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05 Jun 2023 at 01:43
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Bibliography on: Microbiome


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 05 Jun 2023 at 01:43 Created: 


It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-06-03

Zhu YG, Peng J, Chen C, et al (2023)

Harnessing biological nitrogen fixation in plant leaves.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(23)00167-X [Epub ahead of print].

The importance of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in securing food production for the growing world population with minimal environmental cost has been increasingly acknowledged. Leaf surfaces are one of the biggest microbial habitats on Earth, harboring diverse free-living N2-fixers. These microbes inhabit the epiphytic and endophytic phyllosphere and contribute significantly to plant N supply and growth. Here, we summarize the contribution of phyllosphere-BNF to global N cycling, evaluate the diversity of leaf-associated N2-fixers across plant hosts and ecosystems, illustrate the ecological adaptation of N2-fixers to the phyllosphere, and identify the environmental factors driving BNF. Finally, we discuss potential BNF engineering strategies to improve the nitrogen uptake in plant leaves and thus sustainable food production.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Fardi F, Bahari Khasraghi L, Shahbakhti N, et al (2023)

An interplay between non-coding RNAs and gut microbiota in human health.

Diabetes research and clinical practice pii:S0168-8227(23)00502-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Humans have a complicated symbiotic relationship with their gut microbiome, which is postulated to impact host health and disease broadly. Epigenetic alterations allow host cells to regulate gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. The gut microbiome, offering environmental hints, can influence responses to stimuli by host cells with modifications on their epigenome and gene expression. Recent increasing data suggest that regulatory non-coding RNAs (miRNAs, circular RNAs, and long lncRNA) may affect host-microbe interactions. These RNAs have been suggested as potential host response biomarkers in microbiome-associated disorders, including diabetes and cancer. This article reviews the current understanding of the interplay between gut microbiota and non-coding RNA, including lncRNA, miRNA, and circular RNA. This can lead to a profound understanding of human disease and influence therapy. Furthermore, microbiome engineering as a mainstream strategy for improving human health has been discussed and confirms the hypothesis about a direct cross-talk between microbiome composition and non-coding RNA.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Ho E, Drake VJ, Michels AJ, et al (2023)

Perspective: Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) Science in Session. Optimizing Health with Nutrition - Opportunities, Gaps, and the Future.

Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) pii:S2161-8313(23)01320-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Achieving optimal health is an aspirational goal for the population, yet the definition of health remains unclear. The role of nutrition in health has evolved beyond correcting malnutrition and specific deficiencies, and has begun to focus more on achieving and maintaining 'optimal' health through nutrition. As such, the Council for Responsible Nutrition held its October 2022 Science in Session conference to advance this concept. Here, we summarize and discuss the findings of their Optimizing Health through Nutrition - Opportunities and Challenges workshop, including several gaps that need to be addressed to advance progress in the field. Defining and evaluating various indices of optimal health will require overcoming these key gaps. For example, there is a strong need to develop better biomarkers of nutrient status, including more accurate markers of food intake, as well as biomarkers of optimal health that account for maintaining resilience - the ability to recover from or respond to stressors without loss to physical and cognitive performance. In addition, there is a need to identify factors that drive individualized responses to nutrition, including genotype, metabotypes and the gut microbiome, and to realize the opportunity of precision nutrition for optimal health. This review outlines hallmarks of resilience, current examples of nutritional factors to optimize cognitive and performance resilience, and overview of various genetic, metabolic and microbiome determinants of individualized responses.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Kong X, Cernava T, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Native fungal community remains resilient during bioremediation of DBP pollution by exogenous Gordonia phthalatica QH-11[T].

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03153-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial bioremediation is a highly effective method to degrade phthalates in the environment. However, the response of native microbial communities to the exogenously introduced microorganism remains unknown. In this study, the native fungal community was monitored by amplicon sequencing of the fungal ITS region during the restoration process of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)-contaminated soils with Gordonia phthalatica QH-11[T]. Our results showed that the diversity, composition, and structure of the fungal community in the bioremediation treatment did not differ from the control, and no significant correlations were found between number of Gordonia and variation of fungal community. It was also observed that DBP pollution initially increased the relative abundance of plant pathogens and soil saprotrophs first, but their proportions returned to the initial level. Molecular ecological network analysis showed that DBP pollution increased the network complexity, while the network was not significantly altered by bioremediation. Overall, the introduction of Gordonia was shown to not have a long-term impact on the native soil fungal community. Therefore, this restoration method can be considered safe in terms of soil ecosystem stability. The present study provides a deeper insight into the effect of bioremediation on fungal communities and provides an extended basis to further explore the ecological risks of introducing exogenous microorganisms.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Peng K, Liu YX, Sun X, et al (2023)

Long-read metagenomic sequencing reveals that high-copy small plasmids shape the highly prevalent antibiotic resistance genes in animal fecal microbiome.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03206-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence and prevalence of animal-derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) pose a great threat to public health globally. Long-read metagenomic sequencing is increasingly being used to decipher the fate of environmental ARGs. However, the investigations of the distribution, co-occurrence patterns, and host information of animal-derived environmental ARGs with long-read metagenomic sequencing have received little attention. To cover the gap, we employed a novel QitanTech nanopore long-read metagenomic sequencing method to perform a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the microbial communities and antibiotic resistance profiles, as well as to analyze the host information and genetic structures of ARGs in the feces of laying hens. Our results showed that highly abundant and diverse ARGs were detected in the feces of different ages of laying hens, indicating that feeding animal feces was an important reservoir for the enrichment and maintenance of ARGs. The distribution pattern of chromosomal ARGs was more strongly associated with fecal microbial communities than plasmid-mediated ARGs. Further long-read host tracking analysis revealed that ARGs from Proteobacteria are commonly located on plasmids, whereas in Firmicutes, they are usually carried by chromosomes. Co-occurrence analysis displayed that co-selection phenomena of different ARGs were common occurrences and highly active insertion sequences (ISs) could result in the serious prevalence of many ARGs. Notably, small high-copy plasmids played a significant role in the dissemination of several ARGs, such as floR and tet(L), which could disturb the compositions of fecal ARGs. Overall, our findings significantly expand our knowledge of the comprehensive landscape of feeding animal feces resistome, which is important for the prevention and management of multi-drug resistant bacteria in laying hens.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Wijenayake S, Martz J, Lapp HE, et al (2023)

The contributions of parental lactation on offspring development: It's not udder nonsense!.

Hormones and behavior, 153:105375 pii:S0018-506X(23)00073-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis describes how maternal stress exposures experienced during critical periods of perinatal life are linked to altered developmental trajectories in offspring. Perinatal stress also induces changes in lactogenesis, milk volume, maternal care, and the nutritive and non-nutritive components of milk, affecting short and long-term developmental outcomes in offspring. For instance, selective early life stressors shape the contents of milk, including macro/micronutrients, immune components, microbiota, enzymes, hormones, milk-derived extracellular vesicles, and milk microRNAs. In this review, we highlight the contributions of parental lactation to offspring development by examining changes in the composition of breast milk in response to three well-characterized maternal stressors: nutritive stress, immune stress, and psychological stress. We discuss recent findings in human, animal, and in vitro models, their clinical relevance, study limitations, and potential therapeutic significance to improving human health and infant survival. We also discuss the benefits of enrichment methods and support tools that can be used to improve milk quality and volume as well as related developmental outcomes in offspring. Lastly, we use evidence-based primary literature to convey that even though select maternal stressors may modulate lactation biology (by influencing milk composition) depending on the severity and length of exposure, exclusive and/or prolonged milk feeding may attenuate the negative in utero effects of early life stressors and promote healthy developmental trajectories. Overall, scientific evidence supports lactation to be protective against nutritive and immune stressors, but the benefits of lactation in response to psychological stressors need further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Fortman DD, Hurd D, D Davar (2023)

The Microbiome in Advanced Melanoma: Where Are We Now?.

Current oncology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent data linking gut microbiota composition to ICI outcomes and gut microbiota-specific interventional clinical trials in melanoma.

RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the effects of the gut microbiome modulation upon ICI response in advanced melanoma, with growing evidence supporting the ability of the gut microbiome to restore or improve ICI response in advanced melanoma through dietary fiber, probiotics, and FMT. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) targeting the PD-1, CTLA-4, and LAG-3 negative regulatory checkpoints have transformed the management of melanoma. ICIs are FDA-approved in advanced metastatic disease, stage III resected melanoma, and high-risk stage II melanoma and are being investigated more recently in the management of high-risk resectable melanoma in the peri-operative setting. The gut microbiome has emerged as an important tumor-extrinsic modulator of both response and immune-related adverse event (irAE) development in ICI-treated cancer in general, and melanoma in particular.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Zhou CH, Chen YH, Xue SS, et al (2023)

rTMS ameliorates depressive-like behaviors and regulates the gut microbiome and medium- and long-chain fatty acids in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a clinically useful therapy for depression. However, the effects of rTMS on the metabolism of fatty acids (FAs) and the composition of gut microbiota in depression are not well established.

METHODS: Mice received rTMS (15 Hz, 1.26 T) for seven consecutive days after exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The subsequent depressive-like behaviors, the composition of gut microbiota of stool samples, as well as medium- and long-chain fatty acids (MLCFAs) in the plasma, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus (HPC) were evaluated.

RESULTS: CUMS induced remarkable changes in gut microbiotas and fatty acids, specifically in community diversity of gut microbiotas and PUFAs in the brain. 15 Hz rTMS treatment alleviates depressive-like behaviors and partially normalized CUMS induced alterations of microbiotas and MLCFAs, especially the abundance of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteriota, and levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the hippocampus and PFC.

CONCLUSION: These findings revealed that the modulation of gut microbiotas and PUFAs metabolism might partly contribute to the antidepressant effect of rTMS.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Riboni N, Bianchi F, Mattarozzi M, et al (2023)

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry for metabolomic analysis of dental calculus from Duke Alessandro Farnese and Maria D'Aviz.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8967.

Dental calculus is a valuable resource for the reconstruction of dietary habits and oral microbiome of past populations. In 2020 the remains of Duke Alessandro Farnese and his wife Maria D'Aviz were exhumed to get novel insights into the causes of death. This study aimed to investigate the dental calculus metabolome of the noble couple by untargeted metabolomics. The pulverized samples were decalcified in a water-formic acid mixture, extracted using methanol/acetonitrile and analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) using a reversed-phase separation followed by electrospray ionization and full scan in positive and negative ion mode. Waters Synapt-G2-Si High-Definition hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used. Significant features were then identified using MS[E] acquisition mode, recording information on exact mass precursor and fragment ions within the same run. This approach, together with data pre-treatment and multivariate statistical analysis allowed for the identification of compounds able to differentiate between the investigated samples. More than 200 metabolites were identified, being fatty acids, alcohols, aldehydes, phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylglycerols, ceramides and phosphatidylserines the most abundant classes. Metabolites deriving from food, bacteria and fungi were also determined, providing information on the habits and oral health status of the couple.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Rodriguez CI, Keshavarzian A, Hamaker BR, et al (2023)

Curated and harmonized gut microbiome 16S rRNA amplicon data from dietary fiber intervention studies in humans.

Scientific data, 10(1):346.

Next generation amplicon sequencing has created a plethora of data from human microbiomes. The accessibility to this scientific data and its corresponding metadata is important for its reuse, to allow for new discoveries, verification of published results, and serving as path for reproducibility. Dietary fiber consumption has been associated with a variety of health benefits that are thought to be mediated by gut microbiota. To enable direct comparisons of the response of the gut microbiome to fiber, we obtained 16S rRNA sequencing data and its corresponding metadata from 11 fiber intervention studies for a total of 2,368 samples. We provide curated and pre-processed genetic data and common metadata for comparison across the different studies.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Zhao L, Lundy SR, Eko FO, et al (2023)

Genital tract microbiome dynamics are associated with time of Chlamydia infection in mice.

Scientific reports, 13(1):9006.

We have previously shown that the time of Chlamydia infection was crucial in determining the chlamydial infectivity and pathogenesis. This study aims to determine whether the time of Chlamydia infection affects the genital tract microbiome. This study analyzed mice vaginal, uterine, and ovary/oviduct microbiome with and without Chlamydia infection. The mice were infected with Chlamydia at either 10:00 am (ZT3) or 10:00 pm (ZT15). The results showed that mice infected at ZT3 had higher Chlamydia infectivity than those infected at ZT15. There was more variation in the compositional complexity of the vaginal microbiome (alpha diversity) of mice infected at ZT3 than those mice infected at ZT15 throughout the infection within each treatment group, with both Shannon and Simpson diversity index values decreased over time. The analysis of samples collected four weeks post-infection showed that there were significant taxonomical differences (beta diversity) between different parts of the genital tract-vagina, uterus, and ovary/oviduct-and this difference was associated with the time of infection. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla within the microbiome in all three genital tract regions for all the samples collected during this experiment. Additionally, Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in the uterine microbiome of ZT3 Chlamydia infected mice. The results show that the time of infection is associated with the microbial dynamics in the genital tract. And this association is more robust in the upper genital tract than in the vagina. This result implies that more emphasis should be placed on understanding the changes in the microbial dynamics of the upper genital tract over the course of infection.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Straw EA, Mesnage R, Brown MJF, et al (2023)

No impacts of glyphosate or Crithidia bombi, or their combination, on the bumblebee microbiome.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8949.

Pesticides are recognised as a key threat to pollinators, impacting their health in many ways. One route through which pesticides can affect pollinators like bumblebees is through the gut microbiome, with knock-on effects on their immune system and parasite resistance. We tested the impacts of a high acute oral dose of glyphosate on the gut microbiome of the buff tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris), and glyphosate's interaction with the gut parasite (Crithidia bombi). We used a fully crossed design measuring bee mortality, parasite intensity and the bacterial composition in the gut microbiome estimated from the relative abundance of 16S rRNA amplicons. We found no impact of either glyphosate, C. bombi, or their combination on any metric, including bacterial composition. This result differs from studies on honeybees, which have consistently found an impact of glyphosate on gut bacterial composition. This is potentially explained by the use of an acute exposure, rather than a chronic exposure, and the difference in test species. Since A. mellifera is used as a model species to represent pollinators more broadly in risk assessment, our results highlight that caution is needed in extrapolating gut microbiome results from A. mellifera to other bee species.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Gillen A, D Catherine Archer (2023)

Epidemiology of Colic: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice pii:S0749-0739(23)00017-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Epidemiologic studies are essential for the generation of evidence-based, preventive health care strategies. This includes ways to minimize colic risk and assist informed decision making concerning diagnosis, treatment, and likely outcomes. It is important to consider that colic is not a simple "disease" but is a syndrome of abdominal pain that encompasses multiple different disease processes, and which is multifactorial in nature. This review focuses on prevention and diagnosis of colic, including specific forms of colic, communications with owners/carers concerning colic risk and management, and areas of future research.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Bhoopathi P, Mannangatti P, Das SK, et al (2023)

Chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Overcoming resistance to therapy.

Advances in cancer research, 159:285-341.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a prominent cause of cancer deaths worldwide, is a highly aggressive cancer most frequently detected at an advanced stage that limits treatment options to systemic chemotherapy, which has provided only marginal positive clinical outcomes. More than 90% of patients with PDAC die within a year of being diagnosed. PDAC is increasing at a rate of 0.5-1.0% per year, and it is expected to be the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality by 2030. The resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, which can be innate or acquired, is the primary factor contributing to the ineffectiveness of cancer treatments. Although many PDAC patients initially responds to standard of care (SOC) drugs they soon develop resistance caused partly by the substantial cellular heterogeneity seen in PDAC tissue and the tumor microenvironment (TME), which are considered key factors contributing to resistance to therapy. A deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in PDAC progression and metastasis development, and the interplay of the TME in all these processes is essential to better comprehend the etiology and pathobiology of chemoresistance observed in PDAC. Recent research has recognized new therapeutic targets ushering in the development of innovative combinatorial therapies as well as enhancing our comprehension of several different cell death pathways. These approaches facilitate the lowering of the therapeutic threshold; however, the possibility of subsequent resistance development still remains a key issue and concern. Discoveries, that can target PDAC resistance, either alone or in combination, have the potential to serve as the foundation for future treatments that are effective without posing undue health risks. In this chapter, we discuss potential causes of PDAC chemoresistance and approaches for combating chemoresistance by targeting different pathways and different cellular functions associated with and mediating resistance.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Tveter KM, Mezhibovsky E, Wu Y, et al (2023)

Bile acid metabolism and signaling: Emerging pharmacological targets of dietary polyphenols.

