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Bibliography on: Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (causes)

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 20 Jul 2024 at 01:49 Created: 

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (causes)

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is cancer that began growing in a milk duct and has invaded the fibrous or fatty tissue of the breast outside of the duct. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, representing 80 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses.

The causes of invasive ductal carcinoma have not been conclusively established. Researchers have determined that cancer can form when the cells in a milk-producing duct undergo changes that cause them to grow uncontrollably, divide very rapidly or remain viable longer than they should. The result is an accumulation of excess cells that can form a mass, or tumor, and potentially spread to nearby lymph nodes and distant areas of the body. The underlying reason for those cellular changes, however, remains unclear.

By evaluating the results of extensive studies, scientists have identified certain hormonal, environmental and lifestyle factors that are believed to influence a person's breast cancer risk, such as smoking, poor nutrition and prior radiation therapy administered to the chest area. Even so, it's important to keep in mind that some individuals who have no risk factors develop cancer, while others with one or more risk factors do not. Most likely, the precise cause is a complex interaction of many factors.

In rare cases, the causes of invasive ductal carcinoma have been traced to inherited attributes, such as mutations of the: (a) Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1), a tumor suppressor gene, (b) Breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), a tumor suppressor gene, or (c) ErbB2 gene, which produces the HER2 protein that promotes cellular proliferation.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( ("invasive ductal carcinoma" OR IDC) AND (cause OR caused OR etiology) ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-17

Wang WE, Ho CC, CH Chang (2024)

Taxane-Induced Cutaneous Toxic Effects.

JAMA dermatology, 160(7):771-772.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-17

Sanderson C, Verdellen C, Debes N, et al (2024)

Addressing co-occurring conditions in behavioural therapy for tic disorders: a review and guideline.

European child & adolescent psychiatry, 33(7):2111-2127.

Co-occurring psychiatric conditions are very common in tic disorders and Tourette syndrome. These additional symptoms are often detrimental to quality of life and may impact upon the implementation and efficacy of evidence-based behavioural therapies (BT) for tics. Combining a review of the available literature, relevant theory, and expert clinical practice, we present a guideline for implementing behavioural and psychosocial interventions when common comorbidities are present. These include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, disruptive behaviour, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and depression. Practical recommendations are provided for assessment, formulation and management of specific and multiple comorbidities in BT for both children and adults. Despite comorbidities being common in tic disorders, few studies have comprehensively addressed how they may influence the efficacy or implementation of existing therapies or how such treatments may need to be modified or sequenced. We outline recommendations for future research, including randomised control trials of BT for those with specific or multiple comorbidities, as well as adequately powered sub-group analyses within larger scale trials or naturalistic study designs. Transdiagnostic models of psychiatric disorders and treatment, including modular cross-diagnostic therapies, which recognise the dimensionality of psychiatric disorders are also highlighted as an important focus in treatment development in tic disorders.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Zin I, China A, Khan K, et al (2024)

AKT-dependent nuclear localization of EPRS1 activates PARP1 in breast cancer cells.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(30):e2303642121.

Glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS1) is a bifunctional aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (aaRS) essential for decoding the genetic code. EPRS1 resides, with seven other aaRSs and three noncatalytic proteins, in the cytoplasmic multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC). Multiple MSC-resident aaRSs, including EPRS1, exhibit stimulus-dependent release from the MSC to perform noncanonical activities distinct from their primary function in protein synthesis. Here, we show EPRS1 is present in both cytoplasm and nucleus of breast cancer cells with constitutively low phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression. EPRS1 is primarily cytosolic in PTEN-expressing cells, but chemical or genetic inhibition of PTEN, or chemical or stress-mediated activation of its target, AKT, induces EPRS1 nuclear localization. Likewise, preferential nuclear localization of EPRS1 was observed in invasive ductal carcinoma that were also P-Ser[473]-AKT[+]. EPRS1 nuclear transport requires a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the linker region that joins the catalytic glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and prolyl-tRNA synthetase domains. Nuclear EPRS1 interacts with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a DNA-damage sensor that directs poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) of proteins. EPRS1 is a critical regulator of PARP1 activity as shown by markedly reduced ADP-ribosylation in EPRS1 knockdown cells. Moreover, EPRS1 and PARP1 knockdown comparably alter the expression of multiple tumor-related genes, inhibit DNA-damage repair, reduce tumor cell survival, and diminish tumor sphere formation by breast cancer cells. EPRS1-mediated regulation of PARP1 activity provides a mechanistic link between PTEN loss in breast cancer cells, PARP1 activation, and cell survival and tumor growth. Targeting the noncanonical activity of EPRS1, without inhibiting canonical tRNA ligase activity, provides a therapeutic approach potentially supplementing existing PARP1 inhibitors.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Olbromski M, Mrozowska M, Piotrowska A, et al (2024)

Prognostic significance of alpha-2-macrglobulin and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 in various cancers.

American journal of cancer research, 14(6):3036-3058.

Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 10 million fatalities occurred in 2023. Breast cancer (BC) ranked first among malignancies with 2.26 million cases, lung cancer (LC) second with 2.21 million cases, and colon and rectum cancers (CC, CRC) third with 1.93 million cases. These results highlight the importance of investigating novel cancer prognoses and anti-cancer markers. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of alpha-2 macroglobulin and its receptor, LRP1, on the outcomes of breast, lung, and colorectal malignancies. Immunohistochemical staining was used to analyze the expression patterns of A2M and LRP1 in 545 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) and 51 cases of mastopathies/fibrocystic breast disease (FBD); 256 cases of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and 45 cases of non-malignant lung tissue (NMLT); and 108 cases of CRC and 25 cases of non-malignant colorectal tissue (NMCT). A2M and LRP1 expression levels were also investigated in breast (MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3, T47D, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-231/BO2), lung (NCI-H1703, NCI-H522, and A549), and colon (LS 180, Caco-2, HT-29, and LoVo) cancer cell lines. Based on our findings, A2M and LRP1 exhibited various expression patterns in the examined malignancies, which were related to one another. Additionally, the stroma of lung and colorectal cancer has increased levels of A2M/LRP1 areas, which explains the significance of the stroma in the development and maintenance of tumor homeostasis. A2M expression was shown to be downregulated in all types of malignancies under study and was positively linked with an increase in cell line aggressiveness. Although more invasive cells had higher levels of A2M expression, an IHC analysis showed the opposite results. This might be because exogenous alpha-2-macroglobulin is present, which has an inhibitory effect on several cancerous enzymes and receptor-dependent signaling pathways. Additionally, siRNA-induced suppression of the transcripts for A2M and LRPP1 revealed their connection, which provides fresh information on the function of the LRP1 receptor in A2M recurrence in cancer. Further studies on different forms of cancer may corroborate the fact that both A2M and LRP1 have high potential as innovative therapeutic agents.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Bogaard M, Strømme JM, Kidd SG, et al (2024)

GRIN3A: A biomarker associated with a cribriform pattern and poor prognosis in prostate cancer.

Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), 55:101023.

Prostate cancer with a cribriform pattern, including invasive cribriform carcinoma (ICC) and/or intraductal carcinoma (IDC) is associated with a poor prognosis, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, we aimed to identify biomarkers for this feature. Using a radical prostatectomy cohort, we performed within-patient differential expression analyses with RNA sequencing data to compare samples with a cribriform pattern to those with non-cribriform Gleason pattern 4 (NcGP4; n=13). ACSM1, GRIN3A, PCDHB2, and REG4 were identified as differentially expressed, and validation was performed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (n=99; 321 RNA samples) and RNA in situ hybridization on tissue microarrays (n=479; 2047 tissue cores). GRIN3A was significantly higher expressed in cribriform pattern vs. NcGP4, when assessed within the same patient (n=27; p=0.005) and between different patients (n=83; p=0.001). Tissue cores with IDC more often expressed GRIN3A compared to ICC, NcGP4, and benign tissue (52 % vs. ≤ 32 %). When IDC and NcGP4 was compared within the same patient (173 pairs of tissue cores; 54 patients), 38 (22 %) of the tissue microarray core pairs had GRIN3A expression in only IDC, 33 (19 %) had expression in both IDC and NcGP4, 14 (8 %) in only NcGP4 and 88 (51 %) were negative in both entities (p=0.001). GRIN3A was as well associated with biochemical recurrence (log-rank, p=0.002). In conclusion, ectopic GRIN3A expression is an RNA-based biomarker for the presence of cribriform prostate cancer, particularly for IDC.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Nascimento KCG, São Marcos BF, Fontes PHB, et al (2024)

HPV Detection in Breast Tumors and Associated Risk Factors in Northeastern Brazil.

Cells, 13(13): pii:cells13131132.

Breast cancer risk factors include lifestyle, genetic-hormonal influences, and viral infections. Human papillomavirus (HPV), known primarily as the etiological agent of cervical cancer, also appears active in breast carcinogenesis, as evidenced in our study of 56 patients from northeastern Brazil. We assessed the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, correlating them with various breast cancer tumor types. HPV detection involved amplifying the L1 region, with viral load measured using the E2/E6 ratio and viral activity indicated by E5 oncogene expression. Predominantly, patients over 56 years of age with healthy lifestyles showed a high incidence of invasive ductal carcinoma and triple-negative breast cancer. HPV was detected in 35.7% of cases, mostly HPV16, which is associated with high viral loads (80 copies per cell) and significant E5 expression. These results hint at a possible link between HPV and breast carcinogenesis, necessitating further studies to explore this association and the underlying viral mechanisms.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Jamjoum G, Arab FS, Tayeb R, et al (2024)

Cutaneous Metastasis in Breast Cancer: A Case Report.

The American journal of case reports, 25:e943999 pii:943999.

BACKGROUND Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignant disease in females and one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Its treatment plan includes a long-term follow-up and close surveillance, as recurrence is a well-acknowledged concern. BC can recur either locally or as a metastasis, and skin metastasis is a common complication in advanced breast cancer patients. It can present as a skin nodule, plaque, or erythematous lesion, and can be difficult to distinguish from benign skin conditions. The risk of skin metastasis is higher in patients with inflammatory BC. Treatment of such a complex condition is even more challenging, with poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of a 42-year-old woman with stage 4 luminal A BC who had soft tissue recurrence. CASE REPORT A 42-year-old woman with a history of left-sided BC diagnosed and treated 10 years ago presented with multiple soft tissue masses mimicking abscesses at the right lower middle of the back, bilateral thighs, and back of the neck, in the last 6 months, the largest measuring 8×10 cm. The masses were found to be metastatic BC that had spread to the skin and lungs. Because it was invasive ductal carcinoma with positive ER and PR receptors, she was started on hormonal treatment and chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS This case report highlights the importance of follow-up in patients with a history of BC, as the cancer can recur and spread many years after treatment.

RevDate: 2024-07-10
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Uppal R, Saeed U, Uppal MR, et al (2024)

SARS-CoV-2 clearance in term of Cycle Threshold (Ct) during first two waves of COVID-19 in Pakistan: a phenomenon of delayed viral clearance post-corticosteroid treatment.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 84:e271452 pii:S1519-69842024000101178.

SARS-CoV-2 is recently emerged virus, which caused millions of deaths, all over the world. To tackle COVID-19 pandemic, there is an utmost need for in-depth analysis of viral replication. We aimed to examine viral load in SARS-CoV-2 patients during first two waves of COVID-19 in Pakistan. 225,615 suspected subjects from 75 different regions of Pakistan were selected in the study. SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were detected via real time PCR. During first wave (period of June-July, 2020) of COVID-19 the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 20.38%. However, during second wave (period of November-December, 2020) of COVID-19, the rate of prevalence was 9.41%. During first wave of COVID-19 96.31% of participants remained PCR positive for 14 to 21 days, 3.39% of subjects showed positive results for 22 to 35 days, while delayed Ct values were observed among 0.26% of participants for 36 to 49 days. However, during second wave of COVID-19 89.31% of the subjects exhibited symptoms and showed real-time PCR positive results for 14 to 21 days, 9.42% showed positive results for 22 to 35 days, while significantly delayed Ct value results were observed among 1.026% of participants for 36 to 63 days (3.95 times higher than first wave). In contrast to first wave of COVID-19, the factors that were different in second wave were neither viral (different strains) nor host (same population). But treatment factors changed significantly. As during second wave besides azithromycin, corticosteroid dexamethasone consumption was increased consequently causing delayed Ct value negativity. This suggests that corticosteroid treatment might be linked with delayed Ct value or viral clearance. This study is crucial for re-considering effective therapeutic options against COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-07-08

Kwon Y, Gottmann P, Wang S, et al (2024)

Induction of steatosis in primary human hepatocytes recapitulates key pathophysiological aspects of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease.

Journal of hepatology pii:S0168-8278(24)02347-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Its limited treatment options warrant novel pre-clinical models for target selection and drug validation. We have established and extensively characterized a primary human steatotic hepatocyte in vitro model system that could guide treatment strategies for MASLD.

METHODS: Cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes from five donors varying in sex and ethnicity were cultured with free fatty acids (FFA) in 3D collagen sandwich for 7 days and the development of MASLD was followed by assessing classical hepatocellular functions. As proof of concept, the effects of the drug Firsocostat (GS-0976) on in vitro MASLD phenotypes were evaluated.

RESULTS: Incubation with FFA induced steatosis, insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and alterations in prominent human gene signatures similar to patients with MASLD, indicating the recapitulation of human MASLD in this system. As the application of Firsocostat rescued clinically observed fatty liver disease pathologies, it highlights the ability of the in vitro system to test drug efficacy and potentially characterize their mode of action.

CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our human MASLD in vitro model system could guide the development and validation of novel targets and drugs for the treatment of MASLD.

IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: Due to low drug efficacy and high toxicity, a clinical treatment option for MASLD is limited. To facilitate earlier stop-go decisions in drug development, we have established a primary human steatotic hepatocyte in vitro model. As the model recapitulates clinically relevant MASLD characteristics at high phenotypic resolution, it can serve as a pre-screening platform and guide target identification and validation in MASLD therapy.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

Zhang Z, Huang C, Wu J, et al (2024)

TICRR as a potential prognostic biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma: A comprehensive analysis using TCGA database.

Medicine, 103(27):e38660.

To investigate the role of TopBP1-interacting checkpoint and replication regulator (TICRR) in the tumorigenesis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and logistic regression were utilized to analyze the relationship between clinical characteristics and TICRR expression in LUAD from TCGA dataset. Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regressions were used to assess the impact of TICRR impact on prognosis. ROC curves and nomograms were generated to further evaluate the relationship between TICRR expression and the risk of LUAD. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted on TCGA dataset, and ssGSEA was employed to investigate the association between TICRR and immune infiltrates. The results showed that high TICRR expression was significantly associated with various clinical factors including gender, age, pathological stage, T stage, N stage, M stage, outcome of primary therapy and smoking status. ROC curves also demonstrated that TICRR was a promising biomarker for molecular pathology diagnosis in LUAD patients (AUC = 0.952). Further analysis using gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and GSEA revealed an abnormal correlation between TICRR expression and cell division. Interestingly, ssGSEA analysis showed that TICRR expression correlated with multiple immune cell types, such as Th2 cell, TFH cell, mast cell, iDC, eosinophils, and dendritic cell. Lastly, the KM-plotters indicated that LUAD patients with high TICRR expression obtained worse life expectancy (P < .001). TICRR has proven to be a valuable tool in predicting disease progression and prognosis in patients with LUAD, thereby establishing itself as a fitting biomarker for forecasting overall survival (OS) of LUAD patients.

RevDate: 2024-07-02
CmpDate: 2024-07-02

Nisar MI, Kabole I, Khanam R, et al (2024)

Does the implementation of revised American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines improve the identification of stillbirths and preterm births in hypertensive pregnancies: a population-based cohort study from South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 24(1):451.

BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are a significant cause of maternal mortality worldwide. The classification and treatment of hypertension in pregnancy remain debated. We aim to compare the effectiveness of the revised 2017 ACC/AHA blood pressure threshold in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes.

METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement (AMANHI) biorepository study, including 10,001 pregnant women from Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Tanzania. Blood pressure was measured using validated devices at different antenatal care visits. The blood pressure readings were categorized as: normal blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (sBP) < 120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (dBP) < 80 mm Hg), elevated blood pressure (sBP 120-129 and dBP < 80), stage 1 hypertension (sBP 130-139 or dBP 80-89, or both), and stage 2 hypertension (sBP ≥ 140 or dBP ≥ 90, or both). We estimated risk ratios for stillbirths and preterm births, as well as diagnostic test properties of both the pre-existing JNC7 (≥ 140/90) and revised ACC/AHA (≥ 130/80) thresholds using normal blood pressure as reference group.

RESULTS: From May 2014 to June 2018, blood pressure readings were available for 9,448 women (2,894 in Bangladesh, 2,303 in Pakistan, and 4,251 in Tanzania). We observed normal blood pressure in 70%, elevated blood pressure in 12.4%, stage 1 hypertension in 15.2%, and stage 2 hypertension in 2.5% of the pregnant women respectively. Out of these, 310 stillbirths and 9,109 live births were recorded, with 887 preterm births. Using the ACC/AHA criteria, the stage 1 hypertension cut-off revealed 15.3% additional hypertension diagnoses as compared to JNC7 criteria. ACC/AHA defined hypertension was significantly associated with stillbirths (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4, 2.3). The JNC 7 hypertension cut-off of ≥ 140/90 was significantly associated with a higher risk of preterm births (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2, 2.2) and stillbirths (RR 3.6, 95% CI 2.5, 5.3). Both criteria demonstrated low sensitivities (8.4 for JNC-7 and 28.1 for ACC/AHA) and positive predictive values (11.0 for JNC7 and 5.2 for ACC/AHA) in predicting adverse outcomes.

CONCLUSION: The ACC/AHA criteria (≥ 130/80) identified additional cases of hypertension but had limited predictive accuracy for stillbirths and preterm births, highlighting the ongoing need for improved criteria in managing pregnancy-related hypertension.

RevDate: 2024-07-01
CmpDate: 2024-07-01

Greenland NY, Cooperberg MR, Carroll PR, et al (2024)

Morphologic patterns observed in prostate biopsy cases with discrepant grade group and molecular risk classification.

The Prostate, 84(11):1076-1085.

BACKGROUND: Molecular-based risk classifier tests are increasingly being utilized by urologists and radiation oncologists to guide clinical decision making. The Decipher prostate biopsy test is a 22-gene RNA biomarker assay designed to predict likelihood of high-grade disease at radical prostatectomy and risk of metastasis and mortality. The test provides a risk category of low, intermediate, or high. We investigated histologic features of biopsies in which the Grade Group (GG) and Decipher risk category (molecular risk) were discrepant.

METHODS: Our institutional urologic outcomes database was searched for men who underwent prostate biopsies with subsequent Decipher testing from 2016 to 2020. We defined discrepant GG and molecular risk as either GG1-2 with high Decipher risk category or GG ≥ 3 with low Decipher risk category. The biopsy slide on which Decipher testing was performed was re-reviewed for GG and various histologic features, including % Gleason pattern 4, types of Gleason pattern 4 and 5, other "high risk" features (e.g., complex papillary, ductal carcinoma, intraductal carcinoma [IDC]), and other unusual and often "difficult to grade" patterns (e.g., atrophic carcinoma, mucin rupture, pseudohyperplastic carcinoma, collagenous fibroplasia, foamy gland carcinoma, carcinoma with basal cell marker expression, carcinoma with prominent vacuoles, and stromal reaction). Follow-up data was also obtained from the electronic medical record.

