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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 16 Nov 2018 at 01:38 Created: 

Microbiome

It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Park CH, Lee AR, Lee YR, et al (2018)

Evaluation of gastric microbiome and metagenomic function in patients with intestinal metaplasia using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

Helicobacter [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in studies on the gastric microbiome, the role of the non-Helicobacter pylori gastric microbiome in gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. We evaluated the characteristics of the gastric microbiome and metagenomic functions in patients with IM.

METHODS: Participants were classified into six groups according to disease status (chronic superficial gastritis [CSG], intestinal metaplasia [IM], and cancer) and H. pylori- infection status (H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative). The gastric microbiome was analyzed in mucosal tissues at the gastric antrum by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Moreover, we assessed the metagenome including the type IV secretion system (T4SS) gene, as T4SS proteins are essential for transferring CagA from H. pylori- into the human gastric epithelium.

RESULTS: Among the 138 included patients, 48, 9, 23, 14, 12, and 32 were classified into the H. pylori-negative CSG, H. pylori-negative IM, H. pylori-negative cancer, H. pylori-positive CSG, H. pylori-positive IM, and H. pylori-positive cancer groups, respectively. Cyanobacteria were predominant in the H. pylori-negative CSG group compared to in the H. pylori-negative IM and H. pylori-negative cancer groups (H. pylori-negative CSG vs H. pylori-negative IM vs H. pylori-negative cancer: 14.0% vs 4.2% vs 0.04%, P < 0.001). In contrast, Rhizobiales were commonly observed in the H. pylori-negative IM group (H. pylori-negative CSG vs H. pylori-negative IM vs H. pylori-negative cancer: 1.9% vs 15.4% vs 2.8%, P < 0.001). The relative abundance of Rhizobiales increased as H. pylori-infected stomachs progressed from gastritis to IM. In the H. pylori-negative IM group, genes encoding T4SS were prevalent among the metagenome. Additionally, after H. pylori- eradication therapy, the gastric microbiome was similar to the microbiome observed after spontaneous clearance of H. pylori-.

CONCLUSIONS: The relative abundance of Rhizobiales was higher in patients with H. pylori-negative IM than in those with H. pylori-negative CSG or cancer. Additionally, T4SS genes were highly observed in the metagenome of patients with IM. Highly abundant T4SS proteins in these patients may promote gastric carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Jha AR, Davenport ER, Gautam Y, et al (2018)

Gut microbiome transition across a lifestyle gradient in Himalaya.

PLoS biology, 16(11):e2005396 pii:pbio.2005396.

The composition of the gut microbiome in industrialized populations differs from those living traditional lifestyles. However, it has been difficult to separate the contributions of human genetic and geographic factors from lifestyle. Whether shifts away from the foraging lifestyle that characterize much of humanity's past influence the gut microbiome, and to what degree, remains unclear. Here, we characterize the stool bacterial composition of four Himalayan populations to investigate how the gut community changes in response to shifts in traditional human lifestyles. These groups led seminomadic hunting-gathering lifestyles until transitioning to varying levels of agricultural dependence upon farming. The Tharu began farming 250-300 years ago, the Raute and Raji transitioned 30-40 years ago, and the Chepang retain many aspects of a foraging lifestyle. We assess the contributions of dietary and environmental factors on their gut-associated microbes and find that differences in the lifestyles of Himalayan foragers and farmers are strongly correlated with microbial community variation. Furthermore, the gut microbiomes of all four traditional Himalayan populations are distinct from that of the Americans, indicating that industrialization may further exacerbate differences in the gut community. The Chepang foragers harbor an elevated abundance of taxa associated with foragers around the world. Conversely, the gut microbiomes of the populations that have transitioned to farming are more similar to those of Americans, with agricultural dependence and several associated lifestyle and environmental factors correlating with the extent of microbiome divergence from the foraging population. The gut microbiomes of Raute and Raji reveal an intermediate state between the Chepang and Tharu, indicating that divergence from a stereotypical foraging microbiome can occur within a single generation. Our results also show that environmental factors such as drinking water source and solid cooking fuel are significantly associated with the gut microbiome. Despite the pronounced differences in gut bacterial composition across populations, we found little differences in alpha diversity across lifestyles. These findings in genetically similar populations living in the same geographical region establish the key role of lifestyle in determining human gut microbiome composition and point to the next challenging steps of determining how large-scale gut microbiome reconfiguration impacts human biology.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Berry D (2018)

Up-close-and-personal with the human microbiome.

Environmental microbiology reports [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Minakova E, BB Warner (2018)

Maternal immune activation, central nervous system development and behavioral phenotypes.

Birth defects research [Epub ahead of print].

Maternal immune activation (MIA) refers to a maternal immune system triggered by infectious or infectious-like stimuli. A cascade of cytokines and immunologic alterations are transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse phenotypes most notably in the central nervous system. Epidemiologic studies implicate maternal infections in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In animal models, MIA causes neurochemical and anatomic changes in the brain that correspond to those found in humans with the disorders. As our understanding of the interactions between environment, genetics, and immune system grows, the role of alternative, noninfectious risk factors, such as prenatal stress, obesity, and the gut microbiome also becomes clearer. This review considers how infectious and noninfectious etiologies activate the maternal immune system. Their impact on fetal programming and neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring is examined in the context of human and animal studies.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Frew JW (2018)

Complement, Hidradenitis Suppurativa and Pathogen-Driven Positive Selection.

The precise pathogenesis of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) remains unclear. Kanni et al1 provides novel data implicating C5a and the membrane attack complex in HS pathogenesis. This opens the possibility of therapeutic blockade of C5a for the treatment of HS, although the results do require replication in larger patient cohorts. The current HS pathogenic paradigm involves dysregulation of the Th17:T-reg axis with contribution from genetic polymorphisms, metabolic syndrome, the microbiome and smoking, so data implicating complement is somewhat unexpected, stimulating the need for reconsideration of the current pathogenic paradigm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Schultz J, Schröttner P, Leupold S, et al (2018)

Conservative treatment of fingertip injuries in children - first experiences with a novel silicone finger cap that enables woundfluid analysis.

GMS Interdisciplinary plastic and reconstructive surgery DGPW, 7:Doc05 pii:Doc05.

Introduction: Human fingertips are able to regenerate soft tissue and skin after amputation injuries with excellent cosmetic and functional results when treated with semiocclusive dressings. Despite bacterial colonizations, proceeding infections are not reported with this management. The underlying mechanisms for this form of regenerative healing as well as for the resilience to infections are not known. Due to the lack of mechanical protection, the leakage of maloderous woundfluid and the sometimes challenging application, conventional film dressings have their problems, especially in treating young children. We therefore treated selected patients with a novel silicone finger cap with an integrated wound fluid reservoir that enables atraumatic routine wound fluid aspiration. Methods: We report on 34 patients in between 1 and 13 years with traumatic fingertip amputations primarily treated with occlusive dressings. 12 patients were treated with a novel silicone finger cap. We summarized clinical data for each patient. This included photographs and microbiological results from wound fluid analyses, whenever available. Results: The results of both, conventional film dressing and silicone finger cap treatment, were excellent with no hypersensitivity and no restrictions in sensibility and motility. Even larger pulp defects were rearranged in a round shape and good soft tissue coverage of the distal phalanx was achieved. Nail deformities were not observed. We detected a wide spectrum of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the wound fluids but infections were not observed. Epithelialization times did not differ significantly and no severe complications were seen in all primarily conservatively treated patients. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary data demonstrating that the treatment with the silicone finger cap leads to excellent clinical results in wound healing. Interestingly, the wounds were colonized with a wide range of bacteria including species that may cause wound infections. However, we saw no proceeding inflammation and the regeneration was undisturbed. In the future, the efficacy of this new management should be evaluated in randomized, controlled clinical trials to confirm the results under standard conditions and get more insight into the role of the wound microbiome as well as other factors that may promote regeneration. The aspirable Reservoir of the finger cap will enable easy atraumatic sampling of wound fluids both for diagnostic and for research purposes as well as possibly allowing direct administration of pro-regenerative drugs in the future.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Chen C, Huang X, Fang S, et al (2018)

Contribution of Host Genetics to the Variation of Microbial Composition of Cecum Lumen and Feces in Pigs.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2626.

Pigs are a perfect model for studying the interaction between host genetics and gut microbiome due to the high similarity of gastrointestine and digestive system with humans, and the easily controlled feeding conditions. In this study, two pig populations which were raised in uniformed farm conditions and provided with the same commercial formula diet were used as the experimental animals. A systematical investigation of host genetic effect on the gut microbial composition was separately performed in porcine cecum lumen and feces samples through the comparison of microbial composition among full-sibs, half-sibs and unrelated members, heritability estimate (h2), and genome-wide association study (GWAS). The results showed that full-sib members had a higher similarity of microbial composition than unrelated individuals. A significant correlation was observed between the microbial composition-based kinship and the host SNP-based kinship in both populations (P < 9.9 × 10-5). We identified 81 and 67 microbial taxa having h2 > 0.15 in fecal and cecum luminal samples, respectively, including 31 taxa with h2 > 0.15 in both types of samples. GWAS identified 40 and 34 significant associations between host genomic loci and the abundance or presence/absence of bacterial taxa in the fecal and cecum luminal samples. Functional classifications of host candidate genes related to microbial taxa are mainly associated with metabolism, immunity functions and response, and signal transduction. The high similarity of heritable taxa and functional categories of candidate genes among pig, human and mouse suggests the similar mechanism of the host genetic effect on gut microbiome across mammalian species. The results from this study provided another evidence that host genetics contributes significantly to the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Mas-Carrió E, Dini-Andreote F, Brossi MJL, et al (2018)

Organic Amendment Under Increasing Agricultural Intensification: Effects on Soil Bacterial Communities and Plant Productivity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2612.

The soil microbiome is a complex living network that plays essential roles in agricultural systems, regardless of the level of intensification. However, the effects of agricultural management on the soil microbiome and the association with plant productivity remain largely unclear. Here, we studied the responses of three soil systems displaying distinct levels of agriculture intensiveness (i.e., natural, organic, and conventional soil management regimes) to experimentally manipulated organic farming amendments (i.e., dung and earthworms). We aimed at (i) identifying the effect on plant productivity and (ii) elucidating the degree of shifts in bacterial communities in response to the applied organic amendments. We found plant productivity to be lower with increasing agricultural intensification. Bacterial communities shifted distinctively for each soil management regime to the organic amendments applied. In brief, greater changes were observed in the Conventional management comparatively to the Organic and Natural management, an effect largely driven by dung addition. Moreover, we found evidence that the level of agricultural intensiveness also affects the timespan for these shifts. For instance, while the Natural system reached a relatively stable community composition before the end of the experiment, treatments on the conventional soil management regime did not. Random forest analyses further revealed an increasing impact of introduced taxa from dung addition aligned with increasing agricultural intensification. These analyses suggested that earthworms regulate the introduction of species from dung into the soil bacterial community. Collectively, our results contribute to a better understanding of the outcomes of organic amendments on soils under distinct levels of agriculture intensiveness, with implications for further development in soil restorations practices.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Bruno A, Sandionigi A, Bernasconi M, et al (2018)

Changes in the Drinking Water Microbiome: Effects of Water Treatments Along the Flow of Two Drinking Water Treatment Plants in a Urbanized Area, Milan (Italy).

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2557.

While safe and of high quality, drinking water can host an astounding biodiversity of microorganisms, dismantling the belief of its "biological simplicity." During the very few years, we are witnessing an exponential growth in scientific publications, exploring the ecology hidden in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) and drinking water distribution system (DWDS). We focused on what happens to the microbial communities from source water (groundwater) throughout the main steps of the potabilization process of a DWTP, located in an urbanized area in Northern Italy. Samples were processed by a stringent water filtration to retain even the smallest environmental bacteria and then analyzed with High-Throughput DNA Sequencing (HTS) techniques. We showed that carbon filters harbored a microbial community seeding and shaping water microbiota downstream, introducing a significant variation on incoming (groundwater) microbial community. Chlorination did not instantly affect the altered microbiota. We were also able to correctly predict (through machine learning analysis) samples belonging to groundwater (overall accuracy was 0.71), but the assignation was not reliable with carbon filter samples, which were incorrectly predicted as chlorination samples. The presence and abundance of specific microorganisms allowed us to hypothesize their role as indicators. In particular, Candidatus Adlerbacteria (Parcubacteria), together with microorganisms belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, characterized treated water, but not raw water. An exception, confirming our hypothesis, is given by the samples downstream the filters renewal, which had a composition resembling groundwater. Volatility analysis illustrated how carbon filters represented an ecosystem that is stable over time, probably bearing the environmental conditions that promote the survival and growth of this peculiar microbial community.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Kennedy EA, King KY, MT Baldridge (2018)

Mouse Microbiota Models: Comparing Germ-Free Mice and Antibiotics Treatment as Tools for Modifying Gut Bacteria.

Frontiers in physiology, 9:1534.

As the intestinal microbiota has become better appreciated as necessary for maintenance of physiologic homeostasis and also as a modulator of disease processes, there has been a corresponding increase in manipulation of the microbiota in mouse models. While germ-free mouse models are generally considered to be the gold standard for studies of the microbiota, many investigators turn to antibiotics treatment models as a rapid, inexpensive, and accessible alternative. Here we describe and compare these two approaches, detailing advantages and disadvantages to both. Further, we detail what is known about the effects of antibiotics treatment on cell populations, cytokines, and organs, and clarify how this compares to germ-free models. Finally, we briefly describe recent findings regarding microbiota regulation of infectious diseases and other immunologic challenges by the microbiota, and highlight important future directions and considerations for the use of antibiotics treatment in manipulation of the microbiota.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Takeuchi K, Asakawa M, Hashiba T, et al (2018)

Effects of xylitol-containing chewing gum on the oral microbiota.

Journal of oral science [Epub ahead of print].

In this interventional study, a randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the short-term effects of xylitol-containing chewing gum on the salivary microbiota. In total, 70 healthy adult men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force participated in the study during a 2-day training at Yamaguchi camp, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The men were randomly divided into two groups: one group chewed two pieces of xylitol-containing chewing gum 7 times/day for 2 days (n = 34) and the other did not (n = 36). Baseline and follow-up stimulated saliva samples were collected and the salivary microbial composition was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing analysis. The total salivary bacterial count was quantified using a quantitative real-time PCR system. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups regarding any parameter analyzed in the baseline samples; however, the follow-up samples of the test group showed significantly lower total salivary bacterial count than those of the control group. Conversely, no significant difference was observed in the overall composition of the salivary microbiota between the baseline and follow-up samples of the two groups. These results indicate that xylitol-containing chewing gum inhibits the increase in total salivary bacteria over a short time during which the salivary microbial composition is not affected.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Bodogai M, O'Connell J, Kim K, et al (2018)

Commensal bacteria contribute to insulin resistance in aging by activating innate B1a cells.

Science translational medicine, 10(467):.

Aging in humans is associated with increased hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (collectively termed IR) and dysregulation of the immune system. However, the causative factors underlying their association remain unknown. Here, using "healthy" aged mice and macaques, we found that IR was induced by activated innate 4-1BBL+ B1a cells. These cells (also known as 4BL cells) accumulated in aging in response to changes in gut commensals and a decrease in beneficial metabolites such as butyrate. We found evidence suggesting that loss of the commensal bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila impaired intestinal integrity, causing leakage of bacterial products such as endotoxin, which activated CCR2+ monocytes when butyrate was decreased. Upon infiltration into the omentum, CCR2+ monocytes converted B1a cells into 4BL cells, which, in turn, induced IR by expressing 4-1BBL, presumably to trigger 4-1BB receptor signaling as in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. This pathway and IR were reversible, as supplementation with either A. muciniphila or the antibiotic enrofloxacin, which increased the abundance of A. muciniphila, restored normal insulin response in aged mice and macaques. In addition, treatment with butyrate or antibodies that depleted CCR2+ monocytes or 4BL cells had the same effect on IR. These results underscore the pathological function of B1a cells and suggest that the microbiome-monocyte-B cell axis could potentially be targeted to reverse age-associated IR.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Mahadik K, Yadav P, Bhatt B, et al (2018)

Deregulated AUF1 Assists BMP-EZH2-Mediated Delayed Wound Healing during Candida albicans Infection.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) pii:jimmunol.1800688 [Epub ahead of print].

Tissue repair is a complex process that necessitates an interplay of cellular processes, now known to be dictated by epigenetics. Intriguingly, macrophages are testimony to a large repertoire of evolving functions in this process. We identified a role for BMP signaling in regulating macrophage responses to Candida albicans infection during wound repair in a murine model. In this study, the RNA binding protein, AU-rich element-binding factor 1, was posttranslationally destabilized to bring about ubiquitin ligase, NEDD4-directed activation of BMP signaling. Concomitantly, PI3K/PKCδ mobilized the rapid phosphorylation of BMP-responsive Smad1/5/8. Activated BMP pathway orchestrated the elevated recruitment of EZH2 at promoters of genes assisting timely wound closure. In vivo, the repressive H3K27 trimethylation was observed to persist, accompanied by a robust upregulation of BMP pathway upon infection with C. albicans, culminating in delayed wound healing. Altogether, we uncovered the signaling networks coordinated by fungal colonies that are now increasingly associated with the infected wound microbiome, resulting in altered wound fate.