Pharmacology & therapeutics pii:S0163-7258(23)00121-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Beyond their role as emulsifiers of lipophilic compounds, bile acids (BAs) are signaling endocrine molecules that show differential affinity and specificity for a variety of canonical and non-canonical BA receptors. Primary BAs (PBAs) are synthesized in the liver while secondary BAs (SBAs) are gut microbial metabolites of PBA species. PBAs and SBAs signal to BA receptors that regulate downstream pathways of inflammation and energy metabolism. Dysregulation of BA metabolism or signaling has emerged as a feature of chronic disease. Dietary polyphenols are non-nutritive plant-derived compounds associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, hepatobiliary and cardiovascular disease. Evidence suggests that the health promoting effects of dietary polyphenols are linked to their ability to alter the gut microbial community, the BA pool, and BA signaling. In this review we provide an overview of BA metabolism and summarize studies that link the cardiometabolic improvements of dietary polyphenols to their modulation of BA metabolism and signaling pathways, and the gut microbiota. Finally, we discuss approaches and challenges in deciphering cause-effect relationships between dietary polyphenols, BAs, and gut microbes.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Chu C, Li T, Yu L, et al (2023)

A Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Exerts a Neuroprotective Effect on Mice with 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Induced Parkinson's Disease by Regulating the Microbiota-Metabolite-Brain Axis and Fibroblast Growth Factor 21.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Parkinson's disease (PD) is closely linked to lifestyle factors, particularly dietary patterns, which have attracted interest as potential disease-modifying factors. Eating a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet is a promising dietary intervention against brain aging; however, its protective effect on PD remains elusive. Here, we found that an LPHC diet ameliorated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-induced motor deficits, decreased dopaminergic neuronal death, and increased the levels of striatal dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites in PD mice. Levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, were elevated in PD mice following LPHC treatment. Furthermore, the administration of FGF-21 exerted a protective effect on MPTP-induced PC12 cells, similar to the effect of an LPHC diet in MPTP-induced mice. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA from fecal microbiota revealed that an LPHC diet normalized the gut bacterial composition imbalance in PD mice, as evidenced by the increased abundance of the genera Bifidobacterium, Ileibacterium, Turicibacter, and Blautia and decreased abundance of Bilophila, Alistipes, and Bacteroides. PICRUSt-predicted fecal microbiome function revealed that an LPHC diet suppressed lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and the citrate cycle (TCA cycle), biosynthesis of ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinones, and oxidative phosphorylation pathways caused by MPTP, and enhanced the biosynthesis of amino acids, carbohydrate metabolism, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites. A nonmetabolomic analysis of the serum and feces showed that an LPHC diet significantly increased the levels of aromatic amino acids (AAAs), including tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. In addition, an LPHC diet elevated the serum concentrations of bile acids (BAs), particularly tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and taurine. Collectively, our current findings point to the potential mechanism of administering an LPHC diet in attenuating movement impairments in MPTP-induced PD mice, with AAAs, microbial metabolites (TUDCA and taurine), and FGF-21 as key mediators along the gut-microbiota-brain axis.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Kim S, Li H, Jin Y, et al (2023)

Maternal PBDE exposure disrupts gut microbiome and promotes hepatic pro-inflammatory signaling in humanized PXR-transgenic mouse offspring over time.

Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology pii:7189754 [Epub ahead of print].

Developmental exposure to the persistent environmental pollutant, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), is associated with increased diabetes prevalence. The microbial tryptophan metabolite, indole 3-propionic acid (IPA), is associated with reduced risk of type-2 diabetes and lower-grade inflammation and is a PXR activator. To explore the role of IPA in modifying the PBDE developmental toxicity, we orally exposed humanized PXR-transgenic (hPXR-TG) mouse dams to vehicle, 0.1 mg/kg/day DE-71 (an industrial PBDE mixture), DE-71+IPA (20 mg/kg/day), or IPA, from 4-weeks preconception to the end of lactation. Pups were weaned at 21-days of age and IPA supplementation continued in the corresponding treatment groups. Tissues were collected at various ages until 6 months of age (n = 5 per group). In general, the effect of maternal DE-71 exposure on the gut microbiome of pups was amplified over time. The regulation of hepatic cytokines and prototypical xenobiotic-sensing transcription factor target genes by DE-71 and IPA was age- and sex-dependent, where DE-71-mediated mRNA increased selected cytokines (Il10, Il12p40, Il1β [both sexes], and [males]). The hepatic mRNA of the AhR target gene Cyp1a2 was increased by maternal DE-71 and DE-71+IPA exposure at PND21 but intestinal Cyp1a1 was not altered by any of the exposures and ages. Maternal DE-71 exposure persistently increased serum indole, a known AhR ligand, in age- and sex-dependent manner. In conclusion, maternal DE-71 exposure produced a pro-inflammatory signature along the gut-liver axis, including gut dysbiosis, dysregulated tryptophan microbial metabolism, attenuated PXR signaling, and elevated AhR signaling in post-weaned hPXR-TG pups over time, which was partially corrected by IPA supplementation.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Du B, Xiao X, Wang H, et al (2023)

Evaluation of the Impact of BaP Exposure on the Gut Microbiota and Allergic Responses in an OVA-Sensitized Mouse Model.

Environmental health perspectives, 131(6):67004.

BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental pollutants, including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), has been implicated in allergic diseases and intestinal microbiota homeostasis, but the environment-microbiota-immunity triangular relationship and to what extent BaP-induced remodeling of the gut microbiota contributes to intestinal allergic inflammation remain to be established.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of BaP on intestinal allergic inflammation and examined the relationship between this effect and gut microbiota dysbiosis. We explored the potential ability of intestinal bacteria to degrade BaP and alleviate cytotoxicity as a detoxification strategy to counteract the effects of BaP exposure.

METHODS: We combined microbiome shotgun metagenomics with animal histological and intestinal allergic inflammatory responses to assess the effects of BaP (50μg/mouse per day) in a 23-d toxicity test in antigen-induced allergic female mice. In addition, genome annotation, quantitative analysis of BaP, and in vitro cytotoxicity-tests using CaCo-2 cells were conducted to infer the role of intestinal bacteria in BaP detoxification.

RESULTS: BaP exposure impacted the taxonomic composition and the functional potential of the gut microbiota and aggravated antigen-induced intestinal allergic inflammatory responses. The level of inflammatory cytokines correlated with the abundance of specific bacterial taxa, including Lachnospiraceae bacterium 28-4 and Alistipes inops. We identified 614 bacteria harboring genes implicated in the degradation of BaP, and 4 of these bacterial strains were shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of BaP to CaCo-2 cells in vitro.

DISCUSSION: Using allergic female mice as a model, we investigated the relationship between BaP, microbiota, and host immune reactions, highlighting the role of gut bacteria in BaP-aggravated allergic reactions. Our findings offer novel insight toward establishing the causal relationship between BaP exposure and the occurrence of allergic disorders. Identifying gut bacteria that degrade BaP may provide new strategies for ameliorating BaP cytotoxicity. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP11874.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Molinaro G, Huber KM, McCullagh EA, et al (2023)

Editorial: Recent advances in mechanisms and therapeutics for Fragile X Syndrome and autism.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 17:1187799.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Jamieson PE, Carbonero F, JF Stevens (2023)

Dietary (poly)phenols mitigate inflammatory bowel disease: Therapeutic targets, mechanisms of action, and clinical observations.

Current research in food science, 6:100521.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are a rapidly growing public health concern worldwide. These diseases are heterogeneous at the clinical, immunological, molecular, genetic, and microbial level, but characteristically involve a disrupted immune-microbiome axis. Shortcomings in conventional treatment options warrant the need for novel therapeutic strategies to mitigate these life-long and relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Polyphenols, a diverse group of phytochemicals, have gained attention as candidate treatments due to their array of biological effects. Polyphenols exert broad anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects through the modulation of cellular signaling pathways and transcription factors important in IBD progression. Polyphenols also bidirectionally modulate the gut microbiome, supporting commensals and inhibiting pathogens. One of the primary means by which gut microbiota interface with the host is through the production of metabolites, which are small molecules produced as intermediate or end products of metabolism. There is growing evidence to support that modulation of the gut microbiome by polyphenols restores microbially derived metabolites critical to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis that are adversely disrupted in IBD. This review aims to define the therapeutic targets of polyphenols that may be important for mitigation of IBD symptoms, as well as to collate evidence for their clinical use from randomized clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Petersen RB, B Walter (2023)

Editorial: Insights into Parkinson's disease and aging related movement disorders.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 15:1193197.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Wu L, Liu X, Zhang A, et al (2023)

Chronic corticosterone exposure disrupts hepatic and intestinal bile acid metabolism in chicken.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1147024.

OBJECTIVE: Chronic stress leads to a high circulating level of glucocorticoids, which disrupts lipid metabolism and causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and humans. Meanwhile, bile acid (BA), a class of metabolites initially synthesized in the liver and further metabolized by gut microbiota, plays a vital role in lipid metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids on BA metabolism and gut microbiota in chickens.

METHODS: In this study, 35-day-old chickens were injected with 4 mg/kg/day corticosterone (Cort) for 14 days to simulate chronic stress.

RESULTS: Cort treatment significantly increased the triglyceride contents in the plasma and the liver. HE and oil-red staining showed that Cort treatment induced fatty liver in chickens. Meanwhile, Cort exposure downregulated total bile acid (TBA) content in the liver while increasing the TBA in feces. UPLC-HRMS results showed that Cort exposure significantly decreased the hepatic levels of CDCA, T-alpha-MCA, and T-beta-MCA. Moreover, Cort exposure significantly reduced the expression of genes related to BA synthesis (CYP8B1 and CYP27A1), conjugation (BACS), and regulation (KLβ and FGFR4). 16s sequencing results showed that Cort treatment significantly decreased the amount of Lachnospiraceae, Eisenbergiella, Blautia, and Eubacterium and increased the abundance of Barnesiella, Lactobacillus, and Helicobacter. Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between fecal TBA and the abundance of Lactobacillales, Lactobacillus, and Barnesiella. In comparison, TBA in the liver was positively correlated with Eubacterium, and negatively correlated with Helicobacter.

CONCLUSION: In summary, chronic Cort exposure disrupts hepatic and intestinal bile acid metabolism inducing gut microbiome dysbiosis, which might associate with the development of fatty liver in chickens.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Khan I (2023)

Editorial: Nutrition to support gut health and the microbiome in athletes.

Frontiers in nutrition, 10:1207543.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Gu Y, Han W, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Xylocopa caerulea and Xylocopa auripennis harbor a homologous gut microbiome related to that of eusocial bees.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1124964.

BACKGROUND: Eusocial bees, such as bumblebees and honey bees, harbor host-specific gut microbiota through their social behaviors. Conversely, the gut microbiota of solitary bees is erratic owing to their lack of eusocial activities. Carpenter bees (genus Xylocopa) are long-lived bees that do not exhibit advanced eusociality like honey bees. However, they often compete for nests to reproduce. Xylocopa caerulea and Xylocopa auripennis are important pollinators of wild plants on Hainan Island. Whether they have host-specific bacteria in their guts similar to eusocial bees remains unknown.

METHODS: We targeted the bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 region to investigate the diversity of bacterial symbionts in the fore-midgut and hindgut of two carpenter bees, X. caerulea and X. auripennis.

RESULTS: A maximum of 4,429 unique amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) were detected from all samples, belonging to 10 different phyla. X. caerulea and X. auripennis shared similar bacterial community profiles, with Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Orbaceae being dominant in their entire guts. X. caerulea and X. auripennis harbor a highly conserved core set of bacteria, including the genera Candidatus Schmidhempelia and Bombiscardovia. These two bacterial taxa from carpenter bees are closely related to those isolated from bumblebees. The LEfSe analysis showed that Lactobacillaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and the genus Bombilactobacillus were significantly enriched in the hindguts of both carpenter bees. Functional prediction suggested that the most enriched pathways were involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the structure of the gut microbiota in two carpenter bees and confirmed the presence of some core bacterial taxa that were previously only found in the guts of social bees.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Bhatt P, Chen S, C Murphy (2023)

Editorial: Recent advancements in microbe-pesticide interaction: a smart-soil bioremediation approach.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1206179.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Kimura M, Nishida H, Kato M, et al (2023)

Editorial: Microorganisms and their metabolism affecting quality, safety and functionality of agricultural products.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1215112.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Kedia S, V Ahuja (2023)

Human gut microbiome: A primer for the clinician.

JGH open : an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 7(5):337-350 pii:JGH312902.

The human host gets tremendously influenced by a genetically and phenotypically distinct and heterogeneous constellation of microbial species-the human microbiome-the gut being one of the most densely populated and characterized site for these organisms. Microbiome science has advanced rapidly, technically with respect to the analytical methods and biologically with respect to its mechanistic influence in health and disease states. A clinician conducting a microbiome study should be aware of the nuances related to microbiome research, especially with respect to the technical and biological factors that can influence the interpretation of research outcomes. Hence, this review is an attempt to detail these aspects of the human gut microbiome, with emphasis on its determinants in a healthy state.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Zha C, Peng Z, Huang K, et al (2023)

Potential role of gut microbiota in prostate cancer: immunity, metabolites, pathways of action?.

Frontiers in oncology, 13:1196217.

The gut microbiota helps to reveal the relationship between diseases, but the role of gut microbiota in prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. Recent studies have found that the composition and abundance of specific gut microbiota are significantly different between PCa and non-PCa, and the gut microbiota may have common and unique characteristics between different diseases. Intestinal microorganisms are affected by various factors and interact with the host in a variety of ways. In the complex interaction model, the regulation of intestinal microbial metabolites and the host immune system is particularly important, and they play a key role in maintaining the ecological balance of intestinal microorganisms and metabolites. However, specific changes in the composition of intestinal microflora may promote intestinal mucosal immune imbalance, leading to the formation of tumors. Therefore, this review analyzes the immune regulation of intestinal flora and the production of metabolites, as well as their effects and mechanisms on tumors, and briefly summarizes that specific intestinal flora can play an indirect role in PCa through their metabolites, genes, immunity, and pharmacology, and directly participate in the occurrence, development, and treatment of tumors through bacterial and toxin translocation. We also discussed markers of high risk PCa for intestinal microbiota screening and the possibility of probiotic ingestion and fecal microbiota transplantation, in order to provide better treatment options for clinic patients. Finally, after summarizing a number of studies, we found that changes in immunity, metabolites.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Yang Y, Wang Y, Zhao L, et al (2023)

Chinese herbal medicines for treating ulcerative colitis via regulating gut microbiota-intestinal immunity axis.

Chinese herbal medicines, 15(2):181-200 pii:S1674-6384(23)00030-8.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of types of inflammatory bowel disease with high recurrence. Recent studies have highlighted that microbial dysbiosis as well as abnormal gut immunity are crucial factors that initiate a series of inflammatory responses in the UC. Modulating the gut microbiota-intestinal immunity loop has been suggested as one of key strategies for relieving UC. Many Chinese herbal medicines including some of single herb, herbal formulas and the derived constituents have been reported with protective effect against UC through modulating gut microbiome and intestinal immunity. Some clinical trials have shown promising results. This review thus focused on the current knowledge on using Chinese herbal medicines for treating UC from the mechanism aspects of regulating intestinal homeostasis involving microbiota and gut immunity. The existing clinical trials are also summarized.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Malanovic N, D Vejzovic (2023)

Novel insights at the crossroads of antibiotic use and cancer risk.

Cell stress, 7(6):46-49 pii:CST0273E111.