RESULTS: Of 178 men who underwent prostate biopsies and had Decipher testing performed, 41 (23%) had discrepant GG and molecular risk. Slides were available for review for 33/41 (80%). Of these 33 patients, 23 (70%) had GG1-2 (GG1 n = 5, GG2 n = 18) with high Decipher risk, and 10 (30%) had GG ≥ 3 with low Decipher risk. Of the 5 GG1 cases, one case was considered GG2 on re-review; no other high risk features were identified but each case showed at least one of the following "difficult to grade" patterns: 3 atrophic carcinoma, 1 collagenous fibroplasia, 1 carcinoma with mucin rupture, and 1 carcinoma with basal cell marker expression. Of the 18 GG2 high Decipher risk cases, 2 showed GG3 on re-review, 5 showed large cribriform and/or other high risk features, and 10 showed a "difficult to grade" pattern. Of the 10 GG ≥ 3 low Decipher risk cases, 5 had known high risk features including 2 with large cribriform, 1 with IDC, and 1 with Gleason pattern 5.

CONCLUSIONS: In GG1-2 high Decipher risk cases, difficult to grade patterns were frequently seen in the absence of other known high risk morphologic features; whether these constitute true high risk cases requires further study. In the GG ≥ 3 low Decipher risk cases, aggressive histologic patterns such as large cribriform and IDC were observed in half (50%) of cases; therefore, the molecular classifier may not capture all high risk histologic patterns.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Pantazi V, Miklós V, Smith P, et al (2024)

Prognostic potential of CUL3 ligase with differential roles in luminal A and basal type breast cancer tumors.

Scientific reports, 14(1):14912.

Breast cancer is a prevalent and significant cause of mortality in women, and manifests as six molecular subtypes. Its further histologic classification into non-invasive ductal or lobular carcinoma (DCIS) and invasive carcinoma (ILC or IDC) underscores its heterogeneity. The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays a crucial role in breast cancer, with inhibitors targeting the 26S proteasome showing promise in clinical treatment. The Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases, including CUL3, have direct links to breast cancer. This study focuses on CUL3 as a potential biomarker, leveraging high-throughput sequencing, gene expression profiling, experimental and data analysis tools. Through comprehensive analysis using databases like GEPIA2 and UALCAN, as well as TCGA datasets, CUL3's expression and its association with prognostic values were assessed. Additionally, the impact of CUL3 overexpression was explored in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, revealing distinct differences in molecular and phenotypic characteristics. We further profiled its expression and localization in breast cancer tissues identifying prominent differences between luminal A and TNBC tumors. Conclusively, CUL3 was found to be associated with cell cycle progression, and DNA damage response, exhibiting diverse roles depending on the tumor's molecular type. It exhibits a tendency to act as an oncogene in triple-negative tumors and as a tumor suppressor in luminal A types, suggesting a potential significance in breast cancer progression and therapeutic directions.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Delfin L, Doff JJ, Gagan J, et al (2024)

Pure Apocrine Intraductal Carcinoma of Salivary Glands: Reassessment of Molecular Underpinnings and Behavior.

Head and neck pathology, 18(1):58.

BACKGROUND: Intraductal carcinoma (IDC) of the salivary glands is a confounding entity, our understanding of which continues to evolve. At least four forms have been elucidated based on histomorphology, immunophenotype, and molecular profile: (1) intercalated duct-like, S100/SOX10+ with frequent NCOA4::RET fusions; (2) oncocytic, S100/SOX10+ with TRIM33::RET, NCOA4::RET, and BRAF V600E; (3) apocrine, AR+ with PI3 kinase pathway mutations; and (4) mixed/hybrid intercalated duct-like/apocrine, with S100/SOX10+ and AR+ areas and frequent TRIM27::RET. The revelation that myoepithelial cells harbor the same fusion as luminal cells suggested that fusion-positive cases are not in situ carcinomas as previously believed. To this point, purely apocrine IDC with entirely intraductal growth has not been found to harbor fusions, but very few cases have been tested.

METHODS: IDCs with pure apocrine morphology, entirely intraductal growth, and no precursor lesion (pleomorphic adenoma or sclerosing polycystic adenoma) were retrieved from the authors' archives. Several immunostains (S100, SOX10, GCDFP-15, AR, p40/SMA) and targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) panel including 1425 cancer-related genes were performed.

RESULTS: Seven entirely IDC with pure apocrine type were collected. The cases arose in the parotid glands (mean, 1.9 cm) of 5 men and 2 women ranging from 51 to 84 years (mean, 69.7 years). Histologically, tumors consisted of rounded to angulated ductal cysts lined by epithelial cells with abundant finely granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and large nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Pleomorphism was mild to moderate, the mitotic rate was low, and necrosis was absent. Conventionally invasive foci or areas of intercalated duct-like morphology were not identified. In all cases, luminal cells were diffusely positive for AR and GCDFP-15 while negative for S100/SOX10, and the ducts were completely surrounded by myoepithelial cells highlighted by p40 and SMA. Molecular analysis was successful in 6 cases. Three harbored fusions: one with NCOA4::RET, another with STRN::ALK and one with both CDKN2A::CNTRL and TANC1::YY1AP1. The three fusion-negative cases all harbored HRAS mutations; additional mutations (PIK3CA, SPEN, ATM) were found in 2 of 3 cases. All patients were treated by surgery alone. Six of them are currently free of disease (follow up 12-190 months), but the case harboring NCOA4::RET developed lymph nodes metastasis in the form of a fusion-positive invasive salivary duct carcinoma.

CONCLUSIONS: Purely apocrine IDC is a heterogeneous disease. A subset seems to be genetically similar to salivary duct carcinoma and may indeed represent carcinoma in situ. The other group harbors fusions, similar to other forms of IDC. Moreover, the occurrence of lymph node metastasis discredits the idea that any fusion-positive IDC with a complete myoepithelial cell layer has no metastatic potential. With the wide use of RET-and ALK-based targeted therapies, our findings further underscore the importance of fusion analysis for IDC.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Yoo KC, Kim DH, Park S, et al (2024)

Gastric Metastasis Mimicking Early Gastric Cancer from Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast: Case Report and Literature Review.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 60(6): pii:medicina60060980.

Backgound and Objectives: Gastric metastasis from invasive ductal breast cancer (BC) is rare. It mainly occurs in patients with lobular BC. The occurrence of multiple metastases is typically observed several years after the primary diagnosis. Endoscopic findings of gastric metastasis of the BC were usually the linitis plastic type. Case presentation: A 72-year-old women who underwent right modified radical mastectomy (MRM) 10 month ago was referred after being diagnosed with early gastric cancer (EGC) during systemic chemotherapy. EGC type I was found at gastric fundus, and pathologic finding showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Metachronous double primary tumor EGC was considered. Management and Outcome: A laparoscopic total gastrectomy was performed, and postoperative pathology revealed submucosa invasion and two lymph node metastases. A pathologic review that focused on immunohistochemical studies of selected antibodies such as GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), cytokeratin 7 (CK7) was performed again, comparing previous results. As a result, gastric metastasis from BC was diagnosed. After totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy, palliative first-line chemotherapy with paclitaxel/CDDP was performed. Two months after gastrectomy, she was diagnosed with para-aortic lymph node metastasis and multiple bone metastases. She expired six months after gastrectomy. Conclusions: Gastric metastasis from invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, which is clinically manifested as EGC, is a very rare condition. If there is a history of BC, careful pathological review will be required.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Markalunas EG, Arnold DH, Funkhouser AT, et al (2024)

Correlation Analysis of Genetic Mutations and Galectin Levels in Breast Cancer Patients.

Genes, 15(6): pii:genes15060818.

Galectins are innate immune system regulators associated with disease progression in cancer. This paper aims to investigate the correlation between mutated cancer-critical genes and galectin levels in breast cancer patients to determine whether galectins and genetic profiles can be used as biomarkers for disease and potential therapy targets. Prisma Health Cancer Institute's Biorepository provided seventy-one breast cancer samples, including all four stages spanning the major molecular subtypes and histologies. Hotspot mutation statuses of cancer-critical genes were determined using multiplex PCR in tumor samples from the same patients by Precision Genetics and the University of South Carolina Functional Genomics Core Facility. The galectin-1, -3, and -9 levels in patients' sera were analyzed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). An analysis was performed using JMP software to compare mean and median serum galectin levels between samples with and without specific cancer-critical genes, including pooled t-test, Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, ANOVA, and Steel Dwass Test (α=0.05). Our analysis indicates that KIT mutations correlate with elevated serum levels of galectin-9 in patients with breast cancer. In patients with Luminal A subtype, FLT3 mutation correlates with lower serum galectin-1 and -9 levels and TP53 mutations correlate with higher serum galectin-3 levels. Patients with invasive ductal carcinoma had significantly higher serum galectin-3 levels than patients with ductal carcinoma in situ. Patients with both TP53 and PIK3CA mutations exhibit elevated serum galectin-3 levels, while patients with one or neither mutation show no significant difference in serum galectin-3 levels. In addition, metastatic breast cancer samples were more likely to have a KIT or PIK3CA mutation compared to primary breast cancer samples. The relationship between genetic mutations and galectin levels has the potential to identify appropriate candidates for combined therapy, targeting genetic mutations and galectins. Further understanding of the effect of genetic mutations and galectin levels on cancer progression and metastasis could aid in the search for biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis, disease progression, and prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-26
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Baranová I, Samec M, Dvorská D, et al (2024)

Droplet digital PCR analysis of CDH13 methylation status in Slovak women with invasive ductal breast cancer.

Scientific reports, 14(1):14700.

Identifying novel epigenetic biomarkers is a promising way to improve the clinical management of patients with breast cancer. Our study aimed to determine the methylation pattern of 25 tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and select the best methylation biomarker associated with clinicopathological features in the cohort of Slovak patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Overall, 166 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues obtained from patients with IDC were included in the study. The methylation status of the promoter regions of 25 TSG was analyzed using semiquantitative methylation-specific MLPA (MS-MLPA). We identified CDH13 as the most frequently methylated gene in our cohort of patients. Further analysis by ddPCR confirmed an increased level of methylation in the promoter region of CDH13. A significant difference in CDH13 methylation levels was observed between IDC molecular subtypes LUM A versus HER2 (P = 0.0116) and HER2 versus TNBC (P = 0.0234). In addition, significantly higher methylation was detected in HER2+ versus HER2- tumors (P = 0.0004) and PR- versus PR+ tumors (P = 0.0421). Our results provide evidence that alteration in CDH13 methylation is associated with clinicopathological features in the cohort of Slovak patients with IDC. In addition, using ddPCR as a methylation-sensitive method represents a promising approach characterized by higher precision and technical simplicity to measure the methylation of target CpGs in CDH13 compared to other conventional methods such as MS-MLPA.

RevDate: 2024-06-26
CmpDate: 2024-06-26

Sendag S, Koca D, Arslan T, et al (2024)

Oestrogen and progesterone concentrations in intrapartum cows with insufficient cervix dilation.

Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene, 59(6):e14656.

The cervix is an important organ that has to dilate sufficiently at delivery to allow the foetus to transition to extrauterine life. Insufficient dilatation of the cervix (IDC) is a frequent cause of dystocia in cattle. The mechanisms underlying cervical opening and the pathogenesis of IDC are still widely unclear. Systematic studies on the relationship between IDC and steroid hormones have been limited and have yielded inconsistent findings. This study aimed to measure oestrogen and progesterone (P4) concentrations in intrapartum cows presented with dystocia due to IDC and in a comparison (C) group of cows with eutocic delivery. Before any obstetrical procedures, and right after the initial evaluation, blood samples were taken from IDC and C animals. Concentrations of P4, oestradiol-17β (E2), free total oestrogens (FTE) and conjugated total oestrogens (CTE) were measured by established radioimmunoassays. Concentrations of P4 (p = .538), FTE (p = .065) and CTE (p = .605) were not statistically different between C and IDC groups. However, E2 levels in group C were significantly lower when compared to those in the IDC group (p = .013), which is inconsistent with the function of oestrogens in cervical dilatation. The correlation analysis demonstrated significant positive correlations between the pairs P4 versus FTE, P4 versus E2 and FTE versus E2 in group C and between the pair FTE versus E2 in group IDC. In conclusion, the results suggest that local activities of steroids relevant to the aetiology of IDC are not reflected by concentrations in the systemic circulation or that other factors are clearly more important.

RevDate: 2024-06-25
CmpDate: 2024-06-25

Khani S, Topel H, Kardinal R, et al (2024)

Cold-induced expression of a truncated adenylyl cyclase 3 acts as rheostat to brown fat function.

Nature metabolism, 6(6):1053-1075.

Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity innovatively targets obesity and metabolic disease. While thermogenic activation of BAT is well understood, the rheostatic regulation of BAT to avoid excessive energy dissipation remains ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate that adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) is key for BAT function. We identified a cold-inducible promoter that generates a 5' truncated AC3 mRNA isoform (Adcy3-at), whose expression is driven by a cold-induced, truncated isoform of PPARGC1A (PPARGC1A-AT). Male mice lacking Adcy3-at display increased energy expenditure and are resistant to obesity and ensuing metabolic imbalances. Mouse and human AC3-AT are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, unable to translocate to the plasma membrane and lack enzymatic activity. AC3-AT interacts with AC3 and sequesters it in the endoplasmic reticulum, reducing the pool of adenylyl cyclases available for G-protein-mediated cAMP synthesis. Thus, AC3-AT acts as a cold-induced rheostat in BAT, limiting adverse consequences of cAMP activity during chronic BAT activation.

RevDate: 2024-06-22

Berndt C, Alborzinia H, Amen VS, et al (2024)

Ferroptosis in health and disease.

Redox biology, 75:103211 pii:S2213-2317(24)00189-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Ferroptosis is a pervasive non-apoptotic form of cell death highly relevant in various degenerative diseases and malignancies. The hallmark of ferroptosis is uncontrolled and overwhelming peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in membrane phospholipids, which eventually leads to rupture of the plasma membrane. Ferroptosis is unique in that it is essentially a spontaneous, uncatalyzed chemical process based on perturbed iron and redox homeostasis contributing to the cell death process, but that it is nonetheless modulated by many metabolic nodes that impinge on the cells' susceptibility to ferroptosis. Among the various nodes affecting ferroptosis sensitivity, several have emerged as promising candidates for pharmacological intervention, rendering ferroptosis-related proteins attractive targets for the treatment of numerous currently incurable diseases. Herein, the current members of a Germany-wide research consortium focusing on ferroptosis research, as well as key external experts in ferroptosis who have made seminal contributions to this rapidly growing and exciting field of research, have gathered to provide a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review on ferroptosis. Specific topics include: basic mechanisms, in vivo relevance, specialized methodologies, chemical and pharmacological tools, and the potential contribution of ferroptosis to disease etiopathology and progression. We hope that this article will not only provide established scientists and newcomers to the field with an overview of the multiple facets of ferroptosis, but also encourage additional efforts to characterize further molecular pathways modulating ferroptosis, with the ultimate goal to develop novel pharmacotherapies to tackle the various diseases associated with - or caused by - ferroptosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Ramamoorthy P, Ramakantha Reddy BR, Askar SS, et al (2024)

Histopathology-based breast cancer prediction using deep learning methods for healthcare applications.

Frontiers in oncology, 14:1300997.

Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of female cancer mortality and is a type of cancer that is a major threat to women's health. Deep learning methods have been used extensively in many medical domains recently, especially in detection and classification applications. Studying histological images for the automatic diagnosis of BC is important for patients and their prognosis. Owing to the complication and variety of histology images, manual examination can be difficult and susceptible to errors and thus needs the services of experienced pathologists. Therefore, publicly accessible datasets called BreakHis and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) are used in this study to analyze histopathological images of BC. Next, using super-resolution generative adversarial networks (SRGANs), which create high-resolution images from low-quality images, the gathered images from BreakHis and IDC are pre-processed to provide useful results in the prediction stage. The components of conventional generative adversarial network (GAN) loss functions and effective sub-pixel nets were combined to create the concept of SRGAN. Next, the high-quality images are sent to the data augmentation stage, where new data points are created by making small adjustments to the dataset using rotation, random cropping, mirroring, and color-shifting. Next, patch-based feature extraction using Inception V3 and Resnet-50 (PFE-INC-RES) is employed to extract the features from the augmentation. After the features have been extracted, the next step involves processing them and applying transductive long short-term memory (TLSTM) to improve classification accuracy by decreasing the number of false positives. The results of suggested PFE-INC-RES is evaluated using existing methods on the BreakHis dataset, with respect to accuracy (99.84%), specificity (99.71%), sensitivity (99.78%), and F1-score (99.80%), while the suggested PFE-INC-RES performed better in the IDC dataset based on F1-score (99.08%), accuracy (99.79%), specificity (98.97%), and sensitivity (99.17%).

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Stindt KR, MN McClean (2024)

Tuning interdomain conjugation to enable in situ population modification in yeasts.

mSystems, 9(6):e0005024.

The ability to modify and control natural and engineered microbiomes is essential for biotechnology and biomedicine. Fungi are critical members of most microbiomes, yet technology for modifying the fungal members of a microbiome has lagged far behind that for bacteria. Interdomain conjugation (IDC) is a promising approach, as DNA transfer from bacterial cells to yeast enables in situ modification. While such genetic transfers have been known to naturally occur in a wide range of eukaryotes and are thought to contribute to their evolution, IDC has been understudied as a technique to control fungal or fungal-bacterial consortia. One major obstacle to the widespread use of IDC is its limited efficiency. In this work, we manipulated metabolic and physical interactions between genetically tractable Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to control the incidence of IDC. We test the landscape of population interactions between the bacterial donors and yeast recipients to find that bacterial commensalism leads to maximized IDC, both in culture and in mixed colonies. We demonstrate the capacity of cell-to-cell binding via mannoproteins to assist both IDC incidence and bacterial commensalism in culture and model how these tunable controls can predictably yield a range of IDC outcomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these controls can be utilized to irreversibly alter a recipient yeast population, by both "rescuing" a poor-growing recipient population and collapsing a stable population via a novel IDC-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system.IMPORTANCEFungi are important but often unaddressed members of most natural and synthetic microbial communities. This work highlights opportunities for modifying yeast microbiome populations through bacterial conjugation. While conjugation has been recognized for its capacity to deliver engineerable DNA to a range of cells, its dependence on cell contact has limited its efficiency. Here, we find "knobs" to control DNA transfer, by engineering the metabolic dependence between bacterial donors and yeast recipients and by changing their ability to physically adhere to each other. Importantly, we functionally validate these "knobs" by irreversibly altering yeast populations. We use these controls to "rescue" a failing yeast population, demonstrate the capacity of conjugated CRISPR/Cas9 to depress or collapse populations, and show that conjugation can be easily interrupted by disrupting cell-to-cell binding. These results offer building blocks toward in situ mycobiome editing, with significant implications for clinical treatments of fungal pathogens and other fungal system engineering.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Rukhsana , Supty AT, Hussain M, et al (2024)

STK3 higher expression association with clinical characteristics in intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer invasive ductal carcinoma patients.

Breast cancer research and treatment, 206(1):119-129.

PURPOSE: STK3 has a central role in maintaining cell homeostasis, proliferation, growth, and apoptosis. Previously, we investigated the functional link between STK3/MST2, and estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. To expand the investigation, this study evaluated STK3's higher expression and associated genes in breast cancer intrinsic subtypes using publicly available data.

METHODS: The relationship between clinical pathologic features and STK3 high expression was analyzed using descriptive and multivariate analysis.

RESULTS: Increased STK3 expression in breast cancer was significantly associated with higher pathological cancer stages, and a different expression level was observed in the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that breast cancer with high STK3 had a lower survival rate in IDC patients than that with low STK3 expression (p < 0.05). The multivariate analysis unveiled a strong correlation between STK3 expression and the survival rate among IDC patients, demonstrating hazard ratios for lower expression. In the TCGA dataset, the hazard ratio was 0.56 (95% CI 0.34-0.94, p = 0.029) for patients deceased with tumor, and 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.92, p = 0.017) for all deceased patients. Additionally, in the METABRIC dataset, the hazard ratio was 0.76 (95% CI 0.64-0.91, p = 0.003) for those deceased with tumor. From GSEA outcomes 7 gene sets were selected based on statistical significance (FDR < 0.25 and p < 0.05). Weighted Sum model (WSM) derived top 5% genes also have higher expression in basal and lower in luminal A in association with STK3.

