modern mitochondria. We focus on the cations that are fundamentally involved in volume determination and cellular metabolism and define the transporter landscape in relation to these ions in mitochondria as we know today. We provide analysis on how the cations interplay and together maintain osmotic balance that allows for effective ATP synthesis in the organelle.

RevDate: 2021-01-08
CmpDate: 2021-01-08

Vorobieva NV, Makunin AI, Druzhkova AS, et al (2020)

High genetic diversity of ancient horses from the Ukok Plateau.

PloS one, 15(11):e0241997.

A growing number of researchers studying horse domestication come to a conclusion that this process happened in multiple locations and involved multiple wild maternal lines. The most promising approach to address this problem involves mitochondrial haplotype comparison of wild and domestic horses from various locations coupled with studies of possible migration routes of the ancient shepherds. Here, we sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes of six horses from burials of the Ukok plateau (Russia, Altai Mountains) dated from 2.7 to 1.4 thousand years before present and a single late Pleistocene wild horse from the neighboring region (Denisova cave). Sequencing data indicates that the wild horse belongs to an extinct pre-domestication lineage. Integration of the domestic horse data with known Eurasian haplotypes of a similar age revealed two distinct groups: the first one widely distributed in Europe and presumably imported to Altai, and the second one specific for Altai Mountains and surrounding area.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Bartáková V, Bryjová A, Nicolas V, et al (2021)

Mitogenomics of the endemic Ethiopian rats: looking for footprints of adaptive evolution in sky islands.

Mitochondrion pii:S1567-7249(20)30246-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Organisms living in high altitude must adapt to environmental conditions with hypoxia and low temperature, e.g. by changes in the structure and function of proteins associated with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Here we analysed the signs of adaptive evolution in 27 mitogenomes of endemic Ethiopian rats (Stenocephalemys), where individual species adapted to different elevation. Significant signals of positive selection were detected in 10 of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, with a majority of functional substitutions in the NADH dehydrogenase complex. Higher frequency of positively selected sites was found in phylogenetic lineages corresponding to Afroalpine specialists.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Yarus M (2021)

Crick Wobble and Superwobble in Standard Genetic Code Evolution.

Journal of molecular evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Wobble coding is inevitable during evolution of the Standard Genetic Code (SGC). It ultimately splits half of NN U/C/A/G coding boxes with different assignments. Further, it contributes to pervasive SGC order by reinforcing close spacing for identical SGC assignments. But wobble cannot appear too soon, or it will inhibit encoding and more decisively, obstruct evolution of full coding tables. However, these prior results assumed Crick wobble, NN U/C and NN A/G, read by a single adaptor RNA. Superwobble translates NN U/C/A/G codons, using one adaptor RNA with an unmodified 5' anticodon U (appropriate to earliest coding) in modern mitochondria, plastids, and mycoplasma. Assuming the SGC was selected when evolving codes most resembled it, characteristics of the critical selection events can be calculated. For example, continuous superwobble infrequently evolves SGC-like coding tables. So, continuous superwobble is a very improbable origin hypothesis. In contrast, late-arising superwobble shares late Crick wobble's frequent resemblance to SGC order. Thus late superwobble is possible, but yields SGC-like assignments less frequently than late Crick wobble. Ancient coding ambiguity, most simply, arose from Crick wobble alone. This is consistent with SGC assignments to NAN codons.

RevDate: 2021-01-06

Lee DW, I Hwang (2021)

Understanding the evolution of endosymbiotic organelles based on the targeting sequences of organellar proteins.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Organellogenesis, a key aspect of eukaryotic cell evolution, critically depends on the successful establishment of organellar protein import mechanisms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the evolution of the two endosymbiotic organelles, mitochondrion and chloroplast, is thought to have occurred at time periods far from each other. Despite this, chloroplasts and mitochondria have highly similar protein import mechanisms. This raises intriguing questions such as what underlies such similarity in the import mechanisms and how these similar mechanisms have evolved. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding sorting and specific targeting of these organellar proteins. Based on these findings, we propose possible evolutionary scenarios regarding how the signal sequences of chloroplasts and mitochondrial proteins ended up having such relationship.

RevDate: 2021-01-07
CmpDate: 2021-01-07

Ben Chehida Y, Thumloup J, Schumacher C, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial genomics reveals the evolutionary history of the porpoises (Phocoenidae) across the speciation continuum.

Scientific reports, 10(1):15190.

Historical variation in food resources is expected to be a major driver of cetacean evolution, especially for the smallest species like porpoises. Despite major conservation issues among porpoise species (e.g., vaquita and finless), their evolutionary history remains understudied. Here, we reconstructed their evolutionary history across the speciation continuum. Phylogenetic analyses of 63 mitochondrial genomes suggest that porpoises radiated during the deep environmental changes of the Pliocene. However, all intra-specific subdivisions were shaped during the Quaternary glaciations. We observed analogous evolutionary patterns in both hemispheres associated with convergent evolution to coastal versus oceanic environments. This suggests that similar mechanisms are driving species diversification in northern (harbor and Dall's) and southern species (spectacled and Burmeister's). In contrast to previous studies, spectacled and Burmeister's porpoises shared a more recent common ancestor than with the vaquita that diverged from southern species during the Pliocene. The low genetic diversity observed in the vaquita carried signatures of a very low population size since the last 5,000 years. Cryptic lineages within Dall's, spectacled and Pacific harbor porpoises suggest a richer evolutionary history than previously suspected. These results provide a new perspective on the mechanisms driving diversification in porpoises and an evolutionary framework for their conservation.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Shimakawa G, Kohara A, C Miyake (2020)

Characterization of Light-Enhanced Respiration in Cyanobacteria.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(1): pii:ijms22010342.

In eukaryotic algae, respiratory O2 uptake is enhanced after illumination, which is called light-enhanced respiration (LER). It is likely stimulated by an increase in respiratory substrates produced during photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and function in keeping the metabolic and redox homeostasis in the light in eukaryotic cells, based on the interactions among the cytosol, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. Here, we first characterize LER in photosynthetic prokaryote cyanobacteria, in which respiration and photosynthesis share their metabolisms and electron transport chains in one cell. From the physiological analysis, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 performs LER, similar to eukaryotic algae, which shows a capacity comparable to the net photosynthetic O2 evolution rate. Although the respiratory and photosynthetic electron transports share the interchain, LER was uncoupled from photosynthetic electron transport. Mutant analyses demonstrated that LER is motivated by the substrates directly provided by photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, but not by glycogen. Further, the light-dependent activation of LER was observed even with exogenously added glucose, implying a regulatory mechanism for LER in addition to the substrate amounts. Finally, we discuss the physiological significance of the large capacity of LER in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae compared to those in plants that normally show less LER.

RevDate: 2021-01-04
CmpDate: 2021-01-04

Park S, S Park (2020)

Large-scale phylogenomics reveals ancient introgression in Asian Hepatica and new insights into the origin of the insular endemic Hepatica maxima.

Scientific reports, 10(1):16288.

Hepatica maxima is native to Ulleungdo, which is one of the oceanic islands in Korea, and it likely originated via anagenetic speciation from the Korean mainland species H. asiatica. However, the relationships among the Asian lineages remain unresolved. Phylogenomics based on plant genomes can provide new insights into the evolutionary history of plants. We first generated plastid, mitochondrial and transcriptome sequences of the insular endemic species H. maxima. Using the genomic data for H. maxima, we obtained a phylogenomic dataset consisting of 76 plastid, 37 mitochondrial and 413 nuclear genes from Asian Hepatica and two outgroups. Coalescent- and concatenation-based methods revealed cytonuclear and organellar discordance in the lineage. The presence of gynodioecy with cytoplasmic male sterility in Asian Hepatica suggests that the discordance is correlated with potential disruption of linkage disequilibrium between the organellar genomes. Species network analyses revealed a deep history of hybridization and introgression in Asian Hepatica. We discovered that ancient and recent introgression events occurred throughout the evolutionary history of the insular endemic species H. maxima. The introgression may serve as an important source of genetic variation to facilitate adaptation to the Ulleungdo environment.

RevDate: 2021-01-04
CmpDate: 2021-01-04

Moo-Llanes DA, Pech-May A, de Oca-Aguilar ACM, et al (2020)

Niche divergence and paleo-distributions of Lutzomyia longipalpis mitochondrial haplogroups (Diptera: Psychodidae).

Acta tropica, 211:105607.

Lutzomyia longipalpis is a complex of species which has a wide but discontinuous distribution from southeastern Mexico to northern Argentina and Uruguay. To date, eight mitochondrial haplogroups have been identified along its distribution although key environmental tolerances and ecological niche models have been analyzed only at the complex level. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether genetic diversification using three mitochondrial genes of the Lu. longipalpis complex is associated with niche divergence and to explore evolution of distributional projections of all haplogroups between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21,000 yrs ago) and the present. Current occurrence of all haplogroups was used to develop ecological niche models (ENM) and these were projected in both periods to quantify and identify geographic area shifts. Environmental space was used to estimate niche similarity between major clades and pairwise between individual haplogroups. The two major Lu. longipalpis clades (Mex, CA, Col and Ven vs Arg and Bra) had significantly different environmental space, indicating niche divergence. Environmental space overlap of southern haplogroups was variable, with divergent niche, except between Arg and ArgBra. The most suitable regions for the ArgBra haplogroup were northeastern and southeastern Brazil, and the Gran Chaco region. In contrast, ENM of haplogroups within the northern major clade have significantly similar niche, with highest geographic ENM suitability along both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The intensity and coverage of high suitability areas in the LGM decreased for most haplogroups in the present. Integrating ENM and phylogenetic analyses has allowed us to test hypotheses of niche similarity between Lu. longipalpis haplogroups and major clades, and to identify conserved distributional areas of haplogroups since the LGM, with the exception of Arg. Evidence for distributional shifts and overlap of haplogroups is important to analyze Leishmaniasis´ eco-epidemiology and to successfully monitor and control transmission.

RevDate: 2021-01-04
CmpDate: 2021-01-04

Anwar A, She M, Wang K, et al (2020)

Cloning and molecular characterization of Triticum aestivum ornithine amino transferase (TaOAT) encoding genes.

BMC plant biology, 20(1):187.

BACKGROUND: Ornithine aminotransferase (OAT, EC:2.6.1.13), alternatively known as ornithine delta aminotransferase (δOAT), is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme involved in the conversion of ornithine into glutamyl-5-semi-aldehyde (GSA) and vice versa. Up till now, there has been no study on OAT in wheat despite the success of its isolation from rice, maize, and sorghum. This study focuses on identification and molecular characterization of OAT in wheat.

RESULTS: In total, three homeologous OAT genes in wheat genome were found on chromosome group 5, named as TaOAT-5AL, TaOAT-5BL, and TaOAT-5DL. Sequence alignment between gDNA and its corresponding cDNA obtained a total of ten exons and nine introns. A phylogenetic tree was constructed and results indicated that OATs shared highly conserved domains between monocots and eudicots, which was further illustrated by using WebLogo to generate a sequence logo. Further subcellular localization analysis indicated that they functioned in mitochondria. Protein-protein interactions supported their role in proline biosynthesis through interactions with genes, such as delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), involved in the proline metabolic pathway. Promoter analysis exposed the presence of several stress responsive elements, implying their involvement in stress regulation. Expression profiling illustrated that TaOAT was highly induced in the wheat plants exposed to drought or salt stress condition. Upregulated expression of TaOATs was observed in stamens and at the heading stage. A potential role of TaOAT genes during floret development was also revealed. Furthermore, the transgenic plants overexpressing TaOAT showed enhanced tolerance to drought stress by increasing proline accumulation. In addition, salt tolerance of the transgenic plants was also enhanced.

CONCLUSION: TaOATs genes were involved in proline synthesis and nitrogen remobilization because they interacted with genes related to proline biosynthesis enzymes and arginine catabolism. In addition, TaOAT genes had a role in abiotic stress tolerance and a potential role in floret development. The results of this study may propose future research in the improvement of wheat resistance to abiotic stresses.

RevDate: 2020-12-31

Rogers RL, Grizzard SL, Titus-McQuillan JE, et al (2020)

Gene family amplification facilitates adaptation in freshwater unionid bivalve Megalonaias nervosa.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Freshwater unionid bivalves currently face severe anthropogenic challenges. Over 70% of species in the United States are threatened, endangered or extinct due to pollution, damming of waterways, and overfishing. These species are notable for their unusual life history strategy, parasite-host coevolution, and biparental mitochondria inheritance. Among this clade, the washboard mussel Megalonaias nervosa is one species that remains prevalent across the Southeastern United States, with robust population sizes. We have created a reference genome for M. nervosa to determine how genome content has evolved in the face of these widespread environmental challenges. We observe dynamic changes in genome content, with a burst of recent transposable element proliferation causing a 382 Mb expansion in genome content. Birth-death models suggest rapid expansions among gene families, with a mutation rate of 1:16 x 10-8 duplications per gene per generation. Cytochrome P450 gene families have experienced exceptional recent amplification beyond expectations based on genome wide birth-death processes. These genes are associated with increased rates of amino acid changes, a signature of selection driving evolution of detox genes. Fitting evolutionary models of adaptation from standing genetic variation, we can compare adaptive potential across species and mutation types. The large population size in M. nervosa suggests a 4.7 fold advantage in the ability to adapt from standing genetic variation compared with a low diversity endemic E. hopetonensis. Estimates suggest that gene family evolution may offer an exceptional substrate of genetic variation in M. nervosa, with Psgv = 0.185 compared with Psgv = 0.067 for single nucleotide changes. Hence, we suggest that gene family evolution is a source of "hopeful monsters" within the genome that may facilitate adaptation when selective pressures shift. These results suggest that gene family expansion is a key driver of adaptive evolution in this key species of freshwater Unionidae that is currently facing widespread environmental challenges. This work has clear implications for conservation genomics on freshwater bivalves as well as evolutionary theory. This genome represents a first step to facilitate reverse ecological genomics in Unionidae and identify the genetic underpinnings of phenotypic diversity.

RevDate: 2020-12-29
CmpDate: 2020-12-29

Song N, Li X, Yin X, et al (2020)

The mitochondrial genomes of ladybird beetles and implications for evolution and phylogeny.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 147:1193-1203.

Ladybirds formed the most familiar beetle group, namely the family Coccinellidae, whose internal relationships remain unclear. In particular, the subfamily relationships could not be well resolved in previous studies based on the conventional nuclear and/or mitochondrial gene fragments. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain new mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from 13 species representing four coccinellid subfamilies (i.e., Coccinellinae, Epilachninae, Coccidulinae and Chilocorinae). Together with 24 existing mitogenome sequences of Cucujoidea, we conducted phylogenetic analyses to investigate the deep phylogenetic relationships in Coccinellidae, under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference criteria. The analyses from nucleotide datasets resulted in a largely identical tree topology, where Epilachninae and Coccinellinae were monophyletic groups. The Scymninae and Coccidulinae were recovered as non-monophyletic. Amino acids differed from nucleotides in that the Epilachninae was retrieved as paraphyletic, with respect to Epilachna admirabilis. Ancestral state reconstruction suggested that the plant eating ladybird beetles arose within an aphidophagous/coccidophagous clade. In addition, three independent shifts toward coccidophagy and one shift toward mycophagy occurred in Coccinellidae.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Huang X, Shi Y, Shen X, et al (2020)

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Lagocephalus gloveri (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(3):3683-3684 pii:1832933.