The continuous use of antibiotics is associated with the spread of antimicrobial resistances and the not yet clear link to cancer development. Many conventional antibiotics have already shown different effects on a variety of cancer types raising questions for their rational use in cancer. However, discrepancy in the observed trend for some antibiotics reducing cancer development and being associated with higher risk of cancer underscores the lack of understanding the complex link between antibiotics and cancer. Here, we briefly summarize the possible antibiotic-mediated effects on cancer and conclude that those effects can be direct via i) specific targeting of tumor/cancer, ii) antimicrobial activity and iii) immunomodulatory activity whereby iv) indirectly caused effects primarily affect immune equilibrium between bacteria, cancer and immune cells. Furthermore, we also conclude that there is a great need for bulk profiling, comprehensive screening programs in all countries and in-depth studies to understand the risks and benefits of antibiotic use.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Chang J, Li X, Xia Q, et al (2023)

Potential values of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for intratumoral microbiome analysis in breast cancer.

Heliyon, 9(6):e16267 pii:S2405-8440(23)03474-6.

Breast cancer (BC) tissues have been proved to harbor microorganisms, which could potentially contribute to oncogenesis. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are the most widespread clinical samples in BC research. To verify the potential of FFPE tissues in microbiological analysis, we analyzed the microbial communities of FFPE and fresh frozen (FF) tumor samples from 30 participants diagnosed with BC deploying 16S rRNA sequencing. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) analysis showed that 78.55% of OTUs in FFPE samples were consistent with FF samples. The composition of core bacteria did not change much, and there is also no difference in alpha diversity between FFPE and FF (without unclassified bacteria). Taxonomic variation results show that Firmicutes and Bacteroidota phyla, and their major classes, maintained the same proportion under two preservation methods. In addition, the major class Gammaproteobacteria, as well as its dominant orders Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales all showed no significant difference in paired analysis. Moreover, the Proteobacteria and Actinobacteriota phyla showed no significant difference between FFPE and FF samples after subtracting unclassified bacteria. Therefore, premised with the intrinsic tumor heterogeneity and unclassified bacteria, there are potential values of FFPE tissues for intratumoral microbiome analysis in breast cancer.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Chen H, Sun R, Wang J, et al (2023)

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alleviates the pathological injuries in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum by modulating intestinal microbiome.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1172298.

Schistosoma japonicum causes serious pathological organ damage and alteration of the intestinal microbiome in the mammalian host, threatening the health of millions of people in China. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens has been reported to be able to alleviate the damage to the gut and liver and maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal microenvironment. However, it was unclear whether B. amyloliquefaciens could alleviate the hepatic and intestinal symptoms caused by S. japonicum. In this study, the intragastric administration of B. amyloliquefaciens was performed to treat S. japonicum-infected mice during the acute phase. Histopathological analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to evaluate the pathological damage and changes in the intestinal microbiome. The results of the study showed that B. amyloliquefaciens treatment significantly reduced the degree of granuloma and fibrosis in infected mice. Additionally, recovery of diversity in the intestinal microbiome, decrease in the relative abundance of potential pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia-Shigella, and reshaping of the interactive network between genera in the intestine were also observed after treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens. Our findings indicated that treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens effectively alleviated the pathological injuries of the liver and intestine in mice infected with S. japonicum by modulating the intestinal microbiome, implying that this probiotic can function as an effective therapeutic agent against schistosomiasis. We hope our study will provide auxiliary strategies and methods for the early prevention of schistosomiasis japonica.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Shirvani-Rad S, Khatibzade-Nasari N, Ejtahed HS, et al (2023)

Exploring the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis in gout pathogenesis: a systematic review.

Frontiers in medicine, 10:1163778.

OBJECTIVES: Gut dysbiosis is believed to be one of the several mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of gout. This systematic review aimed to summarize the role of gut dysbiosis in gout disease and uncover the underlying mechanisms.

METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases up to October 2021. Animal studies and human observational studies, including case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies assessing the association between gut microbiota composition and gout were included. The quality of included studies has been evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment scale (NOS) and the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool.

RESULTS: Initially, we found 274 studies among which 15 studies were included in this systematic review. Of them, 10 studies were conducted on humans and 5 studies were conducted on animals. Increased abundance of Alistipes and decreased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae alters purine metabolism, thereby aggravating gout condition. Moreover, a higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium and Bacteroides in gout modulates enzymatic activity in purine metabolism. Butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, prausnitzii, Oscillibacter, Butyricicoccus, and Bifidobacterium have higher abundance in healthy controls compared to gout patients, suggesting the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial role of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-releasing bacteria, such as Enterobacteriaceae, Prevotella, and Bacteroides, are also involved in the pathogenesis of gout disease by stimulating the innate immune system.

CONCLUSION: Exploring the role of gut dysbiosis in gout and the underlying mechanisms can help develop microbiota-modulating therapies for gout.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Shi R, Ye J, Fan H, et al (2023)

Lactobacillus plantarum LLY-606 supplementation ameliorates hyperuricemia via modulating intestinal homeostasis and relieving inflammation.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota is associated with hyperuricemia progression and can be regulated by Lactobacillus plantarum. However, the role of Lactobacillus plantarum in hyperuricemia is still unknown. Thus, we constructed the mouse model of hyperuricemia using potassium oxonate and hypoxanthine treatment to explore the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum LLY-606 supplementation on the development of hyperuricemia. The results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LLY-606 significantly reduced the level of serum uric acid through inhibiting uric acid secretion and regulating uric acid transport. We also found that Lactobacillus plantarum LLY-606 supplementation inhibited the inflammatory response and the activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway in mice. Microbiome sequencing and analysis suggested the successful colonization of probiotics, which could regulate intestinal flora dysbiosis induced by hyperuricemia. The abundance of Lactobacillus plantarum was significantly negatively correlated with hyperuricemia-related indicators. Notably, the functional abundance prediction of microbiota indicated that lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein pathways and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathways were inhibited after the probiotic intervention. In conclusion, Lactobacillus plantarum LLY-606 can serve as a potential functional probiotic to affect the development of hyperuricemia through modulating gut microbiota, downregulating renal inflammation, and regulating uric acid metabolism.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Bull K, Davies G, Jenkins TP, et al (2023)

The faecal microbiome of Exmoor ponies shows step-wise compositional changes with increasing levels of management by humans.

Equine veterinary journal [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Horses can suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disease in domestic environments, often precipitated by human-led changes in management. Understanding the consequences of these changes on equine gut microbiota is key to the prevention of such disease episodes.

OBJECTIVE: Profile the faecal microbiota of adult female Exmoor ponies under three management conditions, representing increasing levels of management by humans, encompassing different diets; whilst controlling for age, breed and sex.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive.

METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from three populations of Exmoor ponies kept under contrasting management conditions: 29 adult female ponies in groups with low management (LM) (n = 10), medium management (MM) (n = 10) and high management (HM) (n = 9) levels, based on diet, drug use, handling and exercise. Faecal microbial composition was profiled via high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, and functional metagenome predictions.

RESULTS: We observed profound step-wise changes in microbiome structure in the transition from LM to MM to HM. A relatively high abundance of Proteobacteria and Tenericutes was associated with the HM group; higher abundance of Methanobacteria was observed in the LM group. The MM group had intermediate levels of these taxa and exhibited high 'within group' variation in alpha diversity. Functional predictions revealed increased amino acid and lipid metabolism in HM; energy metabolism in LM and carbohydrate metabolism and immune/metabolic disease pathways in MM.

MAIN LIMITATIONS: Low group sizes, incomplete knowledge of bacterial genomes in equine gut microbiota and it was not possible to assess the relative impact of diet, drug use, handling and exercise on the microbiome as variables were confounded.

CONCLUSIONS: Human-led management factors had profound step-wise effects on faecal microbial composition. Based on functional metagenome predictions, we hypothesise that dietary differences between groups were the major driver of observed differences.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Liu Y, Daniel SG, Kim HE, et al (2023)

Addition of cariogenic pathogens to complex oral microflora drives significant changes in biofilm compositions and functionalities.

Microbiome, 11(1):123.

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a microbe and sugar-mediated biofilm-dependent oral disease. Of particular significance, a virulent type of dental caries, known as severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), is characterized by the synergistic polymicrobial interaction between the cariogenic bacterium, Streptococcus mutans, and an opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Although cross-sectional studies reveal their important roles in caries development, these exhibit limitations in determining the significance of these microbial interactions in the pathogenesis of the disease. Thus, it remains unclear the mechanism(s) through which the cross-kingdom interaction modulates the composition of the plaque microbiome. Here, we employed a novel ex vivo saliva-derived microcosm biofilm model to assess how exogenous pathogens could impact the structural and functional characteristics of the indigenous native oral microbiota.

RESULTS: Through shotgun whole metagenome sequencing, we observed that saliva-derived biofilm has decreased richness and diversity but increased sugar-related metabolism relative to the planktonic phase. Addition of S. mutans and/or C. albicans to the native microbiome drove significant changes in its bacterial composition. In addition, the effect of the exogenous pathogens on microbiome diversity and taxonomic abundances varied depending on the sugar type. While the addition of S. mutans induced a broader effect on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) ortholog abundances with glucose/fructose, S. mutans-C. albicans combination under sucrose conditions triggered unique and specific changes in microbiota composition/diversity as well as specific effects on KEGG pathways. Finally, we observed the presence of human epithelial cells within the biofilms via confocal microscopy imaging.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that the presence of S. mutans and C. albicans, alone or in combination, as well as the addition of different sugars, induced unique alterations in both the composition and functional attributes of the biofilms. In particular, the combination of S. mutans and C. albicans seemed to drive the development (and perhaps the severity) of a dysbiotic/cariogenic oral microbiome. Our work provides a unique and pragmatic biofilm model for investigating the functional microbiome in health and disease as well as developing strategies to modulate the microbiome. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Wicaksono WA, Semler B, Pöltl M, et al (2023)

The microbiome of Riccia liverworts is an important reservoir for microbial diversity in temporary agricultural crusts.

Environmental microbiome, 18(1):46.

BACKGROUND: The microbiota of liverworts provides an interesting model for plant symbioses; however, their microbiome assembly is not yet understood. Here, we assessed specific factors that shape microbial communities associated with Riccia temporary agricultural crusts in harvested fields by investigating bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities in thalli and adhering soil from different field sites in Styria and Burgenland, Austria combining qPCR analyses, amplicon sequencing and advanced microscopy.

RESULTS: Riccia spec. div. was colonized by a very high abundance of bacteria (10[10] 16S rRNA gene copies per g of thallus) as well as archaea and fungi (10[8] ITS copies per g of thallus). Each Riccia thallus contain approx. 1000 prokaryotic and fungal ASVs. The field type was the main driver for the enrichment of fungal taxa, likely due to an imprint on soil microbiomes by the cultivated crop plants. This was shown by a higher fungal richness and different fungal community compositions comparing liverwort samples collected from pumpkin fields, with those from corn fields. In contrast, bacterial communities linked to liverworts are highly specialized and the soil attached to them is not a significant source of these bacteria. Specifically, enriched Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Methylobacteria suggest a symbiotic interaction. Intriguingly, compared to the surrounding soil, the thallus samples were shown to enrich several well-known bacterial and fungal phytopathogens indicating an undescribed role of liverworts as potential reservoirs of crop pathogens.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that a stable bacterial community but varying fungal communities are colonizing liverwort thalli. Post-harvest, temporary agricultural biocrusts are important reservoirs for microbial biodiversity but they have to be considered as potential reservoirs for pathogens as well.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Wainwright BJ, Millar T, Bowen L, et al (2023)

The core mangrove microbiome reveals shared taxa potentially involved in nutrient cycling and promoting host survival.

Environmental microbiome, 18(1):47.

BACKGROUND: Microbes have fundamental roles underpinning the functioning of our planet, they are involved in global carbon and nutrient cycling, and support the existence of multicellular life. The mangrove ecosystem is nutrient limited and if not for microbial cycling of nutrients, life in this harsh environment would likely not exist. The mangroves of Southeast Asia are the oldest and most biodiverse on the planet, and serve vital roles helping to prevent shoreline erosion, act as nursery grounds for many marine species and sequester carbon. Despite these recognised benefits and the importance of microbes in these ecosystems, studies examining the mangrove microbiome in Southeast Asia are scarce.cxs RESULTS: Here we examine the microbiome of Avicenia alba and Sonneratia alba and identify a core microbiome of 81 taxa. A further eight taxa (Pleurocapsa, Tunicatimonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas, Rubrivirga, Altererythrobacte, Lewinella, and Erythrobacter) were found to be significantly enriched in mangrove tree compartments suggesting key roles in this microbiome. The majority of those identified are involved in nutrient cycling or have roles in the production of compounds that promote host survival.

CONCLUSION: The identification of a core microbiome furthers our understanding of mangrove microbial biodiversity, particularly in Southeast Asia where studies such as this are rare. The identification of significantly different microbial communities between sampling sites suggests environmental filtering is occurring, with hosts selecting for a microbial consortia most suitable for survival in their immediate environment. As climate change advances, many of these microbial communities are predicted to change, however, without knowing what is currently there, it is impossible to determine the magnitude of any deviations. This work provides an important baseline against which change in microbial community can be measured.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Leung MHY, Tong X, Shen Z, et al (2023)

Skin microbiome differentiates into distinct cutotypes with unique metabolic functions upon exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Microbiome, 11(1):124.

BACKGROUND: The effects of air pollutants, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), on the skin microbiome remain poorly understood. Thus, to better understand the interplay between air pollutants, microbiomes, and skin conditions, we applied metagenomics and metabolomics to analyze the effects of PAHs in air pollution on the skin microbiomes of over 120 subjects residing in two cities in China with different levels of air pollution.

RESULTS: The skin microbiomes differentiated into two cutotypes (termed 1 and 2) with distinct taxonomic, functional, resistome, and metabolite compositions as well as skin phenotypes that transcended geography and host factors. High PAH exposure was linked to dry skin and cutotype 2, which was enriched with species with potential biodegradation functions and had reduced correlation network structure integrity. The positive correlations identified between dominant taxa, key functional genes, and metabolites in the arginine biosynthesis pathway in cutotype 1 suggest that arginine from bacteria contributes to the synthesis of filaggrin-derived natural moisturizing factors (NMFs), which provide hydration for the skin, and could explain the normal skin phenotype observed. In contrast, no correlation with the arginine biosynthesis pathway was observed in cutotype 2, which indicates the limited hydration functions of NMFs and explains the observed dry skin phenotype. In addition to dryness, skin associated with cutotype 2 appeared prone to other adverse conditions such as inflammation.

CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the roles of PAHs in driving skin microbiome differentiation into cutotypes that vary extensively in taxonomy and metabolic functions and may subsequently lead to variations in skin-microbe interactions that affect host skin health. An improved understanding of the roles of microbiomes on skin exposed to air pollutants can aid the development of strategies that harness microbes to prevent undesirable skin conditions. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Zhou Y, Du J, Wu JQ, et al (2023)

Impact of influenza virus infection on lung microbiome in adults with severe pneumonia.

Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 22(1):43.

BACKGROUND: Bacterial and viral infections are commonly implicated in the development of pneumonia. We aimed to compare the diversity and composition of lung bacteria among severe pneumonia patients who were influenza virus positive (IFVP) and influenza virus negative (IFVN).

METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens were procured from patients diagnosed with severe pneumonia to investigate the microbiome utilizing 16S-rDNA sequencing. The alpha diversity of the microbiome was evaluated employing Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson indexes, while the beta diversity was assessed using principal component analysis and principal coordinate analysis. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was employed to determine the taxonomic differences between the IFVP and IFVN groups.

RESULTS: A total of 84 patients with 42 in the IFVP group and 42 in the IFVN group were enrolled. Slightly higher indexes of Shannon and Simpson were observed in the IFVP group without statistically significant difference. The dominant bacterial genera were Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia-Shigella in the IFVN group and Acinetobacter, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus in the IFVP group. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii were the most abundant species in the IFVN and IFVP groups, respectively. LEfSe analysis indicated a greater abundance of Klebsiella in the IFVN group.

CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with severe pneumonia infected with IFV exhibit heightened susceptibility to certain bacteria, especially Acinetobacter baumannii, and the underlying mechanism of the interaction between IFV and Acinetobacter baumannii in the progression of pneumonia needs further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Lu DC, Wang FQ, Amann RI, et al (2023)

Epiphytic common core bacteria in the microbiomes of co-located green (Ulva), brown (Saccharina) and red (Grateloupia, Gelidium) macroalgae.