CONCLUSION: By introducing a novel bioinformatics approach that combines GSEA and WSM, the study successfully identified the top 5% of genes associated with higher expression of STK3.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Maggi G, Vitale C, Giacobbe C, et al (2024)

Validation of the Italian version of the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale (QUIP-RS) in an Italian Parkinson's disease cohort.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology, 45(7):3153-3161.

INTRODUCTION: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), and an early identification is essential to prevent severe psychosocial consequences. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale (QUIP-RS) has been developed to evaluate the severity of ICDs along with a range of impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs) in PD; however, its Italian version has not yet been validated.

METHODS: One hundred consecutive outpatients with PD were administered an Italian version of the QUIP-RS and a brief neuropsychological assessment to evaluate global cognitive status and scales to measure depression, apathy and impulsive disorders. We evaluated the internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and factorial structure of QUIP-RS. We also explored the possible association between QUIP-RS scores and clinical factors and dopaminergic medication.

RESULTS: Subsyndromal ICDs manifestations were observed in 54% of the patients, and one in four (22%) reported two or more ICDs or related behaviors. The QUIP-RS demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.806) and construct validity, and its factorial structure reflected different ICDs and ICBs domains. No association emerged between QUIP-RS scores and the clinical aspects of PD and dopaminergic medication.

CONCLUSION: We provided, for the first time, an Italian translation of the QUIP-RS and demonstrated its feasibility in clinical and research settings. Severity of ICDs was independent of clinical factors and dopaminergic medication, underlining the need to adopt a broader perspective on their etiopathology in PD.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Elshanbary AA, Zaazouee MS, Nourelden AZ, et al (2024)

Risk factors of diabetes and cancer-specific mortalities in patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast: a population-based study.

European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP), 33(4):321-333.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Breast cancer is considered one of the most common neoplasms worldwide. Diabetes (DM) increases mortality among postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Our study aims to identify the risk factors of DM-specific mortality and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) mortality in patients with IDC of the breast.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of IDC patients were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from 1975 to 2016. Independent variables included age, race, marital status, the primary site of IDC, breast subtype, the disease stage, grade, chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Kaplan-Meier, Cox and Binary regression tests were used to analyze the data using SPSS software.

RESULTS: A total of 673 533 IDC patients were analyzed. Of them, 4224 died due to DM and 116 822 died due to IDC. Factors that increase the risk of overall, IDC-specific, and DM-specific mortalities include older age, black race, widowed, uninsured, regional and distant stages, grade II and III, and no treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy or surgery. Additionally, the IDC mortality increased with separated status, all primary sites, all breast subtypes, and stage IV.

CONCLUSION: In patients with IDC, controlling DM besides cancer is recommended to reduce the mortality risk. Old, black, widowed, uninsured, regional and distant stages, grade II and III, and no treatment are common risk factors for DM- and IDC-mortality.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Shoshani A, Kor A, Farbstein-Yavin S, et al (2024)

Risk and protective factors for substance use and media addictive behaviors in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal of adolescence, 96(4):746-759.

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' substance use, digital media use, and symptoms of internet, gaming, and social media addiction.

METHOD: A nationally representative longitudinal cohort of 1665 Israeli teens and preteens, aged 9-16, completed questionnaires assessing substance use prevalence, daily screen time, symptoms of media addiction, and potential risk and protective factors. Data were collected before the pandemic (October 2019), after the second wave lockdown (November 2020), and after the fifth wave (April 2022) in Israel.

RESULTS: The analysis documented significant increases in substance use, daily screen time, and social media addiction indices over time. Gratitude, life satisfaction, positive emotions, future orientation, grit, and secure attachment emerged as significant protective factors. Sensation-seeking, negative emotions, and mental health symptoms were identified as risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of educational and public mental health services in addressing the pandemic's long-term impact on the mental health and addictive behaviors of adolescents. They also emphasize the significance of enhancing protective factors and reducing risk factors to effectively mitigate substance and digital media abuse among adolescents.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Wearn A, Tremblay SA, Tardif CL, et al (2024)

Neuromodulatory subcortical nucleus integrity is associated with white matter microstructure, tauopathy and APOE status.

Nature communications, 15(1):4706.

The neuromodulatory subcortical nuclei within the isodendritic core (IdC) are the earliest sites of tauopathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). They project broadly throughout the brain's white matter. We investigated the relationship between IdC microstructure and whole-brain white matter microstructure to better understand early neuropathological changes in AD. Using multiparametric quantitative magnetic resonance imaging we observed two covariance patterns between IdC and white matter microstructure in 133 cognitively unimpaired older adults (age 67.9 ± 5.3 years) with familial risk for AD. IdC integrity related to 1) whole-brain neurite density, and 2) neurite orientation dispersion in white matter tracts known to be affected early in AD. Pattern 2 was associated with CSF concentration of phosphorylated-tau, indicating AD specificity. Apolipoprotein-E4 carriers expressed both patterns more strongly than non-carriers. IdC microstructure variation is reflected in white matter, particularly in AD-affected tracts, highlighting an early mechanism of pathological development.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Morla-Barcelo PM, Laguna-Macarrilla D, Cordoba O, et al (2024)

Unraveling malignant phenotype of peritumoral tissue: transcriptomic insights into early-stage breast cancer.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 26(1):89.

BACKGROUND: Early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma displays high survival rates due to early detection and treatments. However, there is still a chance of relapse of 3-15% after treatment. The aim of this study was to uncover the distinctive transcriptomic characteristics and monitoring prognosis potential of peritumoral tissue in early-stage cases.

METHODS: RNA was isolated from tumoral, peritumoral, and non-tumoral breast tissue from surgical resection of 10 luminal early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Transcriptome expression profiling for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identification was carried out through microarray analysis. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathways enrichment analysis were explored for functional characterization of identified DEGs. Protein-Protein Interactions (PPI) networks analysis was performed to identify hub nodes of peritumoral tissue alterations and correlated with Overall Survival and Relapse Free Survival.

RESULTS: DEGs closely related with cell migration, extracellular matrix organization, and cell cycle were upregulated in peritumoral tissue compared to non-tumoral. Analyzing PPI networks, we observed that the proximity to tumor leads to the alteration of gene modules involved in cell proliferation and differentiation signaling pathways. In fact, in the peritumoral area were identified the top ten upregulated hub nodes including CDK1, ESR1, NOP58, PCNA, EZH2, PPP1CA, BUB1, TGFBR1, CXCR4, and CCND1. A signature performed by four of these hub nodes (CDK1, PCNA, EZH2, and BUB1) was associated with relapse events in untreated luminal breast cancer patients.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study characterizes in depth breast peritumoral tissue providing clues on the changes that tumor signaling could cause in patients with early-stage breast cancer. We propose that the use of a four gene signature could help to predict local relapse. Overall, our results highlight the value of peritumoral tissue as a potential source of new biomarkers for early detection of relapse and improvement in invasive ductal carcinoma patient's prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Kos Z, Nielsen TO, AV Laenkholm (2024)

Breast Cancer Histopathology in the Age of Molecular Oncology.

Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 14(6): pii:cshperspect.a041647.

For more than a century, microscopic histology has been the cornerstone for cancer diagnosis, and breast carcinoma is no exception. In recent years, clinical biomarkers, gene expression profiles, and other molecular tests have shown increasing utility for identifying the key biological features that guide prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. Indeed, the most common histologic pattern-invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type-provides relatively little guidance to management beyond triggering grading, biomarker testing, and clinical staging. However, many less common histologic patterns can be recognized by trained pathologists, which in many cases can be linked to characteristic biomarker and gene expression patterns, underlying mutations, prognosis, and therapy. Herein we describe more than a dozen such histomorphologic subtypes (including lobular, metaplastic, salivary analog, and several good prognosis special types of breast cancer) in the context of their molecular and clinical features.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Ahmad H, Ali A, Khalil AT, et al (2024)

Clinico-genomic findings, molecular docking, and mutational spectrum in an understudied population with breast cancer patients from KP, Pakistan.

Frontiers in genetics, 15:1383284.

In this study, we report the mutational profiles, pathogenicity, and their association with different clinicopathologic and sociogenetic factors in patients with Pashtun ethnicity for the first time. A total of 19 FFPE blocks of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) from the Breast Cancer (BC) tissue and 6 normal FFPE blocks were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Various somatic and germline mutations were identified in cancer-related genes, i.e., ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, and XRCC2. Among a total of 18 mutations, 14 mutations were somatic and 4 were germline. The ATM gene exhibited the maximum number of mutations (11/18), followed by CHEK2 (3/18), PALB2 (3/18), and XRCC2 (1/18). Except one frameshift deletion, all other 17 mutations were nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). SIFT prediction revealed 7/18 (38.8%) mutations as deleterious. PolyPhen-2 and MutationTaster identified 5/18 (27.7%) mutations as probably damaging and 10/18 (55.5%) mutations as disease-causing, respectively. Mutations like PALB2 p.Q559R (6/19; 31.5%), XRCC2 p.R188H (5/19; 26.31%), and ATM p.D1853N (4/19; 21.05%) were recurrent mutations and proposed to have a biomarker potential. The protein network prediction was performed using GeneMANIA and STRING. ISPRED-SEQ indicated three interaction site mutations which were further used for molecular dynamic simulation. An average increase in the radius of gyration was observed in all three mutated proteins revealing their perturbed folding behavior. Obtained SNVs were further correlated with various parameters related to the clinicopathological status of the tumors. Three mutation positions (ATM p. D1853N, CHEK2 p.M314I, and PALB2 p.T1029S) were found to be highly conserved. Finally, the wild- and mutant-type proteins were screened for two drugs: elagolix (DrugBank ID: DB11979) and LTS0102038 (a triterpenoid, isolated from the anticancer medicinal plant Fagonia indica). Comparatively, a higher number of interactions were noted for normal ATM with both compounds, as compared to mutants.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Shirazi B, Niaz M, MA Khan (2024)

The characteristics and risk factors of breast cancer patients trend distinctive regional differences: a cross-sectional study.

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 74(4):672-676.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and risk factors of breast cancer patients in a tertiary care setting.

METHODS: The retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, and comprised data of all patients diagnosed with breast cancer from March 2017 to December 2021. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, stage of the disease and histopathological characteristics were noted. Data related to all the variables was not available in all cases. Data was analysed using SPSS 23.

RESULTS: Of the 690 patients, 683(99%) were females and 7(1%) were males. The mean age at presentation was 49.3±13.5 years, while the mean duration of symptoms was 10.24±17.64) months. Most of the females were married 642(93%) and multiparous 484(70.9%), while 293(42.5%) had breastfed their children for >1 year, and 412(59.7%) had no history of contraception use. The most common stage at presentation was stage II (48.6%), and most patients had grade II 395(57.2%) invasive ductal carcinoma, with Luminal A molecular subtype noted in 287(41.6%) cases.

CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of breast cancer in the sample had certain distinctions compared to other populations. It is important to integrate all datasets and develop guidelines appropriate to Pakistani population.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Ahuja S, G K, S Zaheer (2024)

Evaluation of Histomorphological Changes in Breast Cancer Post-Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Indian journal of surgical oncology, 15(2):236-240.

Breast cancer, a leading cause of global female mortality, demands comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This study delves into the nuanced realm of post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy breast cancer specimens, emphasizing the imperative need for pathologists to discern stromal and nuclear alterations adeptly. The investigation, encompassing 100 female patients with a mean age of 47.5 years, elucidates the demographic and clinicopathological parameters. Predominantly presenting as palpable lumps (85%), invasive ductal carcinoma emerged as the predominant histological type (98%). The primary focus of the study revolves around the morphological changes post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with a meticulous qualitative analysis encompassing stromal elements (fibrosis, elastosis, calcification) and nuclear features (pyknosis, hyperchromasia). Notably, the response to chemotherapy, classified by the International Union against Cancer criteria, delineates a substantial pathological complete response (55%), partial response (35%), and limited non-response (10%). The therapeutic landscape includes a majority of cases undergoing extensive chemotherapy cycles, primarily featuring the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel regimen. Remarkably, this investigation unveils fibrosis (63%) and elastosis/collagenization (51%) as prevalent stromal changes, while pyknosis (58%) and hyperchromasia (48%) dominate nuclear alterations. In conclusion, this retrospective study provides a comprehensive overview of post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy breast cancer specimens, shedding light on the intricate interplay of clinical parameters, treatment responses, and histopathological changes. The findings underscore the pivotal role of pathologists in accurately diagnosing and grading tumors in the evolving landscape of breast cancer management.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Abigail BC, DC Suzanne (2024)

Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated oncogenic activity is dependent on breast cancer subtype.

The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology pii:S0960-0760(24)00066-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Breast cancer incidence has been steadily rising and is the leading cause of cancer death in women due to its high metastatic potential. Individual breast cancer subtypes are classified by both cell type of origin and receptor expression, namely estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors (ER, PR and HER2). Recently, the importance and context-dependent role of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the natural history and prognosis of breast cancer subtypes has been uncovered. In ER-positive breast cancer, GR expression is associated with a better prognosis as a result of ER-GR crosstalk. GR appears to modulate ER-mediated gene expression resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation and a more indolent cancer phenotype. In ER-negative breast cancer, including GR-positive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), GR expression enhances migration, chemotherapy resistance and cell survival. In invasive lobular carcinoma, GR function is relatively understudied, and more work is required to determine whether lobular subtypes behave similarly to their invasive ductal carcinoma counterparts. Importantly, understanding GR signaling in individual breast cancer subtypes has potential clinical implications because of the recent development of highly selective GR non-steroidal ligands, which represent a therapeutic approach for modulating GR activity systemically.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Geng J, Jinli S, Guo W, et al (2024)

Expression and clinical significance of CA125, CA153 and CEA in nipple discharge of breast cancer patients.

Journal of medical biochemistry, 43(2):234-242.

BACKGROUND: It is an important clinical means to identify benign and malignant breast diseases caused by nipple discharge through the detection and analysis of components in nipple discharge. This study was aimed to test the expression and clinical significance of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in nipple discharge of breast cancer patients.

METHODS: From January 2017 to December 2018, 86 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast with nipple discharge (breast cancer group) and 50 patients with ordinary breast duct hyperplasia with nipple discharge (benign control group) were selected, and the levels of CA125, CA153 and CEA in nipple discharge and serum were detected by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Agreda-Castañeda F, Freixa-Sala R, Franco M, et al (2024)

Predictive factors of post-HoLEP incontinence: differences between stress and urgency urinary incontinence.

World journal of urology, 42(1):281.

INTRODUCTION: The analysis of post-HoLEP urinary incontinence (UI) has traditionally focused on stress UI. Our aim is to evaluate the factors associated with stress and urgency UI in the first month after the surgery.

METHODS: Data were obtained from patients who underwent HoLEP by the same experienced surgeon. UI was evaluated at one month and at 6 months after the surgery. Three groups were defined: continent patients, patients with pure urgency UI and patients with stress or mixed UI. Preoperative, intraoperative, urodynamic and clinical variables were analyzed and compared between the three groups.

RESULTS: In total, 235 subjects were included. One month after the surgery, 156 (66.5%) were continent (group 1), 49 (20.8%) reported pure urgency UI (group 2), and 30 (12.7%) reported some level of stress UI (group 3). In Group 2, the factors associated with urgency UI in the univariate analysis were age, presurgical urgency UI, having diabetes or hypertension. In Group 3, age, prostatic volume, preoperative PSA, time of enucleation, weight of the resection in grams, having an IDC or being diabetic were significant in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, age predicts both types of UI, while prostatic volume and having an IDC predict stress or mixed UI.

CONCLUSION: In the first month post-HoLEP, age is a predictive factor of urgency UI and stress UI. In addition, prostatic volume and the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter are predictive factors of stress UI.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Iradukunda Y, Kang JY, Zhao XB, et al (2024)

Triple Sensing Modes for Triggered β-Galactosidase Activity Assays Based on Kaempferol-Deduced Silicon Nanoparticles and Biological Imaging of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

ACS applied bio materials, 7(5):3154-3163.

β-Galactosidase (β-Gala) is an essential biomarker enzyme for early detection of breast tumors and cellular senescence. Creating an accurate way to monitor β-Gala activity is critical for biological research and early cancer detection. This work used fluorometric, colorimetric, and paper-based color sensing approaches to determine β-Gala activity effectively. Via the sensing performance, the catalytic activity of β-Gala resulted in silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), fluorescent indicators obtained via a one-pot hydrothermal process. As a standard enzymatic hydrolysis product of the substrate, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (KOβDG) caused the fluorometric signal to be attenuated on kaempferol-silicon nanoparticles (K-SiNPs). The sensing methods demonstrated a satisfactory linear response in sensing β-Gala and a low detection limit. The findings showed the low limit of detection (LOD) as 0.00057 and 0.098 U/mL for fluorometric and colorimetric, respectively. The designed probe was then used to evaluate the catalytic activity of β-Gala in yogurt and human serum, with recoveries ranging from 98.33 to 107.9%. The designed sensing approach was also applied to biological sample analysis. In contrast, breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were used as a model to test the in vitro toxicity and molecular fluorescence imaging potential of K-SiNPs. Hence, our fluorescent K-SiNPs can be used in the clinic to diagnose breast cellular carcinoma, since they can accurately measure the presence of invasive ductal carcinoma in serologic tests.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-04-29

de Oliveira RM, Paiva MUB, Picossi CRC, et al (2024)

Metabolomic insights in advanced cardiomyopathy of chronic chagasic and idiopathic patients that underwent heart transplant.

Scientific reports, 14(1):9810.

Heart failure (HF) studies typically focus on ischemic and idiopathic heart diseases. Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is a progressive degenerative inflammatory condition highly prevalent in Latin America that leads to a disturbance of cardiac conduction system. Despite its clinical and epidemiological importance, CCC molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here we characterize and discriminate the plasma metabolomic profile of 15 patients with advanced HF referred for heart transplantation - 8 patients with CCC and 7 with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) - using gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared to the 12 heart donor individuals, also included to represent the control (CTRL) scenario, patients with advanced HF exhibited a metabolic imbalance with 21 discriminating metabolites, mostly indicative of accumulation of fatty acids, amino acids and important components of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. CCC vs. IDC analyses revealed a metabolic disparity between conditions, with 12 CCC distinctive metabolites vs. 11 IDC representative metabolites. Disturbances were mainly related to amino acid metabolism profile. Although mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of metabolic flexibility may be a central mechanistic event in advanced HF, metabolic imbalance differs between CCC and IDC populations, possibly explaining the dissimilar clinical course of Chagas' patients.

RevDate: 2024-04-30

Shaghaghi Torkdari Z, Khalaj-Kondori M, MA Hosseinpour Feizi (2024)

Plasma Circulating Terminal Differentiation-Induced Non-Coding RNA Serves as a Biomarker in Breast Cancer.

International journal of hematology-oncology and stem cell research, 18(1):1-6.

Background: Breast cancer is identified as the most common malignancy and cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Compared with healthy controls, this study evaluated the expression level and diagnostic power of lncRNA plasma TINCR in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight women diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma and fifty healthy age- matched controls were included in the study. TRIzol[®] LS regent was used to isolate the total RNA from the whole plasma. Total RNA was converted to cDNA using Prime Script[TM] RT reagent kit and the expression levels of TINCR were quantified by qRT-PCR. Results: Low levels of TINCR lncRNA were observed in the plasma of breast cancer patients compared with control subjects. Plasma TINCR level was also positively correlated with the diagnostic age of breast cancer patients. Conclusion: A low level of plasma TINCR could discriminate breast cancer patients from healthy control subjects.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-04-28

Rostami B, Kahrizi S, Ghorbani Yekta B, et al (2024)

Correlation of IDH1 gene expression error in breast tumor biopsy in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma.

Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 70(4):242-247.

One of the most important cancers in terms of worldwide prevalence is breast tumors, which have been less investigated in correlation with the enzyme Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene. The aim of this study was that expression of this gene could have significant effects on the progression of metastasis and invasive disease in breast cancer patients. We used the molecular method of RT-PCR with SYBR-Green to analyze breast tumor tissue from patients with metastasis and non-metastasis, the latter confirmed by the pathology department of Shohada-e Tajrish Hospital (serving as a control group). Also, patients population and its relationship with the degree of tumor in the IDH1 gene was investigated. The IDH1 gene has shown high expression in patients with metastatic breast cancer rather than in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. The metastatic samples were compared with non-metastatic samples for IDH1 mRNA expression. In this research work, 72.5% (29 samples) were up-regulated in comparison to 27.5% of samples (11 samples) that did not exhibit high expression (P=0.000). This study examined the IDH1 gene expression, suggesting that changes in this gene's expression could impact the prognosis of breast cancer. However, further research is needed to draw definitive conclusions.

RevDate: 2024-04-27
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

de Souza IC, FW Langer (2024)

Post-radiation angiosarcoma of the breast in a patient with a history of invasive ductal carcinoma.

Lancet (London, England), 403(10437):1681-1682.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

Yousef YA, Mohammad M, Khalil H, et al (2024)

Ocular and Periocular Metastasis in Breast Cancer: Clinical Characteristics, Prognostic Factors and Treatment Outcome.

Cancers, 16(8):.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. Ocular and periocular metastasis present as a rare but clinically significant manifestation. This study aims to explore demographics and clinical aspects of ocular and periocular metastasis in breast cancer patients.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study comprising 45 breast cancer patients with ocular or periocular metastasis treated between 2013 and 2023. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, diagnostic methods, treatment modalities, visual outcomes, and survival data were analyzed.

RESULTS: Among 9902 breast cancer patients, 0.5% developed ocular or periocular metastasis, constituting 2.4% of metastatic cases. The median age was 50 years. Ocular metastasis timing varied: 5% before breast cancer, 24% concurrent, 22% within a year, and 49% after. The most common presentations included incidental MRI findings (42%) and vision decline (31%). Metastasis involved the orbit (47%), choroid (40%), optic nerve (11%), and iris (2%), with 44% having bilateral involvement. Predictive factors included invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) (p < 0.0001) and brain metastasis (p < 0.0001), with ILC exhibiting a sixfold higher likelihood of ocular metastasis than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Primary treatment was radiation therapy (89%), yielding a 55% maintenance of excellent vision (<0.5), with 93% developing dry eye disease. Patients with ocular metastasis faced an increased risk of disease-related mortality (p < 0.0001), with 71% succumbing within 10 months post-diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Ocular metastasis in breast cancer is rare (0.5%) but signifies poor outcome. It is linked to ILC and concurrent brain metastasis. Primary treatment involves radiation therapy, with a favorable visual prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Kikuchi M, Miyabe R, Matsushima H, et al (2024)

Tumor lysis syndrome following letrozole for locally advanced breast cancer: a case report.

Surgical case reports, 10(1):100.

BACKGROUND: Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is used to treat breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a complication that can trigger multiple organ failure caused by the release of intracellular nucleic acids, phosphate, and potassium into the blood due to rapid tumor cell disintegration induced by drug therapy. TLS is uncommon in solid tumors and occurs primarily in patients receiving chemotherapy. Herein, we report a rare occurrence of TLS that developed in a patient with locally advanced breast cancer following treatment with letrozole.

CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old woman with increased bleeding from a fist-sized left-sided breast mass presented to our hospital. Histological examination led to a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma of the luminal type. The patient refused chemotherapy and was administered hormonal therapy with letrozole. Seven days after letrozole initiation, she complained of anorexia and diarrhea. Blood test results revealed elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels, and she was admitted to our hospital for intravenous infusions. On the second day after admission, marked elevations of LDH, BUN, Cr, potassium, calcium, and uric acid levels were observed. Furthermore, metabolic acidosis and prolonged coagulation capacity were observed. We suspected TLS and discontinued letrozole, and the patient was treated with hydration, febuxostat, and maintenance hemodialysis. On the third day after admission, her respiratory status worsened because of acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with hypercytokinemia, and she was intubated. On the fourth day after admission, her general condition did not improve, and she died.

CONCLUSIONS: Although TLS typically occurs after chemotherapy initiation, the findings from the present case confirm that this syndrome can also occur after hormonal therapy initiation and should be treated with caution.

RevDate: 2024-04-24
CmpDate: 2024-04-23

Satoh E, Innami Y, Uehira D, et al (2024)

[A Long-Surviving Case of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer with Multiple Lung Metastasis].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 51(4):427-429.

We report a case of right advanced breast cancer with multiple lung metastases in a 66-year-old woman. Her breast cancer(invasive ductal carcinoma, cT4bN1M1, Stage Ⅳ)was resected in October 2007(mastectomy plus axillary lymph node dissection)after local arterial infusion therapy(total dose 5-FU 4,735 mg plus adriamycin 180 mg), which caused bilateral lung arterial embolism due to deep vein thrombosis in right her leg. She had to be treated by anticoagulant therapy, mechanical ventilation and placement of IVC filter before her operation. Subsequent chemo-endocrine therapy(docetaxel 6 courses plus anastrozole)was continued. In October 2008, a CT scan showed disappearance of multiple lung metastases (complete response). In November 2015 (8 years after her operation), a CT scan showed recurrence of multiple lung metastases and endocrine therapy was changed to tamoxifen. A year later, a CT scan showed disappearance of multiple lung metastases(complete response)again and keep a condition of complete response in her breast cancer until May 2023 (15 years after her operation).

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Zhou H, Liu D, Chen L, et al (2024)

Metastasis to the bladder from primary breast cancer: A case report and literature review.

Oncology letters, 27(6):249.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor affecting women and represents the leading cause of female cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although distant organ metastasis accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths, reports on bladder metastasis are limited in the existing literature. The present study describes the case of a patient with bladder metastasis originating from breast cancer. In addition, the present study also provides a review of 54 cases of similar disease that have been documented in the currently available literature. The literature review aims to elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics and therapeutic approaches for such conditions. The median time from breast cancer diagnosis to bladder metastasis was found to be 5.6 years (range, 0-28 years). The origin of the bladder metastases was predominantly invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) accounting for 52.3% of cases, followed by invasive lobular carcinoma, accounting for 40.9% of cases. The pathology in the primary tumor was the same as the pathology of the bladder metastases in all cases. There was an 88.9% concordance rate for estrogen receptor status, while the progesterone receptor status was 83.3% and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression status was 100%. The primary initial symptoms included urinary system manifestations, such as increased frequency, urgency, dysuria, urinary incontinence, nocturia and gross hematuria. For the cystoscopic examination, the predominant findings were bladder wall thickening or masses, along with ureteral orifice masses. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of bladder metastasis often follows the metastasis of other organs, with IDC being the most prevalent subtype. The pathological characteristics between the primary tumor and bladder metastasis exhibit a high degree of concordance.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-04-08

Rodriguez GF, Shah A, AD Maderal (2024)

Telangiectasias induced by combination tucatinib and ado-trastuzumab emtansine in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.

Breast disease, 43(1):61-64.

BACKGROUND: Tucatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor currently used in salvage therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast and colorectal cancer. The use of tucatinib alone or in combination with ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in the treatment of advanced HER2-positive cancers is rapidly expanding.

OBJECTIVE/METHODS: We report the case of a 66-year-old female who presented to the dermatology clinic with a one-year history of widespread telangiectasias that began after initiation of combination chemotherapy with tucatinib and T-DM1 for metastatic HER2-positive invasive ductal carcinoma.

RESULTS: The patient's lesions regressed upon cessation of combination therapy and reappeared in the setting of tucatinib re-initiation, with gradual improvement over the following four months following electrocautery to the affected regions.

CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that telangiectasias may be a previously unreported dermatologic side effect of combination treatment with tucatinib and T-DM1. Electrocautery is a safe and effective procedure to reduce the appearance of telangiectasias and improve patient satisfaction during chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2024-04-06

Sukhija S, Purohit P, Pareek P, et al (2024)

Circulating miRNA-21 Levels in Breast Cancer Patients Before and After Chemotherapy and Its Association with Clinical Improvement.

Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB, 39(2):214-220.

Breast cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in women, many patients experience recurrences and metastasis. miR-21 (microRNA-21) as biomarker is under investigation for breast cancer. At present, there is very limited information available regarding effect of chemotherapy on miR-21 expression in breast cancer and its correlation with the clinical improvement. Hence, this study was planned to evaluate the effect of chemotherapy on miR-21 in metastatic breast cancer and its relationship with the clinical outcome. Females, aged-18-90 years diagnosed with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of breast and candidate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy including Adriamycin (60 mg/m[2]), Cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m[2]) with or without Taxane (75-175 mg/m[2]) were included in the study. Before and after 42 days of staring of chemotherapy sample was collected for circulatory miR-21 and RECIST 1.1 criteria was applied to assess the clinical status. Blood samples for routine clinical biomarkers including liver function test and renal function tests was also collected. miR-21 expression before and after chemotherapy was assessed using standard method based on real time PCR. Expression of miR-21, RECIST criteria and other liver and kidney related biomarkers were compared before and after chemotherapy. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy expression of miR-21 was significantly increased by 5.65-fold. There was significant improvement in clinical scores based on RECIST criteria (0.046). No significant correlation was observed between miR-21 expression and difference in RECIST score (r = - 0.122, p = 0.570). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy causes clinical improvement in breast cancer patients however it is not correlated with the miR-21 expression which significantly increased after chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2024-04-06

Jamal O, Makhchoune M, Laidi A, et al (2024)

Rupture of a dermoid cyst in the subarachnoid space: a case report.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 86(4):2366-2369.

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Intracranial dermoid cysts (IDC) are defined as rare, slow-growing cystic congenital neoplasms. Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst occurs rarely and most often spontaneously and results in potentially serious symptoms.

CASE PRESENTATION: A39-year-old female, with mechanical prosthetic heart valve presented with history of headache for 10 months and generalized tonicoclonic seizures. On the admission, the patient had a normal neurological and cranial nerve exam. The authors performed a computed tomography of the brain, The MRI could not be performed because of the presence of the prosthetic valve, revealed rupture of the dermoid cyst in the bilateral subarachnoid spaces. The patient underwent a large temporal craniotomy and the tumour was well exposed and completely removed without incident, the histopathological examination concludes to dermoid cyst, the patient recovered well from surgery.

CLINICAL DISCUSSION: Rupture is a very rare phenomenon. there are about 60 cases reported in the literature. the contents of the cyst disseminate into the subarachnoid and ventricular spaces in the event of rupture. A variety of clinical symptoms is usually caused. The mechanism of spontaneous rupture of the dermoid cyst is unclear. Among the proposed mechanisms is a rapid expansion of the cyst. Complete surgical resection of dermoid cysts is the only effective treatment for the prevention of recurrences and/or complications.

CONCLUSION: Rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, although it remains a rare phenomenon. Surgical excision should be considered as soon as the diagnosis is made in order to prevent more severe intracranial complication.

RevDate: 2024-04-05
CmpDate: 2024-04-05

Maiti S, Nayak S, Hebbar KD, et al (2024)

Differentiation of invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma of the breast using MRI radiomic features: a pilot study.

F1000Research, 13:91.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality among women. For clinical management to help patients survive longer and spend less time on treatment, early and precise cancer identification and differentiation of breast lesions are crucial. To investigate the accuracy of radiomic features (RF) extracted from dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE MRI) for differentiating invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) from invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC).

METHODS: This is a retrospective study. The IDC of 30 and ILC of 28 patients from Dukes breast cancer MRI data set of The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), were included. The RF categories such as shape based, Gray level dependence matrix (GLDM), Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), First order, Gray level run length matrix (GLRLM), Gray level size zone matrix (GLSZM), NGTDM (Neighbouring gray tone difference matrix) were extracted from the DCE-MRI sequence using a 3D slicer. The maximum relevance and minimum redundancy (mRMR) was applied using Google Colab for identifying the top fifteen relevant radiomic features. The Mann-Whitney U test was performed to identify significant RF for differentiating IDC and ILC. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to ascertain the accuracy of RF in distinguishing between IDC and ILC.

RESULTS: Ten DCE MRI-based RFs used in our study showed a significant difference (p <0.001) between IDC and ILC. We noticed that DCE RF, such as Gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) gray level variance (sensitivity (SN) 97.21%, specificity (SP) 96.2%, area under curve (AUC) 0.998), Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) difference average (SN 95.72%, SP 96.34%, AUC 0.983), GLCM interquartile range (SN 95.24%, SP 97.31%, AUC 0.968), had the strongest ability to differentiate IDC and ILC.

CONCLUSIONS: MRI-based RF derived from DCE sequences can be used in clinical settings to differentiate malignant lesions of the breast, such as IDC and ILC, without requiring intrusive procedures.

RevDate: 2024-04-06
CmpDate: 2024-04-05

Wang J, Li B, Luo M, et al (2024)

Progression from ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive breast cancer: molecular features and clinical significance.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 9(1):83.

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represents pre-invasive breast carcinoma. In untreated cases, 25-60% DCIS progress to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The challenge lies in distinguishing between non-progressive and progressive DCIS, often resulting in over- or under-treatment in many cases. With increasing screen-detected DCIS in these years, the nature of DCIS has aroused worldwide attention. A deeper understanding of the biological nature of DCIS and the molecular journey of the DCIS-IDC transition is crucial for more effective clinical management. Here, we reviewed the key signaling pathways in breast cancer that may contribute to DCIS initiation and progression. We also explored the molecular features of DCIS and IDC, shedding light on the progression of DCIS through both inherent changes within tumor cells and alterations in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, valuable research tools utilized in studying DCIS including preclinical models and newer advanced technologies such as single-cell sequencing, spatial transcriptomics and artificial intelligence, have been systematically summarized. Further, we thoroughly discussed the clinical advancements in DCIS and IDC, including prognostic biomarkers and clinical managements, with the aim of facilitating more personalized treatment strategies in the future. Research on DCIS has already yielded significant insights into breast carcinogenesis and will continue to pave the way for practical clinical applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-01
CmpDate: 2024-04-01

Dogan I, Khanmammadov N, Ozkurt S, et al (2024)

Outcomes of the patients with metastatic male breast cancer.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 20(1):98-102.

BACKGROUND: The goal of this research is to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of men with metastatic breast cancer (mMBC).

METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the data of 28 patients was conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess overall survival (OS) and prognostic variables.

RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, the median age was 57 years (range 26-86). The most prevalent pathological subtype was invasive ductal carcinoma (92.6%). HER2 positivity was 21.6% in patients, with estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity at 96.4% and 71.4%, respectively. Bone-75%, lung-39.3%, brain-21.4%, and adrenal gland-10.7% were the most prevalent metastatic sites. Trastuzumab-based chemotherapy was given to six patients. During the study period, 14 patients (or half) died. All patients had a median OS of 42.6 months (range: 21.6-63.7). The OS rates after 1, 3, and 5 years were 95.7%, 54.2%, and 36.6%, respectively. The number of metastatic locations (P = 0.045), brain metastasis (P = 0.033), and a history of regular alcohol intake (P = 0.008) were all shown to be statistically significant factors affecting OS in univariate analysis. However, multivariate analysis did not support the findings. In addition, we discovered that trastuzumab-based therapy and de-novo metastatic disease had no effect on OS for mMBC.

CONCLUSIONS: The data on mMBC is restricted because of its rarity. The prognosis of mMBC was shown to be poor in this investigation. Despite the small number of patients, we discovered that in univariate analysis, having brain metastases, the number of metastatic locations, and a history of alcohol intake may be prognostic factors.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Dreindl R, Bolsa-Ferruz M, Fayos-Sola R, et al (2024)

Commissioning and clinical implementation of an independent dose calculation system for scanned proton beams.

Journal of applied clinical medical physics, 25(5):e14328.

PURPOSE: Experimental patient-specific QA (PSQA) is a time and resource-intensive process, with a poor sensitivity in detecting errors. Radiation therapy facilities aim to substitute it by means of independent dose calculation (IDC) in combination with a comprehensive beam delivery QA program. This paper reports on the commissioning of the IDC software tool myQA iON (IBA Dosimetry) for proton therapy and its clinical implementation at the MedAustron Ion Therapy Center.

METHODS: The IDC commissioning work included the validation of the beam model, the implementation and validation of clinical CT protocols, and the evaluation of patient treatment data. Dose difference maps, gamma index distributions, and pass rates (GPR) have been reviewed. The performance of the IDC tool has been assessed and clinical workflows, simulation settings, and GPR tolerances have been defined.

RESULTS: Beam model validation showed agreement of ranges within ± 0.2 mm, Bragg-Peak widths within ± 0.1 mm, and spot sizes at various air gaps within ± 5% compared to physical measurements. Simulated dose in 2D reference fields deviated by -0.3% ± 0.5%, while 3D dose distributions differed by 1.8% on average to measurements. Validation of the CT calibration resulted in systematic differences of 2.0% between IDC and experimental data for tissue like samples. GPRs of 99.4 ± 0.6% were found for head, head and neck, and pediatric CT protocols on a 2%/2 mm gamma criterion. GPRs for the adult abdomen protocol were at 98.9% on average with 3%/3 mm. Root causes of GPR outliers, for example, implants were identified and evaluated.

CONCLUSION: IDC has been successfully commissioned and integrated into the MedAustron clinical workflow for protons in 2021. IDC has been stepwise and safely substituting experimental PSQA since February 2021. The initial reduction of proton experimental PSQA was about 25% and reached up to 90% after 1 year.

RevDate: 2024-04-01
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Esmat E, Haidary AM, Saadaat R, et al (2024)

Association of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2/neu expressions with clinicopathologic factors of breast carcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care hospital, Kabul, Afghanistan.

BMC cancer, 24(1):388.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the major causes of death worldwide. It is the most common cause of death before the age of 70 years. The incidence and mortality of BC are rapidly increasing, posing great challenges to the health system and economy of every nation.

METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at the Department of Pathology and Clinical Laboratory of the French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC) to demonstrate the association of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/Neu) and estrogen receptor (ER)/ progesterone receptor (PR) with clinical as well as pathological parameters among women with BC. A consecutive nonprobability sampling method was used for this study over a span of one and a half years.

RESULTS: One hundred twenty participants diagnosed with breast cancer were included in the study. The mean age at diagnosis was 44.58 ± 11.16 years. Out of the total patients, 68 (56.7%) were above 40 years old, 108 (90%) were married, 94 (78.3%) were multiparous, and 88 (73.3%) had a history of breastfeeding. 33.3% of cases were within the age range of menopause (40-50 years). The positive expression rates of ER, PR, and Her2/neu were found to be 48.8%, 44.6%, and 44.6%, respectively, and Her2/neu overexpression was found to be higher among ER/PR-negative cases.

CONCLUSION: In our study, we demonstrated that among Afghan women, grade II invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified, was the most common type of BC and frequently affected women above the age of 40. We also revealed that the percentage of negative ER (50.4%), negative PR (54.4%), and concordant ER/PR-negative cases were high compared to other possibilities. Additionally, the study revealed that expression of Her2/neu was in contrast with the expression of ER and PR receptors. The findings of our study still support the importance of performing immunohistochemical stains for hormonal receptor classification in terms of better clinical outcomes and prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Lopez-Vazquez P, Fernandez-Caggiano M, Barge-Caballero E, et al (2024)

Reduced mitochondrial pyruvate carrier expression in hearts with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction patients: ischemic vs. non-ischemic origin.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 11:1349417.

