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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 May 2024 at 01:53 Created: 

Microbiome

It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-05-19

Tang Y, Lin TC, Yang H, et al (2024)

High-fat diet during early life reshapes the gut microbiome and is associated with the disrupted mammary microenvironment in later life in mice.

Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.), 127:1-12 pii:S0271-5317(24)00064-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The influence of gut microbiota on gut health is well-documented, but it remains obscure for extraintestinal diseases such as breast cancer. Moreover, it is entirely unknown how gut dysbiosis during early life contributes to breast tumorigenesis later in life. In this study, we hypothesized that a high-fat diet during early life leads to alterations in the gut microbiome and is associated with disruptions in the mammary microenvironment. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (10% kcal fat) or a high-fat diet (HF, 60% kcal fat) for 8 weeks from the age of 4 to 12 weeks, which is equivalent to human childhood and adolescence. Twelve mice were sacrificed immediately after the 8-week feeding, the remainder were euthanized after switching to a normal lifecycle-supporting diet for an additional 12 weeks; the gut microbiome was then sequenced. The 8-week HF diet feeding altered the beta-diversity (Bray & Jaccard P < .01), and the difference remained significant after switching the diet (Bray & Jaccard P < .05). Immediately after HF feeding, a greater number of microbial taxa (>50) were altered, and about half of the taxa (25) remained significantly changed after switching the diet. The abundance of Alistipes, Bilophila, and Rikenellaceae stood out as significantly associated with multiple metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in mammary tissue, including aromatase, Ccl2, and Cox2. In conclusion, an 8-week early-life HF feeding reshaped the gut microbiome, which connected with disrupted mammary microenvironments.

RevDate: 2024-05-19

Jiang Y, Zhang Z, Jiang J, et al (2024)

Enhancement of nitrogen on core taxa recruitment by Penicillium oxalicum stimulated microbially-driven soil formation in bauxite residue.

Journal of hazardous materials, 473:134647 pii:S0304-3894(24)01226-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbially-driven soil formation process is an emerging technology for the ecological rehabilitation of alkaline tailings. However, the dominant microorganisms and their specific roles in soil formation processes remain unknown. Herein, a 1-year field-scale experiment was applied to demonstrate the effect of nitrogen input on the structure and function of the microbiome in alkaline bauxite residue. Results showed that the contents of nutrient components were increased with Penicillium oxalicum (P. oxalicum) incorporation, as indicated by the increasing of carbon and nitrogen mineralization and enzyme metabolic efficiency. Specifically, the increasing enzyme metabolic efficiency was associated with nitrogen input, which shaped the microbial nutrient acquisition strategy. Subsequently, we evidenced that P. oxalicum played a significant role in shaping the assemblages of core bacterial taxa and influencing ecological functioning through intra- and cross-kingdom network analysis. Furthermore, a recruitment experiment indicated that nitrogen enhanced the enrichment of core microbiota (Nitrosomonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Saccharomyces) and may provide benefits to fungal community bio-diversity and microbial network stability. Collectively, these results demonstrated nitrogen-based coexistence patterns among P. oxalicum and microbiome and revealed P. oxalicum-mediated nutrient dynamics and ecophysiological adaptations in alkaline microhabitats. It will aid in promoting soil formation and ecological rehabilitation of bauxite residue. ENVIRONMENT IMPLICATION: Bauxite residue is a highly alkaline solid waste generated during the Bayer process for producing alumina. Attempting to transform bauxite residue into a stable soil-like substrate using low-cost microbial resources is a highly promising engineering. However, the dominant microorganisms and their specific roles in soil formation processes remain unknown. In this study, we evidenced the nitrogen-based coexistence patterns among Penicillium oxalicum and microbiome and revealed Penicillium oxalicum-mediated nutrient dynamics and ecophysiological adaptations in alkaline microhabitats. This study can improve the understanding of core microbes' assemblies that affect the microbiome physiological traits in soil formation processes.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Motta H, Reuwsaat JCV, Lopes FC, et al (2024)

Comparative microbiome analysis in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

Respiratory research, 25(1):211.

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a condition characterized by abnormal and irreversible bronchial dilation resulting from lung tissue damage and can be categorized into two main groups: cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB). Both diseases are marked by recurrent infections, inflammatory exacerbations, and lung damage. Given that infections are the primary drivers of disease progression, characterization of the respiratory microbiome can shed light on compositional alterations and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs in these cases compared to healthy individuals.

METHODS: To assess the microbiota in the two studied diseases, 35 subjects were recruited, comprising 10 NCFB and 13 CF patients and 12 healthy individuals. Nasopharyngeal swabs and induced sputum were collected, and total DNA was extracted. The DNA was then sequenced by the shotgun method and evaluated using the SqueezeMeta pipeline and R.

RESULTS: We observed reduced species diversity in both disease cohorts, along with distinct microbial compositions and profiles of antimicrobial resistance genes, compared to healthy individuals. The nasopharynx exhibited a consistent microbiota composition across all cohorts. Enrichment of members of the Burkholderiaceae family and an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in the CF cohort emerged as key distinguishing factors compared to NCFB group. Staphylococcus aureus and Prevotella shahii also presented differential abundance in the CF and NCFB cohorts, respectively, in the lower respiratory tract. Considering antimicrobial resistance, a high number of genes related to antibiotic efflux were detected in both disease groups, which correlated with the patient's clinical data.

CONCLUSIONS: Bronchiectasis is associated with reduced microbial diversity and a shift in microbial and resistome composition compared to healthy subjects. Despite some similarities, CF and NCFB present significant differences in microbiome composition and antimicrobial resistance profiles, suggesting the need for customized management strategies for each disease.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Brodtmann A, Billett A, Telfer R, et al (2024)

ZOom Delivered Intervention Against Cognitive decline (ZODIAC) COVID-19 pandemic adaptations to the Post-Ischaemic Stroke Cardiovascular Exercise Study (PISCES): protocol for a randomised controlled trial of remotely delivered fitness training for brain health.

Trials, 25(1):329.

BACKGROUND: Stroke increases subsequent dementia risk yet there are no specific post-stroke therapies to protect cognition. Cardiorespiratory exercise is recommended for secondary prevention of stroke and may be neuroprotective. The Post Ischaemic Stroke Cardiovascular Exercise Study (PISCES) aims to reduce post-stroke secondary neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. During the pandemic, we pivoted to a ZOom Delivered Intervention Against Cognitive decline (ZODIAC) protocol, reducing pandemic-amplified barriers to exercise.

METHODS: We present pandemic adaptions for a multicentre phase IIb assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial of ischaemic stroke survivors testing the efficacy and feasibility of an 8-week home-based exercise intervention delivered at 2 months post-stroke. We compare cardiorespiratory exercise (intervention arm) versus balance and stretching (active control arm). Participants are assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fitness, blood, microbiome, and neuropsychological tests at three study visits: before and after the exercise intervention and at 12 months. Modifications to the original protocol include pre-exercise safety home visits, commercial delivery of exercise equipment to facilitate assessor blinding, and reconsideration of statistical plan to allow pooling of the studies. We have reduced in-person study visits from 27 to 3. Primary outcome remains between-group (intervention versus control) difference in brain volume change; secondary outcome is between-group difference in global cognitive ability to allow remote administration of a validated cognitive scale.

DISCUSSION: Remotely delivered exercise interventions reduce participant burden and may reduce barriers to recruitment. A decrease in the number of in-person study visits can be supported by greater information capture via self-reported questionnaires and phone surveys.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively ACTRN12616000942459. Registered on July 2016.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Min K, Glowacki AJ, Bosma ML, et al (2024)

Quantitative analysis of the effects of essential oil mouthrinses on clinical plaque microbiome: a parallel-group, randomized trial.

BMC oral health, 24(1):578.

BACKGROUND: The rich diversity of microorganisms in the oral cavity plays an important role in the maintenance of oral health and development of detrimental oral health conditions. Beyond commonly used qualitative microbiome metrics, such as relative proportions or diversity, both the species-level identification and quantification of bacteria are key to understanding clinical disease associations. This study reports the first-time application of an absolute quantitative microbiome analysis using spiked DNA standards and shotgun metagenome sequencing to assess the efficacy and safety of product intervention on dental plaque microbiome.

METHODS: In this parallel-group, randomized clinical trial, essential oil mouthrinses, including LISTERINE® Cool Mint Antiseptic (LCM), an alcohol-containing prototype mouthrinse (ACPM), and an alcohol-free prototype mouthrinse (AFPM), were compared against a hydroalcohol control rinse on clinical parameters and the oral microbiome of subjects with moderate gingivitis. To enable a sensitive and clinically meaningful measure of bacterial abundances, species were categorized according to their associations with oral conditions based on published literature and quantified using known amounts of spiked DNA standards.

RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that both LCM and ACPM shifted the dysbiotic microbiome composition of subjects with gingivitis to a healthier state after 4 weeks of twice-daily use, resembling the composition of subjects with clinically healthy oral conditions recruited for observational reference comparison at baseline. The essential oil-containing mouthrinses evaluated in this study showed statistically significant reductions in clinical gingivitis and plaque measurements when compared to the hydroalcohol control rinse after 6 weeks of use.

CONCLUSIONS: By establishing a novel quantitative method for microbiome analysis, this study sheds light on the mechanisms of LCM mouthrinse efficacy on oral microbial ecology, demonstrating that repeated usage non-selectively resets a gingivitis-like oral microbiome toward that of a healthy oral cavity.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 10/06/2021. The registration number is NCT04921371.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Rani D, Kaur S, Shahjahan , et al (2024)

Engineering immune response to regulate cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Advances in protein chemistry and structural biology, 140:381-417.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are major contributors to global morbidity and mortality. This book chapter delves into the intricate relationship between the immune system and the pathogenesis of both cardiovascular and cancer diseases, exploring the roles of innate and adaptive immunities, immune regulation, and immunotherapy in these complex conditions. The innate immune system acts as the first line of defense against tissue damage and infection, with a significant impact on the initiation and progression of CVD and cancer. Endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark in CVD, shares commonalities with the tumor microenvironment in cancer, emphasizing the parallel involvement of the immune system in both conditions. The adaptive immune system, particularly T cells, contributes to prolonged inflammation in both CVD and cancer. Regulatory T cells and the intricate balance between different T cell subtypes influence disease progression, wound healing, and the outcomes of ischemic injury and cancer immunosurveillance. Dysregulation of immune homeostasis can lead to chronic inflammation, contributing to the development and progression of both CVD and cancer. Thus, immunotherapy emerged as a promising avenue for preventing and managing these diseases, with strategies targeting immune cell modulation, cytokine manipulation, immune checkpoint blockade, and tolerance induction. The impact of gut microbiota on CVD and cancer too is explored in this chapter, highlighting the role of gut leakiness, microbial metabolites, and the potential for microbiome-based interventions in cardiovascular and cancer immunotherapies. In conclusion, immunomodulatory strategies and immunotherapy hold promise in reshaping the landscape of cardiovascular and cancer health. Additionally, harnessing the gut microbiota for immune modulation presents a novel approach to prevent and manage these complex diseases, emphasizing the importance of personalized and precision medicine in healthcare. Ongoing research and clinical trials are expected to further elucidate the complex immunological underpinnings of CVD and cancer thereby refining these innovative approaches.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Zhang J, He J, Liao Y, et al (2024)

Genetic association between gut microbiome and blood pressure and blood cell count as mediator: A two-step Mendelian randomization analysis.

Gene pii:S0378-1119(24)00454-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established a genetic link between gut microbiota and hypertension, but whether blood cell count plays a mediating role in this remains unknown. This study aims to explore genetic associations and causal factors involving the gut microbiome, peripheral blood cell count, and blood pressure.

METHODS: We utilized summary statistics derived from genome-wide association studies to conduct a two-sample mediation Mendelian randomization analysis (https://gwas.mrcieu.ac.uk/). We applied inverse variance weighted (IVW) estimation method as the primary method, along with MR Egger, Weighted median, Simple mode and Weighted mode as complementary methods. To ensure the robustness of the results, several sensitivity analyses were conducted.

RESULTS: Genetic variants significantly associated with the microbiome, blood pressure, or peripheral blood cell counts were selected as instrumental variables. Fourteen microbial taxa were found to have suggestive associations with diastolic blood pressure (DBP), while fifteen microbial taxa showed suggestive associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP). Meanwhile, red blood cell count, lymphocyte count, and platelet count were identified to mediate the influence of the gut microbiome on blood pressure. Specifically, red cell count was identified to mediate the effects of the phylum Cyanobacteria on DBP (mediated proportion: 8.262 %). Lymphocyte count was found mediate the effects of the genus Subdoligranulum (mediated proportion: 2.642 %) and genus Collinsella (mediated proportion: 2.749 %) on SBP. Additionally, platelet count was found to mediate the relationship between the genus Eubacterium ventriosum group and SBP, explaining 3.421 % of the mediated proportion.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted that gut microbiota may have causal influence on the blood pressure by modulating blood cell counts, which sheds new light on the pathogenesis and potential clinical interventions through the intricate axis of gut microbiome, blood cell counts, and blood pressure.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Hülpüsch C, Rohayem R, Reiger M, et al (2024)

Exploring the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis pathogenesis and disease modification.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(24)00501-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory skin diseases, like atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis, AD), affect children and adults globally. In AD, the skin barrier is impaired on multiple levels. Underlying factors include genetic, chemical, immunological, and microbial components. Increased skin pH in AD is part of the altered microbial microenvironment that promotes overgrowth of the skin microbiome with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The secretion of virulence factors, like toxins and proteases, by S. aureus further aggravates the skin barrier deficiency and additionally off-balances the already skewed immune response. Skin commensal bacteria, however, can inhibit the growth and pathogenicity of S. aureus through quorum sensing systems. Therefore, restoring a healthy skin microbiome could contribute to remission induction in AD. This review discusses direct and indirect approaches to targeting the skin microbiome through modulation of the skin pH, UV treatment, and pre-, pro-, and postbiotics. Furthermore, exploratory techniques like skin microbiome transplantation, ozone therapy, and phage therapy are discussed. Finally, we summarize the latest findings on disease and microbiome modification through targeted immunomodulatory, systemic treatments and biologicals. We believe that targeting the skin microbiome should be considered a crucial component of successful AD treatment in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Przemieniecki SW, Kalisz B, Katzer J, et al (2024)

Effect of vermicompost on rhizobiome and the growth of wheat on Martian regolith simulant.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03446-6 [Epub ahead of print].

As humanity embarks on the journey to establish permanent colonies on Mars, ensuring a reliable source of sustenance will be crucial. Therefore, detailed studies regarding crop cultivation using Martian simulants are of great importance. This study aimed to grow wheat on substrates based on soil and Martian simulants, with the addition of vermicompost, to investigate the differences in wheat development. Basic physical and chemical properties of substrates were examined, including determination of macro- and microelements as well as their microbiological properties. Plant growth parameters were also determined. The addition of vermicompost positively affected wheat grown on soil, but the effect on plants grown on substrate with Martian simulants was negligible. Comparing the microbiological and chemical components, it was observed that plants can defend themselves against the negative effects of growth on the Martian simulants, but their success depends on having the PGPR (Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) present, which can provide the plant with additional nitrogen. The presence of beneficial symbiotic microbiota will allow the wheat to wait out the negative growth time rather than adapt to the regolith environment.

RevDate: 2024-05-19

Chen L, Qin X, Wang G, et al (2024)

Oxygen influences spatial heterogeneity and microbial succession dynamics during Baijiu stacking process.

Bioresource technology, 403:130854 pii:S0960-8524(24)00557-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The spontaneous solid-state stacking process (SSSP) of Baijiu is an environmentally friendly and cost-effective process for enriching and assembling environmental microorganisms to guarantee the subsequent fermentation efficiency. In this study, how SSSP create spatial heterogeneity of stacking piles were found through spatiotemporal sampling. The degree of difficulty in oxygen exchange categorizes the stacking pile into depleted (≤4%), transitional (4 %-17 %), and enriched (≥17 %) oxygen-defined layers. This results in variation in succession rates (Vdepleted > Vtransitional > Venriched), which accelerates spatial heterogeneity during SSSP. As a dominant species (65 %-99 %) in depleted and transitional layers, Acetilactobacillus jinshanensis can rapidly reduce oxygen disturbance by upregulating poxL and catE, that sustains spatial heterogeneity. The findings demonstrated the value of oxygen control in shaping spatial heterogeneity during SSSP processes, which can create specific functional microbiome. Adding spatial heterogeneity management will help achieve more precise control of such solid-state fermentation systems.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Zhang Y, Liu Y, Jiao S, et al (2024)

Short-term supplementation with uncoated and encapsulated Enterococcus faecium affected growth performance, gut microbiome and intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens.

Poultry science, 103(7):103808 pii:S0032-5791(24)00387-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is an alternative to antibiotics, while the probiotic effect of short-term application in mature broiler chickens remains unclear. In the current study, 48 Arbor Acres male broilers were chosen to investigate the effects of E. faecium on growth performance, the gut microbiome and intestinal health during the finishing period. Forty-eight birds were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups that were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (Con), a basal diet supplemented with 1 g/kg amoxicillin (ABX), 5×10[6] CFU/g encapsulated E. faecium (cEF), or 5×10[6] CFU/g uncoated E. faecium (EF) from d 33 to 42. The results showed that 10 d of antibiotic treatment decreased the growth performance of the broilers (P < 0.05). The feed conversion ratio of the cEF and EF groups were lower than that of the Con group by 0.13 and 0.07, respectively (P > 0.05). The abundance of viable ileal and cecal E. faecium in the cEF group was greater than that in the EF group (P < 0.05), and both groups were markedly greater than those in the Con and ABX groups (P < 0.05). The ABX treatment decreased the Shannon and Chao1 indices of the cecal microbiota, while the dietary E. faecium treatment resulted in significant differences in the β diversity of the ileal and cecal microbiota (P < 0.05). Mantel correlation revealed that the ileal microbiota at the genus level was significantly correlated with the growth performance of broilers, with Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Escherichia-Shigella showing positive and strong correlations (P < 0.05). In the ileum, the crypt depth was lower in the cEF group than in the Con group, but the villi height-to-crypt depth ratio was greater in the cEF group than in the other groups (P = 0.037). However, the expression of the ZO-2 and Occludin genes was downregulated in the E. faecium-fed birds (P < 0.05). In the cecum, the acetate, butyrate and total SCFA levels were greater in the EF group (P < 0.05), while the propionate, isobutyrate and isovalerate levels were lower in the ABX group (P < 0.05). In summary, 10 d of dietary supplementation with E. faecium markedly increased colonization in mature broilers and potentially improved growth performance by modulating the ileal microbiota. Encapsulation techniques could enable a slow release of E. faecium in the intestine, thereby reducing the negative impacts of rapid expansion of E. faecium on the intestinal epithelium.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Cong J, Wu J, Fang Y, et al (2024)

Application of organoid technology in the human health risk assessment of microplastics: A review of progresses and challenges.