Microbiome, 11(1):126.

BACKGROUND: Macroalgal epiphytic microbial communities constitute a rich resource for novel enzymes and compounds, but studies so far largely focused on tag-based microbial diversity analyses or limited metagenome sequencing of single macroalgal species.

RESULTS: We sampled epiphytic bacteria from specimens of Ulva sp. (green algae), Saccharina sp. (brown algae), Grateloupia sp. and Gelidium sp. (both red algae) together with seawater and sediment controls from a coastal reef in Weihai, China, during all seasons. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we identified 14 core genera (consistently present on all macroalgae), and 14 dominant genera (consistently present on three of the macroalgae). Core genera represented ~ 0.7% of all genera, yet accounted for on average 51.1% of the bacterial abundances. Plate cultivation from all samples yielded 5,527 strains (macroalgae: 4,426) representing 1,235 species (685 potentially novel). Sequencing of selected strains yielded 820 non-redundant draft genomes (506 potentially novel), and sequencing of 23 sampled metagenomes yielded 1,619 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), representing further 1,183 non-redundant genomes. 230 isolates and 153 genomes were obtained from the 28 core/dominant genera. We analyzed the genomic potential of phycosphere bacteria to degrade algal polysaccharides and to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. We predicted 4,451 polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) and 8,810 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). These were particularly prevalent in core/dominant genera.

CONCLUSIONS: Our metabolic annotations and analyses of MAGs and genomes provide new insights into novel species of phycosphere bacteria and their ecological niches for an improved understanding of the macroalgal phycosphere microbiome. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Chung CJ, Hermes BM, Gupta Y, et al (2023)

Genome-wide mapping of gene-microbe interactions in the murine lung microbiota based on quantitative microbial profiling.

Animal microbiome, 5(1):31.

BACKGROUND: Mammalian lungs comprise a complex microbial ecosystem that interacts with host physiology. Previous research demonstrates that the environment significantly contributes to bacterial community structure in the upper and lower respiratory tract. However, the influence of host genetics on the makeup of lung microbiota remains ambiguous, largely due to technical difficulties related to sampling, as well as challenges inherent to investigating low biomass communities. Thus, innovative approaches are warranted to clarify host-microbe interactions in the mammalian lung.

RESULTS: Here, we aimed to characterize host genomic regions associated with lung bacterial traits in an advanced intercross mouse line (AIL). By performing quantitative microbial profiling (QMP) using the highly precise method of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), we refined 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based traits to identify and map candidate lung-resident taxa using a QTL mapping approach. In addition, the two abundant core taxa Lactobacillus and Pelomonas were chosen for independent microbial phenotyping using genus-specific primers. In total, this revealed seven significant loci involving eight bacterial traits. The narrow confidence intervals afforded by the AIL population allowed us to identify several promising candidate genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, cell apoptosis, DNA repair, and lung functioning and disease susceptibility. Interestingly, one genomic region associated with Lactobacillus abundance contains the well-known anti-inflammatory cytokine Il10, which we confirmed through the analysis of Il10 knockout mice.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first evidence for a role of host genetic variation contributing to variation in the lung microbiota. This was in large part made possible through the careful curation of 16S rRNA gene amplicon data and the incorporation of a QMP-based methods. This approach to evaluating the low biomass lung environment opens new avenues for advancing lung microbiome research using animal models.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Koizumi J, Nakase K, Noguchi N, et al (2023)

Avidumicin, a novel cyclic bacteriocin, produced by Cutibacterium avidum shows anti-Cutibacterium acnes activity.

The Journal of antibiotics [Epub ahead of print].

The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Cutibacterium acnes in acne patients has increased owing to inappropriate antimicrobial use. Commensal skin bacteria may play an important role in maintaining the balance of the skin microbiome by producing antimicrobial substances. Inhibition of Cu. acnes overgrowth can prevent the development and exacerbation of acne vulgaris. Here, we evaluated skin bacteria with anti-Cu. acnes activity. Growth inhibition activity against Cu. acnes was tested using 122 strains isolated from the skin of healthy volunteers and acne patients. Comparative genomic analysis of the bacterium with or without anti-Cu. acnes activity was conducted. The anti-Cu. acnes activity was confirmed by cloning an identified gene cluster and chemically synthesized peptides. Cu. avidum ATCC25577 and 89.7% of the Cu. avidum clinical isolates (26/29 strains) inhibited Cu. acnes growth. The growth inhibition activity was also found against other Cutibacterium, Lactiplantibacillus, and Corynebacterium species, but not against Staphylococcus species. The genome sequence of Cu. avidum showed a gene cluster encoding a novel bacteriocin named avidumicin. The precursor protein encoded by avdA undergoes post-translational modifications, supposedly becoming a circular bacteriocin. The anti-Cu. acnes activity of avidumicin was confirmed by Lactococcus lactis MG1363 carrying avdA. The C-terminal region of the avidumicin may be essential for anti-Cu. acnes activity. A commensal skin bacterium, Cu. avidum, producing avidumicin has anti-Cu. acnes activity. Therefore, avidumicin is a novel cyclic bacteriocin with a narrow antimicrobial spectrum. These findings suggest that Cu. avidum and avidumicin represent potential alternative agents in antimicrobial therapy for acne vulgaris.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Park JS, Gazzaniga FS, Wu M, et al (2023)

Publisher Correction: Targeting PD-L2-RGMb overcomes microbiome-related immunotherapy resistance.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Galand PE, Ruscheweyh HJ, Salazar G, et al (2023)

Diversity of the Pacific Ocean coral reef microbiome.

Nature communications, 14(1):3039.

Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. They support high biodiversity of multicellular organisms that strongly rely on associated microorganisms for health and nutrition. However, the extent of the coral reef microbiome diversity and its distribution at the oceanic basin-scale remains to be explored. Here, we systematically sampled 3 coral morphotypes, 2 fish species, and planktonic communities in 99 reefs from 32 islands across the Pacific Ocean, to assess reef microbiome composition and biogeography. We show a very large richness of reef microorganisms compared to other environments, which extrapolated to all fishes and corals of the Pacific, approximates the current estimated total prokaryotic diversity for the entire Earth. Microbial communities vary among and within the 3 animal biomes (coral, fish, plankton), and geographically. For corals, the cross-ocean patterns of diversity are different from those known for other multicellular organisms. Within each coral morphotype, community composition is always determined by geographic distance first, both at the island and across ocean scale, and then by environment. Our unprecedented sampling effort of coral reef microbiomes, as part of the Tara Pacific expedition, provides new insight into the global microbial diversity, the factors driving their distribution, and the biocomplexity of reef ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Jacob R, Prince DS, Kench C, et al (2023)

Alcohol and its associated liver carcinogenesis.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

Alcohol consumption is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of alcohol-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) varies worldwide but is highest in Eastern Europe. Alcohol is the second fastest-growing cause of age-standardized liver cancer mortality with tumors more often diagnosed outside surveillance protocols and at a more advanced stage. Risk factors for aHCC include greater amounts of alcohol consumption, sex, and certain genetic polymorphisms. Smoking, concomitant liver disease, obesity, and diabetes act synergistically in increasing the risk of HCC in alcohol-associated liver disease. Alcohol-related hepatocarcinogenesis results from the complex interactions of several mechanistic pathways. Although not completely understood, underlying mechanisms include acetaldehyde-related hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress, activation of the innate immune system, and alterations of the host microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Im ST, Mun H, Park S, et al (2023)

Ishige okamurae Celluclast extract ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver in high-fructose diet-fed mice by modulation of lipid metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association pii:S0278-6915(23)00266-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Recently, a new mechanism has revealed that gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in metabolizing fructose to acetate that facilitates hepatic lipogenesis. Therefore, our study investigated the role of microbiome on abnormal lipid synthesis in the presence of fructose and identified attenuating effects of Ishige okamurae Celluclast extract (IOCE) against fructose-induced fatty liver. The results indicated that oral administration of IOCE (150 and 300 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) significantly reduced both gut microbiota-mediated and -non-mediated hepatic lipogenesis simultaneously triggered by fructose metabolism. IOCE reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation and expression levels of key enzymes for glucolipid metabolism. In addition, IOCE regulated fatty acid synthesis, β-oxidation, and improved hepatic inflammation. Furthermore, IOCE inhibited direct fructose-to-acetate conversion and altered the compositions of gut microbiota. These findings suggest that IOCE might serve as a potential prebiotic dietary supplement by ameliorating fatty liver through dual regulation of classical lipogenic pathway and gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Sumiyoshi A, Fujii H, Y Okuma (2023)

Targeting microbiome, drug metabolism, and drug delivery in oncology.

Advanced drug delivery reviews pii:S0169-409X(23)00217-X [Epub ahead of print].

Recent emerging scientific evidence shows a relationship between gut microbiota (GM) and immunomodulation. In the recently published "Hallmarks of Cancer", the microbiome has been reported to play a crucial role in cancer research, and perspectives for its clinical implementation to improve the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy were explored. Several studies have shown that GM can affect the outcomes of pharmacotherapy in cancer, suggesting that GM may affect anti-tumor immunity. Thus, studies on GM that analyze big data using computer-based analytical methods are required. To deliver GM to an environment that favors the growth of immune cells inside and outside the tumor microenvironment (TME), several challenges need to be overcome for each delivery method (oral, endoscopic, and intravenous). Clinical trials are in progress to evaluate the effects of targeting GM and whether it can enhance immunity or act on the TME, thereby to improve the clinical outcomes for cancer patients.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Rodrigues E-Lacerda R, Fang H, Robin N, et al (2023)

Microbiota and Nod-like receptors balance inflammation and metabolism during obesity and diabetes.

Biomedical journal pii:S2319-4170(23)00047-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota influence host immunity and metabolism during obesity. Bacterial sensors of the innate immune system relay signals from specific bacterial components (i.e., postbiotics) that can have opposing outcomes on host metabolic inflammation. NOD-like receptors (NLRs) such as Nod1 and Nod2 both recruit receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) but have opposite effects on blood glucose control. Nod1 connects bacterial cell wall-derived signals to metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance, whereas Nod2 can promote immune tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and better blood glucose control during obesity. NLR family pyrin domain containing (NLRP) inflammasomes can also generate divergent metabolic outcomes. NLRP1 protects against obesity and metabolic inflammation potentially because of a bias toward IL-18 regulation, whereas NLRP3 appears to have a bias toward IL-1β-mediated metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Targeting specific postbiotics that improve immunometabolism is a key goal. The Nod2 ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is a short-acting insulin sensitizer during obesity or during inflammatory lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress. LPS with underacylated lipid-A antagonizes TLR4 and counteracts the metabolic effects of inflammatory LPS. Providing underacylated LPS derived from Rhodobacter sphaeroides improved insulin sensitivity in obese mice. Therefore, certain types of LPS can generate metabolically beneficial metabolic endotoxemia. Engaging protective adaptive immunoglobulin immune responses can also improve blood glucose during obesity. A bacterial vaccine approach using an extract of the entire bacterial community in the upper gut promotes protective adaptive immune response and long-lasting improvements in blood glucose control. A key future goal is to identify and combine postbiotics that cooperate to improve blood glucose control.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Phulpoto AH, Pirzada T, NA Kanhar (2023)

Exploring community dynamics: Cultivable and uncultivable for the microbial-mediated bioremediation of oil-based paints polluted soil from aqueous media by Plackett-Burman statistically designed conditions.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03126-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Oil-based paint seriously threatens biodiversity due to its complex composition and biocide toxicity. Therefore, it alters the microbial diversity abundance and in modern approaches like metagenomic, a powerful tool to get insight into pollutants effect on soil microbial community abundance. Thus, present study aimed at "exploring community dynamics: cultivable and uncultivable for the microbial-mediated bioremediation of oil-based paints polluted soil from aqueous media by Plackett-Burman statistical designed conditions". The total DNA from oil-based paints polluted soil was extracted by PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. The 16S rDNA genes were amplified using universal primers and PCR amplicons were sequenced for analysis of metagenomes to determine the bacterial microbiome abundance. A total 133,140 sequence reads, 2857 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) of 16S rRNA genes, and 30 bacterial phyla were retrieved from all the oil-based paints polluted samples (C, R498, B698 and G492) with the significant increase in Firmicutes (18.90 %, 52.39 %, 49.75 %, 44.36 %) and Actinobacteria (26.66 %, 28.93 %, 28.17 %, 14.68 %) whereas a decrease in Proteobacteria (19.53 %, 6.32 %, 9.37 %, 16.21 %), Chloroflexi (16.93 %, 8.71 %, 9.78 %, 18.17 %), and Bacteroidetes (8.96 %, 0.36 %, 0.41 %, 0.11 %) was recorded respectively. Additionally, the 100 % removal of oil-based paints (R498, B698 and G492) was achieved by the cultivable microbial consortia in laboratory settings. On the other hand for the R498 single cultivable pure isolates exhibited biodegradation potential as "PDB20, 91 %", "PDB14, 81 %", and "PDB16, 87 %" while for the blue B698, "PDB4, 86 %", "PDB20, 89 %", "PDB5, and PDB2, 80%". Moreover, in case of G492, maximum % removal was achieved with "PDB20, 93 %", "PDB5, 90 %", "PDB6, 90 %", "PDB16, 88 %", "PDB2, and PDB4, 89%". Conclusively, in comparison to R498 and B698, maximum percent removal was displayed by G492 and this might be attributed due to difference in pigment. Cultivable consortia and individual pure isolates demonstrated >80 % contribution in the % removal of oil-based paints.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Wu X, Bei S, Zhou X, et al (2023)

Metagenomic insights into genetic factors driving bacterial niche differentiation between bulk and rhizosphere soils.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02842-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Cellular motility is crucial for effective colonization of the rhizosphere, but it is not yet clear whether bacterial motility is particularly linked to other genetic traits. Here, we applied genome-resolved metagenomics and phylogenomics to investigate the ecological significance of cellular motility for niche differentiation and the links between the genetic makeup of motile bacteria and rhizosphere colonization within a four-decade maize field experiment. Indeed, highly diverse sets of genes encoding cellular motility, including chemotaxis, flagellar assembly and motility proteins, and utilization of polymeric carbon were the important predictors of bacterial niche differentiation between bulk and rhizosphere soils. This is well exemplified by metagenome-assembled genomes encoding high motility capacity (hmc_MAGs). Their collective abundance was, on average, sixfold higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. All bulk-soil-derived MAGs showed low motility capacities (lmc). The hmc_MAGs were highly enriched in beneficial traits involved in carbohydrate utilization, assimilatory (nasA) and dissimilatory (nirBD) nitrate reduction, inorganic phosphate solubilization (gcd), and organic phosphate mineralization (phoD). Belonging to the families Sphingomonadaceae, Burkholderiaceae and Steroidobacteraceae, the hmc_MAGs showed a ninefold greater enrichment in these traits than proteobacterial lmc_MAGs and a twofold greater enrichment than 264 genomes publicly available for the above three families, thereby substantiating that a specific rhizosphere effect acted on the microbes represented by the hmc_MAGs. The particular link between the genetic capacities for high cellular motility and increased carbohydrate depolymerization as the key determinant for plant-selected rhizosphere colonization was further substantiated by the analysis of public bulk-rhizosphere soil metagenomes retrieved from wheat and cucumber field sites.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Raygoza Garay JA, Turpin W, Lee SH, et al (2023)

Gut Microbiome Composition is associated with future onset of Crohn's Disease in Healthy First-Degree Relatives.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(23)00805-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The cause of Crohn's Disease (CD) is unknown, but the current hypothesis is that microbial or environmental factors induce gut inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals, leading to chronic intestinal inflammation. Case-control studies of CD patients have catalogued alterations in the gut microbiome composition; however, these studies fail to distinguish if the altered gut microbiome composition is associated with initiation of CD or is the result of inflammation or drug treatment.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 3483 healthy first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with CD were recruited to identify the gut microbiome composition that precedes the onset of CD and to what extent this composition predicts the risk of developing CD. We applied a machine learning approach to the analysis of the gut microbiome composition (based on 16S rDNA sequencing) to define a microbial signature that associates with future development of CD. The performance of the model was assessed in an independent validation cohort.

