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Bibliography on: Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (causes)

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 19 Apr 2021 at 01:33 Created: 

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (causes)

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is cancer that began growing in a milk duct and has invaded the fibrous or fatty tissue of the breast outside of the duct. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, representing 80 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses.

The causes of invasive ductal carcinoma have not been conclusively established. Researchers have determined that cancer can form when the cells in a milk-producing duct undergo changes that cause them to grow uncontrollably, divide very rapidly or remain viable longer than they should. The result is an accumulation of excess cells that can form a mass, or tumor, and potentially spread to nearby lymph nodes and distant areas of the body. The underlying reason for those cellular changes, however, remains unclear.

By evaluating the results of extensive studies, scientists have identified certain hormonal, environmental and lifestyle factors that are believed to influence a person's breast cancer risk, such as smoking, poor nutrition and prior radiation therapy administered to the chest area. Even so, it's important to keep in mind that some individuals who have no risk factors develop cancer, while others with one or more risk factors do not. Most likely, the precise cause is a complex interaction of many factors.

In rare cases, the causes of invasive ductal carcinoma have been traced to inherited attributes, such as mutations of the: (a) Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1), a tumor suppressor gene, (b) Breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), a tumor suppressor gene, or (c) ErbB2 gene, which produces the HER2 protein that promotes cellular proliferation.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive ductal carcinoma" OR IDC) and (cause OR caused OR etiology) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-04-14
CmpDate: 2021-04-14

Hashinokuchi A, Akamine T, Kometani T, et al (2021)

Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with cavitating pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer: a case report and literature review.

General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, 69(1):137-141.

We report a 69-year-old woman with spontaneous pneumothorax associated with cavitating pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer. She was treated for right breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, ypT4bN1M0, stage IIIB) 2 years earlier, and was admitted for right pneumothorax and chest computed tomography, which showed multiple small cavitating lesions in bilateral lungs. The pneumothorax was treated conservatively with chest drainage, but subsequently recurred ipsilaterally. During video-assisted thoracic surgery, we detected small white nodules with visceral pleural rupture; therefore, we performed partial lung resection. The pathological findings revealed metastatic breast cancer with pleural invasion. Forty days later, ipsilateral pneumothorax recurred, and chemical pleurodesis was performed, which resolved the pneumothorax and prevented subsequent recurrence. Early diagnosis and definitive treatment, including pleurodesis, should be considered to prevent recurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax and improve patients' quality of life, even in patients with advanced malignancy.

RevDate: 2021-04-12
CmpDate: 2021-04-12

Mostyka M, Jessurun J, C Matrai (2020)

Sarcoid-Like Granulomatosis in a Patient With Breast Cancer Mimicking Refractory Metastatic Disease.

International journal of surgical pathology, 28(6):668-671.

Sarcoid-like granulomatosis is a known but rare adverse reaction to immune checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced solid tumors. We present a case of a 29-year-old female with a pathologically confirmed poorly differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast with presumed metastases to the lungs, hilar lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. Despite appropriate chemotherapy, the patient developed pulmonary lesions that were interpreted on imaging studies as progression of malignancy. Autopsy revealed disseminated sarcoid-like granulomatosis with multiple noncaseating granulomata with associated fibrosis in the lungs, liver, and spleen. No residual invasive carcinoma or metastatic disease was identified. This case illustrates the difficulty in differentiating this nonneoplastic process from progressive disease in the clinical setting.

RevDate: 2021-04-08

Khanam R, Fanous IS, Fadhel EN, et al (2021)

Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Antibody-Induced Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Presenting as a Paraneoplastic Neurological Complication in Breast Cancer.

Cureus, 13(3):e13677.

Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes (PNS) are a group of disorders characterized by an autoimmune response against the nervous system due to cross-reactivity between malignant and normal neural tissue. The most commonly associated malignancies include small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and lymphoma. Multiple PNS have been reported including paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, retinopathy, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, encephalopathy, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, and stiff-person syndrome. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with breast cancer who presented with a history of progressive oropharyngeal dysphagia as a paraneoplastic neurologic complication. She was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma, nuclear grade 3 with moderate peritumoral lymphoid infiltrate. Hormone receptors were weakly positive for estrogen receptor (ER) (H score 15), weakly positive for progesterone receptor (PR) (H score 30), and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/NEU). The patient underwent a localized segmental mastectomy but declined any further adjuvant treatment. Three years after being diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, she developed progressive oropharyngeal dysphagia that warranted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement. Testing for onconeural antibodies was positive for voltage-gated calcium channel antibody. An extensive workup was negative for any alternative etiology that would explain her neurological symptoms. The patient declined further treatment and eventually succumbed to her illness.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Kricheli-Katz T, T Regev (2021)

The effect of language on performance: do gendered languages fail women in maths?.

NPJ science of learning, 6(1):9.

Research suggests that gendered languages are associated with gender inequality. However, as languages are embedded in cultures, evidence for causal effects are harder to provide. We contribute to this ongoing debate by exploring the relationship between gendered languages and the gender gap in mathematics achievements. We provide evidence for causality by exploiting the prominent (but not exclusive) practice in gendered languages of using masculine generics to address women. In an experiment on a large representative sample of the Hebrew-speaking adult population in Israel, we show that addressing women in the feminine, compared to addressing them in the masculine, reduces the gender gap in mathematics achievements by a third. These effects are stronger among participants who acquired the Hebrew language early in childhood rather than later in life, suggesting that it is the extent of language proficiency that generates one's sensitivity to being addressed in the masculine or in the feminine. Moreover, when women are addressed in the masculine, their efforts (in terms of time spent on the maths test) decrease and they report feeling that "science is for men" more than when addressed in the feminine. We supplement the analysis with two experiments that explore the roles of general and task-specific stereotypes in generating these effects.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Alyami H, Yoo TK, Cheun JH, et al (2021)

Clinical Features of Breast Cancer in South Korean Patients with Germline TP53 Gene Mutations.

Journal of breast cancer pii:24.e16 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal cancer syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the TP53 gene. Breast cancer in LFS patients is of various subtypes; however, limited data are available on the clinicopathological features of these subtypes and their appropriate treatments. This study aimed to review the clinical features and treatments for breast cancer in South Korean patients with germline TP53 mutations.

METHODS: Data on the clinicopathological features and treatment of all breast cancer patients with LFS were collected retrospectively from the available database of 4 tertiary hospitals in the Republic of Korea.

RESULTS: Twenty-one breast cancer cases in 12 unrelated women with confirmed germline TP53 mutations were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 33.5 years. The histopathological diagnosis included invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 16), ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 3), and malignant phyllodes tumor (n = 2). While 42% and 31% of the cases were positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, respectively, 52.6% were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive, and 21% were triple-negative. The treatments included mastectomy (52%) and breast-conserving surgery (38%). Five patients underwent radiotherapy (RT). The median follow-up period was 87.5 (8-222) months. There were 3 ipsilateral and 4 contralateral breast recurrences during the follow-up, and 8 patients developed new primary cancers. In the post-RT subgroup, there were 2 ipsilateral and 2 contralateral breast recurrences in 1 patient, and 4 patients had a new primary cancer.

CONCLUSION: As reported in other countries, breast cancer in LFS patients in South Korea had an early onset and were predominantly but not exclusively positive for HER2. A multidisciplinary approach with adherence to the treatment guidelines, considering mastectomy, and avoiding RT is encouraged to prevent RT-associated sequelae in LFS patients.

RevDate: 2021-04-02
CmpDate: 2021-04-02

Mnejja M, Kallel S, Thabet W, et al (2021)

[Ductal carcinomas of the parotid gland].

Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique, 25(2):155-160.

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical, therapeutic and prognostic features of ductal carcinomas of the parotid gland.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five patients with ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland (primary and secondary carcinoma) treated, between 2007 and 2019, in our ENT department, were reviewed.

RESULTS: Four men and one woman were included. The mean age was 61,4 years. One patient had a history of an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Four patients consulted for swelling in the parotid region. One patient referred to our department for dysfunction of facial nerve. Skin invasion was found in one case. Four patients underwent total parotidectomy with sacrifice of the facial nerve (three cases). One patient underwent extended parotidectomy involving the skin. An ipsilateral selective neck dissection was performed in four cases. One patient had a parotid gland biopsy. Ductal carcinoma was primary in four cases and metastatic from breast origin in one case. Four patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Remission was obtained in three cases. One patient had a local and meningeal recurrence. The patient with metastatic carcinoma had pulmonary, bone, hepatic and brain progression.

CONCLUSION: Ductal carcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor of the parotid gland. It can be primary or secondary. The treatment is based on surgery and radiotherapy. The prognosis is poor.

RevDate: 2021-04-05
CmpDate: 2021-04-05

Chen XY, Thike AA, Koh VCY, et al (2021)

Breast ductal Carcinoma in situ associated with microinvasion induces immunological response and predicts ipsilateral invasive recurrence.

Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology, 478(4):679-686.

Although microinvasion (Mi) is often thought to be an interim stage between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and established invasive ductal carcinoma, survival outcomes and biological behaviour of DCIS-Mi are still poorly understood. This study investigated the potential influence of Mi on disease-free survival (DFS) and assessed its correlations with clinicopathological parameters, prognosis, molecular, and immune markers. CD4, CD8, forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), CD68, CD163, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1) expression in pure DCIS and DCIS-Mi, from a cohort of 198 patients, were determined by immunohistochemistry. DFS, clinicopathological parameters, immune markers, and biomarker expression were correlated with presence of Mi. Twelve out of 198 DCIS cases were associated with Mi. DCIS-Mi was significantly linked with ipsilateral invasive recurrence (p = 0.032). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that DCIS-Mi had worse DFS for ipsilateral invasive recurrence (p = 0.011) and this was affirmed by multivariate Cox regression analysis (95% CI 1.181-9.010, HR = 3.262, p = 0.023). DCIS-Mi was associated with higher densities of immune infiltrates positive for CD4 (p = 0.037), FOXP3 (p = 0.037), CD163 (p = 0.01), and PD-L1 (p = 0.015). This study demonstrated that DCIS-Mi was correlated with high densities of immune infiltrates and predicted ipsilateral invasive recurrence.

RevDate: 2021-04-05
CmpDate: 2021-04-05

Siegers GM, Dutta I, Kang EY, et al (2020)

Aberrantly Expressed Embryonic Protein NODAL Alters Breast Cancer Cell Susceptibility to γδ T Cell Cytotoxicity.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:1287.

Gamma delta (γδ) T cells kill transformed cells, and increased circulating γδ T cells levels correlate with improved outcome in cancer patients; however, their function within the breast tumor microenvironment (TME) remains controversial. As tumors progress, they begin to express stem-cell associated proteins, concomitant with the emergence of therapy resistant metastatic disease. For example, invasive breast cancers often secrete the embryonic morphogen, NODAL. NODAL has been shown to promote angiogenesis, therapy resistance and metastasis in breast cancers. However, to date, little is known about how this secreted protein may interact with cells in the TME. Herein we explore how NODAL in the TME may influence γδ T cell function. We have assessed the proximity of γδ T cells to NODAL in a cohort of triple negative breast tumors. In all cases in which γδ T cells could be identified in these tumors, γδ T cells were found in close proximity to NODAL-expressing tumor cells. Migration of γδ and αβ T cells was similar toward MDA-MB-231 cells in which NODAL had been knocked down (shN) and MDA-MB-231 scrambled control cells (shC). Furthermore, Vδ1 γδ T cells did not migrate preferentially toward conditioned medium from these cell lines. While 24-h exposure to NODAL did not impact CD69, PD-1, or T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression on γδ T cells, long term exposure resulted in decreased Vδ2 TCR expression. Maturation of γδ T cells was not significantly influenced by NODAL stimulation. While neither short- nor long-term NODAL stimulation impacted the ability of γδ T cells to kill MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the absence of NODAL resulted in greater sensitivity of targets to γδ T cell cytotoxicity, while overexpression of NODAL conferred resistance. This appeared to be at least in part due to an inverse correlation between NODAL and surface MICA/B expression on breast cancer target lines. As such, it appears that NODAL may play a role in strategies employed by breast cancer cells to evade γδ T cell targeting, and this should be considered in the development of safe and effective γδ T cell immunotherapies.

RevDate: 2021-04-06
CmpDate: 2021-04-06

Kumar V, Agrawal R, Pandey A, et al (2020)

Compromised DNA repair is responsible for diabetes-associated fibrosis.

The EMBO journal, 39(11):e103477.

Diabetes-associated organ fibrosis, marked by elevated cellular senescence, is a growing health concern. Intriguingly, the mechanism underlying this association remained unknown. Moreover, insulin alone can neither reverse organ fibrosis nor the associated secretory phenotype, favoring the exciting notion that thus far unknown mechanisms must be operative. Here, we show that experimental type 1 and type 2 diabetes impairs DNA repair, leading to senescence, inflammatory phenotypes, and ultimately fibrosis. Carbohydrates were found to trigger this cascade by decreasing the NAD+ /NADH ratio and NHEJ-repair in vitro and in diabetes mouse models. Restoring DNA repair by nuclear over-expression of phosphomimetic RAGE reduces DNA damage, inflammation, and fibrosis, thereby restoring organ function. Our study provides a novel conceptual framework for understanding diabetic fibrosis on the basis of persistent DNA damage signaling and points to unprecedented approaches to restore DNA repair capacity for resolution of fibrosis in patients with diabetes.

RevDate: 2021-03-29

Sugimoto H, Oda G, Yokoyama M, et al (2021)

Hydronephrosis Caused by Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Case reports in oncology, 14(1):378-385 pii:cro-0014-0378.

Breast cancer metastasizes mainly to organs such as bone, lung, and liver, whereas metastases to the peritoneum and urinary tract are rare. Metastasis to the peritoneum or urinary tract may result in renal dysfunction, infection, and painful hydronephrosis. In our hospital, 1,409 breast cancer surgeries were performed between January 2004 and December 2015, and 7 cases of hydronephrosis associated with recurrence were observed. The median age of patients was 69 years (57-79 years). The median time from surgery to diagnosis of hydronephrosis was 47 months (20-70 months). Histology was invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in 6 cases and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 1 case. There were 6 bilateral cases and 1 unilateral case of hydronephrosis. The causes were retroperitoneal metastasis in 5 cases and lymph node metastasis in 2 cases. The hydronephrosis was untreated in 2 cases, and treated with a ureteral stent in 2 cases, nephrostomy in 1 case, and nephrostomy due to ureteral stent failure in 2 cases. The median survival from the onset of hydronephrosis was 12 months (3-57 months). Although the probability of hydronephrosis in breast cancer recurrence was not high, care must be taken to avoid renal dysfunction, infection, or pain, which may require treatment.

RevDate: 2021-03-29
CmpDate: 2021-03-29

Sechrist H, Glasgow A, Bomeisl P, et al (2020)

Concordance of breast cancer biomarker status between routine immunohistochemistry/in situ hybridization and Oncotype DX qRT-PCR with investigation of discordance, a study of 591 cases.

Human pathology, 104:54-65.

Patients with estrogen receptor (ER)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2-, lymph node- breast cancer with high recurrence risk benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to hormonal therapy. This study compares ER, progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status between routine immunohistochemistry (IHC)/in situ hybridization (ISH) and Oncotype DX (ODX) in 591 cases. ODX recurrence score (RS) and clinicopathologic features were compared between ER/PR-concordant and discordant cases. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides from ER discordant cases were reexamined. Concordance was high between ODX and IHC for ER status (580/591, 98.1%) and moderate for PR status (512/591, 86.6%). All 11 ER discordant cases were ER+ by IHC but ER- by ODX and high risk by ODX. Histologically, all of these cases were grade III invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), except one case diagnosed as IDC with apocrine features. Although this case was grade I and ER/PR+ by IHC, this patient received chemotherapy because of high RS. Of 79 PR discordant cases, 60 were PR+ by IHC but PR- by ODX. Five hundred eighty-four cases had available HER2 data, with high negative agreement (580/582, 99.7%). However, both HER2+ cases by ISH were HER2- by ODX. Mean RS was higher for ER discordant than concordant cases (48.0 versus 17.1, P < 0.0001) and for PR discordant (IHC+/ODX-) than concordant cases (27.2 versus 16.7, P < 0.0001) with no significant differences in recurrence or metastasis. Overall, detection was more sensitive by IHC, and high RS of discordant cases suggests possible risk overestimation. Therapeutic decisions for discordant cases should continue to be based on clinicopathologic correlation and not oncotype alone.

RevDate: 2021-03-22
CmpDate: 2021-03-22

Oh BH, Woo CG, Lee YJ, et al (2021)

Brain metastasis with subtype conversion in a patient with male breast cancer: A case report.

Medicine, 100(11):e24373.

RATIONALE: Brain metastasis of male breast cancer is extremely rare, and the pathological changes between the primary tumor and the metastatic brain tumor have not been reported. Herein, we report for the first time a case of male breast cancer with metastasis to the parietal lobe with subtype conversion after metastasis.

PATIENT CONCERNS: we describe a 45-year-old male patient admitted for an incidentally found brain tumor after a motorcycle accident. The patient had been treated for breast cancer 5 years previously. The primary tumor was an invasive ductal carcinoma classified as pT1N1M0 with hormone receptor positivity (estrogen receptor ++, progesterone receptor +++, human epidermal growth factor receptor-type2 (HER2) +) and was treated with surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, radiation therapy and endocrine therapy (tamoxifen).

DIAGNOSES: Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well enhanced focal solid tumor in the right parietal lobe (5.0 × 4.2 cm in size), Immunohistochemical staining revealed cerebral metastases of breast cancer with HER2 subtype conversion (estrogen receptor +++, progesterone receptor +++, HER2 -).

INTERVENTIONS: The patient was successfully treated with surgery and whole brain irradiation (3 Gy × 10 fractions).

OUTCOMES: There was no additional complication after the surgery and the patient transferred to oncology department for chemotherapy. 2 years later, he had gamma knife radiosurgery due to the recurred brain lesion and after that he discontinued the treatment and opted for hospice care.

LESSONS: Male breast cancer with metastasis to the brain is an extremely rare condition. Although a few similar cases have been reported, subtype conversion in similar cases has not been reported. Therefore, we report this case of a male patient with brain metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma with HER2 status conversion after metastasis.