Environment international, 188:108744 pii:S0160-4120(24)00330-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastic (MP) pollution has become a global environmental issue, and increasing concern has been raised about its impact on human health. Current studies on the toxic effects and mechanisms of MPs have mostly been conducted in animal models or in vitro cell cultures, which have limitations regarding inter-species differences or stimulation of cellular functions. Organoid technology derived from human pluripotent or adult stem cells has broader prospects for predicting the potential health risks of MPs to humans. Herein, we reviewed the current application advancements and opportunities for different organoids, including brain, retinal, intestinal, liver, and lung organoids, to assess the human health risks of MPs. Organoid techniques accurately simulate the complex processes of MPs and reflect phenotypes related to diseases caused by MPs such as liver fibrosis, neurodegeneration, impaired intestinal barrier and cardiac hypertrophy. Future perspectives were also proposed for technological innovation in human risk assessment of MPs using organoids, including extending the lifespan of organoids to assess the chronic toxicity of MPs, and reconstructing multi-organ interactions to explore their potential in studying the microbiome-gut-brainaxis effect of MPs.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Djusse ME, Gaspari V, Morselli S, et al (2024)

Antimicrobial resistance determinants in the oropharyngeal microbiome of 'men having sex with men' attending an sexually transmitted infection clinic.

International journal of STD & AIDS [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: 'Men having sex with men' (MSM) represent a key population with a significant prevalence of pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections and a high rate of antimicrobial resistance genes in the pharyngeal microbiome. As NG can acquire antibiotic resistance genes from other commensal oropharyngeal bacteria, monitoring the prevalence of these resistance determinants is critical to curtail the spread of NG-resistant strains.

PURPOSE AND RESEARCH DESIGN: Here, we assessed the distribution of five resistance genes (pen (A), mtr (R), gyr (A), par (C), msr (D)) in the oropharynx of 164 MSM, attending an Outpatient clinic for STI screening.

RESULTS: The most frequently detected resistance gene was msr (D) (88.4%), followed by gyr (A) (67.1%). The distribution of resistance genes was not influenced by pharyngeal gonorrhea nor by the HIV status, whereas a younger age was associated with mtr (R) presence (p = .008). Subjects using mouthwash exhibited significantly lower levels of mtr (R) (p = .0005). Smoking habit was associated with a higher prevalence of par (C) (p = .02). A noteworthy association was observed between the presence of msr (D) gene and the use of antibiotics (p = .014).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal an enrichment of antimicrobial resistance genes in the oropharynx of MSM. These insights could aid in the development of screening programs and antimicrobial stewardship initiatives targeting populations at heightened risk of pharyngeal gonorrhea.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Laue HE, Bonham KS, Coker MO, et al (2024)

Prospective association of the infant gut microbiome with social behaviors in the ECHO consortium.

Molecular autism, 15(1):21.

BACKGROUND: Identifying modifiable risk factors of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may inform interventions to reduce financial burden. The infant/toddler gut microbiome is one such feature that has been associated with social behaviors, but results vary between cohorts. We aimed to identify consistent overall and sex-specific associations between the early-life gut microbiome and autism-related behaviors.

METHODS: Utilizing the Environmental influences on Children Health Outcomes (ECHO) consortium of United States (U.S.) pediatric cohorts, we gathered data on 304 participants with fecal metagenomic sequencing between 6-weeks to 2-years postpartum (481 samples). ASD-related social development was assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2). Linear regression, PERMANOVA, and Microbiome Multivariable Association with Linear Models (MaAsLin2) were adjusted for sociodemographic factors. Stratified models estimated sex-specific effects.

RESULTS: Genes encoding pathways for synthesis of short-chain fatty acids were associated with higher SRS-2 scores, indicative of ASDs. Fecal concentrations of butyrate were also positively associated with ASD-related SRS-2 scores, some of which may be explained by formula use.

LIMITATIONS: The distribution of age at outcome assessment differed in the cohorts included, potentially limiting comparability between cohorts. Stool sample collection methods also differed between cohorts. Our study population reflects the general U.S. population, and thus includes few participants who met the criteria for being at high risk of developing ASD.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study is among the first multicenter studies in the U.S. to describe prospective microbiome development from infancy in relation to neurodevelopment associated with ASDs. Our work contributes to clarifying which microbial features associate with subsequent diagnosis of neuropsychiatric outcomes. This will allow for future interventional research targeting the microbiome to change neurodevelopmental trajectories.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Min K, Bosma ML, John G, et al (2024)

Quantitative analysis of the effects of brushing, flossing, and mouthrinsing on supragingival and subgingival plaque microbiota: 12-week clinical trial.

BMC oral health, 24(1):575.

BACKGROUND: Translational microbiome research using next-generation DNA sequencing is challenging due to the semi-qualitative nature of relative abundance data. A novel method for quantitative analysis was applied in this 12-week clinical trial to understand the mechanical vs. chemotherapeutic actions of brushing, flossing, and mouthrinsing against the supragingival dental plaque microbiome. Enumeration of viable bacteria using vPCR was also applied on supragingival plaque for validation and on subgingival plaque to evaluate interventional effects below the gingival margin.

METHODS: Subjects with gingivitis were enrolled in a single center, examiner-blind, virtually supervised, parallel group controlled clinical trial. Subjects with gingivitis were randomized into brushing only (B); brushing and flossing (BF); brushing and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Antiseptic (BA); brushing and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Zero (BZ); or brushing, flossing, and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Zero (BFZ). All subjects brushed twice daily for 1 min with a sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush. Subjects who flossed used unflavored waxed dental floss once daily. Subjects assigned to mouthrinses rinsed twice daily. Plaque specimens were collected at the baseline visit and after 4 and 12 weeks of intervention. Bacterial cell number quantification was achieved by adding reference amounts of DNA controls to plaque samples prior to DNA extraction, followed by shallow shotgun metagenome sequencing.

RESULTS: 286 subjects completed the trial. The metagenomic data for supragingival plaque showed significant reductions in Shannon-Weaver diversity, species richness, and total and categorical bacterial abundances (commensal, gingivitis, and malodor) after 4 and 12 weeks for the BA, BZ, and BFZ groups compared to the B group, while no significant differences were observed between the B and BF groups. Supragingival plaque vPCR further validated these results, and subgingival plaque vPCR demonstrated significant efficacy for the BFZ intervention only.

CONCLUSIONS: This publication reports on a successful application of a quantitative method of microbiome analysis in a clinical trial demonstrating the sustained and superior efficacy of essential oil mouthrinses at controlling dental plaque compared to mechanical methods. The quantitative microbiological data in this trial also reinforce the safety and mechanism of action of EO mouthrinses against plaque microbial ecology and highlights the importance of elevating EO mouthrinsing as an integral part of an oral hygiene regimen.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 31/10/2022. The registration number is NCT05600231.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Li S, Li X, Ye Y, et al (2024)

The rhizosphere microbiome and its influence on the accumulation of metabolites in Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):409.

BACKGROUND: Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (B. striata) is a perennial herbaceous plant in the Orchidaceae family known for its diverse pharmacological activities, such as promoting wound healing, hemostasis, anti-inflammatory effects, antioxidant properties, and immune regulation. Nevertheless, the microbe-plant-metabolite regulation patterns for B. striata remain largely undetermined, especially in the field of rhizosphere microbes. To elucidate the interrelationships between soil physics and chemistry and rhizosphere microbes and metabolites, a comprehensive approach combining metagenome analysis and targeted metabolomics was employed to investigate the rhizosphere soil and tubers from four provinces and eight production areas in China.

RESULTS: Our study reveals that the core rhizosphere microbiome of B. striata is predominantly comprised of Paraburkholderia, Methylibium, Bradyrhizobium, Chitinophaga, and Mycobacterium. These microbial species are recognized as potentially beneficial for plants health. Comprehensive analysis revealed a significant association between the accumulation of metabolites, such as militarine and polysaccharides in B. striata and the composition of rhizosphere microbes at the genus level. Furthermore, we found that the soil environment indirectly influenced the metabolite profile of B. striata by affecting the composition of rhizosphere microbes. Notably, our research identifies soil organic carbon as a primary driving factor influencing metabolite accumulation in B. striata.

CONCLUSION: Our fndings contribute to an enhanced understanding of the comprehensive regulatory mechanism involving microbe-plant-metabolite interactions. This research provides a theoretical basis for the cultivation of high-quality traditional Chinese medicine B. striata.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Song MJ, Kim DH, Kim SY, et al (2024)

Comparison of the sputum microbiome between patients with stable nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease and patients requiring treatment.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):172.

BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether the sputum bacterial microbiome differs between nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) patients with stable disease not requiring antibiotic treatment and those requiring antibiotics.

METHODS: We collected sputum samples from 21 clinically stable NTM-PD patients (stable group) and 14 NTM-PD patients needing antibiotic treatment (treatment group). We also obtained 13 follow-up samples from the stable group. We analyzed the 48 samples using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V3-V4 region) and compared the groups.

RESULTS: In the linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analysis, the species Porphyromonas pasteri, Haemophilus parahaemolyticus, Prevotella nanceiensis, and Gemella haemolysans were significantly more prevalent in the sputum of the stable group compared to the treatment group. No taxa showed significant differences in alpha-/beta-diversity or LEfSe between the 21 baseline and 13 follow-up sputum samples in the stable group. In the stable group, the genus Bergeyella and species Prevotella oris were less common in patients who achieved spontaneous culture conversion (n = 9) compared to those with persistent NTM positivity (n = 12) (effect size 3.04, p = 0.039 for Bergeyella; effect size 3.64, p = 0.033 for P. oris). In the treatment group, H. parainfluenzae was more common in patients with treatment success (n = 7) than in treatment-refractory patients (n = 7) (effect size 4.74, p = 0.013).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified distinct bacterial taxa in the sputum of NTM-PD patients based on disease status. These results suggest the presence of a microbial environment that helps maintain disease stability.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

LaFata EM, Allison KC, Audrain-McGovern J, et al (2024)

Ultra-Processed Food Addiction: A Research Update.

Current obesity reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Detail recent advancements in the science on ultra-processed food (UPF) addiction, focusing on estimated prevalence rates and emerging health disparities; progress towards identifying biological underpinnings and behavioral mechanisms; and implications for weight management.

RECENT FINDINGS: Notable developments in the field have included: (1) estimating the global prevalence of UPF addiction at 14% of adults and 15% of youths; (2) revealing health disparities for persons of color and those with food insecurity; (3) observing altered functioning across the brain-gut-microbiome axis; (4) providing early evidence for UPF withdrawal; and (5) elucidating poorer weight management outcomes among persons with UPF addiction. The breadth of recent work on UPF addiction illustrates continued scientific and public interest in the construct and its implications for understanding and treating overeating behaviors and obesity. One pressing gap is the lack of targeted interventions for UPF addiction, which may result in more optimal clinical outcomes for this underserved population.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Wang J, Jiang C, Wang S, et al (2024)

Cohort profile of an early life observational cohort in China: Bone and MicroBiOme onset (BAMBOO) study.

BMJ open, 14(5):e075417.

PURPOSE: The Bone And MicroBiOme Onset (BAMBOO) study is an ongoing prospective observational cohort study conducted in Tianjin, China, aiming to determine age-appropriate trajectories for microbiome maturation and bone development and to identify the influence of dietary factors in the process.

PARTICIPANTS: The recruitment started in September 2021 and was completed in February 2023. A total of 1380 subjects were recruited, 690 at birth (group 1) and 690 at 6 months of age (group 2). Groups 1 and 2 will be followed up for 12 months and 36 months, respectively.

FINDINGS TO DATE: The age of the mothers was 31.1±3.7 (mean±SD), and the birth weight of infants was 3.3±0.5 kg with an incidence of caesarean section 50.4%. Food diary information of the first 100 subjects showed that 64 food items were introduced by 6 months. A pilot microbiome analysis revealed that at the species level, bacterial communities were composed of mostly Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides vulgatus and Escherichia coli, which were consistent with that of previous reports. Feasibility assessments of breast milk vitamin D and human milk oligosaccharides were validated through certified reference measurements. The early data assessment showed a high reliability of the data generated from this study.

FUTURE PLANS: Data collection will be completed in August 2025. Four stage-statistical analyses will be performed as the cohort reaches certain age thresholds before the final report. Analysis of BAMBOO data will be used to develop age-appropriate trajectories for microbiome maturation and bone development for children aged 0-3 years and investigate the contribution of dietary factors in the process.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2100049972.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Rauth S, Malafa M, Ponnusamy MP, et al (2024)

Emerging Trends in Gastrointestinal Cancer Targeted Therapies: Harnessing Tumor Microenvironment, Immune Factors, and Metabolomics Insights.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(24)04917-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of new cancer cases and cancer-related deaths worldwide. The treatment strategies for patients with GI tumors have focused on oncogenic molecular profiles associated with tumor cells. Recent evidence demonstrated that tumor cell functions are modulated by its microenvironment, compromising fibroblasts, ECMs, microbiome, immune cells, and the enteric nervous system. Along with the TME components, alterations in key metabolic pathways have emerged as a hallmark of tumor cells. From these perspectives, this review will highlight the functions of different cellular components of the GI tumor microenvironment (TME) and their implications for treatment. Furthermore, we discuss the major metabolic reprogramming in GI tumor cells and how understanding metabolic rewiring could lead to new therapeutic strategies. Finally, we briefly summarize the targeted agents currently being studied in GI cancers. Understanding the complex interplay between tumor cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic during tumor progression is critical for developing new therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Xue M, Leibovitzh H, Jingcheng S, et al (2024)

Environmental Factors Associated with Risk of Crohn's Disease Development in the CCC-GEM Project.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(24)00450-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To date, it is unclear how environmental factors influence Crohn's Disease (CD) risk and how they interact with biological processes. This study investigates the association between environmental exposures and CD risk and evaluates their association with pre-disease biomarkers.

METHODS: We studied 4,289 healthy first-degree relatives (FDRs) of CD patients from the Crohn's and Colitis Canada - Genetic, Environmental, Microbial (CCC-GEM) project. Regression models identified environmental factors associated with future CD onset and their association with pre-disease biological factors, including altered intestinal permeability measured by urinary fractional excretion of lactulose to mannitol ratio(LMR); gut inflammation via fecal calprotectin(FCP) levels; and fecal microbiome composition through 16S rRNA sequencing.

RESULTS: Over a 5.62-year median follow-up, 86 FDRs developed CD. Living with a dog between ages 5-15 (HR=0.62; 95% CI=0.40-0.96; P = .034), and living with a large family size in the first year of life (HR=0.43; 95% CI=0.21-0.85; P = .016) were associated with decreased CD risk; whereas having a bird at the time of recruitment (HR=2.78; CI=1.36-5.68; P = .005) was associated with an increased CD risk. Furthermore, living with a dog was associated with reduced LMR, altered relative abundance of multiple bacterial genera, and increased Chao1 diversity; while bird owners had higher FCP levels. Large family during participants' first year of life was associated with altered microbiota composition without affecting FCP or LMR.

CONCLUSION: This study identifies environmental variables associated with CD risk. These variables were also associated with altered barrier function, subclinical inflammation, and gut microbiome composition shifts, suggesting potential roles in CD pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Lin TH, Chou YH, Hsu TY, et al (2024)

Association among Polydisperse Aerodynamic Size of Bioaerosols, Biodiversity and Urbanization in Kindergartens.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)01226-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The aerodynamic sizes of bioaerosols may significantly affect their behaviors, respiratory deposition and biodiversity. The respirable bacterial size, biodiversity, and human-associated bacteria (HAB) related bioaerosols were evaluated at three kindergartens in Taiwan. Kindergartens A, B, and C were in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas, respectively. A six-stage viable Andersen cascade impactor was used to collect bioaerosols and to determine their size distributions. The geometric mean diameter (GMD), geometric standard deviation (GSD), heat maps, and uniformity were used to evaluate the association of bacteria characteristics. A BD Phoenix-100 automated interpretation system was used to identify the airborne bacteria species. The results revealed that 1,425 colonies of the sampled airborne bacteria contained 63 species in 29 genera, and overall, 63.0% were HABs. The most abundant phylum was Actinobacteria (56.6+22.2%) and Firmicutes (31.6+22.3%), and from the taxonomic analysis, both airborne Micrococcus and the Staphylococcus aureus are the dominant genus. All the bacteria aerodynamic particle size distributions were polydisperse distributions. The heat map and uniformity analysis had revealed most of the sampled bioaerosols distributed between 1.1∼3.3 μm, and most of the polydisperse airborne Streptococcus spp. had a size in the respirable range, due to urbanization, they have potentially contributed to respiratory risk in the kindergartens. The Shannon diversity index (H) and inverse Simpson diversity index (D) of the bioaerosols in urban kindergarten were negatively correlated with GMD and GSD. The Pearson correlations revealed that the kindergarten in the rural area, with a higher temperature, a lower relative humidity, and a lower CO2 concentration than the others, tended to have the largest H and D values (P < 0.05). Multiple and stepwise regression revealed that bioaerosol aerodynamic size was statistically significantly correlated with H (P = 0.001) and D values (P = 0.002). This study sheds light on the characteristics of bioaerosols and their associations with microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Cho YS, Han K, Xu J, et al (2024)

Novel strategies for modulating the gut microbiome for cancer therapy.

Advanced drug delivery reviews, 210:115332 pii:S0169-409X(24)00154-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent advancements in genomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics have significantly advanced our understanding of the human gut microbiome and its impact on the efficacy and toxicity of anti-cancer therapeutics, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy. In particular, prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics are recognized for their unique properties in modulating the gut microbiota, maintaining the intestinal barrier, and regulating immune cells, thus emerging as new cancer treatment modalities. However, clinical translation of microbiome-based therapy is still in its early stages, facing challenges to overcome physicochemical and biological barriers of the gastrointestinal tract, enhance target-specific delivery, and improve drug bioavailability. This review aims to highlight the impact of prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics on the gut microbiome and their efficacy as cancer treatment modalities. Additionally, we summarize recent innovative engineering strategies designed to overcome challenges associated with oral administration of anti-cancer treatments. Moreover, we will explore the potential benefits of engineered gut microbiome-modulating approaches in ameliorating the side effects of immunotherapy and chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Galià-Camps C, Junkin L, Borrallo X, et al (2024)

Navigating spatio-temporal microbiome dynamics: Environmental factors and trace elements shape the symbiont community of an invasive marine species.