RESULTS: In the validation cohort, the microbiome risk score (MRS) model yielded a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.24, 95% CI [1.03, 4.84], and a p-value =0.04, using the median of the MRS from the discovery cohort as the threshold. The MRS demonstrated a temporal validity by capturing individuals that developed CD up to five years prior to disease onset (AUC > 0.65). The five most important taxa contributing to the MRS included Ruminococcus torques, Blautia, Colidextribacter, an uncultured genus-level group from Oscillospiraceace, and Roseburia.

CONCLUSION: This study is the first to demonstrate that gut microbiome composition is associated with future onset of CD and suggests that gut microbiome is a contributor in the pathogenesis of CD.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Kostenko S, Khatua B, Trivedi S, et al (2023)

Amphipathic liponecrosis impairs bacterial clearance and causes infection during sterile inflammation.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(23)00807-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: While transient bacteremia is common during dental and endoscopic procedures, infections developing during sterile diseases like acute pancreatitis (AP) can have grave consequences. Here we examined how impaired bacterial clearance may cause this transition.

METHODS: Blood samples of AP patients, normal controls, and rodents with pancreatitis or those administered different non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were analyzed for albumin unbound NEFA, microbiome, and inflammatory cell injury. Macrophage uptake of unbound-NEFA using a novel coumarin tracer were done, and the downstream effects, NEFA-membrane phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine; PC) interactions were studied on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) RESULTS: Infected AP patients had higher circulating unsaturated NEFA, unbound-NEFA including linoleic acid (LA) and oleic acid (OA), higher bacterial 16S DNA, mitochondrial DNA, altered beta-diversity, enrichment in Pseudomonadales and increased annexin V positive myeloid (CD14) and CD3 positive T cells on admission. These, and increased circulating dead inflammatory cells were also noted in rodents with unbound unsaturated-NEFA. ITC showed progressively stronger unbound-LA interactions with aqueous media, PC, cardiolipin and albumin. Unbound-NEFA were taken into protein free membranes, cells, mitochondria, inducing voltage dependent anion channel oligomerization, reducing ATP, and impairing phagocytosis. These were reversed by albumin. In-vivo unbound-LA, OA increased bacterial loads and impaired phagocytosis, causing infection. LA, OA were more potent for these amphipathic interactions than the hydrophobic palmitic acid.

CONCLUSIONS: Release of stored LA, OA can increase their circulating unbound levels and cause amphipathic liponecrosis of immune cells via uptake by membrane phospholipids. This impairs bacterial clearance and causes infection during sterile inflammation.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Fu X, Hafza N, Götz F, et al (2023)

Profiling of branched chain and straight chain saturated fatty acids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Journal of chromatography. A, 1703:464111 pii:S0021-9673(23)00337-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are one of the important sub categories of fatty acids (FAs) which have unique functions in nature. They are commonly analyzed by GC-MS after derivatization to methyl esters (FAMEs). On the other hand, there is a lack of isomer-selective LC-MS methods which allow the distinction of different isomers with wide coverage of carbon chain length. In this work, a systematic retention and isomer selectivity study on seven commercially available UHPLC columns (six polysaccharide columns Chiralpak IA-U, IB-U, IC-U, ID-U, IG-U and IH-U; one Acquity UPLC CSH C18 column) was performed. Various experimental factors were evaluated including column temperatures, gradient profiles and flow rates to elucidate their effects on the separation ability of homologous series of BCFAs with distinct chain lengths, different branching types and branching positions. In general, IG-U outperformed the other columns in terms of isomer selectivity especially for the short and medium-chain BCFA isomers while RP C18 showed good potential in terms of selectivity for long-chain BCFA isomers. Furthermore, after the evaluation of the chromatographic retention pattern on the various columns and method optimization, we report a methodology for untargeted isomer-selective BCFA profiling without precolumn derivatization with UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS by quadrupole-time-of-flight instrument with SWATH acquisition. The best method provides selectivity for constitutional isomers of BCFAs covering distinct chain length (C5-C20) with different branching types (methyl or ethyl) and branching positions (2Me, 3Me, 4Me, 6Me, anteiso and iso-BCFAs) with an optimized LC condition on Acquity UPLC CSH C18 column. Finally, the optimized method was applied for the BCFAs profiling in lipid extracts of Staphylococcus aureus samples. Besides, pooled human platelets and pooled human plasma were evaluated as mammalian samples for presence of BCFAs as well. The new method showed strong potential for BCFA profiling in bacterial samples including different isomers anteiso and iso-BCFAs, which could be a useful tool for related subdisciplines in metabolomics and lipidomics in particular in combination with electron-activated dissociation MS. Compared to GC, the presented isomer selective LC methods can be also of great utility for preparative purposes. Equivalent (carbon) chain length numbers were calculated for RP18 and Chiralpak IG-U and compared to those of FAMEs obtained by GC.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Sharif S, Oddie SJ, Heath PT, et al (2023)

Prebiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm or very low birth weight infants.

The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 6:CD015133.

BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation with prebiotic oligosaccharides to modulate the intestinal microbiome has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and associated mortality and morbidity in very preterm or very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of enteral supplementation with prebiotics (versus placebo or no treatment) for preventing NEC and associated morbidity and mortality in very preterm or VLBW infants.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Maternity and Infant Care database and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), from the earliest records to July 2022. We searched clinical trials databases and conference proceedings, and examined the reference lists of retrieved articles.

SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing prebiotics with placebo or no prebiotics in very preterm (< 32 weeks' gestation) or VLBW (< 1500 g) infants. The primary outcomes were NEC and all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcomes were late-onset invasive infection, duration of hospitalisation since birth, and neurodevelopmental impairment.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors separately evaluated risk of bias of the trials, extracted data, and synthesised effect estimates using risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), and mean difference (MD), with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The primary outcomes of interest were NEC and all-cause mortality; our secondary outcome measures were late-onset (> 48 hours after birth) invasive infection, duration of hospitalisation, and neurodevelopmental impairment. We used the GRADE approach to assess the level of certainty of the evidence.

MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials in which a total of 705 infants participated. All the trials were small (mean sample size 100). Lack of clarity on methods to conceal allocation and mask caregivers or investigators were potential sources of bias in three of the trials. The studied prebiotics were fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, inulin, and lactulose, typically administered daily with enteral feeds during birth hospitalisation. Meta-analyses of data from seven trials (686 infants) suggest that prebiotics may result in little or no difference in NEC (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.56; RD none fewer per 1000, 95% CI 50 fewer to 40 more; low-certainty evidence), all-cause mortality (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.92; 40 per 1000 fewer, 95% CI 70 fewer to none fewer; low-certainty evidence), or late-onset invasive infection (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.06; 50 per 1000 fewer, 95% CI 100 fewer to 10 more; low-certainty evidence) prior to hospital discharge. The certainty of this evidence is low because of concerns about the risk of bias in some trials and the imprecision of the effect size estimates. The data available from one trial provided only very low-certainty evidence about the effect of prebiotics on measures of neurodevelopmental impairment (Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) Mental Development Index score < 85: RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.25 to 2.90; very low-certainty evidence; BSID Psychomotor Development Index score < 85: RR 0.24, 95% 0.03 to 2.00; very low-certainty evidence; cerebral palsy: RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.35; very low-certainty evidence).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The available trial data provide low-certainty evidence about the effects of prebiotics on the risk of NEC, all-cause mortality before discharge, and invasive infection, and very low-certainty evidence about the effect on neurodevelopmental impairment for very preterm or VLBW infants. Our confidence in the effect estimates is limited; the true effects may be substantially different. Large, high-quality trials are needed to provide evidence of sufficient validity to inform policy and practice decisions.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Ruggiero AD, Vemuri R, Blawas M, et al (2023)

Long-term dasatinib plus quercetin effects on aging outcomes and inflammation in nonhuman primates: implications for senolytic clinical trial design.

GeroScience [Epub ahead of print].

Cellular senescence increases with aging and results in secretion of pro-inflammatory factors that induce local and systemic tissue dysfunction. We conducted the first preclinical trial in a relevant middle-aged nonhuman primate (NHP) model to allow estimation of the main translatable effects of the senolytic combination dasatinib (D) and quercetin (Q), with and without caloric restriction (CR). A multi-systemic survey of age-related changes, including those on immune cells, adipose tissue, the microbiome, and biomarkers of systemic organ and metabolic health are reported. Age-, weight-, sex-, and glycemic control-matched NHPs (D + Q, n = 9; vehicle [VEH] n = 7) received two consecutive days of D + Q (5 mg/kg + 50 mg/kg) monthly for 6 months, where in month six, a 10% CR was implemented in both D + Q and VEH NHPs to induce equal weight reductions. D + Q reduced senescence marker gene expressions in adipose tissue and circulating PAI-1 and MMP-9. Improvements were observed in immune cell types with significant anti-inflammatory shifts and reductions in microbial translocation biomarkers, despite stable microbiomes. Blood urea nitrogen showed robust improvements with D + Q. CR resulted in significant positive body composition changes in both groups with further improvement in immune cell profiles and decreased GDF15 (p = 0.05), and the interaction of D + Q and CR dramatically reduced glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.03). This work indicates that 6 months of intermittent D + Q exposure is safe and may combat inflammaging via immune benefits and improved intestinal barrier function. We also saw renal benefits, and with CR, improved metabolic health. These data are intended to provide direction for the design of larger controlled intervention trials in older patients.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Li Q, Yi X, Li L, et al (2023)

Effects of effective microorganisms on the physiological status, intestinal microbiome, and serum metabolites of Eriocheir sinensis.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The compound known as effective microorganisms (EMs) is widely used in aquaculture to improve water quality, but how they affect the health of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is unclear, especially in terms of intestinal microbiota and serum metabolites. In this study, we fed juvenile crabs with an EM-containing diet to explore the effects of EM on the physiological status, intestinal microbiome, and metabolites of E. sinensis. The activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly enhanced by EM, indicating that EM supplementation effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacity of E. sinensis. Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the main intestinal microbes in both the control and EM groups. Linear discriminant effect size analysis showed that Fusobacteriaceae, Desulfovibrio, and Morganella were biomarkers in the control group, and Exiguobacterium and Rhodobacteraceae were biomarkers in the EM group. Metabolomics analysis revealed that EM supplementation increased cellular energy sources and decreased protein consumption, and oxidative stress. Together, these results indicate that EM can optimize the intestinal microbiome and serum metabolites, thereby benefiting the health of E. sinensis.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Hong H, Wang L, Y Qi (2023)

Characteristics of the oropharyngeal microbiota among infants with pneumonia and their effects on immune response and subsequent respiratory morbidity.

European journal of pediatrics [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Changes in airway microbiota among infants with pneumonia and their impact on subsequent respiratory health are largely unknown. The present study aimed to analyze the oropharyngeal microbiota of infants with pneumonia and to explore the impact of disturbances of the microbiota on disease severity and long-term respiratory morbidities. The oropharyngeal microbiome was characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA-based sequencing, while serum immune mediators were assessed using cytometric bead array, and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells were detected using flow cytometry in infants with pneumonia < 6 months of age. Patients were followed up to 3 years of age, and clinical and respiratory morbidity data were collected. A total of 106 infants with pneumonia were enrolled in this study. Diversity of the respiratory microbiota was inversely correlated with the severity of pneumonia and length of hospitalization. Patients who experienced wheezing during pneumonia exhibited lower percentages of total iNKT cells, CD8-positive (+), and CD4-CD8- subsets, and higher CD4 + subsets than those without. The relative abundances of Prevotella and Veillonella species were lower in patients with severe pneumonia. The abundance of Veillonella was higher in patients who experienced wheezing during pneumonia and in those with subsequent recurrent wheezing than in those without wheezing. The relative abundance and total counts of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Neisseria were higher in patients who did not experience subsequent recurrent wheezing.

CONCLUSIONS: Diversity of the respiratory microbiota was inversely associated with pneumonia severity, and the percentage of iNKT cells was associated with wheezing during pneumonia. Several species may be associated with subsequent respiratory morbidities and warrant further investigation.

WHAT IS KNOWN: • Early life airway microbiota symbiosis affects the severity of respiratory infection and the risk for the development of asthma. • Changes in airway microbiota among infants with pneumonia and their impact on subsequent respiratory health are largely unknown.

WHAT IS NEW: • The diversity of the airway microbiome was inversely associated with the severity of pneumonia and length of hospitalization. • The abundance of Veillonella was higher in patients who experienced wheezing during pneumonia and in those with subsequent recurrent wheezing.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Singh A, Alexander SG, S Martin (2023)

Gut microbiome homeostasis and the future of probiotics in cancer immunotherapy.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1114499.

The gut microbiome has an impact on cancer immune surveillance and immunotherapy, with recent studies showing categorical differences between immunotherapy-sensitive and immunotherapy-resistant cancer patient cohorts. Although probiotics are traditionally being supplemented to promote treatments or sustain therapeutic benefits; the FDA has not approved any for use with immunotherapy. The first step in developing probiotics for immunotherapy is identifying helpful or harmful bacteria down to the strain level. The gut microbiome's heterogeneity before and during treatment is also being investigated to determine microbial strains that are important for immunotherapy. Moreover, Dietary fiber intake, prebiotic supplementation and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) were found to enhance intratumoral CD8+ T cell to T-reg ratio in the clinics. The possibility of probiotic immunotherapy as a "living adjuvant" to CAR treatment and checkpoint blockade resistance is actively being investigated.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Myers KS, Ingle AT, Walters KA, et al (2023)

Comparison of metagenomes from fermentation of various agroindustrial residues suggests a common model of community organization.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1197175.

The liquid residue resulting from various agroindustrial processes is both rich in organic material and an attractive source to produce a variety of chemicals. Using microbial communities to produce chemicals from these liquid residues is an active area of research, but it is unclear how to deploy microbial communities to produce specific products from the different agroindustrial residues. To address this, we fed anaerobic bioreactors one of several agroindustrial residues (carbohydrate-rich lignocellulosic fermentation conversion residue, xylose, dairy manure hydrolysate, ultra-filtered milk permeate, and thin stillage from a starch bioethanol plant) and inoculated them with a microbial community from an acid-phase digester operated at the wastewater treatment plant in Madison, WI, United States. The bioreactors were monitored over a period of months and sampled to assess microbial community composition and extracellular fermentation products. We obtained metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) from the microbial communities in each bioreactor and performed comparative genomic analyses to identify common microorganisms, as well as any community members that were unique to each reactor. Collectively, we obtained a dataset of 217 non-redundant MAGs from these bioreactors. This metagenome assembled genome dataset was used to evaluate whether a specific microbial ecology model in which medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are simultaneously produced from intermediate products (e.g., lactic acid) and carbohydrates could be applicable to all fermentation systems, regardless of the feedstock. MAGs were classified using a multiclass classification machine learning algorithm into three groups, organisms fermenting the carbohydrates to intermediate products, organisms utilizing the intermediate products to produce MCFAs, and organisms producing MCFAs directly from carbohydrates. This analysis revealed common biological functions among the microbial communities in different bioreactors, and although different microorganisms were enriched depending on the agroindustrial residue tested, the results supported the conclusion that the microbial ecology model tested was appropriate to explain the MCFA production potential from all agricultural residues.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Gaeta AL, Willicott K, Willicott CW, et al (2023)

Mechanistic impacts of bacterial diet on dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a Caenorhabditis elegans α-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease.

iScience, 26(6):106859.

Failure of inherently protective cellular processes and misfolded protein-associated stress contribute to the progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). A disease-modifying role for the microbiome has recently emerged in PD, representing an impetus to employ the soil-dwelling nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, as a preclinical model to correlate changes in gene expression with neurodegeneration in transgenic animals grown on distinct bacterial food sources. Even under tightly controlled conditions, hundreds of differentially expressed genes and a robust neuroprotective response were discerned between clonal C. elegans strains overexpressing human alpha-synuclein in the DA neurons fed either one of only two subspecies of Escherichia coli. Moreover, this neuroprotection persisted in a transgenerational manner. Genetic analysis revealed a requirement for the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing machinery in conferring neuroprotection. In delineating the contribution of individual genes, evidence emerged for endopeptidase activity and heme-associated pathway(s) as mechanistic components for modulating dopaminergic neuroprotection.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Li X, Yi Y, Wu T, et al (2023)

Integrated microbiome and metabolome analysis reveals the interaction between intestinal flora and serum metabolites as potential biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1170748.