The complete mitochondrial genome of Lagocephalus gloveri is reported in the present study, which is 16,446 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a non-coding control region. The overall base composition of the genome is 27.58% for A, 25.07% for T, 30.83% for C and 16.52% for G. The phylogenetic tree, which is based on 12 protein coding gene sequences, suggested that L. gloveri was closest to L. lagocephalus. This study could give impetus to studies focused on population structure and molecular evolution of L. gloveri.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Yang RS, YT Chen (2020)

The complete mitochondrial genome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Branchinella kugenumaensis Ishikawa 1894 (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 5(1):1048-1049 pii:1721367.

In this study, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the freshwater fairy shrimp Branchinella kugenumaensis Ishikawa 1894 (Crustacea: Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae). The mitogenome is 15,127 bp in length, consisted of 37 genes that participate in protein production and energy metabolism of mitochondria. The gene order of the B. kugenumaensis mtDNA exhibits major rearrangements compared with the pancrustacean ancestral pattern or other known anostracan mitogenomes, representing a novel mitochondrial genomic organization within the Crustacea. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of protein-coding genes places B. kugenumaensis next to Streptocephalus sirindhornae, inside the Anostraca clade. Our study will provide new evidence to the less sampled anostracan evolution and take a further step to the completion of the Branchiopoda tree of life.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Salas-Castañeda MR, Castillo-Páez A, Rocha-Olivares A, et al (2019)

The complete mitogenome of the Eastern Pacific sponge Aplysina gerardogreeni (Demospongiae, Verongida, Aplysinidae).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 4(2):2734-2735 pii:1643804.

We report the first mitochondrial genome of a Verongid sponge, Aplysina gerardogreeni from the Pacific Ocean. This has 19,620 bp and includes 14 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs genes, and 25 tRNAs genes. The gene arrangement was similar to the one found in two Caribbean Aplysina mitogenomes previously reported. Comparative analyses revealed a few substitutions among congeneric mitogenomes. The mitogenome of A. gerardogreeni could be useful to study the evolution of Verongimorpha group and also to identify adequate genes for its molecular systematics.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Li X, Li L, Bao Z, et al (2020)

The 287,403 bp Mitochondrial Genome of Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Tuber calosporum Reveals Intron Expansion, tRNA Loss, and Gene Rearrangement.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:591453.

In the present study, the mitogenome of Tuber calosporum was assembled and analyzed. The mitogenome of T. calosporum comprises 15 conserved protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 14 tRNAs, with a total size of 287,403 bp. Fifty-eight introns with 170 intronic open reading frames were detected in the T. calosporum mitogenome. The intronic region occupied 69.41% of the T. calosporum mitogenome, which contributed to the T. calosporum mitogenome significantly expand relative to most fungal species. Comparative mitogenomic analysis revealed large-scale gene rearrangements occurred in the mitogenome of T. calosporum, involving gene relocations and position exchanges. The mitogenome of T. calosporum was found to have lost several tRNA genes encoding for cysteine, aspartate, histidine, etc. In addition, a pair of fragments with a total length of 32.91 kb in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of T. calosporum was detected, indicating possible gene transfer events. A total of 12.83% intragenomic duplications were detected in the T. calosporum mitogenome. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial gene datasets obtained well-supported tree topologies, indicating that mitochondrial genes could be reliable molecular markers for phylogenetic analyses of Ascomycota. This study served as the first report on mitogenome in the family Tuberaceae, thereby laying the groundwork for our understanding of the evolution, phylogeny, and population genetics of these important ectomycorrhizal fungi.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Else PL (2020)

Mammals to membranes: A reductionist story.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology pii:S1096-4959(20)30146-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This is the story of a series of reductionist studies that started with an attempt to explain what underpins the high-level of aerobic metabolism in mammals (i.e. associated with the evolution of endothermy) and almost forty years later had led to investigations into the role of membrane lipids in determining metabolism. Initial studies showed that the increase in aerobic metabolism in mammals was driven by a combination of increases in mitochondrial volume and membrane densities, organ size and changes in the molecular activity of enzymes. The increase in the capacity to produce energy was matched by an increase in energy use, notably driven by increases in H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes. In the case of increased Na+ flux, it was found this was matched by increases in Na+-dependent metabolism at the tissue level and increases in enzyme activity at a cellular level but not by an increase in the number of sodium pumps. To maintain Na+ gradient across cell membranes, increased Na+ flux is not controlled by an increase in sodium pump number but rather by an increase in sodium pump molecular activity (i.e. an increase the substrate turnover rate of each sodium pump) in tissues of endotherms. This increase in molecular activity is coupled to an increase in the level of highly unsaturated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in membranes, a mechanism similar to that used by ectotherms to ameliorate decreasing activities of metabolic processes in the cold. Determination of how changes in membrane fatty acid composition can change the activities of proteins in membranes will be the next step in this story.

RevDate: 2020-12-25
CmpDate: 2020-12-25

Weaver RJ, Carrion G, Nix R, et al (2020)

High mitochondrial mutation rates in Silene are associated with nuclear-mediated changes in mitochondrial physiology.

Biology letters, 16(9):20200450.

Mitochondrial (mt) respiration depends on proteins encoded both by the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Variation in mt-DNA mutation rates exists across eukaryotes, although the functional consequences of elevated mt mutation rates in some lineages remain underexplored. In the angiosperm genus Silene, closely related, ecologically similar species have either 'fast' or 'slow' mt-DNA mutation rates. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of elevated mt-DNA mutation rates on mt respiration profiles of Silene mitochondria. Overall levels of respiration were similar among Species. Fast species had lower respiration efficiency than slow species and relied up to 48% more on nuclear-encoded respiratory enzymes alternative oxidase (AOX) and accessory dehydrogenases (DHex), which participate in stress responses in plants. However, not all fast species showed these trends. Respiratory profiles of some enzymes were correlated, most notably AOX and DHex. We conclude that subtle differences in mt physiology among Silene lineages with dramatically different mt mutation rates may underly similar phenotypes at higher levels of biological organization, betraying the consequences of mt mutations.

RevDate: 2020-12-23
CmpDate: 2020-12-23

Wepfer PH, Nakajima Y, Sutthacheep M, et al (2020)

Evolutionary biogeography of the reef-building coral genus Galaxea across the Indo-Pacific ocean.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 151:106905.

Stony corals (Scleractinia) form the basis for some of the most diverse ecosytems on Earth, but we have much to learn about their evolutionary history and systematic relationships. In order to improve our understanding of species in corals we here investigated phylogenetic relationships between morphologically defined species and genetic lineages in the genus Galaxea (Euphyllidae) using a combined phylogenomic and phylogeographic approach. Previous studies revealed the nominal species G. fascicularis included three genetically well-differentiated lineages (L, S & L+) in the western Pacific, but their distribution and relationship to other species in the genus was unknown. Based on genomic (RAD-seq) and mitochondrial sequence data (non-coding region between cytb and ND2) we investigated whether the morphological taxa represent genetically coherent entities and what is the phylogenetic relationship and spatial distribution of the three lineages of G. fascicularis throughout the observed species range. Using the RAD-seq data, we find that the genus Galaxea is monophyletic and contains three distinct clades: an Indo-Pacific, a Pacific, and a small clade restricted to the Chagos Archipelago. The three lineages of G. fascicularis were associated with different RAD-seq clades, with the 'L' lineage showing some morphological distinction from the other two lineages (larger more asymmetrical polyps). In addition to these, three more genetic lineages in G. fascicularis may be distinguished - a Chagossian, an Ogasawaran, and one from the Indian-Red Sea. Among nominal taxa for which we have multiple samples, G. horrescens was the only monophyletic species. The mitochondrial non-coding region is highly conserved apart of the length polymorphism used to define L, S & L+ lineages and lacks the power to distinguish morphological and genetic groups resolved with genomic RAD-sequencing. The polyphyletic nature of most species warrants a careful examination of the accepted taxonomy of this group with voucher collections and their comparison to type specimens to resolve species boundaries. Further insight to the speciation process in corals will require international cooperation for the sharing of specimens to facilitate scientific discovery.

RevDate: 2020-12-23
CmpDate: 2020-12-23

Xu X, Kuntner M, Bond JE, et al (2020)

Molecular species delimitation in the primitively segmented spider genus Heptathela endemic to Japanese islands.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 151:106900.

Determining species boundaries forms an important foundation for biological research. However, the results of molecular species delimitation can vary with the data sets and methods that are used. Here we use a two-step approach to delimit species in the genus Heptathela, a group of primitively segmented trapdoor spiders that are endemic to Japanese islands. Morphological evidence suggests the existence of 19 species in the genus. We tested this initial species hypothesis by using six molecular species-delimitation methods to analyse 180 mitochondrial COI sequences of Heptathela sampled from across the known range of the genus. We then conducted a set of more focused analyses by sampling additional genetic markers from the subset of taxa that were inconsistently delimited by the single-locus analyses of mitochondrial DNA. Multilocus species delimitation was performed using two Bayesian approaches based on the multispecies coalescent. Our approach identified 20 putative species among the 180 sampled individuals of Heptathela. We suggest that our two-step approach provides an efficient strategy for delimiting species while minimizing costs and computational time.

RevDate: 2020-12-24
CmpDate: 2020-12-24

Li Z, Li X, Song N, et al (2020)

The Mitochondrial Genome of Amara aulica (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae) and Insights into the Phylogeny of Ground Beetles.

Genes, 11(2):.

Carabidae are one of the most species-rich families of beetles, comprising more than 40,000 described species worldwide. Forty-three complete or partial mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from this family have been published in GenBank to date. In this study, we sequenced a nearly complete mitogenome of Amara aulica (Carabidae), using a next-generation sequencing method. This mitogenome was 16,646 bp in length, which encoded the typical 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a putative control region. Combining with the published mitogenomes of Carabidae and five outgroup species from Trachypachidae, Gyrinidae and Dytiscidae, we performed phylogenetic estimates under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference criteria to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of carabid beetles. The results showed that the family Carabidae was a non-monophyletic assemblage. The subfamilies Cicindelinae, Elaphrinae, Carabinae, Trechinae and Harpalinae were recovered as monophyletic groups. Moreover, the clade (Trechinae + (Brachininae + Harpalinae)) was consistently recovered in all analyses.

RevDate: 2020-12-22
CmpDate: 2020-12-22

Ji J, A Day (2020)

Construction of a highly error-prone DNA polymerase for developing organelle mutation systems.

Nucleic acids research, 48(21):11868-11879.

A novel family of DNA polymerases replicates organelle genomes in a wide distribution of taxa encompassing plants and protozoans. Making error-prone mutator versions of gamma DNA polymerases revolutionised our understanding of animal mitochondrial genomes but similar advances have not been made for the organelle DNA polymerases present in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. We tested the fidelities of error prone tobacco organelle DNA polymerases using a novel positive selection method involving replication of the phage lambda cI repressor gene. Unlike gamma DNA polymerases, ablation of 3'-5' exonuclease function resulted in a modest 5-8-fold error rate increase. Combining exonuclease deficiency with a polymerisation domain substitution raised the organelle DNA polymerase error rate by 140-fold relative to the wild type enzyme. This high error rate compares favourably with error-rates of mutator versions of animal gamma DNA polymerases. The error prone organelle DNA polymerase introduced mutations at multiple locations ranging from two to seven sites in half of the mutant cI genes studied. Single base substitutions predominated including frequent A:A (template: dNMP) mispairings. High error rate and semi-dominance to the wild type enzyme in vitro make the error prone organelle DNA polymerase suitable for elevating mutation rates in chloroplasts and mitochondria.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Folgueira I, Lamas J, Sueiro RA, et al (2020)

Molecular characterization and gene expression modulation of the alternative oxidase in a scuticociliate parasite by hypoxia and mitochondrial respiration inhibitors.

Scientific reports, 10(1):11880.

Philasterides dicentrarchi is a marine benthic microaerophilic scuticociliate and an opportunistic endoparasite that can infect and cause high mortalities in cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). In addition to a cytochrome pathway (CP), the ciliate can use a cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway, which indicates the existence of an alternative oxidase (AOX) in the mitochondrion. Although AOX activity has been described in P. dicentrarchi, based on functional assay results, genetic evidence of the presence of AOX in the ciliate has not previously been reported. In this study, we conducted genomic and transcriptomic analysis of the ciliate and identified the AOX gene and its corresponding mRNA. The AOX gene (size 1,106 bp) contains four exons and three introns that generate an open reading frame of 915 bp and a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 35.6 kDa. The amino acid (aa) sequence of the AOX includes an import signal peptide targeting the mitochondria and the protein is associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondria. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that the peptide is a homodimeric glycoprotein, although monomeric forms may also appear under native conditions, with EXXH motifs associated with the diiron active centers. The aa sequences of the AOX of different P. dicentrarchi isolates are highly conserved and phylogenetically closely related to AOXs of other ciliate species, especially scuticociliates. AOX expression increased significantly during infection in the host and after the addition of CP inhibitors. This confirms the important physiological roles of AOX in respiration under conditions of low levels of O2 and in protecting against oxidative stress generated during infection in the host.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Kumari K, M MH, Sinha A, et al (2020)

Genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationship of 11 Asian Sisorinae genera (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) with new record of Pseudolaguvia foveolata.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis, 31(1):35-41.

Studies on Sisorinae systematics have been largely restricted to morphological data with few studies on examination of phylogenetic relations. However, no study has been done to evaluate genetic distance of the genera under Sisorinae sub-family and detailed phylogenetic relations within it. We used nuclear recombination activating 2 (rag2) gene and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene from 64 species to examine genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships within 11 Asian Sisorinae genera. The range of interspecies K2P distance for rag2 was 0-0.061 and COI was 0-0.204. Phylogenetic analysis based on maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BI) approaches for each locus individually and for the concatenated rag2 and COI sequences revealed three major subclades viz. Bagariini, Sisorini and Erethistini under subfamily Sisorinae. The analysis based on COI gene showed ((Sisorini, Bagariini), Erethistini) relationship. Rag2 and combined rag2 and COI showed ((Sisorini, Erethistini), Bagariini) relationship. Combined rag2 and COI analyses resulted into better resolved trees with a good bootstrap support. In this study, new record of Pseudolaguvia foveolata (Erethistini) has been documented based on 13 specimens collected from Torsa River, Jaldapara, Alipurduar district, West Bengal, India (26°43'44.66″ N and 89°19'32.34″ E), extending its distribution range in Brahmaputra drainage, India. The genetic distance between the P. foveolata new record and the reported P. foveolata (holotype: UMMZ 244867) was 0.00 at both rag2 and COI locus and it was further grouped with P. foveolata Type specimen (holotype: UMMZ 244867) with 100% bootstrap support. This report gives additional information on occurrence of the species P. foveolata, along with discussion on morphometric, meristic and molecular (COI and rag2 gene) data.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Phukuntsi MA, Du Plessis M, Dalton DL, et al (2020)

Population genetic structure of the thick-tailed bushbaby (Otolemur crassicaudatus) from the Soutpansberg Mountain range, Northern South Africa, based on four mitochondrial DNA regions.

Mitochondrial DNA. Part A, DNA mapping, sequencing, and analysis, 31(1):1-10.