Marine pollution bulletin, 203:116477 pii:S0025-326X(24)00454-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The proliferation of marine invasive species is a mounting concern. While the role of microbial communities in invasive ascidian species is recognized, the role of seasonal shifts in microbiome composition remains largely unexplored. We sampled five individuals of the invasive ascidian Styela plicata quarterly from January 2020 to October 2021 in two harbours, examining gills, tunics, and surrounding water. By analysing Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) and seawater trace elements, we found that compartment (seawater, tunic, or gills) was the primary differentiating factor, followed by harbour. Clear seasonal patterns were evident in seawater bacteria, less so in gills, and absent in tunics. We identified compartment-specific bacteria, as well as seasonal indicator ASVs and ASVs correlated with trace element concentrations. Among these bacteria, we found that Endozoicomonas, Hepatoplasma and Rhodobacteraceae species had reported functions which might be necessary for overcoming seasonality and trace element shifts. This study contributes to understanding microbiome dynamics in invasive holobiont systems, and the patterns found indicate a potential role in adaptation and invasiveness.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Di Cesare A, Sathicq MB, Sbaffi T, et al (2024)

Parity in bacterial communities and resistomes: Microplastic and natural organic particles in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Marine pollution bulletin, 203:116495 pii:S0025-326X(24)00472-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Petroleum-based microplastic particles (MPs) are carriers of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic environments, influencing the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. This research characterized MP and natural organic particle (NOP) bacterial communities and resistomes in the Tyrrhenian Sea, a region impacted by plastic pollution and climate change. MP and NOP bacterial communities were similar but different from the free-living planktonic communities. Likewise, MP and NOP ARG abundances were similar but different (higher) from the planktonic communities. MP and NOP metagenome-assembled genomes contained ARGs associated with mobile genetic elements and exhibited co-occurrence with metal resistance genes. Overall, these findings show that MPs and NOPs harbor potential pathogenic and antimicrobial resistant bacteria, which can aid in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Further, petroleum-based MPs do not represent novel ecological niches for allochthonous bacteria; rather, they synergize with NOPs, collectively facilitating the spread of antimicrobial resistance in marine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Pannkuk EL, Shuryak I, Kot A, et al (2024)

Host microbiome depletion attenuates biofluid metabolite responses following radiation exposure.

PloS one, 19(5):e0300883.

Development of novel biodosimetry assays and medical countermeasures is needed to obtain a level of radiation preparedness in the event of malicious or accidental mass exposures to ionizing radiation (IR). For biodosimetry, metabolic profiling with mass spectrometry (MS) platforms has identified several small molecules in easily accessible biofluids that are promising for dose reconstruction. As our microbiome has profound effects on biofluid metabolite composition, it is of interest how variation in the host microbiome may affect metabolomics based biodosimetry. Here, we 'knocked out' the microbiome of male and female C57BL/6 mice (Abx mice) using antibiotics and then irradiated (0, 3, or 8 Gy) them to determine the role of the host microbiome on biofluid radiation signatures (1 and 3 d urine, 3 d serum). Biofluid metabolite levels were compared to a sham and irradiated group of mice with a normal microbiome (Abx-con mice). To compare post-irradiation effects in urine, we calculated the Spearman's correlation coefficients of metabolite levels with radiation dose. For selected metabolites of interest, we performed more detailed analyses using linear mixed effect models to determine the effects of radiation dose, time, and microbiome depletion. Serum metabolite levels were compared using an ANOVA. Several metabolites were affected after antibiotic administration in the tryptophan and amino acid pathways, sterol hormone, xenobiotic and bile acid pathways (urine) and lipid metabolism (serum), with a post-irradiation attenuative effect observed for Abx mice. In urine, dose×time interactions were supported for a defined radiation metabolite panel (carnitine, hexosamine-valine-isoleucine [Hex-V-I], creatine, citric acid, and Nε,Nε,Nε-trimethyllysine [TML]) and dose for N1-acetylspermidine, which also provided excellent (AUROC ≥ 0.90) to good (AUROC ≥ 0.80) sensitivity and specificity according to the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis. In serum, a panel consisting of carnitine, citric acid, lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) (14:0), LysoPC (20:3), and LysoPC (22:5) also gave excellent to good sensitivity and specificity for identifying post-irradiated individuals at 3 d. Although the microbiome affected the basal levels and/or post-irradiation levels of these metabolites, their utility in dose reconstruction irrespective of microbiome status is encouraging for the use of metabolomics as a novel biodosimetry assay.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Karimi SH, Abdelaziz K, Spahany H, et al (2024)

Correction: Intestinal microbiome profiles in broiler chickens raised without antibiotics exhibit altered microbiome dynamics relative to conventionally raised chickens.

PloS one, 19(5):e0304225.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0301110.].

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Xiao Z, Zhang Y, Zhang W, et al (2024)

Characterizations of gut bacteriome, mycobiome, and virome of healthy individuals living in sea-level and high-altitude areas.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The contribution of gut microbiota to human high-altitude adaptation remains inadequately understood.

METHODS: Here a comparative analysis of gut microbiota was conducted between healthy individuals living at sea level and high altitude using deep whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing, to investigate the adaptive mechanisms of gut microbiota in plateau inhabitants.

RESULTS: The results showed the gut bacteriomes in high-altitude individuals exhibited greater within-sample diversity and significant alterations in both bacterial compositional and functional profiles when compared to those of sea-level individuals, indicating the potential selection of unique bacteria associated with high-altitude environments. The strain-level investigation revealed enrichment of Collinsella aerofaciens and Akkermansia muciniphila in high-altitude populations. The characteristics of gut virome and gut mycobiome were also investigated. Compared to sea-level subjects, high-altitude subjects exhibited a greater diversity in their gut virome, with an increased number of viral operational taxonomic units (vOTUs) and unique annotated genes. Finally, correlation analyses revealed 819 significant correlations between 42 bacterial species and 375 vOTUs, while no significant correlations were observed between bacteria and fungi or between fungi and viruses.

CONCLUSION: The findings have significantly contributed to an enhanced comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the high-altitude geographic adaptation of the human gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Field SE, Curle AJ, RA Barker (2024)

Inflammation and Huntington's disease- a neglected therapeutic target?.

Expert opinion on investigational drugs [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Huntington's Disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease for which there is currently no disease-modifying treatment. One of several underlying mechanisms proposed to be involved in HD pathogenesis is inflammation; there is now accumulating evidence that the immune system may play an integral role in disease pathology and progression. As such, modulation of the immune system could be a potential therapeutic target for HD.

AREAS COVERED: To date, the number of trials targeting immune aspects of HD has been limited. However, targeting it, may have great advantages over other therapeutic areas, given that many drugs already exist that have actions in this system coupled to the fact that inflammation can be measured both peripherally and, to some extent, centrally using CSF and PET imaging. In this review, we look at evidence that the immune system and the newly emerging area of the microbiome is altered in HD patients, then present and discuss clinical trials that have targeted different parts of the immune system.

EXPERT OPINION: We then conclude by discussing how this field might develop going forward, focusing on the role of imaging and other biomarkers to monitor central immune activation and response to novel treatments in HD.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Jauhiainen MK, Mohanraj U, Perdomo MF, et al (2024)

Presence of herpesviruses, parvoviruses, and polyomaviruses in sinonasal lymphoma.

European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Sinonasal lymphoma (SL) is a rare lymphatic neoplasm of the nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx. Whereas some risk factors for SL subtypes have been identified, their aetiology is unknown. Along with other predisposing factors, the viral association of lymphomas, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Burkitt and Hodgkin lymphomas, is well-established. Modern molecular biology techniques have enabled the discovery of novel human viruses, exemplified by the protoparvovirus cutavirus (CuV), associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. These findings, and the anatomical location of the sinonasal tract with its rich microbiome and infectious agents, justify in-depth studies among SL.

METHODS: We analysed the presence of 20 viruses of Orthoherpesviridae, Parvoviridae, and Polyomaviridae by qPCR in 24 SL tumours. We performed RNAscope in situ hybridisation (RISH) to localize the viruses. Parvovirus-specific IgG was analysed by enzyme immunoassay and targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to detect CuV in plasma.

RESULTS: We detected viral DNA in 15/24 (63%) tumours; nine of EBV, six of human herpesvirus (HHV) -7, four each of HHV-6B and parvovirus B19, two of cytomegalovirus, and one each of CuV and Merkel-cell polyomavirus. We found tumours with up to four viruses per tumour, and localized CuV and EBV DNAs by RISH. Two of the ten plasma samples exhibited CuV IgG, and one plasma sample demonstrated CuV viremia by NGS.

CONCLUSION: Viruses were frequent findings in SL. The EBV detection rate was high in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and co-detections with other viruses were prevalent.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Jones KR, Belden LK, MC Hughey (2024)

Priority effects alter microbiome composition and increase abundance of probiotic taxa in treefrog tadpoles.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Host-associated microbial communities, like other ecological communities, may be impacted by the colonization order of taxa through priority effects. Developing embryos and their associated microbiomes are subject to stochasticity during colonization by bacteria. For amphibian embryos, often developing externally in bacteria-rich environments, this stochasticity may be particularly impactful. For example, the amphibian microbiome can mitigate lethal outcomes from disease for their hosts; however, this may depend on microbiome composition. Here, we examined the assembly of the bacterial community in spring peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) embryos and tadpoles. First, we reared embryos from identified mating pairs in either lab or field environments to examine the relative impact of environment and parentage on embryo and tadpole bacterial communities. Second, we experimentally inoculated embryos to determine if priority effects (i) could be used to increase the relative abundance of Janthinobacterium lividum, an amphibian-associated bacteria capable of preventing fungal infection, and (ii) would lead to observed differences in the relative abundances of two closely related bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we observed differences in community composition based on rearing location and parentage in embryos and tadpoles. In the inoculation experiment, we found that priority inoculation could increase the relative abundance of J. lividum, but did not find that either Pseudomonas isolate was able to prevent colonization by the other when given priority. These results highlight the importance of environmental source pools and parentage in determining microbiome composition, while also providing novel methods for the administration of a known amphibian probiotic.

IMPORTANCE: Harnessing the functions of host-associated bacteria is a promising mechanism for managing disease outcomes across different host species. In the case of amphibians, certain frog-associated bacteria can mitigate lethal outcomes of infection by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Successful probiotic applications require knowledge of community assembly and an understanding of the ecological mechanisms that structure these symbiotic bacterial communities. In our study, we show the importance of environment and parentage in determining bacterial community composition and that community composition can be influenced by priority effects. Further, we provide support for the use of bacterial priority effects as a mechanism to increase the relative abundance of target probiotic taxa in a developing host. While our results show that priority effects are not universally effective across all host-associated bacteria, our ability to increase the relative abundance of specific probiotic taxa may enhance conservation strategies that rely on captive rearing of endangered vertebrates.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

MacVittie S, Doroodian S, Alberto A, et al (2024)

Microbiome depletion and recovery in the sea anemone, Exaiptasia diaphana, following antibiotic exposure.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial species that comprise host-associated microbiomes play an essential role in maintaining and mediating the health of plants and animals. While defining the role of individual or even complex communities is important toward quantifying the effect of the microbiome on host health, it is often challenging to develop causal studies that link microbial populations to changes in host fitness. Here, we investigated the impacts of reduced microbial load following antibiotic exposure on the fitness of the anemone, Exaiptasia diaphana and subsequent recovery of the host's microbiome. Anemones were exposed to two different types of antibiotic solutions for 3 weeks and subsequently held in sterilized seawater for a 3-week recovery period. Our results revealed that both antibiotic treatments reduced the overall microbial load during and up to 1 week post-treatment. The observed reduction in microbial load was coupled with reduced anemone biomass, halted asexual reproduction rates, and for one of the antibiotic treatments, the partial removal of the anemone's algal symbiont. Finally, our amplicon sequencing results of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that anemone bacterial composition only shifted in treated individuals during the recovery phase of the experiment, where we also observed a significant reduction in the overall diversity of the microbial community. Our work implies that the E. diaphana's microbiome contributes to host fitness and that the recovery of the host's microbiome following disturbance with antibiotics leads to a reduced, but stable microbial state.IMPORTANCEExaiptasia diaphana is an emerging model used to define the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral-algal symbioses. E. diaphana also houses a diverse microbiome, consisting of hundreds of microbial partners with undefined function. Here, we applied antibiotics to quantify the impact of microbiome removal on host fitness as well as define trajectories in microbiome recovery following disturbance. We showed that reduction of the microbiome leads to negative impacts on host fitness, and that the microbiome does not recover to its original composition while held under aseptic conditions. Rather the microbiome becomes less diverse, but more consistent across individuals. Our work is important because it suggests that anemone microbiomes play a role in maintaining host fitness, that they are susceptible to disturbance events, and that it is possible to generate gnotobiotic individuals that can be leveraged in microbiome manipulation studies to investigate the role of individual species on host health.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Ross PA, Xu W, Jalomo-Khayrova E, et al (2024)

Framework for exploring the sensory repertoire of the human gut microbiota.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria sense changes in their environment and transduce signals to adjust their cellular functions accordingly. For this purpose, bacteria employ various sensors feeding into multiple signal transduction pathways. Signal recognition by bacterial sensors is studied mainly in a few model organisms, but advances in genome sequencing and analysis offer new ways of exploring the sensory repertoire of many understudied organisms. The human gut is a natural target of this line of study: it is a nutrient-rich and dynamic environment and is home to thousands of bacterial species whose activities impact human health. Many gut commensals are also poorly studied compared to model organisms and are mainly known through their genome sequences. To begin exploring the signals human gut commensals sense and respond to, we have designed a framework that enables the identification of sensory domains, prediction of signals that they recognize, and experimental verification of these predictions. We validate this framework's functionality by systematically identifying amino acid sensors in selected bacterial genomes and metagenomes, characterizing their amino acid binding properties, and demonstrating their signal transduction potential.IMPORTANCESignal transduction is a central process governing how bacteria sense and respond to their environment. The human gut is a complex environment with many living organisms and fluctuating streams of nutrients. One gut inhabitant, Escherichia coli, is a model organism for studying signal transduction. However, E. coli is not representative of most gut microbes, and signaling pathways in the thousands of other organisms comprising the human gut microbiota remain poorly understood. This work provides a foundation for how to explore signals recognized by these organisms.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Salsinha AS, Cima A, Araújo-Rodrigues H, et al (2024)

The use of an in vitro fecal fermentation model to uncover the beneficial role of omega-3 and punicic acid in gut microbiota alterations induced by a Western diet.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

The influence of gut microbiota in the onset and development of several metabolic diseases has gained attention over the last few years. Diet plays an essential role in gut microbiota modulation. Western diet (WD), characterized by high-sugar and high-fat consumption, alters gut microbiome composition, diversity index, microbial relative levels, and functional pathways. Despite the promising health effects demonstrated by polyunsaturated fatty acids, their impact on gut microbiota is still overlooked. The effect of Fish oil (omega-3 source) and Pomegranate oil (punicic acid source), and a mixture of both oils in gut microbiota modulation were determined by subjecting the oil samples to in vitro fecal fermentations. Cecal samples from rats from two different dietary groups: a control diet (CD) and a high-fat high-sugar diet (WD), were used as fecal inoculum. 16S amplicon metagenomics sequencing showed that Fish oil + Pomegranate oil from the WD group increased α-diversity. This sample can also increase the relative abundance of the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phylum as well as Akkermansia and Blautia, which were affected by the WD consumption. All samples were able to increase butyrate and acetate concentration in the WD group. Moreover, tyrosine concentrations, a precursor for dopamine and norepinephrine, increase in the Fish oil + Pomegranate oil WD sample. GABA, an important neurotransmitter, was also increased in WD samples. These results suggest a potential positive impact of these oils' mixture on gut-brain axis modulation. It was demonstrated, for the first time, the great potential of using a mixture of both Fish and Pomegranate oil to restore the gut microbiota changes associated with WD consumption.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Chen YY, Tan L, Su XL, et al (2024)

NOD2 contributes to Parvimonas micra-induced bone resorption in diabetic rats with experimental periodontitis.

Molecular oral microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may affect the oral microbial community, exacerbating periodontal inflammation; however, its pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. As nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) plays a crucial role in the activation during periodontitis (PD), it is hypothesized that changes in the oral microbial community due to diabetes enhance periodontal inflammation through the activation of NOD2.

METHODS: We collected subgingival plaque from 180 subjects who were categorized into two groups based on the presence or absence of T2DM. The composition of oral microbiota was detected by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. In animal models of PD with or without T2DM, we assessed alveolar bone resorption by micro-computerized tomography and used immunohistochemistry to detect NOD2 expression in alveolar bone. Primary osteoblasts were cultured in osteogenic induction medium with high or normal glucose and treated with inactivated bacteria. After 24 h of inactivated bacteria intervention, the osteogenic differentiation ability was detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, and the expressions of NOD2 and interleukin-12 (IL-6) were detected by western blot.

RESULTS: The relative abundance of Parvimonas and Filifactor in the T2DM group was increased compared to the group without T2DM. In animal models, alveolar bone mass was decreased in PD, particularly in T2DM with PD (DMPD) group, compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry revealed NOD2 in osteoblasts from the alveolar bone in both the PD group and DMPD group, especially in the DMPD group. In vitro, intervention with inactivated Parvimonas significantly reduced ALP secretion of primary osteoblasts in high glucose medium, accompanied by increased expression of NOD2 and IL-6.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that T2DM leading to PD may be associated with the activation of NOD2 by Parvimonas.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Wu H, Mu C, Xu L, et al (2024)

Host-microbiota interaction in intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2353399.

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) play a pivotal role in gut physiology by governing intestinal epithelium renewal through the precise regulation of proliferation and differentiation. The gut microbiota interacts closely with the epithelium through myriad of actions, including immune and metabolic interactions, which translate into tight connections between microbial activity and ISC function. Given the diverse functions of the gut microbiota in affecting the metabolism of macronutrients and micronutrients, dietary nutrients exert pronounced effects on host-microbiota interactions and, consequently, the ISC fate. Therefore, understanding the intricate host-microbiota interaction in regulating ISC homeostasis is imperative for improving gut health. Here, we review recent advances in understanding host-microbiota immune and metabolic interactions that shape ISC function, such as the role of pattern-recognition receptors and microbial metabolites, including lactate and indole metabolites. Additionally, the diverse regulatory effects of the microbiota on dietary nutrients, including proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals (e.g. iron and zinc), are thoroughly explored in relation to their impact on ISCs. Thus, we highlight the multifaceted mechanisms governing host-microbiota interactions in ISC homeostasis. Insights gained from this review provide strategies for the development of dietary or microbiota-based interventions to foster gut health.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Liu Y, Dai C, Wang C, et al (2024)

Raspberry Ketone Prevents LPS-Induced Depression-Like Behaviors in Mice by Inhibiting TLR-4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway via the Gut-Brain Axis.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: Depression, a prevalent mental disorder, has significantly impacted the lives of 350 million people, yet it holds promise for amelioration through food-derived phenolics. Raspberries, renowned globally for their delectable flavor, harbor a phenolic compound known as raspberry ketone (RK). However, the impact of RK on depressive symptoms remains ambiguous. This study aims to investigate the impact of RK on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depressed mice and elucidates its potential mechanisms, focusing on the gut-brain axis.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Through behavioral tests, RK exerts a notable preventive effect on LPS-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. RK proves capable of attenuating gut inflammation, repairing gut barrier impairment, modulating the composition of the gut microbiome (Muribaculaceae, Streptococcus, Lachnospiraceae, and Akkermansia), and promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids. Furthermore, RK alleviates neuroinflammation by suppressing the TLR-4/NF-κB pathway and bolsters synaptic function by elevating levels of neurotrophic factors and synapse-associated proteins.