Globally, liver cancer poses a serious threat to human health and quality of life. Despite numerous studies on the microbial composition of the gut in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), little is known about the interactions of the gut microbiota and metabolites and their role in HCC. This study examined the composition of the gut microbiota and serum metabolic profiles in 68 patients with HCC, 33 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), and 34 healthy individuals (NC) using a combination of metagenome sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The composition of the serum metabolites and the structure of the intestinal microbiota were found to be significantly altered in HCC patients compared to non-HCC patients. LEfSe and metabolic pathway enrichment analysis were used to identify two key species (Odoribacter splanchnicus and Ruminococcus bicirculans) and five key metabolites (ouabain, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholate, theophylline, and xanthine) associated with HCC, which then were combined to create panels for HCC diagnosis. The study discovered that the diagnostic performance of the metabolome was superior to that of the microbiome, and a panel comprised of key species and key metabolites outperformed alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in terms of diagnostic value. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to determine the relationship between the intestinal flora and serum metabolites and their impact on hepatocarcinogenesis and progression. A random forest model was used to assess the diagnostic performance of the different histologies alone and in combination. In summary, this study describes the characteristics of HCC patients' intestinal flora and serum metabolism, demonstrates that HCC is caused by the interaction of intestinal flora and serum metabolites, and suggests that two key species and five key metabolites may be potential markers for the diagnosis of HCC.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Dlamini P, Sekhohola-Dlamini LM, AK Cowan (2023)

Editorial: Soil-microbial interactions.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1213834.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Amato P, Mathonat F, Nuñez Lopez L, et al (2023)

The aeromicrobiome: the selective and dynamic outer-layer of the Earth's microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1186847.

The atmosphere is an integral component of the Earth's microbiome. Abundance, viability, and diversity of microorganisms circulating in the air are determined by various factors including environmental physical variables and intrinsic and biological properties of microbes, all ranging over large scales. The aeromicrobiome is thus poorly understood and difficult to predict due to the high heterogeneity of the airborne microorganisms and their properties, spatially and temporally. The atmosphere acts as a highly selective dispersion means on large scales for microbial cells, exposing them to a multitude of physical and chemical atmospheric processes. We provide here a brief critical review of the current knowledge and propose future research directions aiming at improving our comprehension of the atmosphere as a biome.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Ashy RA, Jalal RS, Sonbol HS, et al (2023)

Functional annotation of rhizospheric phageome of the wild plant species Moringa oleifera.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1166148.

INTRODUCTION: The study aims to describe phageome of soil rhizosphere of M.oleifera in terms of the genes encoding CAZymes and other KEGG enzymes.

METHODS: Genes of the rhizospheric virome of the wild plant species Moringa oleifera were investigated for their ability to encode useful CAZymes and other KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enzymes and to resist antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil.

RESULTS: Abundance of these genes was higher in the rhizospheric microbiome than in the bulk soil. Detected viral families include the plant viral family Potyviridae as well as the tailed bacteriophages of class Caudoviricetes that are mainly associated with bacterial genera Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Mycobacterium. Viral CAZymes in this soil mainly belong to glycoside hydrolase (GH) families GH43 and GH23. Some of these CAZymes participate in a KEGG pathway with actions included debranching and degradation of hemicellulose. Other actions include biosynthesizing biopolymer of the bacterial cell wall and the layered cell wall structure of peptidoglycan. Other CAZymes promote plant physiological activities such as cell-cell recognition, embryogenesis and programmed cell death (PCD). Enzymes of other pathways help reduce the level of soil H2O2 and participate in the biosynthesis of glycine, malate, isoprenoids, as well as isoprene that protects plant from heat stress. Other enzymes act in promoting both the permeability of bacterial peroxisome membrane and carbon fixation in plants. Some enzymes participate in a balanced supply of dNTPs, successful DNA replication and mismatch repair during bacterial cell division. They also catalyze the release of signal peptides from bacterial membrane prolipoproteins. Phages with the most highly abundant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) transduce species of bacterial genera Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, and Mycobacterium. Abundant mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in the rhizosphere include "antibiotic efflux pump" for ARGs soxR, OleC, and MuxB, "antibiotic target alteration" for parY mutant, and "antibiotic inactivation" for arr-1.

DISCUSSION: These ARGs can act synergistically to inhibit several antibiotics including tetracycline, penam, cephalosporin, rifamycins, aminocoumarin, and oleandomycin. The study highlighted the issue of horizontal transfer of ARGs to clinical isolates and human gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Ishimwe JA, A Kirabo (2023)

Editorial: Gut microbiome and metabolic physiology.

Frontiers in physiology, 14:1216411.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Yang Y, Liu J, Ou H, et al (2023)

Study on the Mechanism of Jiaotai Pill Intervention on Insomnia Animal Model Based on Gut Microbiome and Metabolomics.

Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2023:2442505.

BACKGROUND: With the continuous advancement of clinical application and experimental research of JTP, the application prospect of JTP in nervous system diseases and metabolic diseases is becoming increasingly clear. Jiaotai Pill (JTP) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula for insomnia, consisting of Coptidis rhizoma and Cinnamomi cortex, which dates back to Han Shi Yi Tong in the Ming Dynasty of China.

OBJECTIVE: Based on the brain-gut axis theory, this paper aims to explore the potential mechanism of JTP in the intervention of insomnia by using intestinal microbiome and metabolomics technology, taking the animal model of insomnia as the research object, so as to provide experimental basis for its further application and research.

METHODS: The insomnia mouse model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). The clinical equivalent dose of JTP was administered by gavage for one week. The efficacy of JTP was evaluated by behavioral tests, serum biochemical detection, and brain histomorphological observation. The contents of cecum were analyzed by microbiomics and metabolomics.

RESULTS: The results show that insomnia caused by PCPA led to daytime dysfunction, higher HPA axis hormone levels, and morphologically impaired hippocampus. JTP reversed these anomalies. Omics research indicates that JTP significantly reduced gut α diversity; at the phylum level, JTP reduced the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Deferribacterota, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteriota and increased the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobiota, Proteobacteria, and Desulfobacterota. At the genus level, JTP reduced the relative abundance of Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Alistipes, Colidextribacter, Muribaculum, and Mucispirillum and increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Akkermansia. JTP also reversed the activation of the linoleic acid metabolism pathway induced by insomnia. The combined analysis of omics suggests that JTP may play a role by regulating the inflammatory state of the body. Further gene expression analysis of brain tissue confirmed this.

CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that JTP may achieve insomnia relief by eliminating inflammation-causing bacteria in the gut and reducing inflammation levels through the brain-gut axis, pointing to potential targets and pathways for future research on JTP.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Oulas A, Minadakis G, Zachariou M, et al (2023)

Bacterial Wars-a tool for the prediction of bacterial predominance based on network analysis measures.

NAR genomics and bioinformatics, 5(2):lqad049.

Bacterial Wars (BW) is a network-based tool that applies a two-step pipeline to display information on the competition of bacterial species found in the same microbiome. It utilizes antimicrobial peptide (AMP) sequence similarities to obtain a relationship between species. The working hypothesis (putative AMP defense) is that friendly species share sequence similarity among the putative AMPs of their proteomes and are therefore immune to their AMPs. This may not happen in competing bacterial species with dissimilar putative AMPs. Similarities in the putative AMPs of bacterial proteomes may be thus used to predict predominance. The tool provides insights as to which bacterial species are more likely to 'die' in a competing environmental niche.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Yue K, Sheng D, Xue X, et al (2023)

Bidirectional Mediation Effects between Intratumoral Microbiome and Host DNA Methylation Changes Contribute to Stomach Adenocarcinoma.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD). The involvement of the non-H. pylori gastric microbiota in this mechanism remains to be examined. RNA sequencing data, clinical information, and DNA methylation data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) STAD project. The Kraken 2 pipeline was employed to explore the microbiome profiles. The microbiome was associated with occurrence, distal metastasis, and prognosis, and differential methylation changes related to distal metastasis and prognosis were analyzed. Bi-directional mediation effects of the intratumoral microbiome and host DNA methylation changes on the metastasis and prognosis of STAD were identified by mediation analysis. The expression of the ZNF215 gene was verified by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). A cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) cell proliferation experiment and a cell clone formation experiment were used to evaluate the proliferation and invasion abilities of gastric cells. Our analysis revealed that H. pylori and other cancer-related microorganisms were related to the occurrence, progression, or prognosis of STAD. The related methylated genes were particularly enriched in related cancer pathways. Kytococcus sedentarius and Actinomyces oris, which interacted strongly with methylation changes in immune genes, were associated with prognosis. Cell experiments verified that Staphylococcus saccharolyticus could promote the proliferation and cloning of gastric cells by regulating the gene expression level of the ZNF215 gene. Our study suggested that the bi-directional mediation effect between intratumoral microorganisms and host epigenetics was key to the distal metastasis of cancer cells and survival deterioration in the tumor microenvironment of stomach tissues of patients with STAD. IMPORTANCE The burgeoning field of oncobiome research declared that members of the intratumoral microbiome besides Helicobacter pylori existed in tumor tissues and participated in the occurrence and development of gastric cancer, and the methylation of host DNA may be a potential target of microbes and their metabolites. Current research focuses mostly on species composition, but the functional genes of the members of the microbiota are also key to their interaction with the host. Therefore, we focused on characterizing the species composition and functional gene composition of microbes in gastric cancer, and we suggest that microbes may further participate in the occurrence and development of cancer by influencing abnormal epigenetic changes in the host. Some key bioinformatics analysis results were verified by in vitro experiments. Thus, we consider that the tumor microbiota-host epigenetic axis of gastric cancer microorganisms and the host explains the mechanism of the microbiota participating in cancer occurrence and development, and we make some verifiable experimental predictions.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Olofintila OE, ZA Noel (2023)

Soybean and Cotton Spermosphere Soil Microbiome Shows Dominance of Soilborne Copiotrophs.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The spermosphere is the transient, immediate zone of soil around imbibing and germinating seeds. It represents a habitat where there is contact between seed-associated microbes and soil microbes, but it is studied less than other plant habitats. Previous studies on spermosphere microbiology were primarily culture based or did not sample the spermosphere soil as initially defined in space and time. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop an efficient strategy to collect spermosphere soils around imbibing soybean and cotton in nonsterile soil and investigate changes in microbial communities. The method employed sufficiently collected spermosphere soil as initially defined in space by constraining the soil sampled with a cork borer and confining the soil to a 12-well microtiter plate. Spermosphere prokaryote composition changed over time and depended on the crop within 6 h after seeds were sown. By 12 to 18 h, crops had unique microbial communities in spermosphere soils. Prokaryote evenness dropped following seed imbibition, with the proliferation of copiotrophic soil bacteria. Due to their long history of plant growth promotion, prokaryote operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Burkholderia, Massilia, Azospirillum, and Pseudomonas were notable organisms enriched. Fungi and prokaryotes were hub taxa in cotton and soybean spermosphere networks. Additionally, the enriched taxa were not hubs in networks, suggesting that other taxa besides those enriched may be important for spermosphere communities. Overall, this study advances knowledge in the assembly of the plant microbiome early in a plant's life, which may have plant health implications in more mature plant growth stages. IMPORTANCE The central hypothesis of this research was that plant species and seed exudate release would alter the assembly of microbes in the spermosphere soil. Our research investigated the response of microbes to the initial burst of nutrients into the spermosphere soil, filling knowledge gaps from previous studies that pregerminated seeds under sterile conditions. We identified several copiotrophic bacterial lineages with a long history of plant growth promotion proliferating in response to the initial exudate release. With a comparative network approach, we show that these copiotrophic bacteria are not central to networks, demonstrating that other microbes (including fungi) may be important for community structure. This study improves knowledge on microbial dynamics in the understudied spermosphere and helps inform solutions for biologically or ecologically motivated solutions to spermosphere pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Zhang H, Jin K, Xiong K, et al (2023)

Disease-associated gut microbiome and critical metabolomic alterations in patients with colorectal cancer.

Cancer medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota plays a significant role in the colorectal cancer (CRC) process. Ectopic colonization of multiple oral bacteria is reportedly associated with CRC pathogenesis and progression, but the details remain unclear.

METHODS: We enrolled a cohort of 50 CRC patients and 52 healthy controls from an East China population. Taxonomic and functional analysis of the fecal microbiota were performed using 16S rDNA (50 + 52 samples) and shotgun metagenomic sequencing (8 + 6 samples), respectively, with particular attention paid to gut-colonized oral bacteria.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results showed more detected bacterial species but lower species evenness within the samples from CRC patients. To determine the specific bacteria enriched in each group, we analyzed their possible protective, carcinogenic, or opportunistic roles in the CRC process. Among the ectopic oral bacteria, we observed a significant increase in the abundance of Fusobacterium and decreased abundance of Prevotella and Ruminococcus in the CRC group. Main differences in the functional composition of these two groups were related to energy metabolism and biosynthesis, especially the glycolytic pathway. Furthermore, we validated the colonization of Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis within CRC tissues and studied its impact on the host intestinal epithelium and tumor cells. With high selectivity for cancerous tissues, this subspecies promoted CRC cell proliferation and induced potential DNA damage.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Ammer-Herrmenau C, Lingens CHM, Ratei CS, et al (2023)

Whole 16S rRNA sequencing of the oral microbiome predicts postoperative pancreatic fistula: prospective observational cohort study.

The British journal of surgery pii:7187689 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Kim YH, Park MR, Kim SY, et al (2023)

Respiratory microbiome profiles are associated with distinct inflammatory phenotype and lung function in children with asthma.

Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Respiratory microbiome studies have fostered our understanding of various phenotypes and endotypes of heterogeneous asthma. However, the relationship between the respiratory microbiome and clinical phenotypes in children with asthma remains unclear. We aimed to identify microbiome-driven clusters reflecting the clinical features of asthma and their dominant microbiotas in children with asthma.

METHODS: Induced sputum was collected from children with asthma, and microbiome profiles were generated via sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Cluster analysis was performed using the partitioning around medoid clustering method. The dominant microbiota in each cluster was determined using the Linear Discriminant Effect Size analysis. Each cluster was analyzed for association among the dominant microbiota, clinical phenotype, and inflammatory cytokine.

RESULTS: Eighty-three children diagnosed with asthma were evaluated. Among four clusters reflecting the clinical characteristics of asthma, cluster 1, dominated by Haemophilus and Neisseria, demonstrated lower post-bronchodilator (BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) than that in the other clusters and more mixed granulocytic asthma. Neisseria negatively correlated with pre-BD and post-BD FEV1/FVC. Haemophilus and Neisseria positively correlated with programmed death-ligand (PD-L)1.

CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the relationship between an unbiased microbiome-driven cluster and clinical phenotype in children with asthma. The cluster dominated by Haemophilus and Neisseria showed fixed airflow obstruction and mixed granulocytic asthma, which correlated with PD-L1 levels. Thus, microbiome-driven unbiased clustering can help identify new asthma phenotypes related to endotypes in childhood asthma.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Wanelik KM, Raulo A, Troitsky T, et al (2023)

Maternal transmission gives way to social transmission during gut microbiota assembly in wild mice.

Animal microbiome, 5(1):29.

BACKGROUND: The mammalian gut microbiota influences a wide array of phenotypes which are relevant to fitness, yet knowledge about the transmission routes by which gut microbes colonise hosts in natural populations remains limited. Here, we use an intensively studied wild population of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) to examine how vertical (maternal) and horizontal (social) transmission routes influence gut microbiota composition throughout life.

RESULTS: We identify independent signals of maternal transmission (sharing of taxa between a mother and her offspring) and social transmission (sharing of taxa predicted by the social network), whose relative magnitudes shift as hosts age. In early life, gut microbiota composition is predicted by both maternal and social relationships, but by adulthood the impact of maternal transmission becomes undetectable, leaving only a signal of social transmission. By exploring which taxa drive the maternal transmission signal, we identify a candidate maternally-transmitted bacterial family in wood mice, the Muribaculaceae.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings point to an ontogenetically shifting transmission landscape in wild mice, with a mother's influence on microbiota composition waning as offspring age, while the relative impact of social contacts grows.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Ma L, Jiang H, Han T, et al (2023)

The menstrual cycle regularity and skin: irregular menstrual cycle affects skin physiological properties and skin bacterial microbiome in urban Chinese women.