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) mediates the entry of pyruvate into mitochondria, determining whether pyruvate is incorporated into the Krebs cycle or metabolized in the cytosol. In heart failure (HF), a large amount of pyruvate is metabolized to lactate in the cytosol rather than being oxidized inside the mitochondria. Thus, MPC activity or expression might play a key role in the fate of pyruvate during HF. The purpose of this work was to study the levels of the two subunits of this carrier, named MPC1 and MPC2, in human hearts with HF of different etiologies.

METHODS: Protein and mRNA expression analyses were conducted in cardiac tissues from three donor groups: patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC), and donors without cardiac pathology (Control). MPC2 plasma levels were determined by ELISA.

RESULTS: Significant reductions in the levels of MPC1, MPC2, and Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) were observed in ICM patients compared with the levels in the Control group. However, no statistically significant differences were revealed in the analysis of MPC1 and MPC2 gene expression among the groups. Interestingly, Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) subunits expression were increased in the ICM patients. In the case of IDC patients, a significant decrease in MPC1 was observed only when compared with the Control group. Notably, plasma MPC2 levels were found to be elevated in both disease groups compared with that in the Control group.

CONCLUSION: Decreases in MPC1 and/or MPC2 levels were detected in the cardiac tissues of HFrEF patients, with ischemic or idiopatic origen, indicating a potential reduction in mitochondrial pyruvate uptake in the heart, which could be linked to unfavorable clinical features.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Seth A, EM Slama (2024)

Delayed Diagnosis of Inflammatory Breast Cancer Presenting as Acute Mastitis in a Patient One Month Postpartum.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare yet aggressive form of invasive ductal carcinoma, with a poor prognosis and decreased 5-year survival rates. Characteristic findings for IBC include rapid onset of breast edema, peau d'orange appearance, and involvement of the breast skin. Additionally, diagnosis is confirmed with a skin punch biopsy. With such nonspecific features, IBC can be mistaken for benign etiologies, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment. This patient is a 44-year-old woman presenting with left breast swelling while concurrently breastfeeding. Following antibiotic treatment but no symptom resolution, the patient was referred out for further follow-up. Despite multiple imaging studies, suggesting benign findings, clinical suspicion prompted continued evaluation and finally diagnosis of triple-negative inflammatory breast cancer with distant metastases. Further awareness of the presentation of IBC and its mimicking of other disease processes such as mastitis is paramount to earlier detection and improved outcomes in future patients.

RevDate: 2024-03-27
CmpDate: 2024-03-26

Yanase Y, Bando H, Sato R, et al (2024)

Recurrent severe hypocalcemia following chemotherapy regimen changes in advanced breast cancer: two case reports.

Journal of medical case reports, 18(1):150.

BACKGROUND: As an oncologic emergency related to abnormalities in calcium metabolism, hypercalcemia associated with paraneoplastic syndrome and bone metastases is well known. Meanwhile, the incidence of hypocalcemia is low, except in cases associated with bone-modifying agents used for bone metastases. Hypocalcemia induced by bone-modifying agents typically occurs early after the initial administration, and its incidence can be significantly reduced by preventive administration of calcium and vitamin D3 supplements.

CASE REPORT: We report two cases of recurrent severe hypocalcemia occurring during chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer with multiple bone metastases. Case 1: A 35-year-old Japanese woman developed metastases in the bone, liver, and ovaries during postoperative endocrine therapy for invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast. She underwent chemotherapy and treatment with denosumab. She experienced recurrent episodes of severe hypocalcemia subsequent to a change in the chemotherapy regimen. Case 2: A 65-year-old Japanese woman encountered multiple bone metastases after postoperative anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 therapy and during endocrine therapy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. She underwent anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 therapy and treatment with denosumab. She experienced recurrent severe hypocalcemia subsequent to a change in the chemotherapy regimen to letrozole + lapatinib, trastuzumab emtansine, and lapatinib + capecitabine.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed two cases of recurrent severe hypocalcemia in patients with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases after modifications to their therapy regimens. These cases differed from the typical hypocalcemia induced by bone-modifying agents. It is possible that antitumor drugs affect calcium and bone metabolism associated with bone metastases. While these cases are rare, it is crucial for oncologists to be aware of hypocalcemia not only at the initiation of bone-modifying agents but also throughout the entire antitumor therapy, as hypocalcemia can lead to fatal outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-03-18
CmpDate: 2024-03-18

Heidari N, Abbasi-Kenarsari H, Niknam B, et al (2024)

Exosomes Derived from Heat-shocked Tumor Cells Promote In vitro Maturation of Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells.

Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology, 23(1):97-106.

Dendritic cells (DCs), professional antigen-presenting cells that process and deliver antigens using MHC II/I molecules, can be enhanced in numerous ways. Exosomes derived from heat-shocked tumor cells (HS-TEXs) contain high amounts of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs, as chaperons, can induce DC maturation. This study aimed to investigate whether HS-TEXs can promote DC maturation. To generate DC, bone marrow-derived cells were treated with Interleukin-4 and GM-CSF. Exosomes were isolated from heat-treated CT-26 cells. The expression level of HSP in exosomes was checked by western blot and the increase in the expression of this protein was observed. Then, HS-TEXs were co-cultured with iDCs to determine DC maturity, and then DCs were co-cultured with lymphocytes to determine DC activity. Our results showed that DCs treated with HS-TEXs express high levels of molecules involved in DC maturation and function including MHCII, CD40, CD83, and CD86. HS-TEXs caused phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs. In addition, flow cytometric results reflected a higher proliferative response of lymphocytes in the iDC / Tex + HSP group. HS-TEXs could be used as a strategy to improve DC maturation and activation.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Shi Y, Wang H, Golijanin B, et al (2024)

Ductal, intraductal, and cribriform carcinoma of the prostate: Molecular characteristics and clinical management.

Urologic oncology, 42(5):144-154.

Prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma accounts for approximately 95% of prostate cancer (CaP) cases. The remaining 5% of histologic subtypes of CaP are known to be more aggressive and have recently garnered substantial attention. These histologic subtypes - namely, prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P), and cribriform carcinoma of the prostate (CC-P) - typically exhibit distinct growth characteristics, genomic features, and unique oncologic outcomes. For example, PTEN mutations, which cause uncontrolled cell growth, are frequently present in IDC-P and CC-P. Germline mutations in homologous DNA recombination repair (HRR) genes (e.g., BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, PALB2, and CHEK2) are discovered in 40% of patients with IDC-P, while only 9% of patients without ductal involvement had a germline mutation. CC-P is associated with deletions in common tumor suppressor genes, including PTEN, TP53, NKX3-1, MAP3K7, RB1, and CHD1. Evidence suggests abiraterone may be superior to docetaxel as a first-line treatment for patients with IDC-P. To address these and other critical pathological attributes, this review examines the molecular pathology, genetics, treatments, and oncologic outcomes associated with CC-P, PDA, and IDC-P with the objective of creating a comprehensive resource with a centralized repository of information on PDA, IDC-P, and CC-P.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Niu Q, Li H, Du L, et al (2024)

Development of a Multi-Parametric ultrasonography nomogram for prediction of invasiveness in ductal carcinoma in situ.

European journal of radiology, 175:111415.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent risk variables associated with the potential invasiveness of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on multi-parametric ultrasonography, and further construct a nomogram for risk assessment.

METHODS: Consecutive patients from January 2017 to December 2022 who were suspected of having ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) based on magnetic resonance imaging or mammography were prospectively enrolled. Histopathological findings after surgical resection served as the gold standard. Grayscale ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound, shear wave elastography (SWE), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) examinations were preoperative performed. Binary logistic regression was used for multifactorial analysis to identify independent risk factors from multi-parametric ultrasonography. The correlation between independent risk factors and pathological prognostic markers was analyzed. The predictive efficacy of DCIS associated with invasiveness was assessed by logistic analysis, and a nomogram was established.

RESULTS: A total of 250 DCIS lesions were enrolled from 249 patients, comprising 85 pure DCIS and 165 DCIS with invasion (DCIS-IDC), of which 41 exhibited micro-invasion. The multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for DCIS with invasion on multi-parametric ultrasonography, including image size (>2cm), Doppler ultrasound RI (≥0.72), SWE's Emax (≥66.4 kPa), hyper-enhancement, centripetal enhancement, increased surrounding vessel, and no contrast agent retention on CEUS. These factors correlated with histological grade, Ki-67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (P < 0.1). The multi-parametric ultrasound approach demonstrated good predictive performance (sensitivity 89.7 %, specificity 73.8 %, AUC 0.903), surpassing single US modality or combinations with SWE or CEUS modalities. Utilizing these factors, a predictive nomogram achieved a respectable performance (AUC of 0.889) for predicting DCIS with invasion. Additionally, a separate nomogram for predicting DCIS with micro-invasion, incorporating independent risk factors such as RI (≥0.72), SWE's Emax (≥65.2 kPa), and centripetal enhancement, demonstrated an AUC of 0.867.

CONCLUSION: Multi-parametric ultrasonography demonstrates good discriminatory ability in predicting both DCIS with invasion and micro-invasion through the analysis of lesion morphology, stiffness, neovascular architecture, and perfusion. The use of a nomogram based on ultrasonographic images offers an intuitive and effective method for assessing the risk of invasion in DCIS. Although the nomogram is not currently considered a clinically applicable diagnostic tool due to its AUC being below the threshold of 0.9, further research and development are anticipated to yield positive outcomes and enhance its viability for clinical utilization.

RevDate: 2024-03-10

Turhan Ş, Sultan DAO, Altuner EM, et al (2024)

Determination of radon concentrations and physicochemical parameters of non-alcoholic carbonated beverages consumed in Türkiye and assessment of radiological health risk.

International journal of environmental health research [Epub ahead of print].

The strategy for controlling the existence of radionuclides in drinking water depends upon an individual dose criterion (IDC) of 0.1 mSv/y, which represents a very low level of risk that is not expected to cause any identified adverse health effects. Radon gas, considered a carcinogenic radionuclide, can dissolve and accumulate in drinking water. Non-alcoholic carbonated beverages (NACBs), which mainly contain drinking water, phosphoric acid, citric acid, caffeine, and sugar, represent one of the most consumed groups worldwide and in Türkiye. In this study, the radon activity concentration and some physicochemical characteristics of 45 NACB samples from 24 most preferred commercial brands in Türkiye were determined to assess the radiological health risk associated with the ingestion of these samples. Radon activity concentrations measured in NACB samples using the AlphaGUARD radon analyzer ranged from 22.8 ± 0.7 to 54.9 ± 1.7 mBq/L. The pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, and brix values in NACB samples ranged from 2.31 to 7.29, 401 to 3281 μSv/cm, 355 to 2453 mg/L, and 0.10 to 12.95%, respectively. Total (ingestion and inhalation) annual effective doses and the corresponding excess lifetime cancer risks estimated for adults to assess the radiological health risk are significantly below the IDC and advised safety limit (10[-3]), respectively.

RevDate: 2024-03-08
CmpDate: 2024-03-08

Saeed U, Uppal R, Khan AA, et al (2024)

Analytical assessment of clinical sensitivity and specificities of pharmaceutical rapid SARS-CoV-2 detection nasopharyngeal swab testing kits in Pakistan.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 84:e265550 pii:S1519-69842024000101101.

Despite of the global unity against COVID-19 pandemic, the threat of SARS-CoV-2 variants on the lives of human being is still not over. SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has urged the need of rapid viral detection at earliest. To cope with gradually expanding scenario of SARS-CoV-2, accurate diagnosis is extremely crucial factor which should be noticed by international health organizations. Limited research followed by sporadic marketing of SARS-CoV-2 rapid pharmaceutical detection kits raises critical questions against quality assurance and quality control measures. Herein we aimed to interrogate effectivity and specificity analysis of SARS-CoV-2 pharmaceutical rapid detection kits (nasopharyngeal swab based) using conventional gold standard triple target real-time polymerase chain reaction (USFDA approved). A cross-sectional study was conducted over 1500 suspected SARS-CoV-2 patients. 100 real time-PCR confirmed patients were evaluated for pharmaceutical RDT kits based upon nasopharyngeal swab based kits. The SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab based rapid diagnostic kit (NSP RDTs) analysis showed 78% reactivity. Among real time PCR confirmed negative subjects, 49.3% represented false positivity. The positive predictive analysis revealed 67.82%, while negative predictive values were 64.40%. The NSP RDTs showed limited sensitivities and specificities as compared to gold standard real time PCR. Valid and authentic detection of SARS-CoV-2 is deemed necessary for accurate COVID-19 surveillance across the globe. Current study highlights the potential consequences of inadequate detection of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging novel mutants, compromising vaccine preventable diseases. Current study emphasizes need to wake higher authorities including strategic organizations for designing adequate measures to prevent future SARS-CoV-2 epidemics.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Chuang ML (2024)

Analyzing key elements of breathing patterns, deriving remaining variables, and identifying cutoff values in individuals with chronic respiratory disease and healthy subjects.

Respiratory physiology & neurobiology, 324:104242.

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary physiology encompasses intricate breathing patterns (BPs), characterized by breathing frequency (Bf), volumes, and flows. The complexities intensify in the presence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially during exercise. This study seeks to identify pivotal factors driving changes among these variables and establish cutoff values, comparing their efficacy in differentiating BPs to traditional methods, specifically a breathing reserve (BR) of 30% and a Bf of 50 bpm.

METHODS: Screening 267 subjects revealed 23 with ILD, 126 with COPD, 33 healthy individuals, and the exclusion of 85 subjects. Lung function tests and ramp-pattern cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were conducted, identifying crucial BP elements. Changes were compared between groups at peak exercise. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis determined cutoff values.

RESULTS: Inspiratory time (TI) remained constant at peak exercise for all subjects (two-group comparisons, all p=NS). Given known differences in expiratory time (TE) and tidal volume (VT) among ILD, COPD, and healthy states, constant TI could infer patterns for Bf, total breathing cycle time (TTOT=60/Bf), I:E ratio, inspiratory duty cycle (IDC, TI/TTOT), rapid shallow breathing index (Bf/VT), tidal inspiratory and expiratory flows (VT/TI and VT/TE), and minute ventilation (V̇E=Bf×VT) across conditions. These inferences aligned with measurements, with potential type II errors causing inconsistencies. RSBI of 23 bpm/L and VT/TI of 104 L/min may differentiate ILD from control, while V̇E of 54 L/min, BR of 30%, and VT/TE of 108 may differentiate COPD from control. BR of 21%, TE of 0.99 s, and IDC of .45 may differentiate ILD from COPD. The algorithm outperformed traditional methods (AUC 0.84-0.91 versus 0.59-0.90).

CONCLUSION: The quasi-fixed TI, in conjunction with TE and VT, proves effective in inferring time-related variables of BPs. The findings have the potential to significantly enhance medical education in interpreting cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Moreover, the study introduces a novel algorithm for distinguishing BPs among individuals with ILD, COPD, and those who are healthy.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-03-25

Hu J, Chen X, Sun F, et al (2024)

Identification of recurrent BRAF non-V600 mutations in intraductal carcinoma of the prostate in Chinese populations.

Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), 50:100983.

While BRAF alterations have been established as a driver in various solid malignancies, the characterization of BRAF alterations in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been thoroughly interrogated. By bioinformatics analysis, we first found that BRAF alterations were associated with advanced PCa and exhibited mutually exclusive pattern with ERG alteration across multiple cohorts. Of the most interest, recurrent non-V600 BRAF mutations were found in 3 of 21 (14.3 %) PCa patients demonstrating IDC-P morphology. Furthermore, experimental overexpression of BRAF[K601E] and BRAF[L597R] exhibited emergence of oncogenic phenotypes with intensified MAPK signaling in vitro, which could be targeted by MEK inhibitors. Comparison of the incidence of BRAF alterations in IDC-P between western and Chinese ancestry revealed an increased prevalence in the Chinese population. The BRAF mutation may represent important genetic alteration in a subset of IDC-P, highlighting the role of MAPK signaling pathway in this subtype of PCa. To the best of knowledge, this is the first description of non-V600 BRAF mutation in setting of IDC-P, which may in part explain the aggressive phenotype seen in IDC-P and could also bring more treatment options for PCa patients with IDC-P harboring such mutations.

RevDate: 2024-04-30
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Maggi G, Loayza F, Vitale C, et al (2024)

Anatomical correlates of apathy and impulsivity co-occurrence in early Parkinson's disease.

Journal of neurology, 271(5):2798-2809.

BACKGROUND: Although apathy and impulse control disorders (ICDs) are considered to represent opposite extremes of a continuum of motivated behavior (i.e., hypo- and hyperdopaminergic behaviors), they may also co-occur in Parkinson's disease (PD).

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the co-occurrence of ICDs and apathy and its neural correlates analyzing gray matter (GM) changes in early untreated PD patients. Moreover, we aimed to investigate the possible longitudinal relationship between ICDs and apathy and their putative impact on cognition during the first five years of PD.

METHODS: We used the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database to identify the co-occurrence of apathy and ICDs in 423 early drug-naïve PD patients at baseline and at 5-year follow-up. Baseline MRI volumes and gray matter changes were analyzed between groups using voxel-based morphometry. Multi-level models assessed the longitudinal relationship (across five years) between apathy and ICDs and cognitive functioning.

RESULTS: At baseline, co-occurrence of apathy and ICDs was observed in 23 patients (5.4%). This finding was related to anatomical GM reduction along the cortical regions involved in the limbic circuit and cognitive control systems. Longitudinal analyses indicated that apathy and ICDs were related to each other as well as to the combined use of levodopa and dopamine agonists. Worse apathetic and ICDs states were associated with poorer executive functions.

CONCLUSIONS: Apathy and ICDs are joint non-exclusive neuropsychiatric disorders also in the early stages of PD and their co-occurrence was associated with GM decrease in several cortical regions of the limbic circuit and cognitive control systems.

RevDate: 2024-04-26
CmpDate: 2024-04-09

Ruan GJ, Zanwar S, Ravindran A, et al (2024)

Clinical characteristics, molecular aberrations, treatments, and outcomes of malignant histiocytosis.

American journal of hematology, 99(5):871-879.

Malignant histiocytosis (MH) is an extremely rare neoplasm of the macrophage-dendritic cell lineage. We report the clinical characteristics, molecular aberrations, treatments, and outcomes of patients with MH seen at two referral centers from January 2000 to May 2023. We identified 43 patients with MH, of which 26 had histiocytic sarcoma (MH-H), 9 interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (MH-IDC), and 8 Langerhans cell sarcoma (MH-LC). The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 3-83). Thirty-three patients (77%) had multifocal disease, while 10 had unifocal involvement. Tumor specimens from 22 patients (51%) underwent targeted next generation sequencing, and 19 of 22 (86%) had at least one pathogenic mutation, including mutations in MAPK pathway genes (73%). The median overall survival (OS) among the entire cohort was 16 months (95% CI: 8-50). The outcomes of those with multifocal disease were significantly shorter than their unifocal counterpart: median OS of 10 months versus 50 months (p = .07). Patients with risk organ involvement (bone marrow, spleen, or liver) had significantly inferior outcomes. Chemotherapy and surgery were the most common first-line treatments for multifocal and unifocal disease, respectively. While the outcome for patients with multifocal disease was poor, there was a subset of patients who had durable responses to treatment. Our study highlights that MH has heterogeneous clinical presentation, frequent oncogenic mutations, and prognosis, which is strongly tied to disease extent and type of organ involvement.