CONCLUSION: The current study provides compelling evidence that RK effectively inhibits the TLR-4/NF-κB pathway via the gut-brain axis, leading to the improvement of LPS-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. This study addresses the research gap in understanding the antidepressant effects of RK and illuminates the potential of utilizing RK as a functional food for preventing depression.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

da Costa ALA, Soares MA, Lourenço TGB, et al (2024)

Periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans JP2 correlates with colonic leukocytes decrease and gut microbiome imbalance in mice.

Journal of periodontal research [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Evidence suggests that translocation of oral pathogens through the oral-gut axis may induce intestinal dysbiosis. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a highly leukotoxic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) strain on the gut microbiota, intestinal mucosal integrity and immune system in healthy mice.

METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL6 mice were divided into control (n = 16) and JP2 groups (n = 19), which received intragastric gavage with PBS and with a suspension of Aa JP2 (HK921), respectively, twice a week for 4 weeks. Colonic lamina propria, fecal material, serum, gingival tissues, and mandibles were obtained for analyses of leukocyte populations, inflammatory mediators, mucosal integrity, alveolar bone loss, and gut microbiota. Differences between groups for these parameters were examined by non-parametric tests.

RESULTS: The gut microbial richness and the number of colonic macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes were significantly lower in Aa JP2-infected mice than in controls (p < .05). In contrast, infected animals showed higher abundance of Clostridiaceae, Lactobacillus taiwanensis, Helicobacter rodentium, higher levels of IL-6 expression in colonic tissues, and higher splenic MPO activity than controls (p < .05). No differences in tight junction expression, serum endotoxin levels, and colonic inflammatory cytokines were observed between groups. Infected animals presented also slightly more alveolar bone loss and gingival IL-6 levels than controls (p < .05).

CONCLUSION: Based on this model, intragastric administration of Aa JP2 is associated with changes in the gut ecosystem of healthy hosts, characterized by less live/recruited myeloid cells, enrichment of the gut microbiota with pathobionts and decrease in commensals. Negligible levels of colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines, and no signs of mucosal barrier disruption were related to these changes.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Kristinsdottir I, Haraldsson A, V Thors (2024)

Tonsillectomies are associated with an increased risk of meningococcal carriage.

Infectious diseases (London, England) [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal organism with the potential to cause life-threatening disease. Colonisation is most common in adolescence and young adulthood. Various social factors have been associated with an increased risk of meningococcal carriage, but less is known about host factors that may influence the carriage status. Tonsillectomies have been shown to alter the pharyngeal microflora. This study assessed whether a history of tonsillectomy affects the risk of meningococcal colonisation.

METHODS: Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 15- to 16-year-old adolescents and 18- to 20-year-old young adults. Conventional culture methods and qPCR were used to detect meningococci. 16S qPCR was done to assess bacterial abundance in the samples. Data on history of tonsillectomies were collected from a central national database and the national university hospital.

RESULTS: A total of 722 samples were collected; 197 from adolescents and 525 from young adults. Thirty-five participants were colonised with meningococci (4.8%). Eighty-eight participants had undergone a tonsillectomy, of which 10 (11.4%) carried meningococci, compared to 4% of those that had not. Prior tonsillectomy was associated with a threefold increased risk of meningococcal colonisation (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.44-6.70, p = 0.004). Tonsillectomies remained a risk factor after adjusting for age, sex, recent antibiotic use and meningococcal vaccinations (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.13-5.48, p = 0.024).

CONCLUSIONS: A history of tonsillectomy is associated with an increased risk of meningococcal colonisation. More studies are needed to shed light on the effects of tonsillectomies on the pharyngeal microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Roughgarden J (2024)

Lytic/Lysogenic Transition as a Life-History Switch.

Virus evolution, 10(1):veae028.

The transition between lytic and lysogenic life cycles is the most important feature of the life-history of temperate viruses. To explain this transition, an optimal life-history model is offered based a discrete-time formulation of phage/bacteria population dynamics that features infection of bacteria by Poisson sampling of virions from the environment. The time step is the viral latency period. In this model, density-dependent viral absorption onto the bacterial surface produces virus/bacteria coexistence and density dependence in bacterial growth is not needed. The formula for the transition between lytic and lysogenic phases is termed the 'fitness switch'. According to the model, the virus switches from lytic to lysogenic when its population grows faster as prophage than as virions produced by lysis of the infected cells, and conversely for the switch from lysogenic to lytic. A prophage that benefits the bacterium it infects automatically incurs lower fitness upon exiting the bacterial genome, resulting in its becoming locked into the bacterial genome in what is termed here as a 'prophage lock'. The fitness switch qualitatively predicts the ecogeographic rule that environmental enrichment leads to microbialization with a concomitant increase in lysogeny, fluctuating environmental conditions promote virus-mediated horizontal gene transfer, and prophage-containing bacteria can integrate into the microbiome of a eukaryotic host forming a functionally integrated tripartite holobiont. These predictions accord more with the 'Piggyback-the-Winner' hypothesis than with the 'Kill-the-Winner' hypothesis in virus ecology.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Warren A, Nyavor Y, Beguelin A, et al (2024)

Dangers of the chronic stress response in the context of the microbiota-gut-immune-brain axis and mental health: a narrative review.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1365871.

More than 20% of American adults live with a mental disorder, many of whom are treatment resistant or continue to experience symptoms. Other approaches are needed to improve mental health care, including prevention. The role of the microbiome has emerged as a central tenet in mental and physical health and their interconnectedness (well-being). Under normal conditions, a healthy microbiome promotes homeostasis within the host by maintaining intestinal and brain barrier integrity, thereby facilitating host well-being. Owing to the multidirectional crosstalk between the microbiome and neuro-endocrine-immune systems, dysbiosis within the microbiome is a main driver of immune-mediated systemic and neural inflammation that can promote disease progression and is detrimental to well-being broadly and mental health in particular. In predisposed individuals, immune dysregulation can shift to autoimmunity, especially in the presence of physical or psychological triggers. The chronic stress response involves the immune system, which is intimately involved with the gut microbiome, particularly in the process of immune education. This interconnection forms the microbiota-gut-immune-brain axis and promotes mental health or disorders. In this brief review, we aim to highlight the relationships between stress, mental health, and the gut microbiome, along with the ways in which dysbiosis and a dysregulated immune system can shift to an autoimmune response with concomitant neuropsychological consequences in the context of the microbiota-gut-immune-brain axis. Finally, we aim to review evidenced-based prevention strategies and potential therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Shi Z, Yang L, Yang M, et al (2024)

Temporal patterns of endophytic microbial heterogeneity across distinct ecological compartments within the Panax ginseng root system following deforestation for cultivation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1402921.

Alterations in the microbial community significantly impact the yield and quality of ginseng. Yet, the dynamics of microbial community shifts within the root endophytes of ginseng across varying cultivation periods remain inadequately understood. This study zeroes in on the microbial community variations within the xylem (M), phloem (R), and fibrous roots (X) of ginseng during the fourth (F4) and fifth (F5) years of cultivation, aiming to bridge this research gap. We assessed soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and nine individual saponins, complemented by high-throughput sequencing techniques (16S rDNA and ITS) to determine their profiles. The results showed that cultivation years mainly affected the microbial diversity of endophytic bacteria in ginseng fibrous roots compartment: the ASVs number and α-diversity Chao1 index of bacteria and fungi in F5X compartment with higher cultivation years were significantly higher than those in F4X compartment with lower cultivation years. It is speculated that the changes of fibrous roots bacterial groups may be related to the regulation of amino acid metabolic pathway. Such as D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism D-glutamine, cysteine and methionine metabolism regulation. The dominant bacteria in ginseng root are Proteobacteria (relative abundance 52.07-80.35%), Cyanobacteria (1.97-42.52%) and Bacteroidota (1.11-5.08%). Firmicutes (1.28-3.76%). There were two dominant phyla: Ascomycota (60.10-93.71%) and Basidiomycota (2.25-30.57%). Endophytic fungi were more closely related to soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities. AN, TK, OP, SWC and EC were the main driving factors of endophytic flora of ginseng root. Tetracladium decreased with the increase of cultivation years, and the decrease was more significant in phloem (F4R: 33.36%, F5R: 16.48%). The relative abundance of Bradyrhizobium, Agrobacterium and Bacillus in each ecological niche increased with the increase of cultivation years. The relative abundance of Bradyrhizobium and Agrobacterium in F5X increased by 8.35 and 9.29 times, respectively, and Bacillus in F5M increased by 5.57 times. We found a variety of potential beneficial bacteria and pathogen antagonists related to ginseng biomass and saponins, such as Bradyrhizobium, Agrobacterium, Bacillus and Exophiala, which have good potential for practical application and development.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Han D, Yang Y, Guo Z, et al (2024)

Metagenomics profiling of the microbial community and functional differences in solid-state fermentation vinegar starter (seed Pei) from different Chinese regions.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1389737.

INTRODUCTION: The starter used in solid-state fermentation (SSF) vinegar, known as seed Pei is a microbial inoculant from the previous batch that is utilized during the acetic acid fermentation stage. The seed Pei, which has a notable impact on vinegar fermentation and flavor, is under-researched with comparative studies on microorganisms.

METHODS: Herein metagenomics was employed to reveal the microbes and their potential metabolic functions of four seed Pei from three regions in China.

RESULTS: The predominant microbial taxa in all four starters were bacteria, followed by viruses, eukaryotes, and archaea, with Lactobacillus sp. or Acetobacter sp. as main functional taxa. The seed Pei used in Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV) and Sichuan bran vinegar (SBV) exhibited a higher similarity in microbial composition and distribution of functional genes, while those used in two Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (ZAV) differed significantly. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of physicochemical factors and microbial communities indicated that moisture content, pH, and reducing sugar content are significant factors influencing microbial distribution. Moreover, seven metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) that could potentially represent novel species were identified.

CONCLUSIONS: There are distinctions in the microbiome and functional genes among different seed Pei. The vinegar starters were rich in genes related to carbohydrate metabolism. This research provides a new perspective on formulating vinegar fermentation starters and developing commercial fermentation agents for vinegar production.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Tanaka T, Sugiyama R, Sato Y, et al (2024)

Precise microbiome engineering using natural and synthetic bacteriophages targeting an artificial bacterial consortium.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1403903.

In natural microbiomes, microorganisms interact with each other and exhibit diverse functions. Microbiome engineering, which enables bacterial knockdown, is a promising method to elucidate the functions of targeted bacteria in microbiomes. However, few methods to selectively kill target microorganisms in the microbiome without affecting the growth of nontarget microorganisms are available. In this study, we focused on the host-specific lytic ability of virulent phages and validated their potency for precise microbiome engineering. In an artificial microbiome consisting of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, the addition of bacteriophages infecting their respective host strains specifically reduced the number of these bacteria more than 10[2] orders. Remarkably, the reduction in target bacteria did not affect the growth of nontarget bacteria, indicating that bacteriophages were effective tools for precise microbiome engineering. Moreover, a virulent derivative of the λ phage was synthesized from prophage DNA in the genome of λ lysogen by in vivo DNA assembly and phage-rebooting techniques, and E. coli-targeted microbiome engineering was achieved. These results propose a novel approach for precise microbiome engineering using bacteriophages, in which virulent phages are synthesized from prophage DNA in lysogenic strains without isolating phages from environmental samples.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Brandi G, G Frega (2024)

The emerging role of intra-tumoral bacteria.

Journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 15(2):800-802.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Vimal SR, Singh JS, Kumar A, et al (2024)

The plant endomicrobiome: Structure and strategies to produce stress resilient future crop.

Current research in microbial sciences, 6:100236.

Plants have a microbiome, a diverse community of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, living inside and on their tissues. Versatile endophytic microorganisms inhabited in every plant part without causing disease and develop endophytic microbiome or endo-microbiome. Plant endo-microbiome are drawn by the nutrient rich micro-environment, and in turn some microbes mutualistically endorse and protect plant from adverse environmental stresses. Plant endo-microbiome interact within well-designed host equilibrium containing xylem, phloem, nutrients, phytohormones, metabolites and shift according to environmental and nutritional change. Plant endo-microbiome regulate and respond to environmental variations, pathogens, herbivores by producing stress regulators, organic acids, secondary metabolites, stress hormones as well as unknown substances and signalling molecules. Endomicrobiome efficiently synthesizes multiple bioactive compounds, stress phytohormones with high competence. The technological innovation as next generation genomics biology and high-throughput multiomics techniques stepping stones on the illumination of critical endo-microbiome communities and functional characterization that aid in improving plant physiology, biochemistry and immunity interplay for best crop productivity. This review article contains deeper insight in endomicrobiome related research work in last years, recruitment, niche development, nutrient dynamics, stress removal mechanisms, bioactive services in plant health development, community architecture and communication, and immunity interplay in producing stress resilient future crop.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Peters S, Mohort K, Claus H, et al (2024)

Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis carrier and disease isolates of MenB cc32 and MenW cc22 with epithelial cells of the nasopharyngeal barrier.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1389527.

Neisseria meningitidis (Nm, the meningococcus) is considered an asymptomatic colonizer of the upper respiratory tract and a transient member of its microbiome. It is assumed that the spread of N. meningitidis into the bloodstream occurs via transcytosis of the nasopharyngeal epithelial barrier without destroying the barrier layer. Here, we used Calu-3 respiratory epithelial cells that were grown under air-liquid-interface conditions to induce formation of pseudostratified layers and mucus production. The number of bacterial localizations in the outer mucus, as well as cellular adhesion, invasion and transmigration of different carrier and disease N. meningitidis isolates belonging to MenB:cc32 and MenW:cc22 lineages was assessed. In addition, the effect on barrier integrity and cytokine release was determined. Our findings showed that all strains tested resided primarily in the outer mucus layer after 24 h of infection (>80%). Nonetheless, both MenB:cc32 and MenW:cc22 carrier and disease isolates reached the surface of the epithelial cells and overcame the barrier. Interestingly, we observed a significant difference in the number of bacteria transmigrating the epithelial cell barrier, with the representative disease isolates being more efficient to transmigrate compared to carrier isolates. This could be attributed to the capacity of the disease isolates to invade, however could not be assigned to expression of the outer membrane protein Opc. Moreover, we found that the representative meningococcal isolates tested in this study did not damage the epithelial barrier, as shown by TEER measurement, FITC-dextran permeability assays, and expression of cell-junction components.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Zeng X, Huang S, Ye X, et al (2024)

Impact of HbA1c control and type 2 diabetes mellitus exposure on the oral microbiome profile in the elderly population.

Journal of oral microbiology, 16(1):2345942.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of the oral microbiome status with diabetes characteristics in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

METHODS: A questionnaire was used to assess age, sex, smoking status, drinking status, flossing frequency, T2DM duration and complications, and a blood test was used to determine the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from saliva samples was used to analyze the oral microbiome.

RESULTS: Differential analysis revealed that Streptococcus and Weissella were significantly enriched in the late-stage group, and Capnocytophaga was significantly enriched in the early-stage group. Correlation analysis revealed that diabetes duration was positively correlated with the abundance of Streptococcus (r= 0.369, p= 0.007) and negatively correlated with the abundance of Cardiobacterium (r= -0.337, p= 0.014), and the level of HbA1c was not significantly correlated with the oral microbiome. Network analysis suggested that the poor control group had a more complex microbial network than the control group, a pattern that was similar for diabetes duration. In addition, Streptococcus has a low correlation with other microorganisms.

CONCLUSION: In elderly individuals, Streptococcus emerges as a potential biomarker linked to diabetes, exhibiting elevated abundance in diabetic patients influenced by disease exposure and limited bacterial interactions.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Miché L, Dries A, Ammar IB, et al (2024)

Changes in chemical properties and microbial communities' composition of a forest litter-based biofertilizer produced through aerated solid-state culture under different oxygen conditions.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Fermented forest litter (FFL) is a bioproduct used as biofertilizer for several decades in Eastern Asia and Latin America. It is locally handcrafted by farmers in anaerobic conditions by fermenting forest litter added with agricultural by-products such as whey, cereal bran, and molasses. The aim of this study was to characterize the FFL process and product through gas and liquid chromatography analyses. It also provides some highlights on the influence of O2 on this solid-state culture. Under anoxic condition, a maximum CO2 production rate (CDPR) of 0.41 mL/h∙g dry matter (dm) was reached after 8 days. The main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were ethanol and ethyl acetate, with a production rate profile similar to CDPR. After 21 days of culture, no residual sucrose nor lactose was detected. Lactic and acetic acids reached 58.8 mg/g dm and 10.2 mg/g dm, respectively, ensuring the acidification of the matrix to a final pH of 4.72. A metabarcoding analysis revealed that heterolactic acid bacteria (Lentilactobacillus, Leuconostoc), homolactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus), and yeasts (Saccharomyces, Clavispora) were predominant. Predicted genes in the microbiome confirmed the potential link between detected bacteria and acids and VOCs produced. When O2 was fed to the cultures, final pH reached values up to 8.5. No significant amounts of lactic nor acetic acid were found. In addition, a strong shift in microbial communities was observed, with a predominance of Proteobacteria and molds, among which are potential pathogens like Fusarium species. This suggests that particular care must be brought to maintain anoxic conditions throughout the process.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Dohrn G (2024)

Gut microbes linked to fatty diet drive tumour growth.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Ruth B, Peter S, Ibrahim B, et al (2024)

Revealing the hierarchical structure of microbial communities.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11202.

Measuring the dynamics of microbial communities results in high-dimensional measurements of taxa abundances over time and space, which is difficult to analyze due to complex changes in taxonomic compositions. This paper presents a new method to investigate and visualize the intrinsic hierarchical community structure implied by the measurements. The basic idea is to identify significant intersection sets, which can be seen as sub-communities making up the measured communities. Using the subset relationship, the intersection sets together with the measurements form a hierarchical structure visualized as a Hasse diagram. Chemical organization theory (COT) is used to relate the hierarchy of the sets of taxa to potential taxa interactions and to their potential dynamical persistence. The approach is demonstrated on a data set of community data obtained from bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing for samples collected monthly from four groundwater wells over a nearly 3-year period (n = 114) along a hillslope area. The significance of the hierarchies derived from the data is evaluated by showing that they significantly deviate from a random model. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how the hierarchy is related to temporal and spatial factors; and how the idea of a core microbiome can be extended to a set of interrelated core microbiomes. Together the results suggest that the approach can support developing models of taxa interactions in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Fernández-Calvet A, Matilla-Cuenca L, Izco M, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota produces biofilm-associated amyloids with potential for neurodegeneration.