BMC women's health, 23(1):292.

BACKGROUND: The regularity of the menstrual cycle directly affects women's health. Many studies have focused on menstrual health; however, menstrual cycle regularity-related variations in skin physiological characteristics and skin microbiota have been seldom investigated.

METHODS: To investigate the menstrual cycle regularity-related variations in skin physiological characteristics and skin microbiota of 197 cases of Chinese women aged 18-35 years living in shanghai in 2021. Based on a self-evaluation questionnaire, the volunteers were divided into three groups C1 (those with a regular menstrual cycle), C2 (those with a less regular menstrual cycle) and C3 (those with an irregular menstrual cycle). The physiological parameters of facial skin were measured by non-invasive methods and the skin microbiome was analyzed by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing.

RESULTS: In the C3 group, the hydration content was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), the TEWL was significantly increased (p < 0.05), and the sebum content was increased (p > 0.05), indicating that the skin barrier integrity weakened with increased menstrual cycle irregularity. Additionally, the melanin level, L value and b value were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the C3 group, but the a value was significantly increased (p < 0.001), which indicated that the skin color became darker. Furthermore, the skin microbiota diversity decreased with increasing cycle irregularity, but the differences were not significant. The skin microbiota composition showed that the proportion of Firmicutes, Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Cutibacterium were increased in those with an irregular menstrual cycle, indicating that alterations in the ratio of bacterial phyla and/or genera might disturb skin homeostasis. Spearman correlation analysis revealed strong correlations between the microbiota and skin physiological parameters. Based on the associations among hormones, skin physiological parameters and skin microbiota, it is possible that the skin physiological parameters, as well as the skin microbial diversity and composition, change with hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle.

CONCLUSIONS: An irregular menstrual cycle can affect skin physiological characteristics and the skin microbiota. Female with an irregular menstrual cycle should strengthen skin care practices and use skin care products with moisturising and soothing effects to protect their skin.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Hechard T, H Wang (2023)

Determination of Growth Rate and Virulence Plasmid Copy Number During Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection Using Droplet Digital PCR.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2674:101-115.

Pathogenic bacteria have evolved the ability to evade their host defenses and cause diseases. Virulence factors encompass a wide range of adaptations that allow pathogens to survive and proliferate in the hostile host environment during successful infection. In human pathogenic Yersinia species, the potent type III secretion system (T3SS) and other essential virulence factors are encoded on a virulence plasmid. Here, we investigated the bacterial growth rate and plasmid copy number following a Yersinia infection using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). ddPCR is an exceptionally sensitive, highly precise, and cost-efficient method. It enables precise quantification even from very small amounts of target DNA. This method also enables analysis of complex samples with large amounts of interfering DNA, such as infected tissues or microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Boctor J, Oweda M, M El-Hadidi (2023)

Comprehensive Guideline for Microbiome Analysis Using R.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:393-436.

The need for a comprehensive consolidated guide for R packages and tools that are used in microbiome data analysis is significant; thus, we aim to provide a detailed step-by-step dissection of the most used R packages and tools in the field of microbiome data integration and analysis. The guideline aims to be a user-friendly simplification and tutorial on five main packages, namely phyloseq, MegaR, DADA2, Metacoder, and microbiomeExplorer due to their high efficiency and benefit in microbiome data analysis.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Cheng X, B Joe (2023)

Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: Microbiome-Based Machine Learning for Phenotypic Classification.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:281-288.

Advanced computational approaches in artificial intelligence, such as machine learning, have been increasingly applied in life sciences and healthcare to analyze large-scale complex biological data, such as microbiome data. In this chapter, we describe the experimental procedures for using microbiome-based machine learning models for phenotypic classification.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Arumugam K, Bessarab I, Haryono MAS, et al (2023)

Recovery and Analysis of Long-Read Metagenome-Assembled Genomes.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:235-259.

The development of long-read nucleic acid sequencing is beginning to make very substantive impact on the conduct of metagenome analysis, particularly in relation to the problem of recovering the genomes of member species of complex microbial communities. Here we outline bioinformatics workflows for the recovery and characterization of complete genomes from long-read metagenome data and some complementary procedures for comparison of cognate draft genomes and gene quality obtained from short-read sequencing and long-read sequencing.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Bağcı C, Albrecht B, DH Huson (2023)

MAIRA: Protein-based Analysis of MinION Reads on a Laptop.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:223-234.

Third-generation sequencing technologies are being increasingly used in microbiome research and this has given rise to new challenges in computational microbiome analysis. Oxford Nanopore's MinION is a portable sequencer that streams data that can be basecalled on-the-fly. Here we give an introduction to the MAIRA software, which is designed to analyze MinION sequencing reads from a microbiome sample, as they are produced in real-time, on a laptop. The software processes reads in batches and updates the presented analysis after each batch. There are two analysis steps: First, protein alignments are calculated to determine which genera might be present in a sample. When strong evidence for a genus is found, then, in a second step, a more detailed analysis is performed by aligning the reads against the proteins of all species in the detected genus. The program presents a detailed analysis of species, antibiotic resistance genes, and virulence factors.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Jadeja NB, A Kapley (2023)

Designing Knowledge-Based Bioremediation Strategies Using Metagenomics.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:195-208.

Functional capacities for bioremediation are governed by metabolic mechanisms of inhabiting microbial communities at polluted niches. Process fluctuations lead to stress scenarios where microbes evolve continuously to adapt to sustain the harsh conditions. The biological wastewater treatment (WWT) process harbors the potential of these catabolic microbes for the degradation of organic molecules. In a typical biological WWT or soil bioremediation process, several microbial species coexist which code for enzymes that degrade complex compounds.High throughput DNA sequencing techniques for microbiome analysis in bioremediation processes have led to a powerful paradigm revealing the significance of metabolic functions and microbial diversity. The present chapter describes techniques in taxonomy and functional gene analysis for understanding bioremediation potential and novel strategies built on in silico analysis for the improvisation of existing aerobic wastewater treatment methods. Methods explaining comparative metagenomics by Metagenome Analysis server (MG-RAST) are described with successful case studies by focusing on industrial wastewaters and soil bioremediation studies.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Arumugam R, Ravichandran P, Yeap SK, et al (2023)

Application of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) to Enhance the Well-Being of an Endangered Species (Malayan Tapir): Characterization of Gut Microbiome Using MG-RAST.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:175-194.

The Tapirus indicus, also known as Malayan tapir, has been listed as a rapidly declining animal species in the past decades, along with being declared and categorized as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 2016. This tapir species is geographically distributed across several countries in Southeast Asia such as Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra), South Thailand, and Myanmar. Amongst these countries, the Peninsula Malaysia forest is recorded to contain the highest number of Malayan tapir population. Unfortunately, in the past decades, the population of Malayan tapirs has declined swiftly due to serious deforestation, habitat fragmentation, and heavy vehicle accidents during road crossings at forest routes. Concerned by this predicament, the Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) Peninsular Malaysia collaborated with a few local universities to conduct various studies aimed at increasing the population number of tapirs in Malaysia. Several studies were conducted with the aim of enhancing the well-being of tapirs in captivity. Veterinarians face problems when it comes to selecting healthy and suitable tapirs for breeding programs at conservation centers. Conventional molecular methods using high-throughput sequencing provides a solution in determining the health condition of Malayan tapirs using the Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology. Unaware by most, gut microbiome plays an important role in determining the health condition of an organism by various aspects: (1) digestion control; (2) benefiting the immune system; and (3) playing a role as a "second brain." Commensal gut bacterial communities (microbiomes) are predicted to influence organism health and disease. Imbalance of unhealthy and healthy microbes in the gut may contribute to weight gain, high blood sugar, high cholesterol, and other disorders. In infancy, neonatal gut microbiomes are colonized with maternal and environmental flora, and mature toward a stable composition in two to three years. Interactions between the microorganism communities and the host allow for the establishment of microbiological roles. Identifying the core microbiome(s) are essential in the prediction of diseases and changes in environmental behavior of microorganisms. The dataset of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of Malayan tapir was deposited in the MG-RAST portal. Parameters such as quality control, taxonomic prediction (unknown and predicted), diversity (rarefaction), and diversity (alpha) were analyzed using sequencing approaches (Amplicon sequencing). Comparisons of parameters, according to the type of sequencing, showed significant differences, except for the prediction variable. In the Amplicon sequencing datasets, the parameters Rarefaction and Unknown had the highest correlation, while Alpha and Predicted had the lowest. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Bacteroidia were the most representative genera in Malayan tapir amplicon sequences, which indicated that most of the tapirs were healthy. However, continuous assessment to maintain the well-being of tapir for long term is still required. This chapter focuses on the introduction of 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomics in analyzing Malayan tapir gut microbiome dataset.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Gautam A, Zeng W, DH Huson (2023)

DIAMOND + MEGAN Microbiome Analysis.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:107-131.

Metagenomics is the study of microbiomes using DNA sequencing technologies. Basic computational tasks are to determine the taxonomic composition (who is out there?), the functional composition (what can they do?), and also to correlate changes of composition to changes in external parameters (how do they compare?). One approach to address these issues is to first align all sequences against a protein reference database such as NCBI-nr and to then perform taxonomic and functional binning of all sequences based on their alignments. The resulting classifications can then be interactively analyzed and compared. Here we illustrate how to pursue this approach using the DIAMOND+MEGAN pipeline, on two different publicly available datasets, one containing short-read samples and other containing long-read samples.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Rooney CM, S Mitra (2023)

A Practical Guide to 16S rRNA Microbiome Analysis in Musculoskeletal Disorders.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:85-105.

Microbial taxonomic assignment based on 16S marker gene amplification requires multiple data transformations, often encompassing the use of a variety of computational platforms. Bioinformatics analysis may represent a bottleneck for researchers as many tools require programmatic access in order to implement the software. Here we describe a step-by-step approach for taxonomic assignment using QIIME2 and highlight the utility of graphical-based microbiome tools for further analysis and identification of biological relevant taxa with reference to an outcome of interest.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Wang D (2023)

Metagenomics Databases for Bacteria.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:55-67.

The booming sequencing technologies have turned metagenomics into a widely used tool for microbe-related studies, especially in the areas of clinical medicine and ecology. Accordingly, the toolkit of metagenomics data analysis is growing stronger to provide multiple approaches for solving various biological questions and understanding the component and function of microbiome. As part of the toolkit, metagenomics databases play a central role in the creation and maintenance of processed data such as definition of taxonomic classifications, annotation of gene functions, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic tree inference. The availability of a large quantity of high-quality bacterial genomic sequences contributes significantly to the construction and update of metagenomics databases, which constitute the core resource for metagenomics data analysis at various scales. This chapter presents the key concepts, technical options, and challenges for metagenomics projects as well as the curation processes and versatile functions for the four representative bacterial metagenomics databases, including Greengenes, SILVA, Ribosomal Database Project (RDP), and Genome Taxonomy Database (GTDB).

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Gihawi A, Cardenas R, Hurst R, et al (2023)

Quality Control in Metagenomics Data.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:21-54.

Experiments involving metagenomics data are become increasingly commonplace. Processing such data requires a unique set of considerations. Quality control of metagenomics data is critical to extracting pertinent insights. In this chapter, we outline some considerations in terms of study design and other confounding factors that can often only be realized at the point of data analysis.In this chapter, we outline some basic principles of quality control in metagenomics, including overall reproducibility and some good practices to follow. The general quality control of sequencing data is then outlined, and we introduce ways to process this data by using bash scripts and developing pipelines in Snakemake (Python).A significant part of quality control in metagenomics is in analyzing the data to ensure you can spot relationships between variables and to identify when they might be confounded. This chapter provides a walkthrough of analyzing some microbiome data (in the R statistical language) and demonstrates a few days to identify overall differences and similarities in microbiome data. The chapter is concluded by discussing remarks about considering taxonomic results in the context of the study and interrogating sequence alignments using the command line.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Benz S, S Mitra (2023)

From Genomics to Metagenomics in the Era of Recent Sequencing Technologies.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2649:1-20.

Metagenomics, also known as environmental genomics, is the study of the genomic content of a sample of organisms obtained from a common habitat. Metagenomics and other "omics" disciplines have captured the attention of researchers for several decades. The effect of microbes in our body is a relevant concern for health studies. Through sampling the sequences of microbial genomes within a certain environment, metagenomics allows study of the functional metabolic capacity of a community as well as its structure based upon distribution and richness of species. Exponentially increasing number of microbiome literatures illustrate the importance of sequencing techniques which have allowed the expansion of microbial research into areas, including the human gut, antibiotics, enzymes, and more. This chapter illustrates how metagenomics field has evolved with the progress of sequencing technologies.Further, from this chapter, researchers will be able to learn about all current options for sequencing techniques and comparison of their cost and read statistics, which will be helpful for planning their own studies.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Garritano AN, Majzoub ME, Ribeiro B, et al (2023)

Species-specific relationships between deep sea sponges and their symbiotic Nitrosopumilaceae.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Sponges thrive in the deep, dark and nutrient-depleted ocean and may rely on microbial symbionts for carbon acquisition and energy generation. However, these symbiotic relationships remain largely unexplored. In this study, we analyze the microbiome of deep-sea sponges and show that ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the family Nitrosopumilaceae make up at least 75% of the microbial communities of the sponges Aphrocallistes sp., Farrea sp. and Paratimea sp.. Given the known autotrophic metabolism of AOAs, this implies that these sponge holobionts can have the capacity for primary production in the deep-sea. We also show that specific AOA lineages are highly specific towards their hosts, hinting towards an unprecedent vertical transmission of these symbionts in deep-sea sponges. Our results show that the ecology and evolution of symbiotic relationships in deep-sea sponge is distinct from that of their shallow-water counterparts.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Liu J, Sun J, Yu J, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome determines therapeutic effects of OCA on NAFLD by modulating bile acid metabolism.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):29.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease, had no approved pharmacological agents yet. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel bile acid derivative, was demonstrated to ameliorate NAFLD-related manifestations. Regarding the role of gut-liver axis in liver disease development, this study aimed to explore the potential role of gut microbiota in the treatment of OCA in NAFLD mice induced by the high-fat diet (HFD). Antibiotic-induced microbiome depletion (AIMD) and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) confirmed the critical role of gut microbiota in OCA treatment for NAFLD by effectively alleviating histopathological lesions and restoring liver function impaired by HFD. Metagenomic analysis indicated that OCA intervention in HFD mice remarkably increased the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Alistipes spp., Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus thermophilus, and Parasutterella excrementihominis. Targeted metabolomics analysis indicated that OCA could modulate host bile acids pool by reducing levels of serum hydrophobic cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and increasing levels of serum-conjugated bile acids, such as taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) and tauroursodesoxycholic acid (TUDCA) in the HFD-fed mice. Strong correlations were observed between differentially abundant microbes and the shifted bile acids. Furthermore, bacteria enriched by OCA intervention exhibited much greater potential in encoding 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDs) producing secondary bile acids rather than bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) mainly responsible for primary bile acid deconjugation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that OCA intervention altered gut microbiota composition with specially enriched gut microbes modulating host bile acids, thus effectively alleviating NAFLD in the mice.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Corbin KD, Carnero EA, Dirks B, et al (2023)

Host-diet-gut microbiome interactions influence human energy balance: a randomized clinical trial.

Nature communications, 14(1):3161.