Greater bushbabies, strepsirrhine primates, that are distributed across central, eastern and southern Africa, with northern and eastern South Africa representing the species' most southerly distribution. Greater bushbabies are habitat specialists whose naturally fragmented habitats are getting even more fragmented due to anthropogenic activities. Currently, there is no population genetic data or study published on the species. The aim of our study was to investigate the genetic variation in a thick-tailed bushbaby, Otolemur crassicaudatus, population in the Soutpansberg mountain range, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Four mitochondrial regions, ranging from highly conserved to highly variable, were sequenced from 47 individuals. The sequences were aligned and genetic diversity, structure, as well as demographic analyses were performed. Low genetic diversity (π = 0.0007-0.0038 in coding regions and π = 0.0127 in non-coding region; Hd = 0.166-0.569 in coding regions and Hd = 0.584 in non-coding region) and sub-structuring (H = 2-3 in coding regions and H = 4 in non-coding region) was observed with two divergent haplogroups (haplotype pairwise distance = 3-5 in coding region and 6-10 in non-coding region) being identified. This suggests the population may have experienced fixation of mitochondrial haplotypes due to limited female immigration, which is consistent with philopatric species, that alternative haplotypes are not native to this population, and that there may be male mobility from adjacent populations. This study provides the first detailed insights into the mitochondrial genetic diversity of a continental African strepsirrhine primate and demonstrates the utility of mitochondrial DNA in intraspecific genetic population analyses of these primates.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

Zeng M, He Y, Du H, et al (2020)

Output Regulation and Function Optimization of Mitochondria in Eukaryotes.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:598112.

The emergence of endosymbiosis between aerobic alpha-proteobacterium and anaerobic eukaryotic cell precursors opened the chapter of eukaryotic evolution. Multiple functions of mitochondria originated from the ancient precursors of mitochondria and underwent remodeling in eukaryotic cells. Due to the dependence on mitochondrial functions, eukaryotic cells need to constantly adjust mitochondrial output based on energy demand and cellular stress. Meanwhile, eukaryotes conduct the metabolic cooperation between different cells through the involvement of mitochondria. Under some conditions, mitochondria might also be transferred to nearby cells to provide a protective mechanism. However, the endosymbiont relationship determines the existence of various types of mitochondrial injury, such as proteotoxic stress, mutational meltdown, oxidative injure, and immune activation caused by released mitochondrial contents. Eukaryotes have a repertoire of mitochondrial optimization processes, including various mitochondrial quality-control proteins, regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and activation of mitochondrial autophagy. When these quality-control processes fail, eukaryotic cells can activate apoptosis to intercept uncontrolled cell death, thereby minimizing the damage to extracellular tissue. In this review, we describe the intracellular and extracellular context-based regulation of mitochondrial output in eukaryotic cells, and introduce new findings on multifaceted quality-control processes to deal with mitochondrial defects.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

Oberleitner L, Poschmann G, Macorano L, et al (2020)

The Puzzle of Metabolite Exchange and Identification of Putative Octotrico Peptide Repeat Expression Regulators in the Nascent Photosynthetic Organelles of Paulinella chromatophora.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:607182.

The endosymbiotic acquisition of mitochondria and plastids more than one billion years ago was central for the evolution of eukaryotic life. However, owing to their ancient origin, these organelles provide only limited insights into the initial stages of organellogenesis. The cercozoan amoeba Paulinella chromatophora contains photosynthetic organelles-termed chromatophores-that evolved from a cyanobacterium ∼100 million years ago, independently from plastids in plants and algae. Despite the more recent origin of the chromatophore, it shows tight integration into the host cell. It imports hundreds of nucleus-encoded proteins, and diverse metabolites are continuously exchanged across the two chromatophore envelope membranes. However, the limited set of chromatophore-encoded solute transporters appears insufficient for supporting metabolic connectivity or protein import. Furthermore, chromatophore-localized biosynthetic pathways as well as multiprotein complexes include proteins of dual genetic origin, suggesting that mechanisms evolved that coordinate gene expression levels between chromatophore and nucleus. These findings imply that similar to the situation in mitochondria and plastids, also in P. chromatophora nuclear factors evolved that control metabolite exchange and gene expression in the chromatophore. Here we show by mass spectrometric analyses of enriched insoluble protein fractions that, unexpectedly, nucleus-encoded transporters are not inserted into the chromatophore inner envelope membrane. Thus, despite the apparent maintenance of its barrier function, canonical metabolite transporters are missing in this membrane. Instead we identified several expanded groups of short chromatophore-targeted orphan proteins. Members of one of these groups are characterized by a single transmembrane helix, and others contain amphipathic helices. We hypothesize that these proteins are involved in modulating membrane permeability. Thus, the mechanism generating metabolic connectivity of the chromatophore fundamentally differs from the one for mitochondria and plastids, but likely rather resembles the poorly understood mechanism in various bacterial endosymbionts in plants and insects. Furthermore, our mass spectrometric analysis revealed an expanded family of chromatophore-targeted helical repeat proteins. These proteins show similar domain architectures as known organelle-targeted expression regulators of the octotrico peptide repeat type in algae and plants. Apparently these chromatophore-targeted proteins evolved convergently to plastid-targeted expression regulators and are likely involved in gene expression control in the chromatophore.

RevDate: 2020-12-17
CmpDate: 2020-12-17

Vasconcelos R, KÖhler G, Geniez P, et al (2020)

A new endemic species of Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from São Nicolau Island, Cabo Verde.

Zootaxa, 4878(3):zootaxa.4878.3.4 pii:zootaxa.4878.3.4.

A new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described from São Nicolau Island, Cabo Verde Archipelago, and the Sal and Boavista island populations of Hemidactylus boavistensis (i.e., Hemidactylus boavistensis boavistensis comb. nov. and Hemidactylus boavistensis chevalieri comb. nov.) are recognized as subspecies. Hemidactylus nicolauensis sp. nov. is genetically distinct from H. bouvieri, to which it has previously been referred, and from all other closely related endemic Hemidactylus from Cabo Verde Islands in mitochondrial (12S cyt b) and nuclear (RAG2, MC1R) markers. It is characterized morphologically by its distinct colouration and a diagnostically different arrangement of digital lamellae. With the description of this new species, São Nicolau is now known to harbour three single-island endemic gecko species, and the documented reptile diversity in Cabo Verde is raised to 23 endemic species. As a result of our taxonomic changes, existing conservation regulations should be updated and the conservation status of these taxa should be re-evaluated.

RevDate: 2020-12-17
CmpDate: 2020-12-17

Wu H, Liu Y, Shi X, et al (2020)

Transcriptome analysis of antennal cytochrome P450s and their transcriptional responses to plant and locust volatiles in Locusta migratoria.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 149:741-753.

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) constitute a large superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins that are involved in the biosynthesis or degradation of endogenous compounds and detoxification of exogenous chemicals. It has been reported that P450s could serve as odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs) to inactivate odorants to avoid saturating the antennae. However, there is little information about P450s in the antennae of Locusta migratoria. In the current work, we conducted an antenna transcriptome analysis and identified 92 P450s, including 68 full-length and 24 partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 68 full-length P450s were grouped into four clans: CYP2, CYP3, CYP4, and mitochondria clans. Tissue, stage, and sex-dependent expressions of these 68 P450s were investigated. The results showed that 4 P450s were antenna-specific, whereas others were antenna-rich but also expressed in other tissues, implying their various potential roles in the antennae. In addition, the responses of seven selected P450s to five gramineous plant volatiles and four locust volatiles were determined. CYP6MU1 could be induced by almost all compounds tested, suggesting its important roles in odorant processing. Different P450s exhibited diverse responses to odorants, indicating that specific regulation of P450 expression by odorants might modulate the sensitivity of the olfactory responses to various chemicals.

RevDate: 2020-12-17
CmpDate: 2020-12-17

Coate JE, Schreyer WM, Kum D, et al (2020)

Robust Cytonuclear Coordination of Transcription in Nascent Arabidopsis thaliana Autopolyploids.

Genes, 11(2):.

Polyploidy is hypothesized to cause dosage imbalances between the nucleus and the other genome-containing organelles (mitochondria and plastids), but the evidence for this is limited. We performed RNA-seq on Arabidopsis thaliana diploids and their derived autopolyploids to quantify the degree of inter-genome coordination of transcriptional responses to nuclear whole genome duplication in two different organs (sepals and rosette leaves). We show that nuclear and organellar genomes exhibit highly coordinated responses in both organs. First, organelle genome copy number increased in response to nuclear whole genome duplication (WGD), at least partially compensating for altered nuclear genome dosage. Second, transcriptional output of the different cellular compartments is tuned to maintain diploid-like levels of relative expression among interacting genes. In particular, plastid genes and nuclear genes whose products are plastid-targeted show coordinated down-regulation, such that their expression levels relative to each other remain constant across ploidy levels. Conversely, mitochondrial genes and nuclear genes with mitochondrial targeting show either constant or coordinated up-regulation of expression relative to other nuclear genes. Thus, cytonuclear coordination is robust to changes in nuclear ploidy level, with diploid-like balance in transcript abundances achieved within three generations after nuclear whole genome duplication.

RevDate: 2020-12-17
CmpDate: 2020-12-17

Garcia-Mayea Y, Mir C, Masson F, et al (2020)

Insights into new mechanisms and models of cancer stem cell multidrug resistance.

Seminars in cancer biology, 60:166-180.

The acquisition of genetic alterations, clonal evolution, and the tumor microenvironment promote cancer progression, metastasis and therapy resistance. These events correspond to the establishment of the great phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of cancer cells that contribute to tumor progression and resistant disease. Targeting resistant cancers is a major challenge in oncology; however, the underlying processes are not yet fully understood. Even though current treatments can reduce tumor size and increase life expectancy, relapse and multidrug resistance (MDR) ultimately remain the second cause of death in developed countries. Recent evidence points toward stem-like phenotypes in cancer cells, promoted by cancer stem cells (CSCs), as the main culprit of cancer relapse, resistance (radiotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or chemotherapy) and metastasis. Many mechanisms have been proposed for CSC resistance, such as drug efflux through ABC transporters, overactivation of the DNA damage response (DDR), apoptosis evasion, prosurvival pathways activation, cell cycle promotion and/or cell metabolic alterations. Nonetheless, targeted therapy toward these specific CSC mechanisms is only partially effective to prevent or abolish resistance, suggesting underlying additional causes for CSC resilience. This article aims to provide an integrated picture of the MDR mechanisms that operate in CSCs' behavior and to propose a novel model of tumor evolution during chemotherapy. Targeting the pathways mentioned here might hold promise and reveal new strategies for future clinical therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2020-12-16
CmpDate: 2020-12-16

Simaika JP, Ware JL, Garrison RW, et al (2020)

Phylogeny of the Synlestidae (Odonata: Zygoptera), with an emphasis on Chlorolestes Selys and Ecchlorolestes Barnard.

Scientific reports, 10(1):15088.

The Synlestidae (Odonata: Zygoptera) of southern Africa comprise some highly localized species. All but one species are endemic to South Africa, and many to the Cape Floristic Region. Here we present the first phylogenetic reconstruction of the southern African Synlestidae using nuclear and mitochondrial molecular data. The genera Ecchlorolestes and Chlorolestes are monophyletic, and we propose that the Neotropical family Perilestidae consisting of two genera, Perilestes and Perissolestes, be sunk within Synlestidae. We discuss the intra-familial relationships for the southern African Synlestidae.

RevDate: 2020-12-14

Filograna R, Mennuni M, Alsina D, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial DNA copy number in human disease: the more the better?.

FEBS letters [Epub ahead of print].

Most of the genetic information has been lost or transferred to the nucleus during the evolution of mitochondria. Neverthelss, mitochondria have retained their own genome that is essential for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In mammals, a gene-dense circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of about 16.5kb encodes 13 proteins, which constitute only 1% of the mitochondrial proteome. Mammalian mtDNA is present in thousands of copies per cell and mutations often affect only a fraction of them. Most pathogenic human mtDNA mutations are recessive and only cause OXPHOS defects if present above a certain critical threshold. However, emerging evidence strongly suggests that the proportion of mutated mtDNA copies is not the only determinant of disease but that also the absolute copy number matters. In this review, we critically discuss current knowledge of the role of mtDNA copy number regulation in various types of human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer, and during ageing. We also provide an overview of new exciting therapeutic strategies to directly manipulate mtDNA to restore OXPHOS in mitochondrial diseases.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-11

Goodheart JA, Minsky G, Brynjegard-Bialik MN, et al (2020)

Laboratory culture of the California Sea Firefly Vargula tsujii (Ostracoda: Cypridinidae): Developing a model system for the evolution of marine bioluminescence.

Scientific reports, 10(1):10443.

Bioluminescence, or the production of light by living organisms via chemical reaction, is widespread across Metazoa. Laboratory culture of bioluminescent organisms from diverse taxonomic groups is important for determining the biosynthetic pathways of bioluminescent substrates, which may lead to new tools for biotechnology and biomedicine. Some bioluminescent groups may be cultured, including some cnidarians, ctenophores, and brittle stars, but those use luminescent substrates (luciferins) obtained from their diets, and therefore are not informative for determination of the biosynthetic pathways of the luciferins. Other groups, including terrestrial fireflies, do synthesize their own luciferin, but culturing them is difficult and the biosynthetic pathway for firefly luciferin remains unclear. An additional independent origin of endogenous bioluminescence is found within ostracods from the family Cypridinidae, which use their luminescence for defense and, in Caribbean species, for courtship displays. Here, we report the first complete life cycle of a luminous ostracod (Vargula tsujii Kornicker & Baker, 1977, the California Sea Firefly) in the laboratory. We also describe the late-stage embryogenesis of Vargula tsujii and discuss the size classes of instar development. We find embryogenesis in V. tsujii ranges from 25-38 days, and this species appears to have five instar stages, consistent with ontogeny in other cypridinid lineages. We estimate a complete life cycle at 3-4 months. We also present the first complete mitochondrial genome for Vargula tsujii. Bringing a luminous ostracod into laboratory culture sets the stage for many potential avenues of study, including learning the biosynthetic pathway of cypridinid luciferin and genomic manipulation of an autogenic bioluminescent system.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-08

Subramanian H, RA Gatenby (2020)

Evolutionary advantage of anti-parallel strand orientation of duplex DNA.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9883 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66705-3.

DNA in all living systems shares common properties that are remarkably well suited to its function, suggesting refinement by evolution. However, DNA also shares some counter-intuitive properties which confer no obvious benefit, such as strand directionality and anti-parallel strand orientation, which together result in the complicated lagging strand replication. The evolutionary dynamics that led to these properties of DNA remain unknown but their universality suggests that they confer as yet unknown selective advantage to DNA. In this article, we identify an evolutionary advantage of anti-parallel strand orientation of duplex DNA, within a given set of plausible premises. The advantage stems from the increased rate of replication, achieved by dividing the DNA into predictable, independently and simultaneously replicating segments, as opposed to sequentially replicating the entire DNA, thereby parallelizing the replication process. We show that anti-parallel strand orientation is essential for such a replicative organization of DNA, given our premises, the most important of which is the assumption of the presence of sequence-dependent asymmetric cooperativity in DNA.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-09

Wang E, Zhang D, Braun MS, et al (2020)

Can Mitogenomes of the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) Reconstruct Its Phylogeography and Reveal the Origin of Migrant Birds?.

Scientific reports, 10(1):9290 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-66287-0.

The Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe, including the nominate and the two subspecies O. o. leucorhoa and O. o. libanotica) and the Seebohm's Wheatear (Oenanthe seebohmi) are today regarded as two distinct species. Before, all four taxa were regarded as four subspecies of the Northern Wheatear. Their classification has exclusively been based on ecological and morphological traits, while their molecular characterization is still missing. With this study, we used next-generation sequencing to assemble 117 complete mitochondrial genomes covering O. o. oenanthe, O. o. leucorhoa and O. seebohmi. We compared the resolution power of each individual mitochondrial marker and concatenated marker sets to reconstruct the phylogeny and estimate speciation times of three taxa. Moreover, we tried to identify the origin of migratory wheatears caught on Helgoland (Germany) and on Crete (Greece). Mitogenome analysis revealed two different ancient lineages that separated around 400,000 years ago. Both lineages consisted of a mix of subspecies and species. The phylogenetic trees, as well as haplotype networks are incongruent with the present morphology-based classification. Mitogenome could not distinguish these presumed species. The genetic panmixia among present populations and taxa might be the consequence of mitochondrial introgression between ancient wheatear populations.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Lord E, Collins C, deFrance S, et al (2020)

Ancient DNA of Guinea Pigs (Cavia spp.) Indicates a Probable New Center of Domestication and Pathways of Global Distribution.

Scientific reports, 10(1):8901 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-65784-6.

Guinea pigs (Cavia spp.) have a long association with humans. From as early as 10,000 years ago they were a wild food source. Later, domesticated Cavia porcellus were dispersed well beyond their native range through pre-Columbian exchange networks and, more recently, widely across the globe. Here we present 46 complete mitogenomes of archaeological guinea pigs from sites in Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, the Caribbean, Belgium and the United States to elucidate their evolutionary history, origins and paths of dispersal. Our results indicate an independent centre of domestication of Cavia in the eastern Colombian Highlands. We identify a Peruvian origin for the initial introduction of domesticated guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) beyond South America into the Caribbean. We also demonstrate that Peru was the probable source of the earliest known guinea pigs transported, as part of the exotic pet trade, to both Europe and the southeastern United States. Finally, we identify a modern reintroduction of guinea pigs to Puerto Rico, where local inhabitants use them for food. This research demonstrates that the natural and cultural history of guinea pigs is more complex than previously known and has implications for other studies regarding regional to global-scale studies of mammal domestication, translocation, and distribution.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Ajene I, Khamis FM, Pietersen G, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial genetic variation reveals phylogeographic structure and cryptic diversity in Trioza erytreae.

Scientific reports, 10(1):8893 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-65880-7.

Trioza erytreae is the main vector for 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus', the causative agent of African Citrus Greening disease. The insect is widespread in Africa, and has recently disseminated to Southwestern Europe. This study aimed at generating reference mitogenome sequences for T. erytreae, as a background for future genetic diversity surveys. Complete mitochondrial sequences of three specimens collected in Ethiopia, Uganda and South Africa were recovered using Ion Torrent technology. The mitogenomes of T. erytreae from Uganda and Ethiopia were highly similar, and distinct from that found in South Africa. The phylogeographic structure of T. erytreae was assessed using genetic clustering and pairwise distances, based on a dataset of public COI sequences recorded as T. erytreae. The dataset revealed ten haplotypes with strong phylogeographic structure in Africa and Europe. Three haplotypes found in Kenya on Clausena anisata belonged to pairs separated by distances as high as 11.2%, and were basal to all other sequences. These results indicate that not all sequences identified as T. erytreae belong to the same species, and that some degree of specificity with different plant hosts is likely to exist. This study provides new baseline information on the diversity of T. erytreae, with potential implications for the epidemiology of African Citrus Greening disease.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Cucchi T, Papayianni K, Cersoy S, et al (2020)

Tracking the Near Eastern origins and European dispersal of the western house mouse.

Scientific reports, 10(1):8276.

The house mouse (Mus musculus) represents the extreme of globalization of invasive mammals. However, the timing and basis of its origin and early phases of dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent invasive spread during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometrics numerical taxonomy, ancient mitochondrial DNA and direct radiocarbon dating. We found that large late hunter-gatherer sedentary settlements in the Levant, c. 14,500 cal. BP, promoted the commensal behaviour of the house mouse, which probably led the commensal pathway to cat domestication. House mouse invasive spread was then fostered through the emergence of agriculture throughout the Near East 12,000 years ago. Stowaway transport of house mice to Cyprus can be inferred as early as 10,800 years ago. However, the house mouse invasion of Europe did not happen until the development of proto urbanism and exchange networks - 6,500 years ago in Eastern Europe and 4000 years ago in Southern Europe - which in turn may have driven the first human mediated dispersal of cats in Europe.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-07

Naik VCB, Pusadkar PP, Waghmare ST, et al (2020)

Evidence for population expansion of Cotton pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in India.

Scientific reports, 10(1):4740.

Pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) infestation on Bt cotton is a major concern to cotton production in India. The genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of the insect in light of PBW resistance needs to be revisited. The objective of this study was to identify different haplotypes of pink bollworm and their distribution in India. To achieve this we studied the population structure in 44 cotton growing districts of India. The partial mitochondrial COI sequence analyses of 214 pink bollworm populations collected from 44 geographical locations representing 9 cotton growing states of India were analysed. Genetic diversity analysis exhibited presence of 27 haplotypes, among them Pg_H1 and Pg_H2 were the most common and were present in 143 and 32 populations, respectively. Distributions of pairwise differences obtained with partial COI gene data from the overall Indian populations are unimodal, suggesting population expansion in India. Significant neutrality test on the basis of Tajima' D and Fu's Fs presented a star-shaped haplotype network together with multiple haplotypes. The unimodal mismatch distribution, rejection of neutrality test with significant negative values supported the theory of demographic expansion in cotton pink bollworm populations in India. Genetic data not only provides us with a perspective of population genetics, but also that the two populations of pink bollworm, those occurring early in the season are genetically close to the late season populations with respect to their partial CO1 region. Resistance to Cry toxins does not seem to have had an impact on this region of the mt DNA in populations of pink bollworm.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-08

Kobayashi G (2020)

Small-scale population genetic structure of the sand bubbler crab Scopimera ryukyuensis in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

Molecular biology reports, 47(4):2619-2626.

Generally, the gene flow of marine organisms is well maintained, but some local populations of coastal species are genetically differentiated even on a small scale (genetic patchiness). Small-scale isolation can be crucial for understanding genetic diversity within a species. The present study examined the population genetic structure of the sand bubbler crab Scopimera ryukyuensis, which is endemic to the Ryukyu Islands in the northwestern Pacific. A total of 52 haplotypes of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I were recovered from 197 specimens collected from four islands. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities were relatively high in the central Ryukyus (Amami-Oshima and Okinawa Islands) with some exceptions but were low at the southern edge of the geographical distribution of the species, i.e., the southern Ryukyus (Ishigaki and Iriomote Islands). Pairwise FST analysis suggested that the gene flow of S. ryukyuensis was largely restricted. The local populations of the species are differentiated among islands, except for stations on Ishigaki Island and a station on Iriomote Island. Moreover, a clear intra-island population genetic structure was observed within Amami-Oshima and Iriomote Islands, e.g., only 20 km between stations. Small-scale isolation among local populations may be a common tendency for coastal species in the Ryukyu Islands, considering the results of previous studies on corals.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-14

Li K, Wu L, Liu J, et al (2020)

Maternally Inherited Diabetes Mellitus Associated with a Novel m.15897G>A Mutation in Mitochondrial tRNAThr Gene.

Journal of diabetes research, 2020:2057187.

We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characteristics of type 2 diabetes in a Chinese family. There are differences in the severity and age of onset in diabetes among these families. By molecular analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome in this family, we identified the homoplasmic m.15897G>A mutation underwent sequence analysis of whole mitochondrial DNA genome, which localized at conventional position ten of tRNAThr, and distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphisms belonging to haplogroup D4b1. This mutation has been implicated to be important for tRNA identity and stability. Using cybrid cell models, the decreased efficiency of mitochondrial tRNAThr levels caused by the m.15897G>A mutation results in respiratory deficiency, protein synthesis and assembly, mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and mitochondrial membrane potential. These mitochondrial dysfunctions caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in the mutant cell lines. These data provide a direct evidence that a novel tRNA mutation was associated with T2DM. Thus, our findings provide a new insight into the understanding of pathophysiology of maternally inherited diabetes.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-10

Shen Y, Wang X, Guo S, et al (2020)

Evolutionary genomics analysis of human nucleus-encoded mitochondrial genes: implications for the roles of energy production and metabolic pathways in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of demyelinating diseases.

Neuroscience letters, 715:134600.

The myelin sheath is a plasma membrane extension that lines nerve fibers to protect, support and insulate neurons. The myelination of axons in vertebrates enables fast, saltatory impulse propagation, and this process relies on organelles, especially on mitochondria to supply energy. Approximately 99% of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. Since mitochondria play a central role in the energy production and metabolic pathways, which are essential for myelinogenesis, studying these nucleus-encoded genes (nMGs) may provide new insights into the roles of energy metabolism in demyelinating diseases. In this work, a multiomics-based approach was employed to 1) construct a 1,740 human nMG subset with mitochondrial localization evidence obtained from the Integrated Mitochondrial Protein Index (IMPI) and MitoCarta databases, 2) conduct an evolutionary genomics analysis across mouse, rat, monkey, chimp, and human models, 3) examine dysmyelination phenotype-related genes (nMG subset genes with oligodendrocyte- ​and myelin-related ​phenotypes, OMP-nMGs) in MGI mouse lines and human patients, 4) determine the expression discrepancy of OMP-nMGs in brain tissues of cuprizone-treated mice, multiple sclerosis patients, and normal controls, and 5) conduct literature data mining to explore OMP-nMG-associated disease impacts. By contrasting OMP-nMGs with other genes, OMP-nMGs were found to be more ubiquitously expressed (59.1% vs. 16.1%), disease-associated (67.3% vs. 20.2%), and evolutionarily conserved within the human populations. Our multiomics-based analysis identified 110 OMP-nMGs implicated in energy production and lipid and glycan biosynthesis in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of demyelinating disorders. Future targeted characterization of OMP-nMGs in abnormal myelination conditions may allow the discovery of novel nMG mediated mechanisms underlying myelinogenesis and related diseases.

RevDate: 2020-12-11

Harshkova D, Majewska M, Pokora W, et al (2020)

Diclofenac and atrazine restrict the growth of a synchronous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii population via various mechanisms.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 230:105698 pii:S0166-445X(20)30447-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF) is commonly found in freshwater bodies and can have adverse effects on non-target organisms. Among the studies on DCF toxicity, several ones have reported its harmful effects on plants and algae. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of DCF toxicity towards green algae, we used a synchronous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cc-1690 culture and compared DCF (135 mg/L) effects with effects caused by atrazine (ATR; 77.6 μg/L), an herbicide with a well-known mechanism of toxic action. To achieve our goal, cell number and size, photosynthetic oxygen consumption/evolution, chlorophyll a fluorescence in vivo, H2O2 production by the cells, antioxidative enzymes encoding genes expression were analyzed during light phase of the cell cycle. We have found, that DCF and ATR affect C. reinhardtii through different mechanisms. ATR inhibited the photosynthetic electron transport chain and induced oxidative stress in chloroplast. Such chloroplastic energetics disruption indirectly influenced respiration, the intensification of which could partially mitigate low efficiency of photosynthetic energy production. As a result, ATR inhibited the growth of single cell leading to limitation in C. reinhardtii population development. In contrast to ATR-treated algae, in DCF-treated cells the fraction of active PSII reaction centers was diminished without drastic changes in electron transport or oxidative stress symptoms in chloroplast. However, significant increase in transcript level of gene encoding for mitochondria-located catalase indicates respiratory processes as a source of H2O2 overproduced in the DCF-treated cells. Because the single cell growth was not strongly affected by DCF, its adverse effect on progeny cell number seemed to be related rather to arresting of cell divisions. Concluding, although the DCF phytotoxic action appeared to be different from the action of the typical herbicide ATR, it can act as algal growth-inhibiting factor in the environment.

RevDate: 2020-12-11

Namba T, Nardelli J, Gressens P, et al (2020)

Metabolic Regulation of Neocortical Expansion in Development and Evolution.

Neuron pii:S0896-6273(20)30892-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The neocortex, the seat of our higher cognitive abilities, has expanded in size during the evolution of certain mammals such as primates, including humans. This expansion occurs during development and is linked to the proliferative capacity of neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs) in the neocortex. A number of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors have been implicated in increasing NPC proliferative capacity. However, NPC metabolism has only recently emerged as major regulator of NPC proliferation. In this Perspective, we summarize recent insights into the role of NPC metabolism in neocortical development and neurodevelopmental disorders and its relevance for neocortex evolution. We discuss certain human-specific genes and microcephaly-implicated genes that operate in, or at, the mitochondria of NPCs and stimulate their proliferation by promoting glutaminolysis. We also discuss other metabolic pathways and develop a perspective on how metabolism mechanistically regulates NPC proliferation in neocortical development and how this contributed to neocortex evolution.

RevDate: 2020-12-11

Geary DC (2020)

Mitochondrial Functions, Cognition, and the Evolution of Intelligence: Reply to Commentaries and Moving Forward.

Journal of Intelligence, 8(4): pii:jintelligence8040042.

In response to commentaries, I address questions regarding the proposal that general intelligence (g) is a manifestation of the functioning of intramodular and intermodular brain networks undergirded by the efficiency of mitochondrial functioning (Geary 2018). The core issues include the relative contribution of mitochondrial functioning to individual differences in g; studies that can be used to test associated hypotheses; and, the adaptive function of intelligence from an evolutionary perspective. I attempt to address these and related issues, as well as note areas in which other issues remain to be addressed.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Sureka R, R Mishra (2020)

Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Nuclear Matrix Proteins and Their Prokaryotic Origins.

Journal of proteome research [Epub ahead of print].

Compared to prokaryotic cells, a typical eukaryotic cell is much more complex along with its endomembrane system and membrane-bound organelles. Although the endosymbiosis theories convincingly explain the evolution of membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, very little is understood about the evolutionary origins of the nucleus, the defining feature of eukaryotes. Most studies on nuclear evolution have not been able to take into consideration the underlying structural framework of the nucleus, attributed to the nuclear matrix (NuMat), a ribonucleoproteinaceous structure. This can largely be attributed to the lack of annotation of its core components. Since NuMat has been shown to provide a structural platform for facilitating a variety of nuclear functions such as replication, transcription, and splicing, it is important to identify its protein components to better understand these processes. In this study, we address this issue using the developing embryos of Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio and identify 362 core NuMat proteins that are conserved between the two organisms. We further compare our results with publicly available Mus musculus NuMat dataset and Homo sapiens cellular localization dataset to define the core homologous NuMat proteins consisting of 252 proteins. We find that of them, 86 protein groups have originated from pre-existing proteins in prokaryotes. While 36 were conserved across all eukaryotic supergroups, 14 new proteins evolved before the evolution of the last eukaryotic common ancestor and together, these 50 proteins out of the 252 core conserved NuMat proteins are conserved across all eukaryotes, indicating their indispensable nature for nuclear function for over 1.5 billion years of eukaryotic history. Our analysis paves the way to understand the evolution of the complex internal nuclear architecture and its functions.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Urantówka AD, Kroczak A, P Mackiewicz (2020)

New view on the organization and evolution of Palaeognathae mitogenomes poses the question on the ancestral gene rearrangement in Aves.