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Limborg MT, P Heeb (2018)

Special Issue: Coevolution of Hosts and Their Microbiome.

Genes, 9(11): pii:genes9110549.

The evolution of life-history traits in plants and animals has taken place in the midst of complex microbial communities. [...].

RevDate: 2018-11-15

Tuncil YE, Thakkar RD, Arioglu-Tuncil S, et al (2018)

Fecal Microbiota Responses to Bran Particles Are Specific to Cereal Type and In Vitro Digestion Methods That Mimic Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Passage.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Although in vitro studies to identify interactions between food components and the colonic microbiota employ distinct methods to mimic upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract digestion, the effects of differences in protocols on fermentation have not been rigorously addressed. Here, we compared two widely used upper GI tract digestion methods on four different cereal brans in fermentations by fecal microbiota to test the hypotheses that (1) different methods are varyingly efficient in removing accessible starches and proteins from dietary components and (2) these result in cereal-specific differences in fermentation by fecal microbiota. Our results supported both hypotheses, in that the methods differed significantly in bran starch and protein retention and that the effects were cereal-specific. Furthermore, these differences impacted fermentation by the fecal microbiota of healthy donors, altering both short-chain fatty acid production and microbial community composition. These data suggest that digestion methods should be standardized across laboratories for in vitro fiber fermentation studies.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Brito TL, Campos AB, Bastiaan von Meijenfeldt FA, et al (2018)

The gill-associated microbiome is the main source of wood plant polysaccharide hydrolases and secondary metabolite gene clusters in the mangrove shipworm Neoteredo reynei.

PloS one, 13(11):e0200437 pii:PONE-D-18-18461.

Teredinidae are a family of highly adapted wood-feeding and wood-boring bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, whose evolution is linked to the acquisition of cellulolytic gammaproteobacterial symbionts harbored in bacteriocytes within the gills. In the present work we applied metagenomics to characterize microbiomes of the gills and digestive tract of Neoteredo reynei, a mangrove-adapted shipworm species found over a large range of the Brazilian coast. Comparative metagenomics grouped the gill symbiont community of different N. reynei specimens, indicating closely related bacterial types are shared. Similarly, the intestine and digestive gland communities were related, yet were more diverse than and showed no overlap with the gill community. Annotation of assembled metagenomic contigs revealed that the gill symbiotic community of N. reynei encodes a plethora of plant cell wall polysaccharides degrading glycoside hydrolase encoding genes, and Biosynthetic Gene Clusters (BGCs). In contrast, the digestive tract microbiomes seem to play little role in wood digestion and secondary metabolites biosynthesis. Metagenome binning recovered the nearly complete genome sequences of two symbiotic Teredinibacter strains from the gills, a representative of Teredinibacter turnerae "clade I" strain, and a yet to be cultivated Teredinibacter sp. type. These Teredinibacter genomes, as well as un-binned gill-derived gammaproteobacteria contigs, also include an endo-β-1,4-xylanase/acetylxylan esterase multi-catalytic carbohydrate-active enzyme, and a trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthase (trans-AT PKS) gene cluster with the gene cassette for generating β-branching on complex polyketides. Finally, we use multivariate analyses to show that the secondary metabolome from the genomes of Teredinibacter representatives, including genomes binned from N. reynei gills' metagenomes presented herein, stands out within the Cellvibrionaceae family by size, and enrichments for polyketide, nonribosomal peptide and hybrid BGCs. Results presented here add to the growing characterization of shipworm symbiotic microbiomes and indicate that the N. reynei gill gammaproteobacterial community is a prolific source of biotechnologically relevant enzymes for wood-digestion and bioactive compounds production.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Ver Heul A, Planer J, AL Kau (2018)

The Human Microbiota and Asthma.

Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology pii:10.1007/s12016-018-8719-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last few decades, advances in our understanding of microbial ecology have allowed us to appreciate the important role of microbial communities in maintaining human health. While much of this research has focused on gut microbes, microbial communities in other body sites and from the environment are increasingly recognized in human disease. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions in the development and manifestation of asthma focusing on three distinct microbial compartments. First, environmental microbes originating from house dust, pets, and farm animals have been linked to asthma pathogenesis, which is often connected to their production of bioactive molecules such as lipopolysaccharide. Second, respiratory microbial communities, including newly appreciated populations of microbes in the lung have been associated with allergic airway inflammation. Current evidence suggests that the presence of particular microbes, especially Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Morexella species within the airway may shape local immune responses and alter the severity and manifestations of airway inflammation. Third, the gut microbiota has been implicated in both experimental models and clinical studies in predisposing to asthma. There appears to be a "critical window" of colonization that occurs during early infancy in which gut microbial communities shape immune maturation and confer susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation. The mechanisms by which gut microbial communities influence lung immune responses and physiology, the "gut-lung axis," are still being defined but include the altered differentiation of immune cell populations important in asthma and the local production of metabolites that affect distal sites. Together, these findings suggest an intimate association of microbial communities with host immune development and the development of allergic airway inflammation. Improved understanding of these relationships raises the possibility of microbiota-directed therapies to improve or prevent asthma.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

David Spence J (2018)

Advances in Stroke Prevention.

Journal of translational internal medicine, 6(3):105-114 pii:jtim-2018-0024.

There have been recent advances in stroke prevention in nutrition, blood pressure control, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, identification of high-risk asymptomatic carotid stenosis, and percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale. There is evidence that the Mediterranean diet significantly reduces the risk of stroke and that B vitamins lower homocysteine, thus preventing stroke. The benefit of B vitamins to lower homocysteine was masked by harm from cyanocobalamin among study participants with impaired renal function; we should be using methylcobalamin instead of cyanocobalamin. Blood pressure control can be markedly improved by individualized therapy based on phenotyping by plasma renin and aldosterone. Loss of function mutations of CYP2D19 impair activation of clopidogrel and limits its efficacy; ticagrelor can avoid this problem. New oral anticoagulants that are not significantly more likely than aspirin to cause severe bleeding, and prolonged monitoring for atrial fibrillation (AF), have revolutionized the prevention of cardioembolic stroke. Most patients (~90%) with asymptomatic carotid stenosis are better treated with intensive medical therapy; the few that could benefit from stenting or endarterectomy can be identified by a number of approaches, the best validated of which is transcranial Doppler (TCD) embolus detection. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale has been shown to be efficacious but should only be implemented in selected patients; they can be identified by clinical clues to paradoxical embolism and by TCD estimation of shunt grade. "Treating arteries instead of treating risk factors," and recent findings related to the intestinal microbiome and atherosclerosis point the way to promising advances in future.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Berger FK, Schwab N, Glanemann M, et al (2018)

Flavonifractor (Eubacterium) plautii bloodstream infection following acute cholecystitis.

IDCases, 14:e00461 pii:e00461.

Flavonifractor plautii (formerly Eubacterium plautii) is an anaerobic gram positive rod shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Clostridiales, and a common member of the human gut microbiome. However, it is very rarely isolated from clinical human specimens, so data about its clinical significance are scarce. Here we report of a bloodstream infection due to F. plautii following gangrenous cholecystitis in a 69 year old man. After cholecystectomy and empirical antimicrobial treatment with ceftriaxone and metronidazole the patient recovered. F. plautii was the only bacterium detected in blood culture, suggesting that it might have been causative for cholecystitis. Antimicrobial resistance testing identified decreased susceptibilities against linezolid and penicillin indicating that a targeted therapy might be necessary. F. plautii can be considered a potential pathogen for cholecystitis.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Ornelas-García P, Pajares S, Sosa-Jiménez VM, et al (2018)

Microbiome differences between river-dwelling and cave-adapted populations of the fish Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi, 1853).

PeerJ, 6:e5906 pii:5906.

Symbiotic relationships between host and microbiome can play a major role in local adaptation. Previous studies with freshwater organisms have shown that microbiome performs numerous important biochemical functions for the host, playing a key role in metabolism, physiology or health. Experimental studies in fish groups have found an effect of enzymatic activity of gut microbiota on a variety of metabolic processes. The goal of this study was to compare stomach microbiome from cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus, in order to evaluate the potential response of microbiota to contrasting environmental conditions and physiological adaptations of the host. Stomach microbiota was obtained from three different populations: Pachón cave, and two surface rivers (Rascón and Micos rivers). The stomach microbiome was analyzed using the Ion 16S Metagenomic kit considering seven variable regions: V2, V3, V4, V6-7, V8 and V9. A high diversity was observed across samples, including 16 phyla, 120 families and 178 genera. Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant phyla across the samples. Although the relative abundance of the core OTUs at genus level were highly contrasting among populations, we did not recover differences in stomach microbiome between contrasting habitats (cave vs. surface rivers). Rather, we observed a consistent association between β-diversity and dissolved oxygen concentration in water. Therefore, and unexpectedly, the microbiota of A. mexicanus is not linked with the contrasting conditions of the habitat considered here but is related to water parameters.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Ong J, Bath MF, Swift C, et al (2018)

Does colectomy affect the progression of primary sclerosing cholangitis? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Gastroenterology and hepatology from bed to bench, 11(4):277-283.

Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to determine if the human colon, through the lower gut-liver axis, drives PSC activity by assessing the progression of the disease in patients with and without colectomy for colonic disease.

Background: The gut-liver axis is involved in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Abnormal immune-mediated responses to intestinal microbiome are implicated in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) however the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Currently, no single animal model recapitulates all attributes of PSC in humans and this limits further studies of gut-liver interactions.

Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, and Scopus was performed for articles that contained the terms "colectomy" or "bowel resection" AND "primary sclerosing cholangitis" up to 15th April 2018. Articles were reviewed by 2 reviewers and raw data collated. A Forest plot was used to illustrate the effect of colectomy on subsequent liver transplantation for PSC. Linear regression was used to estimate mortality risk.

Results: Colectomy appeared to have no effect on PSC progression, although high-quality studies were lacking. Rates of liver transplantation or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for PSC were not affected by colectomy (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.14 - 2.53, p=0.48). Mortality risk following colectomy in patients with PSC is 2.11% per year (95% CI 0.03% - 4.18%, p=0.032, R2 = 0.722).

Conclusion: Current evidence is limited but suggests colectomy does not affect the progression of PSC in patients with colonic disease. Pathogenic micro-organisms or antigens that drive PSC may not be limited to the lower gut.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Hubert J, Nesvorna M, Sopko B, et al (2018)

Two Populations of Mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) Differ in Response to Feeding on Feces-Containing Diets.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2590.

Background:Tyrophagus putrescentiae is a ubiquitous mite species in soil, stored products and house dust and infests food and causes allergies in people. T. putrescentiae populations harbor different bacterial communities, including intracellular symbionts and gut bacteria. The spread of microorganisms via the fecal pellets of T. putrescentiae is a possibility that has not been studied in detail but may be an important means by which gut bacteria colonize subsequent generations of mites. Feces in soil may be a vector for the spread of microorganisms. Methods: Extracts from used mite culture medium (i.e., residual food, mite feces, and dead mite bodies) were used as a source of feces-inhabiting microorganisms as food for the mites. Two T. putrescentiae populations (L and P) were used for experiments, and they hosted the intracellular bacteria Cardinium and Wolbachia, respectively. The effects of the fecal fraction on respiration in a mite microcosm, mite nutrient contents, population growth and microbiome composition were evaluated. Results: Feces from the P population comprised more than 90% Bartonella-like sequences. Feces from the L population feces hosted Staphylococcus, Virgibacillus, Brevibacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, and Bacillus. The mites from the P population, but not the L population, exhibited increased bacterial respiration in the microcosms in comparison to no-mite controls. Both L- and P-feces extracts had an inhibitory effect on the respiration of the microcosms, indicating antagonistic interactions within feces-associated bacteria. The mite microbiomes were resistant to the acquisition of new bacterial species from the feces, but their bacterial profiles were affected. Feeding of P mites on P-feces-enriched diets resulted in an increase in Bartonella abundance from 6 to 20% of the total bacterial sequences and a decrease in Bacillus abundance. The population growth was fivefold accelerated on P-feces extracts in comparison to the control. Conclusion: The mite microbiome, to a certain extent, resists the acquisition of new bacteria when mites are fed on feces of the same species. However, a Bartonella-like bacteria-feces-enriched diet seems to be beneficial for mite populations with symbiotic Bartonella-like bacteria. Coprophagy on the feces of its own population may be a mechanism of bacterial acquisition in T. putrescentiae.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Fang X, Monk JM, Nurk S, et al (2018)

Metagenomics-Based, Strain-Level Analysis of Escherichia coli From a Time-Series of Microbiome Samples From a Crohn's Disease Patient.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2559.

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, including elevated abundance of putative leading bacterial triggers such as E. coli in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, is of great interest. To date, most E. coli studies in IBD patients are focused on clinical isolates, overlooking their relative abundances and turnover over time. Metagenomics-based studies, on the other hand, are less focused on strain-level investigations. Here, using recently developed bioinformatic tools, we analyzed the abundance and properties of specific E. coli strains in a Crohns disease (CD) patient longitudinally, while also considering the composition of the entire community over time. In this report, we conducted a pilot study on metagenomic-based, strain-level analysis of a time-series of E. coli strains in a left-sided CD patient, who exhibited sustained levels of E. coli greater than 100X healthy controls. We: (1) mapped out the composition of the gut microbiome over time, particularly the presence of E. coli strains, and found that the abundance and dominance of specific E. coli strains in the community varied over time; (2) performed strain-level de novo assemblies of seven dominant E. coli strains, and illustrated disparity between these strains in both phylogenetic origin and genomic content; (3) observed that strain ST1 (recovered during peak inflammation) is highly similar to known pathogenic AIEC strains NC101 and LF82 in both virulence factors and metabolic functions, while other strains (ST2-ST7) that were collected during more stable states displayed diverse characteristics; (4) isolated, sequenced, experimentally characterized ST1, and confirmed the accuracy of the de novo assembly; and (5) assessed growth capability of ST1 with a newly reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model of the strain, and showed its potential to use substrates found abundantly in the human gut to outcompete other microbes. In conclusion, inflammation status (assessed by the blood C-reactive protein and stool calprotectin) is likely correlated with the abundance of a subgroup of E. coli strains with specific traits. Therefore, strain-level time-series analysis of dominant E. coli strains in a CD patient is highly informative, and motivates a study of a larger cohort of IBD patients.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Miller I (2018)

The gut-brain axis: historical reflections.

Microbial ecology in health and disease, 29(1):1542921 pii:1542921.

The gut-brain axis and the microbiome have recently acquired an important position in explaining a wide range of human behaviours and emotions. Researchers have typically presented developments in understandings of the microbiome as radical and new, offering huge potential for better understandings of our bodies and what it means to be human. Without refuting the value of this research, this article insists that, traditionally, doctors and patients acknowledged the complex interactions between their guts and emotions, although using alternative models often based on nerves or psychology. For example, nineteenth-century doctors and patients would have been well acquainted with the idea that their stomachs and minds were somehow connected, and that this interaction could produce positive or negative physical and mental health impacts. To demonstrate this, this article offers a snapshot of medical and public thought on (what we currently call) the gut-brain axis in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, using Britain as a key case study due to the prevalence of gastric problems in that country. It commences by exploring how nineteenth-century doctors and patients took for granted the intimate relations between gut and mind and used their ideas on this to debate personal health, medical theory and social and political discourse. The article then moves on to argue that various medical sub-disciplines emerged (anatomy, physiology, surgery) that threatened to reduce the stomach to a physiologically complex organ but, in doing so, inadvertently began to erase ideas of a gut-mind connection. However, these new models proved unsatisfactory, allowing more holistic ideas of the body-mind relationship to continue to carry currency in twentieth-century psychological and medical thought. In the late century, pharmacological developments once again threatened to minimise the gut-brain axis, before it once again became popular in the early twenty-first century, now debated through a new language of microbiology.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Hansen LBS, Roager HM, Søndertoft NB, et al (2018)

A low-gluten diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiome of healthy Danish adults.

Nature communications, 9(1):4630 pii:10.1038/s41467-018-07019-x.

Adherence to a low-gluten diet has become increasingly common in parts of the general population. However, the effects of reducing gluten-rich food items including wheat, barley and rye cereals in healthy adults are unclear. Here, we undertook a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial involving 60 middle-aged Danish adults without known disorders with two 8-week interventions comparing a low-gluten diet (2 g gluten per day) and a high-gluten diet (18 g gluten per day), separated by a washout period of at least six weeks with habitual diet (12 g gluten per day). We find that, in comparison with a high-gluten diet, a low-gluten diet induces moderate changes in the intestinal microbiome, reduces fasting and postprandial hydrogen exhalation, and leads to improvements in self-reported bloating. These observations suggest that most of the effects of a low-gluten diet in non-coeliac adults may be driven by qualitative changes in dietary fibres.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Su X, Jing G, McDonald D, et al (2018)

Identifying and Predicting Novelty in Microbiome Studies.

mBio, 9(6): pii:mBio.02099-18.

With the expansion of microbiome sequencing globally, a key challenge is to relate new microbiome samples to the existing space of microbiome samples. Here, we present Microbiome Search Engine (MSE), which enables the rapid search of query microbiome samples against a large, well-curated reference microbiome database organized by taxonomic similarity at the whole-microbiome level. Tracking the microbiome novelty score (MNS) over 8 years of microbiome depositions based on searching in more than 100,000 global 16S rRNA gene amplicon samples, we detected that the structural novelty of human microbiomes is approaching saturation and likely bounded, whereas that in environmental habitats remains 5 times higher. Via the microbiome focus index (MFI), which is derived from the MNS and microbiome attention score (MAS), we objectively track and compare the structural-novelty and attracted-attention scores of individual microbiome samples and projects, and we predict future trends in the field. For example, marine and indoor environments and mother-baby interactions are likely to receive disproportionate additional attention based on recent trends. Therefore, MNS, MAS, and MFI are proposed "alt-metrics" for evaluating a microbiome project or prospective developments in the microbiome field, both of which are done in the context of existing microbiome big data.IMPORTANCE We introduce two concepts to quantify the novelty of a microbiome. The first, the microbiome novelty score (MNS), allows identification of microbiomes that are especially different from what is already sequenced. The second, the microbiome attention score (MAS), allows identification of microbiomes that have many close neighbors, implying that considerable scientific attention is devoted to their study. By computing a microbiome focus index based on the MNS and MAS, we objectively track and compare the novelty and attention scores of individual microbiome samples and projects over time and predict future trends in the field; i.e., we work toward yielding fundamentally new microbiomes rather than filling in the details. Therefore, MNS, MAS, and MFI can serve as "alt-metrics" for evaluating a microbiome project or prospective developments in the microbiome field, both of which are done in the context of existing microbiome big data.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Castillo-Álvarez F, ME Marzo-Sola (2018)

Disease of the holobiont, the example of multiple sclerosis.

Medicina clinica pii:S0025-7753(18)30568-2 [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years there has been a revolution regarding the role of the microbiota in different diseases, most of them within the spectrum of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, associated with the development of metagenomics and the concept of holobiont, a large organism together with its microbiota. Specifically, in Multiple Sclerosis, multiple evidence points to the role of the microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, animal model of the disease, and several articles have been published in recent years about differences in intestinal microbiota among patients with multiple sclerosis and control subjects. We review in this article the concept of holobiont and the gut microbiota functions, as well as the evidence accumulated about the role of the microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. Nowadays, there is a lot of evidence showing the role of the microbiota in the genesis, prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis based mainly on three immunological pillars, the Th1-Th17 / Th2 balance, the Treg cells and the humoral immunity. It is also well documented that there are differences in the microbiota of patients with MS that are associated with a different expression of genes related to inflammation.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Haney MM, Ericsson AC, TE Lever (2018)

Effects of Intraoperative Vagal Nerve Stimulation on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Comparative medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The gastrointestinal microbiota (GM) plays a fundamental role in health and disease and contributes to the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal system and brain. The direct line of communication between these organ systems is through the vagus nerve. Therefore, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), a commonly used technique for multiple disorders, has potential to modulate the enteric microbiota, enabling investigation and possibly treatment of numerous neurologic disorders in which the microbiota has been linked with disease. Here we investigate the effect of VNS in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). B6SJL-Tg(SOD1*G93A)dl1Gur (SOD1dl) and wildtype mice underwent ventral neck surgeryto access the vagus nerve. During surgery, the experimental group received 1 h of VNS, whereas the sham group underwent 1 h of sham treatment. The third (control) group did not undergo any surgical manipulation. Fecal samples were collected before surgery and at 8 d after the initial collection. Microbial DNA was sequenced to determine the GM profiles at both time points. GM profiles did not differ between genotypes at either the initial or end point. In addition, VNS did not alter GM populations, according to the parameters chosen in this study, indicating that this short intraoperative treatment is safeand has no lasting effects on the GM. Future studies are warranted to determine whether different stimulation parametersor chronic use of VNS affect GM profiles.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Singh NK, Wood JM, Karouia F, et al (2018)

Succession and persistence of microbial communities and antimicrobial resistance genes associated with International Space Station environmental surfaces.

Microbiome, 6(1):204 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0585-2.

BACKGROUND: The International Space Station (ISS) is an ideal test bed for studying the effects of microbial persistence and succession on a closed system during long space flight. Culture-based analyses, targeted gene-based amplicon sequencing (bacteriome, mycobiome, and resistome), and shotgun metagenomics approaches have previously been performed on ISS environmental sample sets using whole genome amplification (WGA). However, this is the first study reporting on the metagenomes sampled from ISS environmental surfaces without the use of WGA. Metagenome sequences generated from eight defined ISS environmental locations in three consecutive flights were analyzed to assess the succession and persistence of microbial communities, their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, and virulence properties. Metagenomic sequences were produced from the samples treated with propidium monoazide (PMA) to measure intact microorganisms.

RESULTS: The intact microbial communities detected in Flight 1 and Flight 2 samples were significantly more similar to each other than to Flight 3 samples. Among 318 microbial species detected, 46 species constituting 18 genera were common in all flight samples. Risk group or biosafety level 2 microorganisms that persisted among all three flights were Acinetobacter baumannii, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia frederiksenii, and Aspergillus lentulus. Even though Rhodotorula and Pantoea dominated the ISS microbiome, Pantoea exhibited succession and persistence. K. pneumoniae persisted in one location (US Node 1) of all three flights and might have spread to six out of the eight locations sampled on Flight 3. The AMR signatures associated with β-lactam, cationic antimicrobial peptide, and vancomycin were detected. Prominent virulence factors were cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance and multidrug-resistance efflux pumps.

CONCLUSIONS: There was an increase in AMR and virulence gene factors detected over the period sampled, and metagenome sequences of human pathogens persisted over time. Comparative analysis of the microbial compositions of ISS with Earth analogs revealed that the ISS environmental surfaces were different in microbial composition. Metagenomics coupled with PMA treatment would help future space missions to estimate problematic risk group microbial pathogens. Cataloging AMR/virulence characteristics, succession, accumulation, and persistence of microorganisms would facilitate the development of suitable countermeasures to reduce their presence in the closed built environment.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Kaliannan K, Robertson RC, Murphy K, et al (2018)

Estrogen-mediated gut microbiome alterations influence sexual dimorphism in metabolic syndrome in mice.

Microbiome, 6(1):205 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0587-0.

BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanism of the sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) is important for the development of effective interventions for MS.

RESULTS: Here we show that gut microbiome mediates the preventive effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol) on metabolic endotoxemia (ME) and low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI), the underlying causes of MS and chronic diseases. The characteristic profiles of gut microbiome observed in female and 17β-estradiol-treated male and ovariectomized mice, such as decreased Proteobacteria and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, were associated with a lower susceptibility to ME, LGCI, and MS in these animals. Interestingly, fecal microbiota-transplant from male mice transferred the MS phenotype to female mice, while antibiotic treatment eliminated the sexual dimorphism in MS, suggesting a causative role of the gut microbiome in this condition. Moreover, estrogenic compounds such as isoflavones exerted microbiome-modulating effects similar to those of 17β-estradiol and reversed symptoms of MS in the male mice. Finally, both expression and activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a gut microbiota-modifying non-classical anti-microbial peptide, were upregulated by 17β-estradiol and isoflavones, whereas inhibition of IAP induced ME and LGCI in female mice, indicating a critical role of IAP in mediating the effects of estrogen on these parameters.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we have identified a previously uncharacterized microbiome-based mechanism that sheds light upon sexual dimorphism in the incidence of MS and that suggests novel therapeutic targets and strategies for the management of obesity and MS in males and postmenopausal women.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Sharaf LK, Sharma M, Chandel D, et al (2018)

Prophylactic intervention of probiotics (L.acidophilus, L.rhamnosus GG) and celecoxib modulate Bax-mediated apoptosis in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis.

BMC cancer, 18(1):1111 pii:10.1186/s12885-018-4999-9.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has been found to be attenuated either with prophylactic manipulation of gut microbiome with probiotics or celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug mainly by suppressing early pro-carcinogenic markers in various experimental studies. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the prophylactic potential of combinatorial administration of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus) and celecoxib in experimental colon carcinogenesis.

METHODS: Six groups of Spraugue Dawely rats received probiotics L.rhamnosus GG or/and L.acidophilus in combination with celecoxib one week prior to the inducement of tumor by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and the treatment continued for 18 weeks. Prophylactic potentials of probiotics and celecoxib were determined by employing various methods such as tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor multiplicity, apoptosis, caspase activity, expression of proto-oncogene K-ras and tumor suppressor p53 gene in colonic tumors.

RESULTS: Interestingly, it was found that one week prior supplementation of both probiotics and celecoxib reduced tumor burden, tumor multiplicity, down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, proto-oncogene K-ras and up-regulated pro-apoptotic Bax as well as tumor suppressor p53 in L.rhamnosus GG + celecoxib+DMH animals compared with counter controls and DMH-treated.

CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that such combinatorial approach may be useful in reducing the burden and severity of disease in highly susceptible individuals but needs to be validated clinically.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Teschke R (2018)

Alcoholic Liver Disease: Alcohol Metabolism, Cascade of Molecular Mechanisms, Cellular Targets, and Clinical Aspects.

Biomedicines, 6(4): pii:biomedicines6040106.

Alcoholic liver disease is the result of cascade events, which clinically first lead to alcoholic fatty liver, and then mostly via alcoholic steatohepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis potentially to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathogenetic events are linked to the metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde as its first oxidation product generated via hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), which depends on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1), and is inducible by chronic alcohol use. MEOS induction accelerates the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde that facilitates organ injury including the liver, and it produces via CYP 2E1 many reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as ethoxy radical, hydroxyethyl radical, acetyl radical, singlet radical, superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, alkoxyl radical, and peroxyl radical. These attack hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, stellate cells, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, and their signaling mediators such as interleukins, interferons, and growth factors, help to initiate liver injury including fibrosis and cirrhosis in susceptible individuals with specific risk factors. Through CYP 2E1-dependent ROS, more evidence is emerging that alcohol generates lipid peroxides and modifies the intestinal microbiome, thereby stimulating actions of endotoxins produced by intestinal bacteria; lipid peroxides and endotoxins are potential causes that are involved in alcoholic liver injury. Alcohol modifies SIRT1 (Sirtuin-1; derived from Silent mating type Information Regulation) and SIRT2, and most importantly, the innate and adapted immune systems, which may explain the individual differences of injury susceptibility. Metabolic pathways are also influenced by circadian rhythms, specific conditions known from living organisms including plants. Open for discussion is a 5-hit working hypothesis, attempting to define key elements involved in injury progression. In essence, although abundant biochemical mechanisms are proposed for the initiation and perpetuation of liver injury, patients with an alcohol problem benefit from permanent alcohol abstinence alone.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Solano-Aguilar GI, Jang S, Lakshman S, et al (2018)

The Effect of Dietary Mushroom Agaricus bisporus on Intestinal Microbiota Composition and Host Immunological Function.

Nutrients, 10(11): pii:nu10111721.

A study was designed to determine the potential prebiotic effect of dietary mushrooms on the host immune response, and intestinal microbiota composition and function. Thirty-one six-week-old pigs were fed a pig grower diet alone or supplemented with either three or six servings of freeze-dried white button (WB)-mushrooms for six weeks. Host immune response was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and alveolar macrophages (AM) after stimulation with Salmonella typhymurium-Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Isolated DNA from fecal and proximal colon contents were used for 16S rDNA taxonomic analysis and linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) to determine bacterial abundance and metabolic function. Pigs gained weight with no difference in body composition or intestinal permeability. Feeding mushrooms reduced LPS-induced IL-1β gene expression in AM (P < 0.05) with no change in LPS-stimulated PBMC or the intestinal mucosa transcriptome. LEfSe indicated increases in Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae within the order Clostridiales with a shift in bacterial carbohydrate metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in the mushroom-fed pigs. These results suggested that feeding WB mushrooms significantly reduced the LPS-induced inflammatory response in AM and positively modulated the host microbiota metabolism by increasing the abundance of Clostridiales taxa that are associated with improved intestinal health.

RevDate: 2018-11-14

Lee SH, Lee Y, Park JS, et al (2018)

Characterization of Microbiota in Bronchiectasis Patients with Different Disease Severities.

Journal of clinical medicine, 7(11): pii:jcm7110429.

The applications of the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing has expanded our knowledge of the respiratory tract microbiome originally obtained using conventional, culture-based methods. In this study, we employed DNA-based molecular techniques for examining the sputum microbiome in bronchiectasis patients, in relation to disease severity. Of the sixty-three study subjects, forty-two had mild and twenty-one had moderate or severe bronchiectasis, which was classified by calculating the FACED score, based on the FEV₁ (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, %) (F, 0⁻2 points), age (A, 0⁻2 points), chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (C, 0⁻1 point), radiographic extension (E, 0⁻1 point), and dyspnoea (D, 0⁻1 point). Bronchiectasis was defined as mild, at 0⁻2 points, moderate at 3⁻4 points, and severe at 5⁻7 points. The mean age was 68.0 ± 9.3 years; thirty-three patients were women. Haemophilus (p = 0.005) and Rothia (p = 0.043) were significantly more abundant in the mild bronchiectasis group, whereas Pseudomonas (p = 0.031) was significantly more abundant in the moderate or severe group. However, in terms of the alpha and beta diversity, the sputum microbiota of the two groups did not significantly differ, i.e., the same dominant genera were found in all samples. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate the sputum microbiome in bronchiectasis.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Cruz-Aguliar RM, Wantia N, Clavel T, et al (2018)

An Open-Labeled Study on Fecal Microbiota Transfer in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Reveals Improvement in Abdominal Pain Associated with the Relative Abundance of Akkermansia Muciniphila.

Digestion pii:000494252 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The gut microbiota is altered in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and microbiota manipulations by diet or antibiotics can reduce its symptoms. As fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) in IBS is still controversial, we investigated the clinical and side effects of FMT in a cohort of IBS patients with recurrent, treatment refractory symptoms, and studied gut microbiota signatures.

METHODS: Using an observational, prospective study design, we applied FMTs from one unrelated, healthy donor to 13 IBS patients. Fecal samples of patients and the donor were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon sequencing.

RESULTS: On a symptom level, primarily abdominal pain symptoms were reduced after FMT, and no adverse effects were observed. Studying the microbiome, we found an increase in alpha diversity and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota after FMT. Beta diversity changes after FMT were prominent in a subset of 7 patients with microbiota profiles coming very close to the donor. These patients also showed most pronounced visceral pain reduction. The relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila was inversely correlated with pain reduction in our cohort.

CONCLUSION: Although exploratory in nature and with a pilot character, this study highlights the potential role of microbiota manipulations in IBS and describes a novel association of intestinal Akkermansia and pain modulation.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Okubo R, Koga M, Katsumata N, et al (2018)

Effect of bifidobacterium breve A-1 on anxiety and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: A proof-of-concept study.

Journal of affective disorders, 245:377-385 pii:S0165-0327(18)31360-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Studies of probiotics have suggested they have a positive effect on anxiety and depressive symptoms in humans. This study investigated the effect of consuming the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve A-1 on anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and explored its effect on immune products such as cytokines and chemokines.

METHODS: In this open-label single-arm study, all participants received B. breve strain A-1 (1011 cfu/day) for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of observation. The primary outcome was the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score. Secondary outcomes were anxiety and depressive symptoms on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), blood test findings, and fecal microbiome composition.

RESULTS: Twenty-nine outpatients completed the study. HADS total score and PANSS anxiety/depression score were significantly improved at 4 weeks. Based on the criterion of a greater than 25% reduction in HADS total score at 4 weeks from baseline, there were 12 responders and 17 non-responders. Responders were found to have fewer negative symptoms, reduced intake of dairy products, and higher relative abundance of Parabacteroides in the gut microbiome than non-responders. Moreover, IL-22 and TRANCE expression was significantly increased at 4 weeks from baseline in responders but not in non-responders.

LIMITATIONS: This open-label, single-arm study cannot exclude a placebo effect.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest the potential effect of B. breve A-1 in improving anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Further studies should investigate this effect in patients with other psychiatric conditions and assess dietary habits and the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

García-Jiménez B, de la Rosa T, MD Wilkinson (2018)

MDPbiome: microbiome engineering through prescriptive perturbations.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 34(17):i838-i847.

Motivation: Recent microbiome dynamics studies highlight the current inability to predict the effects of external perturbations on complex microbial populations. To do so would be particularly advantageous in fields such as medicine, bioremediation or industrial scenarios.

Results: MDPbiome statistically models longitudinal metagenomics samples undergoing perturbations as a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Given a starting microbial composition, our MDPbiome system suggests the sequence of external perturbation(s) that will engineer that microbiome to a goal state, for example, a healthier or more performant composition. It also estimates intermediate microbiome states along the path, thus making it possible to avoid particularly undesirable/unhealthy states. We demonstrate MDPbiome performance over three real and distinct datasets, proving its flexibility, and the reliability and universality of its output 'optimal perturbation policy'. For example, an MDP created using a vaginal microbiome time series, with a goal of recovering from bacterial vaginosis, suggested avoidance of perturbations such as lubricants or sex toys; while another MDP provided a quantitative explanation for why salmonella vaccine accelerates gut microbiome maturation in chicks. This novel analytical approach has clear applications in medicine, where it could suggest low-impact clinical interventions that will lead to achievement or maintenance of a healthy microbial population, or alternately, the sequence of interventions necessary to avoid strongly negative microbiome states.

Code (https://github.com/beatrizgj/MDPbiome) and result files (https://tomdelarosa.shinyapps.io/MDPbiome/) are available online.

Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Frioux C, Fremy E, Trottier C, et al (2018)

Scalable and exhaustive screening of metabolic functions carried out by microbial consortia.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 34(17):i934-i943.

Motivation: The selection of species exhibiting metabolic behaviors of interest is a challenging step when switching from the investigation of a large microbiota to the study of functions effectiveness. Approaches based on a compartmentalized framework are not scalable. The output of scalable approaches based on a non-compartmentalized modeling may be so large that it has neither been explored nor handled so far.

Results: We present the Miscoto tool to facilitate the selection of a community optimizing a desired function in a microbiome by reporting several possibilities which can be then sorted according to biological criteria. Communities are exhaustively identified using logical programming and by combining the non-compartmentalized and the compartmentalized frameworks. The benchmarking of 4.9 million metabolic functions associated with the Human Microbiome Project, shows that Miscoto is suited to screen and classify metabolic producibility in terms of feasibility, functional redundancy and cooperation processes involved. As an illustration of a host-microbial system, screening the Recon 2.2 human metabolism highlights the role of different consortia within a family of 773 intestinal bacteria.

Miscoto source code, instructions for use and examples are available at: https://github.com/cfrioux/miscoto.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Shah A, Morrison M, GJ Holtmann (2018)

Gastroduodenal "Dysbiosis": a New Clinical Entity.

Current treatment options in gastroenterology pii:10.1007/s11938-018-0207-x [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Like the rest of the gastrointestinal tract, the small intestine is colonised by microbes, but how this "microbiome" affects the immune system and digestive functions has largely been overlooked, especially in the "omics" era. Here, we present recent findings that show that the diversity, density and interactions of these microbes in the small intestine can play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal disorders.

RECENT FINDINGS: Changes in the small intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota (SI-MAM) have been shown to occur with inflammatory bowel diseases, functional gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. More recently, there is emerging evidence that small intestinal dysbiosis can be a driver for the progression of chronic liver disease. Initially believed that small intestinal dysbiosis (e.g. SIBO) is mainly due to alterations of luminal conditions (e.g. after surgical resections of the ileocecal valve), there is now enough evidence to conclude that small intestinal dysbiosis can occur without underlying structural abnormalities. Alterations of the SI-MAM appear to play a key role for the manifestation and progression of inflammatory and metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Malfertheiner P, J Mayerle (2018)

[Gastrointestinal innovations].

MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 160(Suppl 3):58-63.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Macut D, Milutinović DV, Rašić-Marković A, et al (2018)

A decade in female reproduction: an endocrine view of the past and into the future.

Hormones (Athens, Greece) pii:10.1007/s42000-018-0073-x [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last decade, huge achievements have been made in the fields of neurophysiology, molecular endocrinology, and biochemistry, as well as in the successful translation of clinical research into diseases into clinical practice. As regards female reproduction, most of the advances made in this area were achieved in gonadal axis regulation, regulation of behavior through sex steroids, reproductive genetics, preservation of ovarian reproductive function, steroid profiling, and metabolic and overall reproductive outcomes. The coming years are expected to bring further understanding of the relationships between nutrition, energy metabolism, and reproductive function and to succeed in identifying new genetic markers linked to adverse metabolic and unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes in women. From our perspective, future research in the field of female reproduction should be directed toward doing research into genetic reproductive abnormalities and neuroendocrine diseases, pathophysiology, long-term health outcomes for oligo/amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, and ovulatory dysfunction. It is additionally expected that a better understanding will be gained of the endocrinology of the placenta and of pregnancy, the role of the microbiome in female reproduction, the role of insulin sensitizers, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic drugs, and various advances in the prevention of ovarian damage caused by various oncology therapies, while new therapeutic options for the treatment of infertility, including kisspeptin, will be developed.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Cortez RV, Taddei CR, Sparvoli LG, et al (2018)

Microbiome and its relation to gestational diabetes.

Endocrine pii:10.1007/s12020-018-1813-z [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the major endocrine pathology in pregnancy, has been associated with the development of an intense inflammatory process and increased insulin resistance. The maternal microbiota is involved in several metabolic functions; however, its role in GDM physiopathology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the composition of the microbiota at different sites and evaluate its relationship with the occurrence of GDM.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited women in the third trimester of gestation with and without GDM. Oral, vaginal, and stool samples were evaluated using next-generation sequencing. We included 68 participants: 26 with and 42 without GDM.

RESULTS: The analysis of the oral microbiome did not show significant differences in phyla and genus among the studied groups. In contrast, GDM patients presented a specific vaginal and intestinal microbiome composition, which was less diverse than those found in the control group, showing genera related to dysbiosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that changes in the composition of the vaginal and intestinal microbiome might be involved in the development of GDM. The follow-up of these patients in order to evaluate vaginal and intestinal samples after delivery may contribute to understanding the development of metabolic disease in women with previous GDM.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

López Nadal A, Peggs D, Wiegertjes GF, et al (2018)

Exposure to Antibiotics Affects Saponin Immersion-Induced Immune Stimulation and Shift in Microbial Composition in Zebrafish Larvae.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2588.

In the last decades, pollution of the environment by large scale use of antibiotics in agriculture and human medicine have led to increased antimicrobial resistance in both the environment and the host animal microbiome. Disturbances in the host microbiome can result in impaired immunity and reduced resilience of aquaculture species. Here, we investigated whether environmentally measured levels of the commonly used antibiotics ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline influences the host microbiome and susceptibility toward saponin-induced immune stimulation in larval zebrafish. Firstly, neutrophil and macrophage reporter zebrafish larvae were exposed to different concentrations of soy saponin by immersion. A dose-dependent increase in neutrophil presence in the intestinal area was observed together with increased expression of immune genes il1b, tnfa, il22 and mmp9. To investigate the effect of antibiotics, larval zebrafish were immersed in ciprofloxacin or oxytetracycline in the presence or absence of a low dose of saponin. In vivo imaging revealed that antibiotic treatment did not reduce the number of neutrophils that were recruited to the intestinal area upon saponin exposure, although it did tend to lower pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Microbial sequencing of whole larvae revealed that exposure to a low dose of saponin already shifted the microbial composition. The combination of oxytetracycline and saponin significantly increased α-diversity compared to the controls. In conclusion, the current study provides evidence that the combination of low levels of antibiotics with low levels of anti-nutritional factors (saponin) can induce inflammatory phenotypes and can modify the microbiota, which might lead to altered disease susceptibility.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

De Vrieze M, Germanier F, Vuille N, et al (2018)

Combining Different Potato-Associated Pseudomonas Strains for Improved Biocontrol of Phytophthora infestans.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2573.

Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is considered as the most devastating disease of potato and is a re-emerging problem worldwide. Current late blight control practices rely mostly on synthetic fungicides or copper-based products, but growing awareness of the negative impact of these compounds on the environment has led to the search for alternative control measures. A collection of Pseudomonas strains isolated from both the rhizosphere and the phyllosphere of potato was recently characterized for in vitro protective effects against P. infestans. In the present study, we used a leaf disk assay with three different potato cultivars to compare the disease inhibition capacity of nine selected Pseudomonas strains when applied alone or in all possible dual and triple combinations. Results showed a strong cultivar effect and identified strains previously thought to be inactive based on in vitro assays as the best biocontrol candidates. One strain was much more active alone than in combination with other strains, while two other strains provided significantly better protection in dual combination than when applied alone. A subset of five strains was then further selected to determine their mutual influence on each other's survival and growth, as well as to characterize their activity against P. infestans in more details. This revealed that the two strains whose dual combination was particularly efficient were only weakly interfering with each other's growth and had complementary modes of action. Our results highlight the potential to harness the crop's native rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbiome through re-assembling strains with differing modes of action into small communities, thereby providing more consistent protection than with the application of single strains. We consider this as a first step toward more elaborate microbiome management efforts, which shall be integrated into global strategies for sustainable control of potato late blight.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Galand PE, Chapron L, Meistertzheim AL, et al (2018)

The Effect of Captivity on the Dynamics of Active Bacterial Communities Differs Between Two Deep-Sea Coral Species.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2565.

Microbes play a crucial role in sustaining the coral holobiont's functions and in particular under the pressure of environmental stressors. The effect of a changing environment on coral health is now a major branch of research that relies heavily on aquarium experiments. However, the effect of captivity on the coral microbiome remains poorly known. Here we show that different cold-water corals species have different microbiome responses to captivity. For both the DNA and the RNA fraction, Madrepora oculata bacterial communities were maintained for at least 6 months of aquarium rearing, while Lophelia pertusa bacteria changed within a day. Interestingly, bacteria from the genus Endozoicomonas, a ubiquitous symbiont of numerous marine hosts, were resilient and remained active in M. oculata for several months. Our results demonstrate that a good knowledge of the coral microbiome and an understanding of the ecological strategy of the holobiont is needed before designing aquarium experiments.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Levy B, E Jami (2018)

Exploring the Prokaryotic Community Associated With the Rumen Ciliate Protozoa Population.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2526.

Ciliate protozoa are an integral part of the rumen microbiome and were found to exert a large effect on the rumen ecosystem itself as well as their host animal physiology. Part of these effects have been attributed to their ability to harbor a diverse ecto- and endo-symbiotic community of prokaryotic cells. Studies on the relationship between the protozoa population and their associated prokaryotic community in the rumen mainly focused on the methanogens, revealing that protozoa play a major role in enhancing methanogenesis potential. In contrast, little is known about the composition and function of the bacteria associated with rumen protozoa and the extent of this association. In this study, we characterize the prokaryotic communities associated with different protozoa populations and compare their structure to the free-living prokaryotic population residing in the cow rumen. We show that the overall protozoa associated prokaryotic community structure differs significantly compared to the free-living community in terms of richness and composition. The methanogens proportion was significantly higher in all protozoa populations compared to the free-living fraction, while the Lachnospiraceae was the most prevalent bacterial family in the protozoa associated bacterial communities. Several taxa not detected or detected in extremely low abundance in the free-living community were enriched in the protozoa associated bacterial community. These include members of the Endomicrobia class, previously identified as protozoa symbionts in the termite gut. Our results show that rumen protozoa harbor prokaryotic communities that are compositionally different from their surroundings, which may be the result of specific tropism between the prokaryotic community and protozoa.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Li W, Yuan Y, Xia Y, et al (2018)

A Cross-Scale Neutral Theory Approach to the Influence of Obesity on Community Assembly of Human Gut Microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2320.

Background: The implications of gut microbiome to obesity have been extensively investigated in recent years although the exact mechanism is still unclear. The question whether or not obesity influences gut microbiome assembly has not been addressed. The question is significant because it is fundamental for investigating the diversity maintenance and stability of gut microbiome, and the latter should hold a key for understanding the etiological implications of gut microbiome to obesity. Methods: In this study, we adopt a dual neutral theory modeling strategy to address this question from both species and community perspectives, with both discrete and continuous neutral theory models. The first neutral theory model we apply is Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity that has been extensively tested in macro-ecology of plants and animals, and the second we apply is Sloan's neutral theory model that was developed particularly for microbial communities based on metagenomic sequencing data. Both the neutral models are complementary to each other and integrated together offering a comprehensive approach to more accurately revealing the possible influence of obesity on gut microbiome assembly. This is not only because the focus of both neutral theory models is different (community vs. species), but also because they adopted two different modeling strategies (discrete vs. continuous). Results: We test both the neutral theory models with datasets from Turnbaugh et al. (2009). Our tests showed that the species abundance distributions of more than ½ species (59-69%) in gut microbiome satisfied the prediction of Sloan's neutral theory, although at the community level, the number of communities satisfied the Hubbell's neutral theory was negligible (2 out of 278). Conclusion: The apparently contradictory findings above suggest that both stochastic neutral effects and deterministic environmental (host) factors play important roles in shaping the assembly and diversity of gut microbiome. Furthermore, obesity may just be one of the host factors, but its influence may not be strong enough to tip the balance between stochastic and deterministic forces that shape the community assembly. Finally, the apparent contradiction from both the neutral theories should not be surprising given that there are still near 30-40% species that do not obey the neutral law.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Wang Y, Wiesnoski DH, Helmink BA, et al (2018)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated colitis.

Nature medicine pii:10.1038/s41591-018-0238-9 [Epub ahead of print].

We report the first case series of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI)-associated colitis successfully treated with fecal microbiota transplantation, with reconstitution of the gut microbiome and a relative increase in the proportion of regulatory T-cells within the colonic mucosa. These preliminary data provide evidence that modulation of the gut microbiome may abrogate ICI-associated colitis.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Yost S, Stashenko P, Choi Y, et al (2018)

Increased virulence of the oral microbiome in oral squamous cell carcinoma revealed by metatranscriptome analyses.

International journal of oral science, 10(4):32 pii:10.1038/s41368-018-0037-7.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most prevalent and most commonly studied oral cancer. However, there is a void regarding the role that the oral microbiome may play in OSCC. Although the relationship between microbial community composition and OSCC has been thoroughly investigated, microbial profiles of the human microbiome in cancer are understudied. Here we performed a small pilot study of community-wide metatranscriptome analysis to profile mRNA expression in the entire oral microbiome in OSCC to reveal molecular functions associated with this disease. Fusobacteria showed a statistically significantly higher number of transcripts at tumour sites and tumour-adjacent sites of cancer patients compared to the healthy controls analysed. Regardless of the community composition, specific metabolic signatures were consistently found in disease. Activities such as iron ion transport, tryptophanase activity, peptidase activities and superoxide dismutase were over-represented in tumour and tumour-adjacent samples when compared to the healthy controls. The expression of putative virulence factors in the oral communities associated with OSCC showed that activities related to capsule biosynthesis, flagellum synthesis and assembly, chemotaxis, iron transport, haemolysins and adhesins were upregulated at tumour sites. Moreover, activities associated with protection against reactive nitrogen intermediates, chemotaxis, flagellar and capsule biosynthesis were also upregulated in non-tumour sites of cancer patients. Although they are preliminary, our results further suggest that Fusobacteria may be the leading phylogenetic group responsible for the increase in expression of virulence factors in the oral microbiome of OSCC patients.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Gay MCL, Koleva PT, Slupsky CM, et al (2018)

Worldwide Variation in Human Milk Metabolome: Indicators of Breast Physiology and Maternal Lifestyle?.

Nutrients, 10(9): pii:nu10091151.

Human milk provides essential substrates for the optimal growth and development of a breastfed infant. Besides providing nutrients to the infant, human milk also contains metabolites which form an intricate system between maternal lifestyle, such as the mother's diet and the gut microbiome, and infant outcomes. This study investigates the variation of these human milk metabolites from five different countries. Human milk samples (n = 109) were collected one month postpartum from Australia, Japan, the USA, Norway, and South Africa and were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed separation between either maternal countries of origin or ethnicities. Variation between countries in concentration of metabolites, such as 2-oxoglutarate, creatine, and glutamine, in human milk, between countries, could provide insights into problems, such as mastitis and/or impaired functions of the mammary glands. Several important markers of milk production, such as lactose, betaine, creatine, glutamate, and glutamine, showed good correlation between each metabolite. This work highlights the importance of milk metabolites with respect to maternal lifestyle and the environment, and also provides the framework for future breastfeeding and microbiome studies in a global context.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Cáliz J, Triadó-Margarit X, Camarero L, et al (2018)

A long-term survey unveils strong seasonal patterns in the airborne microbiome coupled to general and regional atmospheric circulations.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1812826115 [Epub ahead of print].

Airborne microbes (bacteria, archaea, protists, and fungi) were surveyed over a 7-y period via high-throughput massive sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes in rain and snow samples collected fortnightly at a high-elevation mountain Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network site (LTER-Aigüestortes, Central Pyrenees, Spain). This survey constitutes the most comprehensive mountain-top aerobiology study reported to date. The air mass origins were tracked through modeled back-trajectories and analysis of rain water chemical composition. Consistent microbial seasonal patterns were observed with highly divergent summer and winter communities recurrent in time. Indicative microbial taxa were unveiled as a forensic signature, and ubiquitous taxa were observed as common atmosphere inhabitants, highlighting aerosols as a potentially successful mechanism for global microbial dispersal. Source-tracking analyses identified freshwater, cropland, and urban biomes as the most important sources for airborne bacteria in summer, while marine and forest biomes prevailed in winter, in agreement with air mass retrotrajectories and the prevailing general and regional atmospheric circulation.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

de Souza Moraes B, Mary Dos Santos G, Palladino Delforno T, et al (2018)

Enriched microbial consortia for dark fermentation of sugarcane vinasse towards value-added short-chain organic acids and alcohol production.

Journal of bioscience and bioengineering pii:S1389-1723(18)30567-X [Epub ahead of print].

The role of sugarcane vinasse as a nutrient source and the impacts of different inoculum pretreatment methods (acid-thermal and thermal treatment) were assessed in acidogenic systems aiming to produce value-added short-chain organic acids (SCOA) and alcohols. In-depth microbiome characterization was also conducted by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene using the Miseq Illumina platform. SCOA production was 47.3 % higher in vinasse-fed reactors, with isobutyric (up to 10.3 g L-1) and butyric (up to 10.6 g L-1) acids as the primary metabolites most likely resulting from lactate conversion. Ethanol comprised the main product from solventogenic pathways in all conditions, with values ranging between 2.7 and 5.2 g L-1, whereas no butanol was detected. Microbial analyses revealed high relative abundance values for the Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Ruminococcus genera, with the predominance of the Clostridium genus (17%) in acid-thermal treatment reactors and the Lactobacillus genus (37%) in thermal treatment reactors. Overall, vinasse proved to be a suitable substrate for value-added SCOA production, which characterizes a potential management approach to this wastewater stream. In this sense, the biochemical production of butyrate from vinasse could diversify the product portfolio of sugarcane biorefineries, also minimizing bioenergy losses by converting residual carbon fractions.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Lamprecht P, Fischer N, Huang J, et al (2018)

Changes in the composition of the upper respiratory tract microbial community in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

Journal of autoimmunity pii:S0896-8411(18)30460-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Dysbiosis¸ i.e. changes in microbial composition at a mucosal interface, is implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To assess the composition of the microbial upper respiratory tract (URT) community in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), we used culture-independent high-throughput methods. In this prospective clinical study, nasal swabs were collected from patients with GPA, patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, disease control), and healthy controls. Nasal bacterial taxa were assessed using V3-V4 region 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenza, and entero- and rhinoviruses were detected using qPCR. Unbiased metagenomic RNA sequencing (UMERS) was performed in a subset of samples to determine the relative abundance of bacterial, fungal, and viral species. A trend toward reduced microbiome diversity was detected in GPA samples compared with healthy controls. The abundance of bacterial taxa and microbial richness were significantly decreased in GPA samples compared with RA samples. The relative abundance of bacterial families shifted, with increased Planococcaceae and decreased Moraxellaceae, Tissierellaceae, Staphylococcaceae, and Propionibacteriaceae in GPA and RA. Further, decreased abundance of Corynebacteriaceae, and Aerococcaceae was observed in GPA samples. Significantly more colonization of S. aureus was seen in the nasal microbiome of GPA compared with RA and healthy control samples. H. influenzae colonization was also observed in GPA samples. UMERS detected the presence of rhinoviral sequences in some GPA samples. Thus, our study uncovered changes in the URT microbial composition in patients with GPA and RA, suggesting that both immunosuppression and disease background affect the URT microbiome. Complex alterations of host-microbiome interactions in the URT could influence chronic endonasal inflammation in GPA.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Frugé AD, Van der Pol W, Rogers LQ, et al (2018)

Fecal Akkermansia muciniphila Is Associated with Body Composition and Microbiota Diversity in Overweight and Obese Women with Breast Cancer Participating in a Presurgical Weight Loss Trial.

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics pii:S2212-2672(18)30279-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Akkermansia muciniphila (AM) is a gram-negative, mucin-degrading bacteria inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract associated with host phenotypes and disease states.

OBJECTIVE: Explore characteristics of overweight and obese female early-stage (0 to II) breast cancer patients with low AM relative abundance (LAM) vs high (HAM) enrolled in a presurgical weight-loss trial.

DESIGN: Secondary analysis of pooled participants in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02224807).

PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: During the period from 2014 to 2017, 32 female patients with breast cancer were randomized to weight-loss or attention-control arms from time of diagnosis-to-lumpectomy (mean=30±9 days).

INTERVENTION: All were instructed to correct nutrient deficiencies via food sources and on upper-body exercises. The weight-loss group received additional guidance to promote 0.5 to 1 kg/wk weight-loss via energy restriction and aerobic exercise.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At baseline and follow-up, sera, fecal samples, two-24 hour dietary recalls and dual x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Bacterial DNA was isolated from feces and polymerase chain reaction (16S) amplified. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in sera.

Differences between LAM and HAM participants were analyzed using t tests and nonparametric tests. Spearman correlations explored relationships between continuous variables.

RESULTS: Participants were aged 61±9 years with body mass index 34.8±6. Mean AM relative abundance was 0.02% (0.007% to 0.06%) and 1.59% (0.59% to 13.57%) for LAM and HAM participants, respectively. At baseline, women with HAM vs LAM had lower fat mass (38.9±11.2 kg vs 46.4±9.0 kg; P=0.044). Alpha diversity (ie, species richness) was higher in women with HAM (360.8±84.8 vs 282.4±69.6; P=0.008) at baseline, but attenuated after weight-loss (P=0.058). At baseline, interleukin-6 level was associated with species richness (ρ=-0.471, P=0.008) and fat mass (ρ=0.529, P=0.002), but not AM. Change in total dietary fiber was positively associated with AM in LAM (ρ=0.626, P=0.002), but not HAM (ρ=0.436, P=0.180) participants.

CONCLUSIONS: Among women with early-stage breast cancer, body composition is associated with AM, microbiota diversity, and interleukin-6 level. AM may mediate the effects of dietary fiber in improving microbiota composition.

RevDate: 2018-11-13

Silverman JD, Durand HK, Bloom RJ, et al (2018)

Dynamic linear models guide design and analysis of microbiota studies within artificial human guts.

Microbiome, 6(1):202 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0584-3.

BACKGROUND: Artificial gut models provide unique opportunities to study human-associated microbiota. Outstanding questions for these models' fundamental biology include the timescales on which microbiota vary and the factors that drive such change. Answering these questions though requires overcoming analytical obstacles like estimating the effects of technical variation on observed microbiota dynamics, as well as the lack of appropriate benchmark datasets.

RESULTS: To address these obstacles, we created a modeling framework based on multinomial logistic-normal dynamic linear models (MALLARDs) and performed dense longitudinal sampling of four replicate artificial human guts over the course of 1 month. The resulting analyses revealed how the ratio of biological variation to technical variation from sample processing depends on sampling frequency. In particular, we find that at hourly sampling frequencies, 76% of observed variation could be ascribed to technical sources, which could also skew the observed covariation between taxa. We also found that the artificial guts demonstrated replicable trajectories even after a recovery from a transient feed disruption. Additionally, we observed irregular sub-daily oscillatory dynamics associated with the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae within all four replicate vessels.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses suggest that, beyond variation due to sequence counting, technical variation from sample processing can obscure temporal variation from biological sources in artificial gut studies. Our analyses also supported hypotheses that human gut microbiota fluctuates on sub-daily timescales in the absence of a host and that microbiota can follow replicable trajectories in the presence of environmental driving forces. Finally, multiple aspects of our approach are generalizable and could ultimately be used to facilitate the design and analysis of longitudinal microbiota studies in vivo.

RevDate: 2018-11-03

Fatkhullina AR, Peshkova IO, Dzutsev A, et al (2018)

An Interleukin-23-Interleukin-22 Axis Regulates Intestinal Microbial Homeostasis to Protect from Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis.

Immunity pii:S1074-7613(18)30426-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Although commensal flora is involved in the regulation of immunity, the interplay between cytokine signaling and microbiota in atherosclerosis remains unknown. We found that interleukin (IL)-23 and its downstream target IL-22 restricted atherosclerosis by repressing pro-atherogenic microbiota. Inactivation of IL-23-IL-22 signaling led to deterioration of the intestinal barrier, dysbiosis, and expansion of pathogenic bacteria with distinct biosynthetic and metabolic properties, causing systemic increase in pro-atherogenic metabolites such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Augmented disease in the absence of the IL-23-IL-22 pathway was mediated in part by pro-atherogenic osteopontin, controlled by microbial metabolites. Microbiota transfer from IL-23-deficient mice accelerated atherosclerosis, whereas microbial depletion or IL-22 supplementation reduced inflammation and ameliorated disease. Our work uncovers the IL-23-IL-22 signaling as a regulator of atherosclerosis that restrains expansion of pro-atherogenic microbiota and argues for informed use of cytokine blockers to avoid cardiovascular side effects driven by microbiota and inflammation.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Stallmach A, Reuken PA, N Teich (2018)

[Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of Clostridioides [Clostridium] difficile infections in inflammatory bowel disease].

Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie, 56(11):1369-1377.

Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a significantly increased risk of clinically relevant clostridial infection (CDI). In turn, CDI can increase IBD activity. Therefore, rapid diagnosis and therapy is required. Many diagnostic and treatment studies on patients with CDI without inflammatory bowel disease are not congruent with IBD patients. This overview summarizes the everyday data of recent years and condenses these into four guiding principles. 1) patients with IBD present a risk population for a CDI. A CDI not only worsens the disease activity in the short term, but also causes increased morbidity and mortality in the long term. 2) If a CDI is suspected, glutamate-dehydrogenase (GDH) detection should be carried out quickly. If this is positive, and the disease activity is high, a therapy against C. difficile already may be initiated and-if necessary-terminated in cases of negative confirmation tests. 3) IBD patients with a proven CDI should be treated primarily with vancomycin. 4) In a relapsing CDI, fecal microbiome transfer is an effective therapeutic measure. However, activation of the IBD must be expected in about 15 % of cases. Consistent adherence to these guidelines may help treat a CDI in IBD patients.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Salazar AM, Resnik-Docampo M, Ulgherait M, et al (2018)

Intestinal Snakeskin Limits Microbial Dysbiosis during Aging and Promotes Longevity.

iScience, 9:229-243 pii:S2589-0042(18)30181-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Intestinal barrier dysfunction is an evolutionarily conserved hallmark of aging, which has been linked to microbial dysbiosis, altered expression of occluding junction proteins, and impending mortality. However, the interplay between intestinal junction proteins, age-onset dysbiosis, and lifespan determination remains unclear. Here, we show that altered expression of Snakeskin (Ssk), a septate junction-specific protein, can modulate intestinal homeostasis, microbial dynamics, immune activity, and lifespan in Drosophila. Loss of Ssk leads to rapid and reversible intestinal barrier dysfunction, altered gut morphology, dysbiosis, and dramatically reduced lifespan. Remarkably, restoration of Ssk expression in flies showing intestinal barrier dysfunction rescues each of these phenotypes previously linked to aging. Intestinal up-regulation of Ssk protects against microbial translocation following oral infection with pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, intestinal up-regulation of Ssk improves intestinal barrier function during aging, limits dysbiosis, and extends lifespan. Our findings indicate that intestinal occluding junctions may represent prolongevity targets in mammals.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Ventura Spagnolo E, Stassi C, Mondello C, et al (2018)

Forensic microbiology applications: A systematic review.

Legal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 36:73-80 pii:S1344-6223(18)30153-6 [Epub ahead of print].

According to the Human Microbiome Project (HMP), a healthy human body contains ten times more microbes than human cells. Microbial communities colonize different organs of the body, playing fundamental roles both in human health and disease. Despite the vast scientific knowledge of the role of microbial communities in a living body, little is known at present about microbial changes occurring after death, thus leading many authors to investigate the composition of the thanatomicrobiome and its potential applications in the forensic field. The aim of the following review is to provide a general overview of the advances of postmortem microbiology research, mainly focusing on the role of microbiological investigations carried out on internal organs and fluids. To this end, a total of 19 studies have been sistematically reviewed, each one chosen according to specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. The selected studies assess the contribution of contamination, postmortem transmigration and agonal spread to microbial isolation from dead body samples, and shed light on the role of postmortem microbiological investigations in several forensic fields, such as cause of death or PMI determination.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Zhuo C, Yao Y, Xu Y, et al (2018)

Schizophrenia and gut-flora related epigenetic factors.

Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry pii:S0278-5846(18)30519-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder and the exact mechanisms that underpin SZ remain poorly understood despite decades of research. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are all considered to play a role. The importance of gut flora and its influence on the central nervous system has been recognized in recent years. We hypothesize that gut flora may be a converging point where environmental factors interact with epigenetic factors and contribute to SZ pathogenesis.

AIM: To summarize the current understanding of genetic and epigenetic factors and the possible involvement of gut flora in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

RESULTS: We searched PubMed and Medline with a combination of the key words schizophrenia, microbiome, epigenetic factors to identify studies of genetic and epigenetic factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Numerous genes that encode key proteins in neuronal signaling pathways have been linked to SZ. Epigenetic modifications, particularly, methylation and acetylation profiles, have been found to differ in individuals that present with SZ from those that don't. Gut flora may affect epigenetic modifications by regulation of key metabolic pathway molecules, including methionine, florate, biotin, and metabolites that are acetyl group donors. Despite a lack of direct studies on the subject, it is possible that gut flora may influence genetic and epigenetic expression and thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of SZ.

CONCLUSION: Gut flora is sensitive to both internal and environmental stimuli and the synthesis of some key molecules that participate in the epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Therefore, it is possible that gut flora is a converging point where environmental factors interact with genetic and epigenetic factors in the pathogenesis of SZ.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Hellauer K, Uhl J, Lucio M, et al (2018)

Microbiome triggered transformations of trace organic chemicals in the presence of effluent organic matter in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

It is widely assumed that biodegradation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems occurs via a co-metabolic transformation with dissolved organic carbon serving as primary substrate. Hence, the composition facilitating bioavailability of the organic matter seems to have a great impact on TOrCs transformation in MAR systems. The aim of this study was to elucidate the character of effluent organic matter present in the feed water of a simulated sequential MAR system throughout the infiltration by use of FT-ICR-MS analyses as well as spectroscopic methods. Furthermore, compositional changes were correlated with TOrCs targeted throughout the system as well as the abundance of different microbial phyla. Based on their behavior throughout the infiltration system in which different redox and substrate conditions prevailed, TOrCs were classified in four groups: easily degradable, redox insensitive, redox sensitive, and persistent. Masses correlating with persistent TOrCs were mainly comprised of CHNO containing molecules, but also of CHO which are known as carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules, while CHOS and CHNOS can be neglected. Easily degradable TOrCs could be associated with CHNO, CHO and CHOS containing compounds. However, a shift of molecular compounds to mostly CHOS was observed for redox insensitive TOrCs. 338 masses correlated with removal of redox sensitive TOrCs, but no distinct clustering was identified.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Compo NR, Gomez DE, Tapscott B, et al (2018)

Fecal bacterial microbiota of Canadian commercial mink (Neovison vison): Yearly, life stage, and seasonal comparisons.

PloS one, 13(11):e0207111 pii:PONE-D-17-29194.

The gastrointestinal microbiome is known to play a critical role in animal health but has been relatively poorly characterized in commercial mink, an obligate carnivore. Whether the microbiota can be manipulated in mink to improve pelt quality, health, and well-being is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the fecal microbiota of commercial mink, and to evaluate potential changes due to year (2014 vs 2015), life stage (adult female vs weaned kit), season (summer vs winter), and between Canadian farms. Pooled fecal samples were collected from adult females and weaned kits in the summers of 2014 (n = 173) and 2015 (n = 168), and from females in the winter of 2016 (n = 39), a time when females undergo marked calorie restriction, from 49 mink farms in Ontario. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. Approximately 22 million sequences were identified following quality control filtering. A total of 31 bacterial phyla were identified; however, only 3 comprised >1% of the total sequences identified, with Firmicutes and Proteobacteria together comprising 95% of the total sequences. Comparisons were made by life stage, season and year; no differences were found in the relative abundance of any taxa between samples collected from adult females and weaned kits from the same year and the greatest number of differences at each taxonomic level were noted between 2014 and 2015. Significantly more operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found in 2014 than 2015 or 2016 (p<0.05) and samples from 2014 were more even, but less diverse than in 2015 (p = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). There were significant differences in community population and structure by year and season (all p-values <0.001). The predominant phyla and genera at the farm level were similar from year to year. Together, these indicate that mink environment, season, and time are important factors in the stability of gastrointestinal microbiota, once mink reach maturity.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Meng X, Dunsmore G, Koleva P, et al (2018)

The profile of human milk metabolome, cytokines and antibodies in inflammatory bowel diseases versus healthy mothers and potential impact on the newborn.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:5173481 [Epub ahead of print].

Background and Aims: For women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is not very well known how IBD or IBD treatment impacts their breastmilk components. We aimed to investigate whether breastmilk composition differs in healthy control (HC) versus IBD mothers in terms of antibodies, cytokines and metabolites to identify potential impact of IBD breastmilk on neonatal immune system.

Methods: Breastmilk specimens from HC (n=17) and IBD (n=31 for Crohn's disease (CD); n=41 for ulcerative colitis (UC)) were collected at 3 and 6 months post-partum (PP3) and (PP6), respectively. Fecal samples were also collected. Cytokines and immunoglobulins (IgA/IgG/IgE) were analyzed by multiplex Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and commercial kits. Moreover, breastmilk metabolites were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

Results: We found breastmilk from IBD mothers showed significantly lower levels of IgA, sugar metabolite (lactose) and 2-aminobutyrate. In contrast, we observed breastmilk from mothers with IBD had increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and higher energy metabolites (lactate and succinate) than milk from healthy mothers. In addition, we noticed that the type of treatment (5-ASA versus Biologics) influenced the milk cytokines and metabolites profile.

Conclusions: The reduction in immunoprotective components of IBD breastmilk such as sIgA and lactose theoretically may modulate the potential protective effects of breastfeeding. On the other hand, presence of higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate and succinate may predispose the offspring to an inflammatory condition or impact the gut microbiome. Better understanding the role of succinate in infants and its potential effects on microbiome or mucosal immunity merits further investigations.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Sams-Dodd J, F Sams-Dodd (2018)

Time to Abandon Antimicrobial Approaches in Wound Healing: A Paradigm Shift.

Wounds : a compendium of clinical research and practice, 30(11):345-352.

Antimicrobial approaches (eg, antibiotics and antiseptics) have been used for decades in the treatment of infected wounds, ulcers, and burns. However, an increasing number of meta-analyses have raised questions regarding the therapeutic value of these approaches. Newer findings show that the body actively hosts an ecosystem of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites on its outer surfaces, known as the microbiome, as part of its defense against pathogens. Antimicrobials would disrupt this system and thereby work against the strategy the body has chosen. Recently, a new technology, micropore particle technology (MPPT), has been identified; it is not an antimicrobial but instead acts as a passive immunotherapy that disrupts the weaponry bacteria and fungi use to inhibit the immune system, allowing the immune system to recover. Clinical findings show MPPT removes wound infections 60% quicker than antibiotics and antiseptics and promotes the healing of chronic wounds that have not responded to antimicrobials. These effects are achieved without antimicrobial action and, considering the limited therapeutic benefits of antibiotics and antiseptics for wound infections, it is valid to question the use of antimicrobial approaches in wound care and the dogma that a reduction in microbial burden will lead to a reduction in infection. Instead, it may be time to consider a paradigm shift in wound healing away from antimicrobials and towards therapies that support the immune system and the microbiome. This review covers the increasing evidence that infections on external surfaces have to be treated fundamentally differently to internal infections.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Muleviciene A, D'Amico F, Turroni S, et al (2018)

Iron deficiency anemia-related gut microbiota dysbiosis in infants and young children: A pilot study.

Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica [Epub ahead of print].

Nutritional iron deficiency (ID) causes not only anemia but also malfunction of the entire human organism. Recently, a role of the gut microbiota has been hypothesized, but limited data are available especially in infants. Here, we performed a pilot study to explore the gut microbiota in 10 patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 10 healthy controls aged 6-34 months. Fresh stool samples were collected from diapers, and the fecal microbiota was profiled by next-generation sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Except for diet diversity, the breastfeeding status at the enrollment, the exclusive breastfeeding duration, and the introduction of complementary foods did not differ between groups. Distinct microbial signatures were found in IDA patients, with increased relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (mean relative abundance, patients vs. controls, 4.4% vs. 3.0%) and Veillonellaceae (13.7% vs. 3.6%), and reduced abundance of Coriobacteriaceae (3.5% vs. 8.8%) compared to healthy controls. A decreased Bifidobacteriaceae/Enterobacteriaceae ratio was observed in IDA patients. Notwithstanding the low sample size, our data highlight microbiota dysbalance in IDA worth for further investigations, aimed at unraveling the ID impact on the microbiome trajectory in early life, and the possible long-term consequences.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Hyeon JY, Mann DA, Townsend AM, et al (2018)

Quasi-metagenomic Analysis of Salmonella from Food and Environmental Samples.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

Quasi-metagenomics sequencing refers to the sequencing-based analysis of modified microbiomes of food and environmental samples. In this protocol, microbiome modification is designed to concentrate genomic DNA of a target foodborne pathogen contaminant to facilitate the detection and subtyping of the pathogen in a single workflow. Here, we explain and demonstrate the sample preparation steps for the quasi-metagenomics analysis of Salmonella enterica from representative food and environmental samples including alfalfa sprouts, ground black pepper, ground beef, chicken breast and environmental swabs. Samples are first subjected to the culture enrichment of Salmonella for a shortened and adjustable duration (4-24 h). Salmonella cells are then selectively captured from the enrichment culture by immunomagnetic separation (IMS). Finally, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is performed to amplify DNA from IMS-captured cells. The DNA output of this protocol can be sequenced by high throughput sequencing platforms. An optional quantitative PCR analysis can be performed to replace sequencing for Salmonella detection or assess the concentration of Salmonella DNA before sequencing.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Fonkou MD, Dufour JC, Dubourg G, et al (2018)

Repertoire of bacterial species cultured from the human oral cavity and respiratory tract.

Future microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

While the gut microbiota is currently in the spotlight, the airway microbiome has been recently associated with several pulmonary diseases and carcinogenesis. As there are several biases associated with high-throughput sequencing methods, cultivation techniques are crucial for the investigation of the human microbiome. We thus aimed to build an exhaustive database, including a list of microbes isolated by culture from respiratory specimens, by performing a review of the literature. Herein, we have listed a total of 756 species cultured from the human respiratory tract. This represents 27.23% of the overall bacterial richness captured from human being by culture methods. This repertoire could be valuable for the elucidation of the interactions between the respiratory microbiome and human health.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Cordero OJ, R Varela-Calviño (2018)

Oral hygiene might prevent cancer.

Heliyon, 4(10):e00879 pii:e00879.

Many evidences support that species from the Human Oral Microbiome Database such as Fusobacterium nucleatum or Bacteroides, linked previously to periodontitis and appendicitis, play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC), including metastasis. These typically oral species are invasive anaerobes that form biofilms in their virulent state. Aspirin (a NSAID) has been recently included into routine CRC prevention rationale. NSAIDs can prevent the growth of neoplastic lesions by inhibiting COX enzymes and another set of recently identified COX-independent targets, which include the WNT, AMPK and MTOR signaling pathways, the crosstalk between nucleoli and NF-κB transcriptional activity in apoptosis, and the biochemistry of platelets. These are signaling pathways related to tumor-promoting inflammation. In this process, pathogens or simple deregulation of the microbiota play an important role in CRC. Aspirin and other NSAIDs are efficient inhibitors of biofilm formation and able to control periodontitis development preventing inflammation related to the microbiota of the gingival tissue, so its seems plausible to include this pathway in the mechanisms that aspirin uses to prevent CRC. We propose arguments suggesting that current oral hygiene methods and other future developments against periodontitis might prevent CRC and probably other cancers, alone or in combination with other options; and that the multidisciplinary studies needed to prove this hypothesis might be relevant for cancer prevention.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Cai J, Nichols RG, Koo I, et al (2018)

Multiplatform Physiologic and Metabolic Phenotyping Reveals Microbial Toxicity.

mSystems, 3(6): pii:mSystems00123-18.

The gut microbiota is susceptible to modulation by environmental stimuli and therefore can serve as a biological sensor. Recent evidence suggests that xenobiotics can disrupt the interaction between the microbiota and host. Here, we describe an approach that combines in vitro microbial incubation (isolated cecal contents from mice), flow cytometry, and mass spectrometry- and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics to evaluate xenobiotic-induced microbial toxicity. Tempol, a stabilized free radical scavenger known to remodel the microbial community structure and function in vivo, was studied to assess its direct effect on the gut microbiota. The microbiota was isolated from mouse cecum and was exposed to tempol for 4 h under strict anaerobic conditions. The flow cytometry data suggested that short-term tempol exposure to the microbiota is associated with disrupted membrane physiology as well as compromised metabolic activity. Mass spectrometry and NMR metabolomics revealed that tempol exposure significantly disrupted microbial metabolic activity, specifically indicated by changes in short-chain fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, amino acids, nucleotides, glucose, and oligosaccharides. In addition, a mouse study with tempol (5 days gavage) showed similar microbial physiologic and metabolic changes, indicating that the in vitro approach reflected in vivo conditions. Our results, through evaluation of microbial viability, physiology, and metabolism and a comparison of in vitro and in vivo exposures with tempol, suggest that physiologic and metabolic phenotyping can provide unique insight into gut microbiota toxicity. IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota is modulated physiologically, compositionally, and metabolically by xenobiotics, potentially causing metabolic consequences to the host. We recently reported that tempol, a stabilized free radical nitroxide, can exert beneficial effects on the host through modulation of the microbiome community structure and function. Here, we investigated a multiplatform phenotyping approach that combines high-throughput global metabolomics with flow cytometry to evaluate the direct effect of tempol on the microbiota. This approach may be useful in deciphering how other xenobiotics directly influence the microbiota.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Cekanaviciute E, Pröbstel AK, Thomann A, et al (2018)

Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Changes in the Composition and Immune Functions of Spore-Forming Bacteria.

mSystems, 3(6): pii:mSystems00083-18.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by adaptive and innate immune system dysregulation. Recent work has revealed moderate alteration of gut microbial communities in subjects with MS and in experimental, induced models. However, a mechanistic understanding linking the observed changes in the microbiota and the presence of the disease is still missing. Chloroform-resistant, spore-forming bacteria, which primarily belong to the classes Bacilli and Clostridia in the phylum Firmicutes, have been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties in vitro and in vivo, but they have not yet been characterized in the context of human disease. This study addresses the community composition and immune function of this bacterial fraction in MS. We identify MS-associated spore-forming taxa (primarily in the class Clostridia) and show that their presence correlates with impaired differentiation of IL-10-secreting, regulatory T lymphocytes in vitro. Colonization of antibiotic-treated mice with spore-forming bacteria allowed us to identify some bacterial taxa favoring IL-10+ lymphocyte differentiation and others inducing differentiation of proinflammatory, IFN-γ+ T lymphocytes. However, when fed into antibiotic-treated mice, both MS and control-derived spore-forming bacteria were able to induce similar IL-10-expressing Treg immunoregulatory responses, thus ameliorating symptoms of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our analysis also identified Akkermansia muciniphila as a key organism that may interact either directly or indirectly with spore-forming bacteria to exacerbate the inflammatory effects of MS-associated gut microbiota. Thus, changes in the spore-forming fraction may influence T lymphocyte-mediated inflammation in MS. This experimental approach of isolating a subset of microbiota based on its functional characteristics may be useful to investigate other microbial fractions at greater depth. IMPORTANCE To address the impact of microbiome on disease development, it is essential to go beyond a descriptive study and evaluate the physiological importance of microbiome changes. Our study integrates computational analysis with in vitro and in vivo exploration of inflammatory properties of spore-forming microbial communities, revealing novel functional correlations. We specifically show that while small differences exist between the microbiomes of MS patients and healthy subjects, these differences are exacerbated in the chloroform-resistant fraction. We further demonstrate that, when purified from MS patients, this fraction is correlated with impaired immunomodulatory responses in vitro.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Boesmans L, Valles-Colomer M, Wang J, et al (2018)

Butyrate Producers as Potential Next-Generation Probiotics: Safety Assessment of the Administration of Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum to Healthy Volunteers.

mSystems, 3(6): pii:mSystems00094-18.

Advances in gut microbiota research have triggered interest in developing colon butyrate producers as niche-specific next-generation probiotics, targeted at increasing colon butyrate production and countering disease-associated microbiota alterations. Crucial steps in the development of next-generation probiotics are the design of formulations with a reasonable shelf life as well as the safety demonstration of an intervention in healthy volunteers. One such potential next-generation butyrate-producing probiotic is Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum 25-3T, with demonstrated safety in in vitro as well as animal models. Here, we examined the strain's safety, tolerability, and impact on microbiota composition and metabolic activity in healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in 30 healthy volunteers. The study design consisted of two 4-week intervention periods (108 CFU B. pullicaecorum [treatment] or maltodextrin [placebo] per day) with a 3-week washout in between. We assessed adverse events, blood parameters (primary endpoints), and fecal microbiota composition and metabolite profiles (secondary endpoints). The number of reported adverse events during the B. pullicaecorum treatment was similar to that of placebo intervention, as were observed changes in blood chemistry parameters, bowel habits, and fecal calprotectin concentrations. Administration of the strain did not induce any disruptive effect in microbiota composition or metabolic activity. In this first human intervention trial with a butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster IV isolate, we demonstrated B. pullicaecorum 25-3T administration to be both safe and well tolerated by healthy participants. This safety study paves the way for the further development of the strain as a next-generation probiotic. IMPORTANCE This study is the first to determine the safety and tolerance in humans of a butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster IV next-generation probiotic. Advances in gut microbiota research have triggered interest in developing colon butyrate producers as next-generation probiotics. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum 25-3T is one such potential probiotic, with demonstrated safety in vitro as well as in animal models. Here, we produced an encapsulated B. pullicaecorum formulation that largely preserved its viability over an 8-month storage period at 4°C. Administration of this formulation to healthy volunteers allowed us to establish the intervention as safe and well tolerated. The probiotic intervention did not cause disruptive alterations in the composition or metabolic activity of health-associated microbiota. The results presented pave the way for the exploration of the impact of the strain on microbiota alterations in a clinical setting.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Minich JJ, Humphrey G, Benitez RAS, et al (2018)

High-Throughput Miniaturized 16S rRNA Amplicon Library Preparation Reduces Costs while Preserving Microbiome Integrity.

mSystems, 3(6): pii:mSystems00166-18.

Next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled many advances across biology, with microbial ecology benefiting primarily through expanded sample sizes. Although the cost of running sequencing instruments has decreased substantially over time, the price of library preparation methods has largely remained unchanged. In this study, we developed a low-cost miniaturized (5-µl volume) high-throughput (384-sample) amplicon library preparation method with the Echo 550 acoustic liquid handler. Our method reduces costs of library preparation to $1.42 per sample, a 58% reduction compared to existing automated methods and a 21-fold reduction from commercial kits, without compromising sequencing success or distorting the microbial community composition analysis. We further validated the optimized method by sampling five body sites from 46 Pacific chub mackerel fish caught across 16 sampling events over seven months from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier in La Jolla, CA. Fish microbiome samples were processed with the miniaturized 5-µl reaction volume with 0.2 µl of genomic DNA (gDNA) and the standard 25-µl reaction volume with 1 µl of gDNA. Between the two methods, alpha diversity was highly correlated (R2 > 0.95), while distances of technical replicates were much lower than within-body-site variation (P < 0.0001), further validating the method. The cost savings of implementing the miniaturized library preparation (going from triplicate 25-µl reactions to triplicate 5-µl reactions) are large enough to cover a MiSeq sequencing run for 768 samples while preserving accurate microbiome measurements. IMPORTANCE Reduced costs of sequencing have tremendously impacted the field of microbial ecology, allowing scientists to design more studies with larger sample sizes that often exceed 10,000 samples. Library preparation costs have not kept pace with sequencing prices, although automated liquid handling robots provide a unique opportunity to bridge this gap while also decreasing human error. Here, we take advantage of an acoustic liquid handling robot to develop a high-throughput miniaturized library preparation method of a highly cited and broadly used 16S rRNA gene amplicon reaction. We evaluate the potential negative effects of reducing the PCR volume along with varying the amount of gDNA going into the reaction. Our optimized method reduces sample-processing costs while continuing to generate a high-quality microbiome readout that is indistinguishable from the original method.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Mazel F, Davis KM, Loudon A, et al (2018)

Is Host Filtering the Main Driver of Phylosymbiosis across the Tree of Life?.

mSystems, 3(5): pii:mSystems00097-18.

Host-associated microbiota composition can be conserved over evolutionary time scales. Indeed, closely related species often host similar microbiota; i.e., the composition of their microbiota harbors a phylogenetic signal, a pattern sometimes referred to as "phylosymbiosis." Elucidating the origins of this pattern is important to better understand microbiota ecology and evolution. However, this is hampered by our lack of theoretical expectations and a comprehensive overview of phylosymbiosis prevalence in nature. Here, we use simulations to provide a simple expectation for when we should expect this pattern to occur and then review the literature to document the prevalence and strength of phylosymbiosis across the host tree of life. We demonstrate that phylosymbiosis can readily emerge from a simple ecological filtering process, whereby a given host trait (e.g., gut pH) that varies with host phylogeny (i.e., harbors a phylogenetic signal) filters preadapted microbes. We found marked differences between methods used to detect phylosymbiosis, so we proposed a series of practical recommendations based on using multiple best-performing approaches. Importantly, we found that, while the prevalence of phylosymbiosis is mixed in nature, it appears to be stronger for microbiotas living in internal host compartments (e.g., the gut) than those living in external compartments (e.g., the rhizosphere). We show that phylosymbiosis can theoretically emerge without any intimate, long-term coevolutionary mechanisms and that most phylosymbiosis patterns observed in nature are compatible with a simple ecological process. Deviations from baseline ecological expectations might be used to further explore more complex hypotheses, such as codiversification. IMPORTANCE Phylosymbiosis is a pattern defined as the tendency of closely related species to host microbiota whose compositions resemble each other more than host species drawn at random from the same tree. Understanding the mechanisms behind phylosymbiosis is important because it can shed light on rules governing the assembly of host-associated microbiotas and, potentially, their coevolutionary dynamics with hosts. For example, is phylosymbiosis a result of coevolution, or can it be generated by simple ecological filtering processes? Beyond qualitative theoretical models, quantitative theoretical expectations can provide new insights. For example, deviations from a simple baseline of ecological filtering may be used to test more-complex hypotheses (e.g., coevolution). Here, we use simulations to provide evidence that simple host-related ecological filtering can readily generate phylosymbiosis, and we contrast these predictions with real-world data. We find that while phylosymbiosis is widespread in nature, phylosymbiosis patterns are compatible with a simple ecological model in the majority of taxa. Internal compartments of hosts, such as the animal gut, often display stronger phylosymbiosis than expected from a purely ecological filtering process, suggesting that other mechanisms are also involved.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Ren L, Zhang R, Rao J, et al (2018)

Transcriptionally Active Lung Microbiome and Its Association with Bacterial Biomass and Host Inflammatory Status.

mSystems, 3(5): pii:mSystems00199-18.

Alteration of the lung microbiome has been observed in several respiratory tract diseases. However, most previous studies were based on 16S ribosomal RNA and shotgun metagenome sequencing; the viability and functional activity of the microbiome, as well as its interaction with host immune systems, have not been well studied. To characterize the active lung microbiome and its associations with host immune response and clinical features, we applied metatranscriptome sequencing to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 25 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and from nine control cases without known pulmonary disease. Community structure analyses revealed three distinct microbial compositions, which were significantly correlated with bacterial biomass, human Th17 immune response, and COPD exacerbation frequency. Specifically, samples with transcriptionally active Streptococcus, Rothia, or Pseudomonas had bacterial loads 16 times higher than samples enriched for Escherichia and Ralstonia. These high-bacterial-load samples also tended to undergo a stronger Th17 immune response. Furthermore, an increased proportion of lymphocytes was found in samples with active Pseudomonas. In addition, COPD patients with active Streptococcus or Rothia infections tended to have lower rates of exacerbations than patients with active Pseudomonas and patients with lower bacterial biomass. Our results support the idea of a stratified structure of the active lung microbiome and a significant host-microbe interaction. We speculate that diverse lung microbiomes exist in the population and that their presence and activities could either influence or reflect different aspects of lung health. IMPORTANCE Recent studies of the microbiome proposed that resident microbes play a beneficial role in maintaining human health. Although lower respiratory tract disease is a leading cause of sickness and mortality, how the lung microbiome interacts with human health remains largely unknown. Here we assessed the association between the lung microbiome and host gene expression, cytokine concentration, and over 20 clinical features. Intriguingly, we found a stratified structure of the active lung microbiome which was significantly associated with bacterial biomass, lymphocyte proportion, human Th17 immune response, and COPD exacerbation frequency. These observations suggest that the microbiome plays a significant role in lung homeostasis. Not only microbial composition but also active functional elements and host immunity characteristics differed among different individuals. Such diversity may partially account for the variation in susceptibility to particular diseases.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

DiMucci D, Kon M, D Segrè (2018)

Machine Learning Reveals Missing Edges and Putative Interaction Mechanisms in Microbial Ecosystem Networks.

mSystems, 3(5): pii:mSystems00181-18.

Microbes affect each other's growth in multiple, often elusive, ways. The ensuing interdependencies form complex networks, believed to reflect taxonomic composition as well as community-level functional properties and dynamics. The elucidation of these networks is often pursued by measuring pairwise interactions in coculture experiments. However, the combinatorial complexity precludes an exhaustive experimental analysis of pairwise interactions, even for moderately sized microbial communities. Here, we used a machine learning random forest approach to address this challenge. In particular, we show how partial knowledge of a microbial interaction network, combined with trait-level representations of individual microbial species, can provide accurate inference of missing edges in the network and putative mechanisms underlying the interactions. We applied our algorithm to three case studies: an experimentally mapped network of interactions between auxotrophic Escherichia coli strains, a community of soil microbes, and a large in silico network of metabolic interdependencies between 100 human gut-associated bacteria. For this last case, 5% of the network was sufficient to predict the remaining 95% with 80% accuracy, and the mechanistic hypotheses produced by the algorithm accurately reflected known metabolic exchanges. Our approach, broadly applicable to any microbial or other ecological network, may drive the discovery of new interactions and new molecular mechanisms, both for therapeutic interventions involving natural communities and for the rational design of synthetic consortia. IMPORTANCE Different organisms in a microbial community may drastically affect each other's growth phenotypes, significantly affecting the community dynamics, with important implications for human and environmental health. Novel culturing methods and the decreasing costs of sequencing will gradually enable high-throughput measurements of pairwise interactions in systematic coculturing studies. However, a thorough characterization of all interactions that occur within a microbial community is greatly limited both by the combinatorial complexity of possible assortments and by the limited biological insight that interaction measurements typically provide without laborious specific follow-ups. Here, we show how a simple and flexible formal representation of microbial pairs can be used for the classification of interactions via machine learning. The approach we propose predicts with high accuracy the outcome of yet-to-be performed experiments and generates testable hypotheses about the mechanisms of specific interactions.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Patil NP, Le V, Sligar AD, et al (2018)

Algal Polysaccharides as Therapeutic Agents for Atherosclerosis.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 5:153.

Seaweed-derived polysaccharides including agar and alginate, have found widespread applications in biomedical research and medical therapeutic applications including wound healing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Given the recent increases in the incidence of diabetes, obesity and hyperlipidemia, there is a pressing need for low cost therapeutics that can economically and effectively slow the progression of atherosclerosis. Marine polysaccharides have been consumed by humans for millennia and are available in large quantities at low cost. Polysaccharides such as fucoidan, laminarin sulfate and ulvan have shown promise in reducing atherosclerosis and its accompanying risk factors in animal models. However, others have been tested in very limited context in scientific studies. In this review, we explore the current state of knowledge for these promising therapeutics and discuss the potential and challenges of using seaweed derived polysaccharides as therapies for atherosclerosis.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Chu H, Williams B, B Schnabl (2018)

Gut microbiota, fatty liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Liver research, 2(1):43-51.

Intestinal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently developed microbial profiling techniques are beginning to shed light on the nature of the changes in the gut microbiota that accompany NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this review, we summarize the role of gut microbiota in the development of NAFLD, NASH, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We highlight the mechanisms by which gut microbiota contribute to NAFLD/NASH, including through alterations in gut epithelial permeability, choline metabolism, endogenous alcohol production, release of inflammatory cytokines, regulation of hepatic Toll-like receptor (TLR), and bile acid metabolism. In addition, we analyze possible mechanisms for enhanced hepatic carcinogenesis, including alterations in bile acid metabolism, release of inflammatory cytokines, and expression of TLR-4. Finally, we describe therapeutic approaches for NAFLD/NASH and preventive strategies for HCC involving modulation of the intestinal microbiota or affected host pathways. Although recent studies have provided useful information, large-scale prospective studies are required to better characterize the intestinal microbiota and metabolome, in order to demonstrate a causative role for changes in the gut microbiota in the etiology of NAFLD/NASH, to identify new therapeutic strategies for NAFLD/NASH, and to develop more effective methods of preventing HCC.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Wang Z, Lou H, Wang Y, et al (2018)

Erratum: Author Correction: GePMI: a statistical model for personal intestinal microbiome identification.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 4:28 pii:71.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41522-018-0065-2.].

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Zhang WQ, Zhao SK, Luo JW, et al (2018)

Alterations of fecal bacterial communities in patients with lung cancer.

American journal of translational research, 10(10):3171-3185.

Emerging evidence suggests the microbiome may affect a number of diseases, including lung cancer. However, the direct relationship between gut bacteria and lung cancer remains uncharacterized. In this study, we directly sequenced the hypervariable V1-V2 regions of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples from patients with lung cancer and healthy volunteers. Unweighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed a clear difference in the bacterial community membership between the lung cancer group and the healthy control group. The lung cancer group had remarkably higher levels of Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Lentisphaerae but dramatically lower levels of Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia than the healthy control group (P < 0.05). Despite significant interindividual variation, eight predominant genera were significantly different between the two groups. The lung cancer group had higher levels of Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Fusobacterium but lower levels of Escherichia-Shigella, Kluyvera, Fecalibacterium, Enterobacter, and Dialister than the healthy control group (P < 0.05). Most notably, correlations between certain specific bacteria and serum inflammatory biomarkers were identified. Our findings demonstrated an altered bacterial community in patients with lung cancer, providing a significant step in understanding the relationship between gut bacteria and lung cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the correlations between certain specific bacteria and inflammatory indicators. To better understand this relationship, further studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms of gut bacteria in lung cancer animal models.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Graf BL, Zhang L, Corradini MG, et al (2018)

Physicochemical differences between malanga (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers are associated with differential effects on the gut microbiome.

Journal of functional foods, 45:268-276.

Malanga (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) is used as a medicinal food for infant development and gastritis. We compared the physicochemical properties and gut microbial effects of malanga versus potato (Solanum tuberosum) using nutritional analysis, rheometry, in vitro TNO Intestinal Model, and C57Bl/6J mouse models. Malanga was characterized by higher starch (70.7% v. 66.3%), lower amylose:amylopectin (0.33 v. 0.59), higher free sugar (5.44% v. 3.23%), lower viscosity (271.0 v. 863.0 mPa.s), and higher bioaccessible and bioavailable sugar (0.89 v. 0.11 g bioaccessible sucrose per 20 g load in vitro; blood glucose levels of 129.1 v. 95.2 and 133.8 v. 104.3 mg/dL after 20 and 60 min in vivo). Gut microbiota of mice fed a high fat diet containing 20% malanga for 14 d exhibited significantly higher α diversity than those fed 20% potato, indicating that minor physicochemical differences between similar tuber crops are associated with significantly different effects on the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Stamps BW, Leddy MB, Plumlee MH, et al (2018)

Characterization of the Microbiome at the World's Largest Potable Water Reuse Facility.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:2435.

Conventional water resources are not sufficient in many regions to meet the needs of growing populations. Due to cyclical weather cycles, drought, and climate change, water stress has increased worldwide including in Southern California, which serves as a model for regions that integrate reuse of wastewater for both potable and non-potable use. The Orange County Water District (OCWD) Advanced Water Purification Facility (AWPF) is a highly engineered system designed to treat and produce up to 100 million gallons per day (MGD) of purified water from a municipal wastewater source for potable reuse. Routine facility microbial water quality analysis is limited to standard indicators at this and similar facilities. Given recent advances in high throughput DNA sequencing techniques, complete microbial profiling of communities in water samples is now possible. By using 16S/18S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing coupled to a highly accurate identification method along with 16S rRNA gene qPCR, we describe a detailed view of the total microbial community throughout the facility. The total bacterial load of the water at stages of the treatment train ranged from 3.02 × 106 copies in source, unchlorinated wastewater feed to 5.49 × 101 copies of 16S rRNA gene/mL after treatment (consisting of microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet/advanced oxidation). Microbial diversity and load decreased by several orders of magnitude after microfiltration and reverse osmosis treatment, falling to almost non-detectable levels that more closely resembled controls of molecular grade laboratory water than the biomass detected in the source water. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes and viruses was also greatly reduced. Overall, system design performance was achieved, and comprehensive microbial community analysis was found to enable a more complete characterization of the water/wastewater microbial signature.

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Gosalbes MJ, Compte J, Moriano-Gutierrez S, et al (2018)

Metabolic adaptation in the human gut microbiota during pregnancy and the first year of life.

EBioMedicine pii:S2352-3964(18)30492-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the gut microbiome and the human host is dynamic and we may expect adjustments in microbiome function if host physiology changes. Metatranscriptomic approaches should be key in unraveling how such adjustments occur.

METHODS: We employ metatranscriptomic sequencing analyses to study gene expression in the gut microbiota of infants through their first year of life, and of their mothers days before delivery and one year afterwards.

FINDINGS: In infants, hallmarks of aerobic metabolism disappear from the microbial metatranscriptome as development proceeds, while the expression of functions related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism increases and diversifies, approaching that observed in non-pregnant women. Butyrate synthesis enzymes are overexpressed at three months of age, even though most butyrate-producing organisms are still rare. In late pregnancy, the microbiota readjusts the expression of carbohydrate-related functions in a manner consistent with a high availability of glucose.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that butyrate production may be ensured in the gut of young infants before the typical butyrate synthesizers of the adult gut become abundant. The late pregnancy gut microbiota may be able to access the high levels of blood glucose characteristic of this period. Moreover, late pregnancy gut bacteria may reach stationary phase, which may affect their likelihood of translocating across the intestinal epithelium.

FUNDS: This work was supported by grants CSD2009-00006 (CONSOLIDER Program) and SAF2009-13032-C02-02 from MICINN (Ministry of Science and Innovation, Spain), and by grant SAF2012-31187 from MINECO (Ministry of Economics and Competitiveness, Spain).

RevDate: 2018-11-12

Aslam H, Green J, Jacka FN, et al (2018)

Fermented foods, the gut and mental health: a mechanistic overview with implications for depression and anxiety.

Nutritional neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Mental disorders including depression and anxiety are often comorbid with gut problems, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between mental health and gut function. Several mechanisms might explain this comorbidity, such as inflammation and immune activation; intestinal permeability; perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; neurotransmitter/neuropeptide dysregulation; dietary deficiencies; and disturbed gut microbiome composition. The potential of modulating the microbiome-gut-brain axis, and subsequently mental health, through the use of functional foods, is an emerging and novel topic of interest. Fermented foods are considered functional foods due to their putative health benefits. The process of microbial fermentation converts food substrates into more nutritionally and functionally rich products, resulting in functional microorganisms (probiotics), substrates that enhance proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the gut (prebiotics), and bioactive components (biogenics). These functional ingredients act biologically in the gastrointestinal tract and have the ability to modify the gut microbiota, influence translocation of endotoxins and subsequent immune activation, and promote host nutrition. This narrative review explores the theoretical potential of the functional components present in fermented foods to alter gut physiology and to impact the biological mechanisms thought to underpin depression and anxiety. Pre-clinical studies indicate the benefits of fermented foods in relieving perturbed gut function and for animal models of depression and anxiety. However, in humans, the literature relating to the relevance of fermented food for treating or preventing depression and anxiety is sparse, heterogeneous and has significant limitations. This review identifies a critical research gap for further evaluation of fermented foods in the management of depression anxiety in humans.

RevDate: 2018-11-11

Wang F, Men X, Zhang G, et al (2018)

Assessment of 16S rRNA gene primers for studying bacterial community structure and function of aging flue-cured tobaccos.

AMB Express, 8(1):182 pii:10.1186/s13568-018-0713-1.

Selection of optimal primer pairs in 16S rRNA gene sequencing is a pivotal issue in microorganism diversity analysis. However, limited effort has been put into investigation of specific primer sets for analysis of the bacterial diversity of aging flue-cured tobaccos (AFTs), as well as prediction of the function of the bacterial community. In this study, the performance of four primer pairs in determining bacterial community structure based on 16S rRNA gene sequences in AFTs was assessed, and the functions of genes were predicted using Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt). Results revealed that the primer set 799F-1193R covering the amplification region V5V6V7 gave a more accurate picture of the bacterial community structure of AFTs, with lower co-amplification levels of chloroplast and mitochondrial genes, and more genera covered than when using the other primers. In addition, functional gene prediction suggested that the microbiome of AFTs was involved in kinds of interested pathways. A high abundance of functional genes involved in nitrogen metabolism was detected in AFTs, reflecting a high level of bacteria involved in degrading harmful nitrogen compounds and generating nitrogenous nutrients for others. Additionally, the functional genes involved in biosynthesis of valuable metabolites and degradation of toxic compounds provided information that the AFTs possess a huge library of microorganisms and genes that could be applied to further studies. All of these findings provide a significance reference for researchers working on the bacterial diversity assessment of tobacco-related samples.

RevDate: 2018-11-11

Malfertheiner P, Venerito M, C Schulz (2018)

Helicobacter pylori Infection: New Facts in Clinical Management.

Current treatment options in gastroenterology pii:10.1007/s11938-018-0209-8 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The global prevalence of Helicobacter pylori remains high in spite of its significant downwards trajectory in many regions. The clinical management of H. pylori infection merits guidance to meet ongoing challenges on whom and how to test, prevent, and cure related diseases.

RECENT FINDINGS: Several international guidelines and consensus reports have updated the management strategies for cure of the H. pylori infection. The definition of H. pylori gastritis as an infectious disease independent of whether or not presenting with clinical manifestations and symptoms has broadened the use of the test and treat strategy. Patients on selected long-term medications, such as aspirin, other anti-platelet agents, NSAIDs, and PPIs should be considered for H. pylori test and treat. Important progress is made with initiatives in primary and secondary gastric cancer prevention. Uncertainties persist in the interpretation of the role of H. pylori in association with extragastric diseases. Selection of therapies needs to address individual antibiotic resistance and regional surveillance of resistance for the adoption of an effective treatment algorithm.

CONCLUSION: Clinical aspects of H. pylori infection have evolved over time and the therapeutic management requires continuous adaptation. A vaccine is still a non-fulfilled promise. The future will tell us more about the role of H. pylori in interactions with the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-11-11

Singh JP, Ojinnaka EU, Krumins JA, et al (2018)

Abiotic factors determine functional outcomes of microbial inoculation of soils from a metal contaminated brownfield.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 168:450-456 pii:S0147-6513(18)31133-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Whole community microbial inoculation can improve soil function in contaminated environments. Here we conducted a case study to investigate whether biotic factors (inoculum) or abiotic factors (soil base) have more impact on the extracellular enzymatic activities in a whole community microbial inoculation. To this end, we cross-inoculated microbial communities between two heavy metal-contaminated soils, with high and low extracellular enzyme activities, respectively. We measured extracellular phosphatase activity, a proxy for soil function, after self- and cross-inoculation of microbial communities into sterilized soils, and all activities were normalized to non-inoculated controls. We found that inoculation increased phosphatase activity in the soils. For soils treated with different inocula, we found significant differences in the microbial community compositions but no significant differences in the extracellular phosphatase activities normalized to their respective sterilized, non-inoculated controls (4.7 ± 1.8 and 3.3 ± 0.5 for soils inoculated with microbial communities from 146 to 43, respectively). On the other hand, normalized phosphatase activities between the two soil bases were significantly different (4.1 ± 0.12 and 1.9 ± 0.12 for soil bases 146 and 43, respectively) regardless of the source of the inoculum that did not vary between soil bases. The results indicate that the abiotic properties of the soils were a significant predictor for phosphatase activity but not for the end-point composition of the microbial community. The findings suggest that targeted microbial inocula from metal contaminated soils can increase phosphatase activity, and likely soil functioning in general, but the degree to which this happens depends on the abiotic environment, in this case, metal contamination.

RevDate: 2018-11-11

Davison JM, PE Wischmeyer (2018)

Probiotic and synbiotic therapy in the critically ill: State of the art.

Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 59:29-36 pii:S0899-9007(18)30336-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent medical history has largely viewed our bacterial symbionts as pathogens to be eradicated rather than as essential partners in optimal health. However, one of the most exciting scientific advances in recent years has been the realization that commensal microorganisms (our microbiome) play vital roles in human physiology in nutrition, vitamin synthesis, drug metabolism, protection against infection, and recovery from illness. Recent data show that loss of "health-promoting" microbes and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (dysbiosis) in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) appears to contribute to nosocomial infections, sepsis, and poor outcomes. Dysbiosis results from many factors, including ubiquitous antibiotic use and altered nutrition delivery in illness. Despite modern antibiotic therapy, infections and mortality from often multidrug-resistant organisms are increasing. This raises the question of whether restoration of a healthy microbiome via probiotics or synbiotics (probiotic and prebiotic combinations) to intervene on ubiquitous ICU dysbiosis would be an optimal intervention in critical illness to prevent infection and to improve recovery. This review will discuss recent innovative experimental data illuminating mechanistic pathways by which probiotics and synbiotics may provide clinical benefit. Furthermore, a review of recent clinical data demonstrating that probiotics and synbiotics can reduce complications in ICU and other populations will be undertaken. Overall, growing data for probiotic and symbiotic therapy reveal a need for definitive clinical trials of these therapies, as recently performed in healthy neonates. Future studies should target administration of probiotics and synbiotics with known mechanistic benefits to improve patient outcomes. Optimally, future probiotic and symbiotic studies will be conducted using microbiome signatures to characterize actual ICU dysbiosis and determine, and perhaps even personalize, ideal probiotic and symbiotic therapies.

RevDate: 2018-11-10

Valdes AM, C Menni (2018)

Inflammatory markers and mediators in heart disease.

Aging pii:101640 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-11-10

Cześnikiewicz-Guzik M, Nosalski R, Mikolajczyk TP, et al (2018)

Th1 type immune responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis antigens exacerbate Angiotensin II dependent hypertension and vascular dysfunction.

British journal of pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Emerging evidence indicates that hypertension is mediated by immune mechanisms. We hypothesized that exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis antigens, commonly encountered in periodontal disease, can enhance immune activation in hypertension and exacerbate blood pressure elevation, vascular inflammation and vascular dysfunction.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Th1 immune response were elicited through immunizations using Porphyromonas gingivalis lysate antigens (10ug) conjugated with aluminium oxide (50ug) and IL-12 (1ug). The hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction evoked by sub-pressor doses of Angiotensin II (0.25mg/kg/day) were studied and vascular inflammation was quantified by flow cytometry and real time polymerase chain reaction.

KEY RESULTS: Systemic T cell activation, characteristic for hypertension, was exacerbated by P. gingivalis antigen stimulations. This translated into increased aortic vascular inflammation with enhanced leukocytes, in particular, T cell and macrophage infiltration. Expression of the Th1 cytokines, Interferon-γ and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α and the transcription factor TBX21 was increased in aortas of P. gingivalis/Interleukin-12/aluminium oxide immunized mice, while IL-4 and TGF-β were unchanged. These immune changes in mice with induced T helper type 1 immune responses were associated with enhanced blood pressure elevation and endothelial dysfunction compared to control mice in response to two weeks infusion of a sub-pressor dose of Angiotensin II.

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: These studies support the concept that Th1 immune responses induced by bacterial antigens such as P. gingivalis can increase sensitivity to sub-pressor pro-hypertensive insults such as low dose Angiotensin II, therefore providing a mechanistic link between chronic infection such as periodontitis and hypertension.

RevDate: 2018-11-10

Mullaney TG, Lam D, Kluger R, et al (2018)

Randomized controlled trial of probiotic use for post-colonoscopy symptoms.

ANZ journal of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of bloating, discomfort and altered bowel function persist post-colonoscopy in up to 20% of patients. A previous randomized controlled trial of probiotics for post-colonoscopy symptoms has demonstrated a reduction in duration of pain with the use of probiotics. This was performed with air insufflation and the question was asked whether the effect would persist with the use of carbon dioxide to insufflate the colon.

METHODS: Eligible patients were recruited and randomized to receive either probiotic or placebo capsules post colonoscopy. A questionnaire was completed documenting the presence of pre-procedural and post-procedural symptoms for the following 2 weeks. The results were entered into a database and processed by an independent statistician. The primary outcome was mean pain score and incidence of bloating over the first 7 days and at 14 days post procedure. The secondary outcome was the time to return of normal bowel function.

RESULTS: Two hundred and forty participants were recruited and randomized (120 probiotic and 120 placebo). Data were available for 75 patients in the probiotic and 75 in the placebo group. There was no significant difference between groups in post-procedural discomfort, bloating nor time to return of normal bowel function. Subgroup analysis of the patients with preexisting symptoms showed a reduction in incidence of bloating with the use of probiotics.

CONCLUSION: There may be a role for the use of probiotics in the subgroup of patients with preexisting symptoms; however, routine use of probiotics to ameliorate post-procedural symptoms of carbon dioxide insufflation colonoscopy cannot be advocated.

RevDate: 2018-11-10

Bosch TCG (2019)

Hydra as Model to Determine the Role of FOXO in Longevity.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1890:231-238.

In non-senescent Hydra, continuously high activity of transcription factor FOXO contributes to continuous stem cell proliferation. Here, we describe how genetic manipulation of Hydra polyps using embryo-microinjection allows uncovering the role of FOXO in coordinating both stem cell proliferation and antimicrobial peptide0073 , effector molecules of the innate immune system, and regulators of the microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-11-10

Tuncil YE, Thakkar RD, Marcia ADR, et al (2018)

Divergent short-chain fatty acid production and succession of colonic microbiota arise in fermentation of variously-sized wheat bran fractions.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16655 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-34912-8.

Though the physical structuring of insoluble dietary fiber sources may strongly impact their processing by microbiota in the colon, relatively little mechanistic information exists to explain how these aspects affect microbial fiber fermentation. Here, we hypothesized that wheat bran fractions varying in size would be fermented differently by gut microbiota, which would lead to size-dependent differences in metabolic fate (as short-chain fatty acids; SCFAs) and community structure. To test this hypothesis, we performed an in vitro fermentation assay in which wheat bran particles from a single source were separated by sieving into five size fractions and inoculated with fecal microbiota from three healthy donors. SCFA production, measured by gas chromatography, uncovered size fraction-dependent relationships between total SCFAs produced as well as the molar ratios of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that these size-dependent metabolic outcomes were accompanied by the development of divergent microbial community structures. We further linked these distinct results to subtle, size-dependent differences in chemical composition. These results suggest that physical context can drive differences in microbiota composition and function, that fiber-microbiota interaction studies should consider size as a variable, and that manipulating the size of insoluble fiber-containing particles might be used to control gut microbiome composition and metabolic output.

RevDate: 2018-11-10

Poudel R, Jumpponen A, Kennelly MM, et al (2018)

Rootstocks shape the rhizobiome: Rhizosphere and endosphere bacterial communities in the grafted tomato system.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.01765-18 [Epub ahead of print].

Root-associated microbes are critical to plant health and performance, although understanding of the factors that structure these microbial communities and theory to predict microbial assemblages are still limited. Here we use a grafted tomato system to study the effects of rootstock genotypes and grafting in endosphere and rhizosphere microbiomes that were evaluated by sequencing 16S rRNA. We compared the microbiomes of nongrafted tomato cultivar BHN589, selfgrafted BHN589, and BHN589 grafted to Maxifort or RST-04-106 hybrid rootstocks. OTU-based bacterial diversity was greater in Maxifort compared to nongraft controls, whereas bacterial diversity in the controls (selfgraft and nongraft) and the other rootstock (RST-04-106) was similar. Grafting itself did not affect bacterial diversity; diversity in the selfgraft was similar to the nongraft. Bacterial diversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the endosphere for all treatments. However, despite the lower overall diversity, there was a greater number of differentially abundant OTUs (DAOTUs) in the endosphere, with the greatest number of DAOTUs associated with Maxifort. In a PERMANOVA analysis, there was evidence for an effect of rootstock genotype on bacterial communities. The endosphere-rhizosphere compartment and study site explained a high percentage of the differences among bacterial communities. Further analyses identified OTUs responsive to rootstock genotypes in both the endosphere and the rhizosphere. Our findings highlight the effects of rootstocks on bacterial diversity and composition. The influence of rootstock and plant compartment on microbial communities indicates opportunities for the development of designer communities and microbiome-based breeding to improve future crop production.IMPORTANCE Understanding factors that control microbial communities is essential for designing and supporting microbiome-based agriculture. In this study, we used a grafted tomato system to study the effect of rootstock genotypes and grafting on bacterial communities colonizing the endosphere and the rhizosphere. Comparing the bacterial communities in control treatments (nongraft and selfgraft plants) with the hybrid rootstocks used by farmers, we evaluated the effect of rootstocks on overall bacterial diversity and composition. These findings indicate the potential for using plant genotype to indirectly select bacterial taxa. In addition, we identify taxa responsive to each rootstock treatments, which may represent candidate taxa useful for biocontrol and in biofertilizers.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Nathani NM, Mootapally C, BP Dave (2018)

Antibiotic resistance genes allied to the pelagic sediment microbiome in the Gulf of Khambhat and Arabian Sea.

The Science of the total environment, 653:446-454 pii:S0048-9697(18)34309-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotics have been widely spread in the environments, imposing profound stress on the resistome of the residing microbes. Marine microbiomes are well established large reservoirs of novel antibiotics and corresponding resistance genes. The Gulf of Khambhat is known for its extreme tides and complex sedimentation process. We performed high throughput sequencing and applied bioinformatics techniques on pelagic sediment microbiome across four coordinates of the Gulf of Khambhat to assess the marine resistome, its corresponding bacterial community and compared with the open Arabian Sea sample. We identified a total of 2354 unique types of resistance genes, with most abundant and diverse gene profile in the area that had anthropogenic activities being carried out on-shore. The genes with >1% abundance in all samples included carA, macB, sav1866, tlrC, srmB, taeA, tetA, oleC and bcrA which belonged to the macrolides, glycopeptides and peptide drug classes. ARG enriched phyla distribution was quite varying between all the sites, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes among the dominant phyla. Based on the outcomes, we also propose potential biomarker candidates Desulfovibrio, Thermotaga and Pelobacter for antibiotic monitoring in the two of the Gulf samples probable contamination prone environments, and genera Nitrosocccus, Marinobacter and Streptomyces in the rest of the three studied samples. Outcomes support the concept that ARGs naturally originate in environments and human activities contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Lin C, Culver J, Weston B, et al (2018)

GutLogo: Agent-based modeling framework to investigate spatial and temporal dynamics in the gut microbiome.

PloS one, 13(11):e0207072 pii:PONE-D-18-16507.

Knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the gut microbiome is essential to understanding the state of human health, as over a hundred diseases have been correlated with changes in microbial populations. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of the microbiome and the limitations of in vivo and in vitro experiments, studying spatial and temporal dynamics of gut bacteria in a biological setting is extremely challenging. Thus, in silico experiments present an excellent alternative for studying such systems. In consideration of these issues, we have developed a user-friendly agent-based model, GutLogo, that captures the spatial and temporal development of four representative bacterial genera populations in the ileum. We demonstrate the utility of this model by simulating population responses to perturbations in flow rate, nutrition, and probiotics. While our model predicts distinct changes in population levels due to these perturbations, most of the simulations suggest that the gut populations will return to their original steady states once the disturbance is removed. We hope that, in the future, the GutLogo model is utilized and customized by interested parties, as GutLogo can serve as a basic modeling framework for simulating a variety of physiological scenarios and can be extended to capture additional complexities of interest.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Shah MS, DeSantis T, Yamal JM, et al (2018)

Re-purposing 16S rRNA gene sequence data from within case paired tumor biopsy and tumor-adjacent biopsy or fecal samples to identify microbial markers for colorectal cancer.

PloS one, 13(11):e0207002 pii:PONE-D-18-19231.

Microbes colonizing colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors have the potential to affect disease, and vice-versa. The manner in which they differ from microbes in physically adjacent tissue or stool within the case in terms of both, taxonomy and biological activity remains unclear. In this study, we systematically analyzed previously published 16S rRNA sequence data from CRC patients with matched tumor:tumor-adjacent biopsies (n = 294 pairs, n = 588 biospecimens) and matched tumor biopsy:fecal pairs (n = 42 pairs, n = 84 biospecimens). Procrustes analyses, random effects regression, random forest (RF) modeling, and inferred functional pathway analyses were conducted to assess community similarity and microbial diversity across heterogeneous patient groups and studies. Our results corroborate previously reported association of increased Fusobacterium with tumor biopsies. Parvimonas and Streptococcus abundances were also elevated while Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcaceae abundances decreased in tumors relative to tumor-adjacent biopsies and stool samples from the same case. With the exception of these limited taxa, the majority of findings from individual studies were not confirmed by other 16S rRNA gene-based datasets. RF models comparing tumor and tumor-adjacent specimens yielded an area under curve (AUC) of 64.3%, and models of tumor biopsies versus fecal specimens exhibited an AUC of 82.5%. Although some taxa were shared between fecal and tumor samples, their relative abundances varied substantially. Inferred functional analysis identified potential differences in branched amino acid and lipid metabolism. Microbial markers that reliably occur in tumor tissue can have implications for microbiome based and microbiome targeting therapeutics for CRC.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Taroncher-Oldenburg G, Jones S, Blaser M, et al (2018)

Translating microbiome futures.

Nature biotechnology, 36(11):1037-1042.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Kwak MJ, Kong HG, Choi K, et al (2018)

Author Correction: Rhizosphere microbiome structure alters to enable wilt resistance in tomato.

Nature biotechnology, 36(11):1117.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Sapountzis P, Nash DR, Schiøtt M, et al (2018)

The evolution of abdominal microbiomes in fungus-growing ants.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The attine ants are a monophyletic lineage that switched to fungus-farming ca. 55-60 MYA. They have become a model for the study of complex symbioses after additional fungal and bacterial symbionts were discovered, but their abdominal endosymbiotic bacteria remain largely unknown. Here we present a comparative microbiome analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria spanning the entire phylogenetic tree. We show that, across 17 representative sympatric species from eight genera sampled in Panama, abdominal microbiomes are dominated by Mollicutes, α- and γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Bacterial abundances increase from basal to crown branches in the phylogeny reflecting a shift towards putative specialized and abundant abdominal microbiota after the ants domesticated gongylidia-bearing cultivars, but before the origin of industrial-scale farming based on leaf-cutting herbivory. This transition coincided with the ancestral single colonization event of Central/North America ca. 20 MYA, documented in a recent phylogenomic study showing that the entire crown-group of the higher attine ants, including the leaf-cutting ants, evolved there and not in South America. Several bacterial species are located in gut tissues or abdominal organs of the evolutionarily derived, but not the basal attine ants. The composition of abdominal microbiomes appears to be affected by the presence/absence of defensive antibiotic-producing actinobacterial biofilms on the worker ants' cuticle, but the significance of this association remains unclear. The patterns of diversity, abundance, and sensitivity of the abdominal microbiomes that we obtained explore novel territory in the comparative analysis of attine fungus-farming symbioses and raise new questions for further in-depth research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2018-11-09

Dror H, Novak L, Evans JS, et al (2018)

Core and Dynamic Microbial Communities of Two Invasive Ascidians: Can Host-Symbiont Dynamics Plasticity Affect Invasion Capacity?.

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-018-1276-z [Epub ahead of print].

Ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea) are considered to be prominent marine invaders, able to tolerate highly polluted environments and fluctuations in salinity and temperature. Here, we examined the seasonal and spatial dynamics of the microbial communities in the inner-tunic of two invasive ascidians, Styela plicata (Lesueur 1823) and Herdmania momus (Savigny 1816), in order to investigate the changes that occur in the microbiome of non-indigenous ascidians in different environments. Microbial communities were characterized using next-generation sequencing of partial (V4) 16S rRNA gene sequences. A clear differentiation between the ascidian-associated microbiome and bacterioplankton was observed, and two distinct sets of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), one core and the other dynamic, were recovered from both species. The relative abundance of the dynamic OTUs in H. momus was higher than in S. plicata, for which core OTU structure was maintained independently of location. Ten and seventeen core OTUs were identified in S. plicata and H. momus, respectively, including taxa with reported capabilities of carbon fixing, ammonia oxidization, denitrification, and heavy-metal processing. The ascidian-sourced dynamic OTUs clustered in response to site and season but significantly differed from the bacterioplankton community structure. These findings suggest that the associations between invasive ascidians and their symbionts may enhance host functionality while maintaining host adaptability to changing environmental conditions.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

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