The gut microbiome is emerging as a key modulator of human energy balance. Prior studies in humans lacked the environmental and dietary controls and precision required to quantitatively evaluate the contributions of the gut microbiome. Using a Microbiome Enhancer Diet (MBD) designed to deliver more dietary substrates to the colon and therefore modulate the gut microbiome, we quantified microbial and host contributions to human energy balance in a controlled feeding study with a randomized crossover design in young, healthy, weight stable males and females (NCT02939703). In a metabolic ward where the environment was strictly controlled, we measured energy intake, energy expenditure, and energy output (fecal and urinary). The primary endpoint was the within-participant difference in host metabolizable energy between experimental conditions [Control, Western Diet (WD) vs. MBD]. The secondary endpoints were enteroendocrine hormones, hunger/satiety, and food intake. Here we show that, compared to the WD, the MBD leads to an additional 116 ± 56 kcals (P < 0.0001) lost in feces daily and thus, lower metabolizable energy for the host (89.5 ± 0.73%; range 84.2-96.1% on the MBD vs. 95.4 ± 0.21%; range 94.1-97.0% on the WD; P < 0.0001) without changes in energy expenditure, hunger/satiety or food intake (P > 0.05). Microbial 16S rRNA gene copy number (a surrogate of biomass) increases (P < 0.0001), beta-diversity changes (whole genome shotgun sequencing; P = 0.02), and fermentation products increase (P < 0.01) on an MBD as compared to a WD along with significant changes in the host enteroendocrine system (P < 0.0001). The substantial interindividual variability in metabolizable energy on the MBD is explained in part by fecal SCFAs and biomass. Our results reveal the complex host-diet-microbiome interplay that modulates energy balance.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Reyes-Martínez S, Segura-Real L, Gómez-García AP, et al (2023)

Neuroinflammation, Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis, and Depression: The Vicious Circle.

Journal of integrative neuroscience, 22(3):65.

Depression is the leading cause of disability worldwide, contributing to the global disease burden. From above, it is a priority to investigate models that fully explain its physiopathology to develop new treatments. In the last decade, many studies have shown that gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis influences brain functions and participate, in association with immunity, in the pathogenesis of depression. Thereby, GM modulation could be a novel therapeutic target for depression. This review aims to evidence how the GM and the immune system influence mental illness, particularly depression. Here, we focus on the communication mechanisms between the intestine and the brain and the impact on the development of neuroinflammation contributing to the development of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, most of the current findings are in animal models, suggesting the need for studies in humans. In addition, more analysis of metabolites and cytokines are needed to identify new pathophysiological mechanisms improving anti-depression treatments.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Rossi CAM, Marchetta EJR, Kim JH, et al (2023)

Molecular regulation of the salicylic acid hormone pathway in plants under changing environmental conditions.

Trends in biochemical sciences pii:S0968-0004(23)00128-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Salicylic acid (SA) is a central plant hormone mediating immunity, growth, and development. Recently, studies have highlighted the sensitivity of the SA pathway to changing climatic factors and the plant microbiome. Here we summarize organizing principles and themes in the regulation of SA biosynthesis, signaling, and metabolism by changing abiotic/biotic environments, focusing on molecular nodes governing SA pathway vulnerability or resilience. We especially highlight advances in the thermosensitive mechanisms underpinning SA-mediated immunity, including differential regulation of key transcription factors (e.g., CAMTAs, CBP60g, SARD1, bHLH059), selective protein-protein interactions of the SA receptor NPR1, and dynamic phase separation of the recently identified GBPL3 biomolecular condensates. Together, these nodes form a biochemical paradigm for how the external environment impinges on the SA pathway.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Togao M, Kurakawa T, Tajima S, et al (2023)

Human gut microbiota influences drug-metabolizing enzyme hepatic Cyp3a: A human flora-associated mice study.

The Journal of toxicological sciences, 48(6):333-343.

Several studies revealed that gut microbiota affects the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P450 (Cyp). We hypothesized that individual gut microbiota variations could contribute to CYP activity. Human flora-associated (HFA) mice are established from germ-free mice using human feces and are often used to determine the effect of the human gut microbiota on the host. This study generated two groups of HFA mice using feces from two healthy individuals. Then, the composition of gut microbiota and hepatic Cyp activity was compared to analyze the effects of gut microbiota in healthy individuals on hepatic Cyp activity. A principal coordinate analysis based on the UniFrac distance for the composition of the cecal and fecal microbiota revealed apparent differences between the recipient groups. Hepatic Cyp, which is a marked difference in Cyp3a activity and Cyp3a11 gene expression, was observed between the recipient groups. Cyp2c and Cyp1a activities did not differ between recipient groups, with significantly lower enzymatic activities in recipients than in germ-free mice. These results indicate that the human gut microbiota affects hepatic Cyp activity. Especially, human gut microbiota composition differences have a pronounced effect on Cyp3a activity via Cyp3a11 gene expression regulation. Therefore, human gut microbiota variations among individuals may affect numerous drug metabolism, leading to drug efficacy and toxicity.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Favale N, Farina R, Carrieri A, et al (2023)

Functional profile of oral plaque microbiome: Further insight into the bidirectional relationship between type 2 diabetes and periodontitis.

Molecular oral microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing evidence support the association between the oral microbiome and human systemic diseases. This association may be attributed to the ability of many oral microbes to influence the inflammatory microenvironment. Herein, we focused our attention on the bidirectional relationship between periodontitis and type 2 diabetes using high-resolution whole metagenomic shotgun analysis to explore the composition and functional profile of the subgingival microbiome in diabetics and non-diabetics subjects with different periodontal conditions. In the present study, the abundance of metabolic pathways encoded by oral microbes was reconstructed from the metagenome, and we identified a set of dysregulated metabolic pathways significantly enriched in the periodontitis and/or diabetic patients. These pathways were mainly involved in branched and aromatic amino acids metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis and adipocytokine signaling pathways, ferroptosis and iron homeostasis, nucleotide metabolism, and finally in the peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharides synthesis. Overall, the results of the present study provide evidence in favor of the hypothesis that during the primary inflammatory challenge, regardless of whether it is induced by periodontitis or diabetes, endotoxemia and/or the release of inflammatory cytokines cause a change in precursor and/or in circulating innate immune cells. Dysbiosis and inflammation, also via oral-gut microbiome axis or adipose tissue, reduce the efficacy of the host immune response, while fueling inflammation and can induce that metabolic/epigenetic reprogramming of chromatin accessibility of genes related to the immune response. Moreover, the presence of an enhanced ferroptosis and an imbalance in purine/pyrimidine metabolism provides new insights into the role of ferroptotic death in this comorbidity.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Chatterjee K, Mazumder PM, Sarkar SR, et al (2023)

Neuroprotective effect of Vitamin K2 against gut dysbiosis associated cognitive decline.

Physiology & behavior pii:S0031-9384(23)00177-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Vitamin K2/ Menaquinones produced predominantly by the gut microbiome improve bone health and prevent coronary calcification. The central nervous system has been linked with gut microbiota via the gut-brain axis and is strongly associated with psychiatric conditions. In the present study, we show the role of Vitamin K2 (MK-7) in gut dysbiosis-associated cognitive decline. Gut dysbiosis was induced in mice by administering Ampicillin (250 mg/kg twice a day orally) for 14 days and Vitamin K2 (0.05 mg/kg) for 21 days with or without antibiotic treatment and altered gene expression profile of intestinal microbes determined. This was followed by behavioural studies to determine cognitive changes. The behavioural observations are then correlated with proinflammatory, oxidative, and brain and intestinal histopathological changes in antibiotic-treated animals with or without vitamin K2 administration. With the use of antibiotics, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Firmicutes, and Clostridium's relative abundance reduced. When vitamin K2 was added to the medication, their levels were restored. Cognitive impairment was observed in behavioural trials in the antibiotic group, but this drop was restored in mice given both an antibiotic and vitamin K. Myeloperoxidase levels in the colon and brain increased due to gut dysbiosis, which vitamin K2 prevented. The acetylcholine esterase and oxidative stress markers brought on by antibiotics were also decreased by vitamin K2. Additionally, vitamin K2 guarded against alterations in intestine ultrastructure brought on by antibiotic use and preserved hippocampus neurons. So, it can be concluded that vitamin K2 improved cognitive skills, avoided hippocampus neuronal damage from antibiotics, and lowered intestine and brain inflammation and oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Szukala W, Pilarczyk-Zurek M, Folkert J, et al (2023)

Depletion of Mcpip1 in murine myeloid cells results in intestinal dysbiosis followed by allergic inflammation.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease pii:S0925-4439(23)00130-8 [Epub ahead of print].

MCPIP1 (called also Regnase-1) is a negative regulator of inflammation. Knockout of the Zc3h12a gene, encoding Mcpip1 in cells of myeloid origin (Mcpip1[MKO]), has a pathological effect on many organs. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze pathological changes in the skin caused by Mcpip1 deficiency in phagocytes with an emphasis on its molecular mechanism associated with microbiome dysbiosis. Mcpip1[MKO] mice exhibited spontaneous wound formation on the skin. On a molecular level, the Th2-type immune response was predominantly characterized by an increase in Il5 and Il13 transcript levels, as well as eosinophil and mast cell infiltration. Irritation by DNFB led to a more severe skin contact allergy in Mcpip1[MKO] mice. Allergic reactions on the skin were strongly influenced by gut dysbiosis and enhanced systemic dissemination of bacteria. This process was followed by activation of the C/EBP pathway in peripheral macrophages, leading to local changes in the cytokine microenvironment that promoted the Th2 response. A reduced bacterial load inhibited allergic inflammation, indicating the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the development of skin diseases. Our results clearly show that MCPIP1 in phagocytes is an essential negative regulator that controls the gut-skin axis.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Ogunkolade W, Senusi AA, Desai P, et al (2023)

Profiling the microbiome of oral and genital mucosal surfaces in Behçet's disease.

Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.) pii:S1521-6616(23)00417-5 [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Almost 90% of Behçet's patients present with oral and/or genital ulcers which influence the disease outcome. We hypothesised that the dysregulation of the oral and genital microbiome, coupled with dysregulation of the immune response, contributes to the aetiopathogenesis of Behçet's Disease (BD) and drives disease activation.

METHOD: 152 BD patient samples; 70 matched oral and genital samples plus 12 unmatched samples (Female: Male, 58:12; mean age, 42 ± 13.9: 39.3 ± 10.3) to profile microbial community high-throughput sequencing of the microbiome using 16 s rRNA sequencing targeting the V1/V2 and V3/V4 hyper variable regions were used and results reviewed in relation to disease severity, Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) outcomes and medication.

RESULTS: Alpha and beta diversity were significantly decreased in genital compared to oral samples; p value<0.05. However, grouping the samples as to whether ulceration was present was not significant. Escherichia-Shigella was the only Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) in the V1/V2 region that was shared between the oral mucosa with ulcer (O_U) and genital mucosa with ulcer (G_U) groups. This was in contrast to the V3/V4 region which indicated that Lachnospiraceae, Saccharimonadales, and Coriobacteriales were shared between the O_U and G_U groups. In addition, gender had no impact on the bacterial abundance in V1/V2 analysis of the oral and genital samples. V3/V4 analysis of genital samples demonstrated that Lactobacilli and Gardnerella were significantly increased in females (20 times) compared to the males in samples; p-adj <0.05. Interestingly in BD patients, Rothia which is commonly found in the mouth was present in both oral and genital samples. Streptococci were significantly increased while Veillonella significantly decreased in the presence of oral ulceration in the BD cohort. The clinical phenotype had no effect on V1/V2 and V3/V4 on the bacterial abundance of oral samples. However, medication e.g. colchicine had a significant effect on the oral microbial abundance (V1/V2; P = 0.020, V3/V4; P = 0.003). There was no relationship between colchicine and the presence/absence of genital ulcers. BD patients with active disease had higher WSAS scores, and their bacterial abundance differed significantly from the non-active BD patients (ADONIS, R2 = 0.05, p value =0.029).

CONCLUSION: The presence of the microbes Streptococcus, Veillonella, Gardnerella, Lactobacillus, Atopobium, Peptoniphilus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus may provide early evidence of BD patients are with active disease.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Osorio-Doblado AM, Feldmann KP, Lourenco JM, et al (2023)

Forages and Pastures Symposium: Forage biodegradation: Advances in ruminal microbial ecology.

Journal of animal science pii:7187435 [Epub ahead of print].

The rumen microbial ecosystem provides ruminants a selective advantage, the ability to utilize forages, allowing them to flourish worldwide in various environments. For many years, our understanding of the ruminal microbial ecosystem was limited to understanding the microbes (usually only laboratory-amenable bacteria) grown in pure culture, meaning that much of our understanding of ruminal function remained a "black box." However, the ruminal degradation of plant cell walls is performed by a consortium of bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi that produces a wide variety of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) that are responsible for the catabolism of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The past 15 years have seen the development and implementation of numerous next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches (e.g., pyrosequencing, Illumina, and shotgun sequencing), which have contributed significantly to a greater level of insight regarding the microbial ecology of ruminants fed a variety of forages. There has also been an increase in the utilization of liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) that revolutionized transcriptomic approaches, and further improvements in the measurement of fermentation intermediates and end products have advanced with metabolomics. These advanced NGS techniques along with other analytic approaches, such as metaproteomics, have been utilized to elucidate the specific role of microbial CAZymes in forage degradation. Other methods have provided new insights into dynamic changes in the ruminal microbial population fed different diets and how these changes impact the assortment of products presented to the host animal. As more omics-based data has accumulated on forage-fed ruminants, the sequence of events that occur during fiber colonization by the microbial consortium has become more apparent, with fungal populations and fibrolytic bacterial populations working in conjunction, as well as expanding understanding of the individual microbial contributions to degradation of plant cell walls and polysaccharide components. In the future, the ability to predict microbial population and enzymatic activity and end products will be able to support the development of dynamic predictive models of rumen forage degradation and fermentation. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the rumen's microbial population better to improve fiber degradation in ruminants and, thus, stimulate more sustainable production systems.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Schönherr S, Jung L, C Lübbert (2023)

[Clostridioides difficile - New Insights and Therapy Recommendations].

Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 148(12):752-758.

After an increase in Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) until 2013 due to epidemic ribotypes such as 027 and 078, CDI incidence in Germany is now declining, as confirmed by recent epidemiological data. Despite this success through antimicrobial stewardship and hospital hygiene, the burden of disease remains high, especially in older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities. The main risk factor for CDI is the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, which disrupt the gut microbiota, allowing C. difficile colonization. Coinfection with other intestinal pathogens such as enterococci can further increase the virulence of C. difficile. The updated 2021 ESCMID guidelines recommend fidaxomicin instead of vancomycin as the antibiotic of choice for the treatment of CDI because of its lower recurrence rate. Vancomycin remains a good alternative; however, metronidazole should only be used if neither antibiotic is available. In the future, ridinilazole may be available as another therapeutic option that has a narrow spectrum of activity and low intestinal absorption. For the treatment of recurrent CDI, the new guidelines also include the use of the monoclonal antibody bezlotoxumab. In addition, a new oral microbiome therapy, SER-109 (capsules containing purified Firmicutes spores), which showed promising results in a phase 3 study, may provide an easy-to-administer alternative to fecal microbiota transplantation. Hopes for a well-performing toxoid vaccine for primary and secondary prevention of CDI have unfortunately not been fulfilled in the CLOVER trial.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Xu L, Wang R, Jin B, et al (2023)

Cadmium inhibits powdery mildew colonization and reconstructs microbial community in leaves of the hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 260:115076 pii:S0147-6513(23)00580-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the influence of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) on the phyllosphere microbiome of hyperaccumulator plants is crucial for enhancing phytoremediation. The characteristics of the phyllosphere of Sedum alfredii Hance, a hyperaccumulator plant, were investigated using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer amplicon sequencing of powdery mildew-infected leaves treated or untreated with Cd. The results showed that the colonization of powdery mildew caused severe chlorosis and necrosis in S. alfredii leaves, and the relative abundance of Leotiomycetes in infected leaves increased dramatically and significantly decreased phyllosphere microbiome diversity. However, S. alfredii preferentially accumulated higher concentrations of Cd in the leaves of infected plants than in uninfected plants by powdery mildew, which in turn significantly inhibited powdery mildew colonization in leaves; the relative abundance of the fungal class Leotiomycetes in infected leaves decreased, and alpha and beta diversities of the phyllosphere microbiome significantly increased with Cd treatment in the infected plants. In addition, the inter-kingdom networks in the microbiota of the infected leaves treated with Cd presented many nodes and edges, and the highest inter-kingdom modularity compared to the untreated infected leaves, indicating a highly connected microbial community. These results suggest that Cd significantly inhibits powdery mildew colonization by altering the composition of the phyllosphere microbiome in S. alfredii leaves, paving the way for efficient heavy metal phytoremediation and providing a new perspective on defense strategies against heavy metals.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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