Nature communications, 15(1):4150.

Age-related neurodegenerative diseases involving amyloid aggregation remain one of the biggest challenges of modern medicine. Alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiome play an active role in the aetiology of neurological disorders. Here, we dissect the amyloidogenic properties of biofilm-associated proteins (BAPs) of the gut microbiota and their implications for synucleinopathies. We demonstrate that BAPs are naturally assembled as amyloid-like fibrils in insoluble fractions isolated from the human gut microbiota. We show that BAP genes are part of the accessory genomes, revealing microbiome variability. Remarkably, the abundance of certain BAP genes in the gut microbiome is correlated with Parkinson's disease (PD) incidence. Using cultured dopaminergic neurons and Caenorhabditis elegans models, we report that BAP-derived amyloids induce α-synuclein aggregation. Our results show that the chaperone-mediated autophagy is compromised by BAP amyloids. Indeed, inoculation of BAP fibrils into the brains of wild-type mice promote key pathological features of PD. Therefore, our findings establish the use of BAP amyloids as potential targets and biomarkers of α-synucleinopathies.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Jenkins L, McKnight DT, Parks M, et al (2024)

Variable effects of captivity on microbiomes in populations of IUCN-endangered Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii).

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7675514 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Microbiome composition is increasingly considered in species reintroduction efforts and may influence survival and reproductive success. Many turtle species are threatened by anthropogenic pressures and are frequently raised in captivity for reintroduction efforts, yet little is known about turtle microbiome composition in either wild or captive settings. Here, we investigated trends in microbiome composition of captive and wild IUCN-endangered Blanding's turtles (Emydoidea blandingii).

METHODS AND RESULTS: We amplified and sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rDNA locus from plastron, cloaca, and water samples of wild E. blandingii adults and two populations of captive E. blandingii juveniles being raised for headstarting. Plastron, cloaca, and water-associated microbiomes differed strongly from each other and were highly variable among captive sites and between captive and wild sites. Across plastron, cloaca and water-associated microbial communities, microbial diversity changed over time, but not in a predictable direction between captive sites. Plastron beta diversity correlated with growth rate in captive samples, indicating that external microbiomes may correlate with individual fitness.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that external and internal microbiomes vary between captive and wild turtles and may reflect differences in fitness of captive-raised individuals.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Zhang J, Zhang C, Yang X, et al (2024)

Short- and long-term effects of different forage types supplemented in preweaning dairy calves on performance and milk production into first lactation.

Journal of dairy science pii:S0022-0302(24)00779-3 [Epub ahead of print].

We investigated the short- and long-term effects of different forage types supplemented in preweaning dairy calves on growth performance, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation, bacterial community, and milk production during first lactation. Sixty healthy 1-mo-old female Holstein calves were blocked by birth date and body weight and randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (n = 20): normal milk and pelleted starter feeding (CON), supplemented with chopped oat hay [75.0 g/d/calf (dry matter (DM) basis); OAH], or alfalfa hay [75.0 g/d/calf (DM basis); ALF]. The forage supplementation started when calves were 30 d old (D1 of the experimental period) and ended when they were 73 d old (D44 of the experimental period when calves were weaned. Milk and feed intakes and fecal consistency scores were recorded daily. Growth performance, rumen fluid, and blood samples were collected bi-weekly. After weaning, all the calves were integrated with the same barn and diets. After calving, the milk production was recorded daily. During the experimental period, the OAH group had greater solid feed and total DM intakes and greater rumen pH than the CON group (P ≤ 0.04), but had lower forage intake and crude protein digestibility than the ALF group (P ≤ 0.04). The ALF group had higher rumen pH and blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (P ≤ 0.04), lower fecal score (P = 0.02), and greater ether extract digestibility (P = 0.02) than the CON group. The ALF and OAH groups had lower concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.01). Still, the ALF group had a greater proportion of acetate and a relative abundance of cellulose degradation-related bacteria (Lachnoclostridium_1 and Oribacterium) and a lower relative abundance of inflammation-related bacteria (Erysipelotrichaceae_UCG-009) in the rumen compared with CON. Interestingly, the average milk production from 6 to 200 d in milk (DIM) was greater in the ALF group (P < 0.01) even though no significant effects were found on the rumen fermentation parameters and blood metabolites at 200 DIM. Generally, alfalfa hay supplementation in preweaning dairy calves had positive effects in the short- and long-term in terms of rumen development, health status, and future milk production.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Allegretti JR, Khanna S, Mullish BH, et al (2024)

The Progression of Microbiome Therapeutics for the Management of Gastrointestinal Diseases and Beyond.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(24)04915-1 [Epub ahead of print].

There has been an increased ability to investigate human microbiota through next generation sequencing and functional assessment. This advancement has rapidly expanded our ability to study and manipulate the gastrointestinal microbiome to mitigate disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a therapy which broadly transfers the entire intestinal ecosystem, has been explored as a potential therapeutic in a variety of gastrointestinal, hepatic and extraintestinal conditions. The field however continues to evolve with a movement towards precision microbiome therapeutics individualizing care for various disorders. This review will describe the use of FMT, microbiota restoration and precision microbiome therapeutics focusing in gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Bombaywala S, Bajaj A, NA Dafale (2024)

Meta-analysis of wastewater microbiome for antibiotic resistance profiling.

Journal of microbiological methods pii:S0167-7012(24)00065-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The microbial composition and stress molecules are main drivers influencing the development and spread of antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) and genes (ARGs) in the environment. A reliable and rapid method for identifying associations between microbiome composition and resistome remains challenging. In the present study, secondary metagenome data of sewage and hospital wastewaters were assessed for differential taxonomic and ARG profiling. Subsequently, Random Forest (RF)-based ML models were used to predict ARG profiles based on taxonomic composition and model validation on hospital wastewaters. Total ARG abundance was significantly higher in hospital wastewaters (15 ppm) than sewage (5 ppm), while the resistance towards methicillin, carbapenem, and fluoroquinolone were predominant. Although, Pseudomonas constituted major fraction, Streptomyces, Enterobacter, and Klebsiella were characteristic of hospital wastewaters. Prediction modeling showed that the relative abundance of pathogenic genera Escherichia, Vibrio, and Pseudomonas contributed most towards variations in total ARG count. Moreover, the model was able to identify host-specific patterns for contributing taxa and related ARGs with >90% accuracy in predicting the ARG subtype abundance. More than >80% accuracy was obtained for hospital wastewaters, demonstrating that the model can be validly extrapolated to different types of wastewater systems. Findings from the study showed that the ML approach could identify ARG profile based on bacterial composition including 16S rDNA amplicon data, and can serve as a viable alternative to metagenomic binning for identification of potential hosts of ARGs. Overall, this study demonstrates the promising application of ML techniques for predicting the spread of ARGs and provides guidance for early warning of ARBs emergence.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Liu JL, Chen LJ, Liu Y, et al (2024)

The gut microbiota contributes to methamphetamine-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 279:116457 pii:S0147-6513(24)00533-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug belonging to the amphetamine-type stimulant class, known to exert male reproductive toxicity. Recent studies suggest that METH can disrupt the gut microbiota. Furthermore, the gut-testis axis concept has gained attention due to the potential link between gut microbiome dysfunction and reproductive health. Nonetheless, the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the impact of METH on male reproductive toxicity remains unclear. In this study, we employed a mouse model exposed to escalating doses of METH to assess sperm quality, testicular pathology, and reproductive hormone levels. The fecal microbiota transplantation method was employed to investigate the effect of gut microbiota on male reproductive toxicity. Transcriptomic, metabolomic, and microbiological analyses were conducted to explore the damage mechanism to the male reproductive system caused by METH. We found that METH exposure led to hormonal disorders, decreased sperm quality, and changes in the gut microbiota and testicular metabolome in mice. Testicular RNA sequencing revealed enrichment of several Gene Ontology terms associated with reproductive processes, as well as PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. FMT conveyed similar reproductive damage from METH-treated mice to healthy recipient mice. The aforementioned findings suggest that the gut microbiota plays a substantial role in facilitating the reproductive toxicity caused by METH, thereby highlighting a prospective avenue for therapeutic intervention in the context of METH-induced infertility.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

García S (2024)

Microbiome status as a predictive tool for response to therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford, England) pii:7675479 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Rueedi G, Panchaud P, Friedli A, et al (2024)

Discovery and Structure-Activity Relationship of Cadazolid: A First-In-Class Quinoxolidinone Antibiotic for the Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Journal of medicinal chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) is one of the leading causes of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. The increasing incidence of strains resistant to currently available therapies highlights the need for alternative treatment options with a novel mode of action. Oxazolidinones that are connected to a quinolone moiety with a pyrrolidine linker, such as compound 1, are reported to exhibit potent broadspectrum antibacterial activity. In an effort to optimize this class of compounds for the treatment of C. difficile infection (CDI), we have identified cadazolid (9), a first-in-class quinoxolidinone antibiotic, which is a potent inhibitor of C. difficile protein synthesis. In order to achieve narrow-spectrum coverage of clinically most relevant strains without affecting the gut microbiota, an emphasis was placed on abolishing activity against commensals of the intestinal microbiome while retaining good coverage of pathogenic C. difficile, including hypervirulent and epidemic strains.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Lai YP, Lee T, Sieben D, et al (2024)

Hybrid Hydrogel-Magnet Actuated Capsule for Automatic Gut Microbiome Sampling.

IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive, pill-sized capsules can provide intestinal fluid sampling to easily retrieve site-specific gut microbiome samples for studies in nutrition and chronic diseases. However, capsules with both automatic sampling and active locomotion are uncommon due to limited onboard space. This paper presents a novel hybrid hydrogel-magnet actuated capsule featuring: i) pH-responsive hydrogels that will automatically trigger fluid sampling at an environmental pH of > 6 and ii) active locomotion by an external rotating magnetic field.

METHOD: Two capsule designs were fabricated (Design A: 31 μL sampling volume with dimensions 8 mm × 19 mm, Design B: 41 μL sampling volume with dimensions 8 mm × 21 mm). They were immersed in simulated gastric (pH = 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid (pH = 6.8) to test for automatic intestinal fluid sampling. An external rotating magnetic field was applied to test for active locomotion. Finally, seal tests were performed to demonstrate sample contamination mitigation.

RESULTS: Preliminary experiments showed that sampling occurred quickly and automatically in simulated intestinal fluid at 6 - 15 hours, active locomotion via rotation, rolling, and tumbling were possible at magnetic field magnitudes < 10 mT, oil piston seals were better at mitigating sample contamination than water piston seals, and minimum o-ring seal pressures limits of 1.95 and 1.69 kPa for Design A and B respectively were sufficient against intra-abdominal pressures.

SIGNIFICANCE: This work presents the ability to impart capsule multi-functionality in a compact manner without onboard electronics or external triggering for sampling.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Obi A, Rothenberg-Lausell C, Levit S, et al (2024)

Proteomic alterations in patients with atopic dermatitis.

Expert review of proteomics [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: AtopicDermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease with a complex andmultifactorial pathogenesis. The use of proteomics in understanding AD hasyielded the discovery of novel biomarkers and may further expand therapeuticoptions.

AREASCOVERED: Thisreview summarizes the most recent proteomic studies and the methodologies usedin AD. It describes novel biomarkers that may monitor disease course andtherapeutic response. The review also highlights skin and blood biomarkerscharacterizing different AD phenotypes and differentiates AD from otherinflammatory skin disorders. A literature search was conducted by queryingScopus, Google Scholar, Pubmed/Medline, and Clinicaltrials.gov up to June 2023.

EXPERTOPINION: Theintegration of proteomics into research efforts in atopic dermatitis hasbroadened our understanding of the molecular profile of AD through thediscovery of new biomarkers. In addition, proteomics may contribute to thedevelopment of targeted treatments ultimately improving personalized medicine.An increasing number of studies are utilizing proteomics to explore thisheterogeneous disease.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

van den Tweel M, van den Munckhof E, van der Zanden M, et al (2024)

Testing on bacterial vaginosis in a subfertile population and time to pregnancy: a prospective cohort study.

Archives of gynecology and obstetrics [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the influence of bacterial vaginosis on time to pregnancy in subfertile couples.

METHODS: Couples attending a teaching hospital in the Netherlands having an initial fertility assessment (IFA) between July 2019 and June 2022 were included in this prospective study, with follow-up of pregnancies until June 2023. Vaginal samples at IFA were analyzed on pH, qPCR BV, and 16S rRNA gene microbiome analysis of V1-V2 region. Main outcome measures were time from initial fertility assessment to ongoing pregnancy at 12 weeks and live birth, analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression with adjustment for potential confounders.

RESULTS: At IFA, 27% of 163 included participants tested positive for BV. BV status had no influence on time to ongoing pregnancy (HR 0.98, 0.60-1.61, aHR 0.97, 0.58-1.62). In persons with unexplained subfertility, positive BV status had a tendency of longer time to pregnancy. When persons had an indication for fertility treatment, positive BV status (HR 0.21, 0.05-0.88, aHR 0.19, 0.04-0.85) and microbiome community state type III and type IV had significant longer time to pregnancy.

CONCLUSION: This study indicates that BV may have a potential negative impact on time to live birth pregnancy in subfertile persons with an indication for fertility treatment. This study did not find an association between BV and time to live birth pregnancy in a general group of subfertile couples or in unexplained subfertility. More research should be done in persons with unexplained subfertility and if treatment improves time to pregnancy.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Maukonen M, Koponen KK, Havulinna AS, et al (2024)

Associations of plant-based foods, red and processed meat, and dairy with gut microbiome in Finnish adults.

European journal of nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Population-based studies on the associations of plant-based foods, red meat or dairy with gut microbiome are scarce. We examined whether the consumption of plant-based foods (vegetables, potatoes, fruits, cereals), red and processed meat (RPM) or dairy (fermented milk, cheese, other dairy products) are related to gut microbiome in Finnish adults.

METHODS: We utilized data from the National FINRISK/FINDIET 2002 Study (n = 1273, aged 25-64 years, 55% women). Diet was assessed with 48-hour dietary recalls. Gut microbiome was analyzed using shallow shotgun sequencing. We applied multivariate analyses with linear models and permutational ANOVAs adjusted for relevant confounders.

RESULTS: Fruit consumption was positively (beta = 0.03, SE = 0.01, P = 0.04), while a dairy subgroup including milk, cream and ice-creams was inversely associated (beta=-0.03, SE 0.01, P = 0.02) with intra-individual gut microbiome diversity (alpha-diversity). Plant-based foods (R[2] = 0.001, P = 0.03) and dairy (R[2] = 0.002, P = 0.01) but not RPM (R[2] = 0.001, P = 0.38) contributed to the compositional differences in gut microbiome (beta-diversity). Plant-based foods were associated with several butyrate producers/cellulolytic species including Roseburia hominis. RPM associations included an inverse association with R. hominis. Dairy was positively associated with several lactic producing/probiotic species including Lactobacillus delbrueckii and potentially opportunistic pathogens including Citrobacter freundii. Dairy, fermented milk, vegetables, and cereals were associated with specific microbial functions.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a potential association between plant-based foods and dairy or their subgroups with microbial diversity measures. Furthermore, our findings indicated that all the food groups were associated with distinct overall microbial community compositions. Plant-based food consumption particularly was associated with a larger number of putative beneficial species.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Li T, Zhu J, Yu Q, et al (2024)

Dietary Flavonoid Quercetin Supplement Promotes Antiviral Innate Responses Against Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection by Reshaping the Bacteriome and Host Metabolome in Mice.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: Active ingredients in functional foods exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral activity. The objective of this study is to investigate the protective effect of quercetin derived from bee propolis, a natural product with antiviral activity and modulating effects on the gut microbiota, against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a cellular-based study, this study demonstrates that quercetin can modulate the activity of interferon-regulating factor 3 (IRF3). In vivo, it shows that quercetin protects mice from VSV infection by enhancing interferon production and inhibiting the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The study conducts 16S rRNA-based gut microbiota and nontargets metabolomics analyses to elucidate the mechanisms underlying quercetin-mediated bidirectional communication between the gut microbiome and host metabolome during viral infection. Quercetin not only ameliorates VSV-induced dysbiosis of the intestinal flora but also alters serum metabolites related to lipid metabolism. Cross-correlations between the gut bacteriome and the serum metabolome indicate that quercetin can modulate phosphatidylcholine (16:0/0:0) and 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil to prevent VSV infection.

CONCLUSION: This study systematically elucidates the anti-VSV mechanism of quercetin through gut bacteriome and host metabolome assays, offering new insights into VSV treatment and revealing the mechanisms behind a novel disease management strategy using dietary flavonoid supplements.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Berman HL, Goltsman DSA, Anderson M, et al (2024)

Gardnerella diversity and ecology in pregnancy and preterm birth.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The vaginal microbiome has been linked to negative health outcomes including preterm birth. Specific taxa, including Gardnerella spp., have been identified as risk factors for these conditions. Historically, microbiome analysis methods have treated all Gardnerella spp. as one species, but the broad diversity of Gardnerella has become more apparent. We explore the diversity of Gardnerella clades and genomic species in the vaginal microbiome of pregnant women and their associations with microbiome composition and preterm birth. Relative abundance of Gardnerella clades and genomic species and other taxa was quantified in shotgun metagenomic sequencing data from three distinct cohorts of pregnant women. We also assessed the diversity and abundance of Gardnerella variants in 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data from seven previously conducted studies in differing populations. Individual microbiomes often contained multiple Gardnerella variants, and the number of clades was associated with increased microbial load, or the ratio of non-human reads to human reads. Taxon co-occurrence patterns were largely consistent across Gardnerella clades and among cohorts. Some variants previously described as rare were prevalent in other cohorts, highlighting the importance of surveying a diverse set of populations to fully capture the diversity of Gardnerella. The diversity of Gardnerella both across populations and within individual vaginal microbiomes has long been unappreciated, as has been the intra-species diversity of many other members of the vaginal microbiome. The broad genomic diversity of Gardnerella has led to its reclassification as multiple species; here we demonstrate the diversity of Gardnerella found within and between vaginal microbiomes.IMPORTANCEThe present study shows that single microbiomes can contain all currently known species of Gardnerella and that multiple similar species can exist within the same environment. Furthermore, surveys of demographically distinct populations suggest that some species appear more commonly in certain populations. Further studies in broad and diverse populations will be necessary to fully understand the ecological roles of each Gardnerella sp., how they can co-exist, and their distinct impacts on microbial communities, preterm birth, and other health outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Chen X, Wei J, Li Z, et al (2024)

Dysregulation of Gut Microbiota-Derived Neuromodulatory Amino Acid Metabolism in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: An Integrative Metagenomic and Metabolomic Analysis.