RevDate: 2024-02-27
CmpDate: 2024-02-27

Asad S, Khan SA, Khan FA, et al (2023)

Pattern Of Breast Cancer: Experience At Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad.

Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC, 35(4):629-632.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy found in females all over the world and the second leading cause of cancer death in European countries. The purpose of this study was to find out the pattern of disease presentation in our region where a proper tumour registry system is lacking.

METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Surgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad, from July 2021 to June 2022. All female patients with biopsy-proven breast cancer were included in the study: benign lumps, refused to enrol, and those who were lost to follow-up were excluded.

RESULTS: A total of 87 patients with carcinoma breast were included: 92 % (n=80) had invasive ductal carcinoma. Axillary lymph nodes were involved in 88.5% (n=77), 75.8% of the tumours, (n=66), were Grade 2, 34.5% (n=30) were in the 40-49 years age group, and 30 % (n=27) of the disease was categorized as Stage III or IV. In 55 % (n=48), the tumour was on the right side and in 39% (n=34), the upper outer quadrant was involved. Most of the patients, 90.8% (n=79), were married and had used contraceptive measures. Only 19.5% of patients (n=17), had a history of nipple discharge and 56% (n=49) had a positive family history: 71% (n=62) had nipple retraction, and 54% (n=47), proved to be ER PR positive.

CONCLUSIONS: Our patients presented late: axilla was commonly involved and a third had advanced disease. Screening and community awareness programs may help in early detection. Hormone use for contraception needs to be weighed carefully. Better data collection may help in designing screening and care programs.

RevDate: 2024-02-27
CmpDate: 2024-02-27

Bhunisha, Haider G, Shaikh Z, et al (2023)

Significance of ca15-3 in carcinoma of the breast with Visceral metastases.

Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC, 35(Suppl 1)(4):S710-S714.

BACKGROUND: The most common malignancy and second most common cause of death is breast cancer among women. About 2.09 million fatalities from breast cancer happened in 2018. The objective was to evaluate the elevated CA15-3 in breast cancer patients with visceral metastases presenting at the tertiary care hospital of Karachi.

METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Oncology of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center from 15th December 2018 to 15th November 2019. Female patients aged 26-80 years diagnosed with visceral metastatic (defined as metastasis to lung, liver, brain and adrenal glands) breast cancer were included in the study. The diagnosis of breast cancer was confirmed on histopathology whereas the metastatic sites were evaluated using physical examination and imaging. The serum CA15-3 concentration was assessed using assay kits. The serum CA15-3 level of 0-32 U/ml was taken as normal range for all the patients whereas CA15-3 level greater than 32 U/L was considered as elevated CA15-3. SPSS version 23 was used to enter and analyze data.

RESULTS: A total of 139 females were included in the study. The mean age & BMI of the patients were reported as 46.5 years & 26.69 kg/m2. In the majority of the patients' metastases were detected in the liver (n=54), 92 in the lungs+ parenchymal disease, 20 in adrenal glands, 12 in pleural effusion and 10 in the brain. Out of 139 patients with visceral metastases, 52(37.4%) had normal CA15-3 level whereas 87 (62.6%) had elevated serum CA15-3 levels (>32 U/L).

CONCLUSION: The serum CA15-3 tumour marker is elevated significantly in visceral metastases and can be used as a prognostic marker in metastatic breast cancer patients.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Khan MRR (2024)

Development of a Battery-Free, Chipless, and Highly Sensitive Radio Frequency Glucose Biosensor.

Micromachines, 15(2):.

In our study, we designed and developed a glucose biosensor that operates without a battery or chip. This biosensor utilizes the principles of radio frequency (RF) to operate. For the construction of a glucose-sensitive interdigitated capacitor (IDC), a famous glucose-sensitive substance called phenylboronic acid (PBA) is combined with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) solution. According to the theory of radio frequency sensing, the resonance frequency shifts whenever there is a change in the capacitance of the glucose-sensitive IDC. This change is caused by the fluctuations in glucose concentrations. As far as we are aware, this is the first glucose sensor that employs the RF principle to detect changes in glucose solution concentrations using PBA as the principal glucose-sensitive material. The sensor can detect glucose levels with remarkable sensitivity, around 40.89 kHz/decade, and a broad dynamic range covering 10 μM to 1 M. Additionally, the designed biosensor has excellent linearity performance, with a value of around 0.988. The proposed glucose biosensor has several benefits: lightweight, inexpensive, easy to build, and an acceptable selectivity response. Our study concludes by comparing the proposed RF sensor's effectiveness to that of existing glucose sensors, which it outperforms.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Matsumoto T, Tanaka G, Mori S, et al (2024)

A resected case of pancreatic head cancer developing 40 years after lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis.

Clinical journal of gastroenterology, 17(3):537-542.

A 72-year-old male patient presented to our department complaining of with upper abdominal pain and jaundice. He had a history of a side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy performed 40 years previously for chronic pancreatitis. A diagnostic workup revealed a tumor 3 cm in size in the pancreatic head as the etiology of the jaundice. Subsequently, the patient was diagnosed with resectable pancreatic cancer. Following two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, an extended pancreatoduodenectomy was performed because of tumor invasion at the previous pancreaticojejunostomy site. Concurrent portal vein resection and reconstruction were performed. Pathological examination confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma (T2N1M0, Stage IIB). This case highlights the clinical challenges in pancreatic head carcinoma following a side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy. Although pancreaticojejunostomy is believed to reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis, clinicians should be aware that, even after this surgery, there is still a chance of developing pancreatic cancer during long-term follow-up.

RevDate: 2024-02-24
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Zhu S, Xu N, H Zeng (2024)

Molecular complexity of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate.

Cancer medicine, 13(2):e6939.

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is an aggressive subtype of prostate cancer characterized by the growth of tumor cells within the prostate ducts. It is often found alongside invasive carcinoma and is associated with poor prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving IDC-P is crucial for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment strategies. This review summarizes the molecular characteristics of IDC-P and their prognostic indications, comparing them to conventional prostate acinar adenocarcinoma, to gain insights into its unique behavior and identify potential therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Bufman H, Faermann R, Halshtok-Neiman O, et al (2024)

Breast cancer diagnosed after age 70 years in Israeli BRCA1/BRCA2 pathogenic sequence variant carriers: a single institution experience.

Breast cancer research and treatment, 205(2):281-285.

PURPOSE: A semi-annual surveillance scheme from age 25 to 30 years is offered to BRCA1/BRCA2 pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs) carriers for early detection of breast cancer (BC). There is a paucity of data on the yield of adhering to this scheme beyond 70 years of age.

METHODS: Female BRCA1/BRCA2 PSV carriers followed at the Meirav high-risk clinic, Sheba Medical center, Israel were eligible. Type and frequencies if use of Imaging modalities, breast biopsies and histological outcomes for participants after age 70 years were retrieved and analyzed.

RESULTS: Overall, the study encompassed 88 consenting participants (46 BRCA1 carriers) mean age ± SD 73.7 ± 3.3 years (range 70-90 years), followed for an average of 3.8 years (range 1-11 years). Ten carriers (11.3%) were diagnosed with BC after age 70 years (mean age at diagnosis 72 ± 2 years) and an additional case was diagnosed with breast lymphoma. The imaging modality that has led to most diagnoses was MRI (8/11 cases). Eight of these ten cases were previously diagnosed with BC prior to age 70 and in six, BC past 70 years was in the contralateral breast. The lesions size averaged 1.29 ± 0.75 cm, with IDC and DCIS diagnosed in five cases each, and none had lymph node involvement.

CONCLUSION: In ~10% of BRCA1/BRCA2 PSV carriers BC is diagnosed by breast imaging after age 70 years. If these results are validated in a larger study, the guidelines for the maximum age for BC surveillance in high risk women should be revisited and set at 75 years.

RevDate: 2024-03-27
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Piracha ZZ, U Saeed (2023)

Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 (LRIG1) is downregulated in Invasive ductal carcinoma and potential prognostic marker of breast cancer.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 19(7):1870-1879.

BACKGROUND: LRIG1 belongs to the family of transmembrane proteins containing leucine-rich repeats. LRIGs are considered as tumor suppressors as they negatively regulate receptor tyrosine kinases. The role of LRIG1 as an EGFR regulator makes it an important marker to be studied in various epithelial-derived cancers.

METHODS: LRIG1 expression was determined in Erbb2 + cell lines by western blotting, and cell motility was examined by cell migration assay. The AKT/GSK3-β/β-catenin pathway was determined in the presence of LRIG1 and Erbb2 by using western blotting.

RESULTS: So far, no study has reported the expression of LRIG1 in benign forms of tumor such as fibroadenoma. The current study aims to analyze LRIG1 expression in fibroadenoma and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissues. In this study, we compared the LRIG1 expression with different clinicopathological parameters of patients having IDC or fibroadenoma. LRIG1 expression was low in Erbb2+ cell lines, and more cell motility was observed. The AKT/GSK3-β/β-catenin pathway was activated when LRIG1 was downregulated; consequently, Erbb2 was upregulated. Our results indicated that LRIG1 expression can be significantly correlated with age, Nottingham index, and Her2/neu status of cancer. The expression of LRIG1 in IDC and fibroadenoma were found to be significantly different.

CONCLUSION: The fibroadenoma tissue sections were found to express LRIG1 more intensely as compared to the IDC sections, which are in line with the studies reporting reduced copy number of the gene either due to gene deletion or transcriptional inhibition. This further supports that the downregulation of LRIG1 may lead to malignant tumor acting as a tumor suppressor.

RevDate: 2024-03-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Liu XS, Chen YX, Wan HB, et al (2024)

TRIP6 a potential diagnostic marker for colorectal cancer with glycolysis and immune infiltration association.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4042.

Thyroid hormone receptor interactor 6 (TRIP6) it is an adaptor protein belonging to the zyxin family of LIM proteins, participating in signaling events through interactions with various molecules. Despite this, TRIP6's role in colorectal cancer (CRC), particularly its correlation with glucose metabolism and immune cell infiltration, remains unclear. Through the TCGA and GEO databases, we obtained RNA sequencing data to facilitate our in-depth study and analysis of TRIP6 expression. To investigate the prognostic value of TRIP6 in CRC, we also used univariate Cox regression analysis. In addition, this study also covered a series of analyses, including clinicopathological analysis, functional enrichment analysis, glycolysis correlation analysis, immunoinfiltration analysis, immune checkpoint analysis, and angiogenesis correlation analysis, to gain a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of this biological phenomenon. It has been found that TRIP6 expression is significantly upregulated in CRC and correlates with the stage of the disease. Its overexpression portends a worse survival time. Functional enrichment analysis reveals that TRIP6 is associated with focal adhesion and glycolysis. Mechanistically, TRIP6 appears to exert its tumorigenic effect by regulating the glycolysis-related gene GPI. A higher level of expression of TRIP6 is associated with an increase in the number of iDC immune cells and a decrease in the number of Th1 immune cells. Also, TRIP6 may promote angiogenesis in tumor cells by promoting the expression of JAG2. Our study uncovers the upregulation of TRIP6 in CRC, illuminating its prognostic and diagnostic value within this context. Furthermore, we examine the relationship between TRIP6 expression levels, glycolysis, angiogenesis and immune cell infiltration. This underscores its potential as a biomarker for CRC treatment and as a therapeutic target.

RevDate: 2024-03-18

Gomez D, S Seneviratne (2024)

Invasive breast carcinoma with ipsilateral axillary squamous carcinoma of unknown primary: A case report.

International journal of surgery case reports, 116:109397.

INTRODUCTION & IMPORTANCE: Invasive ductal carcinoma is the commonest primary breast carcinoma to metastasize to the axillary nodes. Squamous carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is seen rarely as a primary breast malignancy. Breast SCC with coexistent invasive ductal/lobular carcinoma as a 'collision tumour' is rare.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Sri Lankan female presented with a right sided breast lump and ipsilateral cystic axillary mass. She was diagnosed with locally advanced invasive breast carcinoma and underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy and axillary clearance where tumour infiltration of the brachial plexus was observed. Histology revealed two separate carcinomas; an invasive carcinoma of the breast and squamous carcinoma in the axilla. A squamous primary was not found despite evaluation. The patient developed recurrent axillary ulceration due to residual tumour and was transferred for oncological care.

CLINICAL DISCUSSION: This patient had a biopsy-proven invasive breast carcinoma with a cystic axillary mass with lymphadenopathy. This was concluded as locally advanced breast cancer. Pathological examination of the specimen indicated the presence of two separate malignancies of the breast and axilla. No evidence of squamous metaplasia or carcinoma of the breast was seen on histology, neither was a squamous primary identified on imaging or endoscopy. Neoadjuvant therapy may have caused resolution of the squamous component.

CONCLUSION: The presence of two separate cancers of varied histology in the breast and ipsilateral axilla in close proximity to each other is a rare phenomenon. Clinicians must be cautious not to misinterpret it as evidence of lymphatic spread.

RevDate: 2024-03-04
CmpDate: 2024-02-14

Santos MM, Baerga CG, Lamsal S, et al (2023)

Breast cancer in a Hispanic patient with Werner syndrome.

Journal of radiology case reports, 17(10):21-31.

Werner Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by premature aging and increased risk of malignancies due to gene mutations associated with DNA stability. We present the first case report of a 29-year-old Hispanic female with WS diagnosed with breast cancer. Diagnostic mammography and ultrasound, breast MRI and PET examinations revealed two lesions biopsy proven as invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical mastectomy. Recurrence occurred 10 months postoperatively with molecular analysis demonstrating TP53 mutations. The multifactorial assessment of breast cancer in this case study is crucial towards optimizing screening, diagnosis and management of this disease in patients with WS.

RevDate: 2024-02-14
CmpDate: 2024-02-14

Ye C, Shi M, Xie D, et al (2024)

A rare case of intervertebral disc calcification combined with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in a child: a case report and literature review.

BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 25(1):118.

BACKGROUND: Intervertebral disc calcification (IDC) combined with calcification in children has been sporadically reported, while ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervical spine in pediatric patients is exceedingly rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential prognosis and outcomes associated with this condition.

CASE PRESENTATION: We present an unusual case involving a 10-year-old Chinese child diagnosed with calcified cervical disc herniation and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Conservative treatment measures were implemented, and at the 1-month and 6-month follow-up, the patient's pain exhibited significant improvement. Subsequent cervical MRI and CT scans revealed the complete disappearance of OPLL and substantial absorption of the calcified disc. During the three-month follow-up, CT demonstrated slight residual disc calcification, however, the patient remained asymptomatic with no discernible limitation in cervical motion.

CONCLUSIONS: We conducted a comprehensive review of several cases presenting with the same diagnosis. It is noteworthy that IDC combined with OPLL in children constitutes a rare clinical entity. Despite imaging indications of potential spinal canal occupation, the majority of such cases demonstrate complete absorption following conservative treatment, with OPLL exhibiting a faster absorption rate than calcified discs.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-14

Fang L, Simman R, Workman L, et al (2024)

Malignant wound aetiology, diagnosis and management: a case series and literature review.

Journal of wound care, 33(2):102-117.

OBJECTIVE: Malignant wounds develop when neoplastic cells invade the skin either locally or by lymphatic and haematogenous spread. They can present as hard-to-heal wounds and underlying causes include: primary skin cancer; metastasis of extracutaneous primary malignancy; malignant transformation of a hard-to-heal wound; iatrogenic injury; and cutaneous forms of cancers of non-skin origin. High clinical suspicion for a malignant wound should be confirmed with skin biopsy. The aim of this case series is to highlight a combination of both clinically clear cutaneous malignancies and not-so-obvious wounds caused by malignancy.

METHOD: This case series examines patients with malignant wounds of varying aetiology and appearance. For each case, we explain the pathophysiology, atypical features, diagnostic approach and treatment. We also discuss types of wound biopsy and general wound management principles.

RESULTS: Among the 11 cases analysed using descriptive statistics, median wound duration before presentation at our clinic was one year, while median age at presentation was 65 years. Our case series included the following diagnoses: cutaneous metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (n=2); cutaneous metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma (n=1); Marjolin's ulcer (n=1), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (n=2), primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=1), metastatic malignant melanoma (n=1), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (n=1), cutaneous angiosarcoma (n=1), Kaposi sarcoma (n=1) and recurrent tonsillar SCC with osteoradionecrosis (n=1); one case had both BCC and SCC.

CONCLUSION: Punch and excisional biopsies were the most frequently used diagnostic techniques. Local wound therapy addressed bleeding, malodour, exudate, pain and infection. However, wound healing is usually achieved once the underlying malignancy is treated. In advanced or metastatic disease, palliative wound care aims to prevent exacerbation of existing wounds and focuses on patient comfort.

RevDate: 2024-03-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-09

Verma VK, Beevi SS, Nair RA, et al (2024)

MicroRNA signatures differentiate types, grades, and stages of breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC): miRNA-target interacting signaling pathways.

Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 22(1):100.

BACKGROUND: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common form of breast cancer which accounts for 85% of all breast cancer diagnoses. Non-invasive and early stages have a better prognosis than late-stage invasive cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. The involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the initiation and progression of breast cancer holds great promise for the development of molecular tools for early diagnosis and prognosis. Therefore, developing a cost effective, quick and robust early detection protocol using miRNAs for breast cancer diagnosis is an imminent need that could strengthen the health care system to tackle this disease around the world.

METHODS: We have analyzed putative miRNAs signatures in 100 breast cancer samples using two independent high fidelity array systems. Unique and common miRNA signatures from both array systems were validated using stringent double-blind individual TaqMan assays and their expression pattern was confirmed with tissue microarrays and northern analysis. In silico analysis were carried out to find miRNA targets and were validated with q-PCR and immunoblotting. In addition, functional validation using antibody arrays was also carried out to confirm the oncotargets and their networking in different pathways. Similar profiling was carried out in Brca2/p53 double knock out mice models using rodent miRNA microarrays that revealed common signatures with human arrays which could be used for future in vivo functional validation.

RESULTS: Expression profile revealed 85% downregulated and 15% upregulated microRNAs in the patient samples of IDC. Among them, 439 miRNAs were associated with breast cancer, out of which 107 miRNAs qualified to be potential biomarkers for the stratification of different types, grades and stages of IDC after stringent validation. Functional validation of their putative targets revealed extensive miRNA network in different oncogenic pathways thus contributing to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cellular plasticity.

CONCLUSION: This study revealed potential biomarkers for the robust classification as well as rapid, cost effective and early detection of IDC of breast cancer. It not only confirmed the role of these miRNAs in cancer development but also revealed the oncogenic pathways involved in different progressive grades and stages thus suggesting a role in EMT and cellular plasticity during breast tumorigenesis per se and IDC in particular. Thus, our findings have provided newer insights into the miRNA signatures for the classification and early detection of IDC.

RevDate: 2024-02-07

Youh J, Yamaguchi Y, E Hiraguchi (2024)

Centrifugally Spreading Annular Erythema as a Dermatological Indicator of Metastatic Breast Carcinoma.

Cureus, 16(1):e51641.

Breast cancer is the leading cause of skin metastasis in women with internal malignancies. This report highlights an atypical case of cutaneous metastasis of breast cancer (CMBC) in a 66-year-old woman. Starting four months before her dermatology consultation, the patient underwent a chemotherapy regimen comprising pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and vinorelbine for right breast cancer, right axillary lymph node enlargement, and bone metastases. After commencing chemotherapy, erythematous macules appeared around her right nipple. Subsequently, the cutaneous lesions developed into annular erythematous patches around her right nipple and began to coalesce and expand to the contralateral breast. A skin biopsy revealed dysplastic cells indicative of metastasis from invasive ductal carcinoma. In addition, lymphovascular tumor cell invasion was noted in the reticular dermis. Based on these clinical progressions and histopathologic findings, a diagnosis of CMBC was made, specifically considering the possibility of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The patient continued the same chemotherapy regimen for 17 cycles, which improved the skin lesions, but she succumbed to breast cancer two years later. This case emphasizes the importance of considering CMBC in breast cancer patients with expanding, treatment-resistant thoracic cutaneous lesions, especially in aggressive subtypes like IBC. The diverse presentations of CMBC require thorough histopathological evaluation.

RevDate: 2024-03-04
CmpDate: 2024-03-04

Agaoglu NB, Unal B, Hayes CP, et al (2024)

Genomic disparity impacts variant classification of cancer susceptibility genes in Turkish breast cancer patients.

Cancer medicine, 13(3):e6852.

OBJECTIVE: Turkish genome is underrepresented in large genomic databases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of allele frequency in the Turkish population in determining the clinical utility of germline findings in breast cancer, including invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), mixed invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma (IDC-L), and ductal carcinoma (DC).

METHODS: Two clinic-based cohorts from the Umraniye Research and Training Hospital (URTH) were used in this study: a cohort consisting of 132 women with breast cancer and a non-cancer cohort consisting of 492 participants. The evaluation of the germline landscape was performed by analysis of 27 cancer genes. The frequency and type of variants in the breast cancer cohort were compared to those in the non-cancer cohort to investigate the effect of population genetics. The variant allele frequencies in Turkish Variome and gnomAD were statistically evaluated.

RESULTS: The genetic analysis identified 121 variants in the breast cancer cohort (actionable = 32, VUS = 89) and 223 variants in the non-cancer cohort (actionable = 25, VUS = 188). The occurrence of 21 variants in both suggested a possible genetic population effect. Evaluation of allele frequency of 121 variants from the breast cancer cohort showed 22% had a significantly higher value in Turkish Variome compared to gnomAD (p < 0.0001, 95% CI) with a mean difference of 60 times (ranging from 1.37-354.4). After adjusting for variant allele frequency using the ancestry-appropriate database, 6.7% (5/75) of VUS was reclassified to likely benign.

CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study of population genetic effects in breast cancer subtypes in Turkish women. Our findings underscore the need for a large genomic database representing Turkish population-specific variants. It further highlights the significance of the ancestry-appropriate population database for accurate variant assessment in clinical settings.

RevDate: 2024-02-06
CmpDate: 2024-02-05

Coria LM, Rodriguez JM, Demaria A, et al (2024)

A Gamma-adapted subunit vaccine induces broadly neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants and protects mice from infection.

Nature communications, 15(1):997.

In the context of continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), one strategy to prevent the severe outcomes of COVID-19 is developing safe and effective broad-spectrum vaccines. Here, we present preclinical studies of a RBD vaccine derived from the Gamma SARS-CoV-2 variant adjuvanted with Alum. The Gamma-adapted RBD vaccine is more immunogenic than the Ancestral RBD vaccine in terms of inducing broader neutralizing antibodies. The Gamma RBD presents more immunogenic B-cell restricted epitopes and induces a higher proportion of specific-B cells and plasmablasts than the Ancestral RBD version. The Gamma-adapted vaccine induces antigen specific T cell immune responses and confers protection against Ancestral and Omicron BA.5 SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice. Moreover, the Gamma RBD vaccine induces higher and broader neutralizing antibody activity than homologous booster vaccination in mice previously primed with different SARS-CoV-2 vaccine platforms. Our study indicates that the adjuvanted Gamma RBD vaccine is highly immunogenic and a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate.

RevDate: 2024-02-06
CmpDate: 2024-02-05

Tsilingiris D, Schimpfle L, Κender Z, et al (2024)

Utility of bioelectrical phase angle for cardiovascular risk assessment among individuals with and without diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes & vascular disease research, 21(1):14791641231223701.

PURPOSE: Low values of bioimpedance-derived phase angle (PA) have been associated with various adverse outcomes. We investigated the association of PA with cardiovascular markers in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus (DM).

METHODS: PA was measured in 452 adults (without DM n = 153, T1DM n = 67, T2DM n = 232). Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), renal resistive index (RRI), ankle-brachial index (ABI) and carotid-femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (cfPWV) were estimated. Furthermore, the levels of high-sensitive Troponin-T [hsTnT], N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide [NT-pro-BNP]) were measured.

RESULTS: PA values were lower in DM independently of age, gender, and BMI (estimated marginal means 6.21, 5.83, 5.95 for controls, T1DM, T2DM p < .05), a finding which persisted after propensity score matching. PA correlated negatively with IMT (r = -0.181), RRI (r = -0.374), cfPWV (r = -0.358), hsTnT (r = -0.238) and NT-pro-BNP (r = -0.318) (all p < .001). In multivariable analysis, the associations with RRI, cfPWV, hsTnT and NT-pro-BNP remained unchanged. PA values 6.0-6.5° for males and 5.2-5.8° for females were predictive of commonly used cutoffs. The combination of ΑCC/AHA ASCVD Score with PA outperformed either factor in predicting cfPWV, RRI for males and hsTnT, BNP for both genders.

CONCLUSIONS: PA exhibits independent correlations with various parameters pertinent to cardiovascular risk and may be useful for cardiovascular assessment.

RevDate: 2024-02-06
CmpDate: 2024-02-05

Aoyagi T, Namura M, Sakata H, et al (2023)

[A Case of Recurrent Breast Cancer That Was BRCA1 Pathogenic Variant-Positive Successfully Treated with PARP Inhibitor].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 50(13):1462-1464.

The patient was a 51-year-old woman at the time of diagnosis of left breast cancer. She underwent a mastectomy and axillary dissection. Pathological findings were invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, tumor diameter 25 mm, and metastasis in 2 of 16 removed axillary lymph nodes. The subtype was triple negative. Postoperative chemotherapy was administered, and the patient was followed by follow-up imaging. At the age of 63 years, ultrasonography showed local recurrence, and local mass excision was performed. Genetic abnormalities were suspected since she had a family history of breast cancer, and it was a recurrent case. After genetic counseling, she underwent genetic testing, which revealed a BRCA1 pathogenic variant, so we initiated imaging surveillance. At age 65, a chest CT scan was performed due to respiratory symptoms, and she was diagnosed with multiple lung metastases. Respiratory symptoms improved at the examination 1 month after administration of Poly ADP ribose polymerase(PARP)inhibitor, and the metastatic masses shrank at the CT scan 3 months later. She continues to maintain CR and has no respiratory symptoms at present.

RevDate: 2024-02-06
CmpDate: 2024-02-05

Takeda Y, Ohmura Y, Katsura Y, et al (2023)

[Robotic and Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy for the Elderly Patients-A Single Institutional Experience].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 50(13):1688-1690.

INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy(LPD)has been covered by insurance since 2016 in Japan. Advance LPD and robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy(RPD)has been also covered by insurance since 2020 in Japan. The aim of this study was to analyze the perioperative results and outcomes of RPD and LPD for the elderly patients and to compare to the non-elderly patients.

PATIENTS AND METHOD: Between July 2020 and April 2023, 67 patients underwent RPD and between May 2012 and February 2021, 63 patients underwent LPD at Kansai Rosai Hospital. Sixty-seven RPD and 62 LPD patients without extended resection were divided into 2 groups those who were over 75 years old(R/LPD E)(n=55)and under 74 years old(R/LPD non-E)(n=74). Control patients who received open pancreaticoduodenectomy(OPD)without extended resection between April 2010 and April 2023 were also divided into 2 groups those who were over 75 years old(OPD E)(n =60)and under 74 years old(OPD non-E)(n=78). The patient age was 79.0 and 60.5 years, the male to female ratio was 35/20 and 45/29, disease ratio(invasive ductal carcinoma or not)was 7/48 and 9/65 in R/LPD E and R/LPD non-E groups, respectively. The patient age was 79.0 and 79.5 years, the male to female ratio was 35/20 and 31/29, disease ratio (invasive ductal carcinoma or not)was 7/48 and 30/30(p<0.0001)in R/LPD E and OPD E groups, respectively. This study was approved by the Human Ethics Review Committee of Kansai Rosai Hospital(Certificate Number: 2001019).

RESULTS: The average operation time was 644.6 and 675.2 minutes, an estimated blood loss was 220.8 and 134.4 g, postoperative pancreatic fistula(ISGPS 2016, [-]/BL/Grade B/C)was 24/18/13/0 and 28/25/21/0, delayed gastric emptying(ISGPS 2007, [-]/Grade A/B/C)was 48/0/4/3 and 61/2/6/5 and postoperative hospital stay was 27.9 and 25.9 and in R/LPD E and R/LPD non-E groups, respectively. No significant differences were noted between the groups, However, postoperative complication over Ⅲa Clavien-Dindo classification was 8(15.7%)and 3(4.4%)cases(p=0.0319)in R/LPD E and R/ LPD non-E groups. The average operation time was 644.6 and 492.1 minutes(p<0.0001), an estimated blood loss was 220.8 and 534.8 g(p=0.0004), postoperative pancreatic fistula(ISGPS 2016, [-]/BL/Grade B/C)was 24/18/13/0 and 27/8/24/1(p=0.0442), postoperative hospital stay was 27.9 and 42.0(p=0.0490)in R/LPD E and OPD E groups, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The R/LPD was undergone in safety, even for the over 75 years old patients.

RevDate: 2024-03-06
CmpDate: 2024-01-31

Younas H, Shahid M, Khan Z, et al (2024)

Investigating the association of Angiotensin II Type I Receptor A1166C Polymorphism with Breast Cancer Risk in the Pakistani Population.

Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, 25(1):79-85.

The polymorphisms of the Renin-Angiotensin System are related to many disorders like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and different types of cancer. Among all the polymorphisms related to AGTR1, A1166C has been associated with several disorders, including cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. This study was conducted to discover the association of AGTR1 polymorphism (A1166C) Renin-Angiotensin and its effect on the development and progression of breast cancer in the Pakistani population. One hundred forty participants, including seventy diagnosed breast cancer patients and seventy healthy individuals, were included in this study and genotyped with an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The most frequent genotype in healthy participants and breast cancer patients was CC. An insignificant (p value>0.05) risk of breast cancer was found with A1166C polymorphism in codominant (CC vs. AA OR=1.200 [0.256-5.631] and AC vs. AA 0.941 [OR=0.223-3.976]), dominant (OR=1.00 [0.240-4.167]), recessive (OR=1.230 [0.593-2.552]) and additive models (OR=1.028 [0.533-1.983]) of general population genotypes. Nonetheless, when the AA genotype was considered a reference group, a significant association was found between AC and CC genotypes and invasive ductal and ductal carcinoma development in breast cancer patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated no significant association between AGTR1 (A1166C) polymorphism and breast cancer risk.

RevDate: 2024-02-09
CmpDate: 2024-02-09

Dimitrov G, Shousha S, P Troianova (2024)

CD10 expression as a potential predictor of pathological complete response in ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Experimental and molecular pathology, 135:104885.

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) can induce a pathological complete response (pCR) in breast cancer patients, leading to improved outcomes. However, predicting which patients will achieve pCR remains a challenge. CD10, a myoepithelial marker, has shown diagnostic and prognostic value in metastatic tumors. Its potential as a predictor of chemosensitivity to anthracycline-based NCT in breast cancer is unknown.

AIM: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the potential of CD10 cancer cell expression as a predictive marker of chemosensitivity in breast cancers treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

METHODS: We analyzed 130 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma who received anthracycline-based NCT. CD10 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry on pre-treatment biopsies. Statistical analysis evaluated the association between CD10 expression and pCR rates.

RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that ER-positive and CD10-negative tumors had lower pCR rates [OR 7.4830 (95% CI 2.7762-20.1699); p = 0.0001]. Multivariate analysis confirmed ER status as a strong predictor of poor response [OR 0.085 (95% CI 0.024-0.30); p < 0.001] and CD10 expression as a predictor of a favourable response [OR 0.11 (0.8-0.19); p = 0.049]. CD10 expression significantly predicted pCR in ER-negative cases [OR 0.1098 (0.0268-0.4503); p = 0.0022] and triple-negative breast cancer [OR 0.0966 (95% CI 0.0270-0.3462); p = 0.0003]. Concordance was observed between core biopsies and excised samples.

CONCLUSION: Positive CD10 cancer cell expression may predict increased response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer cases. Further research is needed to validate these findings in larger cohorts and determine the clinical utility of CD10 as a predictive marker.

RevDate: 2024-02-23
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Mahlow J, Barry M, Albertson DJ, et al (2024)

Histologic patterns in prostatic adenocarcinoma are not predictive of mutations in the homologous recombination repair pathway.

Human pathology, 144:28-33.

Somatic or germline homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway gene mutations are commonly detected in prostate cancer, especially in advanced disease, and are associated with response to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated whether histological patterns are predictive of HRR pathway gene mutations. The study population comprised 130 patients with advanced prostate carcinoma who underwent comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of tumor tissue at a CLIA-certified laboratory. HRR genes in the study included BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, BARD1, BRIP, CHEK2, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, EMSY, ATR, CHEK1, and FAM175A. Overall, 38 patients had mutations in BRCA1/2, 36 in other HRR genes, and 56 were negative for HRR mutations. All cases were re-reviewed and quantified by two genitourinary pathologists blinded to mutational status for the following histological patterns of prostate carcinoma: cribriform, ductal, intraductal carcinoma (IDC), small cell carcinoma, signet ring-like pattern, and lobular carcinoma-like pattern. Discordances were resolved by consensus review. Histologic patterns were analyzed for any correlation with mutations in HRR pathway genes (grouped as BRCA1/2 mutated or non-BRCA1/2 mutated) compared to tumors without mutations in HRR genes by Chi-square testing. Patterns with >20 % and >30 % of tumor volume were additionally evaluated for correlation with mutational status. We found no significant association between HRR pathway mutations and cribriform pattern, IDC, ductal carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, signet ring-like pattern, or lobular carcinoma-like patterns. Tumors with >20 % or >30 % histologic patterns by volume also demonstrated no significant association with mutational status. This study suggests that histopathologic examination alone is insufficient to distinguish prostate cancer with germline or somatic mutations in HRR pathway genes, highlighting the continuing importance of ancillary molecular diagnostics in guiding therapy selection for prostate cancer patients who may benefit from PARP inhibitors.

RevDate: 2024-02-06
CmpDate: 2024-01-29

Yang ZJ, Xin F, Chen ZJ, et al (2024)

Real-world data on neoadjuvant chemotherapy with dual-anti HER2 therapy in HER2 positive breast cancer.

BMC cancer, 24(1):134.

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with dual-targeted therapy is the standard treatment for human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Although the dual-targeted therapy has significantly improved the pathological complete response (pCR) rate, further investigation is needed to identify biomarkers that predict the response to neoadjuvant therapy.

METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 353 patients with HER2-positive breast invasive ductal carcinoma. The correlation between clinicopathological factors and pCR rate was evaluated. A nomogram was constructed based on the results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict the probability of pCR.

RESULTS: The breast pCR (b-pCR) rate was 56.1% (198/353) and the total pCR (t-pCR) rate was 52.7% (186/353). Multivariate analysis identified ER status, PR status, HER2 status, Ki-67 index, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens as independent indicators for both b-pCR and t-pCR. The nomogram had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.68-0.78). According to the nomogram, the t- pCR rate was highest in the ER-PR- HER2-positive patients (131/208) and lowest in the ER + PR + HER2-positive patients (19/73). The subgroup analyses showed that there was no significant difference in pCR rate among the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens in ER positive, PR positive, HER2 IHC 2 + , Ki67 index < 30% population. However, for ER-PR-HER2-positive patients, the neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen has a great influence on the pCR rates.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2 3 + and high KI-67 index were more likely to achieve pCR. THP may be used as an alternative to AC-THP or TCbHP in selected HER2-positive patients.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-01-29

Saad HA, Baz A, Riad M, et al (2024)

Tumor microenvironment and immune system preservation in early-stage breast cancer: routes for early recurrence after mastectomy and treatment for lobular and ductal forms of disease.

BMC immunology, 25(1):9.

BACKGROUND: Intra-ductal cancer (IDC) is the most common type of breast cancer, with intra-lobular cancer (ILC) coming in second. Surgery is the primary treatment for early stage breast cancer. There are now irrefutable data demonstrating that the immune context of breast tumors can influence growth and metastasis. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be administered in patients who are at a high risk of recurrence. Our goal was to identify the processes underlying both types of early local recurrences.

METHODS: This was a case-control observational study. Within 2 years of receiving adjuvant taxan and anthracycline-based chemotherapy, as well as modified radical mastectomy (MRM), early stage IDC and ILC recurred. Vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP1), and clustered differentiation (CD95) were investigated.

RESULTS: Of the samples in the ductal type group, 25 showed local recurrence, and 25 did not. Six individuals in the lobular-type group did not experience recurrence, whereas seven did. Vimentin (p = 0.000 and 0.021), PDGF (p = 0.000 and 0.002), and CD95 (p = 0.000 and 0.045) expressions were significantly different in ductal and lobular carcinoma types, respectively. Measurement of ductal type was the sole significant difference found in MMP1 (p = 0.000) and α-SMA (p = 0.000). α-SMA and CD95 were two variables that helped the recurrence mechanism in the ductal type according to the pathway analysis. In contrast, the CD95 route is a recurrent mechanism for the lobular form.

CONCLUSIONS: While the immune system plays a larger role in ILC, the tumor microenvironment and immune system both influence the recurrence of IDC. According to this study, improving the immune system may be a viable cancer treatment option.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-03-04

Failayev H, Ganoth A, Y Tsfadia (2024)

Molecular insights on the coronavirus MERS-CoV interaction with the CD26 receptor.

Virus research, 342:199330.

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory disease with high fatality rates, caused by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The virus initiates infection by binding to the CD26 receptor (also known as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 or DPP4) via its spike protein. Although the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein and the complex between RBD and the extracellular domain of CD26 have been studied using X-ray crystallography, conflicting studies exist regarding the importance of certain amino acids outside the resolved RBD-CD26 complex interaction interface. To gain atomic-level knowledge of the RBD-CD26 complex, we employed computational simulations to study the complex's dynamic behavior as it evolves from its crystal structure to a conformation stable in solution. Our study revealed previously unidentified interaction regions and interacting amino acids within the complex, determined a novel comprehensive RBD-binding domain of CD26, and by that expanded the current understanding of its structure. Additionally, we examined the impact of a single amino acid substitution, E513A, on the complex's stability. We discovered that this substitution disrupts the complex through an allosteric domino-like mechanism that affects other residues. Since MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus, we evaluated its potential risk of human infection via animals, and suggest a low likelihood for possible infection by cats or dogs. The molecular structural information gleaned from our insights into the RBD-CD26 complex pre-dissociative states may be proved useful not only from a mechanistic view but also in assessing inter-species transmission and in developing anti-MERS-CoV antiviral therapeutics.

RevDate: 2024-03-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-01

Dai Q, Feng K, Liu G, et al (2024)

Prognostic Impact of HER2-Low and HER2-Zero in Resectable Breast Cancer with Different Hormone Receptor Status: A Landmark Analysis of Real-World Data from the National Cancer Center of China.

Targeted oncology, 19(1):81-93.

BACKGROUND: The prognostic impact of HER2-low on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with resectable breast cancer (BC) remains controversial, partly resulting from the hormone receptor (HR) status.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic impact of HER2-low in different HR subgroups.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved medical records of treatment-naive primary HER2-low and HER2-zero BC patients who were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma and underwent surgery in the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2009 to September 2017 (n = 7371). We compared the clinicopathologic features and performed Cox regression and landmark survival analyses to explore the prognostic impact of HER2-low on survival outcomes during distinct post-surgery intervals-36 months, 60 months, and 120 months.

RESULTS: HER2-low BC, compared to HER2-zero BC, exhibited less aggressive clinicopathologic features, such as smaller invasion size, lower grade, increased nerve invasion, higher HR positivity, and a higher proportion of low-Ki67 cases. In the HR-positive subgroup, HER2-low demonstrated improved OS (p = 0.046) and DFS (p = 0.026) within 60 months. Conversely, HER2-low displayed worse DFS (p = 0.046) in the HR-negative subgroup after 36 months from surgery. The findings remained robust in uni- and multi-variable Cox models.

CONCLUSIONS: HER2-low BCs manifested less aggressive clinicopathologic features than the HER2-zero cases. The prognostic impact of HER2-low in resectable BCs exhibits variability contingent upon the patients' HR status.

RevDate: 2024-01-23

Wang Y, Zhang X, Yan Y, et al (2023)

GmABCG5, an ATP-binding cassette G transporter gene, is involved in the iron deficiency response in soybean.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1289801.

Iron deficiency is a major nutritional problem causing iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) and yield reduction in soybean, one of the most important crops. The ATP-binding cassette G subfamily plays a crucial role in substance transportation in plants. In this study, we cloned the GmABCG5 gene from soybean and verified its role in Fe homeostasis. Analysis showed that GmABCG5 belongs to the ABCG subfamily and is subcellularly localized at the cell membrane. From high to low, GmABCG5 expression was found in the stem, root, and leaf of young soybean seedlings, and the order of expression was flower, pod, seed stem, root, and leaf in mature soybean plants. The GUS assay and qRT-PCR results showed that the GmABCG5 expression was significantly induced by iron deficiency in the leaf. We obtained the GmABCG5 overexpressed and inhibitory expressed soybean hairy root complexes. Overexpression of GmABCG5 promoted, and inhibition of GmABCG5 retarded the growth of soybean hairy roots, independent of nutrient iron conditions, confirming the growth-promotion function of GmABCG5. Iron deficiency has a negative effect on the growth of soybean complexes, which was more obvious in the GmABCG5 inhibition complexes. The chlorophyll content was increased in the GmABCG5 overexpression complexes and decreased in the GmABCG5 inhibition complexes. Iron deficiency treatment widened the gap in the chlorophyll contents. FCR activity was induced by iron deficiency and showed an extraordinary increase in the GmABCG5 overexpression complexes, accompanied by the greatest Fe accumulation. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced when GmABCG5 was overexpressed and reduced when GmABCG5 was inhibited under iron deficiency. These results showed that the response mechanism to iron deficiency is more actively mobilized in GmABCG5 overexpression seedlings. Our results indicated that GmABCG5 could improve the plant's tolerance to iron deficiency, suggesting that GmABCG5 might have the function of Fe mobilization, redistribution, and/or secretion of Fe substances in plants. The findings provide new insights into the ABCG subfamily genes in the regulation of iron homeostasis in plants.

RevDate: 2024-04-11
CmpDate: 2024-03-11

Wang B, Fu Y, Chen M, et al (2024)

The presence of intraductal carcinoma of prostate is a risk factor for poor pathologic response in men with high-risk prostate cancer receiving neoadjuvant therapy.

Urologic oncology, 42(3):67.e9-67.e15.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential association between the presence of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) on biopsy and pathologic response of primary tumor to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

METHODS: Eighty-five patients with high-risk localized/locally advanced prostate cancer (CaP) who were given 6-month neoadjuvant therapies of androgen deprivation therapy plus docetaxel or abiraterone prior to radical prostatectomy in 2 prospective trials were included in this study. The presence of IDC-P in biopsy pathology was rereviewed by 2 experienced pathologists. Favorable pathologic response was defined as pathologic complete response or minimal residual disease <5 mm on whole-mount histopathology. Characteristics of clinical and biopsy pathology variables were included in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify risk factors for the prediction of favorable pathologic response on final pathology.

RESULTS: IDC-P was identified to be present on biopsy pathology of 35 patients (41.2%) while favorable pathologic responses were confirmed in 25 patients (29.4%). Initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (OR 3.592, 95% CI 1.176-10.971, P = 0.025) and the presence of IDC-P on biopsy pathology (OR 3.837, 95% CI 1.234-11.930, P = 0.020) were found to be significantly associated with favorable pathologic response in multivariate logistic regression analysis.

CONCLUSION: IDC-P on biopsy pathology was found to be an independent risk factor to predict a poor pathology response of primary CaP to neoadjuvant therapies.

RevDate: 2024-01-19
CmpDate: 2024-01-18

Ido M, Fujii K, Mishima H, et al (2024)

Comprehensive genomic evaluation of advanced and recurrent breast cancer patients for tailored precision treatments.

BMC cancer, 24(1):85.

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate genetic alterations within breast cancer in the setting of recurrent or de novo stage IV disease.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 22 patients with recurrent breast cancer (n = 19) and inoperable de novo stage IV breast cancer (n = 3). For next generation sequencing, FoundationOneCDx (F1CDx) (Foundation Medicine Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA) was performed in 21 patients and FoundationOneLiquid CDx was performed in 1 patient.

RESULTS: Median age was 62.9 years (range, 33.4-82.1). Pathological diagnoses of specimens included invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 19), invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 2), and invasive micropapillary carcinoma (n = 1). F1CDx detected a median of 4.5 variants (range, 1-11). The most commonly altered gene were PIK3CA (n = 9), followed by TP53 (n = 7), MYC (n = 4), PTEN (n = 3), and CDH1 (n = 3). For hormone receptor-positive patients with PIK3CA mutations, hormonal treatment plus a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor was recommended as the treatment of choice. Patients in the hormone receptor-negative and no human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression group had significantly higher tumor mutational burden than patients in the hormone receptor-positive group. A BRCA2 reversion mutation was revealed by F1CDx in a patient with a deleterious germline BRCA2 mutation during poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment.

CONCLUSION: Guidance on tailored precision therapy with consideration of genomic mutations was possible for some patients with information provided by F1CDx. Clinicians should consider using F1CDx at turning points in the course of the disease.

RevDate: 2024-05-04
CmpDate: 2024-05-04

Okano K, Miyai K, Mikoshi A, et al (2024)

Histological parameters and stromal desmoplastic status affecting accurate diagnosis of extraprostatic extension of prostate cancer using multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging.

International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association, 31(5):475-482.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological factors affecting discrepancies between multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and histopathological evaluation for diagnosis of extraprostatic extension (EPE) of prostate cancer.

METHODS: One hundred-and-three lesions from 96 cases with suspected EPE on preoperative mpMRI, of which 60 and 43 showed bulging and frank capsular breach, respectively, were grouped according to pathological (p)EPE in radical prostatectomy specimens. Additionally, clinicopathological/immunohistochemical findings for periostin reflecting a desmoplastic stromal reaction were compared between these groups.

RESULTS: pEPE was detected in 49 (48%) of the 103 lesions. Of these, 25 (42%) showed bulging and 24 (56%) showed frank capsular breach on MRI. In the total cohort, the absence of pEPE was significantly associated with a lower Gleason Grade Group (GG) (p < 0.0001), anterior location (p = 0.003), absence of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) (p = 0.026), and high stromal periostin expression (p < 0.0001). These trends were preserved in subgroups defined by MRI findings, except for anterior location/IDC-P in the bulging subgroup.

CONCLUSIONS: GG, anterior location, and periostin expression may cause mpMRI-pathological discrepancies regarding EPE. Periostin expression was a significant pEPE-negative factor in all subgroup analyses. Our results indicate that patients with suspected EPE on MRI, regardless of their pEPE results, should be followed as carefully as those with definite pEPE.

RevDate: 2024-03-25
CmpDate: 2024-03-25

Nakagawa S, Miyashita M, Maeda I, et al (2024)

Potential role of Fbxo22 in resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer with invasive lobular carcinoma.

Breast cancer research and treatment, 204(3):453-463.

BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is distinct from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in terms of their hormonal microenvironments that may require different therapeutic strategies. We previously reported that selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) function requires F-box protein 22 (Fbxo22). Here, we investigated the role of Fbxo22 as a potential biomarker contributing to the resistance to endocrine therapy in ILC.

METHODS: A total of 302 breast cancer (BC) patients including 150 ILC were recruited in the study. Fbxo22 expression and clinical information were analyzed to elucidate whether Fbxo22 negativity could be a prognostic factor or there were any correlations among clinical variables and SERM efficacy.

RESULTS: Fbxo22 negativity was significantly higher in ILC compared with IDC (58.0% vs. 27.0%, P < 0.001) and higher in postmenopausal patients than premenopausal patients (64.1% vs. 48.2%, P = 0.041). In the ILC cohort, Fbxo22-negative patients had poorer overall survival (OS) than Fbxo22-positive patients, with 10-year OS rates of 77.4% vs. 93.6% (P = 0.055). All patients treated with SERMs, Fbxo22 negativity resulted in a poorer outcome, with 10-year OS rates of 81.3% vs. 92.3% (P = 0.032). In multivariate analysis regarding recurrence-free survival (RFS) in ILC patients, Fbxo22 status was independently predictive of survival as well as lymph node metastasis.

CONCLUSION: Fbxo22 negativity significantly impacts on survival in BC patients with IDC and ILC, and the disadvantage was enhanced among ILC postmenopausal women or patients treated with SERMs. The findings suggest that different therapeutic strategies might be needed according to the different histopathological types when considering adjuvant endocrine therapy.

RevDate: 2024-02-01
CmpDate: 2024-01-23

Li QY, Guo Q, Luo WM, et al (2024)

Overexpression of MTFR1 promotes cancer progression and drug-resistance on cisplatin and is related to the immune microenvironment in lung adenocarcinoma.

Aging, 16(1):66-88.

OBJECTIVE: The roles of MTFR1 in the drug resistance of lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) to cisplatin remain unexplored. In this study, the expression, clinical values and mechanisms of MTFR1 were explored, and the relationship between MTFR1 expression and immune microenvironment was investigated in LAC using bioinformatics analysis, cell experiments, and meta-analysis.

METHODS: MTFR1 expression and clinical values, and the relationship between MTFR1 expression and immunity were explored, through bioinformatics analysis. The effects of MTFR1 on the growth, migration and cisplatin sensitivity of LAC cells were identified using cell counting kit-8, wound healing and Transwell experiments. Additionally, the mechanisms of drug resistance of LAC cells involving MTFR1 were investigated using western blotting.

RESULTS: MTFR1 was elevated in LAC tissues. MTFR1 overexpression was associated with sex, age, primary therapy outcome, smoking, T stage, unfavourable prognosis and diagnostic value and considered an independent risk factor for an unfavourable prognosis in patients with LAC. MTFR1 co-expressed genes involved in the cell cycle, oocyte meiosis, DNA replication and others. Moreover, interfering with MTFR1 expression inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 and A549/DDP cells and promoted cell sensitivity to cisplatin, which was related to the inhibition of p-AKT, p-P38 and p-ERK protein expression. MTFR1 overexpression was associated with stromal, immune and estimate scores along with natural killer cells, pDC, iDC and others in LAC.

CONCLUSIONS: MTFR1 overexpression was related to the unfavourable prognosis, diagnostic value and immunity in LAC. MTFR1 also participated in cell growth and migration and promoted the drug resistance of LAC cells to cisplatin via the p-AKT and p-ERK/P38 signalling pathways.

RevDate: 2024-01-06
CmpDate: 2024-01-03

Shinohara T, Asoda T, Nakano Y, et al (2023)

Germline BRCA2 Pathogenic Variant in Primary Breast Cancer of a Down Syndrome Individual.

The American journal of case reports, 24:e942208.

BACKGROUND Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder, and individuals with DS are known to have a low risk for solid tumors, including breast cancer. In contrast, Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene (BRCA) pathogenic variant can cause breast cancer. We report a case of primary breast cancer harboring a BRCA2 pathogenic variant in a 35-year-old woman with DS. CASE REPORT A 35-year-old woman with DS presented with a palpable 2-cm mass in the upper-inner quadrant of the left breast. A biopsy confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Her clinical diagnosis was cT2, N0, M0, cStageIIA. A left modified radical mastectomy with axillary node dissection was performed. Her final pathological diagnosis was invasive ductal carcinoma (T2, pN1, M0, stageIIB), positive estrogen receptors, negative progesterone receptors, negative human epidermal receptor-2 status. She was started on adjuvant hormonal therapy. Unfortunately, 23 months after the operation, multiple metastases were detected. Testing for a BRCA pathogenic variant was performed, and a BRCA2 pathogenic variant was detected. Olaparib was orally administered, and the levels of tumor markers rapidly declined; however, the levels of the tumor markers started to increase again 5 months after the initiation of olaparib. Subsequently, she developed bilateral carcinomatous lymphangiomatosis and died 59 months after the operation. CONCLUSIONS This report highlights a rare case of primary breast cancer harboring a germline BRCA2 pathogenic variant in an individual with DS. Our study highlights the importance of genetic testing as part of breast cancer management in these patients.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-16

Özden A, Dalgıç B, Demir M, et al (2024)

Impact of a hospital sepsis management protocol on the selection of empirical antibiotics in infectious disease consultations.

Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy), 36(3):190-197.

It is well-established that Infectious Diseases consultation (IDC) enhances the prognosis of bloodstream infections. However, it is unclear if adoption of an institutional sepsis protocol would lead to any further improvement in a setting where IDC and infectious diseases approval (IDA) - available throughout 7 days/24 hours -are mandatory for administering broad spectrum antibiotics. We aimed to evaluate the influence of the institutional sepsis protocol developed by Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology on the selection of appropriate empirical antibiotics by IDC through focusing on patients who had bloodstream infections caused by Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which poses a therapeutic challenge. One hundred and fifty-three adult patients (58 patients in the pre-protocol period and 95 patients in the post-protocol period), who received empirical antibiotic treatment for ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, in whom at least one systemic antibiotic was started either on the day blood cultures were drawn or not later than 24 hours were included in the study, retrospectively. The primary outcome was whether the empirical treatment regimen included a carbapenem that was accepted as the appropriate treatment based on the results of the MERINO trial. Secondary outcomes included empirical treatment based on pre-defined risk factors suggesting multidrug resistance (MDR), 30-day inpatient mortality, and appropriate antibacterial treatment according to antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) results. The median age (Interquartile range) was 61 (48-70.5) years and 76 (49.7%) out of 153 patients were male. The patients in the post-protocol period were older compared to the pre-protocol period (54 years vs 64 years, p = 0.045). The Charlson Comorbidity Index was higher during the post-protocol period compared to the pre-protocol period (4 vs 5, p=0.038). At least one risk factor for MDR bacteria infection was present in 147 (96.1%) of the 153 patients. While the rate of risk factors for MDR bacteria infections did not differ significantly between the pre-protocol and post-protocol periods, the post-protocol period showed a significantly higher level of appropriate antibiotic treatment according to the presence of MDR risk factors compared to the pre-protocol period (44.8% vs 64.2%, p=0.019). There was a significant increase in the use of carbapenems in the post-protocol period compared to the pre-protocol period (34.5% vs. 56.8%, p=0.007). When the subgroup of patients who were likely to have infection caused by ESBL-producing bacteria is taken into consideration, the carbapenem use was more frequent in the post-protocol period (37.8% vs 68.9%, p=0.002). The rate of appropriate empirical treatment according to AST was not statistically different between pre-protocol and post-protocol period. The 30-day mortality rates were similar in both periods (24.1% vs 31.5, p=0.33). However, the rate of susceptibility to piperacillin-tazobactam was statistically higher in the pre-protocol period (82.6% vs 46.2%, p=0.016) when 39.7% of the patients received piperacillin-tazobactam as the empirical treatment. This study highlights the significance of using a structured protocol to attain appropriate empirical treatment for patients suspected of sepsis, even in a setting where IDC is readily available.

RevDate: 2023-12-19
CmpDate: 2023-12-19

Maman A, O Senol (2023)

Evaluating Alterations in Breast Cancer Patients after Recovery Via A PET/CT-Assisted Metabolomics Approach.

Puerto Rico health sciences journal, 42(4):276-282.

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is a mortal disease that causes many deaths, especially in women. Improved therapies could contribute positively to survival rates. Metabolomics is an important tool for monitoring the alterations of several metabolites in clinical cases. This study aimed to develop a metabolomics model to observe (via mass spectroscopy) metabolic alterations in patients who suffered from breast cancer (BC), both before and after their recovery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Grades 1 and 2 invasive ductal carcinoma patients were evaluated based on their positron emission tomography/computed tomography results. Fourteen patients who had fully recovered from BC were subjected to metabolomics analysis. Plasma samples were extracted and analyzed via quadrupole time-of-flight mass tandem spectroscopy. A chemometrics analysis was performed in order to determine the statistically significant metabolites. All the metabolites were annotated via the mummichog algorithm.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: According to the data analysis, glucose, ornithine, phenyalanine, some vitamins, and metabolites in the fatty acid metabolism were statistically altered after recovery of each patient.

CONCLUSION: Untargeted metabolomics studies can be used to understand the etiopathogenesis of breast cancer, finding new biomarkers and alterations of metabolic pathways. After the tumor burden was removed, homeostasis was restored and the concentration of several metabolites began to normalize. This study elucidated the effects of breast cancer at the molecular level.

RevDate: 2024-02-01
CmpDate: 2024-01-24

Schwartz CJ, Khorsandi N, Blanco A, et al (2024)

Clinicopathologic and genetic analysis of invasive breast carcinomas in women with germline CHEK2 variants.

Breast cancer research and treatment, 204(1):171-179.

PURPOSE: Germline pathogenic variants in checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) are associated with a moderately increased risk of breast cancer (BC). The spectrum of clinicopathologic features and genetics of these tumors has not been fully established.

METHODS: We characterized the histopathologic and clinicopathologic features of 44 CHEK2-associated BCs from 35 women, and assessed responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A subset of cases (n = 23) was additionally analyzed using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS).

RESULTS: Most (94%, 33/35) patients were heterozygous carriers for germline CHEK2 variants, and 40% had the c.1100delC allele. Two patients were homozygous, and five had additional germline pathogenic variants in ATM (2), PALB2 (1), RAD50 (1), or MUTYH (1). CHEK2-associated BCs occurred in younger women (median age 45 years, range 25-75) and were often multifocal (20%) or bilateral (11%). Most (86%, 38/44) were invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NST). Almost all (95%, 41/43) BCs were ER + (79% ER + HER2-, 16% ER + HER2 + , 5% ER-HER2 +), and most (69%) were luminal B. Nottingham grade, proliferation index, and results of multiparametric molecular testing were heterogeneous. Biallelic CHEK2 alteration with loss of heterozygosity was identified in most BCs (57%, 13/23) by NGS. Additional recurrent alterations included GATA3 (26%), PIK3CA (226%), CCND1 (22%), FGFR1 (22%), ERBB2 (17%), ZNF703 (17%), TP53 (9%), and PPM1D (9%), among others. Responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were variable, but few patients (21%, 3/14) achieved pathologic complete response. Most patients (85%) were without evidence of disease at time of study (n = 34). Five patients (15%) developed distant metastasis, and one (3%) died (mean follow-up 50 months).

CONCLUSION: Almost all CHEK2-associated BCs were ER + IDC-NST, with most classified as luminal B with or without HER2 overexpression. NGS supported the luminal-like phenotype and confirmed CHEK2 as an oncogenic driver in the majority of cases. Responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were variable but mostly incomplete.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Cancer is the generic name for more than 100 diseases in which cells begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged, they die and new cells take their place. Cancer begins when genetic changes impair this orderly process so that some cells start to grow uncontrollably. The Emperor of All Maladies is a "biography" of cancer — from its first documented appearances thousands of years ago through the epic battles in the twentieth century to cure, control, and conquer it to a radical new understanding of its essence. This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in cancer. R. Robbins

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