BMC genomics, 21(1):874 pii:10.1186/s12864-020-07284-5.

BACKGROUND: Bird mitogenomes differ from other vertebrates in gene rearrangement. The most common avian gene order, identified first in Gallus gallus, is considered ancestral for all Aves. However, other rearrangements including a duplicated control region and neighboring genes have been reported in many representatives of avian orders. The repeated regions can be easily overlooked due to inappropriate DNA amplification or genome sequencing. This raises a question about the actual prevalence of mitogenomic duplications and the validity of the current view on the avian mitogenome evolution. In this context, Palaeognathae is especially interesting because is sister to all other living birds, i.e. Neognathae. So far, a unique duplicated region has been found in one palaeognath mitogenome, that of Eudromia elegans.

RESULTS: Therefore, we applied an appropriate PCR strategy to look for omitted duplications in other palaeognaths. The analyses revealed the duplicated control regions with adjacent genes in Crypturellus, Rhea and Struthio as well as ND6 pseudogene in three moas. The copies are very similar and were subjected to concerted evolution. Mapping the presence and absence of duplication onto the Palaeognathae phylogeny indicates that the duplication was an ancestral state for this avian group. This feature was inherited by early diverged lineages and lost two times in others. Comparison of incongruent phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed that two variants of mitogenomes could exist in the evolution of palaeognaths. Data collected for other avian mitogenomes revealed that the last common ancestor of all birds and early diverging lineages of Neoaves could also possess the mitogenomic duplication.

CONCLUSIONS: The duplicated control regions with adjacent genes are more common in avian mitochondrial genomes than it was previously thought. These two regions could increase effectiveness of replication and transcription as well as the number of replicating mitogenomes per organelle. In consequence, energy production by mitochondria may be also more efficient. However, further physiological and molecular analyses are necessary to assess the potential selective advantages of the mitogenome duplications.

RevDate: 2020-12-06

Dahuja A, Kumar RR, Sakhare A, et al (2020)

Role of ABC transporters in maintaining plant homeostasis under abiotic and biotic stresses.

Physiologia plantarum [Epub ahead of print].

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to a large protein family predominantly present in diverse species. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. These proteins are localized in the membranes of chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes and vacuoles. ABC proteins are involved in regulating diverse biological processes in plants, such as growth, development, uptake of nutrients, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, tolerance to metal toxicity, stomatal closure, shape and size of grains, protection of pollens, transport of phytohormones, etc. In mitochondria and chloroplast, the iron metabolism and its transport across the membrane are mediated by ABC transporters. Tonoplast-localized ABC transporters are involved in internal detoxification of metal ion; thus protecting against the DNA impairment and maintaining cell growth. ABC transporters are involved in the transport of secondary metabolites inside the cells. Microorganisms also engage a large number of ABC transporters to import and expel substrates decisive for their pathogenesis. ABC transporters also suppress the seed embryonic growth until favorable conditions come. This review aims at giving insights on ABC transporters, their evolution, structure, functions and roles in different biological processes for helping the terrestrial plants to survive under adverse environmental conditions. These specialized plant membrane transporters ensure a sustainable economic yield and high-quality products, especially under unfavorable conditions of growth. These transporters can be suitably manipulated to develop 'Plants for the Future'.

RevDate: 2020-12-05

Rukavina-Mikusic IA, Rey M, Martinefski M, et al (2020)

Temporal evolution of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in a type 1 Diabetes model. Mitochondrial complex I impairment, and H2O2 and NO productions as early subcellular events.

Free radical biology & medicine pii:S0891-5849(20)31653-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The aim of this work was to study the early events that occur in heart mitochondria and to analyse the temporal evolution of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction in a type 1 diabetes model. Male Wistar rats were injected with Streptozotocin (STZ, single dose, 60 mg × kg-1, i.p.) and hyperglycemic state was confirmed 72 h later. The animals were sacrificed 10 or 14 days after STZ-injection. Heart mitochondrial state 3 O2 consumption sustained by malate-glutamate (21%) or by succinate (16%), and complexes I-III (27%), II-III (24%) and IV (22%) activities were lower in STZ group, when animals were sacrificed at day 14, i.e. ∼11 days of hyperglycemia. In contrast, after 10 days of STZ-injection (∼7 days of hyperglycemia), only the state 3 O2 consumption sustained by malate-glutamate (23%) and its corresponding respiratory control (30%) were lower in diabetic rats, in accordance with complex I-III activity reduction (17%). Therefore, this time (∼7 days of hyperglycemia) has been considered as an "early stage" of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. At this point, mitochondrial production rates of H2O2 (117%), NO (30%) and ONOO- (∼225%), and mtNOS expression (29%) were higher; and mitochondrial SOD activity (15%) and [GSH+GSSG] (28%) were lower in diabetic rats. Linear correlations between the modified mitochondrial parameters and glycemias were observed. PGC-1α expression was similar between groups, suggesting that mitochondrial biogenesis was not triggered in this initial phase of mitochondrial dysfunction. Consequently, complex I, H2O2 and NO could be considered early subcellular signals of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, with NO and H2O2 being located upstream de novo synthesis of mitochondria.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Schirrmacher V (2020)

Mitochondria at Work: New Insights into Regulation and Dysregulation of Cellular Energy Supply and Metabolism.

Biomedicines, 8(11): pii:biomedicines8110526.

Mitochondria are of great relevance to health, and their dysregulation is associated with major chronic diseases. Research on mitochondria-156 brand new publications from 2019 and 2020-have contributed to this review. Mitochondria have been fundamental for the evolution of complex organisms. As important and semi-autonomous organelles in cells, they can adapt their function to the needs of the respective organ. They can program their function to energy supply (e.g., to keep heart muscle cells going, life-long) or to metabolism (e.g., to support hepatocytes and liver function). The capacity of mitochondria to re-program between different options is important for all cell types that are capable of changing between a resting state and cell proliferation, such as stem cells and immune cells. Major chronic diseases are characterized by mitochondrial dysregulation. This will be exemplified by cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative diseases, immune system disorders, and cancer. New strategies for intervention in chronic diseases will be presented. The tumor microenvironment can be considered a battlefield between cancer and immune defense, competing for energy supply and metabolism. Cancer cachexia is considered as a final stage of cancer progression. Nevertheless, the review will present an example of complete remission of cachexia via immune cell transfer. These findings should encourage studies along the lines of mitochondria, energy supply, and metabolism.

RevDate: 2020-12-02

Lupette J, E Maréchal (2020)

The Puzzling Conservation and Diversification of Lipid Droplets from Bacteria to Eukaryotes.

Results and problems in cell differentiation, 69:281-334.

Membrane compartments are amongst the most fascinating markers of cell evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, some being conserved and the others having emerged via a series of primary and secondary endosymbiosis events. Membrane compartments comprise the system limiting cells (one or two membranes in bacteria, a unique plasma membrane in eukaryotes) and a variety of internal vesicular, subspherical, tubular, or reticulated organelles. In eukaryotes, the internal membranes comprise on the one hand the general endomembrane system, a dynamic network including organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the nuclear envelope, etc. and also the plasma membrane, which are linked via direct lateral connectivity (e.g. between the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear outer envelope membrane) or indirectly via vesicular trafficking. On the other hand, semi-autonomous organelles, i.e. mitochondria and chloroplasts, are disconnected from the endomembrane system and request vertical transmission following cell division. Membranes are organized as lipid bilayers in which proteins are embedded. The budding of some of these membranes, leading to the formation of the so-called lipid droplets (LDs) loaded with hydrophobic molecules, most notably triacylglycerol, is conserved in all clades. The evolution of eukaryotes is marked by the acquisition of mitochondria and simple plastids from Gram-positive bacteria by primary endosymbiosis events and the emergence of extremely complex plastids, collectively called secondary plastids, bounded by three to four membranes, following multiple and independent secondary endosymbiosis events. There is currently no consensus view of the evolution of LDs in the Tree of Life. Some features are conserved; others show a striking level of diversification. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the architecture, dynamics, and multitude of functions of the lipid droplets in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes deriving from primary and secondary endosymbiosis events.

RevDate: 2020-12-02

Kaczanowski S (2020)

Symbiotic Origin of Apoptosis.

Results and problems in cell differentiation, 69:253-280.

The progress of evolutionary biology has revealed that symbiosis played a basic role in the evolution of complex eukaryotic organisms, including humans. Mitochondria are actually simplified endosymbiotic bacteria currently playing the role of cellular organelles. Mitochondrial domestication occurred at the very beginning of eukaryotic evolution. Mitochondria have two different basic functions: they produce energy using oxidative respiration, and they initiate different forms of apoptotic programmed/regulated cell death. Apoptotic programmed cell death may have different cytological forms. Mechanisms of apoptotic programmed cell death exist even in the unicellular organisms, and they play a basic role in the development of complex multicellular organisms, such as fungi, green plants, and animals. Multicellularity was independently established many times among eukaryotes. There are indications that apoptotic programmed cell death is a trait required for the establishment of multicellularity. Regulated cell death is initiated by many different parallel biochemical pathways. It is generally accepted that apoptosis evolved during mitochondrial domestication. However, there are different hypothetical models of the origin of apoptosis. The phylogenetic studies of my group indicate that apoptosis probably evolved during an evolutionary arms race between host ancestral eukaryotic predators and ancestral prey mitochondria (named protomitochondria). Protomitochondrial prey produced many different toxins as a defense against predators. From these toxins evolved extant apoptotic factors. There are indications that aerobic respiration and apoptosis co-evolved and are functionally linked in extant organisms. Perturbations of apoptosis and oxidative respiration are frequently observed during neoplastic transition. Our group showed that perturbations of apoptosis in yeasts also cause perturbations of oxidative respiration.

RevDate: 2020-11-25

Yu H, Haja DK, Schut GJ, et al (2020)

Structure of the respiratory MBS complex reveals iron-sulfur cluster catalyzed sulfane sulfur reduction in ancient life.

Nature communications, 11(1):5953 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-19697-7.

Modern day aerobic respiration in mitochondria involving complex I converts redox energy into chemical energy and likely evolved from a simple anaerobic system now represented by hydrogen gas-evolving hydrogenase (MBH) where protons are the terminal electron acceptor. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of an early ancestor in the evolution of complex I, the elemental sulfur (S0)-reducing reductase MBS. Three highly conserved protein loops linking cytoplasmic and membrane domains enable scalable energy conversion in all three complexes. MBS contains two proton pumps compared to one in MBH and likely conserves twice the energy. The structure also reveals evolutionary adaptations of MBH that enabled S0 reduction by MBS catalyzed by a site-differentiated iron-sulfur cluster without participation of protons or amino acid residues. This is the simplest mechanism proposed for reduction of inorganic or organic disulfides. It is of fundamental significance in the iron and sulfur-rich volcanic environments of early earth and possibly the origin of life. MBS provides a new perspective on the evolution of modern-day respiratory complexes and of catalysis by biological iron-sulfur clusters.

RevDate: 2020-11-24

Gao ZW, L Wang (2020)

[Progress in elucidating the origin of eukaryotes].

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 42(10):929-948.

Knowledge of the origin of eukaryotes is key to broadening our understanding of the eukaryotic genome and the relationship among internal structures within a eukaryotic cell. Since the discovery of archaea in 1977 and the proposal of three-domain tree of life by the American microbiologist Carl Woese, the intimate relationship in evolution between eukaryotes and archaea has been demonstrated by considerable experiments and analyses. From the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of phylogenetic methods and the discovery of new archaeal phyla more related to eukaryotes, increasing evidence has shown that Eukarya and Archaea should be merged into one domain, leading to a two-domain tree of life. Nowadays, the Asgard superphylum discovered via metagenomic analysis is regarded as the closest prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Nevertheless, several key questions are still under debate, such as what the ancestors of the eukaryotes were and when mitochondria emerged. Here, we review the current research progress regarding the changes of the tree of life and the detailed eukaryotic evolutionary mechanism. We show that the recent findings have greatly improved our knowledge on the origin of eukaryotes, which will pave the way for future studies.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Agafonov VA, Negrobov VV, AU Igamberdiev (2020)

Symbiogenesis as a driving force of evolution: The legacy of Boris Kozo-Polyansky.

Bio Systems, 199:104302 pii:S0303-2647(20)30179-9 [Epub ahead of print].

We analyze evolutionary views of Boris Kozo-Polyansky (1890-1957) who was the first who formulated the symbiotic theory of evolution as a concept in his book, Symbiogenesis: A New Principle of Evolution (1924). Later, starting from 1967, Lynn Margulis independently formulated and further developed the concept of symbiogenesis. Although the ideas on the symbiotic origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria appeared earlier, the book of Kozo-Polyansky presented symbiogenesis as the main factor of complexification in the course of evolution, not only in relation to the origin of eukaryotic cell. Kozo-Polyansky incorporated the ideas of symbiogenesis into a broader paradigm that anticipated the important concepts of the modern Extended Evolutionary Synthesis such as the idea of net of life, the evolutionary role of apoptosis, the ideas of punctuated equilibrium, and the concept of metasystem transition.

RevDate: 2020-11-24

Khoshravesh R, Stata M, Adachi S, et al (2020)

Evolutionary Convergence of C4 Photosynthesis: A Case Study in the Nyctaginaceae.

Frontiers in plant science, 11:578739.

C4 photosynthesis evolved over 65 times, with around 24 origins in the eudicot order Caryophyllales. In the Caryophyllales family Nyctaginaceae, the C4 pathway is known in three genera of the tribe Nyctagineae: Allionia, Okenia and Boerhavia. Phylogenetically, Allionia and Boerhavia/Okenia are separated by three genera whose photosynthetic pathway is uncertain. To clarify the distribution of photosynthetic pathways in the Nyctaginaceae, we surveyed carbon isotope ratios of 159 species of the Nyctaginaceae, along with bundle sheath (BS) cell ultrastructure, leaf gas exchange, and C4 pathway biochemistry in five species from the two C4 clades and closely related C3 genera. All species in Allionia, Okenia and Boerhavia are C4, while no C4 species occur in any other genera of the family, including three that branch between Allionia and Boerhavia. This demonstrates that C4 photosynthesis evolved twice in Nyctaginaceae. Boerhavia species use the NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) subtype of C4 photosynthesis, while Allionia species use the NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) subtype. The BS cells of Allionia have many more mitochondria than the BS of Boerhavia. Bundle sheath mitochondria are closely associated with chloroplasts in Allionia which facilitates CO2 refixation following decarboxylation by mitochondrial NAD-ME. The close relationship between Allionia and Boerhavia could provide insights into why NADP-ME versus NAD-ME subtypes evolve, particularly when coupled to analysis of their respective genomes. As such, the group is an excellent system to dissect the organizational hierarchy of convergent versus divergent traits produced by C4 evolution, enabling us to understand when convergence is favored versus when divergent modifications can result in a common phenotype.