Annals of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Although accumulating evidence implicating altered gut microbiota in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and neurodegenerative disorders; however, the association between dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and metabolites in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains unclear.

METHODS: Fecal and plasma samples were obtained from 3 cohorts (HAND, HIV-non-HAND, and healthy controls), metagenomic analysis and metabolomic profiling were performed to investigate alterations in the gut microbial composition and circulating metabolites in HAND.

RESULTS: The gut microbiota of people living with HIV (PLWH) had an increased relative abundance of Prevotella and a decreased relative abundance of Bacteroides. In contrast, Prevotella and Megamonas were substantially decreased, and Bacteroides and Phocaeicola were increased in HAND patients. Moreover, untargeted metabolomics identified several neurotransmitters and certain amino acids associated with neuromodulation, and the differential metabolic pathways of amino acids associated with neurocognition were depleted in HAND patients. Notably, most neuromodulatory metabolites are associated with an altered abundance of specific gut bacteria.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the intricate interplay between the gut and microbiome-brain axis in the pathogenesis of HAND, highlighting the potential for developing novel therapeutic strategies that specifically target the gut microbiota. ANN NEUROL 2024.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Fuhri Snethlage CM, de Wit D, Wortelboer K, et al (2024)

Can fecal microbiota transplantations modulate autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes?.

Immunological reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease targeting insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. T1D is a multifactorial disease incorporating genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, the advances in high-throughput sequencing have allowed researchers to elucidate the changes in the gut microbiota taxonomy and functional capacity that accompany T1D development. An increasing number of studies have shown a role of the gut microbiota in mediating immune responses in health and disease, including autoimmunity. Fecal microbiota transplantations (FMT) have been largely used in murine models to prove a causal role of the gut microbiome in disease progression and have been shown to be a safe and effective treatment in inflammatory human diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent research regarding the gut microbiota-host interactions in T1D, the current advancement in therapies for T1D, and the usefulness of FMT studies to explore microbiota-host immunity encounters in murine models and to shape the course of human type 1 diabetes.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Bao W, Sun Y, Wang J, et al (2024)

Relationship Between the Gut Microbiota and Neurological Deficits in Patients With Cerebral Ischemic Stroke.

Neurorehabilitation and neural repair [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the paper was to investigate the composition and structure of intestinal flora in patients with cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), and to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota (GM) and different levels of stroke severity.

METHODS: In this study, 47 CIS patients (16 mild, 21 moderate, and 10 severe) and 15 healthy controls were included. General information, clinical data, and behavioral scores of the enrolled subjects were collected. Deoxyribonucleic acid in fecal intestinal flora was extracted and detected using high-throughput Illumina 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing technology. Finally, the correlation between the community composition of intestinal microbiota and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score in CIS patients was analyzed.

RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, there was no statistically significant difference in Alpha diversity among CIS patients, but the principal coordinate analysis showed significant differences in the composition of the GM among stroke patients with different degrees of severity and controls. In CIS patients, Streptococcus was significantly enriched, and Eshibacter-Shigella, Bacteroides, and Agathobacter were significantly down-regulated (P < .05). In addition, the relative abundance of Blautia was negatively correlated with the NIHSS score.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that different degrees of CIS severity exert distinct effects on the intestinal microbiome. This study reveals the intestinal microecological changes after brain injury from the perspective of brain-gut axis. Intestinal microorganisms not only reveal the possible pathological process and indicate the severity of neurologic impairment, but also make targeted therapy possible for CIS patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Gao L, Liu Y, Liu J, et al (2024)

Proton pump inhibitors stabilize the expression of PD-L1 on cell membrane depending on the phosphorylation of GSK3β.

Cancer medicine, 13(10):e7083.

BACKGROUND: Preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may indirectly diminish the microbiome diversity, thereby reducing the effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Conversely, recent publications have shown that PPIs could potentially enhance the response to ICIs. The precise mechanism through which PPIs modulate the ICIs remains unclear. In this study, we discovered a novel molecular function of PPIs in regulating immune invasion, specifically through inducing PD-L1 translocation in various tumor cells.

METHODS: C57BL/6 mice subcutaneous transplantation model is used to verify the potential efficacy of PPIs and PD-L1 antibody. Western blotting analysis and phosphorylated chip are used to verify the alteration of PD-L1-related pathways after being treated with PPIs. The related gene expression is performed by qRT-PCR and luciferase reporter analysis. We also collected 60 clinical patients diagnosed with esophageal cancer or reflux esophagitis and then detected the expression of PD-L1 in the tissue samples by immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS: We observed that the IC50 of tumor cells in response to PPIs was significantly higher than that of normal epithelial cells. PPIs significantly increased the expression of PD-L1 on cell membrane at clinically relevant concentrations. Furthermore, pre-treatment with PPIs appeared to synergize the efficiency of anti-PD-L1 antibodies in mouse models. However, PPI administration did not alter the transcription or total protein level of PD-L1 in multiple tumor cells. Using a phosphorylated protein chip, we identified that PPIs enhanced the phosphorylation of GSK3β, then leading to PD-L1 protein translocation to the cell membranes. The capacity of PPIs to upregulate PD-L1 was negated following GSK3β knockout. Furthermore, our clinical data showed that the PPIs use resulted in increased PD-L1 expression in esophageal cancer patients.

CONCLUSION: We mainly address a significant and novel mechanism that the usage of PPIs could directly induce the expression of PD-L1 by inducing GSK3β phosphorylation and facilitate primary tumor progression and metastasis.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Barber A, Friedrichs J, C Müller (2024)

Gregarines impact consumption and development but not glucosinolate metabolism in the mustard leaf beetle.

Frontiers in physiology, 15:1394576.

Gregarines are usually classified as parasites, but recent studies suggest that they should be viewed on a parasitism-mutualism spectrum and may even be seen as part of the gut microbiota of host insects. As such, they may also impact the consumption of their hosts and/or be involved in the digestion or detoxification of the host's diet. To study such effects of a gregarine species on those traits in its host, the mustard leaf beetle (Phaedon cochleariae) was used. This beetle species feeds on Brassicaceae plants that contain glucosinolates, which form toxic compounds when hydrolyzed by myrosinases. We cleaned host eggs from gametocysts and spores and reinfected half of the larvae with gregarines, to obtain gregarine-free (G-) and gregarine-infected (G+) larvae. Growth and food consumption parameters of these larvae were assessed by rearing individuals on watercress (Nasturtium officinale, Brassicaceae). A potential involvement of gregarines in the glucosinolate metabolism of P. cochleariae larvae was investigated by offering G- and G+ larvae leaf discs of watercress (containing mainly the benzenic 2-phenylethyl glucosinolate and myrosinases) or pea (Pisum sativum, Fabaceae, lacking glucosinolates and myrosinases) treated with the aliphatic 4-pentenyl glucosinolate or the indole 1-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate. Larval and fecal samples were analyzed via UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS to search for breakdown metabolites. Larval development, body mass, growth rate and efficiency to convert food into body mass were negatively affected by gregarine infection while the pupal mass remained unaffected. The breakdown metabolites of benzenic and aliphatic glucosinolates were conjugated with aspartic acid, while those of the indole glucosinolate were conjugated with glutamic acid. Gregarine infection did not alter the larvae's ability to metabolize glucosinolates and was independent of plant myrosinases. In summary, some negative effects of gregarines on host performance could be shown, indicating parasitism. Future studies may further disentangle this gregarine-host relationship and investigate the microbiome potentially involved in the glucosinolate metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-05-17
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Luqman A, Saising J, Prasetya YA, et al (2024)

Detection of Vancomycin Resistant Genes in Intrinsically Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria from the Gut Microbiota of Indonesian Individuals.

Iranian journal of medical sciences, 49(5):302-312.

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global public health concern that has been exacerbated by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, leading to the emergence of resistant bacteria. The gut microbiota, often influenced by antibiotic usage, plays a crucial role in overall health. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic resistant genes in the gut microbiota of Indonesian coastal and highland populations, as well as to identify vancomycin-resistant bacteria and their resistant genes.

METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 22 individuals residing in Pacet, Mojokerto, and Kenjeran, Surabaya Indonesia in 2022. The read count of antibiotic resistant genes was analyzed in the collected samples, and the bacterium concentration was counted by plating on the antibiotic-containing agar plate. Vancomycin-resistant strains were further isolated, and the presence of vancomycin-resistant genes was detected using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

RESULTS: The antibiotic resistant genes for tetracycline, aminoglycosides, macrolides, beta-lactams, and vancomycin were found in high frequency in all stool samples (100%) of the gut microbiota. Meanwhile, those meant for chloramphenicol and sulfonamides were found in 86% and 16% of the samples, respectively. Notably, vancomycin-resistant genes were found in 16 intrinsically resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. Among the detected vancomycin-resistant genes, vanG was the most prevalent (27.3%), while vanA was the least prevalent (4.5%).

CONCLUSION: The presence of multiple vancomycin resistance genes in intrinsically resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota as a reservoir and hub for the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistant genes.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Meng XJ, Wang LQ, Ma BG, et al (2024)

Screening, identification and evaluation of an acidophilic strain of Bacillus velezensis B4-7 for the biocontrol of tobacco bacterial wilt.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1360173.

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is indeed a highly destructive plant disease, leading to substantial damage in tobacco production. While biological control is considered an effective measure for managing bacterial wilt, related research in this area has been relatively limited compared to other control methods. In order to discover new potential antagonistic bacteria with high biocontrol efficacy against tobacco bacterial wilt, we conducted an analysis of the microbial composition differences between disease-suppressive and disease-conducive soils using Illumina sequencing. As a result, we successfully isolated six strains from the disease-suppressive soil that exhibited antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum. Among these strains, B4-7 showed the strongest antibacterial activity, even at acidic conditions with a pH of 4.0. Based on genome analysis using Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), B4-7 was identified as Bacillus velezensis. In greenhouse and field trials, strain B4-7 significantly reduced the disease index of tobacco bacterial wilt, with control efficiencies reaching 74.03% and 46.88% respectively. Additionally, B4-7 exhibited plant-promoting abilities that led to a 35.27% increase in tobacco production in field conditions. Quantitative real-time (qPCR) analysis demonstrated that strain B4-7 effectively reduced the abundance of R. solanacearum in the rhizosphere. Genome sequencing and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis revealed that strain B4-7 potentially produces various lipopeptide metabolites, such as microlactin, bacillaene, difficidin, bacilysin, and surfactin. Furthermore, B4-7 influenced the structure of the rhizosphere soil microbial community, increasing bacterial abundance and fungal diversity, while also promoting the growth of different beneficial microorganisms. In addition, B4-7 enhanced tobacco's resistance to R. solanacearum by increasing the activities of defense enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Collectively, these findings suggest that B. velezensis B4-7 holds significant biocontrol potential and can be considered a promising candidate strain for eco-friendly management of tobacco bacterial wilt.

RevDate: 2024-05-19

Chen PC, Hsu HY, Liao YC, et al (2024)

Oral administration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis LDL557 attenuates airway inflammation and changes the gut microbiota in a Der p-sensitized mouse model of allergic asthma.

Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria may be used as probiotics to prevent or treat various diseases, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii has an inhibitory effect on the development of atopic diseases.

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the effects of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strain LDL557 administration on a mouse asthma model resulting from Dermatophoides pteronyssinus (Der p) sensitization and investigated the associated gut microbiota.

METHODS: Der p-sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice were orally administered with three different doses of live (low, 10⁷ colony-forming units (CFU); medium, 10⁸ CFU; high, 10⁹ CFU) and heat-killed (10⁹ cells) LDL557 in 200 μL of PBS daily, starting 2 weeks before Der p sensitization and lasting 4 weeks. After the allergen challenge, airway responsiveness to methacholine and the influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs were assessed. The gut microbiome was obtained by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from mice stool samples.

RESULTS: LDL557 in the live (10⁹ CFU) and heat-killed (10⁹ cells) conditions reduced the airway hyper-responsiveness after stimulation with methacholine, inflammatory cell infiltration, and mucus production. These effects were similar to those in groups treated with dexamethasone. No significant change in the gut microbiota was observed after LDL557 treatment, except for the tendency of heat-killed LDL557 to change the gut microbial profile to a greater extent than live LDL557.

CONCLUSION: In summary, we found that live and heat-killed LDL557 had the beneficial effect of preventing Der p-induced allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Mazuryk J, Klepacka K, Kutner W, et al (2024)

Glyphosate: Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity, Hemotoxicity, Carcinogenicity, and Clinical Cases of Endocrine, Reproductive, Cardiovascular, and Pulmonary System Intoxication.

ACS pharmacology & translational science, 7(5):1205-1236.

Glyphosate (GLP) is an active agent of GLP-based herbicides (GBHs), i.e., broad-spectrum and postemergent weedkillers, commercialized by Monsanto as, e.g., Roundup and RangerPro formulants. The GBH crop spraying, dedicated to genetically engineered GLP-resistant crops, has revolutionized modern agriculture by increasing the production yield. However, abusively administered GBHs' ingredients, e.g., GLP, polyoxyethyleneamine, and heavy metals, have polluted environmental and industrial areas far beyond farmlands, causing global contamination and life-threatening risk, which has led to the recent local bans of GBH use. Moreover, preclinical and clinical reports have demonstrated harmful impacts of GLP and other GBH ingredients on the gut microbiome, gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, and endocrine, as well as reproductive, and cardiopulmonary systems, whereas carcinogenicity of these herbicides remains controversial. Occupational exposure to GBH dysregulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, responsible for steroidogenesis and endocrinal secretion, thus affecting hormonal homeostasis, functions of reproductive organs, and fertility. On the other hand, acute intoxication with GBH, characterized by dehydration, oliguria, paralytic ileus, as well as hypovolemic and cardiogenic shock, pulmonary edema, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis, may occur fatally. As no antidote has been developed for GBH poisoning so far, the detoxification is mainly symptomatic and supportive and requires intensive care based on gastric lavage, extracorporeal blood filtering, and intravenous lipid emulsion infusion. The current review comprehensively discusses the molecular and physiological basics of the GLP- and/or GBH-induced diseases of the endocrine and reproductive systems, and cardiopulmonary-, nephro-, and hepatotoxicities, presented in recent preclinical studies and case reports on the accidental or intentional ingestions with the most popular GBHs. Finally, they briefly describe modern and future healthcare methods and tools for GLP detection, determination, and detoxification. Future electronically powered, decision-making, and user-friendly devices targeting major GLP/GBH's modes of actions, i.e., dysbiosis and the inhibition of AChE, shall enable self-handled or point-of-care professional-assisted evaluation of the harm followed with rapid capturing GBH xenobiotics in the body and precise determining the GBH pathology-associated biomarkers levels.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Xiao J (2024)

Role of the Gut Microbiota-Brain Axis in Brain Damage in Preterm Infants.

ACS pharmacology & translational science, 7(5):1197-1204.

The greatest repository of microbes in the human body, the intestinal microbiome, is involved in neurological development, aging, and brain illnesses such as white matter injury (WMI) in preterm newborns. Intestinal microorganisms constitute a microbial gut-brain axis that serves as a crucial conduit for communication between the gut and the nervous system. This axis controls inflammatory cytokines, which in turn influence the differentiation of premyelinating oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) and influence the incidence of WMI in premature newborns through the metabolites generated by gut microbes. Here, we describe the effects of white matter injury (WMI) on intestinal dysbiosis and gut dysfunction and explain the most recent research findings on the gut-brain axis in both humans and animals. We also emphasize the delicate relationship that exists between the microbiota and the brain following acute brain injury. The role that the intestinal microflora plays in influencing host metabolism, the immune system, brain health, and the course of disease is becoming increasingly clear, but there are still gaps in the field of WMI treatment. Thus, this review demonstrates the function of the gut microflora-brain axis in WMI and elucidates the possible mechanisms underlying the communication between gut bacteria and the developing brain via the gut-brain axis, potentially opening up new avenues for microbial-based intervention and treatment for preterm WMI.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Guo K, Ye J, Li J, et al (2024)

Effects of gut microbiome on type 1 diabetes susceptibility and complications: A large-scale bidirectional Mendelian randomization and external validation study.

Diabetes, obesity & metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To assess and verify the effect of the gut microbiome on the susceptibility and complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: To achieve this aim, a two-sample and reverse Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was conducted. In addition, an external validation study was performed using individual microbiome data of patients with T1D from the gutMEGA datasets and the National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases. The circulating metabolites facilitated two-sample MR analysis, mediation and multivariable MR analysis to evaluate the direct relationship between the gut microbiome and T1D complications.

RESULTS: The MR analysis results from the discovery and validation phases confirmed that Veillonellaceae can potentially reduce the susceptibility of T1D. In the gutMEGA dataset, the average relative abundance of Veillonellaceae in patients with T1D was 0.66%, compared with 1.09% in the controls. Furthermore, the external validation, which included 60 patients with T1D and 30 matched healthy controls, found that the median relative abundance of Veillonellaceae was also lower than controls at 1.10% (95% CI 0.50%-1.80%). Specifically, the Eubacterium coprostanoligenes group, known for its ability to regulate cholesterol, was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing renal, neurological and ophthalmic complications in T1D. Moreover, high cholesterol in small high-density lipoprotein and cholesteryl esters in high-density lipoprotein were associated with a reduced risk of T1D renal and ophthalmic complications. The mediation and multivariable MR analysis combining cholesterol indicated that the E. coprostanoligenes group is the most dominant factor influencing T1D complications.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings supported the potential causal effect of gut microbiota on the susceptibility and complications of T1D.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Lewis JD, Daniel SG, Li H, et al (2024)

Surgery for Crohn's Disease Is Associated with a Dysbiotic Microbiome and Metabolome: Results from Two Prospective Cohorts.

Cellular and molecular gastroenterology and hepatology pii:S2352-345X(24)00111-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome and metabolome described as dysbiosis. We characterized the microbial and metabolic consequences of ileal resection, the most common Crohn's disease surgery.