RevDate: 2021-03-19
CmpDate: 2021-03-19

Kim HM, JS Koo (2020)

Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Breast Cancer According to the Infiltrating Immune Cell Subtypes.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(12):.

The clinical significance of immune cell subtypes in breast cancer remains poorly understood. To identify tumor-infiltrating immune cell subtypes in breast cancer and investigate their implications, tissue microarrays were constructed using 334 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (luminal A type: 162 (48.5%), luminal B type: 96 (28.7%), HER-2 type: 21 (6.3%), and triple negative breast cancer: 55 (16.5%)). Hormone receptors (ER, PR, and HER-2), Ki-67, and immune cell subtype-related proteins (STAT4, STAT6, FOXP3, CD8, CD68, and CD163) were assessed immunohistochemically. The proportion of highly expressed STAT6, FOXP3, CD8, CD68, and CD163 proteins was found to be lowest in luminal A type but highest in the HER-2 type. Additionally, high-level STAT6, FOXP3, CD68, and CD163 protein expression was associated with higher histologic grade. ER negativity was associated with high STAT6, FOXP3, and CD163 expression levels, whereas PR negativity and high Ki-67 labeling index were associated with high CD163 expression. Univariate (p = 0.003) and multivariate Cox (hazard ratio: 2.435, 95% CI: 1.110-5.344, p = 0.049) analyses showed that high CD8 expression is an independent factor associated with shorter disease-free survival. Immune cell subtype-related protein expression is dependent on breast cancer molecular subtypes, and CD8 expression is associated with patient prognosis.

RevDate: 2021-03-17

Bar-Or RL, Kor A, Jaljuli I, et al (2021)

The Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders among the Adult Jewish Population in Israel.

European addiction research pii:000513776 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, having a profound and global impact on health, well-being, safety, and productivity. Although traditionally the prevalence of SUDs in Israel has been estimated to be lower than those in high-income countries, estimates and characteristics of individuals with SUDs in the past decade are lacking. In this work, we explored the prevalence of SUDs among the adult Jewish population in Israel, per different classes of substances across sex, age group, and other sociodemographic factors.

METHODS: Data from an online representative sample of 4,025 respondents were collected, including the alcohol, smoking, and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) metric and sociodemographic data.

RESULTS: We found that the most common SUDs were alcohol (10.5% [9.5-11.4]), cannabis (9.0% [8.2-9.9]), and sedative (3.6% [3.0-4.2]) use disorders. Alcohol-cannabis (3.2% [2.7-3.7]) and alcohol-sedative (1.04% [0.7-1.35]) were the most prevalent co-occurring SUDs. Among those with cannabis use disorder, the prevalence of alcohol use disorder was found to be 35.3% [30.4-40.2]. The estimated risk for alcohol use disorder was found to be inversely proportional to age, cannabis use disorder increased, peaked, and decreased with age, and that of sedative use disorder increased with age, particularly among women. While older individuals (in the 51-60 years of age group) were at lower risk (OR = 0.5 [0.3, 0.8]) compared to those <20 years of age for alcohol use disorder, they were at increased risk for sedative use disorder (OR = 3.1 [1.2, 9.7]).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent substantially higher rates of SUDs in Israel than those previously reported and should affect resources allocated to addiction prevention and treatment. Further research on the role of gender, age, culture, and ethnicity in the propensity to develop SUDs is necessary for the development of more focused preventive and intervention measures. Focusing on non-Jewish populations in Israel and broadening the scope to include behavioral addictions should be addressed in future studies.

RevDate: 2021-03-16
CmpDate: 2021-03-16

Missori G, Serra F, Prestigiacomo G, et al (2020)

Case Report: Metastatic breast cancer to the gallbladder.

F1000Research, 9:343.

Cholecystitis is one of the leading causes of emergency surgical interventions; the occurrence of metastases to the gallbladder is rare and has only been reported in the literature exceptionally. Metastatic breast cancer to the gallbladder is even less frequent; in fact, breast cancer usually metastasizes to bone, lung, lymph nodes, liver and brain. We report the case of an 83-year-old female patient with a previous history of breast surgery with axillary dissection in 1997, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy due to invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast. The patient was admitted at the emergency department for sepsis and an episode of acute kidney failure, anuria and fever. Right-upper quadrant abdominal pain triggered by food intake and abdominal tenderness was also present, placing the diagnostic suspicion of biliary sepsis due to acute cholecystitis. The histological examination of the surgical specimen highlighted the presence of metastasis from an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma with positive hormone receptors. We also report here the results of a review of the literature looking at articles describing cases of gallbladder metastasis from breast cancer.

RevDate: 2021-03-12

Zhang J, Lu CY, Chen HM, et al (2021)

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy or Endocrine Therapy for Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast With High Hormone Receptor Positivity and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Negativity.

JAMA network open, 4(3):e211785 pii:2777427.

Importance: Although neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) is an alternative to chemotherapy for strongly hormone receptor (HR)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2)-negative breast cancer, evidence is currently lacking regarding the probable survival outcomes of NET in comparison with those of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for this cancer.

Objective: To evaluate all-cause mortality among patients with strongly HR-positive and ERBB2-negative breast cancer treated with NET vs NACT.

This cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with strong HR positivity and ERBB2 negativity, treated between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2016, with follow-up from the index date (ie, date of IDC diagnosis) to December 31, 2018. The data came from the Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Data were analyzed from January to November 2020.

Exposures: NET vs NACT for IDC with strong HR positivity and ERBB2 negativity.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Propensity score matching was performed, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze all-cause mortality among patients undergoing different neoadjuvant treatments.

Results: A total of 640 patients (297 [46.4%] aged 20-49 years) undergoing NET (145 patients [22.7%]) or NACT (495 patients [77.3%]) were eligible for further analysis. In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for all-cause mortality among the NET cohort compared with the NACT cohort was 2.67 (95% CI, 1.95-3.51; P < .001). The aHRs for age were 1.13 (95% CI, 1.03-2.24), 1.25 (95% CI, 1.13-2.45), and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17-3.49) for all-cause mortality among patients aged 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 years or older, respectively, compared with those aged 20 to 49 years (P = .002); the aHR for all-cause mortality among premenopausal women was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.13-1.56) compared with postmenopausal women (P < .001); and that of patients with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 2 or greater was 1.77 (1.37-2.26) compared with those with a score of 0 (P < .001). The aHRs of all-cause mortality for clinical tumor stage 2, 3, and 4 compared with 1 were 1.84 (95% CI, 1.07-3.40), 1.97 (95% CI, 1.03-3.77), and 2.49 (95% CI, 1.29-4.81), respectively (P = .009). The aHRs for all-cause mortality by clinical nodal (cN) stages were 1.49 (95% CI, 1.13-1.99) and 1.84 (95% CI, 1.31-2.61) for cN stage 1 and cN stages 2 or 3, respectively, compared with cN stage 0 (P = .005); those for differentiation were 1.77 (95% CI, 1.24-2.54) and 2.31 (95% CI, 1.61-3.34) for differentiation grade 2 and differentiation grade 3, respectively, compared with differentiation grade 1 (P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that for patients with strongly HR-positive and ERBB2-negative IDC, NACT may be considered the first choice for neoadjuvant treatment.

RevDate: 2021-03-11
CmpDate: 2021-03-11

Da Costa I, Belnou P, Soulier A, et al (2021)

Impact of delayed patient flow on surgical outcomes after hip fracture: An observational study.

European journal of anaesthesiology, 38 Suppl 1:S67-S68.

RevDate: 2021-03-10
CmpDate: 2021-03-10

Wu J, Ding S, Lin L, et al (2020)

Comparison of the Distribution Pattern of 21-Gene Recurrence Score between Mucinous Breast Cancer and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma in Chinese Population: A Retrospective Single-Center Study.

Cancer research and treatment, 52(3):671-679.

PURPOSE: This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the distribution pattern and prognostic value of 21-gene recurrence score (RS) in Chinese patients with mucinous breast cancer (MC) and compared with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC).

Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed with MC or IDC from January 2010 to January 2017 were retrospectively recruited. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of 21 genes was conducted to calculate the RS. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between RS and clinicopathological factors. Survival outcomes including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test.

RESULTS: The MC cohort included 128 patients and the IDC cohort included 707 patients. The proportions of patients with a low (RS < 18), intermediate (18-30), or high risk (RS > 30) were 32.0%, 48.4%, and 19.5% in MC cohort, and 26.9%, 46.8% and 26.3% in IDC cohort. The distribution of RS varied significantly according to different Ki-67 index and molecular subtype in both cohorts. Moreover, the receipt of chemotherapy was associated with RS in both cohorts. Among patients with MC, tumor stage was related to the DFS (p=0.040). No significant differences in DFS and OS were found among MC patients in different RS risk groups (OS, p=0.695; DFS, p=0.926).

CONCLUSION: RS was significantly related to Ki-67 index and molecular subtypes in MC patients, which is similar in IDC patients. However, RS was not able to predict DFS and OS in patients with MC.

RevDate: 2021-03-08
CmpDate: 2021-03-08

Shahir M, Mahmoud Hashemi S, Asadirad A, et al (2020)

Effect of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes on the induction of mouse tolerogenic dendritic cells.

Journal of cellular physiology, 235(10):7043-7055.

Dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate innate inflammatory responses and adaptive immunity through T-cell activation via direct cell-cell interactions and/or cytokine production. Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) help maintain immunological tolerance through the induction of T-cell unresponsiveness or apoptosis, and generation of regulatory T cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent cells located within the stroma of bone marrow (BM), but they can be isolated from virtually all organs. Extracellular vesicles and exosomes are released from inflammatory cells and act as messengers enabling communication between cells. To investigate the effects of MSC-derived exosomes on the induction of mouse tolDCs, murine adipose-derived MSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and exosomes isolated by ExoQuick-TC kits. BM-derived DCs (BMDCs) were prepared and cocultured with MSCs-derived exosomes (100 μg/ml) for 72 hr. Mature BMDCs were derived by adding lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.1μg/ml) at Day 8 for 24 hr. The study groups were divided into (a) immature DC (iDC, Ctrl), (b) iDC + exosome (Exo), (c) iDC + LPS (LPS), and (d) iDC + exosome + LPS (EXO + LPS). Expression of CD11c, CD83, CD86, CD40, and MHCII on DCs was analyzed at Day 9. DC proliferation was assessed by coculture with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-labeled BALB/C-derived splenocytes p. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) release were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MSC-derived exosomes decrease DC surface marker expression in cells treated with LPS, compared with control cells (≤ .05). MSC-derived exosomes decrease IL-6 release but augment IL-10 and TGF-β release (p ≤ .05). Lymphocyte proliferation was decreased (p ≤ .05) in the presence of DCs treated with MSC-derived exosomes. CMSC-derived exosomes suppress the maturation of BMDCs, suggesting that they may be important modulators of DC-induced immune responses.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Sarawagi A, J Maxwell (2021)

Chyle Leak after Right Axillary Lymph Node Dissection in a Patient with Breast Cancer.

Case reports in surgery, 2021:8812315.

Background: A female patient was diagnosed with a right-sided chyle leak following right skin sparing mastectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and immediate tissue expander placement in the setting of invasive ductal carcinoma status post neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Summary. Our patient underwent a level I and II right axillary lymph node dissection followed by an axillary drain placement. On the first postoperative day, a change from serosanguinous to milky fluid in this drain was noted. The patient was diagnosed with a chyle leak based on the milky appearance and elevated triglyceride levels in the fluid. While chyle leaks are rare after an axillary dissection and even rarer to present on the right side, it is a complication of which breast surgeons should be aware. The cause of this complication is thought to be due to injury of the main thoracic duct, its branches, the subclavian duct, or its tributaries. Management is usually conservative; however, awareness of this potential complication even on the right side is of the utmost importance.

Conclusion: Chyle leaks are an uncommon complication of axillary node dissections and even rarer for them to present on the right side. It can be diagnosed by monitoring the drainage for changes in appearance and volume and by conducting supporting laboratory tests. Conservative management is generally suggested.

RevDate: 2021-02-25
CmpDate: 2021-02-25

Saeed U, Uppal SR, Piracha ZZ, et al (2021)

Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-based rapid diagnostic kits in Pakistan: formulation of COVID-19 national testing strategy.

Virology journal, 18(1):34.

Rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 during pandemic enables timely treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Evaluating the accuracy and reliability of rapid diagnostic testing kits is crucial for surveillance and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections in general population, injection drug users, multi-transfused populations, healthcare workers, prisoners, barbers and other high risk populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance and effectiveness of nasopharyngeal swab (NSP) and saliva based rapid antigen detection testing kits in comparison with USFDA approved triple target gold standard real-time polymerase chain reaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 33,000 COVID-19 suspected patients. From RT-PCR positive patients, nasopharyngeal swab (NSP) and saliva samples were obtained for evaluation of rapid COVID-19 testing kits (RDT). 100/33,000 (0.3%) of specimens were RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among RT-PCR positive, 62% were males, 34% were females, and 4% were children. The NSP-RDT (Lepu Medical China) analysis revealed 53% reactivity among males, 58% reactivity among females, and 25% reactivity among children. However saliva based RDT (Lepu Medical China) analysis showed 21% reactivity among males and 23% among females, and no reactivity in children. False negative results were significantly more pronounced in saliva based RDT as compared to NSP-RDT. The sensitivity of these NSP-RDT and saliva based RDT were 52% and 21% respectively. The RDTs evaluated in this study showed limited sensitivities in comparison to gold standard RT-PCR, indicating that there is a dire need in Pakistan for development of suitable testing to improve accurate COVID-19 diagnosis in line with national demands.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Gupta V, Agarwal P, P Deshpande (2021)

Impact of RASSF1A gene methylation on clinico-pathological features of tumor and non-tumor tissue of breast cancer.

Annals of diagnostic pathology, 52:151722 pii:S1092-9134(21)00022-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women caused by genetic and epigenetic changes. Promoter DNA methylation in tumor suppressor gene plays a major role in breast cancer. The study determined the association of promoter DNA methylation of RASSF1A gene with clinicopathological features in tumor and non-tumor tissue.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida and Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences. Two sections, one from tumor and the other from non-tumor tissue, were obtained and processed for DNA extraction and bisulphite conversion. Methylation specific PCR was done and results of RASSF1A promoter methylation were statistically correlated with clinicopathological features.

RESULTS: Of the 27 breast cancer tissue, 22 showed invasive ductal carcinoma, one showed invasive lobular carcinoma, another showed ductal carcinoma in situ and three cases showed malignant phyllodes tumor of breast. DNA promoter methylation was found in all the cases. 93% of tumor tissue samples and 67% of the non-tumor tissue samples were found to be aberrantly methylated. Tumor size and histological grade were found to be significantly (p-val <0.05) associated with the RASSF1A gene promoter methylation.

CONCLUSION: A significant association of higher tumor size and tumor histological grade with promoter methylation of RASSF1A gene exists suggestive of its being an important determinant of prognostic staging. This critical event in tumorigenesis may be of clinical utility in assessing breast cancer progression.

MICRO ABSTRACT: The study focuses on the RASSF1A gene promoter methylation and its impact on the clinicopathological features in Indian breast cancer patients highlighting the differences from other genetically different population. We found that RASFF1A gene methylation has significant impact on tumor size and tumor grade. The work carries high significance because it addresses the DNA methylation of tumor suppressor gene in relevance of breast cancer. It may also be the first such report on Indian patients with breast cancer.

RevDate: 2021-02-21

Huang D, Zhou B, Luo ZZ, et al (2021)

Cigarette smoke extract promotes DNA methyltransferase 3a expression in dendritic cells, inducing Th-17/Treg imbalance via the c-Jun/allograft inflammatory factor 1 axis.

The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disorder. Although numerous studies on COPD have been conducted, therapeutic strategies for COPD are limited, and its pathological mechanism is still unclear. The present study aimed to explore the role of DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) in dendritic cells (DCs) and the possible role of the Th-17/Treg cell balance in COPD. Immature DCs (iDCs) were induced and cocultured with CD4+ T cells. An in vitro COPD model was established by treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). DNMT3a or allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were inhibited and overexpressed, respectively, by transfection with sh-DNMT3a or sh-AIF1 and JNK overexpression plasmids. The 3- (4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure cell viability. The Th17/Treg cell ratio was determined by flow cytometry. The expression levels of DNMT3a, c-Jun and AIF1 were measured using RT-qPCR or western blotting. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) was used to confirm the interaction between c-Jun and the AIF1 promoter region. CSE stimulation promoted the expression of DNMT3a, and AIF1, and the ratio of p-c-Jun/c-Jun in iDCs. Besides, the iDC-mediated differentiation of Th17 cells was in a dose-dependent manner. However, knockdown of DNMT3a or AIF1 reversed the above effects caused by CSE. Inhibition of c-Jun signaling by treatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 also suppressed the iDC-mediated differentiation of Th17 cells, which was promoted by CSE. CHIP analysis showed that c-Jun could bind to the promoter region of AIF1. DNMT3a could regulate the iDC-mediated Th17/Treg balance by regulating the c-Jun/AIF1 axis.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Zhao Y, Wang Y, Zhu F, et al (2020)

Gene expression profiling revealed MCM3 to be a better marker than Ki67 in prognosis of invasive ductal breast carcinoma patients.

Clinical and experimental medicine, 20(2):249-259.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common breast cancer. Our study used gene microarray data to select differentially expressed genes between normal and IDC mammary tissues. From these, we selected genes related to the proliferation of tumor cells and compared their prognostic value with known biomarker Ki67 for IDC. Analysis of publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data revealed 24 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in normal and 31 DEGS in IDC tissues that were used for further analyses. Gene chip analysis software was used to identify DEGs. DEG profiles were confirmed using quantitative PCR (qPCR). DEG functions where shown to be related to cell proliferation. We confirmed MCM3 expression using immunohistochemical staining in 45 IDC patients. The relationship between MCM3 expression and survival was investigated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. A total of 1307 differentially expressed genes were identified between IDC and normal tissues, which were enriched in 32 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 9 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. qPCR demonstrated that both COL1A1 and MCM3 were significantly up-regulated in IDC tissues, of which only MCM3 was related to cell proliferation. Ki67 is closely associated with the tumor grade, ER status, PR status and HER2 status, while MCM3 was shown to relate to tumor size, lymph node, and PR status. There was significant association between survival and MCM3, but not for Ki67. High MCM3 expression demonstrated statistically significant associations with poor prognosis in IDC patients. Findings from the gene microarray data analysis confirmed that MCM3 is associated with the response to cell proliferation. MCM3 represents a better proliferation marker than Ki67 making it a valuable prognostic tool that is independent of ER and HER2 status.

RevDate: 2021-02-19
CmpDate: 2021-02-19

Cheung SM, Husain E, Masannat Y, et al (2020)

Lactate concentration in breast cancer using advanced magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

British journal of cancer, 123(2):261-267.

BACKGROUND: Precision medicine in breast cancer demands markers sensitive to early treatment response. Aerobic glycolysis (AG) upregulates lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) with elevated lactate production; however, existing approaches for lactate quantification are either invasive or impractical clinically.

METHODS: Thirty female patients (age 39-78 years, 15 grade II and 15 grade III) with invasive ductal carcinoma were enrolled. Lactate concentration was quantified from freshly excised whole tumours with double quantum filtered (DQF) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), LDH-A and proliferative marker Ki-67 were assessed histologically.

RESULTS: There was a significantly higher lactate concentration (t = 2.2224, p = 0.0349) in grade III (7.7 ± 2.9 mM) than in grade II (5.5 ± 2.4 mM). Lactate concentration was correlated with NPI (ρ = 0.3618, p = 0.0495), but not with Ki-67 (ρ = 0.3041, p = 0.1023) or tumour size (r = 0.1716, p = 0.3645). Lactate concentration was negatively correlated with LDH-A (ρ = -0.3734, p = 0.0421).

CONCLUSION: Our results showed that lactate concentration in whole breast tumour from DQF MRS is sensitive to tumour grades and patient prognosis.

RevDate: 2021-02-17
CmpDate: 2021-02-17

Grabenstetter A, Mohanty AS, Rana S, et al (2020)

E-cadherin immunohistochemical expression in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: correlation with morphology and CDH1 somatic alterations.

Human pathology, 102:44-53.

E-cadherin (ECAD) immunohistochemical (IHC) expression is lost in ∼90% of invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs) owing to genomic alterations of CDH1. We examined morphologic features and ECAD IHC expression in invasive breast carcinomas (BCs) with known CDH1 alterations. Between January 2014 and May 2018, 202 cases of BC with a CDH1 somatic alteration were identified. ECAD expression was lost in 77% (155/202) of cases and was retained in 23% (47/202) cases. Most (90%, 139/155) ECAD-negative cases were morphologically classified as ILC, while the remaining (10%, 16/155) were invasive mammary carcinoma with mixed ductal and lobular features (IMC). Of 47 cases with ECAD staining, 62% (29/47) were classified as ILC, 23% (11/47) were classified as IMC, and 15% (7/47) were classified as invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Of note, 51% (24/47) of ECAD-positive cases were initially diagnosed as IDC or IMC based on ECAD expression alone. For ECAD-negative BCs, 98% (152/155) of CDH1 alterations were truncating, and 2% (3/155) were variants of unknown significance (VUS). Truncating CDH1 alterations were identified in the majority of ECAD-positive BCs (72%, 34/47); however, VUS-type CDH1 alterations were more prevalent (28%, 13/47) in ECAD-positive BCs than in ECAD-negative BCs. Although 90% of ECAD-negative tumors were compatible with ILC in this study, 17% (29/168) of ILC cases were ECAD positive. In addition, CDH1 truncating alterations were seen in ECAD-positive ILC, supporting the notion of aberrant ECAD staining. Therefore, ECAD IHC expression must be interpreted in conjunction with morphology, and BC with classic histologic features of ILC should not be reclassified as IDC/IMC based solely on the status of ECAD IHC expression.

RevDate: 2021-02-12
CmpDate: 2021-02-12

Fujii T, Tokuda S, Nakazawa Y, et al (2020)

Relationship Between FDG Uptake and the Platelet/lymphocyte Ratio in Patients With Breast Invasive Ductal Cancer.

In vivo (Athens, Greece), 34(3):1365-1369.

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the relationship between F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and the platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), as both represent inflammation.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 143 consecutive invasive ductal carcinoma patients who had undergone preoperative FDG-PET and surgery. We divided the patients into groups based on their maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) values: low (<2.5) and high (≥2.5) and based on their PLRs: low (<130) and high (≥130). We determined the relationships between the SUVmax or PLR and clinicopathological features.

RESULTS: Seventy-three patients (51.0%) had a high SUVmax in their primary tumor. There were significant associations between SUVmax and the PLR. A multivariate analysis revealed that high PLR, but not NLR, was independent factor associated with a high SUVmax. Seventy-four patients (51.7%) had a high PLR; The factors significantly associated with high PLR were large tumor size, presence of node metastasis, presence of vascular invasion, high NLR, and high SUVmax.

CONCLUSION: In breast cancer patients, the PLR is independently associated with the SUVmax, but not with recurrent disease. In breast cancer patients with a high SUVmax and/or PLR, these values may reflect the tumor microenvironment.

RevDate: 2021-02-10
CmpDate: 2021-02-10

Moran Lauter AN, Rutter L, Cook D, et al (2020)

Examining Short-Term Responses to a Long-Term Problem: RNA-Seq Analyses of Iron Deficiency Chlorosis Tolerant Soybean.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(10):.

Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a global crop production problem, significantly impacting yield. However, most IDC studies have focused on model species, not agronomically important crops. Soybean is the second largest crop grown in the United States, yet the calcareous soils across most of the upper U.S. Midwest limit soybean growth and profitability. To understand early soybean iron stress responses, we conducted whole genome expression analyses (RNA-sequencing) of leaf and root tissue from the iron efficient soybean (Glycine max) cultivar Clark, at 30, 60 and 120 min after transfer to iron stress conditions. We identified over 10,000 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with the number of DEGs increasing over time in leaves, but decreasing over time in roots. To investigate these responses, we clustered our expression data across time to identify suites of genes, their biological functions, and the transcription factors (TFs) that regulate their expression. These analyses reveal the hallmarks of the soybean iron stress response (iron uptake and homeostasis, defense, and DNA replication and methylation) can be detected within 30 min. Furthermore, they suggest root to shoot signaling initiates early iron stress responses representing a novel paradigm for crop stress adaptations.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Liu N, Li S, Jia J, et al (2021)

Advanced breast cancer with cachexia: A case report.

Medicine, 100(4):e24397.

RATIONALE: Cachexia is a clinically relevant syndrome in cancer that is associated with reduced tolerance to anticancer therapy, reduced quality of life, and reduced survival rates. Cachexia is most prevalent in pancreatic, gastric, colorectal, lung, and head and neck cancers. It is rarely documented in breast cancer patients.

PATIENT CONCERNS: In our case report of a breast cancer patient with bone metastasis who was monitored throughout the course of her treatment, we document the development of cachexia using image analyses in relation to her metastatic burden. In the 2-year period, from April 10, 2015, to February 09, 2017, she lost 16% of her baseline weight. During this time, she was repeatedly hospitalized for chest tightness, edema of both lower limbs, numbness and pain in the left lower extremity and backache.

DIAGNOSES: Our patient was a 46-year-old premenopausal woman when she was firstly diagnosed. Several years after surgery for invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast, she had multiple systemic bone metastases (the thoracic spine, the ribs, etc), lung metastasis, bilateral axillary lymph node metastasis, and metastasis of the right neck lymph node in IV area.

INTERVENTIONS: The patient completed 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and long-term endocrine therapy after a radical mastectomy for breast cancer. During the fourth progression, 6 cycles of rescue chemotherapy were performed. Local lumbosacral radiotherapy, and lumbar surgery were carried out to relieve symptoms after several progressions.

OUTCOMES: She became extremely thin, weighing only 50 kg at admission on July 23, 2018. This eventually led to multiple organ failure and death.

LESSONS: We noted a strong negative correlation between the abdominal muscle area and the metastatic tumor area at the second lumbar vertebral (L2) level. The monitoring of abdominal muscle wasting may serve as a marker, and therefore a prognostic factor, for both cachexia and the extent of metastatic disease. This is especially true with breast cancer, where metastasis to bone is frequent. Our data from a computational tomography radiological quantification, may provide clinicians with early indications of the extent of cachexia in metastatic breast cancer patients.

RevDate: 2021-02-07

Lemmer IL, Willemsen N, Hilal N, et al (2021)

A guide to understanding endoplasmic reticulum stress in metabolic disorders.

Molecular metabolism pii:S2212-8778(21)00009-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The global rise of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, demands a thorough molecular understanding of the cellular mechanisms that govern health or disease. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a key organelle for cellular function and metabolic adaptation and, therefore disturbed ER function, known as "ER stress," is a key feature of metabolic disorders.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: As ER stress remains a poorly defined phenomenon, this review provides a general guide to understanding the nature, etiology, and consequences of ER stress in metabolic disorders. We define ER stress by its type of stressor, which is driven by proteotoxicity, lipotoxicity, and/or glucotoxicity. We discuss the implications of ER stress in metabolic disorders by reviewing evidence implicating ER phenotypes and organelle communication, protein quality control, calcium homeostasis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and inflammation as key mechanisms in the development of ER stress and metabolic dysfunction.

MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: In mammalian biology, ER is a phenotypically and functionally diverse platform for nutrient sensing, which is critical for cell type-specific metabolic control by hepatocytes, adipocytes, muscle cells, and neurons. In these cells, ER stress is a distinct, transient state of functional imbalance, which is usually resolved by the activation of adaptive programs such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), or autophagy. However, challenges to proteostasis also impact lipid and glucose metabolism and vice versa. In the ER, sensing and adaptive measures are integrated and failure of the ER to adapt leads to aberrant metabolism, organelle dysfunction, insulin resistance, and inflammation. In conclusion, the ER is intricately linked to a wide spectrum of cellular functions and is a critical component in maintaining and restoring metabolic health.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Bakhtari N, Mozdarani H, Salimi M, et al (2021)

Association study of miR-22 and miR-335 expression levels and G2 assay related inherent radiosensitivity in peripheral blood of ductal carcinoma breast cancer patients.

Neoplasma, 68(1):190-199.

Identifying patient's cellular radiosensitivity before radiotherapy (RT) in breast cancer (BC) patients allows proper alternations in routinely used treatment programs and reduces the adverse side effects in exposed patients. This study was conducted on blood samples taken from 60 women diagnosed with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) BC (mean age: 47±9.93) and 30 healthy women (mean age: 44.43±6.7). The standard G2 assay was performed to predict cellular radiosensitivity. To investigate miR-22 and miR-335 expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), qPCR was performed. The sensitivity and specificity of the mentioned miRNAs were assessed by plotting the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the miRNA involvement in BC and cellular radiosensitivity (CR) of BC patients. The frequency of spontaneous and radiation-induced chromatid breaks (CBs) was significantly different between control and patient groups (p<0.05). A cut-off value was determined to differentiate the patients with and without cellular radiosensitivity. miR-22 and miR-335 were significantly downregulated in BC patients. miRNAs expression levels were directly associated with CR. ROC curve assessment identified that both miRNAs had acceptable specificity and sensitivity in the prediction of BC and CR of BC patients. Binary logistic regression showed that both miRNAs could also predict BC successfully. Although only miR-22 was shown potent to predict CR of BC patients, both miR-22 and miR-335 might act as tumor suppressor miRNAs in BC. miR-22 and miR-335 may be promising potential biomarkers in BC prediction along with other important biomarkers. Moreover, mirR-22 might be a potential biomarker for the prediction of CR in BC patients.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Bacorn C, Kim E, Borowsky AD, et al (2020)

Previously undiagnosed neuroendocrine tumour mimicking breast cancer metastasis to the orbit.

BMJ case reports, 13(5): pii:13/5/e234629.

Metastatic neuroendocrine neoplasms to the breast are rare and histopathologic overlap with mammary carcinomas has led to misdiagnosis. We present a case of a middle-aged woman with diplopia and a right medial rectus mass. Metastatic breast cancer was initially suspected based on a history of invasive ductal carcinoma. Detailed immunohistochemistry of the orbital biopsy, gallium-68 dotatate positron emission tomography-CT, and reevaluation of her prior breast specimen, demonstrated that her initial breast carcinoma diagnosis was in error and she was ultimately diagnosed with a previously unknown gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumour metastatic to both the orbit and breast. This case highlights the challenges of differentiating between metastatic neuroendocrine tumours and invasive mammary carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation both in the breast and in the orbit. It is important to recognise the overlap so that a primary neuroendocrine neoplasm is not missed, or treatment significantly delayed.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Petry V, Bonadio RC, Cagnacci AQC, et al (2020)

Radiotherapy-induced malignancies in breast cancer patients with TP53 pathogenic germline variants (Li-Fraumeni syndrome).

Familial cancer, 19(1):47-53.

The risk of radiotherapy-induced malignancies (RIMs) is a concern when treating Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) or Li-Fraumeni Like (LFL) patients. However, the type of TP53 pathogenic germline variant may possibly influence this risk. TP53 p.R337H mutation is particularly prevalent in Brazil. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with pathogenic TP53 variants treated for localized breast cancer in a Brazilian cohort. We evaluated retrospectively a cohort of patients with germline TP53 pathogenic variants treated for localized breast cancer between December 1999 and October 2017. All patients were followed by the Hereditary Cancer Group of an academic cancer center. Our primary objective was to evaluate the occurrence of RIMs after adjuvant radiotherapy. Sixteen patients were evaluated; 10 (62.5%) had a germline TP53 p.R337H pathogenic variant. Median age was 39.8 years. Thirteen patients had invasive ductal carcinoma: 8 (61.5%) were hormone receptor-positive; 6 (46.1%), human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified. Three patients had ductal carcinoma in situ. Most patients (N = 12/16, 75%) received adjuvant radiotherapy. After a median follow-up of 52.5 months, 2 patients (2/12, 16.6%) had RIMs. One had a fibrosarcoma and the other, a low-grade leiomyosarcoma. In the group treated with radiotherapy, one distant recurrence was diagnosed (1/12), and no loco-regional recurrence occurred. Among 4 patients who did not receive radiotherapy, 2 presented with loco-regional recurrence. In this cohort of patients with LFS enriched in TP53 p.R337H pathogenic variant, the incidence of RIMs after treatment of localized breast cancer was lower than previous literature. Nevertheless, rates of RIMs were still alarming. Early molecular diagnosis and careful evaluation of treatment risks and benefits are essential for these patients.

RevDate: 2021-02-05
CmpDate: 2021-02-05

O'Connor P, Bhadbhade P, Khan Q, et al (2020)

Acral vascular syndrome during an immune checkpoint inhibitor.

BMJ case reports, 13(5): pii:13/5/e233463.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including antiprogrammed death cell protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and anti cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (anti-CTLA-4), have been associated with a range of autoimmune-related side effects since their introduction in cancer treatment. Small vessel digital necrosis, referred to as the acral vascular syndrome, is a rare but serious complication that can result in loss of digits. Here we present a case report of acral vascular syndrome and review possible aetiologies. A 45- year-old woman with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast presented to the emergency department during neoadjuvant treatment with carboplatin, docetaxel and pembrolizumab with complaints of severe pain in her right third digit. She had physical findings consistent with ischaemic necrosis and gangrene of the distal phalanx. Angiography demonstrated Raynaud's phenomenon in the distal portion of the digits. Laboratory testing showed a weakly positive RNA polymerase III antibody level. Her case resulted in surgical amputation of her affected digit after partial resolution of symptoms with prednisone, vasodilators and antibiotics.

RevDate: 2021-02-02
CmpDate: 2021-02-02

Acun T, KM Senses (2020)

Downregulation of DNAJC10 (ERDJ5) is associated with poor survival in breast cancer.

Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan), 27(3):483-489.

BACKGROUND: DNAJC10 (ERDJ5), a member of HSP40 family, was considered as an anti-oncogenic gene in neuroblastoma, prostate and colon cancers. But, the role and importance of DNAJC10 gene in breast cancer is currently unknown. In this study, in vitro/in vivo expression, biomarker potential and genetic/epigenetic alterations of DNAJC10 were analyzed in breast cancer.

METHODS: Real-time qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine the expression level of DNAJC10 gene in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. The Kaplan-Meier plotter was used to evaluate the survival prognostic value of DNAJC10 mRNA expression in breast cancer patients. Mutation screening software and methylation-specific PCR were used to screen genetic alterations and methylation status of DNAJC10 promoter regions, respectively.

RESULTS: DNAJC10 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in 3 out of 4 breast cancer cell lines compared to the nontumorigenic mammary epithelial cell line (MCF 10A). DNAJC10 protein expression was significantly less frequent in invasive ductal carcinoma samples (n = 121) compared with adjacent normal breast tissues (n = 32) (p < 0.0001). Downregulation of DNAJC10 mRNA was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (n = 626) (p = 0.0096) and relapse-free survival (n = 1764) (p = 5.3e-12). According to the COSMIC and cBioPortal databases, point mutations and copy number variations of DNAJC10 were very rare in breast cancer samples. Besides, no genetic alterations on the experimentally validated promoter regions were found in breast cell lines. CpG island located in the promoter regions of DNAJC10 gene was found to be frequently hypomethylated in breast cell lines.

CONCLUSIONS: In the light of previous knowledge regarding the role of DNAJC10 in carcinogenesis, findings of this study suggest that DNAJC10 is a potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and tumor suppressor candidate for breast cancer. Epigenetic factors other than promoter methylation could contribute to the downregulation of DNAJC10 expression.

RevDate: 2021-01-29
CmpDate: 2021-01-29

Deshpande D, Agarwal N, Fleming T, et al (2021)

Loss of POMC-mediated antinociception contributes to painful diabetic neuropathy.

Nature communications, 12(1):426.

Painful neuropathy is a frequent complication in diabetes. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is an endogenous opioid precursor peptide, which plays a protective role against pain. Here, we report dysfunctional POMC-mediated antinociception in sensory neurons in diabetes. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice the Pomc promoter is repressed due to increased binding of NF-kB p50 subunit, leading to a loss in basal POMC level in peripheral nerves. Decreased POMC levels are also observed in peripheral nervous system tissue from diabetic patients. The antinociceptive pathway mediated by POMC is further impaired due to lysosomal degradation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Importantly, the neuropathic phenotype of the diabetic mice is rescued upon viral overexpression of POMC and MOR in the sensory ganglia. This study identifies an antinociceptive mechanism in the sensory ganglia that paves a way for a potential therapy for diabetic neuropathic pain.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Karatas M, Zengel B, Durusoy R, et al (2021)

Clinicopathologic features of single bone metastasis in breast cancer.

Medicine, 100(1):e24164.

ABSTRACT: The most common site for metastasis in patients with breast cancer is the bone. In this case series, we investigated patients whose surgical and medical treatment for primary breast cancer was conducted at our center and first disease recurrence was limited to only 1 bone.We analyzed 910 breast cancer patients, 863 had no metastasis and 47 cases had a single bone metastasis ≥ 6 months after their first diagnosis. Demographic, epidemiological, histopathological and intrinsic tumor subtype differences between the non-metastatic group and the group with solitary bone metastases and their statistical significance were examined. Among established breast cancer risk factors, we studied twenty-nine variables.Three variables (Type of tumor surgery, TNM Stage III tumors and mixed type (invasive ductalcarsinoma + invasive lobular carcinoma) histology) were significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, the risk of developing single bone metastasis was approximately 15 times higher in patients who underwent mastectomy and 4.8 and 2.8 times higher in those with TNM Stage III tumors and with mixed type (invasive ductal carcinoma + invasive lobular carcinoma) histology, respectively.In conclusion, the risk of developing single bone metastasis is likely in non-metastatic patients with Stage III tumors and possibly in mixed type tumors. Knowing this risk, especially in patients with mixed type tumors, may be instrumental in taking measures with different adjuvant therapies in future studies. Among these, treatment modalities such as prolonged hormone therapy and addition of bisphosphonates to the adjuvant treatments of stage III and mixed breast cancer patients may be considered.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Yue L, Wentao L, Xin Z, et al (2020)

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer with novel epidermal growth factor receptor -ZNF880 fusion and epidermal growth factor receptor E114K mutations effectively treated with pyrotinib: A case report.

Medicine, 99(51):e23406.

INTRODUCTION: In about 15% to 20% of breast cancer cases, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over-expression or gene-amplification is associated with poor prognosis. Thanks to the development of target therapies, HER2 positive patients can be managed using HER2-targeting drugs. There are several kinds ofHER2 inhibitors, such as trastuzumab, lapatinib, and pyrotinib. Pyrotinib which exert different functions, of note, the latest generation of the drug, is an irreversible small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (HER1) and/or HER2 and/or HER4. Both lapatinib and pyrotinib potentially target EGFR and/or HER2, but in some instances, induces different responses of patients with EGFR and/or HER2 mutations. This is attributed to the different mutations in EGFR and HER2 genes, which may form distinct types of HER2 dimers, with different binding capacities to drugs.

PATIENT CONCERNS: Five years ago, a patient underwent a radical mastectomy in an external hospital. Results of the resection histopathology revealed an invasive ductal carcinoma, pT3N0M0, stage IIB, HER2 positive. The lady patient received 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and was subjected to adjuvant trastuzumab therapy for 1 year. After a regular 1-year follow-up and in March 2018, she complained of chest pain and visited our hospital. We diagnosed her with metastatic breast cancer, positive for HER2.

DIAGNOSIS: positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed multiple metastases in the lung and sternum, while the breast lesions did not progress, the curative effect of which we evaluated as a progressive disease. Then, lapatinib integrated with chemotherapy was administered to the patient. After 5 cycles of the treatment, the patient experienced lower back pain. Through CT examination, it was revealed that she had multiple metastases in the lung and sternum, in addition to new metastases in the lumbar spine and right lobe of the liver. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple metastases in the brain, and the disease further progressed. The results of circulating tumor DNA assays showed that other than HER2 amplification, novel EGFR-ZNF880 fusion and EGFR E114K mutations developed.

INTERVENTIONS: The patient was administered with a combination of pyrotinib with chemotherapy.

OUTCOMES: After 2 months of pyrotinib treatment, the metastases of the lung, sternum, lumbar spine, and right lobe of the liver disappeared. Also, the size of the brain metastases reduced while bone metastases were relieved. The curative effect was evaluated as a partial response. Following the results of circulating tumor DNA assays, HER2 amplification, EGFR-ZNF880 fusion, and EGFR E114K mutations disappeared. However, since a small lesion was present in the brain, the patient was subjected to radiotherapy in the head. Notably, after 9 months treatment with pyrotinib, enhanced CT indicated that tumors in the breast, liver, both lungs, brain, and bone were under control. The patient continually received oral pyrotinib, however, a new brain lesion appeared 6 months later. Overall, we managed to regulate the efficacy of pyrotinib for up to 15 months.

CONCLUSION: This case report demonstrates that EGFR-ZNF880 fusion and EGFR E114K mutations may contribute or lead to the formation of a special HER2 dimer, which is rapidly resistant to lapatinib but sensitive to pyrotinib. Of note, this is the first report that such a new fusion has been found.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Ishihara S, Kashiwagi S, Asano Y, et al (2020)

[A Case of Dermatitis Caused by Metronidazole Gel That Needed to Be Differentiated from Breast Cancer Skin Metastasis].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):2089-2091.

Seventy years old woman noticed a mass in her right breast before 3 years. Since she had ulcer bleeding, she visited our hospital. In physical findings, a hemorrhagic about 8 cm mass with an ulcer was found in the upper right breast. Breast ultrasonography revealed a large tumor of approximately 8 cm in the right A area, and needle biopsy revealed invasive ductal carcinoma(ER positive, PgR positive, HER2 positive, Ki-67 low expression). Right axillary lymph node metastasis was confirmed, but no clear distant metastasis was observed. Pretreatment diagnosis was right breast cancer, cT4bN1M0, Stage ⅢB, Luminal HER. Chemotherapy was started with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel, and the tumor was reduced after 6 cycles. Due to side effects, the drug was changed to a molecular targeted drug only and the treatment was continued. However, redness was observed in the entire right breast, and breast cancer skin metastasis was suspected. Since the dermatitis caused by metronidazole gel was also distinguished, the redness was improved when the application was stopped. When confirmed by a patch test, a reaction to metronidazole gel was observed, leading to the diagnosis of dermatitis caused by metronidazole gel.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Puzis R, Farbiash D, Brodt O, et al (2020)

Increased cyber-biosecurity for DNA synthesis.

Nature biotechnology, 38(12):1379-1381.

RevDate: 2021-01-18
CmpDate: 2021-01-18

Tijani S, Sharma K, Yuen H, et al (2020)

Metastatic "Ductal Carcinoma In Situ-Like" Lobular Carcinoma in a Lymph Node: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

International journal of surgical pathology, 28(4):436-439.

Metastatic breast cancer resembling ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a rare phenomenon. In this article, we present a unique case of metastatic lobular carcinoma with DCIS-like morphology in the left axillary lymph nodes of a 52-year-old female. She presented with 2 lesions in the left breast on mammography, and a mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection was performed. Gross examination showed a 3.5 × 2.5 × 1.0 cm indistinct tumor in the lower outer quadrant and a 2.5 × 2.5 × 1.8 cm tumor in the upper outer quadrant. Microscopic assessment revealed a pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in the lower outer quadrant and a grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma in the upper outer quadrant. Sixteen of the 17 axillary lymph nodes showed metastatic lobular carcinoma with foci of solid and comedo-type DCIS-like features. Immunohistochemical analysis of the primary and metastatic lobular carcinoma showed no expression of E-cadherin and p63 antibodies. To our knowledge, metastatic lobular carcinoma exhibiting this pattern has not been reported. The case suggests that lobular carcinoma can morphologically recreate a primary microenvironment at a distant site and simulate in situ growth. Recognition of this pattern is important to avoid misdiagnosis.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Bartovská Z, Andrle F, Beran O, et al (2020)

Data from the first wave of Covid-19 from the Central Military Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Epidemiologie, mikrobiologie, imunologie : casopis Spolecnosti pro epidemiologii a mikrobiologii Ceske lekarske spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne, 69(4):164-171.

AIMS: To process data from the first wave of Covid-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) collected in the Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) of the First Faculty of Medicine and Central Military Hospital, Prague. To analyse some clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Covid-19 in the context of the Czech Republic and to compare them with the data from the most recent literature.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analysed data on patients admitted to the IDC between 12 March 2020 and 5 May 2020. The study cohort included 53 patients with Covid-19, 25 females and 28 males, with an average age of 57 years. The parameters analysed were clinical symptoms, average length of hospital stay, complications, and death. Additional data concerned the age, weight, smoking habits, history of comorbidities, and selected laboratory results. These data were compared between groups of patients differing in severity of the course of Covid-19. Finally, imaging findings, serology results, and therapy outcomes were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using the SigmaStat software.

RESULTS: Eleven (20.8%) patients had a mild course of the disease, 16 (30.2%) patients had a moderate course, 22 (41.5%) patients had a severe course, and four (7.5%) patients had a critical course. The study patients presented with the following clinical symptoms: fever in 88.5% of cases, cough in 84.6% of cases, difficulty breathing in 77.4% of cases, diarrhoea in 23.1% of cases, chest pain in 17.3% of cases, and anosmia in 11.5% of cases. The average length of hospital stay was eight days. The most common complication was a bacterial superinfection, reported in 17 (32.1%) study patients. The overall case fatality rate for Covid-19 in our study was 5.7%. The average age of the study cohort was 57 years, and patients with a severe course of the disease were of older average age than those with a less severe course of the disease (p < 0.05). The predominant comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The analysis of the baseline laboratory data showed significant differences between the groups of patients differing in severity of the course of Covid-19 in CRP, procalcitonin, and d-dimers but not in lymphocyte count. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of the lungs was performed in 22 patients, and 21 of them had typical findings for Covid-19. The average MuLBSTA score for Covid-19 pneumonia severity in our study cohort was 11.5 points and was not associated with the severity of the course of the disease. Serology tests were performed in 43 study patients, with 29 (67.4%) of them turning out positive in the first test and other five (11.6%) testing positive when retested. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was given experimentally as monotherapy or in combination with azithromycin (AZI) to 24 (45.3%) patients. Two patients on HCQ therapy also received inosinum pranobexum (isoprinosine) for severe lymphopenia, one patient received convalescent plasma, six patients were given AZI alone, and one patient was treated with inosinum pranobexum alone. Altogether 37.7% of study patients were prescribed other antibiotics for confirmed or suspected bacterial superinfection. Standard clinical and pharmaceutical care was provided to patients with particular focus on the safety of off-label drug use. HCQ was with drawn in three patients due to a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc).

CONCLUSIONS: In the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, our study patients showed comorbidities and risk factors which are consistent with the international literature, but the course of the disease was mostly moderate to severe, with a low proportion of critically ill patients and fatal outcomes. As soon as new information became available, new diagnostic and therapeutic options were introduced into routine practice. Based on our experience, we are well prepared for a possible second wave of SARS-CoV-2 in terms of the diagnostics, but the therapeutic options still remain very limited.

RevDate: 2021-01-15
CmpDate: 2021-01-15

Granados K, Hüser L, Federico A, et al (2020)

T-type calcium channel inhibition restores sensitivity to MAPK inhibitors in de-differentiated and adaptive melanoma cells.

British journal of cancer, 122(7):1023-1036.

BACKGROUND: Drug resistance remains as one of the major challenges in melanoma therapy. It is well known that tumour cells undergo phenotypic switching during melanoma progression, increasing melanoma plasticity and resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (MAPKi).

METHODS: We investigated the melanoma phenotype switching using a partial reprogramming model to de-differentiate murine melanoma cells and target melanoma therapy adaptation against MAPKi.

RESULTS: Here, we show that partially reprogrammed cells are a less proliferative and more de-differentiated cell population, expressing a gene signature for stemness and suppressing melanocyte-specific markers. To investigate adaptation to MAPKi, cells were exposed to B-Raf Proto-Oncogene (BRAF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors. De-differentiated cells became less sensitive to MAPKi, showed increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis. Furthermore, T-type calcium channels expression increased in adaptive murine cells and in human adaptive melanoma cells. Treatment with the calcium channel blocker mibefradil induced cell death, differentiation and susceptibility to MAPKi in vitro and in vivo.

CONCLUSION: In summary, we show that partial reprogramming of melanoma cells induces de-differentiation and adaptation to MAPKi. Moreover, we postulated a calcium channel blocker such as mibefradil, as a potential candidate to restore sensitivity to MAPKi in adaptive melanoma cells.

RevDate: 2021-01-15
CmpDate: 2021-01-15

Goodes LM, King GK, Rea A, et al (2020)

Early urinary tract infection after spinal cord injury: a retrospective inpatient cohort study.

Spinal cord, 58(1):25-34.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective audit.

OBJECTIVES: Examine factors associated with urinary tract infection (UTI), UTI incidence and impact on hospital length of stay (LOS) in new, inpatient adult traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).

SETTING: Western Australian Hospitals managing SCI patients.

METHODS: Data on UTIs, bladder management and LOS were obtained from hospital databases and medical records over 26 months. Adherence to staff-administered intermittent catheterisation (staff-IC) was determined from fluid balance charts.

RESULTS: Across the cohort (n = 70) UTI rate was 1.1 starts/100 days; UTI by multi-resistant organisms 0.1/100 days. Having ≥1 UTIs compared with none and longer duration of initial urethral indwelling catheterisation (IDC) were associated with longer LOS (p-values < 0.001). For patients with ≥1 UTIs (n = 43/70), longer duration of initial IDC was associated with shorter time to first UTI (1 standard deviation longer [SD, 45.0 days], hazard ratio (HR): 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.0, p-value 0.044). In turn, shorter time to first UTI was associated with higher UTI rate (1 SD shorter [30.7 days], rate ratio (RR): 1.32, 95%CI 1.0-1.7, p-value 0.039). During staff-IC periods (n = 38/70), protocols were followed (85.7% ≤ 6 h apart, 96.1% < 8 h), but 26% of IC volumes exceeded 500 mL; occasional volumes > 800 mL and interruptions requiring temporary IDC were associated with higher UTI rates the following week (odds ratios (ORs): 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.3, p-value 0.009; and 3.9, 95%CI 2.6-5.9, p-value < 0.001 respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Reducing initial IDC duration and limiting staff-IC volumes could be investigated to possibly reduce inpatient UTIs and LOS.

SPONSORSHIP: None.

RevDate: 2021-01-14
CmpDate: 2021-01-14

Kato M, Hirakawa A, Kobayashi Y, et al (2020)

Effect of core needle biopsy number on intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) diagnosis in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

International journal of clinical oncology, 25(12):2130-2137.

BACKGROUND: The number of core needle biopsies in metastatic prostate cancer cases are sometimes reduced to avoid various complications. We analyzed whether core needle biopsy number influence IDC-P detection rate in patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC).

METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from 150 patients diagnosed with mHSPC. Subjects were allocated to three groups according to the number of core biopsies performed: ≤ 5, 6-9, and ≥ 10. The study endpoints were the cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) rates.

RESULTS: For patients who underwent ≥ 10 core biopsies, a significant difference on CSS was detected between with or without IDC-P (P = 0.016). On the other hand, the difference decreased as the number of core biopsies became smaller (6-9; P = 0.322 and ≤ 5; P = 0.815). A similar trend was identified for the OS outcome. A significant difference on OS was also found between with or without IDC-P in patients who underwent ≥ 10 and 6-9 core needle biopsies (P = 0.0002 and 0.017, respectively), but not in those who underwent ≤ 5 core biopsies (P = 0.341). IDC-P served as a stronger prognostic marker for CSS and OS than did the other factors included in the multivariate analysis for patients had ≥ 10 core biopsies (P = 0.016, and P = 0.0014, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Given the IDC-P detection and its value as a prognostic marker, we propose the performance of ≥ 10 core biopsy procedures in patients diagnosed with mHSPC to minimize the sampling error of the IDC-P.

RevDate: 2021-01-14
CmpDate: 2021-01-14

Chen G, Ding XF, Pressley K, et al (2020)

Everolimus Inhibits the Progression of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ to Invasive Breast Cancer Via Downregulation of MMP9 Expression.

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 26(6):1486-1496.

PURPOSE: We evaluated the role of everolimus in the prevention of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) progression.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effects of everolimus on breast cancer cell invasion, DCIS formation, and DCIS progression to IDC were investigated in a 3D cell culturing model, intraductal DCIS xenograft model, and spontaneous MMTV-Her2/neu mouse model. The effect of everolimus on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression was determined with Western blotting and IHC in these models and in patients with DCIS before and after a window trial with rapamycin. Whether MMP9 mediates the inhibition of DCIS progression to IDC by everolimus was investigated with knockdown or overexpression of MMP9 in breast cancer cells.

RESULTS: Everolimus significantly inhibited the invasion of human breast cancer cells in vitro. Daily intragastric treatment with everolimus for 7 days significantly reduced the number of invasive lesions from intraductal DCIS foci and inhibited DCIS progression to IDC in the MMTV-Her2/neu mouse mammary tumor model. Mechanistically, everolimus treatment decreased the expression of MMP9 in the in vitro and in vivo models, and in breast tissues from patients with DCIS treated with rapamycin for 1 week. Moreover, overexpression of MMP9 stimulated the invasion, whereas knockdown of MMP9 inhibited the invasion of breast cancer cell-formed spheroids in vitro and DCIS in vivo. Knockdown of MMP9 also nullified the invasion inhibition by everolimus in vitro and in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS: Targeting mTORC1 can inhibit DCIS progression to IDC via MMP9 and may be a potential strategy for DCIS or early-stage IDC therapy.

RevDate: 2021-01-13
CmpDate: 2021-01-13

Chao X, Liu L, Sun P, et al (2020)

Immune parameters associated with survival in metaplastic breast cancer.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 22(1):92.

BACKGROUND: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare histological type of breast cancer, which commonly shows resistance to standard therapies and is associated with poor prognosis. The immune microenvironment in MBC and its significance has not been well established due to its low incurrence rate and complex components. We aimed to investigate the diversity of immune parameters including subsets of TILs and PDL1/PD1 expression in MBC, as well as its correlation with prognosis.

METHODS: A total of 60 patients diagnosed with MBC from January 2006 to December 2017 were included in our study. The percentage (%) and quantification (per mm2) of TILs and presence of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE). The quantification of CD4+, CD8+ TILs (per mm2), and PD-1/PDL1 expression were evaluated through immunohistochemistry and analyzed in relation to clinicopathological characteristics. A ≥ 1% membranous or cytoplasmatic expression of PD1 and PDL1 was considered a positive expression.

RESULTS: We found squamous cell carcinoma MBC (33/60, 55%) exhibiting most TILs of all the MBC subtypes (p = 0.043). Thirty-three of 60 (50%) of the patients had coexisting invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST), and the average percentage of TILs in MBC components was lower compared with NST components (p < 0.001). Thirty (50%) patients exhibited positive (≥ 1%) PDL1 expression in their tumor cells, while 36 (60%) had positive (≥ 1%) PDL1 expression in their TILs. Twenty-seven (45%) of all the patients had positive (≥ 1%) PD1 expression in their tumor cells and 33 (55%) had PD1-positive (≥ 1%) stromal TILs. More CD8+ TILs were associated with positive PDL1 expression of tumor cells as well as positive PD1 expression in stromal cells. Greater number of stromal TILS (> 300/mm2, 20%), CD4+ TILs (> 250/mm2), and CD8+ TILs (> 70/mm2) in MBC were found associated with longer disease-free survival. Positive expression of PDL1 in tumor cells (≥ 1%) and PD1 in stromal cells (≥ 1%) were also associated with longer survival.

CONCLUSIONS: The immune characteristics differ in various subtypes as well as components of MBC. Immune parameters are key predictive factors of MBC and provide the clinical significance of applying immune checkpoint therapies in patients with MBC.

RevDate: 2021-01-13
CmpDate: 2021-01-13

Kurozumi S, Alsaleem M, Monteiro CJ, et al (2020)

Targetable ERBB2 mutation status is an independent marker of adverse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive, ERBB2 non-amplified primary lobular breast carcinoma: a retrospective in silico analysis of public datasets.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 22(1):85.

BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of primary breast cancers and is typically estrogen receptor alpha positive (ER+) and ERBB2 non-amplified. Somatic mutations in ERBB2/3 are emerging as a tractable mechanism underlying enhanced human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) activity. We tested the hypothesis that therapeutically targetable ERBB2/3 mutations in primary ILC of the breast associate with poor survival outcome in large public datasets.

METHODS: We performed in silico comparison of ERBB2 non-amplified cases of ER+ stage I-III primary ILC (N = 279) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, N = 1301) using METABRIC, TCGA, and MSK-IMPACT information. Activating mutations amenable to HER2-directed therapy with neratinib were identified using existing functional data from in vitro cell line and xenograft experiments. Multivariate analysis of 10-year overall survival (OS) with tumor size, grade, and lymph node status was performed using a Cox regression model. Differential gene expression analyses by ERBB2 mutation and amplification status was performed using weighted average differences and an in silico model of response to neratinib derived from breast cancer cell lines.

RESULTS: ILC tumors comprised 17.7% of all cases in the dataset but accounted for 47.1% of ERBB2-mutated cases. Mutations in ERBB2 were enriched in ILC vs. IDC cases (5.7%, N = 16 vs. 1.4%, N = 18, p < 0.0001) and clustered in the tyrosine kinase domain of HER2. ERBB3 mutations were not enriched in ILC (1.1%, N = 3 vs. 1.8%, N = 23; p = 0.604). Median OS for patients with ERBB2-mutant ILC tumors was 66 months vs. 211 months for ERBB2 wild-type (p = 0.0001), and 159 vs. 166 months (p = 0.733) for IDC tumors. Targetable ERBB2 mutational status was an independent prognostic marker of 10-year OS-but only in ILC (hazard ratio, HR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.2-11.0; p = 0.021). Findings were validated using a novel ERBB2 mutation gene enrichment score (HR for 10-year OS in ILC = 2.3, 95% CI 1.04-5.05; p = 0.040).

CONCLUSIONS: Targetable ERBB2 mutations are enriched in primary ILC and their detection represents an actionable strategy with the potential to improve patient outcomes. Biomarker-led clinical trials of adjuvant HER-targeted therapy are warranted for patients with ERBB2-mutated primary ILC.

RevDate: 2021-01-07
CmpDate: 2021-01-07

Duman B, Kuşman A, Çolak B, et al (2020)

Tamoxifen-induced acute mania: A case report.

Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, 26(8):2025-2027.

INTRODUCTION: Tamoxifen is widely used for the treatment of hormone-responsive breast cancer, osteoporosis, and post-menopausal symptoms. Also, tamoxifen is currently under investigation for its anti-manic properties. In this article, we report a case who developed manic episode following the initiation of tamoxifen and remitted with discontinuation of the medication.

CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with breast cancer. Pathologic diagnosis was invasive ductal carcinoma. Following bilateral total mastectomy operation, trastuzumab was initiated with intervals of 21 days. Five days before the fourth application of trastuzumab, tamoxifen was added. On the sixth day following the initiation of tamoxifen, manic symptoms were developed and she was diagnosed as acute mania.

MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME: The oncology department suggested withdrawing tamoxifen due to a possible association between tamoxifen initiation and behavioral symptoms. Manic symptoms were rapidly (approximately 24 h) improved following cessation of tamoxifen. Psychiatric evaluation on the fifth day following cessation of tamoxifen revealed no manic symptoms. An aromatase inhibitor-exemestane was initiated and she showed no side effects with this medication since then.

DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of probable tamoxifen-induced mania. Our case report at least indicates that there were possibly some patients who were sensitive to the tamoxifen's nervous system effects, mainly to manic effects. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of these rare behavioral adverse effects of tamoxifen.

RevDate: 2021-01-04

De Pauw V, Navez J, Holbrechts S, et al (2020)

Acute appendicitis as an unusual cause of invasive ductal breast carcinoma metastasis.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2020(12):rjaa535 pii:rjaa535.

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain at the emergency room. In rare cases, it can be caused by malignancy, even metastatic lesions from extra-abdominal neoplasia. Herein, we report a case of a 64-year-old female with a history of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast treated by chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy, relapsing several years later as a bone and a pleura metastasis successfully cured by locoregional therapy and hormonal treatment. She presented with acute abdominal pain without signs of peritonitis. Abdominal computed tomodensitometry showed sign of appendicitis. Therefore, laparoscopic exploration and appendicectomy was performed. During surgery, multiple peritoneal nodules were found and harvested. Pathology showed metastatic nodules of invasive ductal breast carcinoma, including in the appendicular wall, concluding to peritoneal carcinomatosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the patient died 1 year later after refusing anticancer treatment.

RevDate: 2021-01-04
CmpDate: 2021-01-04

Sreekumar S, Levine KM, Sikora MJ, et al (2020)

Differential Regulation and Targeting of Estrogen Receptor α Turnover in Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma.

Endocrinology, 161(9):.

Invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 10% to 15% of breast cancers diagnosed annually. Evidence suggests that some aspects of endocrine treatment response might differ between invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and ILC, and that patients with ILC have worse long-term survival. We analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset and observed lower levels of ESR1 mRNA (P = 0.002) and ERα protein (P = 0.038) in ER+ ILC (n = 137) compared to IDC (n = 554), and further confirmed the mRNA difference in a local UPMC cohort (ILC, n = 143; IDC, n = 877; P < 0.005). In both datasets, the correlation between ESR1 mRNA and ERα protein was weaker in ILC, suggesting differential post-transcriptional regulation of ERα. In vitro, 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased the rate of degradation and increased the half-life of ERα in ILC cell lines, whereas the opposite was observed in IDC cell lines. Further, E2 failed to induce robust ubiquitination of ERα in ILC cells. To determine the potential clinical relevance of these findings, we evaluated the effect of 2 selective estrogen receptor downregulators (SERDs), ICI 182,780 and AZD9496, on ERα turnover and cell growth. While ICI 182,780 and AZD9496 showed similar effects in IDC cells, in ILC cell lines, AZD9496 was not as effective as ICI 182,780 in decreasing ERα stability and E2-induced proliferation. Furthermore, AZD9496 exhibited partial agonist activity in growth assays in ILC cell lines. Our study provides evidence for a distinct ERα regulation by SERDs in ILC cell lines, and therefore it is important to include ILC models into preclinical and clinical testing of novel SERDs.

RevDate: 2020-12-09

Seitz S, Kwon Y, Hartleben G, et al (2019)

Hepatic Rab24 controls blood glucose homeostasis via improving mitochondrial plasticity.

Nature metabolism, 1(10):1009-1026.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a key feature of obesity-related type 2 diabetes with increasing prevalence worldwide. To our knowledge, no treatment options are available to date, paving the way for more severe liver damage, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we show an unexpected function for an intracellular trafficking regulator, the small Rab GTPase Rab24, in mitochondrial fission and activation, which has an immediate impact on hepatic and systemic energy homeostasis. RAB24 is highly upregulated in the livers of obese patients with NAFLD and positively correlates with increased body fat in humans. Liver-selective inhibition of Rab24 increases autophagic flux and mitochondrial connectivity, leading to a strong improvement in hepatic steatosis and a reduction in serum glucose and cholesterol levels in obese mice. Our study highlights a potential therapeutic application of trafficking regulators, such as RAB24, for NAFLD and establishes a conceptual functional connection between intracellular transport and systemic metabolic dysfunction.

RevDate: 2020-12-29
CmpDate: 2020-12-29

Haynes HR, DSC Rose (2020)

Synchronous small lymphocytic lymphoma and metastatic breast carcinoma in axillary lymph nodes: Preservation of follicular architecture only in the portions of affected lymph nodes involved by metastatic carcinoma.

The breast journal, 26(2):245-246.

We present a case of metastatic ductal carcinoma of breast with the incidental discovery of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) in regional axillary nodes. The co-occurence of metastatic carcinoma and low-grade lymphoma in lymph nodes is rare but well recognized. However, in this case, in the lymph nodes in which sizeable metastatic carcinoma deposits were present, the follicular structures between the sinusoidal carcinomatous infiltrates were preserved, whereas the uninvolved portions of the nodes were overrun by SLL. This is the first description of this phenomenon. We suggest that further cases displaying this previously unpublished pattern are collated in order that we may begin to investigate the underlying etiological mediators.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Zhong S, Wong HC, Low HY, et al (2020)

Phototriggerable Transient Electronics via Fullerene-Mediated Degradation of Polymer:Fullerene Encapsulation Layer.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Transient electronics is an emerging class of electronics that has attracted a lot of attention because of its potential as an environmental-friendly alternative to the existing end-of-life product disposal or treatments. However, the controlled degradation of transient electronics under environmentally benign conditions remains a challenge. In this work, the tunable degradation of transient electronics including passive resistor devices and active memory devices was realized by photodegradable thin polymer films comprising fullerene derivatives, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl esters (PCBM). The photodegradation of polymer:PCBM under an aqueous environment is triggered by ultraviolet (UV) light. Experimental results demonstrate that the addition of PCBM in commodity polymers, including but not limited to polystyrene, results in a catalytic effect on polymer photodegradation when triggered by UV light. The degradation mechanism of transient electronics is ascribed to the photodegradation of polymer:PCBM encapsulation layers caused by the synergistic effect between UV and water exposure. The polymer:PCBM encapsulation system presented herein offers a simple way to achieve the realization of light-triggered device degradation for bioapplication and expands the material options for tailorable degradation of transient electronics.

RevDate: 2020-12-22
CmpDate: 2020-12-22

Shinseki K, Takahashi M, Kushima A, et al (2020)

[One Case of Accessory Breast Cancer Complicated by Contralateral Breast Cancer].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(12):1703-1705.

We experienced a case of right sided accessory breast cancer complicated by contralateral breast cancer. A 50-year-old woman came to us for an examination because a tumor in her left breast was pointed out at breast cancer screening. A breast MRI confirmed a tumor in her left breast and a tumor continuing from the skin to the subcutis of the right axilla. A skin biopsy for the tumor in the right axilla and a core needle biopsy(CNB)for the tumor in the left breast were performed. The pathological result of the CNB for the left breast indicated an invasive ductal carcinoma of the tubular formative scirrhous type. Although the tumor of the right axilla was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma demonstrating cord-like arrays, it was examined by skin biopsy and therefore no deep part of the tissue was included. We conducted immunostaining, in consideration of the possibility of metastasis from the left sided breast cancer. ER, PgR, mammaglobin, GATA 3 were positive, strongly suggesting that the tumor in the right axilla was also derived from a mammary gland. We also performed a wide local excision of the right axilla plus axillary dissection(level Ⅰ)in addition to conducting a left mastectomy plus sentinel lymph node biopsy, in consideration of the possibility of primary right sided accessory breast cancer. The pathological result following surgery confirmed a difference in the histologic features between both sides, residual normal accessory mammary glands around the tumor on the right side, and the presence of rich DCIS and a lobular replacement image, leading to a definitive diagnosis of primary invasive ductal carcinoma of the accessory breast on the right side.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Tsai HT, Huang CS, Tu CC, et al (2020)

Multi-gene signature of microcalcification and risk prediction among Taiwanese breast cancer.

Scientific reports, 10(1):18276.

Microcalcification is one of the most common radiological and pathological features of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and to a lesser extent, invasive ductal carcinoma. We evaluated messenger RNA (mRNA) transcriptional profiles associated with ectopic mammary mineralization. A total of 109 breast cancers were assayed with oligonucleotide microarrays. The associations of mRNA abundance with microcalcifications and relevant clinical features were evaluated. Microcalcifications were present in 86 (79%) patients by pathological examination, and 81 (94%) were with coexistent DCIS, while only 13 (57%) of 23 patients without microcalcification, the invasive diseases were accompanied with DCIS (χ2-test, P < 0.001). There were 69 genes with differential mRNA abundance between breast cancers with and without microcalcifications, and 11 were associated with high-grade (comedo) type DCIS. Enriched Gene Ontology categories included glycosaminoglycan and aminoglycan metabolic processes and protein ubiquitination, indicating an active secretory process. The intersection (18 genes) of microcalcificaion-associated and DCIS-associated genes provided the best predictive accuracy of 82% with Bayesian compound covariate predictor. Ten genes were further selected for prognostic index score construction, and five-year relapse free survival was 91% for low-risk and 83% for high-risk group (log-rank test, P = 0.10). Our study suggested that microcalcification is not only the earliest detectable radiological sign for mammography screening but the phenomenon itself may reflect the underling events during mammary carcinogenesis. Future studies to evaluate the prognostic significance of microcalcifications are warranted.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

Bertoldi AS, Guetter CR, Coltro GA, et al (2020)

CARVEDILOL AS PRIMARY PROPHYLAXIS FOR GASTRIC VARICEAL BLEEDING IN PORTAL HYPERTENSION MODEL IN RATS.

Arquivos brasileiros de cirurgia digestiva : ABCD = Brazilian archives of digestive surgery, 33(3):e1525 pii:S0102-67202020000300302.

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension (PH) can be measured indirectly through a hepatic vein pressure gradient greater than 5 mmHg. Cirrhosis is the leading cause for PH and can present as complications ascites, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and esophagogastric varices, characterizing gastropathy.

AIM: To evaluate the use of carvedilol as primary prophylaxis in the development of collateral circulation in rats submitted to the partial portal vein ligament (PPVL) model.

METHOD: This is a combined qualitative and quantitative experimental study in which 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 animals in each): group I - cirrhosis + carvedilol (PPVL + C); group II - cirrhosis + vehicle (PPVL); group III - control + carvedilol (SO-sham-operated + C); group IV - control + vehicle (SO-sham-operated). After seven days of the surgical procedure (PPVL or sham), carvedilol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 mL normal saline) were administered to the respective groups daily for seven days.

RESULTS: The histological analysis showed no hepatic alteration in any group and a decrease in edema and vasodilatation in the PPVL + C group. The laboratory evaluation of liver function did not show a statistically significant change between the groups.

CONCLUSION: Carvedilol was shown to have a positive effect on gastric varices without significant adverse effects.

RevDate: 2020-12-16
CmpDate: 2020-12-16

Tasdemir N, Ding K, Savariau L, et al (2020)

Proteomic and transcriptomic profiling identifies mediators of anchorage-independent growth and roles of inhibitor of differentiation proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma.

Scientific reports, 10(1):11487.

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is a histological subtype of breast cancer with distinct molecular and clinical features from the more common subtype invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). ILC cells exhibit anchorage-independent growth in ultra-low attachment (ULA) suspension cultures, which is largely attributed to the loss of E-cadherin. In addition to anoikis resistance, herein we show that human ILC cell lines exhibit enhanced cell proliferation in ULA cultures as compared to IDC cells. Proteomic comparison of ILC and IDC cell lines identified induction of PI3K/Akt and p90-RSK pathways specifically in ULA culture in ILC cells. Further transcriptional profiling uncovered unique upregulation of the inhibitors of differentiation family transcription factors ID1 and ID3 in ILC ULA culture, the knockdown of which diminished the anchorage-independent growth of ILC cell lines through cell cycle arrest. We find that ID1 and ID3 expression is higher in human ILC tumors as compared to IDC, correlated with worse prognosis uniquely in patients with ILC and associated with upregulation of angiogenesis and matrisome-related genes. Altogether, our comprehensive study of anchorage independence in human ILC cell lines provides mechanistic insights and clinical implications for metastatic dissemination of ILC and implicates ID1 and ID3 as novel drivers and therapeutic targets for lobular breast cancer.

RevDate: 2020-12-14

Zhang J, Lu CY, Chen HM, et al (2020)

Pathologic response rates for breast cancer stages as a predictor of outcomes in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast-conserving surgery.

Surgical oncology, 36:91-98 pii:S0960-7404(20)30448-5 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To determine easy-to-use predictors of overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), and distant metastasis (DM) in patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by breast-conserving surgery (BCS), we obtained pathologic response rates (PRRs) for combined primary and nodal diseases (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stages) from clinical and pathologic reports, and we used these as predictors.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled patients with IDC who had received NACT followed by BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for the patients' PRRs; other independent predictors were controlled for or stratified in the analysis.

RESULTS: We analyzed 1047 patients with IDC (611, 260, and 176 patients in clinical stages IIB, IIIA, and IIIB-C, respectively) receiving NACT and BCS. After multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted HRs (aHRs; 95% CI) in patients with pathologic complete response (ypT0N0) were 0.26 (0.13-0.56), 0.36 (0.15-0.85), and 0.15 (0.08-0.31) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively. The aHRs (95% CI) in patients with downstaging of AJCC stages were 0.55 (0.35-0.89), 0.91 (0.62-0.96), and 0.63 (0.43-0.91) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively. The aHRs (95% CI) in patients with upstaging of AJCC stages were 1.77 (1.06-2.24), 1.08 (1.03-1.82), and 1.19 (1.07-2.01) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The impacts of AJCC-stage PRRs are useful predictive tools and strong predictors for OS, LRR, and DM in patients with breast IDC receiving NACT followed by BCS.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Xu X, Wang J, Yan C, et al (2020)

[Association of JMJD3, MMP-2 and VEGF expressions with clinicopathological features of invasive ductal breast carcinoma].

Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University, 40(11):1593-1600.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the expressions of JMJD3, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in invasive ductal breast carcinoma, their association with the clinicopathological features of the patients and the effect of JMJD3 overexpression on proliferation and MMP-2 and VEGF expressions in breast cancer cells.

METHODS: The protein and mRNA expressions of JMJD3, MMP-2, and VEGF in invasive ductal breast carcinoma and paired adjacent tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively, and their correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of JMJD3, MMP-2 and VEGF expression levels with the survival of the patients. In breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with a JMJD3-expression plasmid, the expression of Ki67 was examined immunohistochemically, the cell proliferation was assessed with CCK8 assay, and the mRNA expressions of MMP-2 and VEGF were detected with RT-PCR.

RESULTS: Breast cancer tissues had significantly lower JMJD3 expression and higher MMP-2 and VEGF expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels than the adjacent tissue (P < 0.05). The positivity rates of JMJD3, MMP-2 and VEGF in breast cancer tissues were significantly correlated with tumor diameter, differentiation, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and molecular subtypes (P < 0.05). KaplanMeier analysis showed that JMJD3 expression level was positively while MMP-2 and VEGF were inversely correlated with the disease-free survival time of the patients (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis identified JMJD3, MMP-2, VEGF and tumor differentiation as independent prognostic factors of breast cancer. Spearman correlation analysis suggested a negative correlation of JMJD3 with MMP2 (r=-0.569, P < 0.05) and VEGF (r=-0.533, P < 0.05) and a positive correlation between MMP2 and VEGF (r=0.923, P < 0.05). In MDA-MB-231 cells, overexpression of JMJD3 inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells and the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF.

CONCLUSIONS: The expressions of JMJD3, MMP-2 and VEGF in invasive ductal breast carcinoma are closely correlated to tumor proliferation, invasion, metastasis and prognosis and can be used for prognostic evaluation of breast cancer.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Gewehr DM, Salgueiro GR, Noronha L, et al (2020)

Plexiform Lesions in an Experimental Model of Monocrotalin-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 115(3):480-490.

BACKGROUND: The monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension model is one of the most reproduced today, presenting as a limitation the absence of plexiform lesions, typical manifestations of the severe disease in humans.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the severity of MCT-induced pulmonary arteriopathy by pathological findings of lung and heart tissue samples, clinical course and 37-day survival.

METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into one of the four groups - control (CG) (n = 10) and three intervention (MCT) groups. The MCT groups received intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg) of MCT and remained exposed to the substance for 15 days (G15, n = 10), 30 days (G30, n = 10) and 37 days (G37, n = 20). At the end of each period, the animals were sacrificed, and pulmonary and cardiac tissues were collected for anatomopathological and morphometric analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used, considering a level of significance of 5%.

RESULTS: In the lungs of MCT animals, lesions related to pulmonary arteriopathy were found, including muscularization of the arterioles, hypertrophy of the middle layer and concentric neointimal lesions. Complex lesions were observed in MCT groups, described as plexiform and plexiform-like lesions. Right ventricular hypertrophy was evidenced by increased thickness and diameter of the cardiomyocytes and a significant increase in the right ventricular wall thickness (p <0.0000).

CONCLUSION: The MCT model was able to generate moderate-severe pulmonary arteriopathy associated with secondary right ventricular hypertrophy. The 37-day survival rate was 50%. To our knowledge, this study was the first to note the presence of complex vascular lesions, similar to those observed in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, in an isolated MCT model. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):480-490).

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-11

Murray AS, Hyland TE, Sala-Hamrick KE, et al (2020)

The cell-surface anchored serine protease TMPRSS13 promotes breast cancer progression and resistance to chemotherapy.

Oncogene, 39(41):6421-6436.

Breast cancer progression is accompanied by increased expression of extracellular and cell-surface proteases capable of degrading the extracellular matrix as well as cleaving and activating downstream targets. The type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a family of cell-surface proteases that play critical roles in numerous types of cancers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel and uncharacterized TTSPs with differential expression in breast cancer and to determine their potential roles in progression. Systematic in silico data analysis followed by immunohistochemical validation identified increased expression of the TTSP family member, TMPRSS13 (transmembrane protease, serine 13), in invasive ductal carcinoma patient tissue samples compared to normal breast tissue. To test whether loss of TMPRSS13 impacts tumor progression, TMPRSS13 was genetically ablated in the oncogene-induced transgenic MMTV-PymT tumor model. TMPRSS13 deficiency resulted in a significant decrease in overall tumor burden and growth rate, as well as a delayed formation of detectable mammary tumors, thus suggesting a causal relationship between TMPRSS13 expression and the progression of breast cancer. Complementary studies using human breast cancer cell culture models revealed that siRNA-mediated silencing of TMPRSS13 expression decreases proliferation, induces apoptosis, and attenuates invasion. Importantly, targeting TMPRSS13 expression renders aggressive triple-negative breast cancer cell lines highly responsive to chemotherapy. At the molecular level, knockdown of TMPRSS13 in breast cancer cells led to increased protein levels of the tumor-suppressive protease prostasin. TMPRSS13/prostasin co-immunoprecipitation and prostasin zymogen activation experiments identified prostasin as a potential novel target for TMPRSS13. Regulation of prostasin levels may be a mechanism that contributes to the pro-oncogenic properties of TMPRSS13 in breast cancer. TMPRSS13 represents a novel candidate for targeted therapy in combination with standard of care chemotherapy agents in patients with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer or in patients with tumors refractory to endocrine therapy.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-08

Chan SJ, Ein-Dor T, Mayopoulos PA, et al (2020)

Risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth.

Psychiatry research, 290:113090.

Women can develop childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (CB-PTSD) in at-term delivery with healthy baby outcome as well as following pre-term delivery and neonatal complications, a potential added stressor. No study compares risk factors of CB-PTSD associated with different infant outcomes. We investigated CB-PTSD risk factors by comparing women with or without neonatal complications. Analysis reveals the importance of antepartum and birth-related risk factors in CB-PTSD above and beyond child outcomes, suggesting childbirth is an independent stressor capable of evoking CB-PTSD.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-10

Szentirmai E, GA Giannico (2020)

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate.

Pathologica, 112(1):17-24.

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is a diagnostic entity characterized by architecturally or cytologically malignant-appearing prostatic glandular epithelium confined to prostatic ducts. Despite its apparent in situ nature, this lesion is associated with aggressive prostatic adenocarcinoma and is a predictor for poor prognosis when identified on biopsy or radical prostatectomy. This review discusses diagnosis, clinical features, histogenesis, and management of IDC-P, as well as current research and controversies surrounding this entity.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Billena C, Padia S, O'Brien B, et al (2020)

Radiation recall dermatitis after treatment of stage IV breast cancer with nivolumab: a case report.

Immunotherapy, 12(2):123-130.

Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an uncommon dermatologic reaction provoked notably by chemotherapy in an area of skin irradiated weeks to years prior. We report a case of RRD with nivolumab in a woman with breast cancer. The patient was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast with an isolated spinal metastasis approached in an oligometastatic fashion with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Unfortunately, after progression of bony metastases treated with radiotherapy, the patient received nivolumab and subsequently developed a rash corresponding to the adjuvant radiation field. This case highlights the unpredictable nature and characteristic rash of RRD. It is an important differential diagnosis for multidisciplinary teams who also see chemotherapy-induced dermatitis and immune-related adverse events.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-14

Delaunay T, Achard C, Grégoire M, et al (2020)

A Functional Assay to Determine the Capacity of Oncolytic Viruses to Induce Immunogenic Tumor Cell Death.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2058:127-132.

Oncolytic immunotherapy efficacy relies partially on the induction of immunogenic tumor cell death following infection with oncolytic viruses (OV) to induce an antitumor immune response. Here, we describe a method to determine if an OV is able to induce such an immunogenic tumor cell death. This method consists in testing whether tumor cells lysed by an OV are able to induce the maturation of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (Mo-iDC).

RevDate: 2020-12-11

Desa DE, Strawderman RL, Wu W, et al (2020)

Intratumoral heterogeneity of second-harmonic generation scattering from tumor collagen and its effects on metastatic risk prediction.

BMC cancer, 20(1):1217.

BACKGROUND: Metastases are the leading cause of breast cancer-related deaths. The tumor microenvironment impacts cancer progression and metastatic ability. Fibrillar collagen, a major extracellular matrix component, can be studied using the light scattering phenomenon known as second-harmonic generation (SHG). The ratio of forward- to backward-scattered SHG photons (F/B) is sensitive to collagen fiber internal structure and has been shown to be an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis-free survival time (MFS). Here we assess the effects of heterogeneity in the tumor matrix on the possible use of F/B as a prognostic tool.

METHODS: SHG imaging was performed on sectioned primary tumor excisions from 95 untreated, estrogen receptor-positive, lymph node negative invasive ductal carcinoma patients. We identified two distinct regions whose collagen displayed different average F/B values, indicative of spatial heterogeneity: the cellular tumor bulk and surrounding tumor-stroma interface. To evaluate the impact of heterogeneity on F/B's prognostic ability, we performed SHG imaging in the tumor bulk and tumor-stroma interface, calculated a 21-gene recurrence score (surrogate for OncotypeDX®, or S-ODX) for each patient and evaluated their combined prognostic ability.

RESULTS: We found that F/B measured in tumor-stroma interface, but not tumor bulk, is prognostic of MFS using three methods to select pixels for analysis: an intensity threshold selected by a blinded observer, a histogram-based thresholding method, and an adaptive thresholding method. Using both regression trees and Random Survival Forests for MFS outcome, we obtained data-driven prediction rules that show F/B from tumor-stroma interface, but not tumor bulk, and S-ODX both contribute to predicting MFS in this patient cohort. We also separated patients into low-intermediate (S-ODX < 26) and high risk (S-ODX ≥26) groups. In the low-intermediate risk group, comprised of patients not typically recommended for adjuvant chemotherapy, we find that F/B from the tumor-stroma interface is prognostic of MFS and can identify a patient cohort with poor outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that intratumoral heterogeneity in F/B values can play an important role in its possible use as a prognostic marker, and that F/B from tumor-stroma interface of primary tumor excisions may provide useful information to stratify patients by metastatic risk.

RevDate: 2020-12-05

Hadano Y, Kakuma T, Matsumoto T, et al (2020)

Reduction of 30-day death rates from Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia by mandatory infectious diseases consultation: Comparative study interventions with and without an infectious disease specialist.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)32514-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Most Japanese hospitals need to keep higher Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) quality-of-care indicators (QCIs) and create strategies that can maximise the effect of these QCIs in a small number of infectious diseases specialists. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with SAB before and after the enhancement of the mandatory infectious diseases consultations (IDCs).

METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Japan. The primary outcome was the 30-day mortality between each period. A generalised structural equation model was employed to examine the effect of the mandatory IDC enhancement on 30-day mortality among patients with SAB.

RESULTS: A total of 114 patients with SAB were analysed. The 30-day all-cause mortality was significant between the two periods (17.3% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.02). Age, 3 QCI point ≥1, and Pitt bacteraemia score ≥3 were the significant risk factors for 30-day mortality. The intervention was also significantly associated with improved adherence to QCIs.

CONCLUSION: Mandatory IDCs for SAB improved 30-day mortality and adherence of QCIs after the intervention. In Japan, improving the quality of management in patients with SAB should be an important target.

RevDate: 2020-11-30

Li X, Schmöhl F, Qi H, et al (2020)

Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Aldo-keto-reductase 1a1b in Zebrafish.

iScience, 23(12):101763 pii:S2589-0042(20)30960-3.

Regulation of glucose homeostasis is a fundamental process to maintain blood glucose at a physiological level, and its dysregulation is associated with the development of several metabolic diseases. Here, we report on a zebrafish mutant for Aldo-keto-reductase 1a1b (akr1a1b) as a regulator of gluconeogenesis. Adult akr1a1b-/- mutant zebrafish developed fasting hypoglycemia, which was caused by inhibiting phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression as rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis. Subsequently, glucogenic amino acid glutamate as substrate for gluconeogenesis accumulated in the kidneys, but not in livers, and induced structural and functional pronephros alterations in 48-hpf akr1a1b-/- embryos. Akr1a1b-/- mutants displayed increased nitrosative stress as indicated by increased nitrotyrosine, and increased protein-S-nitrosylation. Inhibition of nitrosative stress using the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME prevented kidney damage and normalized PEPCK expression in akr1a1b-/- mutants. Thus, the data have identified Akr1a1b as a regulator of gluconeogenesis in zebrafish and thereby controlling glucose homeostasis.

RevDate: 2020-11-30
CmpDate: 2020-11-30

Schwarz D, Hidmark AS, Sturm V, et al (2020)

Characterization of experimental diabetic neuropathy using multicontrast magnetic resonance neurography at ultra high field strength.

Scientific reports, 10(1):7593.

In light of the limited treatment options of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) available, suitable animal models are essential to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutic targets. In vivo evaluation with current techniques, however, often provides only restricted information about disease evolution. In the study of patients with DPN, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has been introduced as an innovative diagnostic tool detecting characteristic lesions within peripheral nerves. We developed a novel multicontrast ultra high field MRN strategy to examine major peripheral nerve segments in diabetic mice non-invasively. It was first validated in a cross-platform approach on human nerve tissue and then applied to the popular streptozotocin(STZ)-induced mouse model of DPN. In the absence of gross morphologic alterations, a distinct MR-signature within the sciatic nerve was observed mirroring subtle changes of the nerves' fibre composition and ultrastructure, potentially indicating early re-arrangements of DPN. Interestingly, these signal alterations differed from previously reported typical nerve lesions of patients with DPN. The capacity of our approach to non-invasively assess sciatic nerve tissue structure and function within a given mouse model provides a powerful tool for direct translational comparison to human disease hallmarks not only in diabetes but also in other peripheral neuropathic conditions.

RevDate: 2020-11-26

Chen J, Fleming T, Katz S, et al (2020)

CaM Kinase II-δ is Required for Diabetic Hyperglycemia and Retinopathy but not Nephropathy.

Diabetes pii:db19-0659 [Epub ahead of print].

Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic and leads to late diabetic complications of organs including kidney and eye. Lowering hyperglycemia is the typical therapeutic goal in clinical medicine. However, hyperglycemia may only be a symptom of diabetes but not the sole cause of late diabetic complications, Instead, other diabetes-related alterations could be causative. Here, we studied the role of CaM Kinase II δ (CaMKIIδ) that is known to be activated through diabetic metabolism. CaMKIIδ is expressed ubiquitously and might therefore affect several different organ systems. We crossed diabetic leptin receptor mutant mice to mice lacking CaMKIIδ globally. Remarkably, CaMKIIδ-deficient diabetic mice did not develop hyperglycemia. As potential underlying mechanisms, we provide evidence for improved insulin sensing with increased glucose transport into skeletal muscle but also reduced hepatic glucose production. Despite normoglycemia, CaMKIIδ-deficient diabetic mice developed the full picture of diabetic nephropathy but diabetic retinopathy was prevented. We also unmasked a retina-specific gene expression signature that might contribute to CaMKII-dependent retinal diabetic complications. These data challenge the clinical concept of normalizing hyperglycemia in diabetes as a causative treatment strategy for late diabetic complications and call for a more detailed analysis of intracellular metabolic signals in different diabetic organs.

RevDate: 2020-11-26

Huang Z, Hu C, Liu K, et al (2020)

Risk factors, prognostic factors, and nomograms for bone metastasis in patients with newly diagnosed infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast: a population-based study.

BMC cancer, 20(1):1145 pii:10.1186/s12885-020-07635-1.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and it is also the leading cause of death in female patients; the most common pathological type of BC is infiltrating duct carcinoma (IDC). Some nomograms have been developed to predict bone metastasis (BM) in patients with breast cancer. However, there are no studies on diagnostic and prognostic nomograms for BM in newly diagnosed IDC patients.

METHODS: IDC patients with newly diagnosed BM from 2010 to 2016 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for BM in patients with IDC. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were used to explore the prognostic factors of BM in patients with IDC. We then constructed nomograms to predict the risk and prognosis of BM for patients with IDC. The results were validated using bootstrap resampling and retrospective research on 113 IDC patients with BM from 2015 to 2018 at the Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University.

RESULTS: This study included 141,959 patients diagnosed with IDC in the SEER database, of whom 2383 cases were IDC patients with BM. The risk factors for BM in patients with IDC included sex, primary site, grade, T stage, N stage, liver metastasis, race, brain metastasis, breast cancer subtype, lung metastasis, insurance status, and marital status. The independent prognostic factors were brain metastases, race, grade, surgery, chemotherapy, age, liver metastases, breast cancer subtype, insurance status, and marital status. Through calibration, receiver operating characteristic curve and decision curve analyses, we found that the nomogram for predicting the prognosis of IDC patients with BM displayed great performance both internally and externally.

CONCLUSION: These nomograms are expected to be a precise and personalized tool for predicting the risk and prognosis for BM in patients with IDC. This will help clinicians develop more rational and effective treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2020-11-26
CmpDate: 2020-11-26

Roy S, Kumar R, Mittal V, et al (2020)

Classification models for Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Progression, based on gene expression data-trained supervised machine learning.

Scientific reports, 10(1):4113.

Early detection of breast cancer and its correct stage determination are important for prognosis and rendering appropriate personalized clinical treatment to breast cancer patients. However, despite considerable efforts and progress, there is a need to identify the specific genomic factors responsible for, or accompanying Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) progression stages, which can aid the determination of the correct cancer stages. We have developed two-class machine-learning classification models to differentiate the early and late stages of IDC. The prediction models are trained with RNA-seq gene expression profiles representing different IDC stages of 610 patients, obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Different supervised learning algorithms were trained and evaluated with an enriched model learning, facilitated by different feature selection methods. We also developed a machine-learning classifier trained on the same datasets with training sets reduced data corresponding to IDC driver genes. Based on these two classifiers, we have developed a web-server Duct-BRCA-CSP to predict early stage from late stages of IDC based on input RNA-seq gene expression profiles. The analysis conducted by us also enables deeper insights into the stage-dependent molecular events accompanying IDC progression. The server is publicly available at http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/duct-BRCA-CSP.

RevDate: 2020-11-24
CmpDate: 2020-11-24

Lee YH, Kwon MJ, Park JH, et al (2020)

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 with the Development of Pheochromocytoma and Breast Cancer.

Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 59(13):1665-1669.

A 40-year-old woman presented with a left adrenal incidentaloma. Based on the presence of café-au-lait spots, cutaneous neurofibroma, and family history, she was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Adrenal incidentaloma screening showed an elevated normetanephrine level; the left adrenal mass showed the uptake of I-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine. She underwent left adrenalectomy, and pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. One year later, the results of a biopsy of a palpable mass in the left breast suggested invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by left breast-conserving surgery. We herein report a rare case of an NF1 patient who developed both pheochromocytoma and breast cancer.

RevDate: 2020-11-20
CmpDate: 2020-11-20

Kosaka Y, Kikuchi M, Nishimiya H, et al (2020)

[In Situ Ductal Carcinoma with Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in a Patient Who Received Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy-A Case Report].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(9):1387-1389.

A woman in her 30s presented to our hospital with the chief complaint of a right breast mass after the birth of her first child. She was diagnosed as having right invasive ductal carcinoma of Luminal-B type and T3N3cM0, stage Ⅲc. While undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, she received genetic counseling and underwent genetic testing and was determined to have deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. After completing chemotherapy, she underwent a right total mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. Two years postoperatively, she requested to undergo a contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy(CRRM)of her left breast. Therefore, CT and breast MRI were performed to confirm the absence of contralateral lesions and distant metastases, and subsequently, CRRM was performed. Postoperative pathology results showed non-invasive ductal carcinoma lesions at 5 sites. In the case of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome such as in this study, lesions may be discovered at an early stage by performing risk-reducing mastectomy.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Fouhi ME, Benider A, Gaëtan KZA, et al (2020)

[Epidemiological and anatomopathological profile of breast cancer at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca].

The Pan African medical journal, 37:41 pii:PAMJ-37-41.

The present study aims to determine the various epidemiological characteristics among newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer in Casablanca during 2018. During that period, 668 cases were collected, the average age was 51.6 years, the female was the most represented with 662 cases (99.1%) and men with 6 cases (0.9%), a sex ratio (M/F) of 0.009. The average age of menopause was 49.8 years and the average age of menarche was 13.5 years, 31.7% had a history of cancer (breast 14.1%, stomach and 9% liver 7%). The average diagnosis delay was 10 months, the thyroid disease was the most represented pathology, the left breast was diagnosed in 50.2% and the right breast in 44.7% and 1.3% in the bilateral location. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (73.2%). The vascular and lymphatic invasion was observed in 42.2%, axillary nodes were affected in 71.1% of cases. The histological prognosis (SBR) revealed a predominance of grade II in 55.9% of cases. The Luminal B continues to be the most common phenotype (46%) followed by Triple Negative (15.3%) and Luminal A (14.2%) and HER2 (7.4%). The immediate prognosis is a cause for concern because of delayed diagnosis. It seems urgent to develop the health information policy and education.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Liu C, Wang C, Du Z, et al (2020)

Clinical features and prognosis of duplex primary malignant neoplasms involving chronic myeloid leukemia.

Medicine, 99(44):e22904.

This study was to investigate clinical features and prognosis of duplex primary malignant neoplasms involving chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-DPMNs). Clinical data of thirteen CML-DPMN patients who were admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University from May 2008 to December 2018 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Female patients (9/13) were predominant in this cohort study. Nine patients were metachronous DPMNs (metachronous duplex primary malignant neoplasms involving chronic myeloid leukemia) with 5 years median interval time from primary malignancy to secondary malignancy. The other 4 patients were diagnosed as synchronous CML-DPMNs. Seven of the metachronous duplex primary malignant neoplasms involving chronic myeloid leukemia suffered from CML following many years of comprehensive anti-cancer therapy. Two of CML-MDPMN patients had invasive ductal carcinoma of breast after many years of treatment with imatinib. There was no difference between treatment-related CML group and non-treatment-related CML group in regard as the gender, age, white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, platelet count, and risk level. The median overall survival time of these thirteen patients with CML-DPMNs was not reached. In conclusion, female patients are more likely to suffer from the CML-DPMNs in the present article. Overall survival time of patients with DPMNs involving CML could be promising if timely and effective treatment therapy is adopted.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Beetch M, Harandi-Zadeh S, Yang T, et al (2020)

DNA methylation landscape of triple-negative ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) progressing to the invasive stage in canine breast cancer.

Scientific reports, 10(1):2415 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-59260-4.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer unresponsive to traditional receptor-targeted treatments, leading to a disproportionate number of deaths. Invasive breast cancer is believed to evolve from non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Detection of triple-negative DCIS (TN-DCIS) is challenging, therefore strategies to study molecular events governing progression of pre-invasive TN-DCIS to invasive TNBC are needed. Here, we study a canine TN-DCIS progression and investigate the DNA methylation landscape of normal breast tissue, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), DCIS and invasive breast cancer. We report hypo- and hypermethylation of genes within functional categories related to cancer such as transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and cell migration. DNA methylation changes associated with cancer-related genes become more pronounced at invasive breast cancer stage. Importantly, we identify invasive-only and DCIS-specific DNA methylation alterations that could potentially determine which lesions progress to invasive cancer and which could remain as pre-invasive DCIS. Changes in DNA methylation during TN-DCIS progression in this canine model correspond with gene expression patterns in human breast tissues. This study provides evidence for utilizing methylation status of gene candidates to define late-stage (DCIS and invasive), invasive stage only or DCIS stage only of TN-DCIS progression.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Zhang J, Sun M, Chang E, et al (2020)

Pathologic response as predictor of recurrence, metastasis, and survival in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and total mastectomy.

American journal of cancer research, 10(10):3415-3427.

To determine easy-to-use predictors of overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), and distant metastasis (DM) in breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and total mastectomy (TM), we used the pathologic response (PR) of primary breast diseases (T stages), nodal diseases (N stages), and combined primary and nodal diseases (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stages) based on existing clinical and pathologic reports as predictors. We enrolled patients with IDC who received NACT followed by TM. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of PR; other independent predictors were controlled for or stratified in the analysis. We analyzed 3654 IDC patients (1031, 1215, 1003, and 405 patients with clinical stages IIB, IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, respectively) receiving NACT and TM. After multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted HRs (aHRs) (95% CI) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM were noted to be 0.21 (0.13-0.34), 0.19 (0.08-0.48), and 0.33 (0.23-0.47), respectively, for pCR; 0.56 (0.48-0.65), 0.67 (0.51-0.89), and 0.61 (0.52-0.70), respectively, for AJCC downstaging; and 1.85 (1.56-2.18), 1.17 (0.84-1.62), and 1.61 (1.36-1.90), respectively, for AJCC upstaging. The PR parameters used in the study are easily applied because they are based on existing staging records, and they can strongly predict OS, LRR, and DM in IDC patients receiving NACT and TM, regardless of clinical stage. The results can be used to guide adjuvant treatment.

RevDate: 2020-11-06
CmpDate: 2020-11-06

Elmetwali T, Salman A, Wei W, et al (2020)

CD40L membrane retention enhances the immunostimulatory effects of CD40 ligation.

Scientific reports, 10(1):342.

In carcinomas, the nature of CD40 ligand shapes the outcome of CD40 ligation. To date, the consequences of membrane-bound CD40L (mCD40L) on its immune-stimulatory function are unknown. Here, we examined the impact of mCD40L versus soluble CD40L (sCD40L) on T24 bladder carcinoma gene expression profiling. Of 410 differentially expressed genes, 286 were upregulated and 124 downregulated by mCD40L versus sCD40L. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed immune-stimulatory function as the most significant enriched biological process affected by upregulated transcripts, while those downregulated were critical for cell growth and division. Furthermore, immature dendritic cells (iDC) responded to mCD40L with enhanced maturation and activation over sCD40L evidenced by higher expression levels of CD83, CD86, HLA-DR and CD54, increased secretion of IL12 and IL10 and higher tumour-antigen (TA) uptake capacity. Furthermore, autologus CD3+ T cells responded to TA-loaded mCD40L-activated DC with increased proliferation and cytotoxic response (CD107a and IFN-γ-producing CD3+ CD8+ T cells) to the tumour-loaded autologous PBMCs compared to sCD40L. Thus, these data indicate that mCD40L enhances the immunostimulatory capacity over sCD40L. Furthermore, the ability of mCD40L to also directly induce cell death in CD40-expressing carcinomas, subsequently releasing tumour-specific antigens into the tumour microenvironment highlights the potential for mCD40L as a multi-faceted anti-cancer immunotherapeutic.

RevDate: 2020-11-10
CmpDate: 2020-11-10

Alexia C, Cren M, Louis-Plence P, et al (2019)

Polyoxidonium® Activates Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Responses Through Dendritic Cell Maturation: Clinical Effects in Breast Cancer.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:2693.

Immunotherapy, which is seen as a major tool for cancer treatment, requires, in some cases, the presence of several agents to maximize its effects. Adjuvants can enhance the effect of other agents. However, despite their long-time use, only a few adjuvants are licensed today, and their use in cancer treatment is rare. Azoximer bromide, marketed under the trade name Polyoxidonium® (PO), is a copolymer of N-oxidized 1,4-ethylenepiperazine and (N-carboxyethyl)-1,4-ethylene piperazinium bromide. It has been described as an immune adjuvant and immunomodulator that is clinically used with excellent tolerance. PO is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of diseases connected with damage to the immune system, and there is interest in testing it in antitumor therapy. We show here that PO treatment for 1 week induced positive pathological changes in 6 out of 20 patients with breast cancer, including complete response in a triple-negative patient. This correlated with an increased tumor CD4+ T-lymphocyte infiltration. The immune effects of PO are associated with myeloid cell activation, and little is known about the action of PO on lymphocyte lineages, such as natural killer (NK) and T cells. We reveal that PO increases T-cell proliferation in vitro without negative effects on any activation marker. PO does not affect dendritic cell (DC) viability and increases the expansion of immature DC (iDC) and mature DC (mDC) at 100 μg/ml, and it stimulates expression of several DC co-stimulatory molecules, inducing the proliferation of allogeneic T cells. In contrast, PO decreases DC viability when added at day 5 post-expansion. PO is not toxic for NK cells at doses up to 100 μM and does not affect their activation, maturation, and cytotoxicity but tends to increase degranulation. This could be beneficial against target cells that show low sensitivity to NK cells, e.g., solid tumor cells. Finally, we have found great variability in PO response between donors. In summary, our in vitro results show that PO increases the number of costimulatory molecules on DC that prime T cells, favoring the production of effector T cells. This may support the future clinical development of PO in cancer treatment.

RevDate: 2020-11-05

Chen F, Ding K, Priedigkeit N, et al (2020)

Single-cell transcriptomic heterogeneity in invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer cells.

Cancer research pii:0008-5472.CAN-20-0696 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC), one of the major breast cancer histological subtypes, exhibits unique features compared to the well-studied ductal cancer subtype (IDC). The pathognomonic feature of ILC is loss of E-cadherin, mainly caused by inactivating mutations, but the contribution of this genetic alteration to ILC-specific molecular characteristics remains largely understudied. To profile these features transcriptionally, we conducted single-cell-RNA-sequencing on a panel of IDC and ILC cell lines, and an IDC cell line (T47D) with CRISPR-Cas9-mediated E-cadherin knock out (KO). Inspection of intra-cell line heterogeneity illustrated genetically and transcriptionally distinct subpopulations in multiple cell lines and highlighted rare populations of MCF7 cells highly expressing an apoptosis-related signature, positively correlated with a pre-adaptation signature to estrogen deprivation. Investigation of E-cadherin KO-induced alterations showed transcriptomic membranous systems remodeling, elevated resemblance to ILCs in regulon activation, and increased sensitivity to IFN-γ mediated growth inhibition via activation of IRF1. This study reveals single cell transcriptional heterogeneity in breast cancer cell lines and provides a resource to identify drivers of cancer progression and drug resistance.

RevDate: 2020-11-05
CmpDate: 2020-11-05

Blohmer M, Zhu L, Atkinson JM, et al (2020)

Patient treatment and outcome after breast cancer orbital and periorbital metastases: a comprehensive case series including analysis of lobular versus ductal tumor histology.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 22(1):70.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy to spread to the orbit and periorbit, and the invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) histologic subtype of breast cancer has been reported to form these ophthalmic metastases (OM) more frequently than invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC). We herein report our single academic institution experience with breast cancer OM with respect to anatomical presentation, histology (lobular vs. ductal), treatment, and survival.

METHODS: We employed the natural language processing platform, TIES (Text Information Extraction System), to search 2.3 million de-identified patient pathology and radiology records at our institution in order to identify patients with OM secondary to breast cancer. We then compared the resultant cohort, the "OM cohort," to two other representative metastatic breast cancer patient (MBC) databases from our institution. Histological analysis of selected patients was performed.

RESULTS: Our TIES search and manual refinement ultimately identified 28 patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2016 that subsequently developed OM. Median age at diagnosis was 54 (range 28-77) years of age. ER, PR, and HER2 status from the 28 patients with OM did not differ from other patients with MBC from our institution. The relative proportion of patients with ILC was significantly higher in the OM cohort (32.1%) than in other MBC patients in our institution (11.3%, p = 0.007). Median time to first OM in the OM cohort was 46.7 months, and OM were the second most frequent first metastases after bony metastases. After diagnosis of the first distant metastasis of any kind, median survival of patients with ILC (21.4 months) was significantly shorter than that of patients with IDC (55.3 months, p = 0.03). Nine patients developed bilateral OM. We observed a significant co-occurrence of OM and central nervous system metastases (p = 0.0053). The histological analysis revealed an interesting case in which the primary tumor was of a mixed ILC/IDC subtype, while only ILC was present in the OM.

CONCLUSIONS: OM from breast cancer are illustrative of the difference in metastatic behavior of ILC versus IDC and should be considered when treating patients with ILC, especially in those with complaints of visual acuity changes.

RevDate: 2020-11-04
CmpDate: 2020-11-04

Song G, He L, Yang X, et al (2020)

Identification of aberrant gene expression during breast ductal carcinoma in situ progression to invasive ductal carcinoma.

The Journal of international medical research, 48(1):300060518815364.

RevDate: 2020-11-03
CmpDate: 2020-11-03

Golberg A, Sheviryov J, Solomon O, et al (2019)

Molecular harvesting with electroporation for tissue profiling.

Scientific reports, 9(1):15750 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-51634-7.

Recent developments in personalized medicine are based on molecular measurement steps that guide personally adjusted medical decisions. A central approach to molecular profiling consists of measuring DNA, RNA, and/or proteins in tissue samples, most notably in and around tumors. This measurement yields molecular biomarkers that are potentially predictive of response and of tumor type. Current methods in cancer therapy mostly use tissue biopsy as the starting point of molecular profiling. Tissue biopsies involve a physical resection of a small tissue sample, leading to localized tissue injury, bleeding, inflammation and stress, as well as to an increased risk of metastasis. Here we developed a technology for harvesting biomolecules from tissues using electroporation. We show that tissue electroporation, achieved using a combination of high-voltage short pulses, 50 pulses 500 V cm-1, 30 µs, 1 Hz, with low-voltage long pulses 50 pulses 50 V cm-1, 10 ms, delivered at 1 Hz, allows for tissue-specific extraction of RNA and proteins. We specifically tested RNA and protein extraction from excised kidney and liver samples and from excised HepG2 tumors in mice. Further in vivo development of extraction methods based on electroporation can drive novel approaches to the molecular profiling of tumors and of tumor environment and to related diagnosis practices.

RevDate: 2020-10-30
CmpDate: 2020-10-30

Patel DP, Herrick JS, Stoffel JT, et al (2020)

Reasons for cessation of clean intermittent catheterization after spinal cord injury: Results from the Neurogenic Bladder Research Group spinal cord injury registry.

Neurourology and urodynamics, 39(1):211-219.

INTRODUCTION: Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is recommended for bladder management after spinal cord injury (SCI) since it has the lowest complication rate. However, transitions from CIC to other less optimal strategies, such as indwelling catheters (IDCs) are common. In individuals with SCI who stopped CIC, we sought to determine how individual characteristics affect the bladder-related quality of life (QoL) and the reasons for CIC cessation.

METHODS: The Neurogenic Bladder Research Group registry is an observational study, evaluating neurogenic bladder-related QoL after SCI. From 1479 participants, those using IDC or urinary conduit were asked if they had ever performed CIC, for how long, and why they stopped CIC. Multivariable regression, among participants discontinuing CIC, established associations between demographics, injury characteristics, and SCI complications with bladder-related QoL.

RESULTS: There were 176 participants who had discontinued CIC; 66 (38%) were paraplegic and 110 (63%) were male. The most common reasons for CIC cessation among all participants were inconvenience, urinary leakage, and too many urine infections. Paraplegic participants who discontinued CIC had higher mean age, better fine motor scores, and lower educational attainment and employment. Multivariable regression revealed years since SCI was associated with worse bladder symptoms (neurogenic bladder symptom score), ≥4 urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a year was associated with worse satisfaction and feelings about bladder symptoms (SCI-QoL difficulties), while tetraplegia was associated better satisfaction and feelings about bladder symptoms (SCI-QoL difficulties).

CONCLUSIONS: Tetraplegics who have discontinued CIC have an improved QoL compared with paraplegics. SCI individuals who have discontinued CIC and have recurrent UTIs have worse QoL.

RevDate: 2020-10-30
CmpDate: 2020-10-30

Chavez DE, Gronau I, Hains T, et al (2019)

Comparative genomics provides new insights into the remarkable adaptations of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

Scientific reports, 9(1):8329 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-44772-5.

Within the Canidae, the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is the most specialized with regards to cursorial adaptations (specialized for running), having only four digits on their forefeet. In addition, this species is one of the few canids considered to be an obligate meat-eater, possessing a robust dentition for taking down large prey, and displays one of the most variable coat colorations amongst mammals. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis to investigate the evolutionary history and genetic basis for adaptations associated with cursoriality, hypercanivory, and coat color variation in African wild dogs. Genome-wide scans revealed unique amino acid deletions that suggest a mode of evolutionary digit loss through expanded apoptosis in the developing first digit. African wild dog-specific signals of positive selection also uncovered a putative mechanism of molar cusp modification through changes in genes associated with the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, required for spatial patterning of teeth, and three genes associated with pigmentation. Divergence time analyses suggest the suite of genomic changes we identified evolved ~1.7 Mya, coinciding with the diversification of large-bodied ungulates. Our results show that comparative genomics is a powerful tool for identifying the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in Canidae.

RevDate: 2020-10-29
CmpDate: 2020-10-29

Dhia SB, Belaid I, Stita W, et al (2020)

Bilateral parotid gland metastasis from a breast invasive ductal carcinoma.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 16(3):672-674.

Metastases to the parotid gland are very rare. We report the second case of bilateral metastases to the parotid gland from a breast invasive ductal carcinoma. A 50-year-old female was treated for an early left breast cancer in 2007. A pulmonary metastatic relapse was diagnosed in 2013. A metastatic skin extension required several lines of treatment from June 2014 to July 2016. Bilateral parotid gland metastases from a breast invasive ductal carcinoma were confirmed in December 2016. The patient died on May 2017 from cerebral metastases. Only 16 cases of metastasis to the parotid gland from breast cancer have been reported in the literature. Only one case had a bilateral involvement. Prognosis is poor, and there are no specific guidelines for the treatment.

RevDate: 2020-10-26
CmpDate: 2020-10-26

Guillet C, Rechsteiner M, Bellini E, et al (2020)

Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast (Swiss cheese disease) has frequent associations with PIK3CA and/or AKT1 mutations.

Human pathology, 98:64-73.

Juvenile papillomatosis (JP), the so-called Swiss cheese disease, is a rare benign breast disease of young adults. An association (up to 28%) with breast cancer within the family of affected patients has been reported. A multinodular cystic breast mass lesion and calcifications characterizes JP in imaging studies. The histological picture is diverse and comprises multiple intraductal papillomas, usual ductal hyperplasia, ductectasias, perifocal sclerosing adenosis, and calcification. Patients with complete excision of JP lesions have an excellent follow-up; breast cancer develops only on a very low subset of patients. Molecular background of JP has not been investigated until now. In this study, we addressed mutational analysis of JP cases and correlated these results with follow-up and family history in context with a comprehensive review of the JP literature. We identified 13 cases fulfilling the criteria of JP. All patients were women with a median age of 38 years (26-50 years). Follow-up information was available for 11 of 13 patients. Sufficient paraffin-embedded tissue and good DNA quality for next-generation sequencing (NGS) was available for 10 patients. Paraffin blocks were microdissected in the area of intraductal proliferative disease; the tissue cores underwent NGS analysis using the Oncomine Comprehensive Panel. In 5 of 10 patients, we found PIK3CA mutations; in 2 of 10 patients, we found AKT1 mutations in known hot spot regions. Further mutations in MET, FGFR3, PTEN, ATM, NF1, and GNAS genes were detected in individual patients. Some of these mutations were present at high allele frequencies suggesting germ line mutations. Two of 3 patients with positive family history had PIK3CA mutation; one patient with positive family history had an AKT1 mutation. One patient who subsequently developed invasive ductal carcinoma in the contralateral breast possibly had a germ line ATM mutation. Our results confirm hot spot mutations in PIK3CA and AKT1 genes in JP associated with positive family history for breast cancer, although these mutations are not specific for JP. The genetic link between JP, positive family history, and subsequent risk of breast cancer needs to be analyzed in further studies.

RevDate: 2020-10-26
CmpDate: 2020-10-26

Dettogni RS, Stur E, Laus AC, et al (2020)

Potential biomarkers of ductal carcinoma in situ progression.

BMC cancer, 20(1):119.

BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ is a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast carcinoma and presents a potential risk of over or undertreatment. Finding molecular biomarkers of disease progression could allow for more adequate patient treatment. We aimed to identify potential biomarkers that can predict invasiveness risk.

METHODS: In this epithelial cell-based study archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from six patients diagnosed with invasive lesions (pure invasive ductal carcinoma), six with in-situ lesions (pure ductal carcinoma in situ), six with synchronous lesions (invasive ductal carcinoma with an in-situ component) and three non-neoplastic breast epithelium tissues were analyzed by gene expression profiling of 770 genes, using the nCounter® PanCancer Pathways panel of NanoString Technologies.

RESULTS: The results showed that in comparison with non-neoplastic tissue the pure ductal carcinoma in situ was one with the most altered gene expression profile. Comparing pure ductal carcinoma in situ and in-situ component six differentially expressed genes were found, three of them (FGF2, GAS1, and SFRP1), play a role in cell invasiveness. Importantly, these genes were also differentially expressed between invasive and noninvasive groups and were negatively regulated in later stages of carcinogenesis.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose these three genes (FGF2, GAS1, and SFRP1) as potential biomarkers of ductal carcinoma in situ progression, suggesting that their downregulation may be involved in the transition of stationary to migrating invasive epithelial cells.

RevDate: 2020-10-24

Kurley SJ, Tischler V, Bierie B, et al (2020)

A Requirement for p120-catenin in the metastasis of invasive ductal breast cancer.

Journal of cell science pii:jcs.250639 [Epub ahead of print].

We have examined the effects of targeted p120 KO in a PyMT mouse model of invasive ductal (mammary) cancer (IDC). Mosaic p120 ablation had little effect on primary tumor growth but caused significant pro-metastatic alterations in the tumor microenvironment leading ultimately to a marked increase in the number and size of pulmonary metastases. Surprisingly, although early effects of p120-ablation included decreased cell-cell adhesion and increased invasiveness, cells lacking p120 were almost entirely unable to colonized distant metastatic sites in vivo. The relevance of this observation to human IDC was established by analysis of a large clinical dataset of 1126 IDCs. As reported by others, p120 downregulation in primary IDC predicted worse overall survival. However, as in the mice, distant metastases were almost invariably p120 positive, even in matched cases where the primary tumors were p120 negative. Collectively, our results demonstrate a strong positive role for p120 (and presumably E-cadherin) during metastatic colonization of distant sites. On the other hand, downregulation of p120 in the primary tumor enhanced metastatic dissemination indirectly via pro-metastatic conditioning of the tumor microenvironment.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Escoter-Torres L, Greulich F, Quagliarini F, et al (2020)

Anti-inflammatory functions of the glucocorticoid receptor require DNA binding.

Nucleic acids research, 48(15):8393-8407.

The glucocorticoid receptor is an important immunosuppressive drug target and metabolic regulator that acts as a ligand-gated transcription factor. Generally, GR's anti-inflammatory effects are attributed to the silencing of inflammatory genes, while its adverse effects are ascribed to the upregulation of metabolic targets. GR binding directly to DNA is proposed to activate, whereas GR tethering to pro-inflammatory transcription factors is thought to repress transcription. Using mice with a point mutation in GR's zinc finger, that still tether via protein-protein interactions while being unable to recognize DNA, we demonstrate that DNA binding is essential for both transcriptional activation and repression. Performing ChIP-Seq, RNA-Seq and proteomics under inflammatory conditions, we show that DNA recognition is required for the assembly of a functional co-regulator complex to mediate glucocorticoid responses. Our findings may contribute to the development of safer immunomodulators with fewer side effects.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Söyleyici NA, Aslan F, Avcýkurt AS, et al (2020)

Importance of MACC1 expression in breast cancer and its relationship with pathological prognostic markers.

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 63(1):19-24.

Background: Metastasis associated colon cancer gene 1 (MACC1) is a gene that was first described as a c-Met transcription regulator causing the progression of colon cancer. In this study, protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of MACC1 in breast cancer and its relationship with clinicopathological prognostic parameters were investigated.

Methods: Sixty-six cases with tumors underwent radical mastectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma and 25 control cases operated for mammoplasty were included in the study. In paraffin blocks of tumor and control tissues, MACC1 expression was investigated by the immunohistochemical method and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR). In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was examined immunohistochemically in tumor tissues. The relationship between MACC1 expression in tumor tissues, clinicopathological prognostic parameters, and VEGF was investigated.

Results: In this study, protein and mRNA expressions of MACC1 were found to be higher in tumor tissues compared with normal breast tissues. MACC1 protein expression was also associated with significant poor prognostic markers, such as high histologic grade, ER negativity, and HER2 positivity. However, there was no correlation between MACC1 expression and VEGF.

Conclusion: According to these results, MACC1 expression may be a marker of breast carcinoma as well as an independent predictor of poor prognosis. In addition, MACC1 may not affect angiogenesis in breast cancer or even if it has an effect, it may not be associated with VEGF. However, it would be appropriate to support these results in a larger series by investigating in vivo and in vitro studies.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Varma K, Chauhan A, Bhargava M, et al (2020)

Association of different patterns of expression of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 with pathogenesis of breast carcinoma.

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 63(1):13-18.

Background: Beta-catenin and cyclin D1 have attracted considerable attention in recent studies as potential proto-oncogenes in many human cancers especially colonic cancer. Beta-catenin plays multiple roles within the cell such as canonical Wnt signaling where cyclin D1 has been identified as one of its target genes. The role of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 in breast cancer has been evaluated in many studies but not established yet.

Materials and Methods: The expression of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was evaluated in 82 cases of breast carcinoma (BCa) and 32 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Their relationship with clinicopathological features was also investigated. Statistical analysis was done to establish an association.

Results: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin (ABE) was seen in 80.2% cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 47% cases of DCIS, while the cyclin D1 positive expression rate was 60.9% and 50%, respectively. In the cases showing ABE, cyclin D1 positivity was 88.1%. ABE showed significant association with high-grade BCa. The most common pattern of ABE was loss of membrane with nuclear positivity which is associated with worst prognosis. In addition, ABE in cases of BCa and DCIS showed concordant patterns.

Conclusion: Therefore, an association exists between ABE and cyclin D1 in BCa and its precursor lesions implying that Wnt/beta-catenin oncogenic pathway may have a definite role in breast carcinogenesis and can be used for targeted therapy. Also, different patterns of beta-catenin expression may have prognostic and predictive value.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Escoter-Torres L, Caratti G, Mechtidou A, et al (2019)

Fighting the Fire: Mechanisms of Inflammatory Gene Regulation by the Glucocorticoid Receptor.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:1859.

For many decades, glucocorticoids have been widely used as the gold standard treatment for inflammatory conditions. Unfortunately, their clinical use is limited by severe adverse effects such as insulin resistance, cardiometabolic diseases, muscle and skin atrophies, osteoporosis, and depression. Glucocorticoids exert their effects by binding to the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), a ligand-activated transcription factor which both positively, and negatively regulates gene expression. Extensive research during the past several years has uncovered novel mechanisms by which the GR activates and represses its target genes. Genome-wide studies and mouse models have provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory gene regulation by GR. This review focusses on newly identified target genes and GR co-regulators that are important for its anti-inflammatory effects in innate immune cells, as well as mutations within the GR itself that shed light on its transcriptional activity. This research progress will hopefully serve as the basis for the development of safer immune suppressants with reduced side effect profiles.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Zhang J, Lu CY, Qin L, et al (2020)

Breast-conserving surgery with or without irradiation in women with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast receiving preoperative systemic therapy: A cohort study.

Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland), 54:139-147 pii:S0960-9776(20)30188-0 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To investigate the outcomes of adjuvant whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (breast IDC) receiving preoperative systemic therapy (PST) and breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and their prognostic factors, considering overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and disease-free survival.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed as having breast IDC and receiving PST followed by BCS were recruited and categorized by treatment into non-breast radiation therapy [BRT] (control) and WBRT (case) groups, respectively. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: Multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that non-BRT, cN3, and pathologic residual tumor (ypT2-4) or nodal (ypN2-3) stages were poor prognostic factors for OS. The adjusted HRs (aHRs; 95% CIs) of the WBRT group to non-BRT group for all-cause mortality were 0.14 (0.03-0.81), 0.32 (0.16-0.64), 0.43 (0.23-0.79), 0.23 (0.13-0.42), 0.52 (0.20-1.33), and 0.34 (0.13-0.87) in the ypT0, ypT1, ypT2-4, ypN0, ypN1, and ypN2-3 stages, respectively. The aHRs (95% CIs) of the WBRT group to non-BRT group for all-cause mortality were 0.09 (0.00-4.07), 0.46 (0.26-0.83), 0.18 (0.06-0.51), 0.28 (0.06-1.34), 0.25 (0.10-0.63), 0.47 (0.23-0.88), and 0.32 in the cT0-1, cT2, cT3, cT4, cN0, cN1, and cN2-3 stages, respectively. The WBRT group exhibited significantly better LRR-free and DM-free survival than the non-BRT group, regardless of the clinical T or N stage or pathologic response after PST.

CONCLUSION: WBRT might lead to superior OS and LRR-free and DM-free survival compared with the non-BRT group, regardless of the initial clinical TN stage or pathologic response.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Nishimoto A, Kuwahara H, Ohashi R, et al (2020)

Multicentric endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a case report.

Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare low-grade sweat gland carcinoma. EMPSGC is thought to be a precursor to mucinous carcinoma of the skin (MCS). Since the first description of EMPSGC in 1997, only a few cases have been reported, and its etiology and mechanisms remain unknown. In this report, we describe a 71-year-old Japanese woman with two isolated EMPSGC and one MCS lesion on her face. She was simultaneously diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. She had a history of uterine cancer of unknown histological diagnosis 24 years previously. The presence of in situ lesions confirmed by myoepithelial cells suggested that the cutaneous lesions were primary tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multiple primary EMPSGC/MCS tumors. Additionally, this might be the first case with multiple primary carcinomas including adnexal cutaneous tumors, breast cancer, and uterine cancer, which may share the common feature of expressing female hormonal receptors. This case indicates that EMPSGC/MCS may be triggered by a hormonal receptor abnormality, perhaps due to genetic defects. A larger number of reports examining this issue may be necessary to further assess our initial observations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-10-08
CmpDate: 2020-10-08

Kanwar N, Carmine-Simmen K, Nair R, et al (2020)

Amplification of a calcium channel subunit CACNG4 increases breast cancer metastasis.

EBioMedicine, 52:102646.

BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that amplification of chromosome 17q24.1-24.2 is associated with lymph node metastasis, tumour size, and lymphovascular invasion in invasive ductal carcinoma. A gene within this amplicon, CACNG4, an L-type voltage-gated calcium channel gamma subunit, is elevated in breast cancers with poor prognosis. Calcium homeostasis is achieved by maintaining low intracellular calcium levels. Altering calcium influx/efflux mechanisms allows tumour cells to maintain homeostasis despite high serum calcium levels often associated with advanced cancer (hypercalcemia) and aberrant calcium signaling.

METHODS: In vitro 2-D and 3-D assays, and intracellular calcium influx assays were utilized to measure tumourigenic activity in response to altered CANCG4 levels and calcium channel blockers. A chick-CAM model and mouse model for metastasis confirmed these results in vivo.

FINDINGS: CACNG4 alters cell motility in vitro, induces malignant transformation in 3-dimensional culture, and increases lung-specific metastasis in vivo. CACNG4 functions by closing the channel pore, inhibiting calcium influx, and altering calcium signaling events involving key survival and metastatic pathway genes (AKT2, HDAC3, RASA1 and PKCζ).

INTERPRETATION: CACNG4 may promote homeostasis, thus increasing the survival and metastatic ability of tumour cells in breast cancer. Our findings suggest an underlying pathway for tumour growth and dissemination regulated by CACNG4 that is significant with respect to developing treatments that target these channels in tumours with aberrant calcium signaling.

FUNDING: Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, Ontario; Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Thongpiya J, Sa-Nguanraksa D, Samarnthai N, et al (2020)

Filariasis of the breast caused by Brugia pahangi: A concomitant finding with invasive ductal carcinoma.

Extralymphatic filariasis is an uncommon phenomenon that can be caused by several lymphatic filarial species, including zoonotic filaria of animal origins. In this study, we report a case of a 64-year-old Thai woman who presented with a lump in her left breast that was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. At the same time, a small nodule was found in her right breast, via imaging study, without any abnormal symptoms. A core needle biopsy of the right breast nodule revealed a filarial-like nematode compatible with the adult stage of Brugia sp. A molecular identification of the nematode partial mt 12rRNA gene and ITS1 suggested the causative species as closely related to Brugia pahangi, a zoonotic lymphatic filaria of animals such as cats and dogs. The sequence of the partial mt 12rRNA and ITS1 gene in this patient was 94% and 99% identical to the previously reported sequence of mt 12rRNA and ITS1 genes of B. pahangi. The sequence of ITS1 gene is 99% similar to B. pahangi microfilaria from infected dogs in Bangkok, which was highly suspected of having a zoonotic origin. As far as we know, this is the first case report of B. pahangi filariasis presented with a breast mass concomitantly found in a patient with invasive ductal carcinoma. This raised serious concern regarding the zoonotic transmission of filariasis from natural animal reservoirs.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Petre AR, Craciunescu R, O Fratu (2020)

Design, Implementation and Simulation of a Fringing Field Capacitive Humidity Sensor.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 20(19): pii:s20195644.

The world population is growing in an accelerated way urging the need for a more efficient and sustainable agricultural industry. Initially developed for smart cities which face the same challenges caused by an increasing population, Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have evolved rapidly over the last few years and are now moving successfully to agriculture. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been reported to be used in the agri-food sector and could answer the call for a more optimized agricultural management. This paper investigates a PCB-made interdigited capacitive (IDC) soil humidity sensor as a low-price alternative to the existing ones on the market. An in-depth comparative study is performed on 30 design variations, part of them also manufactured for further investigations. By measurements and simulations, the influence of the aspect ratio and dielectric thickness on the sensitivity and capacitance of the sensor are studied. In the end, a Humidity and Temperature Measurement Wireless Equipment (HTMWE) for IoT agriculture applications is implemented with this type of sensor.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Cancer is the generic name for more than 100 diseases in which cells begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged, they die and new cells take their place. Cancer begins when genetic changes impair this orderly process so that some cells start to grow uncontrollably. The Emperor of All Maladies is a "biography" of cancer — from its first documented appearances thousands of years ago through the epic battles in the twentieth century to cure, control, and conquer it to a radical new understanding of its essence. This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in cancer. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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