RevDate: 2020-11-22

Xu H, Zhou W, Zhan L, et al (2020)

The ZiBuPiYin recipe regulates proteomic alterations in brain mitochondria-associated ER membranes caused by chronic psychological stress exposure: Implications for cognitive decline in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

Aging, 12: pii:103894 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic psychological stress (PS) cumulatively affects memory performance through the deleterious effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. Several functions damaged in cognitive impairment-related diseases are regulated by mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). To elucidate the role of ZiBuPiYin recipe (ZBPYR) in regulating the MAM proteome to improve PS-induced diabetes-associated cognitive decline (PSD), differentially expressed MAM proteins were identified among Zucker diabetic fatty rats, PSD rats, and PS combined with ZBPYR administration rats via iTRAQ with LC-MS/MS. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expressions of 85 and 33 proteins were altered by PS and ZBPYR treatment, respectively. Among these, 21 proteins were differentially expressed under both PS and ZBPYR treatments, whose functional categories included energy metabolism, lipid and protein metabolism, and synaptic dysfunction. Furthermore, calcium signaling and autophagy-related proteins may play roles in the pathogenesis of PSD and the mechanism of ZBPYR, respectively. Notably, KEGG pathway analysis suggested that 'Alzheimer's disease' and 'oxidative phosphorylation' pathways may be impaired in PSD pathogenesis, while ZBPYR could play a neuroprotective role through regulating the above pathways. Overall, exposure to chronic PS contributes to the evolution of diabetes-associated cognitive decline and ZBPYR might prevent and treat PSD by regulating the MAM proteome.

RevDate: 2020-11-20

Plese B, James Kenny N, Eleonora Rossi M, et al (2020)

Mitochondrial Evolution in the Demospongiae (Porifera): Phylogeny, Divergence Time, and Genome Biology.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(20)30283-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The sponge class Demospongiae is the most speciose and morphologically diverse in the phylum Porifera, and the species within it are vital components of a range of ecosystems worldwide. Despite their ubiquity, a number of recalcitrant problems still remain to be solved regarding their phylogenetic inter-relationships, the timing of their appearance, and their mitochondrial biology, the latter of which is only beginning to be investigated. Here we generated 14 new demosponge mitochondrial genomes which, alongside previously published mitochondrial resources, were used to address these issues. In addition to phylogenomic analysis, we have used syntenic data and analysis of coding regions to forge a framework for understanding the inter-relationships between Demospongiae sub-classes and orders. We have also leveraged our new resources to study the mitochondrial biology of these clades in terms of codon usage, optimisation and gene expression, to understand how these vital cellular components may have contributed to the success of the Porifera. Our results strongly support a sister relationship between Keratosa and (Verongimorpha+Heteroscleromorpha), contradicting previous studies using nuclear markers. Our study includes one species of Clionaida, and show for the first time support for a grouping of Suberitida+(Clionaida+(Tethyida+Poecilosclerida). The findings of our phylogenetic analyses are supported by in-depth examination of structural and coding-level evidence from our mitochondrial data. A time-calibrated phylogeny estimated the origin of Demospongiae in the Cambrian (∼529 Mya), and suggest that most demosponge order crown-groups emerged in the Mesozoic. This work therefore provides a robust basis for considering demosponge phylogenetic relationships, as well as essential mitochondrial data for understanding the biological basis for their success and diversity.

RevDate: 2020-11-18

Lukeš J, Kaur B, D Speijer (2020)

RNA Editing in Mitochondria and Plastids: Weird and Widespread.

Trends in genetics : TIG pii:S0168-9525(20)30277-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Though widespread, RNA editing is rare, except in endosymbiotic organelles. A combination of higher mutation rates, relaxation of energetic constraints, and high genetic drift is found within plastids and mitochondria and is conducive for evolution and expansion of editing processes, possibly starting as repair mechanisms. To illustrate this, we present an exhaustive phylogenetic overview of editing types.

RevDate: 2020-11-18

Azim MF, TM Burch-Smith (2020)

Organelles-nucleus-plasmodesmata signaling (ONPS): an update on its roles in plant physiology, metabolism and stress responses.

Current opinion in plant biology, 58:48-59 pii:S1369-5266(20)30111-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Plasmodesmata allow movement of metabolites and signaling molecules between plant cells and are, therefore, critical players in plant development and physiology, and in responding to environmental signals and stresses. There is emerging evidence that plasmodesmata are controlled by signaling originating from other organelles, primarily the chloroplasts and mitochondria. These signals act in the nucleus to alter expression of genetic pathways that control both trafficking via plasmodesmata and the plasmodesmatal pores themselves. This control circuit was dubbed organelle-nucleus-plasmodesmata signaling (ONPS). Here we discuss how ONPS arose during plant evolution and highlight the discovery of an ONPS-like module for regulating stomata. We also consider recent findings that illuminate details of the ONPS circuit and its roles in plant physiology, metabolism, and defense.

RevDate: 2020-11-15

Dhorne-Pollet S, Barrey E, N Pollet (2020)

A new method for long-read sequencing of animal mitochondrial genomes: application to the identification of equine mitochondrial DNA variants.

BMC genomics, 21(1):785.

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA is remarkably polymorphic. This is why animal geneticists survey mitochondrial genomes variations for fundamental and applied purposes. We present here an approach to sequence whole mitochondrial genomes using nanopore long-read sequencing. Our method relies on the selective elimination of nuclear DNA using an exonuclease treatment and on the amplification of circular mitochondrial DNA using a multiple displacement amplification step.

RESULTS: We optimized each preparative step to obtain a 100 million-fold enrichment of horse mitochondrial DNA relative to nuclear DNA. We sequenced these amplified mitochondrial DNA using nanopore sequencing technology and obtained mitochondrial DNA reads that represented up to half of the sequencing output. The sequence reads were 2.3 kb of mean length and provided an even coverage of the mitochondrial genome. Long-reads spanning half or more of the whole mtDNA provided a coverage that varied between 118X and 488X. We evaluated SNPs identified using these long-reads by Sanger sequencing as ground truth and found a precision of 100.0%; a recall of 93.1% and a F1-score of 0.964 using the Twilight horse mtDNA reference. The choice of the mtDNA reference impacted variant calling efficiency with F1-scores varying between 0.947 and 0.964.

CONCLUSIONS: Our method to amplify mtDNA and to sequence it using the nanopore technology is usable for mitochondrial DNA variant analysis. With minor modifications, this approach could easily be applied to other large circular DNA molecules.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Hirase S, Tezuka A, Nagano AJ, et al (2020)

Integrative genomic phylogeography reveals signs of mitonuclear incompatibility in a natural hybrid goby population.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Hybridization between divergent lineages generates new allelic combinations. One mechanism that can hinder the formation of hybrid populations is mitonuclear incompatibility, that is, dysfunctional interactions between proteins encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of diverged lineages. Theoretically, selective pressure due to mitonuclear incompatibility can affect genotypes in a hybrid population in which nuclear genomes and mitogenomes from divergent lineages admix. To directly and thoroughly observe this key process, we de novo sequenced the 747-Mb genome of the coastal goby, Chaenogobius annularis, and investigated its integrative genomic phylogeographics using RNA-sequencing, RAD-sequencing, genome resequencing, whole mitogenome sequencing, amplicon sequencing, and small RNA-sequencing. Chaenogobius annularis populations have been geographically separated into Pacific Ocean (PO) and Sea of Japan (SJ) lineages by past isolation events around the Japanese archipelago. Despite the divergence history and potential mitonuclear incompatibility between these lineages, the mitogenomes of the PO and SJ lineages have coexisted for generations in a hybrid population on the Sanriku Coast. Our analyses revealed accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions in the PO-lineage mitogenomes, including two convergent substitutions, as well as signals of mitochondrial lineage-specific selection on mitochondria-related nuclear genes. Finally, our data implied that a microRNA gene was involved in resolving mitonuclear incompatibility. Our integrative genomic phylogeographic approach revealed that mitonuclear incompatibility can affect genome evolution in a natural hybrid population.

RevDate: 2020-11-18

Lin ZJ, Wang X, Wang J, et al (2020)

Comparative analysis reveals the expansion of mitochondrial DNA control region containing unusually high G-C tandem repeat arrays in Nasonia vitripennis.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(20)34933-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Insect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ranges from 14 to 19 kbp, and the size difference is attributed to the AT-rich control region. Jewel wasps have a parasitoid lifestyle, which may affect mitochondria function and evolution. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated mitochondrial genomes in Nasonia and outgroup species. Gene composition and order are conserved within Nasonia, but they differ from other parasitoids by two large inversion events that were not reported before. We observed a much higher substitution rate relative to the nuclear genome and mitochondrial introgression between N. giraulti and N. oneida, which is consistent with previous studies. Most strikingly, N. vitripennis mtDNA has an extremely long control region (7665 bp), containing twenty-nine 217 bp tandem repeats and can fold into a super-cruciform structure. In contrast to tandem repeats commonly found in other mitochondria, these high-copy repeats are highly conserved (98.7% sequence identity), much longer in length (approximately 8 Kb), extremely GC-rich (50.7%), and CpG-rich (percent CpG 19.4% vs. 1.1% in coding region), resulting in a 23 kbp mtDNA beyond the typical size range in insects. These N. vitripennis-specific mitochondrial repeats are not related to any known sequences in insect mitochondria. Their evolutionary origin and functional consequences warrant further investigations.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Pearson SA, JA Cowan (2020)

Evolution of the human mitochondrial ABCB7 [2Fe-2S](GS)4 cluster exporter and the molecular mechanism of an E433K disease-causing mutation.

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics pii:S0003-9861(20)30670-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Iron-sulfur cluster proteins play key roles in a multitude of cellular processes. Iron-sulfur cofactors are assembled primarily in mitochondria and are then exported to the cytosol by use of an ABCB7 transporter. It has been shown that the yeast mitochondrial transporter Atm1 can export glutathione-coordinated iron-sulfur clusters, [2Fe-2S](SG)4, providing a source of cluster units for cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly systems. This pathway is consistent with the endosymbiotic model of mitochondrial evolution where homologous bacterial heavy metal transporters, utilizing metal glutathione adducts, were adapted for use in eukaryotic mitochondria. Herein, the basis for endosymbiotic evolution of the human cluster export protein (ABCB7) is developed through a BLAST analysis of transporters from ancient proteobacteria. In addition, a functional comparison of native human protein, versus a disease-causing mutant, demonstrates a key role for residue E433 in promoting cluster transport. Dysfunction in mitochondrial export of Fe-S clusters is a likely cause of the disease condition X-linked sideroblastic anemia.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Tort F, Barredo E, Parthasarathy R, et al (2020)

Biallelic mutations in NDUFA8 cause complex I deficiency in two siblings with favorable clinical evolution.

Molecular genetics and metabolism pii:S1096-7192(20)30205-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Isolated complex I (CI) deficiency is the most common cause of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) dysfunction. Whole-exome sequencing identified biallelic mutations in NDUFA8 (c.[293G > T]; [293G > T], encoding for an accessory subunit of CI, in two siblings with a favorable clinical evolution. The individuals reported here are practically asymptomatic, with the exception of slight failure to thrive and some language difficulties at the age of 6 and 9 years, respectively. These observations are remarkable since the vast majority of patients with CI deficiency, including the only NDUFA8 patient reported so far, showed an extremely poor clinical outcome. Western blot studies demonstrated that NDUFA8 protein was strongly reduced in the patients' fibroblasts and muscle extracts. In addition, there was a marked and specific decrease in the steady-state levels of CI subunits. BN-PAGE demonstrated an isolated defect in the assembly and the activity of CI with impaired supercomplexes formation and abnormal accumulation of CI subassemblies. Confocal microscopy analysis in fibroblasts showed rounder mitochondria and diminished branching degree of the mitochondrial network. Functional complementation studies demonstrated disease-causality for the identified mutation as lentiviral transduction with wild-type NDUFA8 cDNA restored the steady-state levels of CI subunits and completely recovered the deficient enzymatic activity in immortalized mutant fibroblasts. In summary, we provide additional evidence of the involvement of NDUFA8 as a mitochondrial disease-causing gene associated with altered mitochondrial morphology, CI deficiency, impaired supercomplexes formation, and very mild progression of the disease.

RevDate: 2020-11-28

Penna E, Pizzella A, Cimmino F, et al (2020)

Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Effect of High-Fat Diet on Synaptic Plasticity and Mitochondrial Functions.

Brain sciences, 10(11):.

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) include diverse neuropathologies characterized by abnormal brain development leading to impaired cognition, communication and social skills. A common feature of NDDs is defective synaptic plasticity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially known. Several studies have indicated that people's lifestyles such as diet pattern and physical exercise have significant influence on synaptic plasticity of the brain. Indeed, it has been reported that a high-fat diet (HFD, with 30-50% fat content), which leads to systemic low-grade inflammation, has also a detrimental effect on synaptic efficiency. Interestingly, metabolic alterations associated with obesity in pregnant woman may represent a risk factor for NDDs in the offspring. In this review, we have discussed the potential molecular mechanisms linking the HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions to altered synaptic plasticity underlying NDDs, with a special emphasis on the roles played by synaptic protein synthesis and mitochondrial functions.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Fukuda T, Ebi Y, Saigusa T, et al (2020)

Atg43 tethers isolation membranes to mitochondria to promote starvation-induced mitophagy in fission yeast.

eLife, 9:.

Degradation of mitochondria through mitophagy contributes to the maintenance of mitochondrial function. In this study, we identified that Atg43, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, serves as a mitophagy receptor in the model organism Schizosaccharomyces pombe to promote the selective degradation of mitochondria. Atg43 contains an Atg8-family-interacting motif essential for mitophagy. Forced recruitment of Atg8 to mitochondria restores mitophagy in Atg43-deficient cells, suggesting that Atg43 tethers expanding isolation membranes to mitochondria. We found that the mitochondrial import factors, including the Mim1-Mim2 complex and Tom70, are crucial for mitophagy. Artificial mitochondrial loading of Atg43 bypasses the requirement of the import factors, suggesting that they contribute to mitophagy through Atg43. Atg43 not only maintains growth ability during starvation but also facilitates vegetative growth through its mitophagy-independent function. Thus, Atg43 is a useful model to study the mechanism and physiological roles, as well as the origin and evolution, of mitophagy in eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Ryan DG, Frezza C, LA O'Neill (2020)

TCA cycle signalling and the evolution of eukaryotes.

Current opinion in biotechnology, 68:72-88 pii:S0958-1669(20)30144-0 [Epub ahead of print].

A major question remaining in the field of evolutionary biology is how prokaryotic organisms made the leap to complex eukaryotic life. The prevailing theory depicts the origin of eukaryotic cell complexity as emerging from the symbiosis between an α-proteobacterium, the ancestor of present-day mitochondria, and an archaeal host (endosymbiont theory). A primary contribution of mitochondria to eukaryogenesis has been attributed to the mitochondrial genome, which enabled the successful internalisation of bioenergetic membranes and facilitated remarkable genome expansion. It has also been postulated that a key contribution of the archaeal host during eukaryogenesis was in providing 'archaeal histones' that would enable compaction and regulation of an expanded genome. Yet, how the communication between the host and the symbiont evolved is unclear. Here, we propose an evolutionary concept in which mitochondrial TCA cycle signalling was also a crucial player during eukaryogenesis enabling the dynamic control of an expanded genome via regulation of DNA and histone modifications. Furthermore, we discuss how TCA cycle remodelling is a common evolutionary strategy invoked by eukaryotic organisms to coordinate stress responses and gene expression programmes, with a particular focus on the TCA cycle-derived metabolite itaconate.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Wang ZJ, Chen GJ, Zhang GJ, et al (2020)

Dynamic evolution of transposable elements, demographic history, and gene content of paleognathous birds.

Zoological research [Epub ahead of print].

Palaeognathae includes ratite and tinamou species that are important for understanding early avian evolution. Here, we analyzed the whole-genome sequences of 15 paleognathous species to infer their demographic histories, which are presently unknown. We found that most species showed a reduction of population size since the beginning of the last glacial period, except for those species distributed in Australasia and in the far south of South America. Different degrees of contraction and expansion of transposable elements (TE) have shaped the paleognathous genome architecture, with a higher transposon removal rate in tinamous than in ratites. One repeat family, AviRTE, likely underwent horizontal transfer from tropical parasites to the ancestor of little and undulated tinamous about 30 million years ago. Our analysis of gene families identified rapid turnover of immune and reproduction-related genes but found no evidence of gene family changes underlying the convergent evolution of flightlessness among ratites. We also found that mitochondrial genes have experienced a faster evolutionary rate in tinamous than in ratites, with the former also showing more degenerated W chromosomes. This result can be explained by the Hill-Robertson interference affecting genetically linked W chromosomes and mitochondria. Overall, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of the Palaeognathae populations, genes, and TEs. Our findings of co-evolution between mitochondria and W chromosomes highlight the key difference in genome evolution between species with ZW sex chromosomes and those with XY sex chromosomes.

RevDate: 2020-12-01

Hartmann FE, Duhamel M, Carpentier F, et al (2020)

Recombination suppression and evolutionary strata around mating-type loci in fungi: documenting patterns and understanding evolutionary and mechanistic causes.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Genomic regions determining sexual compatibility often display recombination suppression, as occurs in sex chromosomes, plant self-incompatibility loci and fungal mating-type loci. Regions lacking recombination can extend beyond the genes determining sexes or mating types, by several successive steps of recombination suppression. Here we review the evidence for recombination suppression around mating-type loci in fungi, sometimes encompassing vast regions of the mating-type chromosomes. The suppression of recombination at mating-type loci in fungi has long been recognized and maintains the multiallelic combinations required for correct compatibility determination. We review more recent evidence for expansions of recombination suppression beyond mating-type genes in fungi ('evolutionary strata'), which have been little studied and may be more pervasive than commonly thought. We discuss testable hypotheses for the ultimate (evolutionary) and proximate (mechanistic) causes for such expansions of recombination suppression, including (1) antagonistic selection, (2) association of additional functions to mating-type, such as uniparental mitochondria inheritance, (3) accumulation in the margin of nonrecombining regions of various factors, including deleterious mutations or transposable elements resulting from relaxed selection, or neutral rearrangements resulting from genetic drift. The study of recombination suppression in fungi could thus contribute to our understanding of recombination suppression expansion across a broader range of organisms.

RevDate: 2020-10-27

Vosseberg J, van Hooff JJE, Marcet-Houben M, et al (2020)

Timing the origin of eukaryotic cellular complexity with ancient duplications.

Nature ecology & evolution pii:10.1038/s41559-020-01320-z [Epub ahead of print].

Eukaryogenesis is one of the most enigmatic evolutionary transitions, during which simple prokaryotic cells gave rise to complex eukaryotic cells. While evolutionary intermediates are lacking, gene duplications provide information on the order of events by which eukaryotes originated. Here we use a phylogenomics approach to reconstruct successive steps during eukaryogenesis. We find that gene duplications roughly doubled the proto-eukaryotic gene repertoire, with families inherited from the Asgard archaea-related host being duplicated most. By relatively timing events using phylogenetic distances, we inferred that duplications in cytoskeletal and membrane-trafficking families were among the earliest events, whereas most other families expanded predominantly after mitochondrial endosymbiosis. Altogether, we infer that the host that engulfed the proto-mitochondrion had some eukaryote-like complexity, which drastically increased upon mitochondrial acquisition. This scenario bridges the signs of complexity observed in Asgard archaeal genomes to the proposed role of mitochondria in triggering eukaryogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Qu C, Wang L, Zhao Y, et al (2020)

Molecular Evolution of Maize Ascorbate Peroxidase Genes and Their Functional Divergence.

Genes, 11(10):.

Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is an important antioxidant enzyme. APXs in maize are encoded by multiple genes and exist as isoenzymes. The evolutionary history and functional divergence of the maize APX gene family were analyzed through comparative genomic and experimental data on the Internet in this paper. APX genes in higher plants were divided into classes A, B, and C. Each type of APX gene in angiosperms only had one ancestral gene that was duplicated along with the genome duplication or local (or tandem) duplication of the angiosperm. A total of eight genes were retained in maize and named APXa1, APXa2, APXa3, APXb1, APXb2, APXc1.1, APXc1.2, and APXc2. The APX genes of class A were located in the chloroplasts or mitochondria, and the class B and C genes were localized in the peroxisomes and cytoplasm, respectively. The expression patterns of eight APXs were different in vegetative and reproductive organs at different growth and development stages. APXa1 and APXb1 of maize may participate in the antioxidant metabolism of vegetative organs under normal conditions. APXa2, APXb2, APXc1.1, and APXc1.2 may be involved in the stress response, and APXb2 and APXc2 may participate in the senescence response. These results provide a basis for cultivating high-yield and resistant maize varieties.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Kang JS, Zhang HR, Wang YR, et al (2020)

Distinctive evolutionary pattern of organelle genomes linked to the nuclear genome in Selaginellaceae.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Plastids and mitochondria are endosymbiotic organelles that store genetic information. The genomes of these organelles generally exhibit contrasting patterns regarding genome architecture and genetic content. However, they have similar genetic features in Selaginellaceae, and little is known about what causes parallel evolution. Here, we document the multipartite plastid genomes (plastomes) and the highly divergent mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from spikemoss obtained by combining short- and long-reads. The 188-kb multipartite plastome has three ribosomal operon copies in the master genomic conformation, creating the alternative subgenomic conformation composed of 110- and 78-kb subgenomes. The long-read data indicated that the two different genomic conformations were present in almost equal proportions in the plastomes of Selaginella nipponica. The mitogenome of S. nipponica was assembled into 27 contigs with a total size of 110 kb. All contigs contained directly arranged repeats at both ends, which introduced multiple conformations. Our results showed that plastomes and mitogenomes share high tRNA losses, GC-biased nucleotides, elevated substitution rates and complicated organization. The exploration of nuclear-encoded organelle DNA replication, recombination and repair proteins indicated that, several single-targeted proteins, particularly plastid-targeted recombinase A1, have been lost in Selaginellaceae; conversely, the dual-targeted proteins remain intact. According to the reported function of recombinase A1, we propose that the plastomes of spikemoss often fail to pair homologous sequences during recombination, and the dual-targeted proteins play a key role in the convergent genetic features of plastomes and mitogenomes. Our results provide a distinctive evolutionary pattern of the organelle genomes in Selaginellaceae and evidence of their convergent evolution.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Teulière J, Bernard G, E Bapteste (2020)

The Distribution of Genes Associated With Regulated Cell Death Is Decoupled From the Mitochondrial Phenotypes Within Unicellular Eukaryotic Hosts.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:536389.

Genetically regulated cell death (RCD) occurs in all domains of life. In eukaryotes, the evolutionary origin of the mitochondrion and of certain forms of RCD, in particular apoptosis, are thought to coincide, suggesting a central general role for mitochondria in cellular suicide. We tested this mitochondrial centrality hypothesis across a dataset of 67 species of protists, presenting 5 classes of mitochondrial phenotypes, including functional mitochondria, metabolically diversified mitochondria, functionally reduced mitochondria (Mitochondrion Related Organelle or MRO) and even complete absence of mitochondria. We investigated the distribution of genes associated with various forms of RCD. No homologs for described mammalian regulators of regulated necrosis could be identified in our set of 67 unicellular taxa. Protists with MRO and the secondarily a mitochondriate Monocercomonoides exilis display heterogeneous reductions of apoptosis gene sets with respect to typical mitochondriate protists. Remarkably, despite the total lack of mitochondria in M. exilis, apoptosis-associated genes could still be identified. These same species of protists with MRO and M. exilis harbored non-reduced autophagic cell death gene sets. Moreover, transiently multicellular protist taxa appeared enriched in apoptotic and autophagy associated genes compared to free-living protists. This analysis suggests that genes associated with apoptosis in animals and the presence of the mitochondria are significant yet non-essential biological components for RCD in protists. More generally, our results support the hypothesis of a selection for RCD, including both apoptosis and autophagy, as a developmental mechanism linked to multicellularity.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Friesen CR, Noble DWA, M Olsson (2020)

The role of oxidative stress in postcopulatory selection.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1813):20200065.

Two decades ago, von Schantz et al. (von Schantz T, Bensch S, Grahn M, Hasselquist D, Wittzell H. 1999 Good genes, oxidative stress and condition-dependent sexual signals. Proc. R. Soc. B 266, 1-12. (doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0597)) united oxidative stress (OS) biology with sexual selection and life-history theory. This set the scene for analysis of how evolutionary trade-offs may be mediated by the increase in reactive molecules resulting from metabolic processes at reproduction. Despite 30 years of research on OS effects on infertility in humans, one research area that has been left behind in this integration of evolution and OS biology is postcopulatory sexual selection-this integration is long overdue. We review the basic mechanisms in OS biology, why mitochondria are the primary source of ROS and ATP production during oxidative metabolism, and why sperm, and its performance, is uniquely susceptible to OS. We also review how postcopulatory processes select for antioxidation in seminal fluids to counter OS and the implications of the net outcome of these processes on sperm damage, sperm storage, and female and oocyte manipulation of sperm metabolism and repair of DNA to enhance offspring fitness. This article is part of the theme issue 'Fifty years of sperm competition'.

RevDate: 2020-10-31

Lima-Posada I, NA Bobadilla (2020)

Understanding the opposite effects of sex hormones in mediating renal injury.

Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) [Epub ahead of print].

According to epidemiological studies, chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects more women than men, but the incidence of end-stage renal disease is higher in men than in women. However, most of these studies have not considered the incidence of CKD in women of reproductive or post-menopausal age, and even fewer with hormone replacement therapy. Some meta-analyses have reported an exacerbated progression of CKD in men compared with women. Consequently, in most of the experimental models of renal injury, men of reproductive age exhibit more abnormalities in renal function and structure that lead to greater progression to CKD than women, which suggests that these differences are mediated by sex hormones rather than by other factors. This review intends to show the mechanisms regulated by oestrogen or testosterone that may explain the different risks and evolution of renal diseases between men and women. Regardless of the initial cause of kidney disease, sex hormones have been implicated in modulating vascular tone, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Finally, our previous study highlights the mechanisms by which the transition from acute kidney injury to CKD does not occur in female rats as commonly as it does in male rats. This review not only identifies sex differences in several kidney diseases but also supports potential therapeutic opportunities to reduce or prevent the progression of CKD and highlights the importance of considering sex differences in the design of any clinical study.

RevDate: 2020-11-02
CmpDate: 2020-11-02

Brady SW, Liu Y, Ma X, et al (2020)

Pan-neuroblastoma analysis reveals age- and signature-associated driver alterations.

Nature communications, 11(1):5183.

Neuroblastoma is a pediatric malignancy with heterogeneous clinical outcomes. To better understand neuroblastoma pathogenesis, here we analyze whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome data from 702 neuroblastoma samples. Forty percent of samples harbor at least one recurrent driver gene alteration and most aberrations, including MYCN, ATRX, and TERT alterations, differ in frequency by age. MYCN alterations occur at median 2.3 years of age, TERT at 3.8 years, and ATRX at 5.6 years. COSMIC mutational signature 18, previously associated with reactive oxygen species, is the most common cause of driver point mutations in neuroblastoma, including most ALK and Ras-activating variants. Signature 18 appears early and is continuous throughout disease evolution. Signature 18 is enriched in neuroblastomas with MYCN amplification, 17q gain, and increased expression of mitochondrial ribosome and electron transport-associated genes. Recurrent FGFR1 variants in six patients, and ALK N-terminal structural alterations in five samples, identify additional patients potentially amenable to precision therapy.

RevDate: 2020-10-21
CmpDate: 2020-10-21

GÓmez-Zurita J, Platania L, A Cardoso (2020)

A new species of the genus Tricholapita nom. nov. and stat. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae) from New Caledonia.

Zootaxa, 4858(1):zootaxa.4858.1.5 pii:zootaxa.4858.1.5.

Tricholapita Gómez-Zurita and Cardoso nom. nov. is proposed as the replacement name for the leaf beetle taxon Lapita Gómez-Zurita and Cardoso, 2014, nec Bickel, 2002. Moreover, the rank of Tricholapita stat. nov. is elevated from subgenus of Taophila Heller, 1916 to generic status. Phylogenetic evidence based on mtDNA rrnS sequences and diagnostic morphological characters reveals a new species from the south of Grande Terre in New Caledonia, which is described: Tricholapita reidi sp. nov.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

da Veiga Moreira J, Schwartz L, M Jolicoeur (2020)

Targeting Mitochondrial Singlet Oxygen Dynamics Offers New Perspectives for Effective Metabolic Therapies of Cancer.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:573399.

The occurrence of mitochondrial respiration has allowed evolution toward more complex and advanced life forms. However, its dysfunction is now also seen as the most probable cause of one of the biggest scourges in human health, cancer. Conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, which mainly focus on disrupting the cell division process, have shown being effective in the attenuation of various cancers but also showing significant limits as well as serious sides effects. Indeed, the idea that cancer is a metabolic disease with mitochondria as the central site of the pathology is now emerging, and we provide here a review supporting this "novel" hypothesis re-actualizing past century Otto Warburg's thoughts. Our conclusion, while integrating literature, is that mitochondrial activity and, in particular, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase, complex IV of the ETC, plays a fundamental role in the effectiveness or non-effectiveness of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and probably radiotherapy treatments. We therefore propose that cancer cells mitochondrial singlet oxygen (1O2) dynamics may be an efficient target for metabolic therapy development.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Bolmatov D, Carrillo JY, Sumpter BG, et al (2020)

Double membrane formation in heterogeneous vesicles.

Soft matter, 16(38):8806-8817.

Lipids are capable of forming a variety of structures, including multi-lamellar vesicles. Layered lipid membranes are found in cell organelles, such as autophagosomes and mitochondria. Here, we present a mechanism for the formation of a double-walled vesicle (i.e., two lipid bilayers) from a unilamellar vesicle through the partitioning and phase separation of a small molecule. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that double membrane formation proceeds via a nucleation and growth process - i.e., after a critical concentration of the small molecules, a patch of double membrane nucleates and grows to cover the entire vesicle. We discuss the implications of this mechanism and theoretical approaches for understanding the evolution and formation of double membranes.

RevDate: 2020-11-23

Mayr SJ, Mendel RR, G Schwarz (2021)

Molybdenum cofactor biology, evolution and deficiency.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research, 1868(1):118883.

The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) represents an ancient metal‑sulfur cofactor, which participates as catalyst in carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles, both on individual and global scale. Given the diversity of biological processes dependent on Moco and their evolutionary age, Moco is traced back to the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), while Moco biosynthetic genes underwent significant changes through evolution and acquired additional functions. In this review, focused on eukaryotic Moco biology, we elucidate the benefits of gene fusions on Moco biosynthesis and beyond. While originally the gene fusions were driven by biosynthetic advantages such as coordinated expression of functionally related proteins and product/substrate channeling, they also served as origin for the development of novel functions. Today, Moco biosynthetic genes are involved in a multitude of cellular processes and loss of the according gene products result in severe disorders, both related to Moco biosynthesis and secondary enzyme functions.

RevDate: 2020-11-23

Braymer JJ, Freibert SA, Rakwalska-Bange M, et al (2021)

Mechanistic concepts of iron-sulfur protein biogenesis in Biology.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research, 1868(1):118863.

Iron-sulfur (Fe/S) proteins are present in virtually all living organisms and are involved in numerous cellular processes such as respiration, photosynthesis, metabolic reactions, nitrogen fixation, radical biochemistry, protein synthesis, antiviral defense, and genome maintenance. Their versatile functions may go back to the proposed role of their Fe/S cofactors in the origin of life as efficient catalysts and electron carriers. More than two decades ago, it was discovered that the in vivo synthesis of cellular Fe/S clusters and their integration into polypeptide chains requires assistance by complex proteinaceous machineries, despite the fact that Fe/S proteins can be assembled chemically in vitro. In prokaryotes, three Fe/S protein biogenesis systems are known; ISC, SUF, and the more specialized NIF. The former two systems have been transferred by endosymbiosis from bacteria to mitochondria and plastids, respectively, of eukaryotes. In their cytosol, eukaryotes use the CIA machinery for the biogenesis of cytosolic and nuclear Fe/S proteins. Despite the structural diversity of the protein constituents of these four machineries, general mechanistic concepts underlie the complex process of Fe/S protein biogenesis. This review provides a comprehensive and comparative overview of the various known biogenesis systems in Biology, and summarizes their common or diverging molecular mechanisms, thereby illustrating both the conservation and diverse adaptions of these four machineries during evolution and under different lifestyles. Knowledge of these fundamental biochemical pathways is not only of basic scientific interest, but is important for the understanding of human 'Fe/S diseases' and can be used in biotechnology.

RevDate: 2020-11-20

Friedl J, Knopp MR, Groh C, et al (2020)

More than just a ticket canceller: the mitochondrial processing peptidase tailors complex precursor proteins at internal cleavage sites.

Molecular biology of the cell, 31(24):2657-2668.

Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized as precursors that carry N-terminal presequences. After they are imported into mitochondria, these targeting signals are cleaved off by the mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP). Using the mitochondrial tandem protein Arg5,6 as a model substrate, we demonstrate that MPP has an additional role in preprotein maturation, beyond the removal of presequences. Arg5,6 is synthesized as a polyprotein precursor that is imported into mitochondria and subsequently separated into two distinct enzymes. This internal processing is performed by MPP, which cleaves the Arg5,6 precursor at its N-terminus and at an internal site. The peculiar organization of Arg5,6 is conserved across fungi and reflects the polycistronic arginine operon in prokaryotes. MPP cleavage sites are also present in other mitochondrial fusion proteins from fungi, plants, and animals. Hence, besides its role as a "ticket canceller" for removal of presequences, MPP exhibits a second conserved activity as an internal processing peptidase for complex mitochondrial precursor proteins.

RevDate: 2020-10-29
CmpDate: 2020-10-22

Tan DX, R Hardeland (2020)

Targeting Host Defense System and Rescuing Compromised Mitochondria to Increase Tolerance against Pathogens by Melatonin May Impact Outcome of Deadly Virus Infection Pertinent to COVID-19.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 25(19):.

Fighting infectious diseases, particularly viral infections, is a demanding task for human health. Targeting the pathogens or targeting the host are different strategies, but with an identical purpose, i.e., to curb the pathogen's spreading and cure the illness. It appears that targeting a host to increase tolerance against pathogens can be of substantial advantage and is a strategy used in evolution. Practically, it has a broader protective spectrum than that of only targeting the specific pathogens, which differ in terms of susceptibility. Methods for host targeting applied in one pandemic can even be effective for upcoming pandemics with different pathogens. This is even more urgent if we consider the possible concomitance of two respiratory diseases with potential multi-organ afflictions such as Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and seasonal flu. Melatonin is a molecule that can enhance the host's tolerance against pathogen invasions. Due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory activities, melatonin has the capacity to reduce the severity and mortality of deadly virus infections including COVID-19. Melatonin is synthesized and functions in mitochondria, which play a critical role in viral infections. Not surprisingly, melatonin synthesis can become a target of viral strategies that manipulate the mitochondrial status. For example, a viral infection can switch energy metabolism from respiration to widely anaerobic glycolysis even if plenty of oxygen is available (the Warburg effect) when the host cell cannot generate acetyl-coenzyme A, a metabolite required for melatonin biosynthesis. Under some conditions, including aging, gender, predisposed health conditions, already compromised mitochondria, when exposed to further viral challenges, lose their capacity for producing sufficient amounts of melatonin. This leads to a reduced support of mitochondrial functions and makes these individuals more vulnerable to infectious diseases. Thus, the maintenance of mitochondrial function by melatonin supplementation can be expected to generate beneficial effects on the outcome of viral infectious diseases, particularly COVID-19.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Cheong A, Lingutla R, J Mager (2020)

Expression analysis of mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal protein genes.

Gene expression patterns : GEP, 38:119147 pii:S1567-133X(20)30170-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) are essential components for the structural and functional integrity of the mitoribosome complex. Throughout evolution, the mammalian mitoribosome has acquired new Mrp genes to compensate for loss of ribosomal RNA. More than 80 MRPs have been identified in mammals. Here we document expression pattern of 79 Mrp genes during mouse development and adult tissues and find that these genes are consistently expressed throughout early embryogenesis with little stage or tissue specificity. Further investigation of the amino acid sequence reveals that this group of proteins has little to no protein similarity. Recent work has shown that the majority of Mrp genes are essential resulting in early embryonic lethality, suggesting no functional redundancy among the group. Taken together, these results indicate that the Mrp genes are not a gene family descended from a single ancestral gene, and that each MRP has unique and essential role in the mitoribosome complex. The lack of functional redundancy is surprising given the importance of the mitoribosome for cellular and organismal viability. Further, these data suggest that genomic variants in Mrp genes may be causative for early pregnancy loss and should be evaluated as clinically.

RevDate: 2020-10-23
CmpDate: 2020-10-23

Silva de Souza S, Machado RN, Custódio da Costa J, et al (2020)

Severe damages caused by Malathion exposure in Colossoma macropomum.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 205:111340.

The increase in pesticide use in response to agricultural demands poses a risk to non-target organisms, including fish. Integrated analysis of biochemical, histopathological and genetic parameters in fish exposed to Malathion insecticide provide information on the toxicity mechanisms of this pesticide, which is classified as a probable carcinogen for humans. The present study assessed the biological responses of Colossoma macropomum after exposure to Malathion. We started determining the lethal concentration, which is the concentration capable of killing 50% of the subjects in an acute toxicity test (LC50-96 h), which was 15.77 ± 3.30 mgL-1. The fish were, then, exposed to Malathion during 96 h at a sublethal concentration, 7.30 mgL-1. Overall, we observed an increased activity of biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes, which reduced production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species after 96 h exposure, as well as kept constant the mitochondrial respiration, Acetylcholinesterase activity and DNA damage. However, fish exposed to insecticide presented severe gill histopathological damage and increased expression of proto-oncogene ras. Taken together, the results suggest that, after four days of exposure to the Malathion, C. macropomum efficiently activates its defense mechanisms, suggesting that the basal response mechanisms are responsive. On the other hand, histopathologic damages evidenced the adverse effects of Malathion on fish, since it promoted gill necrosis and increased the expression of ras oncogene that is directly related to tumorigenesis events.

RevDate: 2020-10-08
CmpDate: 2020-10-08

Camus MF (2020)

The perils of cheating.

eLife, 9:.

Experiments on mitochondrial DNA in worms highlight that cheating does not always pay off.

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Yamada Y, Sato Y, Nakamura T, et al (2020)

Evolution of drug delivery system from viewpoint of controlled intracellular trafficking and selective tissue targeting toward future nanomedicine.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 327:533-545.

Due to the rapid changes that have occurred in the field of drug discovery and the recent developments in the early 21st century, the role of drug delivery systems (DDS) has become increasingly more important. For the past 20 years, our laboratory has been developing gene delivery systems based on lipid-based delivery systems. One of our efforts has been directed toward developing a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) by modifying the particle surface with octaarginine, which resulted in a remarkably enhanced cellular uptake and improved intracellular trafficking of plasmid DNA (pDNA). When we moved to in vivo applications, however, we were faced with the PEG-dilemma and we shifted our strategy to the incorporation of ionizable cationic lipids into our system. This resulted in some dramatic improvements over our original design and this can be attributed to the development of a new lipid library. We have also developed a mitochondrial targeting system based on a membrane fusion mechanism using a MITO-Porter, which can deliver nucleic acids/pDNA into the matrix of mitochondria. After the appearance of antibody medicines, Opdivo, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, has established cancer immunology as the 4th strategy in cancer therapy. Our DDS technologies can also be applied to this new field of cancer therapy to cure cancer by controlling our immune mechanisms. The latest studies are summarized in this review article.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Mallard J, Hucteau E, Schott R, et al (2020)

Evolution of Physical Status From Diagnosis to the End of First-Line Treatment in Breast, Lung, and Colorectal Cancer Patients: The PROTECT-01 Cohort Study Protocol.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:1304.

Background: Cancer cachexia and exacerbated fatigue represent two hallmarks in cancer patients, negatively impacting their exercise tolerance and ultimately their quality of life. However, the characterization of patients' physical status and exercise tolerance and, most importantly, their evolution throughout cancer treatment may represent the first step in efficiently counteracting their development with prescribed and tailored exercise training. In this context, the aim of the PROTECT-01 study will be to investigate the evolution of physical status, from diagnosis to the end of first-line treatment, of patients with one of the three most common cancers (i.e., lung, breast, and colorectal). Methods: The PROTECT-01 cohort study will include 300 patients equally divided between lung, breast and colorectal cancer. Patients will perform a series of assessments at three visits throughout the treatment: (1) between the date of diagnosis and the start of treatment, (2) 8 weeks after the start of treatment, and (3) after the completion of first-line treatment or at the 6-months mark, whichever occurs first. For each of the three visits, subjective and objective fatigue, maximal voluntary force, body composition, cachexia, physical activity level, quality of life, respiratory function, overall physical performance, and exercise tolerance will be assessed. Discussion: The present study is aimed at identifying the nature and severity of maladaptation related to exercise intolerance in the three most common cancers. Therefore, our results should contribute to the delineation of the needs of each group of patients and to the determination of the most valuable exercise interventions in order to counteract these maladaptations. This descriptive and comprehensive approach is a prerequisite in order to elaborate, through future interventional research projects, tailored exercise strategies to counteract specific symptoms that are potentially cancer type-dependent and, in fine, to improve the health and quality of life of cancer patients. Moreover, our concomitant focus on fatigue and cachexia will provide insightful information about two factors that may have substantial interaction but require further investigation. Trial registration: This prospective study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03956641), May, 2019.

RevDate: 2020-09-08

Zhao D, Wang H, Chen S, et al (2020)

Phytomelatonin: An Emerging Regulator of Plant Biotic Stress Resistance.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(20)30256-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Melatonin has diverse functions in plant development and stress tolerance, with recent evidence showing a beneficial role in plant biotic stress tolerance. It has been hypothesized that pathogenic invasion causes the immediate generation of melatonin, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), with these being mutually dependent, forming the integrative melatonin-ROS-RNS feedforward loop. Here we discuss how the loop, possibly located in the mitochondria and chloroplasts, maximizes disease resistance in the early pathogen ingress stage, providing on-site protection. We also review how melatonin interacts with phytohormone signaling pathways to mediate defense responses and discuss the evolutionary context from the beginnings of the melatonin receptor-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade in unicellular green algae, followed by the occurrence of phytohormone pathways in land plants.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Royes J, Biou V, Dautin N, et al (2020)

Inducible intracellular membranes: molecular aspects and emerging applications.

Microbial cell factories, 19(1):176.

Membrane remodeling and phospholipid biosynthesis are normally tightly regulated to maintain the shape and function of cells. Indeed, different physiological mechanisms ensure a precise coordination between de novo phospholipid biosynthesis and modulation of membrane morphology. Interestingly, the overproduction of certain membrane proteins hijack these regulation networks, leading to the formation of impressive intracellular membrane structures in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The proteins triggering an abnormal accumulation of membrane structures inside the cells (or membrane proliferation) share two major common features: (1) they promote the formation of highly curved membrane domains and (2) they lead to an enrichment in anionic, cone-shaped phospholipids (cardiolipin or phosphatidic acid) in the newly formed membranes. Taking into account the available examples of membrane proliferation upon protein overproduction, together with the latest biochemical, biophysical and structural data, we explore the relationship between protein synthesis and membrane biogenesis. We propose a mechanism for the formation of these non-physiological intracellular membranes that shares similarities with natural inner membrane structures found in α-proteobacteria, mitochondria and some viruses-infected cells, pointing towards a conserved feature through evolution. We hope that the information discussed in this review will give a better grasp of the biophysical mechanisms behind physiological and induced intracellular membrane proliferation, and inspire new applications, either for academia (high-yield membrane protein production and nanovesicle production) or industry (biofuel production and vaccine preparation).

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Karakaidos P, T Rampias (2020)

Mitonuclear Interactions in the Maintenance of Mitochondrial Integrity.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9):.

In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria originated in an α-proteobacterial endosymbiont. Although these organelles harbor their own genome, the large majority of genes, originally encoded in the endosymbiont, were either lost or transferred to the nucleus. As a consequence, mitochondria have become semi-autonomous and most of their processes require the import of nuclear-encoded components to be functional. Therefore, the mitochondrial-specific translation has evolved to be coordinated by mitonuclear interactions to respond to the energetic demands of the cell, acquiring unique and mosaic features. However, mitochondrial-DNA-encoded genes are essential for the assembly of the respiratory chain complexes. Impaired mitochondrial function due to oxidative damage and mutations has been associated with numerous human pathologies, the aging process, and cancer. In this review, we highlight the unique features of mitochondrial protein synthesis and provide a comprehensive insight into the mitonuclear crosstalk and its co-evolution, as well as the vulnerabilities of the animal mitochondrial genome.

RevDate: 2020-10-12
CmpDate: 2020-09-30

Yazaki E, Kume K, Shiratori T, et al (2020)

Barthelonids represent a deep-branching metamonad clade with mitochondrion-related organelles predicted to generate no ATP.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1934):20201538.

We here report the phylogenetic position of barthelonids, small anaerobic flagellates previously examined using light microscopy alone. Barthelona spp. were isolated from geographically distinct regions and we established five laboratory strains. Transcriptomic data generated from one Barthelona strain (PAP020) were used for large-scale, multi-gene phylogenetic (phylogenomic) analyses. Our analyses robustly placed strain PAP020 at the base of the Fornicata clade, indicating that barthelonids represent a deep-branching metamonad clade. Considering the anaerobic/microaerophilic nature of barthelonids and preliminary electron microscopy observations on strain PAP020, we suspected that barthelonids possess functionally and structurally reduced mitochondria (i.e. mitochondrion-related organelles or MROs). The metabolic pathways localized in the MRO of strain PAP020 were predicted based on its transcriptomic data and compared with those in the MROs of fornicates. We here propose that strain PAP020 is incapable of generating ATP in the MRO, as no mitochondrial/MRO enzymes involved in substrate-level phosphorylation were detected. Instead, we detected a putative cytosolic ATP-generating enzyme (acetyl-CoA synthetase), suggesting that strain PAP020 depends on ATP generated in the cytosol. We propose two separate losses of substrate-level phosphorylation from the MRO in the clade containing barthelonids and (other) fornicates.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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