METHODS: Patients with and without intestinal resection were identified from the Diet to Induce Remission in Crohn's Disease and Study of a Prospective Adult Research Cohort with Inflammatory Bowel Disease studies. Stool samples were analyzed with shotgun metagenomics sequencing. Fecal butyrate was measured with [1]H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Fecal bile acids and plasma 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) was measured with mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: Intestinal resection was associated with reduced alpha diversity and altered beta diversity with increased Proteobacteria and reduced Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Surgery was associated with higher representation of genes in the KEGG pathway for ABC transporters and reduction in genes related to bacterial metabolism. Surgery was associated with reduced concentration of the But gene but this did not translate to reduced fecal butyrate concentration. Surgery was associated with decreased abundance of bai operon genes, with increased plasma C4 concentration, increased primary bile acids and reduced secondary bile acids, including isoLCA. Additionally, E lenta, A equalofaciens and G pamelaeae were lower in abundance among patients with prior surgery in both cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS: In two different populations, prior surgery in Crohn's disease is associated with altered fecal microbiome. Patients who had undergone ileal resection had reduction in the potentially beneficial bacteria E lenta and related actinobacteria as well as secondary bile acids, including isoLCA, suggesting that these could be biomarkers of patients at higher risk for disease progression.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Morrison HA, Eden K, Trusiano B, et al (2024)

NF-κB Inducing Kinase Attenuates Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Noncanonical NF-κB Mediated Colonic Epithelial Cell Regeneration.

Cellular and molecular gastroenterology and hepatology pii:S2352-345X(24)00110-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysregulated colonic epithelial cell (CEC) proliferation is a critical feature in the development of colorectal cancer. We show that NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) attenuates colorectal cancer through coordinating CEC regeneration/differentiation via noncanonical NF-κB signaling that is unique from canonical NF-κB signaling.

METHODS: Initial studies evaluated crypt morphology/functionality, organoid generation, transcriptome profiles, and the microbiome. Inflammation and inflammation-induced tumorigenesis was initiated in whole-body NIK knockout mice (Nik[-/-])and conditional-knockout mice following administration of azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS).

RESULTS: Human transcriptomic data revealed dysregulated noncanonical NF-κB signaling. In vitro studies evaluating Nik[-/-] crypts and organoids derived from mature, nondividing CECs and colonic stem cells (CSCs) exhibited increased accumulation and stunted growth, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis of Nik[-/-] cells revealed gene expression signatures associated with altered differentiation-regeneration. When assessed in vivo, Nik[-/-] mice exhibited more severe colitis with DSS administration and an altered microbiome characterized by increased colitogenic microbiota. In the inflammation-induced tumorigenesis model, we observed both increased tumor burdens and inflammation in mice where NIK is knocked out in CECs (Nik[ΔCEC]). Interestingly, this was not recapitulated when NIK was conditionally knocked out in myeloid cells (Nik[ΔMYE]). Surprisingly, conditional knockout of the canonical pathway in myeloid cells (RelA[ΔMYE]) revealed decreased tumor burden and inflammation and no significant changes when conditionally knocked out in CECs (RelA[ΔCEC]).

CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulated noncanonical NF-κB signaling is associated with the development of colorectal cancer in a tissue dependent manner and defines a critical role for NIK in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and regeneration associated with colorectal cancer.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Zhou S, Zhou H, Qian J, et al (2024)

Compound prebiotics as prophylactic and adjunctive treatments ameliorate DSS-induced colitis through gut microbiota modulation effects.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 270(Pt 1):132362 pii:S0141-8130(24)03167-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The prophylactic and adjunctive impacts of compound prebiotics (CP), comprising galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, and isomalto-oligosaccharides, on colitis remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of CP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis via modulation of the gut microbiota. Mice received prophylactic CP (PCP) for three weeks and DSS in the second week. In the third week, therapeutic CP, mesalazine, and a combination of CP and mesalazine (CPM) were administered to mice with DSS-induced colitis. The administration of PCP and CPM was found to ameliorate colitis, as evidenced by increases in body weight and colon length, elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and reductions in the disease activity index, histological scores, and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice with DSS-induced colitis on days 14 or 21. Furthermore, an increase in the relative abundance of probiotics (Ligilactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Limosilactobacillus), alpha diversity indices, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) contents, and microbial network complexity was observed following PCP or CPM treatment. Correlation analysis revealed positive associations between these probiotics and both SCFA and IL-10, and negative associations with pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study highlighted the potential of CP as novel prophylactic and adjunctive treatments for alleviating DSS-induced intestinal inflammation and maintaining gut microbiota homeostasis.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Gao S, Zhang S, Sun J, et al (2024)

Nanoplastic pollution changes the intestinal microbiome but not the morphology or behavior of a freshwater turtle.

The Science of the total environment, 934:173178 pii:S0048-9697(24)03325-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Humans produce 350 million metric tons of plastic waste per year, leading to microplastic pollution and widespread environmental contamination, particularly in aquatic environments. This subsequently impacts aquatic organisms in myriad ways, yet the vast majority of research is conducted in marine, rather than freshwater systems. In this study, we exposed eggs and hatchlings of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) to 80-nm polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NPs) and monitored the impacts on development, behavior and the gut microbiome. We demonstrate that 80-nm PS-NPs can penetrate the eggshell and move into developing embryos. This led to metabolic impairments, as evidenced by bradycardia (a decreased heart rate), which persisted until hatching. We found no evidence that nanoplastic exposure affected hatchling morphology, growth rates, or levels of boldness and exploration, yet we discuss some potential caveats here. Exposure to nanoplastics reduced the diversity and homogeneity of gut microbiota in P. sinensis, with the level of disruption correlating to the length of environmental exposure (during incubation only or post-hatching also). Thirteen core genera (with an initial abundance >1 %) shifted after nanoplastic treatment: pathogenic bacteria increased, beneficial probiotic bacteria decreased, and there was an increase in the proportion of negative correlations between bacterial genera. These changes could have profound impacts on the viability of turtles throughout their lives. Our study highlights the toxicity of environmental NPs to the embryonic development and survival of freshwater turtles. We provide insights about population trends of P. sinensis in the wild, and future directions for research.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Xiao X, Zhou Y, Li X, et al (2024)

[13]C-Stable isotope resolved metabolomics uncovers dynamic biochemical landscape of gut microbiome-host organ communications in mice.

Microbiome, 12(1):90.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiome metabolites are important modulators of host health and disease. However, the overall metabolic potential of the gut microbiome and interactions with the host organs have been underexplored.

RESULTS: Using stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM) in mice orally gavaged with [13]C-inulin (a tracer), we first observed dynamic enrichment of [13]C-metabolites in cecum contents in the amino acids and short-chain fatty acid metabolism pathways. [13]C labeled metabolites were subsequently profiled comparatively in plasma, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle collected at 6, 12, and 24 h after the tracer administration. Organ-specific and time-dependent [13]C metabolite enrichments were observed. Carbons from the gut microbiome were preferably incorporated into choline metabolism and the glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle in the liver and brain, respectively. A sex difference in [13]C-lactate enrichment was observed in skeletal muscle, which highlights the sex effect on the interplay between gut microbiome and host organs. Choline was identified as an interorgan metabolite derived from the gut microbiome and fed the lipogenesis of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine in host organs. In vitro and in silico studies revealed the de novo synthesis of choline in the human gut microbiome via the ethanolamine pathway, and Enterococcus faecalis was identified as a major choline synthesis species. These results revealed a previously underappreciated role for gut microorganisms in choline biosynthesis.

CONCLUSIONS: Multicompartmental SIRM analyses provided new insights into the current understanding of dynamic interorgan metabolite transport between the gut microbiome and host at the whole-body level in mice. Moreover, this study singled out microbiota-derived metabolites that are potentially involved in the gut-liver, gut-brain, and gut-skeletal muscle axes. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Gambarini V, Drost CJ, Kingsbury JM, et al (2024)

Uncoupled: investigating the lack of correlation between the transcription of putative plastic-degrading genes in the global ocean microbiome and marine plastic pollution.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):34.

BACKGROUND: Plastic pollution is a severe threat to marine ecosystems. While some microbial enzymes can degrade certain plastics, the ability of the global ocean microbiome to break down diverse environmental plastics remains limited. We employed metatranscriptomic data from an international ocean survey to explore global and regional patterns in microbial plastic degradation potential.

RESULTS: On a global oceanic scale, we found no significant correlation between levels of plastic pollution and the expression of genes encoding enzymes putatively identified as capable of plastic degradation. Even when looking at different regional scales, ocean depth layers, or plastic types, we found no strong or even moderate correlation between plastic pollution and relative abundances of transcripts for enzymes with presumed plastic biodegradation potential. Our data, however, indicate that microorganisms in the Southern Ocean show a higher potential for plastic degradation, making them more appealing candidates for bioprospecting novel plastic-degrading enzymes.

CONCLUSION: Our research contributes to understanding the complex global relationship between plastic pollution and microbial plastic degradation potential. We reveal that the transcription of putative plastic-degrading genes in the global ocean microbiome does not correlate to marine plastic pollution, highlighting the ongoing danger that plastic poses to marine environments threatened by plastic pollution.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Nyam TE, Wee HY, Chiu MH, et al (2024)

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Reduces the Traumatic Brain Injury-Mediated Neuroinflammation Through Enrichment of Prevotella Copri in the Gut of Male Rats.

Neurocritical care [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal dysfunction frequently occurs following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and significantly increases posttraumatic complications. TBI can lead to alterations in gut microbiota. The neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) have not been well recognized after TBI. The study''s aim was to investigate the impact of HBO on TBI-induced dysbiosis in the gut and the pathological changes in the brain following TBI.

METHODS: Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: sham surgery plus normobaric air (21% oxygen at 1 atmospheres absolute), TBI (2.0 atm) plus normobaric air, and TBI (2.0 atm) plus HBO (100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute) for 60 min immediately after TBI, 24 h later, and 48 h later. The brain injury volume, tumor necrosis factor-α expression in microglia and astrocytes, and neuronal apoptosis in the brain were subsequently determined. The V3-V4 regions of 16S ribosomal rRNA in the fecal samples were sequenced, and alterations in the gut microbiome were statistically analyzed. All parameters were evaluated on the 3rd day after TBI.

RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that HBO improved TBI-induced neuroinflammation, brain injury volume, and neuronal apoptosis. HBO appeared to increase the abundance of aerobic bacteria while inhibiting anaerobic bacteria. Intriguingly, HBO reversed the TBI-mediated decrease in Prevotella copri and Deinococcus spp., both of which were negatively correlated with neuroinflammation and brain injury volume. TBI increased the abundance of these gut bacteria in relation to NOD-lik0065 receptor signaling and the proteasome pathway, which also exhibited a positive correlation trend with neuro inflammation and apoptosis. The abundance of Prevotella copri was negatively correlated with NOD-like receptor signaling and the Proteasome pathway.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated how the neuroprotective effects of HBO after acute TBI might act through reshaping the TBI-induced gut dysbiosis and reversing the TBI-mediated decrease of Prevotella copri.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Liu Y, Wong CC, Ding Y, et al (2024)

Peptostreptococcus anaerobius mediates anti-PD1 therapy resistance and exacerbates colorectal cancer via myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mice.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria such as the oral microbiome member Peptostreptococcus anaerobius can exacerbate colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Little is known regarding whether these immunomodulatory bacteria also affect antitumour immune checkpoint blockade therapy. Here we show that administration of P. anaerobius abolished the efficacy of anti-PD1 therapy in mouse models of CRC. P. anaerobius both induced intratumoral myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and stimulated their immunosuppressive activities to impair effective T cell responses. Mechanistically, P. anaerobius administration activated integrin α2β1-NF-κB signalling in CRC cells to induce secretion of CXCL1 and recruit CXCR2[+] MDSCs into tumours. The bacterium also directly activated immunosuppressive activity of intratumoral MDSCs by secreting lytC_22, a protein that bound to the Slamf4 receptor on MDSCs and promoted ARG1 and iNOS expression. Finally, therapeutic targeting of either integrin α2β1 or the Slamf4 receptor were revealed as promising strategies to overcome P. anaerobius-mediated resistance to anti-PD1 therapy in CRC.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Marsh R, Santos CD, Yule A, et al (2024)

Impact of extended Elexacaftor/Tezacaftor/Ivacaftor therapy on the gut microbiome in cystic fibrosis.

Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society pii:S1569-1993(24)00064-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of knowledge on the longer-term effects of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapies upon the gut microbiome and associated outcomes. In a pilot study, we investigated longitudinal Elexacaftor/Tezacaftor/Ivacaftor (ETI) therapy on the gut microbiota, metabolomic functioning, and clinical outcomes in people with CF (pwCF).

STUDY DESIGN: Faecal samples from 20 pwCF were acquired before and then following 3, 6, and 17+ months of ETI therapy. Samples were subjected to microbiota sequencing and targeted metabolomics to profile and quantify short-chain fatty acid composition. Ten healthy matched controls were included for comparison. Clinical data, including markers of intestinal function were integrated to investigate relationships.

RESULTS: Extended ETI therapy increased core microbiota diversity and composition, which translated to gradual shifts in whole microbiota composition towards that observed in healthy controls. Despite becoming more similar over time, CF microbiota and functional metabolite compositions remained significantly different to healthy controls. Antibiotic treatment for pulmonary infection significantly explained a relatively large degree of variation within the whole microbiota and rarer satellite taxa. Clinical outcomes were not significantly different following ETI.

CONCLUSIONS: Whilst differences persisted, a positive trajectory towards the microbiota observed in healthy controls was found. We posit that progression was predominately impeded by pulmonary antibiotics administration. We recommend future studies use integrated omics approaches within a combination of long-term longitudinal patient studies and model experimental systems. This will deepen our understanding of the impacts of CFTR modulator therapy and respiratory antibiotic interventions upon the gut microbiome and gastrointestinal pathophysiology in CF.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Dulamea AO, IC Lupescu (2024)

Cerebral cavernous malformations - An overview on genetics, clinical aspects and therapeutic strategies.

Journal of the neurological sciences, 461:123044 pii:S0022-510X(24)00179-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are abnormally packed blood vessels lined with endothelial cells, that do not exhibit intervening tight junctions, lack muscular and elastic layers and are usually surrounded by hemosiderin and gliosis. CCMs may be sporadic or familial autosomal dominant (FCCMs) caused by loss of function mutations in CCM1 (KRIT1), CCM2 (MGC4607), and CCM3 (PDCD10) genes. In the FCCMs, patients have multiple CCMs, different family members are affected, and developmental venous anomalies are absent. CCMs may be asymptomatic or may manifest with focal neurological deficits with or without associated hemorrhage andseizures. Recent studies identify a digenic "triple-hit" mechanism involving the aquisition of three distinct genetic mutations that culminate in phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PIK3CA) gain of function, as the basis for rapidly growing and clinically symptomatic CCMs. The pathophysiology of CCMs involves signaling aberrations in the neurovascular unit, including proliferative dysangiogenesis, blood-brain barrier hyperpermeability, inflammation and immune mediated processes, anticoagulant vascular domain, and gut microbiome-driven mechanisms. Clinical trials are investigating potential therapies, magnetic resonance imaging and plasma biomarkers for hemorrhage and CCMs-related epilepsy, as well as different techniques of neuronavigation and neurosonology to guide surgery in order to minimize post-operatory morbidity and mortality. This review addresses the recent data about the natural history, genetics, neuroimaging and therapeutic approaches for CCMs.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Wang Y, Zhang F, Zhang G, et al (2024)

Trace metals coupled with plasticisers in microplastics strengthen the denitrification function of the soil microbiome in the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau.

Journal of hazardous materials, 472:134593 pii:S0304-3894(24)01172-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the lack of research on the co-effects of microplastics and trace metals in the environment on nitrogen cycling-related functional microorganisms, the occurrence of microplastics and one of their plasticisers, phthalate esters, as well as trace metals, were determined in soils and river sediments in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Relationship between microplastics and phthalate esters in the area was determined; the co-effects of these potentially toxic materials, and key factors and pathways affecting nitrogen functions were further explored. Significant correlations between fibre- and film-shaped microplastics and phthalate esters were detected in the soils from the plateau. Copper, lead, cadmium and di-n-octyl phthalate detected significantly affected nitrogen cycling-related functional microorganisms. The co-existence of di-n-octyl phthalate and copper in soils synergistically stimulated the expression of denitrification microorganisms nirS gene and "nitrate_reduction". Additionally, di-n-octyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate more significantly affected the variation of nitrogen cycling-related functional genes than the number of microplastics. In a dimethyl phthalate- and cadmium-polluted area, nitrogen cycling-related functional genes, especially nirK gene, were more sensitive and stressed. Overall, phthalate esters originated from microplastics play a key role in nitrogen cycling-related functions than microplastics themselves, moreover, the synergy between di-n-octyl phthalate and copper strengthen the expression of denitrification functions.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Yang S, Han X, Li J, et al (2024)

Oceanobacillus picturae alleviates cadmium stress and promotes growth in soybean seedlings.

Journal of hazardous materials, 472:134568 pii:S0304-3894(24)01147-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that significantly impacts human health and the environment. Microorganisms play a crucial role in reducing heavy metal stress in plants; however, the mechanisms by which microorganisms enhance plant tolerance to Cd stress and the interplay between plants and microorganisms under such stress remain unclear. In this study, Oceanobacillus picturae (O. picturae) was isolated for interaction with soybean seedlings under Cd stress. Results indicated that Cd treatment alone markedly inhibited soybean seedling growth. Conversely, inoculation with O. picturae significantly improved growth indices such as plant height, root length, and fresh weight, while also promoting recovery in soil physiological indicators and pH. Metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses identified 157 genes related to aspartic acid, cysteine, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. Sixty-three microbial species were significantly associated with metabolites in these pathways, including pathogenic, adversity-resistant, and bioconductive bacteria. This research experimentally demonstrates, for the first time, the growth-promoting effect of the O. picturae strain on soybean seedlings under non-stress conditions. It also highlights its role in enhancing root growth and reducing Cd accumulation in the roots under Cd stress. Additionally, through the utilization of untargeted metabolomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics for a multi-omics analysis, we investigated the impact of O. picturae on the soil microbiome and its correlation with differential gene expression in plants. This innovative approach unveils the molecular mechanisms underlying O. picturae's promotion of root growth and adaptation to Cd stress.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Adhikary K, Sarkar R, Maity S, et al (2024)

The underlying causes, treatment options of gut microbiota and food habits in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a narrative review.

Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a long-lasting endocrine disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycaemia, which is often triggered by an entire or relative inadequacy of insulin production or insulin resistance. As a result of resistance to insulin (IR) and an overall lack of insulin in the body, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic illness that is characterized by hyperglycaemia. Notably, the occurrence of vascular complications of diabetes and the advancement of IR in T2DM are accompanied by dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. Due to the difficulties in managing the disease and the dangers of multiple accompanying complications, diabetes is a chronic, progressive immune-mediated condition that plays a significant clinical and health burden on patients. The frequency and incidence of diabetes among young people have been rising worldwide. The relationship between the gut microbiota composition and the physio-pathological characteristics of T2DM proposes a novel way to monitor the condition and enhance the effectiveness of therapies. Our knowledge of the microbiota of the gut and how it affects health and illness has changed over the last 20 years. Species of the genus Eubacterium, which make up a significant portion of the core animal gut microbiome, are some of the recently discovered 'generation' of possibly helpful bacteria. In this article, we have focused on pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches towards T2DM, with a special reference to gut bacteria from ancient times to the present day.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Zhao Z, Amano C, Reinthaler T, et al (2024)

Substrate uptake patterns shape niche separation in marine prokaryotic microbiome.

Science advances, 10(20):eadn5143.

Marine heterotrophic prokaryotes primarily take up ambient substrates using transporters. The patterns of transporters targeting particular substrates shape the ecological role of heterotrophic prokaryotes in marine organic matter cycles. Here, we report a size-fractionated pattern in the expression of prokaryotic transporters throughout the oceanic water column due to taxonomic variations, revealed by a multi-"omics" approach targeting ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs). Substrate specificity analyses showed that marine SAR11, Rhodobacterales, and Oceanospirillales use ABC transporters to take up organic nitrogenous compounds in the free-living fraction, while Alteromonadales, Bacteroidetes, and Sphingomonadales use TBDTs for carbon-rich organic matter and metal chelates on particles. The expression of transporter proteins also supports distinct lifestyles of deep-sea prokaryotes. Our results suggest that transporter divergency in organic matter assimilation reflects a pronounced niche separation in the prokaryote-mediated organic matter cycles.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Zhao W, Ren A, Shan S, et al (2024)

Inhibitory Effects of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Foxtail Millet on Colorectal Cancer by the Restoration of Gut Microbiota.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor that occurs in the colon. Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CRC. Our previous studies showed that the soluble dietary fiber of foxtail millet (FMB-SDF) exhibited significant antitumor activity in vitro. The present study evaluated the anticancer potential of FMB-SDF in the azoxymethane (AOM)- and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse CRC models. The results showed that FMB-SDF could significantly alleviate colon cancer symptoms in mice. Further, we found that FMB-SDF consumption significantly altered gut microbiota diversity and the overall structure and regulated the abundance of some microorganisms in CRC mice. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway enrichment showed that FMB-SDF can also alleviate the occurrence of colon cancer in mice by regulating certain cancer-related signaling pathways. In conclusion, our findings may provide a novel approach for the prevention and biotherapy of CRC.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Wang J, Li Y, Mu Y, et al (2024)

Missing microbes in infants and children in the COVID-19 pandemic: a study of 1,126 participants in Beijing, China.

Science China. Life sciences [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused many fatalities worldwide and continues to affect the health of the recovered patients in the form of long-COVID. In this study, we compared the gut microbiome of uninfected infants and children before the pandemic began (BEFORE cohort, n=906) to that of after the pandemic (AFTER cohort, n=220) to examine the potential impact of social distancing and life habit changes on infant/children gut microbiome. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, we found a significant change in microbiome composition after the pandemic, with Bacteroides enterotype increasing to 35.45% from 30.46% before the pandemic. qPCR quantification indicated that the bacterial loads of seven keystone taxa decreased by 91.69%-19.58%. Quantitative microbiome profiling, used to enhance the resolution in detecting microbiome differences, revealed a greater explained variance of pandemic on microbiome compared to gender, as well as a significant decrease in bacterial loads in 15 of the 20 major genera. The random forest age-predictor indicated the gut microbiomes were less mature in the after-pandemic cohort than in the before-pandemic cohort in the children group (3-12 years old) and had features of a significantly younger age (average of 1.86 years). Lastly, body weight and height were significantly lower in the after-pandemic cohort than in the before-pandemic cohort in infants (<1 year of age), which was associated with a decrease in bacterial loads in the fecal microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Eveleens Maarse BC, Ronner MN, Jansen MAA, et al (2024)

Immunomodulating effects of the single bacterial strain therapy EDP1815 on innate and adaptive immune challenge responses - a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Immunologic research [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome can modulate systemic inflammation and is therefore target for immunomodulation. Immunomodulating effects of EDP1815, a bacterial commensal strain of Prevotella histicola, were studied in healthy participants. Effects on adaptive immunity were evaluated by a neo-antigen challenge with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), while effects on innate immunity were evaluated by topical toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist imiquimod. Capsules with two enteric coating levels (EC1, EC2) were compared. Thirty-six healthy participants were included and received a daily dose of 8 × 10[10] cells EDP1815-EC1, EDP1815-EC2 or placebo (randomization 1:1:1) for 60 days. They received KLH vaccinations at days 8, 24 and 36, with intradermal skin challenge at day 57. KLH challenge outcomes were antibody levels, and skin blood flow and erythema after skin challenge, measured by imaging techniques. Imiquimod administration started at day 57, for 72 h. Outcomes consisted of imaging measurements similar to the KLH challenge, and the influx of inflammatory cells and cytokines in blister fluid. There was no effect of EDP1815 treatment on the KLH challenge, neither on the imaging outcomes of the imiquimod challenge. There was a consistently lower influx of inflammatory cells in the blister fluid of EDP1815-treated participants (neutrophils, p = 0.016; granulocytes, p = 0.024), more pronounced in EC1. There was a lower influx of interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon [IFN]-γ and tumour necrosis factor in blister fluid of EDP1815-treated participants. EDP1815 had immunomodulatory effects on the innate immune response driven by imiquimod, but no effect on the KLH challenge was observed. Trial registration number: NCT05682222; date: 22 July 2022.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Medeiros W, Hidalgo K, Leão T, et al (2024)

Unlocking the biosynthetic potential and taxonomy of the Antarctic microbiome along temporal and spatial gradients.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Extreme environments, such as Antarctica, select microbial communities that display a range of evolutionary strategies to survive and thrive under harsh environmental conditions. These include a diversity of specialized metabolites, which have the potential to be a source for new natural product discovery. Efforts using (meta)genome mining approaches to identify and understand biosynthetic gene clusters in Antarctica are still scarce, and the extent of their diversity and distribution patterns in the environment have yet to be discovered. Herein, we investigated the biosynthetic gene diversity of the biofilm microbial community of Whalers Bay, Deception Island, in the Antarctic Peninsula and revealed its distribution patterns along spatial and temporal gradients by applying metagenome mining approaches and multivariable analysis. The results showed that the Whalers Bay microbial community harbors a great diversity of biosynthetic gene clusters distributed into seven classes, with terpene being the most abundant. The phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota were the most abundant in the microbial community and contributed significantly to the biosynthetic gene abundances in Whalers Bay. Furthermore, the results highlighted a significant correlation between the distribution of biosynthetic genes and taxonomic diversity, emphasizing the intricate interplay between microbial taxonomy and their potential for specialized metabolite production.IMPORTANCEThis research on antarctic microbial biosynthetic diversity in Whalers Bay, Deception Island, unveils the hidden potential of extreme environments for natural product discovery. By employing metagenomic techniques, the research highlights the extensive diversity of biosynthetic gene clusters and identifies key microbial phyla, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota, as significant contributors. The correlation between taxonomic diversity and biosynthetic gene distribution underscores the intricate interplay governing specialized metabolite production. These findings are crucial for understanding microbial adaptation in extreme environments and hold significant implications for bioprospecting initiatives. The study opens avenues for discovering novel bioactive compounds with potential applications in medicine and industry, emphasizing the importance of preserving and exploring these polyextreme ecosystems to advance biotechnological and pharmaceutical research.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Isokääntä H, Tomnikov N, Vanhatalo S, et al (2024)

High-throughput DNA extraction strategy for fecal microbiome studies.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Microbiome studies are becoming larger in size to detect the potentially small effect that environmental factors have on our gut microbiomes, or that the microbiome has on our health. Therefore, fast and reproducible DNA isolation methods are needed to handle thousands of fecal samples. We used the Chemagic 360 chemistry and Magnetic Separation Module I (MSMI) instrument to compare two sample preservatives and four different pre-treatment protocols to find an optimal method for DNA isolation from thousands of fecal samples. The pre-treatments included bead beating, sample handling in tube and plate format, and proteinase K incubation. The optimal method offers a sufficient yield of high-quality DNA without contamination. Three human fecal samples (adult, senior, and infant) with technical replicates were extracted. The extraction included negative controls (OMNIgeneGUT, DNA/RNA shield fluid, and Chemagic Lysis Buffer 1) to detect cross-contamination and ZymoBIOMICS Gut Microbiome Standard as a positive control to mimic the human gut microbiome and assess sensitivity of the extraction method. All samples were extracted using Chemagic DNA Stool 200 H96 kit (PerkinElmer, Finland). The samples were collected in two preservatives, OMNIgeneGUT and DNA/RNA shield fluid. DNA quantity was measured using Qubit-fluorometer, DNA purity and quality using gel electrophoresis, and taxonomic signatures with 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing with V3V4 and V4 regions. Bead beating increased bacterial diversity. The largest increase was detected in gram-positive genera Blautia, Bifidobacterium, and Ruminococcus. Preservatives showed minor differences in bacterial abundances. The profiles between the V3V4 and V4 regions differed considerably with lower diversity samples. Negative controls showed signs from genera abundant in fecal samples. Technical replicates of the Gut Standard and stool samples showed low variation. The selected isolation protocol included recommended steps from manufacturer as well as bead beating. Bead beating was found to be necessary to detect hard-to-lyse bacteria. The protocol was reproducible in terms of DNA yield among different stool replicates and the ZymoBIOMICS Gut Microbiome Standard. The MSM1 instrument and pre-treatment in a 96-format offered the possibility of automation and handling of large sample collections. Both preservatives were feasible in terms of sample handling and had low variation in taxonomic signatures. The 16S rRNA target region had a high impact on the composition of the bacterial profile.

IMPORTANCE: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a widely used method for determining the composition of the gut microbiota. Due to the differences in the gut microbiota composition between individuals, microbiome studies have expanded into large population studies to maximize detection of small effects on microbe-host interactions. Thus, the demand for a rapid and reliable microbial profiling is continuously increasing, making the optimization of high-throughput 96-format DNA extraction integral for NGS-based downstream applications. However, experimental protocols are prone to bias and errors from sample collection and storage, to DNA extraction, primer selection and sequencing, and bioinformatics analyses. Methodological bias can contribute to differences in microbiome profiles, causing variability across studies and laboratories using different protocols. To improve consistency and confidence of the measurements, the standardization of microbiome analysis methods has been recognized in many fields.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Bukavina L, Ginwala R, Eltoukhi M, et al (2024)

Role of Gut Microbiome in Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Response in Urothelial Carcinoma: A Multi-Institutional Prospective Cohort Evaluation.

Cancer research communications pii:745364 [Epub ahead of print].

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is linked with clinical advantages in urothelial carcinoma for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Despite comprehensive research into the influence of tumor mutation expression profiles and clinicopathological factors on chemotherapy response, the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in bladder cancer(BC) chemotherapy response remains poorly understood. This study examines the variance in the gut microbiome(GM) of BC patients compared to healthy adults, and investigates GM compositional differences between patients who respond to chemotherapy versus those who exhibit residual disease. Our study reveals distinct clustering, effectively separating the BC and healthy cohorts. However, no significant differences were observed between chemotherapy responders and non-responders within community subgroups. Machine Learning models based on responder status outperformed clinical variables in predicting complete response (AUC 0.88 vs AUC 0.50), although no single microbial species emerged as a fully reliable biomarker. The evaluation of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration in blood and stool revealed no correlation with responder status. Still, SCFA analysis showed a higher abundance of Akkermansia (rs = 0.51, p = 0.017) and Clostridia (rs = 0.52, p = 0.018), which correlated with increased levels of detectable fecal isobutyric acid. Higher levels of fecal Lactobacillus (rs = 0.49, p=0.02) and Enterobacteriaceae (rs = 0.52, p < 0.03) correlated with increased fecal propionic acid. In conclusion, our study constitutes the first large-scale, multi-center assessment of GM composition, suggesting the potential for a complex microbial signature to predict patients more likely to respond to NAC based on multiple taxa.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Junker R, Valence F, Mistou M-Y, et al (2024)

Integration of metataxonomic data sets into microbial association networks highlights shared bacterial community dynamics in fermented vegetables.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The management of food fermentation is still largely based on empirical knowledge, as the dynamics of microbial communities and the underlying metabolic networks that produce safe and nutritious products remain beyond our understanding. Although these closed ecosystems contain relatively few taxa, they have not yet been thoroughly characterized with respect to how their microbial communities interact and dynamically evolve. However, with the increased availability of metataxonomic data sets on different fermented vegetables, it is now possible to gain a comprehensive understanding of the microbial relationships that structure plant fermentation. In this study, we applied a network-based approach to the integration of public metataxonomic 16S data sets targeting different fermented vegetables throughout time. Specifically, we aimed to explore, compare, and combine public 16S data sets to identify shared associations between amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) obtained from independent studies. The workflow includes steps for searching and selecting public time-series data sets and constructing association networks of ASVs based on co-abundance metrics. Networks for individual data sets are then integrated into a core network, highlighting significant associations. Microbial communities are identified based on the comparison and clustering of ASV networks using the "stochastic block model" method. When we applied this method to 10 public data sets (including a total of 931 samples) targeting five varieties of vegetables with different sampling times, we found that it was able to shed light on the dynamics of vegetable fermentation by characterizing the processes of community succession among different bacterial assemblages.

IMPORTANCE: Within the growing body of research on the bacterial communities involved in the fermentation of vegetables, there is particular interest in discovering the species or consortia that drive different fermentation steps. This integrative analysis demonstrates that the reuse and integration of public microbiome data sets can provide new insights into a little-known biotope. Our most important finding is the recurrent but transient appearance, at the beginning of vegetable fermentation, of amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) belonging to Enterobacterales and their associations with ASVs belonging to Lactobacillales. These findings could be applied to the design of new fermented products.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Stindt KR, MN McClean (2024)

Tuning interdomain conjugation to enable in situ population modification in yeasts.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The ability to modify and control natural and engineered microbiomes is essential for biotechnology and biomedicine. Fungi are critical members of most microbiomes, yet technology for modifying the fungal members of a microbiome has lagged far behind that for bacteria. Interdomain conjugation (IDC) is a promising approach, as DNA transfer from bacterial cells to yeast enables in situ modification. While such genetic transfers have been known to naturally occur in a wide range of eukaryotes and are thought to contribute to their evolution, IDC has been understudied as a technique to control fungal or fungal-bacterial consortia. One major obstacle to the widespread use of IDC is its limited efficiency. In this work, we manipulated metabolic and physical interactions between genetically tractable Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to control the incidence of IDC. We test the landscape of population interactions between the bacterial donors and yeast recipients to find that bacterial commensalism leads to maximized IDC, both in culture and in mixed colonies. We demonstrate the capacity of cell-to-cell binding via mannoproteins to assist both IDC incidence and bacterial commensalism in culture and model how these tunable controls can predictably yield a range of IDC outcomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these controls can be utilized to irreversibly alter a recipient yeast population, by both "rescuing" a poor-growing recipient population and collapsing a stable population via a novel IDC-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system.IMPORTANCEFungi are important but often unaddressed members of most natural and synthetic microbial communities. This work highlights opportunities for modifying yeast microbiome populations through bacterial conjugation. While conjugation has been recognized for its capacity to deliver engineerable DNA to a range of cells, its dependence on cell contact has limited its efficiency. Here, we find "knobs" to control DNA transfer, by engineering the metabolic dependence between bacterial donors and yeast recipients and by changing their ability to physically adhere to each other. Importantly, we functionally validate these "knobs" by irreversibly altering yeast populations. We use these controls to "rescue" a failing yeast population, demonstrate the capacity of conjugated CRISPR/Cas9 to depress or collapse populations, and show that conjugation can be easily interrupted by disrupting cell-to-cell binding. These results offer building blocks toward in situ mycobiome editing, with significant implications for clinical treatments of fungal pathogens and other fungal system engineering.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Li C-x, Lv M, Liu H-y, et al (2024)

Comparison of the upper and lower airway microbiome in early postoperative lung transplant recipients.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The upper and lower respiratory tract may share microbiome because they are directly continuous, and the nasal microbiome contributes partially to the composition of the lung microbiome. But little is known about the upper and lower airway microbiome of early postoperative lung transplant recipients (LTRs). Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we compared paired nasal swab (NS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) microbiome from 17 early postoperative LTRs. The microbiome between the two compartments were significantly different in Shannon diversity and beta diversity. Four and eight core NS-associated and BALF-associated microbiome were identified, respectively. NS samples harbored more Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, while BALF contained more Ralstonia, Stenotrophomonas, Enterococcus, and Pedobacter. The within-subject dissimilarity was higher than the between-subject dissimilarity, indicating a greater impact of sampling sites than sampling individuals on microbial difference. There were both difference and homogeneity between NS and BALF microbiome in early postoperative LTRs. High levels of pathogens were detected in both samples, suggesting that both of them can reflect the diseases characteristics of transplanted lung. The differences between upper and lower airway microbiome mainly come from sampling sites instead of sampling individuals.

IMPORTANCE: Lung transplantation is the only therapeutic option for patients with end-stage lung disease, but its outcome is much worse than other solid organ transplants. Little is known about the NS and BALF microbiome of early postoperative LTRs. Here, we compared paired samples of the nasal and lung microbiome from 17 early postoperative LTRs and showed both difference and homogeneity between the two samples. Most of the "core" microbiome in both NS and BALF samples were recognized respiratory pathogens, suggesting that both samples can reflect the diseases characteristics of transplanted lung. We also found that the differences between upper and lower airway microbiome in early postoperative LTRs mainly come from sampling sites instead of sampling individuals.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Lei J, Su Y, Jian S, et al (2024)

Warming effects on grassland soil microbial communities are amplified in cool months.

The ISME journal pii:7673525 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming modulates soil respiration (RS) via microbial decomposition, which is seasonally dependent. Yet, the magnitude and direction of this modulation remain unclear, partly owing to the lack of knowledge on how microorganisms respond to seasonal changes. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of soil microbial communities over 12 consecutive months under experimental warming in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem. The interplay between warming and time altered (p < 0.05) the taxonomic and functional compositions of microbial communities. During the cool months (January to February and October to December), warming induced a soil microbiome with a higher genomic potential for carbon decomposition, community-level ribosomal RNA operon (rrn) copy numbers, and microbial metabolic quotients, suggesting that warming stimulated fast-growing microorganisms that enhanced carbon decomposition. Modeling analyses further showed that warming reduced the temperature sensitivity of microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) by 28.7% when monthly average temperature was low, resulting in lower microbial CUE and higher heterotrophic respiration (Rh) potentials. Structural equation modeling showed that warming modulated both Rh and RS directly by altering soil temperature and indirectly by influencing microbial community traits, soil moisture, nitrate content, soil pH, and gross primary productivity. The modulation of Rh by warming was more pronounced in cooler months compared to warmer ones. Together, our findings reveal distinct warming-induced effects on microbial functional traits in cool months, challenging the norm of soil sampling only in the peak growing season, and advancing our mechanistic understanding of the seasonal pattern of RS and Rh sensitivity to warming.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )