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22 Jan 2021 at 01:42
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Bibliography on: Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (causes)


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 Jan 2021 at 01:42 Created: 

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (causes)

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is cancer that began growing in a milk duct and has invaded the fibrous or fatty tissue of the breast outside of the duct. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, representing 80 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses.

The causes of invasive ductal carcinoma have not been conclusively established. Researchers have determined that cancer can form when the cells in a milk-producing duct undergo changes that cause them to grow uncontrollably, divide very rapidly or remain viable longer than they should. The result is an accumulation of excess cells that can form a mass, or tumor, and potentially spread to nearby lymph nodes and distant areas of the body. The underlying reason for those cellular changes, however, remains unclear.

By evaluating the results of extensive studies, scientists have identified certain hormonal, environmental and lifestyle factors that are believed to influence a person's breast cancer risk, such as smoking, poor nutrition and prior radiation therapy administered to the chest area. Even so, it's important to keep in mind that some individuals who have no risk factors develop cancer, while others with one or more risk factors do not. Most likely, the precise cause is a complex interaction of many factors.

In rare cases, the causes of invasive ductal carcinoma have been traced to inherited attributes, such as mutations of the: (a) Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1), a tumor suppressor gene, (b) Breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), a tumor suppressor gene, or (c) ErbB2 gene, which produces the HER2 protein that promotes cellular proliferation.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive ductal carcinoma" OR IDC) and (cause OR caused OR etiology) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-01-20

Ishihara S, Kashiwagi S, Asano Y, et al (2020)

[A Case of Dermatitis Caused by Metronidazole Gel That Needed to Be Differentiated from Breast Cancer Skin Metastasis].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):2089-2091.

Seventy years old woman noticed a mass in her right breast before 3 years. Since she had ulcer bleeding, she visited our hospital. In physical findings, a hemorrhagic about 8 cm mass with an ulcer was found in the upper right breast. Breast ultrasonography revealed a large tumor of approximately 8 cm in the right A area, and needle biopsy revealed invasive ductal carcinoma(ER positive, PgR positive, HER2 positive, Ki-67 low expression). Right axillary lymph node metastasis was confirmed, but no clear distant metastasis was observed. Pretreatment diagnosis was right breast cancer, cT4bN1M0, Stage ⅢB, Luminal HER. Chemotherapy was started with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel, and the tumor was reduced after 6 cycles. Due to side effects, the drug was changed to a molecular targeted drug only and the treatment was continued. However, redness was observed in the entire right breast, and breast cancer skin metastasis was suspected. Since the dermatitis caused by metronidazole gel was also distinguished, the redness was improved when the application was stopped. When confirmed by a patch test, a reaction to metronidazole gel was observed, leading to the diagnosis of dermatitis caused by metronidazole gel.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Puzis R, Farbiash D, Brodt O, et al (2020)

Increased cyber-biosecurity for DNA synthesis.

Nature biotechnology, 38(12):1379-1381.

RevDate: 2021-01-18
CmpDate: 2021-01-18

Tijani S, Sharma K, Yuen H, et al (2020)

Metastatic "Ductal Carcinoma In Situ-Like" Lobular Carcinoma in a Lymph Node: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

International journal of surgical pathology, 28(4):436-439.

Metastatic breast cancer resembling ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a rare phenomenon. In this article, we present a unique case of metastatic lobular carcinoma with DCIS-like morphology in the left axillary lymph nodes of a 52-year-old female. She presented with 2 lesions in the left breast on mammography, and a mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection was performed. Gross examination showed a 3.5 × 2.5 × 1.0 cm indistinct tumor in the lower outer quadrant and a 2.5 × 2.5 × 1.8 cm tumor in the upper outer quadrant. Microscopic assessment revealed a pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in the lower outer quadrant and a grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma in the upper outer quadrant. Sixteen of the 17 axillary lymph nodes showed metastatic lobular carcinoma with foci of solid and comedo-type DCIS-like features. Immunohistochemical analysis of the primary and metastatic lobular carcinoma showed no expression of E-cadherin and p63 antibodies. To our knowledge, metastatic lobular carcinoma exhibiting this pattern has not been reported. The case suggests that lobular carcinoma can morphologically recreate a primary microenvironment at a distant site and simulate in situ growth. Recognition of this pattern is important to avoid misdiagnosis.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Bartovská Z, Andrle F, Beran O, et al (2020)

Data from the first wave of Covid-19 from the Central Military Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Epidemiologie, mikrobiologie, imunologie : casopis Spolecnosti pro epidemiologii a mikrobiologii Ceske lekarske spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne, 69(4):164-171.

AIMS: To process data from the first wave of Covid-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) collected in the Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) of the First Faculty of Medicine and Central Military Hospital, Prague. To analyse some clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Covid-19 in the context of the Czech Republic and to compare them with the data from the most recent literature.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analysed data on patients admitted to the IDC between 12 March 2020 and 5 May 2020. The study cohort included 53 patients with Covid-19, 25 females and 28 males, with an average age of 57 years. The parameters analysed were clinical symptoms, average length of hospital stay, complications, and death. Additional data concerned the age, weight, smoking habits, history of comorbidities, and selected laboratory results. These data were compared between groups of patients differing in severity of the course of Covid-19. Finally, imaging findings, serology results, and therapy outcomes were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using the SigmaStat software.

RESULTS: Eleven (20.8%) patients had a mild course of the disease, 16 (30.2%) patients had a moderate course, 22 (41.5%) patients had a severe course, and four (7.5%) patients had a critical course. The study patients presented with the following clinical symptoms: fever in 88.5% of cases, cough in 84.6% of cases, difficulty breathing in 77.4% of cases, diarrhoea in 23.1% of cases, chest pain in 17.3% of cases, and anosmia in 11.5% of cases. The average length of hospital stay was eight days. The most common complication was a bacterial superinfection, reported in 17 (32.1%) study patients. The overall case fatality rate for Covid-19 in our study was 5.7%. The average age of the study cohort was 57 years, and patients with a severe course of the disease were of older average age than those with a less severe course of the disease (p < 0.05). The predominant comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The analysis of the baseline laboratory data showed significant differences between the groups of patients differing in severity of the course of Covid-19 in CRP, procalcitonin, and d-dimers but not in lymphocyte count. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of the lungs was performed in 22 patients, and 21 of them had typical findings for Covid-19. The average MuLBSTA score for Covid-19 pneumonia severity in our study cohort was 11.5 points and was not associated with the severity of the course of the disease. Serology tests were performed in 43 study patients, with 29 (67.4%) of them turning out positive in the first test and other five (11.6%) testing positive when retested. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was given experimentally as monotherapy or in combination with azithromycin (AZI) to 24 (45.3%) patients. Two patients on HCQ therapy also received inosinum pranobexum (isoprinosine) for severe lymphopenia, one patient received convalescent plasma, six patients were given AZI alone, and one patient was treated with inosinum pranobexum alone. Altogether 37.7% of study patients were prescribed other antibiotics for confirmed or suspected bacterial superinfection. Standard clinical and pharmaceutical care was provided to patients with particular focus on the safety of off-label drug use. HCQ was with drawn in three patients due to a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc).

CONCLUSIONS: In the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, our study patients showed comorbidities and risk factors which are consistent with the international literature, but the course of the disease was mostly moderate to severe, with a low proportion of critically ill patients and fatal outcomes. As soon as new information became available, new diagnostic and therapeutic options were introduced into routine practice. Based on our experience, we are well prepared for a possible second wave of SARS-CoV-2 in terms of the diagnostics, but the therapeutic options still remain very limited.

RevDate: 2021-01-15
CmpDate: 2021-01-15

Granados K, Hüser L, Federico A, et al (2020)

T-type calcium channel inhibition restores sensitivity to MAPK inhibitors in de-differentiated and adaptive melanoma cells.

British journal of cancer, 122(7):1023-1036.

BACKGROUND: Drug resistance remains as one of the major challenges in melanoma therapy. It is well known that tumour cells undergo phenotypic switching during melanoma progression, increasing melanoma plasticity and resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (MAPKi).

METHODS: We investigated the melanoma phenotype switching using a partial reprogramming model to de-differentiate murine melanoma cells and target melanoma therapy adaptation against MAPKi.

RESULTS: Here, we show that partially reprogrammed cells are a less proliferative and more de-differentiated cell population, expressing a gene signature for stemness and suppressing melanocyte-specific markers. To investigate adaptation to MAPKi, cells were exposed to B-Raf Proto-Oncogene (BRAF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors. De-differentiated cells became less sensitive to MAPKi, showed increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis. Furthermore, T-type calcium channels expression increased in adaptive murine cells and in human adaptive melanoma cells. Treatment with the calcium channel blocker mibefradil induced cell death, differentiation and susceptibility to MAPKi in vitro and in vivo.

CONCLUSION: In summary, we show that partial reprogramming of melanoma cells induces de-differentiation and adaptation to MAPKi. Moreover, we postulated a calcium channel blocker such as mibefradil, as a potential candidate to restore sensitivity to MAPKi in adaptive melanoma cells.

RevDate: 2021-01-15
CmpDate: 2021-01-15

Goodes LM, King GK, Rea A, et al (2020)

Early urinary tract infection after spinal cord injury: a retrospective inpatient cohort study.

Spinal cord, 58(1):25-34.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective audit.

OBJECTIVES: Examine factors associated with urinary tract infection (UTI), UTI incidence and impact on hospital length of stay (LOS) in new, inpatient adult traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).

SETTING: Western Australian Hospitals managing SCI patients.

METHODS: Data on UTIs, bladder management and LOS were obtained from hospital databases and medical records over 26 months. Adherence to staff-administered intermittent catheterisation (staff-IC) was determined from fluid balance charts.

RESULTS: Across the cohort (n = 70) UTI rate was 1.1 starts/100 days; UTI by multi-resistant organisms 0.1/100 days. Having ≥1 UTIs compared with none and longer duration of initial urethral indwelling catheterisation (IDC) were associated with longer LOS (p-values < 0.001). For patients with ≥1 UTIs (n = 43/70), longer duration of initial IDC was associated with shorter time to first UTI (1 standard deviation longer [SD, 45.0 days], hazard ratio (HR): 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.0, p-value 0.044). In turn, shorter time to first UTI was associated with higher UTI rate (1 SD shorter [30.7 days], rate ratio (RR): 1.32, 95%CI 1.0-1.7, p-value 0.039). During staff-IC periods (n = 38/70), protocols were followed (85.7% ≤ 6 h apart, 96.1% < 8 h), but 26% of IC volumes exceeded 500 mL; occasional volumes > 800 mL and interruptions requiring temporary IDC were associated with higher UTI rates the following week (odds ratios (ORs): 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.3, p-value 0.009; and 3.9, 95%CI 2.6-5.9, p-value < 0.001 respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Reducing initial IDC duration and limiting staff-IC volumes could be investigated to possibly reduce inpatient UTIs and LOS.


RevDate: 2021-01-14
CmpDate: 2021-01-14

Kato M, Hirakawa A, Kobayashi Y, et al (2020)

Effect of core needle biopsy number on intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) diagnosis in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

International journal of clinical oncology, 25(12):2130-2137.

BACKGROUND: The number of core needle biopsies in metastatic prostate cancer cases are sometimes reduced to avoid various complications. We analyzed whether core needle biopsy number influence IDC-P detection rate in patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC).

METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from 150 patients diagnosed with mHSPC. Subjects were allocated to three groups according to the number of core biopsies performed: ≤ 5, 6-9, and ≥ 10. The study endpoints were the cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) rates.

RESULTS: For patients who underwent ≥ 10 core biopsies, a significant difference on CSS was detected between with or without IDC-P (P = 0.016). On the other hand, the difference decreased as the number of core biopsies became smaller (6-9; P = 0.322 and ≤ 5; P = 0.815). A similar trend was identified for the OS outcome. A significant difference on OS was also found between with or without IDC-P in patients who underwent ≥ 10 and 6-9 core needle biopsies (P = 0.0002 and 0.017, respectively), but not in those who underwent ≤ 5 core biopsies (P = 0.341). IDC-P served as a stronger prognostic marker for CSS and OS than did the other factors included in the multivariate analysis for patients had ≥ 10 core biopsies (P = 0.016, and P = 0.0014, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Given the IDC-P detection and its value as a prognostic marker, we propose the performance of ≥ 10 core biopsy procedures in patients diagnosed with mHSPC to minimize the sampling error of the IDC-P.

RevDate: 2021-01-14
CmpDate: 2021-01-14

Chen G, Ding XF, Pressley K, et al (2020)

Everolimus Inhibits the Progression of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ to Invasive Breast Cancer Via Downregulation of MMP9 Expression.

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 26(6):1486-1496.

PURPOSE: We evaluated the role of everolimus in the prevention of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) progression.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effects of everolimus on breast cancer cell invasion, DCIS formation, and DCIS progression to IDC were investigated in a 3D cell culturing model, intraductal DCIS xenograft model, and spontaneous MMTV-Her2/neu mouse model. The effect of everolimus on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression was determined with Western blotting and IHC in these models and in patients with DCIS before and after a window trial with rapamycin. Whether MMP9 mediates the inhibition of DCIS progression to IDC by everolimus was investigated with knockdown or overexpression of MMP9 in breast cancer cells.

RESULTS: Everolimus significantly inhibited the invasion of human breast cancer cells in vitro. Daily intragastric treatment with everolimus for 7 days significantly reduced the number of invasive lesions from intraductal DCIS foci and inhibited DCIS progression to IDC in the MMTV-Her2/neu mouse mammary tumor model. Mechanistically, everolimus treatment decreased the expression of MMP9 in the in vitro and in vivo models, and in breast tissues from patients with DCIS treated with rapamycin for 1 week. Moreover, overexpression of MMP9 stimulated the invasion, whereas knockdown of MMP9 inhibited the invasion of breast cancer cell-formed spheroids in vitro and DCIS in vivo. Knockdown of MMP9 also nullified the invasion inhibition by everolimus in vitro and in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS: Targeting mTORC1 can inhibit DCIS progression to IDC via MMP9 and may be a potential strategy for DCIS or early-stage IDC therapy.

RevDate: 2021-01-13
CmpDate: 2021-01-13

Chao X, Liu L, Sun P, et al (2020)

Immune parameters associated with survival in metaplastic breast cancer.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 22(1):92.

BACKGROUND: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare histological type of breast cancer, which commonly shows resistance to standard therapies and is associated with poor prognosis. The immune microenvironment in MBC and its significance has not been well established due to its low incurrence rate and complex components. We aimed to investigate the diversity of immune parameters including subsets of TILs and PDL1/PD1 expression in MBC, as well as its correlation with prognosis.

METHODS: A total of 60 patients diagnosed with MBC from January 2006 to December 2017 were included in our study. The percentage (%) and quantification (per mm2) of TILs and presence of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE). The quantification of CD4+, CD8+ TILs (per mm2), and PD-1/PDL1 expression were evaluated through immunohistochemistry and analyzed in relation to clinicopathological characteristics. A ≥ 1% membranous or cytoplasmatic expression of PD1 and PDL1 was considered a positive expression.

RESULTS: We found squamous cell carcinoma MBC (33/60, 55%) exhibiting most TILs of all the MBC subtypes (p = 0.043). Thirty-three of 60 (50%) of the patients had coexisting invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST), and the average percentage of TILs in MBC components was lower compared with NST components (p < 0.001). Thirty (50%) patients exhibited positive (≥ 1%) PDL1 expression in their tumor cells, while 36 (60%) had positive (≥ 1%) PDL1 expression in their TILs. Twenty-seven (45%) of all the patients had positive (≥ 1%) PD1 expression in their tumor cells and 33 (55%) had PD1-positive (≥ 1%) stromal TILs. More CD8+ TILs were associated with positive PDL1 expression of tumor cells as well as positive PD1 expression in stromal cells. Greater number of stromal TILS (> 300/mm2, 20%), CD4+ TILs (> 250/mm2), and CD8+ TILs (> 70/mm2) in MBC were found associated with longer disease-free survival. Positive expression of PDL1 in tumor cells (≥ 1%) and PD1 in stromal cells (≥ 1%) were also associated with longer survival.

CONCLUSIONS: The immune characteristics differ in various subtypes as well as components of MBC. Immune parameters are key predictive factors of MBC and provide the clinical significance of applying immune checkpoint therapies in patients with MBC.

RevDate: 2021-01-13
CmpDate: 2021-01-13

Kurozumi S, Alsaleem M, Monteiro CJ, et al (2020)

Targetable ERBB2 mutation status is an independent marker of adverse prognosis in estrogen receptor positive, ERBB2 non-amplified primary lobular breast carcinoma: a retrospective in silico analysis of public datasets.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 22(1):85.

BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of primary breast cancers and is typically estrogen receptor alpha positive (ER+) and ERBB2 non-amplified. Somatic mutations in ERBB2/3 are emerging as a tractable mechanism underlying enhanced human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) activity. We tested the hypothesis that therapeutically targetable ERBB2/3 mutations in primary ILC of the breast associate with poor survival outcome in large public datasets.

METHODS: We performed in silico comparison of ERBB2 non-amplified cases of ER+ stage I-III primary ILC (N = 279) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC, N = 1301) using METABRIC, TCGA, and MSK-IMPACT information. Activating mutations amenable to HER2-directed therapy with neratinib were identified using existing functional data from in vitro cell line and xenograft experiments. Multivariate analysis of 10-year overall survival (OS) with tumor size, grade, and lymph node status was performed using a Cox regression model. Differential gene expression analyses by ERBB2 mutation and amplification status was performed using weighted average differences and an in silico model of response to neratinib derived from breast cancer cell lines.

RESULTS: ILC tumors comprised 17.7% of all cases in the dataset but accounted for 47.1% of ERBB2-mutated cases. Mutations in ERBB2 were enriched in ILC vs. IDC cases (5.7%, N = 16 vs. 1.4%, N = 18, p < 0.0001) and clustered in the tyrosine kinase domain of HER2. ERBB3 mutations were not enriched in ILC (1.1%, N = 3 vs. 1.8%, N = 23; p = 0.604). Median OS for patients with ERBB2-mutant ILC tumors was 66 months vs. 211 months for ERBB2 wild-type (p = 0.0001), and 159 vs. 166 months (p = 0.733) for IDC tumors. Targetable ERBB2 mutational status was an independent prognostic marker of 10-year OS-but only in ILC (hazard ratio, HR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.2-11.0; p = 0.021). Findings were validated using a novel ERBB2 mutation gene enrichment score (HR for 10-year OS in ILC = 2.3, 95% CI 1.04-5.05; p = 0.040).

CONCLUSIONS: Targetable ERBB2 mutations are enriched in primary ILC and their detection represents an actionable strategy with the potential to improve patient outcomes. Biomarker-led clinical trials of adjuvant HER-targeted therapy are warranted for patients with ERBB2-mutated primary ILC.

RevDate: 2021-01-07
CmpDate: 2021-01-07

Duman B, Kuşman A, Çolak B, et al (2020)

Tamoxifen-induced acute mania: A case report.

Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, 26(8):2025-2027.

INTRODUCTION: Tamoxifen is widely used for the treatment of hormone-responsive breast cancer, osteoporosis, and post-menopausal symptoms. Also, tamoxifen is currently under investigation for its anti-manic properties. In this article, we report a case who developed manic episode following the initiation of tamoxifen and remitted with discontinuation of the medication.

CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with breast cancer. Pathologic diagnosis was invasive ductal carcinoma. Following bilateral total mastectomy operation, trastuzumab was initiated with intervals of 21 days. Five days before the fourth application of trastuzumab, tamoxifen was added. On the sixth day following the initiation of tamoxifen, manic symptoms were developed and she was diagnosed as acute mania.

MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME: The oncology department suggested withdrawing tamoxifen due to a possible association between tamoxifen initiation and behavioral symptoms. Manic symptoms were rapidly (approximately 24 h) improved following cessation of tamoxifen. Psychiatric evaluation on the fifth day following cessation of tamoxifen revealed no manic symptoms. An aromatase inhibitor-exemestane was initiated and she showed no side effects with this medication since then.

DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of probable tamoxifen-induced mania. Our case report at least indicates that there were possibly some patients who were sensitive to the tamoxifen's nervous system effects, mainly to manic effects. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of these rare behavioral adverse effects of tamoxifen.

RevDate: 2021-01-04

De Pauw V, Navez J, Holbrechts S, et al (2020)

Acute appendicitis as an unusual cause of invasive ductal breast carcinoma metastasis.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2020(12):rjaa535 pii:rjaa535.

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain at the emergency room. In rare cases, it can be caused by malignancy, even metastatic lesions from extra-abdominal neoplasia. Herein, we report a case of a 64-year-old female with a history of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast treated by chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy, relapsing several years later as a bone and a pleura metastasis successfully cured by locoregional therapy and hormonal treatment. She presented with acute abdominal pain without signs of peritonitis. Abdominal computed tomodensitometry showed sign of appendicitis. Therefore, laparoscopic exploration and appendicectomy was performed. During surgery, multiple peritoneal nodules were found and harvested. Pathology showed metastatic nodules of invasive ductal breast carcinoma, including in the appendicular wall, concluding to peritoneal carcinomatosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the patient died 1 year later after refusing anticancer treatment.

RevDate: 2021-01-04
CmpDate: 2021-01-04

Sreekumar S, Levine KM, Sikora MJ, et al (2020)

Differential Regulation and Targeting of Estrogen Receptor α Turnover in Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma.

Endocrinology, 161(9):.

Invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 10% to 15% of breast cancers diagnosed annually. Evidence suggests that some aspects of endocrine treatment response might differ between invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and ILC, and that patients with ILC have worse long-term survival. We analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset and observed lower levels of ESR1 mRNA (P = 0.002) and ERα protein (P = 0.038) in ER+ ILC (n = 137) compared to IDC (n = 554), and further confirmed the mRNA difference in a local UPMC cohort (ILC, n = 143; IDC, n = 877; P < 0.005). In both datasets, the correlation between ESR1 mRNA and ERα protein was weaker in ILC, suggesting differential post-transcriptional regulation of ERα. In vitro, 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased the rate of degradation and increased the half-life of ERα in ILC cell lines, whereas the opposite was observed in IDC cell lines. Further, E2 failed to induce robust ubiquitination of ERα in ILC cells. To determine the potential clinical relevance of these findings, we evaluated the effect of 2 selective estrogen receptor downregulators (SERDs), ICI 182,780 and AZD9496, on ERα turnover and cell growth. While ICI 182,780 and AZD9496 showed similar effects in IDC cells, in ILC cell lines, AZD9496 was not as effective as ICI 182,780 in decreasing ERα stability and E2-induced proliferation. Furthermore, AZD9496 exhibited partial agonist activity in growth assays in ILC cell lines. Our study provides evidence for a distinct ERα regulation by SERDs in ILC cell lines, and therefore it is important to include ILC models into preclinical and clinical testing of novel SERDs.

RevDate: 2020-12-09

Seitz S, Kwon Y, Hartleben G, et al (2019)

Hepatic Rab24 controls blood glucose homeostasis via improving mitochondrial plasticity.

Nature metabolism, 1(10):1009-1026.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a key feature of obesity-related type 2 diabetes with increasing prevalence worldwide. To our knowledge, no treatment options are available to date, paving the way for more severe liver damage, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we show an unexpected function for an intracellular trafficking regulator, the small Rab GTPase Rab24, in mitochondrial fission and activation, which has an immediate impact on hepatic and systemic energy homeostasis. RAB24 is highly upregulated in the livers of obese patients with NAFLD and positively correlates with increased body fat in humans. Liver-selective inhibition of Rab24 increases autophagic flux and mitochondrial connectivity, leading to a strong improvement in hepatic steatosis and a reduction in serum glucose and cholesterol levels in obese mice. Our study highlights a potential therapeutic application of trafficking regulators, such as RAB24, for NAFLD and establishes a conceptual functional connection between intracellular transport and systemic metabolic dysfunction.

RevDate: 2020-12-29
CmpDate: 2020-12-29

Haynes HR, DSC Rose (2020)

Synchronous small lymphocytic lymphoma and metastatic breast carcinoma in axillary lymph nodes: Preservation of follicular architecture only in the portions of affected lymph nodes involved by metastatic carcinoma.

The breast journal, 26(2):245-246.

We present a case of metastatic ductal carcinoma of breast with the incidental discovery of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) in regional axillary nodes. The co-occurence of metastatic carcinoma and low-grade lymphoma in lymph nodes is rare but well recognized. However, in this case, in the lymph nodes in which sizeable metastatic carcinoma deposits were present, the follicular structures between the sinusoidal carcinomatous infiltrates were preserved, whereas the uninvolved portions of the nodes were overrun by SLL. This is the first description of this phenomenon. We suggest that further cases displaying this previously unpublished pattern are collated in order that we may begin to investigate the underlying etiological mediators.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Zhong S, Wong HC, Low HY, et al (2020)

Phototriggerable Transient Electronics via Fullerene-Mediated Degradation of Polymer:Fullerene Encapsulation Layer.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Transient electronics is an emerging class of electronics that has attracted a lot of attention because of its potential as an environmental-friendly alternative to the existing end-of-life product disposal or treatments. However, the controlled degradation of transient electronics under environmentally benign conditions remains a challenge. In this work, the tunable degradation of transient electronics including passive resistor devices and active memory devices was realized by photodegradable thin polymer films comprising fullerene derivatives, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl esters (PCBM). The photodegradation of polymer:PCBM under an aqueous environment is triggered by ultraviolet (UV) light. Experimental results demonstrate that the addition of PCBM in commodity polymers, including but not limited to polystyrene, results in a catalytic effect on polymer photodegradation when triggered by UV light. The degradation mechanism of transient electronics is ascribed to the photodegradation of polymer:PCBM encapsulation layers caused by the synergistic effect between UV and water exposure. The polymer:PCBM encapsulation system presented herein offers a simple way to achieve the realization of light-triggered device degradation for bioapplication and expands the material options for tailorable degradation of transient electronics.

RevDate: 2020-12-22
CmpDate: 2020-12-22

Shinseki K, Takahashi M, Kushima A, et al (2020)

[One Case of Accessory Breast Cancer Complicated by Contralateral Breast Cancer].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(12):1703-1705.

We experienced a case of right sided accessory breast cancer complicated by contralateral breast cancer. A 50-year-old woman came to us for an examination because a tumor in her left breast was pointed out at breast cancer screening. A breast MRI confirmed a tumor in her left breast and a tumor continuing from the skin to the subcutis of the right axilla. A skin biopsy for the tumor in the right axilla and a core needle biopsy(CNB)for the tumor in the left breast were performed. The pathological result of the CNB for the left breast indicated an invasive ductal carcinoma of the tubular formative scirrhous type. Although the tumor of the right axilla was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma demonstrating cord-like arrays, it was examined by skin biopsy and therefore no deep part of the tissue was included. We conducted immunostaining, in consideration of the possibility of metastasis from the left sided breast cancer. ER, PgR, mammaglobin, GATA 3 were positive, strongly suggesting that the tumor in the right axilla was also derived from a mammary gland. We also performed a wide local excision of the right axilla plus axillary dissection(level Ⅰ)in addition to conducting a left mastectomy plus sentinel lymph node biopsy, in consideration of the possibility of primary right sided accessory breast cancer. The pathological result following surgery confirmed a difference in the histologic features between both sides, residual normal accessory mammary glands around the tumor on the right side, and the presence of rich DCIS and a lobular replacement image, leading to a definitive diagnosis of primary invasive ductal carcinoma of the accessory breast on the right side.

RevDate: 2020-12-21
CmpDate: 2020-12-21

Tsai HT, Huang CS, Tu CC, et al (2020)

Multi-gene signature of microcalcification and risk prediction among Taiwanese breast cancer.

Scientific reports, 10(1):18276.

Microcalcification is one of the most common radiological and pathological features of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and to a lesser extent, invasive ductal carcinoma. We evaluated messenger RNA (mRNA) transcriptional profiles associated with ectopic mammary mineralization. A total of 109 breast cancers were assayed with oligonucleotide microarrays. The associations of mRNA abundance with microcalcifications and relevant clinical features were evaluated. Microcalcifications were present in 86 (79%) patients by pathological examination, and 81 (94%) were with coexistent DCIS, while only 13 (57%) of 23 patients without microcalcification, the invasive diseases were accompanied with DCIS (χ2-test, P < 0.001). There were 69 genes with differential mRNA abundance between breast cancers with and without microcalcifications, and 11 were associated with high-grade (comedo) type DCIS. Enriched Gene Ontology categories included glycosaminoglycan and aminoglycan metabolic processes and protein ubiquitination, indicating an active secretory process. The intersection (18 genes) of microcalcificaion-associated and DCIS-associated genes provided the best predictive accuracy of 82% with Bayesian compound covariate predictor. Ten genes were further selected for prognostic index score construction, and five-year relapse free survival was 91% for low-risk and 83% for high-risk group (log-rank test, P = 0.10). Our study suggested that microcalcification is not only the earliest detectable radiological sign for mammography screening but the phenomenon itself may reflect the underling events during mammary carcinogenesis. Future studies to evaluate the prognostic significance of microcalcifications are warranted.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

Bertoldi AS, Guetter CR, Coltro GA, et al (2020)


Arquivos brasileiros de cirurgia digestiva : ABCD = Brazilian archives of digestive surgery, 33(3):e1525 pii:S0102-67202020000300302.

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension (PH) can be measured indirectly through a hepatic vein pressure gradient greater than 5 mmHg. Cirrhosis is the leading cause for PH and can present as complications ascites, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and esophagogastric varices, characterizing gastropathy.

AIM: To evaluate the use of carvedilol as primary prophylaxis in the development of collateral circulation in rats submitted to the partial portal vein ligament (PPVL) model.

METHOD: This is a combined qualitative and quantitative experimental study in which 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 animals in each): group I - cirrhosis + carvedilol (PPVL + C); group II - cirrhosis + vehicle (PPVL); group III - control + carvedilol (SO-sham-operated + C); group IV - control + vehicle (SO-sham-operated). After seven days of the surgical procedure (PPVL or sham), carvedilol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 mL normal saline) were administered to the respective groups daily for seven days.

RESULTS: The histological analysis showed no hepatic alteration in any group and a decrease in edema and vasodilatation in the PPVL + C group. The laboratory evaluation of liver function did not show a statistically significant change between the groups.

CONCLUSION: Carvedilol was shown to have a positive effect on gastric varices without significant adverse effects.

RevDate: 2020-12-16
CmpDate: 2020-12-16

Tasdemir N, Ding K, Savariau L, et al (2020)

Proteomic and transcriptomic profiling identifies mediators of anchorage-independent growth and roles of inhibitor of differentiation proteins in invasive lobular carcinoma.

Scientific reports, 10(1):11487.

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is a histological subtype of breast cancer with distinct molecular and clinical features from the more common subtype invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). ILC cells exhibit anchorage-independent growth in ultra-low attachment (ULA) suspension cultures, which is largely attributed to the loss of E-cadherin. In addition to anoikis resistance, herein we show that human ILC cell lines exhibit enhanced cell proliferation in ULA cultures as compared to IDC cells. Proteomic comparison of ILC and IDC cell lines identified induction of PI3K/Akt and p90-RSK pathways specifically in ULA culture in ILC cells. Further transcriptional profiling uncovered unique upregulation of the inhibitors of differentiation family transcription factors ID1 and ID3 in ILC ULA culture, the knockdown of which diminished the anchorage-independent growth of ILC cell lines through cell cycle arrest. We find that ID1 and ID3 expression is higher in human ILC tumors as compared to IDC, correlated with worse prognosis uniquely in patients with ILC and associated with upregulation of angiogenesis and matrisome-related genes. Altogether, our comprehensive study of anchorage independence in human ILC cell lines provides mechanistic insights and clinical implications for metastatic dissemination of ILC and implicates ID1 and ID3 as novel drivers and therapeutic targets for lobular breast cancer.

RevDate: 2020-12-14

Zhang J, Lu CY, Chen HM, et al (2020)

Pathologic response rates for breast cancer stages as a predictor of outcomes in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast-conserving surgery.

Surgical oncology, 36:91-98 pii:S0960-7404(20)30448-5 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To determine easy-to-use predictors of overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), and distant metastasis (DM) in patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by breast-conserving surgery (BCS), we obtained pathologic response rates (PRRs) for combined primary and nodal diseases (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stages) from clinical and pathologic reports, and we used these as predictors.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled patients with IDC who had received NACT followed by BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for the patients' PRRs; other independent predictors were controlled for or stratified in the analysis.

RESULTS: We analyzed 1047 patients with IDC (611, 260, and 176 patients in clinical stages IIB, IIIA, and IIIB-C, respectively) receiving NACT and BCS. After multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted HRs (aHRs; 95% CI) in patients with pathologic complete response (ypT0N0) were 0.26 (0.13-0.56), 0.36 (0.15-0.85), and 0.15 (0.08-0.31) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively. The aHRs (95% CI) in patients with downstaging of AJCC stages were 0.55 (0.35-0.89), 0.91 (0.62-0.96), and 0.63 (0.43-0.91) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively. The aHRs (95% CI) in patients with upstaging of AJCC stages were 1.77 (1.06-2.24), 1.08 (1.03-1.82), and 1.19 (1.07-2.01) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The impacts of AJCC-stage PRRs are useful predictive tools and strong predictors for OS, LRR, and DM in patients with breast IDC receiving NACT followed by BCS.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Xu X, Wang J, Yan C, et al (2020)

[Association of JMJD3, MMP-2 and VEGF expressions with clinicopathological features of invasive ductal breast carcinoma].

Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University, 40(11):1593-1600.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the expressions of JMJD3, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in invasive ductal breast carcinoma, their association with the clinicopathological features of the patients and the effect of JMJD3 overexpression on proliferation and MMP-2 and VEGF expressions in breast cancer cells.

METHODS: The protein and mRNA expressions of JMJD3, MMP-2, and VEGF in invasive ductal breast carcinoma and paired adjacent tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, respectively, and their correlation with the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of JMJD3, MMP-2 and VEGF expression levels with the survival of the patients. In breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with a JMJD3-expression plasmid, the expression of Ki67 was examined immunohistochemically, the cell proliferation was assessed with CCK8 assay, and the mRNA expressions of MMP-2 and VEGF were detected with RT-PCR.

RESULTS: Breast cancer tissues had significantly lower JMJD3 expression and higher MMP-2 and VEGF expressions at both the mRNA and protein levels than the adjacent tissue (P < 0.05). The positivity rates of JMJD3, MMP-2 and VEGF in breast cancer tissues were significantly correlated with tumor diameter, differentiation, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and molecular subtypes (P < 0.05). KaplanMeier analysis showed that JMJD3 expression level was positively while MMP-2 and VEGF were inversely correlated with the disease-free survival time of the patients (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis identified JMJD3, MMP-2, VEGF and tumor differentiation as independent prognostic factors of breast cancer. Spearman correlation analysis suggested a negative correlation of JMJD3 with MMP2 (r=-0.569, P < 0.05) and VEGF (r=-0.533, P < 0.05) and a positive correlation between MMP2 and VEGF (r=0.923, P < 0.05). In MDA-MB-231 cells, overexpression of JMJD3 inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells and the expression of MMP-2 and VEGF.

CONCLUSIONS: The expressions of JMJD3, MMP-2 and VEGF in invasive ductal breast carcinoma are closely correlated to tumor proliferation, invasion, metastasis and prognosis and can be used for prognostic evaluation of breast cancer.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Gewehr DM, Salgueiro GR, Noronha L, et al (2020)

Plexiform Lesions in an Experimental Model of Monocrotalin-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 115(3):480-490.

BACKGROUND: The monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension model is one of the most reproduced today, presenting as a limitation the absence of plexiform lesions, typical manifestations of the severe disease in humans.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the severity of MCT-induced pulmonary arteriopathy by pathological findings of lung and heart tissue samples, clinical course and 37-day survival.

METHODS: Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into one of the four groups - control (CG) (n = 10) and three intervention (MCT) groups. The MCT groups received intraperitoneal injection (60 mg/kg) of MCT and remained exposed to the substance for 15 days (G15, n = 10), 30 days (G30, n = 10) and 37 days (G37, n = 20). At the end of each period, the animals were sacrificed, and pulmonary and cardiac tissues were collected for anatomopathological and morphometric analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used, considering a level of significance of 5%.

RESULTS: In the lungs of MCT animals, lesions related to pulmonary arteriopathy were found, including muscularization of the arterioles, hypertrophy of the middle layer and concentric neointimal lesions. Complex lesions were observed in MCT groups, described as plexiform and plexiform-like lesions. Right ventricular hypertrophy was evidenced by increased thickness and diameter of the cardiomyocytes and a significant increase in the right ventricular wall thickness (p <0.0000).

CONCLUSION: The MCT model was able to generate moderate-severe pulmonary arteriopathy associated with secondary right ventricular hypertrophy. The 37-day survival rate was 50%. To our knowledge, this study was the first to note the presence of complex vascular lesions, similar to those observed in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, in an isolated MCT model. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(3):480-490).

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-11

Murray AS, Hyland TE, Sala-Hamrick KE, et al (2020)

The cell-surface anchored serine protease TMPRSS13 promotes breast cancer progression and resistance to chemotherapy.

Oncogene, 39(41):6421-6436.

Breast cancer progression is accompanied by increased expression of extracellular and cell-surface proteases capable of degrading the extracellular matrix as well as cleaving and activating downstream targets. The type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a family of cell-surface proteases that play critical roles in numerous types of cancers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify novel and uncharacterized TTSPs with differential expression in breast cancer and to determine their potential roles in progression. Systematic in silico data analysis followed by immunohistochemical validation identified increased expression of the TTSP family member, TMPRSS13 (transmembrane protease, serine 13), in invasive ductal carcinoma patient tissue samples compared to normal breast tissue. To test whether loss of TMPRSS13 impacts tumor progression, TMPRSS13 was genetically ablated in the oncogene-induced transgenic MMTV-PymT tumor model. TMPRSS13 deficiency resulted in a significant decrease in overall tumor burden and growth rate, as well as a delayed formation of detectable mammary tumors, thus suggesting a causal relationship between TMPRSS13 expression and the progression of breast cancer. Complementary studies using human breast cancer cell culture models revealed that siRNA-mediated silencing of TMPRSS13 expression decreases proliferation, induces apoptosis, and attenuates invasion. Importantly, targeting TMPRSS13 expression renders aggressive triple-negative breast cancer cell lines highly responsive to chemotherapy. At the molecular level, knockdown of TMPRSS13 in breast cancer cells led to increased protein levels of the tumor-suppressive protease prostasin. TMPRSS13/prostasin co-immunoprecipitation and prostasin zymogen activation experiments identified prostasin as a potential novel target for TMPRSS13. Regulation of prostasin levels may be a mechanism that contributes to the pro-oncogenic properties of TMPRSS13 in breast cancer. TMPRSS13 represents a novel candidate for targeted therapy in combination with standard of care chemotherapy agents in patients with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer or in patients with tumors refractory to endocrine therapy.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-08

Chan SJ, Ein-Dor T, Mayopoulos PA, et al (2020)

Risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth.

Psychiatry research, 290:113090.

Women can develop childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder (CB-PTSD) in at-term delivery with healthy baby outcome as well as following pre-term delivery and neonatal complications, a potential added stressor. No study compares risk factors of CB-PTSD associated with different infant outcomes. We investigated CB-PTSD risk factors by comparing women with or without neonatal complications. Analysis reveals the importance of antepartum and birth-related risk factors in CB-PTSD above and beyond child outcomes, suggesting childbirth is an independent stressor capable of evoking CB-PTSD.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-10

Szentirmai E, GA Giannico (2020)

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate.

Pathologica, 112(1):17-24.

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is a diagnostic entity characterized by architecturally or cytologically malignant-appearing prostatic glandular epithelium confined to prostatic ducts. Despite its apparent in situ nature, this lesion is associated with aggressive prostatic adenocarcinoma and is a predictor for poor prognosis when identified on biopsy or radical prostatectomy. This review discusses diagnosis, clinical features, histogenesis, and management of IDC-P, as well as current research and controversies surrounding this entity.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-04

Billena C, Padia S, O'Brien B, et al (2020)

Radiation recall dermatitis after treatment of stage IV breast cancer with nivolumab: a case report.

Immunotherapy, 12(2):123-130.

Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an uncommon dermatologic reaction provoked notably by chemotherapy in an area of skin irradiated weeks to years prior. We report a case of RRD with nivolumab in a woman with breast cancer. The patient was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast with an isolated spinal metastasis approached in an oligometastatic fashion with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, modified radical mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Unfortunately, after progression of bony metastases treated with radiotherapy, the patient received nivolumab and subsequently developed a rash corresponding to the adjuvant radiation field. This case highlights the unpredictable nature and characteristic rash of RRD. It is an important differential diagnosis for multidisciplinary teams who also see chemotherapy-induced dermatitis and immune-related adverse events.

RevDate: 2020-12-14
CmpDate: 2020-12-14

Delaunay T, Achard C, Grégoire M, et al (2020)

A Functional Assay to Determine the Capacity of Oncolytic Viruses to Induce Immunogenic Tumor Cell Death.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2058:127-132.

Oncolytic immunotherapy efficacy relies partially on the induction of immunogenic tumor cell death following infection with oncolytic viruses (OV) to induce an antitumor immune response. Here, we describe a method to determine if an OV is able to induce such an immunogenic tumor cell death. This method consists in testing whether tumor cells lysed by an OV are able to induce the maturation of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (Mo-iDC).

RevDate: 2020-12-11

Desa DE, Strawderman RL, Wu W, et al (2020)

Intratumoral heterogeneity of second-harmonic generation scattering from tumor collagen and its effects on metastatic risk prediction.

BMC cancer, 20(1):1217.

BACKGROUND: Metastases are the leading cause of breast cancer-related deaths. The tumor microenvironment impacts cancer progression and metastatic ability. Fibrillar collagen, a major extracellular matrix component, can be studied using the light scattering phenomenon known as second-harmonic generation (SHG). The ratio of forward- to backward-scattered SHG photons (F/B) is sensitive to collagen fiber internal structure and has been shown to be an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis-free survival time (MFS). Here we assess the effects of heterogeneity in the tumor matrix on the possible use of F/B as a prognostic tool.

METHODS: SHG imaging was performed on sectioned primary tumor excisions from 95 untreated, estrogen receptor-positive, lymph node negative invasive ductal carcinoma patients. We identified two distinct regions whose collagen displayed different average F/B values, indicative of spatial heterogeneity: the cellular tumor bulk and surrounding tumor-stroma interface. To evaluate the impact of heterogeneity on F/B's prognostic ability, we performed SHG imaging in the tumor bulk and tumor-stroma interface, calculated a 21-gene recurrence score (surrogate for OncotypeDX®, or S-ODX) for each patient and evaluated their combined prognostic ability.

RESULTS: We found that F/B measured in tumor-stroma interface, but not tumor bulk, is prognostic of MFS using three methods to select pixels for analysis: an intensity threshold selected by a blinded observer, a histogram-based thresholding method, and an adaptive thresholding method. Using both regression trees and Random Survival Forests for MFS outcome, we obtained data-driven prediction rules that show F/B from tumor-stroma interface, but not tumor bulk, and S-ODX both contribute to predicting MFS in this patient cohort. We also separated patients into low-intermediate (S-ODX < 26) and high risk (S-ODX ≥26) groups. In the low-intermediate risk group, comprised of patients not typically recommended for adjuvant chemotherapy, we find that F/B from the tumor-stroma interface is prognostic of MFS and can identify a patient cohort with poor outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that intratumoral heterogeneity in F/B values can play an important role in its possible use as a prognostic marker, and that F/B from tumor-stroma interface of primary tumor excisions may provide useful information to stratify patients by metastatic risk.

RevDate: 2020-12-05

Hadano Y, Kakuma T, Matsumoto T, et al (2020)

Reduction of 30-day death rates from Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia by mandatory infectious diseases consultation: Comparative study interventions with and without an infectious disease specialist.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)32514-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Most Japanese hospitals need to keep higher Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) quality-of-care indicators (QCIs) and create strategies that can maximise the effect of these QCIs in a small number of infectious diseases specialists. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with SAB before and after the enhancement of the mandatory infectious diseases consultations (IDCs).

METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Japan. The primary outcome was the 30-day mortality between each period. A generalised structural equation model was employed to examine the effect of the mandatory IDC enhancement on 30-day mortality among patients with SAB.

RESULTS: A total of 114 patients with SAB were analysed. The 30-day all-cause mortality was significant between the two periods (17.3% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.02). Age, 3 QCI point ≥1, and Pitt bacteraemia score ≥3 were the significant risk factors for 30-day mortality. The intervention was also significantly associated with improved adherence to QCIs.

CONCLUSION: Mandatory IDCs for SAB improved 30-day mortality and adherence of QCIs after the intervention. In Japan, improving the quality of management in patients with SAB should be an important target.

RevDate: 2020-11-30

Li X, Schmöhl F, Qi H, et al (2020)

Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Aldo-keto-reductase 1a1b in Zebrafish.

iScience, 23(12):101763 pii:S2589-0042(20)30960-3.

Regulation of glucose homeostasis is a fundamental process to maintain blood glucose at a physiological level, and its dysregulation is associated with the development of several metabolic diseases. Here, we report on a zebrafish mutant for Aldo-keto-reductase 1a1b (akr1a1b) as a regulator of gluconeogenesis. Adult akr1a1b-/- mutant zebrafish developed fasting hypoglycemia, which was caused by inhibiting phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression as rate-limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis. Subsequently, glucogenic amino acid glutamate as substrate for gluconeogenesis accumulated in the kidneys, but not in livers, and induced structural and functional pronephros alterations in 48-hpf akr1a1b-/- embryos. Akr1a1b-/- mutants displayed increased nitrosative stress as indicated by increased nitrotyrosine, and increased protein-S-nitrosylation. Inhibition of nitrosative stress using the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME prevented kidney damage and normalized PEPCK expression in akr1a1b-/- mutants. Thus, the data have identified Akr1a1b as a regulator of gluconeogenesis in zebrafish and thereby controlling glucose homeostasis.

RevDate: 2020-11-30
CmpDate: 2020-11-30

Schwarz D, Hidmark AS, Sturm V, et al (2020)

Characterization of experimental diabetic neuropathy using multicontrast magnetic resonance neurography at ultra high field strength.

Scientific reports, 10(1):7593.

In light of the limited treatment options of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) available, suitable animal models are essential to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutic targets. In vivo evaluation with current techniques, however, often provides only restricted information about disease evolution. In the study of patients with DPN, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has been introduced as an innovative diagnostic tool detecting characteristic lesions within peripheral nerves. We developed a novel multicontrast ultra high field MRN strategy to examine major peripheral nerve segments in diabetic mice non-invasively. It was first validated in a cross-platform approach on human nerve tissue and then applied to the popular streptozotocin(STZ)-induced mouse model of DPN. In the absence of gross morphologic alterations, a distinct MR-signature within the sciatic nerve was observed mirroring subtle changes of the nerves' fibre composition and ultrastructure, potentially indicating early re-arrangements of DPN. Interestingly, these signal alterations differed from previously reported typical nerve lesions of patients with DPN. The capacity of our approach to non-invasively assess sciatic nerve tissue structure and function within a given mouse model provides a powerful tool for direct translational comparison to human disease hallmarks not only in diabetes but also in other peripheral neuropathic conditions.

RevDate: 2020-11-26

Chen J, Fleming T, Katz S, et al (2020)

CaM Kinase II-δ is Required for Diabetic Hyperglycemia and Retinopathy but not Nephropathy.

Diabetes pii:db19-0659 [Epub ahead of print].

Type 2 diabetes has become a pandemic and leads to late diabetic complications of organs including kidney and eye. Lowering hyperglycemia is the typical therapeutic goal in clinical medicine. However, hyperglycemia may only be a symptom of diabetes but not the sole cause of late diabetic complications, Instead, other diabetes-related alterations could be causative. Here, we studied the role of CaM Kinase II δ (CaMKIIδ) that is known to be activated through diabetic metabolism. CaMKIIδ is expressed ubiquitously and might therefore affect several different organ systems. We crossed diabetic leptin receptor mutant mice to mice lacking CaMKIIδ globally. Remarkably, CaMKIIδ-deficient diabetic mice did not develop hyperglycemia. As potential underlying mechanisms, we provide evidence for improved insulin sensing with increased glucose transport into skeletal muscle but also reduced hepatic glucose production. Despite normoglycemia, CaMKIIδ-deficient diabetic mice developed the full picture of diabetic nephropathy but diabetic retinopathy was prevented. We also unmasked a retina-specific gene expression signature that might contribute to CaMKII-dependent retinal diabetic complications. These data challenge the clinical concept of normalizing hyperglycemia in diabetes as a causative treatment strategy for late diabetic complications and call for a more detailed analysis of intracellular metabolic signals in different diabetic organs.

RevDate: 2020-11-26

Huang Z, Hu C, Liu K, et al (2020)

Risk factors, prognostic factors, and nomograms for bone metastasis in patients with newly diagnosed infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast: a population-based study.

BMC cancer, 20(1):1145 pii:10.1186/s12885-020-07635-1.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, and it is also the leading cause of death in female patients; the most common pathological type of BC is infiltrating duct carcinoma (IDC). Some nomograms have been developed to predict bone metastasis (BM) in patients with breast cancer. However, there are no studies on diagnostic and prognostic nomograms for BM in newly diagnosed IDC patients.

METHODS: IDC patients with newly diagnosed BM from 2010 to 2016 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for BM in patients with IDC. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were used to explore the prognostic factors of BM in patients with IDC. We then constructed nomograms to predict the risk and prognosis of BM for patients with IDC. The results were validated using bootstrap resampling and retrospective research on 113 IDC patients with BM from 2015 to 2018 at the Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University.

RESULTS: This study included 141,959 patients diagnosed with IDC in the SEER database, of whom 2383 cases were IDC patients with BM. The risk factors for BM in patients with IDC included sex, primary site, grade, T stage, N stage, liver metastasis, race, brain metastasis, breast cancer subtype, lung metastasis, insurance status, and marital status. The independent prognostic factors were brain metastases, race, grade, surgery, chemotherapy, age, liver metastases, breast cancer subtype, insurance status, and marital status. Through calibration, receiver operating characteristic curve and decision curve analyses, we found that the nomogram for predicting the prognosis of IDC patients with BM displayed great performance both internally and externally.

CONCLUSION: These nomograms are expected to be a precise and personalized tool for predicting the risk and prognosis for BM in patients with IDC. This will help clinicians develop more rational and effective treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2020-11-26
CmpDate: 2020-11-26

Roy S, Kumar R, Mittal V, et al (2020)

Classification models for Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Progression, based on gene expression data-trained supervised machine learning.

Scientific reports, 10(1):4113.

Early detection of breast cancer and its correct stage determination are important for prognosis and rendering appropriate personalized clinical treatment to breast cancer patients. However, despite considerable efforts and progress, there is a need to identify the specific genomic factors responsible for, or accompanying Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) progression stages, which can aid the determination of the correct cancer stages. We have developed two-class machine-learning classification models to differentiate the early and late stages of IDC. The prediction models are trained with RNA-seq gene expression profiles representing different IDC stages of 610 patients, obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Different supervised learning algorithms were trained and evaluated with an enriched model learning, facilitated by different feature selection methods. We also developed a machine-learning classifier trained on the same datasets with training sets reduced data corresponding to IDC driver genes. Based on these two classifiers, we have developed a web-server Duct-BRCA-CSP to predict early stage from late stages of IDC based on input RNA-seq gene expression profiles. The analysis conducted by us also enables deeper insights into the stage-dependent molecular events accompanying IDC progression. The server is publicly available at http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/duct-BRCA-CSP.

RevDate: 2020-11-24
CmpDate: 2020-11-24

Lee YH, Kwon MJ, Park JH, et al (2020)

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 with the Development of Pheochromocytoma and Breast Cancer.

Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 59(13):1665-1669.

A 40-year-old woman presented with a left adrenal incidentaloma. Based on the presence of café-au-lait spots, cutaneous neurofibroma, and family history, she was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Adrenal incidentaloma screening showed an elevated normetanephrine level; the left adrenal mass showed the uptake of I-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine. She underwent left adrenalectomy, and pheochromocytoma was diagnosed. One year later, the results of a biopsy of a palpable mass in the left breast suggested invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by left breast-conserving surgery. We herein report a rare case of an NF1 patient who developed both pheochromocytoma and breast cancer.

RevDate: 2020-11-20
CmpDate: 2020-11-20

Kosaka Y, Kikuchi M, Nishimiya H, et al (2020)

[In Situ Ductal Carcinoma with Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in a Patient Who Received Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy-A Case Report].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(9):1387-1389.

A woman in her 30s presented to our hospital with the chief complaint of a right breast mass after the birth of her first child. She was diagnosed as having right invasive ductal carcinoma of Luminal-B type and T3N3cM0, stage Ⅲc. While undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, she received genetic counseling and underwent genetic testing and was determined to have deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. After completing chemotherapy, she underwent a right total mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. Two years postoperatively, she requested to undergo a contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy(CRRM)of her left breast. Therefore, CT and breast MRI were performed to confirm the absence of contralateral lesions and distant metastases, and subsequently, CRRM was performed. Postoperative pathology results showed non-invasive ductal carcinoma lesions at 5 sites. In the case of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome such as in this study, lesions may be discovered at an early stage by performing risk-reducing mastectomy.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Fouhi ME, Benider A, Gaëtan KZA, et al (2020)

[Epidemiological and anatomopathological profile of breast cancer at the Ibn Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca].

The Pan African medical journal, 37:41 pii:PAMJ-37-41.

The present study aims to determine the various epidemiological characteristics among newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer in Casablanca during 2018. During that period, 668 cases were collected, the average age was 51.6 years, the female was the most represented with 662 cases (99.1%) and men with 6 cases (0.9%), a sex ratio (M/F) of 0.009. The average age of menopause was 49.8 years and the average age of menarche was 13.5 years, 31.7% had a history of cancer (breast 14.1%, stomach and 9% liver 7%). The average diagnosis delay was 10 months, the thyroid disease was the most represented pathology, the left breast was diagnosed in 50.2% and the right breast in 44.7% and 1.3% in the bilateral location. The most common histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma (73.2%). The vascular and lymphatic invasion was observed in 42.2%, axillary nodes were affected in 71.1% of cases. The histological prognosis (SBR) revealed a predominance of grade II in 55.9% of cases. The Luminal B continues to be the most common phenotype (46%) followed by Triple Negative (15.3%) and Luminal A (14.2%) and HER2 (7.4%). The immediate prognosis is a cause for concern because of delayed diagnosis. It seems urgent to develop the health information policy and education.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Liu C, Wang C, Du Z, et al (2020)

Clinical features and prognosis of duplex primary malignant neoplasms involving chronic myeloid leukemia.

Medicine, 99(44):e22904.

This study was to investigate clinical features and prognosis of duplex primary malignant neoplasms involving chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-DPMNs). Clinical data of thirteen CML-DPMN patients who were admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University from May 2008 to December 2018 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Female patients (9/13) were predominant in this cohort study. Nine patients were metachronous DPMNs (metachronous duplex primary malignant neoplasms involving chronic myeloid leukemia) with 5 years median interval time from primary malignancy to secondary malignancy. The other 4 patients were diagnosed as synchronous CML-DPMNs. Seven of the metachronous duplex primary malignant neoplasms involving chronic myeloid leukemia suffered from CML following many years of comprehensive anti-cancer therapy. Two of CML-MDPMN patients had invasive ductal carcinoma of breast after many years of treatment with imatinib. There was no difference between treatment-related CML group and non-treatment-related CML group in regard as the gender, age, white blood cell count, hemoglobin level, platelet count, and risk level. The median overall survival time of these thirteen patients with CML-DPMNs was not reached. In conclusion, female patients are more likely to suffer from the CML-DPMNs in the present article. Overall survival time of patients with DPMNs involving CML could be promising if timely and effective treatment therapy is adopted.

RevDate: 2020-11-12
CmpDate: 2020-11-12

Beetch M, Harandi-Zadeh S, Yang T, et al (2020)

DNA methylation landscape of triple-negative ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) progressing to the invasive stage in canine breast cancer.

Scientific reports, 10(1):2415 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-59260-4.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer unresponsive to traditional receptor-targeted treatments, leading to a disproportionate number of deaths. Invasive breast cancer is believed to evolve from non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Detection of triple-negative DCIS (TN-DCIS) is challenging, therefore strategies to study molecular events governing progression of pre-invasive TN-DCIS to invasive TNBC are needed. Here, we study a canine TN-DCIS progression and investigate the DNA methylation landscape of normal breast tissue, atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), DCIS and invasive breast cancer. We report hypo- and hypermethylation of genes within functional categories related to cancer such as transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and cell migration. DNA methylation changes associated with cancer-related genes become more pronounced at invasive breast cancer stage. Importantly, we identify invasive-only and DCIS-specific DNA methylation alterations that could potentially determine which lesions progress to invasive cancer and which could remain as pre-invasive DCIS. Changes in DNA methylation during TN-DCIS progression in this canine model correspond with gene expression patterns in human breast tissues. This study provides evidence for utilizing methylation status of gene candidates to define late-stage (DCIS and invasive), invasive stage only or DCIS stage only of TN-DCIS progression.

RevDate: 2020-11-09

Zhang J, Sun M, Chang E, et al (2020)

Pathologic response as predictor of recurrence, metastasis, and survival in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and total mastectomy.

American journal of cancer research, 10(10):3415-3427.

To determine easy-to-use predictors of overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), and distant metastasis (DM) in breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and total mastectomy (TM), we used the pathologic response (PR) of primary breast diseases (T stages), nodal diseases (N stages), and combined primary and nodal diseases (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stages) based on existing clinical and pathologic reports as predictors. We enrolled patients with IDC who received NACT followed by TM. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of PR; other independent predictors were controlled for or stratified in the analysis. We analyzed 3654 IDC patients (1031, 1215, 1003, and 405 patients with clinical stages IIB, IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, respectively) receiving NACT and TM. After multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted HRs (aHRs) (95% CI) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM were noted to be 0.21 (0.13-0.34), 0.19 (0.08-0.48), and 0.33 (0.23-0.47), respectively, for pCR; 0.56 (0.48-0.65), 0.67 (0.51-0.89), and 0.61 (0.52-0.70), respectively, for AJCC downstaging; and 1.85 (1.56-2.18), 1.17 (0.84-1.62), and 1.61 (1.36-1.90), respectively, for AJCC upstaging. The PR parameters used in the study are easily applied because they are based on existing staging records, and they can strongly predict OS, LRR, and DM in IDC patients receiving NACT and TM, regardless of clinical stage. The results can be used to guide adjuvant treatment.

RevDate: 2020-11-06
CmpDate: 2020-11-06

Elmetwali T, Salman A, Wei W, et al (2020)

CD40L membrane retention enhances the immunostimulatory effects of CD40 ligation.

Scientific reports, 10(1):342.

In carcinomas, the nature of CD40 ligand shapes the outcome of CD40 ligation. To date, the consequences of membrane-bound CD40L (mCD40L) on its immune-stimulatory function are unknown. Here, we examined the impact of mCD40L versus soluble CD40L (sCD40L) on T24 bladder carcinoma gene expression profiling. Of 410 differentially expressed genes, 286 were upregulated and 124 downregulated by mCD40L versus sCD40L. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed immune-stimulatory function as the most significant enriched biological process affected by upregulated transcripts, while those downregulated were critical for cell growth and division. Furthermore, immature dendritic cells (iDC) responded to mCD40L with enhanced maturation and activation over sCD40L evidenced by higher expression levels of CD83, CD86, HLA-DR and CD54, increased secretion of IL12 and IL10 and higher tumour-antigen (TA) uptake capacity. Furthermore, autologus CD3+ T cells responded to TA-loaded mCD40L-activated DC with increased proliferation and cytotoxic response (CD107a and IFN-γ-producing CD3+ CD8+ T cells) to the tumour-loaded autologous PBMCs compared to sCD40L. Thus, these data indicate that mCD40L enhances the immunostimulatory capacity over sCD40L. Furthermore, the ability of mCD40L to also directly induce cell death in CD40-expressing carcinomas, subsequently releasing tumour-specific antigens into the tumour microenvironment highlights the potential for mCD40L as a multi-faceted anti-cancer immunotherapeutic.

RevDate: 2020-11-10
CmpDate: 2020-11-10

Alexia C, Cren M, Louis-Plence P, et al (2019)

Polyoxidonium® Activates Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Responses Through Dendritic Cell Maturation: Clinical Effects in Breast Cancer.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:2693.

Immunotherapy, which is seen as a major tool for cancer treatment, requires, in some cases, the presence of several agents to maximize its effects. Adjuvants can enhance the effect of other agents. However, despite their long-time use, only a few adjuvants are licensed today, and their use in cancer treatment is rare. Azoximer bromide, marketed under the trade name Polyoxidonium® (PO), is a copolymer of N-oxidized 1,4-ethylenepiperazine and (N-carboxyethyl)-1,4-ethylene piperazinium bromide. It has been described as an immune adjuvant and immunomodulator that is clinically used with excellent tolerance. PO is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of diseases connected with damage to the immune system, and there is interest in testing it in antitumor therapy. We show here that PO treatment for 1 week induced positive pathological changes in 6 out of 20 patients with breast cancer, including complete response in a triple-negative patient. This correlated with an increased tumor CD4+ T-lymphocyte infiltration. The immune effects of PO are associated with myeloid cell activation, and little is known about the action of PO on lymphocyte lineages, such as natural killer (NK) and T cells. We reveal that PO increases T-cell proliferation in vitro without negative effects on any activation marker. PO does not affect dendritic cell (DC) viability and increases the expansion of immature DC (iDC) and mature DC (mDC) at 100 μg/ml, and it stimulates expression of several DC co-stimulatory molecules, inducing the proliferation of allogeneic T cells. In contrast, PO decreases DC viability when added at day 5 post-expansion. PO is not toxic for NK cells at doses up to 100 μM and does not affect their activation, maturation, and cytotoxicity but tends to increase degranulation. This could be beneficial against target cells that show low sensitivity to NK cells, e.g., solid tumor cells. Finally, we have found great variability in PO response between donors. In summary, our in vitro results show that PO increases the number of costimulatory molecules on DC that prime T cells, favoring the production of effector T cells. This may support the future clinical development of PO in cancer treatment.

RevDate: 2020-11-05

Chen F, Ding K, Priedigkeit N, et al (2020)

Single-cell transcriptomic heterogeneity in invasive ductal and lobular breast cancer cells.

Cancer research pii:0008-5472.CAN-20-0696 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC), one of the major breast cancer histological subtypes, exhibits unique features compared to the well-studied ductal cancer subtype (IDC). The pathognomonic feature of ILC is loss of E-cadherin, mainly caused by inactivating mutations, but the contribution of this genetic alteration to ILC-specific molecular characteristics remains largely understudied. To profile these features transcriptionally, we conducted single-cell-RNA-sequencing on a panel of IDC and ILC cell lines, and an IDC cell line (T47D) with CRISPR-Cas9-mediated E-cadherin knock out (KO). Inspection of intra-cell line heterogeneity illustrated genetically and transcriptionally distinct subpopulations in multiple cell lines and highlighted rare populations of MCF7 cells highly expressing an apoptosis-related signature, positively correlated with a pre-adaptation signature to estrogen deprivation. Investigation of E-cadherin KO-induced alterations showed transcriptomic membranous systems remodeling, elevated resemblance to ILCs in regulon activation, and increased sensitivity to IFN-γ mediated growth inhibition via activation of IRF1. This study reveals single cell transcriptional heterogeneity in breast cancer cell lines and provides a resource to identify drivers of cancer progression and drug resistance.

RevDate: 2020-11-05
CmpDate: 2020-11-05

Blohmer M, Zhu L, Atkinson JM, et al (2020)

Patient treatment and outcome after breast cancer orbital and periorbital metastases: a comprehensive case series including analysis of lobular versus ductal tumor histology.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 22(1):70.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy to spread to the orbit and periorbit, and the invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) histologic subtype of breast cancer has been reported to form these ophthalmic metastases (OM) more frequently than invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC). We herein report our single academic institution experience with breast cancer OM with respect to anatomical presentation, histology (lobular vs. ductal), treatment, and survival.

METHODS: We employed the natural language processing platform, TIES (Text Information Extraction System), to search 2.3 million de-identified patient pathology and radiology records at our institution in order to identify patients with OM secondary to breast cancer. We then compared the resultant cohort, the "OM cohort," to two other representative metastatic breast cancer patient (MBC) databases from our institution. Histological analysis of selected patients was performed.

RESULTS: Our TIES search and manual refinement ultimately identified 28 patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 2016 that subsequently developed OM. Median age at diagnosis was 54 (range 28-77) years of age. ER, PR, and HER2 status from the 28 patients with OM did not differ from other patients with MBC from our institution. The relative proportion of patients with ILC was significantly higher in the OM cohort (32.1%) than in other MBC patients in our institution (11.3%, p = 0.007). Median time to first OM in the OM cohort was 46.7 months, and OM were the second most frequent first metastases after bony metastases. After diagnosis of the first distant metastasis of any kind, median survival of patients with ILC (21.4 months) was significantly shorter than that of patients with IDC (55.3 months, p = 0.03). Nine patients developed bilateral OM. We observed a significant co-occurrence of OM and central nervous system metastases (p = 0.0053). The histological analysis revealed an interesting case in which the primary tumor was of a mixed ILC/IDC subtype, while only ILC was present in the OM.

CONCLUSIONS: OM from breast cancer are illustrative of the difference in metastatic behavior of ILC versus IDC and should be considered when treating patients with ILC, especially in those with complaints of visual acuity changes.

RevDate: 2020-11-04
CmpDate: 2020-11-04

Song G, He L, Yang X, et al (2020)

Identification of aberrant gene expression during breast ductal carcinoma in situ progression to invasive ductal carcinoma.

The Journal of international medical research, 48(1):300060518815364.

RevDate: 2020-11-03
CmpDate: 2020-11-03

Golberg A, Sheviryov J, Solomon O, et al (2019)

Molecular harvesting with electroporation for tissue profiling.

Scientific reports, 9(1):15750 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-51634-7.

Recent developments in personalized medicine are based on molecular measurement steps that guide personally adjusted medical decisions. A central approach to molecular profiling consists of measuring DNA, RNA, and/or proteins in tissue samples, most notably in and around tumors. This measurement yields molecular biomarkers that are potentially predictive of response and of tumor type. Current methods in cancer therapy mostly use tissue biopsy as the starting point of molecular profiling. Tissue biopsies involve a physical resection of a small tissue sample, leading to localized tissue injury, bleeding, inflammation and stress, as well as to an increased risk of metastasis. Here we developed a technology for harvesting biomolecules from tissues using electroporation. We show that tissue electroporation, achieved using a combination of high-voltage short pulses, 50 pulses 500 V cm-1, 30 µs, 1 Hz, with low-voltage long pulses 50 pulses 50 V cm-1, 10 ms, delivered at 1 Hz, allows for tissue-specific extraction of RNA and proteins. We specifically tested RNA and protein extraction from excised kidney and liver samples and from excised HepG2 tumors in mice. Further in vivo development of extraction methods based on electroporation can drive novel approaches to the molecular profiling of tumors and of tumor environment and to related diagnosis practices.

RevDate: 2020-10-30
CmpDate: 2020-10-30

Patel DP, Herrick JS, Stoffel JT, et al (2020)

Reasons for cessation of clean intermittent catheterization after spinal cord injury: Results from the Neurogenic Bladder Research Group spinal cord injury registry.

Neurourology and urodynamics, 39(1):211-219.

INTRODUCTION: Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is recommended for bladder management after spinal cord injury (SCI) since it has the lowest complication rate. However, transitions from CIC to other less optimal strategies, such as indwelling catheters (IDCs) are common. In individuals with SCI who stopped CIC, we sought to determine how individual characteristics affect the bladder-related quality of life (QoL) and the reasons for CIC cessation.

METHODS: The Neurogenic Bladder Research Group registry is an observational study, evaluating neurogenic bladder-related QoL after SCI. From 1479 participants, those using IDC or urinary conduit were asked if they had ever performed CIC, for how long, and why they stopped CIC. Multivariable regression, among participants discontinuing CIC, established associations between demographics, injury characteristics, and SCI complications with bladder-related QoL.

RESULTS: There were 176 participants who had discontinued CIC; 66 (38%) were paraplegic and 110 (63%) were male. The most common reasons for CIC cessation among all participants were inconvenience, urinary leakage, and too many urine infections. Paraplegic participants who discontinued CIC had higher mean age, better fine motor scores, and lower educational attainment and employment. Multivariable regression revealed years since SCI was associated with worse bladder symptoms (neurogenic bladder symptom score), ≥4 urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a year was associated with worse satisfaction and feelings about bladder symptoms (SCI-QoL difficulties), while tetraplegia was associated better satisfaction and feelings about bladder symptoms (SCI-QoL difficulties).

CONCLUSIONS: Tetraplegics who have discontinued CIC have an improved QoL compared with paraplegics. SCI individuals who have discontinued CIC and have recurrent UTIs have worse QoL.

RevDate: 2020-10-30
CmpDate: 2020-10-30

Chavez DE, Gronau I, Hains T, et al (2019)

Comparative genomics provides new insights into the remarkable adaptations of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

Scientific reports, 9(1):8329 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-44772-5.

Within the Canidae, the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is the most specialized with regards to cursorial adaptations (specialized for running), having only four digits on their forefeet. In addition, this species is one of the few canids considered to be an obligate meat-eater, possessing a robust dentition for taking down large prey, and displays one of the most variable coat colorations amongst mammals. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis to investigate the evolutionary history and genetic basis for adaptations associated with cursoriality, hypercanivory, and coat color variation in African wild dogs. Genome-wide scans revealed unique amino acid deletions that suggest a mode of evolutionary digit loss through expanded apoptosis in the developing first digit. African wild dog-specific signals of positive selection also uncovered a putative mechanism of molar cusp modification through changes in genes associated with the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway, required for spatial patterning of teeth, and three genes associated with pigmentation. Divergence time analyses suggest the suite of genomic changes we identified evolved ~1.7 Mya, coinciding with the diversification of large-bodied ungulates. Our results show that comparative genomics is a powerful tool for identifying the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in Canidae.

RevDate: 2020-10-29
CmpDate: 2020-10-29

Dhia SB, Belaid I, Stita W, et al (2020)

Bilateral parotid gland metastasis from a breast invasive ductal carcinoma.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 16(3):672-674.

Metastases to the parotid gland are very rare. We report the second case of bilateral metastases to the parotid gland from a breast invasive ductal carcinoma. A 50-year-old female was treated for an early left breast cancer in 2007. A pulmonary metastatic relapse was diagnosed in 2013. A metastatic skin extension required several lines of treatment from June 2014 to July 2016. Bilateral parotid gland metastases from a breast invasive ductal carcinoma were confirmed in December 2016. The patient died on May 2017 from cerebral metastases. Only 16 cases of metastasis to the parotid gland from breast cancer have been reported in the literature. Only one case had a bilateral involvement. Prognosis is poor, and there are no specific guidelines for the treatment.

RevDate: 2020-10-26
CmpDate: 2020-10-26

Guillet C, Rechsteiner M, Bellini E, et al (2020)

Juvenile papillomatosis of the breast (Swiss cheese disease) has frequent associations with PIK3CA and/or AKT1 mutations.

Human pathology, 98:64-73.

Juvenile papillomatosis (JP), the so-called Swiss cheese disease, is a rare benign breast disease of young adults. An association (up to 28%) with breast cancer within the family of affected patients has been reported. A multinodular cystic breast mass lesion and calcifications characterizes JP in imaging studies. The histological picture is diverse and comprises multiple intraductal papillomas, usual ductal hyperplasia, ductectasias, perifocal sclerosing adenosis, and calcification. Patients with complete excision of JP lesions have an excellent follow-up; breast cancer develops only on a very low subset of patients. Molecular background of JP has not been investigated until now. In this study, we addressed mutational analysis of JP cases and correlated these results with follow-up and family history in context with a comprehensive review of the JP literature. We identified 13 cases fulfilling the criteria of JP. All patients were women with a median age of 38 years (26-50 years). Follow-up information was available for 11 of 13 patients. Sufficient paraffin-embedded tissue and good DNA quality for next-generation sequencing (NGS) was available for 10 patients. Paraffin blocks were microdissected in the area of intraductal proliferative disease; the tissue cores underwent NGS analysis using the Oncomine Comprehensive Panel. In 5 of 10 patients, we found PIK3CA mutations; in 2 of 10 patients, we found AKT1 mutations in known hot spot regions. Further mutations in MET, FGFR3, PTEN, ATM, NF1, and GNAS genes were detected in individual patients. Some of these mutations were present at high allele frequencies suggesting germ line mutations. Two of 3 patients with positive family history had PIK3CA mutation; one patient with positive family history had an AKT1 mutation. One patient who subsequently developed invasive ductal carcinoma in the contralateral breast possibly had a germ line ATM mutation. Our results confirm hot spot mutations in PIK3CA and AKT1 genes in JP associated with positive family history for breast cancer, although these mutations are not specific for JP. The genetic link between JP, positive family history, and subsequent risk of breast cancer needs to be analyzed in further studies.

RevDate: 2020-10-26
CmpDate: 2020-10-26

Dettogni RS, Stur E, Laus AC, et al (2020)

Potential biomarkers of ductal carcinoma in situ progression.

BMC cancer, 20(1):119.

BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ is a non-obligate precursor of invasive breast carcinoma and presents a potential risk of over or undertreatment. Finding molecular biomarkers of disease progression could allow for more adequate patient treatment. We aimed to identify potential biomarkers that can predict invasiveness risk.

METHODS: In this epithelial cell-based study archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from six patients diagnosed with invasive lesions (pure invasive ductal carcinoma), six with in-situ lesions (pure ductal carcinoma in situ), six with synchronous lesions (invasive ductal carcinoma with an in-situ component) and three non-neoplastic breast epithelium tissues were analyzed by gene expression profiling of 770 genes, using the nCounter® PanCancer Pathways panel of NanoString Technologies.

RESULTS: The results showed that in comparison with non-neoplastic tissue the pure ductal carcinoma in situ was one with the most altered gene expression profile. Comparing pure ductal carcinoma in situ and in-situ component six differentially expressed genes were found, three of them (FGF2, GAS1, and SFRP1), play a role in cell invasiveness. Importantly, these genes were also differentially expressed between invasive and noninvasive groups and were negatively regulated in later stages of carcinogenesis.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose these three genes (FGF2, GAS1, and SFRP1) as potential biomarkers of ductal carcinoma in situ progression, suggesting that their downregulation may be involved in the transition of stationary to migrating invasive epithelial cells.

RevDate: 2020-10-24

Kurley SJ, Tischler V, Bierie B, et al (2020)

A Requirement for p120-catenin in the metastasis of invasive ductal breast cancer.

Journal of cell science pii:jcs.250639 [Epub ahead of print].

We have examined the effects of targeted p120 KO in a PyMT mouse model of invasive ductal (mammary) cancer (IDC). Mosaic p120 ablation had little effect on primary tumor growth but caused significant pro-metastatic alterations in the tumor microenvironment leading ultimately to a marked increase in the number and size of pulmonary metastases. Surprisingly, although early effects of p120-ablation included decreased cell-cell adhesion and increased invasiveness, cells lacking p120 were almost entirely unable to colonized distant metastatic sites in vivo. The relevance of this observation to human IDC was established by analysis of a large clinical dataset of 1126 IDCs. As reported by others, p120 downregulation in primary IDC predicted worse overall survival. However, as in the mice, distant metastases were almost invariably p120 positive, even in matched cases where the primary tumors were p120 negative. Collectively, our results demonstrate a strong positive role for p120 (and presumably E-cadherin) during metastatic colonization of distant sites. On the other hand, downregulation of p120 in the primary tumor enhanced metastatic dissemination indirectly via pro-metastatic conditioning of the tumor microenvironment.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Escoter-Torres L, Greulich F, Quagliarini F, et al (2020)

Anti-inflammatory functions of the glucocorticoid receptor require DNA binding.

Nucleic acids research, 48(15):8393-8407.

The glucocorticoid receptor is an important immunosuppressive drug target and metabolic regulator that acts as a ligand-gated transcription factor. Generally, GR's anti-inflammatory effects are attributed to the silencing of inflammatory genes, while its adverse effects are ascribed to the upregulation of metabolic targets. GR binding directly to DNA is proposed to activate, whereas GR tethering to pro-inflammatory transcription factors is thought to repress transcription. Using mice with a point mutation in GR's zinc finger, that still tether via protein-protein interactions while being unable to recognize DNA, we demonstrate that DNA binding is essential for both transcriptional activation and repression. Performing ChIP-Seq, RNA-Seq and proteomics under inflammatory conditions, we show that DNA recognition is required for the assembly of a functional co-regulator complex to mediate glucocorticoid responses. Our findings may contribute to the development of safer immunomodulators with fewer side effects.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Söyleyici NA, Aslan F, Avcýkurt AS, et al (2020)

Importance of MACC1 expression in breast cancer and its relationship with pathological prognostic markers.

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 63(1):19-24.

Background: Metastasis associated colon cancer gene 1 (MACC1) is a gene that was first described as a c-Met transcription regulator causing the progression of colon cancer. In this study, protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of MACC1 in breast cancer and its relationship with clinicopathological prognostic parameters were investigated.

Methods: Sixty-six cases with tumors underwent radical mastectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma and 25 control cases operated for mammoplasty were included in the study. In paraffin blocks of tumor and control tissues, MACC1 expression was investigated by the immunohistochemical method and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-Time PCR). In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was examined immunohistochemically in tumor tissues. The relationship between MACC1 expression in tumor tissues, clinicopathological prognostic parameters, and VEGF was investigated.

Results: In this study, protein and mRNA expressions of MACC1 were found to be higher in tumor tissues compared with normal breast tissues. MACC1 protein expression was also associated with significant poor prognostic markers, such as high histologic grade, ER negativity, and HER2 positivity. However, there was no correlation between MACC1 expression and VEGF.

Conclusion: According to these results, MACC1 expression may be a marker of breast carcinoma as well as an independent predictor of poor prognosis. In addition, MACC1 may not affect angiogenesis in breast cancer or even if it has an effect, it may not be associated with VEGF. However, it would be appropriate to support these results in a larger series by investigating in vivo and in vitro studies.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Varma K, Chauhan A, Bhargava M, et al (2020)

Association of different patterns of expression of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 with pathogenesis of breast carcinoma.

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 63(1):13-18.

Background: Beta-catenin and cyclin D1 have attracted considerable attention in recent studies as potential proto-oncogenes in many human cancers especially colonic cancer. Beta-catenin plays multiple roles within the cell such as canonical Wnt signaling where cyclin D1 has been identified as one of its target genes. The role of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 in breast cancer has been evaluated in many studies but not established yet.

Materials and Methods: The expression of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 was evaluated in 82 cases of breast carcinoma (BCa) and 32 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Their relationship with clinicopathological features was also investigated. Statistical analysis was done to establish an association.

Results: Abnormal expression of beta-catenin (ABE) was seen in 80.2% cases of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 47% cases of DCIS, while the cyclin D1 positive expression rate was 60.9% and 50%, respectively. In the cases showing ABE, cyclin D1 positivity was 88.1%. ABE showed significant association with high-grade BCa. The most common pattern of ABE was loss of membrane with nuclear positivity which is associated with worst prognosis. In addition, ABE in cases of BCa and DCIS showed concordant patterns.

Conclusion: Therefore, an association exists between ABE and cyclin D1 in BCa and its precursor lesions implying that Wnt/beta-catenin oncogenic pathway may have a definite role in breast carcinogenesis and can be used for targeted therapy. Also, different patterns of beta-catenin expression may have prognostic and predictive value.

RevDate: 2020-10-15
CmpDate: 2020-10-15

Escoter-Torres L, Caratti G, Mechtidou A, et al (2019)

Fighting the Fire: Mechanisms of Inflammatory Gene Regulation by the Glucocorticoid Receptor.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:1859.

For many decades, glucocorticoids have been widely used as the gold standard treatment for inflammatory conditions. Unfortunately, their clinical use is limited by severe adverse effects such as insulin resistance, cardiometabolic diseases, muscle and skin atrophies, osteoporosis, and depression. Glucocorticoids exert their effects by binding to the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), a ligand-activated transcription factor which both positively, and negatively regulates gene expression. Extensive research during the past several years has uncovered novel mechanisms by which the GR activates and represses its target genes. Genome-wide studies and mouse models have provided valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory gene regulation by GR. This review focusses on newly identified target genes and GR co-regulators that are important for its anti-inflammatory effects in innate immune cells, as well as mutations within the GR itself that shed light on its transcriptional activity. This research progress will hopefully serve as the basis for the development of safer immune suppressants with reduced side effect profiles.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Zhang J, Lu CY, Qin L, et al (2020)

Breast-conserving surgery with or without irradiation in women with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast receiving preoperative systemic therapy: A cohort study.

Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland), 54:139-147 pii:S0960-9776(20)30188-0 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To investigate the outcomes of adjuvant whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (breast IDC) receiving preoperative systemic therapy (PST) and breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and their prognostic factors, considering overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastasis (DM), and disease-free survival.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed as having breast IDC and receiving PST followed by BCS were recruited and categorized by treatment into non-breast radiation therapy [BRT] (control) and WBRT (case) groups, respectively. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: Multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that non-BRT, cN3, and pathologic residual tumor (ypT2-4) or nodal (ypN2-3) stages were poor prognostic factors for OS. The adjusted HRs (aHRs; 95% CIs) of the WBRT group to non-BRT group for all-cause mortality were 0.14 (0.03-0.81), 0.32 (0.16-0.64), 0.43 (0.23-0.79), 0.23 (0.13-0.42), 0.52 (0.20-1.33), and 0.34 (0.13-0.87) in the ypT0, ypT1, ypT2-4, ypN0, ypN1, and ypN2-3 stages, respectively. The aHRs (95% CIs) of the WBRT group to non-BRT group for all-cause mortality were 0.09 (0.00-4.07), 0.46 (0.26-0.83), 0.18 (0.06-0.51), 0.28 (0.06-1.34), 0.25 (0.10-0.63), 0.47 (0.23-0.88), and 0.32 in the cT0-1, cT2, cT3, cT4, cN0, cN1, and cN2-3 stages, respectively. The WBRT group exhibited significantly better LRR-free and DM-free survival than the non-BRT group, regardless of the clinical T or N stage or pathologic response after PST.

CONCLUSION: WBRT might lead to superior OS and LRR-free and DM-free survival compared with the non-BRT group, regardless of the initial clinical TN stage or pathologic response.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Nishimoto A, Kuwahara H, Ohashi R, et al (2020)

Multicentric endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a case report.

Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare low-grade sweat gland carcinoma. EMPSGC is thought to be a precursor to mucinous carcinoma of the skin (MCS). Since the first description of EMPSGC in 1997, only a few cases have been reported, and its etiology and mechanisms remain unknown. In this report, we describe a 71-year-old Japanese woman with two isolated EMPSGC and one MCS lesion on her face. She was simultaneously diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. She had a history of uterine cancer of unknown histological diagnosis 24 years previously. The presence of in situ lesions confirmed by myoepithelial cells suggested that the cutaneous lesions were primary tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multiple primary EMPSGC/MCS tumors. Additionally, this might be the first case with multiple primary carcinomas including adnexal cutaneous tumors, breast cancer, and uterine cancer, which may share the common feature of expressing female hormonal receptors. This case indicates that EMPSGC/MCS may be triggered by a hormonal receptor abnormality, perhaps due to genetic defects. A larger number of reports examining this issue may be necessary to further assess our initial observations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-10-08
CmpDate: 2020-10-08

Kanwar N, Carmine-Simmen K, Nair R, et al (2020)

Amplification of a calcium channel subunit CACNG4 increases breast cancer metastasis.

EBioMedicine, 52:102646.

BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that amplification of chromosome 17q24.1-24.2 is associated with lymph node metastasis, tumour size, and lymphovascular invasion in invasive ductal carcinoma. A gene within this amplicon, CACNG4, an L-type voltage-gated calcium channel gamma subunit, is elevated in breast cancers with poor prognosis. Calcium homeostasis is achieved by maintaining low intracellular calcium levels. Altering calcium influx/efflux mechanisms allows tumour cells to maintain homeostasis despite high serum calcium levels often associated with advanced cancer (hypercalcemia) and aberrant calcium signaling.

METHODS: In vitro 2-D and 3-D assays, and intracellular calcium influx assays were utilized to measure tumourigenic activity in response to altered CANCG4 levels and calcium channel blockers. A chick-CAM model and mouse model for metastasis confirmed these results in vivo.

FINDINGS: CACNG4 alters cell motility in vitro, induces malignant transformation in 3-dimensional culture, and increases lung-specific metastasis in vivo. CACNG4 functions by closing the channel pore, inhibiting calcium influx, and altering calcium signaling events involving key survival and metastatic pathway genes (AKT2, HDAC3, RASA1 and PKCζ).

INTERPRETATION: CACNG4 may promote homeostasis, thus increasing the survival and metastatic ability of tumour cells in breast cancer. Our findings suggest an underlying pathway for tumour growth and dissemination regulated by CACNG4 that is significant with respect to developing treatments that target these channels in tumours with aberrant calcium signaling.

FUNDING: Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, Ontario; Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Thongpiya J, Sa-Nguanraksa D, Samarnthai N, et al (2020)

Filariasis of the breast caused by Brugia pahangi: A concomitant finding with invasive ductal carcinoma.

Extralymphatic filariasis is an uncommon phenomenon that can be caused by several lymphatic filarial species, including zoonotic filaria of animal origins. In this study, we report a case of a 64-year-old Thai woman who presented with a lump in her left breast that was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. At the same time, a small nodule was found in her right breast, via imaging study, without any abnormal symptoms. A core needle biopsy of the right breast nodule revealed a filarial-like nematode compatible with the adult stage of Brugia sp. A molecular identification of the nematode partial mt 12rRNA gene and ITS1 suggested the causative species as closely related to Brugia pahangi, a zoonotic lymphatic filaria of animals such as cats and dogs. The sequence of the partial mt 12rRNA and ITS1 gene in this patient was 94% and 99% identical to the previously reported sequence of mt 12rRNA and ITS1 genes of B. pahangi. The sequence of ITS1 gene is 99% similar to B. pahangi microfilaria from infected dogs in Bangkok, which was highly suspected of having a zoonotic origin. As far as we know, this is the first case report of B. pahangi filariasis presented with a breast mass concomitantly found in a patient with invasive ductal carcinoma. This raised serious concern regarding the zoonotic transmission of filariasis from natural animal reservoirs.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Petre AR, Craciunescu R, O Fratu (2020)

Design, Implementation and Simulation of a Fringing Field Capacitive Humidity Sensor.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 20(19): pii:s20195644.

The world population is growing in an accelerated way urging the need for a more efficient and sustainable agricultural industry. Initially developed for smart cities which face the same challenges caused by an increasing population, Internet of Things (IoT) technologies have evolved rapidly over the last few years and are now moving successfully to agriculture. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been reported to be used in the agri-food sector and could answer the call for a more optimized agricultural management. This paper investigates a PCB-made interdigited capacitive (IDC) soil humidity sensor as a low-price alternative to the existing ones on the market. An in-depth comparative study is performed on 30 design variations, part of them also manufactured for further investigations. By measurements and simulations, the influence of the aspect ratio and dielectric thickness on the sensitivity and capacitance of the sensor are studied. In the end, a Humidity and Temperature Measurement Wireless Equipment (HTMWE) for IoT agriculture applications is implemented with this type of sensor.

RevDate: 2020-10-07
CmpDate: 2020-10-07

Merry R, Butenhoff K, Campbell BW, et al (2019)

Identification and Fine-Mapping of a Soybean Quantitative Trait Locus on Chromosome 5 Conferring Tolerance to Iron Deficiency Chlorosis.

The plant genome, 12(3):1-13.

CORE IDEAS: 'Fiskeby III' harbors a combination of abiotic stress traits, including iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) tolerance. An IDC quantitative trait locus on chromosome Gm05 was identified in genome-wide association studies and biparental populations. Fine-mapping resolved a 137-kb interval containing strong candidate genes. Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is an important nutrient stress for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] grown in high-pH soils. Despite numerous agronomic attempts to alleviate IDC, genetic tolerance remains the most effective preventative measure against symptoms. In this study, two association mapping populations and a biparental mapping population were used for genetic mapping of IDC tolerance. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified on chromosomes Gm03, Gm05, and Gm06. Heterogenous inbred families were developed to fine-map the Gm05 QTL, which was uniquely supported in all three mapping populations. Fine-mapping resulted in a QTL with an interval size of 137 kb on the end of the short arm of Gm05, which produced up to a 1.5-point reduction in IDC severity on a 1 to 9 scale in near isogenic lines.

RevDate: 2020-10-07
CmpDate: 2020-10-07

Yildirim E, Bektas S, Gundogar O, et al (2020)

The Relationship of GATA3 and Ki-67 With Histopathological Prognostic Parameters, Locoregional Recurrence and Disease-free Survival in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast.

Anticancer research, 40(10):5649-5657.

BACKGROUND: In recent years, GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) has been indicated as a marker showing good prognosis in breast cancer. In luminal breast cancer, which has good a prognosis, it shows more significant elevation in small-sized and low-grade tumors. In contrast, Ki-67 is defined as a poor prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to emphasise the prognostic importance of GATA3 and the inverse relationship with Ki-67.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, 90 patients with invasive ductal breast cancer were immunohistochemically evaluated for Ki-67 and GATA3 expression. The relationship between GATA3 and Ki-67 expression was examined. In addition, the relationship between these two factors with estrogen, progesterone, human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor antibodies and other prognostic parameters such as disease-free survival and local recurrence was investigated. We accepted the level of ≥5% nüclear reaction as positive for GATA 3. A Ki-67 cut-off value of 20% was accepted as positive.

RESULTS: In GATA3 positive breast cancers, good prognostic parameters were seen including high estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, progesterone receptor (PR) positivity, small tumor size and low histological grade as well as low Ki-67 expression. In breast cancers showing high Ki-67 expression, ER, PR, and GATA3 positivity were lower and there was higher human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity and high histological grade while the tumor size was larger.

CONCLUSION: Our study has revealed that GATA3 has an inverse relationship with Ki-67, whereas it has a positive releationship with good prognostic factors.

RevDate: 2020-10-07
CmpDate: 2020-10-07

Domínguez-de-la-Cruz E, Muñoz ML, Pérez-Muñoz A, et al (2020)

Reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with the haplogroup, and some clinical features of breast cancer in Mexican patients.

Gene, 761:145047.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups have been associated with different types of cancer, including breast cancer, because they alter cellular energy metabolism. However, whether mtDNA copy number or haplogroups are predictors of oxidative stress-related risks in human breast cancer tissue in Mexican patients remains to be determined. Using quantitative real-time PCR assays and sequencing of the mtDNA hypervariable region, analysis of mtDNA copy numbers in 82 breast cancer tissues (BCT) and matched normal adjacent tissues (NAT) was performed to determine if copy number correlated with clinical features and Amerindian haplogroups (A2, B2, B4, C1 and D1) . The results showed that the mtDNA copy number was significantly decreased in BCT compared with NAT (p = 0.010); it was significantly decreased in BCT and NAT in women > 50 years of age, compared with NAT in women < 50 years of age (p = 0.032 and p = 0.037, respectively); it was significantly decreased in NAT and BCT in the postmenopausal group and in BCT in the premenopausal group compared with NAT in the premenopausal group (p = 0.011, p = 0.010 and, p = 0.018; respectively); and it was also significantly decrease in members of the BCT group classified as having invasive ductal carcinoma I-III (IDC-I, IDC-II and IDC-III) and IDC-II for NAT compared to IDC-I of NAT (p = 0.025, p = 0.022 and p = 0.031 and p = 0.020; respectively). The mtDNA copy number for BCT from patients with haplogroup B2 was decreased compared to patients with haplogroup D1 (p = 0.01); for BCT from patients with haplogroup C1 was also decreased compare with their NAT counterpart (p = 0.006) and with BCT patients belonging to haplogroups A2 and D1 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03; respectively). In addition, the mtDNA copy number was decrease in the sequences with three deletions relative to the rCRS at nucleotide positions A249del, A290del and A291del, or C16327T polymorphism with the same p = 0.019 for all four variants. Contrary, the copy number increased in sequences containing C16111T, G16319A or T16362C polymorphisms (p = 0.021, =0.048, and = 0.001; respectively). In conclusion, a decrease in the copy number of mtDNA in BCT compared with NAT was shown by the results, which suggests an imbalance in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) that can affect the apoptosis pathway and cancer progression. It was also observed an increase of the copy number in samples with specific polymorphisms, which may be a good sign of favourable prognosis.

RevDate: 2020-10-05
CmpDate: 2020-10-05

Chen HH, Chen DY, Huang LG, et al (2020)

Association between periodontitis and the risk of inadequate disease control in patients with rheumatoid arthritis under biological treatment.

Journal of clinical periodontology, 47(2):148-159.

AIM: To assess the association between periodontitis (PD) and inadequate disease control (IDC) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving biological therapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 111 RA patients receiving biological therapy for at least 3 months were assessed for periodontal disease at baseline. RA disease activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 months of follow-up. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between PD and IDC, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, and baseline RA disease activity. An additional exploratory model further controlled for disease characteristics and other medications.

RESULTS: Among 111 patients, 84 (75.7%) had PD, of whom 37 (44.0%) received periodontal treatment. Thirty-four (40.5%) of PD patients had IDC; 12 (32.4%) of treated PD patients and 22 (46.8%) of untreated patients had IDC, respectively. The ORs (95% CIs) for IDC were 1.45 (0.50-4.23) in PD patients and 1.84 (0.59-5.76) in untreated PD patients. In the exploratory model, the ORs (95% CIs) for IDC were 5.00 (1.19-21.03) in PD patients and 6.26 (1.34-29.34) in untreated PD patients.

CONCLUSION: This single-centre, prospective study failed to demonstrate a consistently positive correlation between PD and IDC in RA patients receiving biological treatment.

RevDate: 2020-10-02
CmpDate: 2020-10-02

Seckin ZI, Brumble LM, CR Libertin (2020)

Serologic screening and infectious disease consultation (IDC): Indicated in heart, lung, liver (HLL) solid organ transplants (SOT) for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society, 22(1):e13202.

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are a special group of patients who require comprehensive evaluation for preventable infectious diseases before transplantation. The main aim of our study was to investigate the number of heart, lung, and liver (HLL) transplant recipients who were evaluated for their immune status against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and varicella (VZV). As a secondary aim, we investigated whether pre-transplant infectious disease consultation (IDC) improves vaccination rates.

METHODS: This study was an institution-based retrospective analysis of HLL transplant recipients born in or after 1957 and evaluated at Mayo Clinic, FL Transplant Center between January 1st, 2016 and December 31st, 2017. Data collection was obtained from electronic medical records. The vaccination rates were compared by univariate analysis based on IDC and no ID consultation (NIDC).

RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-seven (77%) of a total 242 patients received an IDC pre-transplantation. Varicella IgG levels were screened in all 187 IDC candidates. Among the 187 IDC patients, mumps, measles, and rubella IgG serologies were performed in 9 (5%), 21 (11%), and 51 (27%), respectively. Among all 242 patients, vaccines given included 2 (0.8%) MMR, 10 (4.1%) varicella and 85 (35.12%) Zostavax. Univariate analysis revealed that Zostavax was given to 76 (40.6%) pre-transplant IDC patients and only in 9 (16.7%) NIDC patients (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relatively high IDC rate, patients' screened numbers for MMR IgG levels were low. Results pointed out the need for MMR protocol-driven serologic screening as well as for VZV and IDC prior to transplantation to increase vaccination rates.

RevDate: 2020-09-30

Doello K, Conde V, Perez MC, et al (2020)

Unusual long survival in a case of heterotaxy and polysplenia.

Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA pii:10.1007/s00276-020-02586-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Heterotaxy syndrome with polysplenia is an extremely rare congenital disorder caused by a disruption in the embryonic development that results in an abnormal arrangement of the abdominal and thoracic organs. We present the case of a 59-year-old female patient with invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast (luminal A type) and CT findings of heterotaxy syndrome with polysplenia. The most remarkable anomalies identified were a left inferior vena cava draining into the hemiazygos vein, absent inferior vena cava at the thoracic level, and hepatic veins directly draining into the right atrium. Moreover, an atrial septal defect was identified, explaining the pulmonary hypertension of unknown cause previously detected in the patient. The relevance of this case lies in the unusual anatomical abnormalities found and the large patient survival, having in to account the great rate of heterotaxy syndrome mortality in the first years of life.

RevDate: 2020-10-01
CmpDate: 2020-10-01

Yoosuf N, Navarro JF, Salmén F, et al (2020)

Identification and transfer of spatial transcriptomics signatures for cancer diagnosis.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 22(1):6.

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) regions in clinical biopsies constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Spatial transcriptomics (ST) is an in situ capturing method, which allows quantification and visualization of transcriptomes in individual tissue sections. In the past, studies have shown that breast cancer samples can be used to study their transcriptomes with spatial resolution in individual tissue sections. Previously, supervised machine learning methods were used in clinical studies to predict the clinical outcomes for cancer types.

METHODS: We used four publicly available ST breast cancer datasets from breast tissue sections annotated by pathologists as non-malignant, DCIS, or IDC. We trained and tested a machine learning method (support vector machine) based on the expert annotation as well as based on automatic selection of cell types by their transcriptome profiles.

RESULTS: We identified expression signatures for expert annotated regions (non-malignant, DCIS, and IDC) and build machine learning models. Classification results for 798 expression signature transcripts showed high coincidence with the expert pathologist annotation for DCIS (100%) and IDC (96%). Extending our analysis to include all 25,179 expressed transcripts resulted in an accuracy of 99% for DCIS and 98% for IDC. Further, classification based on an automatically identified expression signature covering all ST spots of tissue sections resulted in prediction accuracy of 95% for DCIS and 91% for IDC.

CONCLUSIONS: This concept study suggest that the ST signatures learned from expert selected breast cancer tissue sections can be used to identify breast cancer regions in whole tissue sections including regions not trained on. Furthermore, the identified expression signatures can classify cancer regions in tissue sections not used for training with high accuracy. Expert-generated but even automatically generated cancer signatures from ST data might be able to classify breast cancer regions and provide clinical decision support for pathologists in the future.

RevDate: 2020-09-25

Yoshida Y, Matsumoto I, Tanaka T, et al (2020)

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with stenosis of the main pancreatic duct leading to pancreatic pleural effusion: a case report.

Surgical case reports, 6(1):222 pii:10.1186/s40792-020-00987-7.

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic pleural effusion and ascites are defined as fluid accumulation in the thoracic and abdominal cavity, respectively, due to direct leakage of the pancreatic juice. They usually occur in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis but are rarely associated with pancreatic neoplasm. We present here an extremely rare case of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with stenosis of the main pancreatic duct, leading to pancreatic pleural effusion.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old man complained of dyspnea. Left-sided pleural effusion was detected on the chest X-ray. Pleural puncture was performed, and the pleural fluid indicated a high amylase content (36,854 IU/L). Hence, the patient was diagnosed with pancreatic pleural effusion. Although no tumor was detected, the computed tomography (CT) scan showed a pseudocyst and dilation of the main pancreatic duct in the pancreatic tail. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a fistula from the pseudocyst into the left thoracic cavity. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatic drainage was attempted; however, it failed due to stenosis in the main pancreatic duct in the pancreatic body. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic mass measuring 15 × 15 mm in the pancreatic body that was not enhanced in the late phase of contrast perfusion and was thus suspected to be an invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and the postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathological examination confirmed a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas (NET G2). The main pancreatic duct was compressed by the tumor. Increased pressure on the distal pancreatic duct by the tumor might have caused formation of the pseudocyst and pleural effusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of pancreatic pleural effusion associated with a neuroendocrine tumor.

CONCLUSIONS: Differential diagnosis of a pancreatic neoplasm should be considered, especially when a patient without a history of pancreatitis presents with pleural effusion.

RevDate: 2020-09-24
CmpDate: 2020-09-24

van Kooten XF, Petrini LFT, Kashyap A, et al (2019)

Spatially Resolved Genetic Analysis of Tissue Sections Enabled by Microscale Flow Confinement Retrieval and Isotachophoretic Purification.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 58(43):15259-15262.

We have developed a method for spatially resolved genetic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cell block and tissue sections. This method involves local sampling using hydrodynamic flow confinement of a lysis buffer, followed by electrokinetic purification of nucleic acids from the sampled lysate. We characterized the method by locally sampling an array of points with a circa 200 μm diameter footprint, enabling the detection of single KRAS and BRAF point mutations in small populations of RKO and MCF-7 FFPE cell blocks. To illustrate the utility of this approach for genetic analysis, we demonstrate spatially resolved genotyping of FFPE sections of human breast invasive ductal carcinoma.

RevDate: 2020-09-23
CmpDate: 2020-09-23

Rossi A, Dupaty L, Aillot L, et al (2019)

Vector uncoating limits adeno-associated viral vector-mediated transduction of human dendritic cells and vector immunogenicity.

Scientific reports, 9(1):3631.

AAV vectors poorly transduce Dendritic cells (DC), a feature invoked to explain AAV's low immunogenicity. However, the reason for this non-permissiveness remained elusive. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis using human monocyte-derived immature DC (iDC) as model. iDC internalized AAV vectors of various serotypes, but even the most efficient serotype failed to transduce iDC above background. Since AAV vectors reached the cell nucleus, we hypothesized that AAV's intracellular processing occurs suboptimal. On this basis, we screened an AAV peptide display library for capsid variants more suitable for DC transduction and identified the I/VSS family which transduced DC with efficiencies of up to 38%. This property correlated with an improved vector uncoating. To determine the consequence of this novel feature for AAV's in vivo performance, we engineered one of the lead candidates to express a cytoplasmic form of ovalbumin, a highly immunogenic model antigen, and assayed transduction efficiency as well as immunogenicity. The capsid variant clearly outperformed the parental serotype in muscle transduction and in inducing antigen-specific humoral and T cell responses as well as anti-capsid CD8+ T cells. Hence, vector uncoating represents a major barrier hampering AAV vector-mediated transduction of DC and impacts on its use as vaccine platform.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Zhang J, Lu CY, Chen CH, et al (2020)

Effect of pathologic stages on postmastectomy radiation therapy in breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and total mastectomy: A Cancer Database Analysis.

Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland), 54:70-78 pii:S0960-9776(20)30170-3 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To use pathologic indicators to determine which patients benefit from postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) for breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and total mastectomy (TM).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 4236 patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma who received NACT followed by TM. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals; independent predictors were controlled for or stratified in the analysis.

RESULTS: After multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted HRs derived for PMRT for all-cause mortality were 0.65 (0.52-0.81, P < 0.0001) and 0.58 (0.47-0.71, P < 0.0001) in postchemotherapy pathologic tumor stages T2-4 (ypT3-4) and postchemotherapy pathologic nodal stages N2-3 (ypN2-3), respectively. Moreover, adjusted HRs derived for PMRT with all-cause mortality were 0.51 (0.38-0.69, P < 0.0001), 0.60 (0.40-0.88, P = 0.0096), and 0.64 (0.48-0.86, P = 0.0024) in pathological stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, respectively. Additionally, the PMRT group showed significant locoregional control irrespective of the pathologic response, even ypT0, ypN0, or pathological complete response (pCR), compared with the No-PMRT group. The multivariate analysis showed no statistical differences between the PMRT and No-PMRT groups for distant metastasis-free survival in any pathologic response of ypT0-4, ypN0-3, and pathologic American Joint Committee on Cancer stages pCR to IIIC.

CONCLUSION: For patients with breast cancer ypT3-4, ypN2-3, or pathologic stages IIIA-IIIC receiving NACT and TM, benefit from PMRT if it is associated with OS benefits, regardless of the clinical stage of the disease. Compared with No-PMRT, PMRT improved locoregional recurrence-free survival, even pCR, in patients with breast cancer receiving NACT and TM.

RevDate: 2020-09-17
CmpDate: 2020-09-17

Eckert L, Mattia L, Patel S, et al (2020)

Reducing the Risk of Indwelling Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Female Patients by Implementing an Alternative Female External Urinary Collection Device: A Quality Improvement Project.

Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society, 47(1):50-53.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) risk for female patients by implementing a female external urinary collection (FEUC) device with suction as an alternative to indwelling catheter (IDC).

PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Participants were female patients admitted to our 386-bed community hospital in Southern California and who required urinary management.

APPROACH: We implemented a comprehensive CAUTI prevention program in 2014 that was in place for 1.5 years before this project was started. The CAUTI prevention program was based on the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention's CAUTI prevention recommendations. To supplement our CAUTI prevention efforts in our female patients, we implemented the FEUC device in our intensive care, telemetry, medical-surgical, orthopedic, and acute rehabilitations inpatient care units. Indwelling catheter use and CAUTI cases were identified by our Infection Prevention department.

OUTCOMES: Prior to introduction of the FEUC device, in 2015, the baseline female IDC utilization rate was 31.7% (7181 IDC device-days/22,656 patient-days) and the female CAUTI rate was 1.11 (8 cases/7181 IDC device-days) per 1000 days. Following introduction of the device, both rates declined. In 2016, the IDC utilization rate was 29.7% (P = .000) and the CAUTI rate was 0% (P =.005). We continued to observe a reduction in 2017 IDC utilization rates of 26% (P = .000); the 2017 CAUTI rate of 0.90 was not significantly different to our prior year rate (P = .726).

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: We found that the introduction of the FEUC device reduced the risk for CAUTI. We will continue to prioritize the use of external devices for urinary management to help reduce the risk of our patients developing CAUTI.

RevDate: 2020-09-15
CmpDate: 2020-09-15

Tewari SG, Swift RP, Reifman J, et al (2020)

Metabolic alterations in the erythrocyte during blood-stage development of the malaria parasite.

Malaria journal, 19(1):94.

BACKGROUND: Human blood cells (erythrocytes) serve as hosts for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during its 48-h intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC). Established in vitro protocols allow for the study of host-parasite interactions during this phase and, in particular, high-resolution metabolomics can provide a window into host-parasite interactions that support parasite development.

METHODS: Uninfected and parasite-infected erythrocyte cultures were maintained at 2% haematocrit for the duration of the IDC, while parasitaemia was maintained at 7% in the infected cultures. The parasite-infected cultures were synchronized to obtain stage-dependent information of parasite development during the IDC. Samples were collected in quadruplicate at six time points from the uninfected and parasite-infected cultures and global metabolomics was used to analyse cell fractions of these cultures.

RESULTS: In uninfected and parasite-infected cultures during the IDC, 501 intracellular metabolites, including 223 lipid metabolites, were successfully quantified. Of these, 19 distinct metabolites were present only in the parasite-infected culture, 10 of which increased to twofold in abundance during the IDC. This work quantified approximately five times the metabolites measured in previous studies of similar research scope, which allowed for more detailed analyses. Enrichment in lipid metabolism pathways exhibited a time-dependent association with different classes of lipids during the IDC. Specifically, enrichment occurred in sphingolipids at the earlier stages, and subsequently in lysophospholipid and phospholipid metabolites at the intermediate and end stages of the IDC, respectively. In addition, there was an accumulation of 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, which produce eicosanoids and promote gametocytogenesis in infected erythrocyte cultures.

CONCLUSIONS: The current study revealed a number of heretofore unidentified metabolic components of the host-parasite system, which the parasite may exploit in a time-dependent manner to grow over the course of its development in the blood stage. Notably, the analyses identified components, such as precursors of immunomodulatory molecules, stage-dependent lipid dynamics, and metabolites, unique to parasite-infected cultures. These conclusions are reinforced by the metabolic alterations that were characterized during the IDC, which were in close agreement with those known from previous studies of blood-stage infection.

RevDate: 2020-09-14
CmpDate: 2020-09-14

Li G, Yao J, Wu T, et al (2020)

Triple metachronous primary cancer of uterus, colon, and breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature.

Medicine, 99(34):e21764.

RATIONALE: Triple or more primary malignancies are rare, with only 23 previous cases including breast cancer reported in the English language studies between January 1990 and December 2019.

PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was a 67-year-old woman with a mass in her right breast. She had a previous history of uterine and colon cancer. Both ultrasonography and mammography revealed a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3 breast lesion, in which proliferative nodules are more likely. Given her previous history of 2 malignancies, her doctors strongly recommended a biopsy.

DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTIONS: The biopsy pathology suggested intraductal breast cancer. Mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was invasive ductal carcinoma, grade II, stage I. The sample was positive for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and negative for cerbB-2. No radiotherapy or chemotherapy was administered except for endocrine therapy. A follow-up at 19 months showed no breast recurrence or distant metastases.

OUTCOMES: No recurrence or distant metastasis occurred within the 19-month, 11-year, and 20-year follow-ups for breast, colon, and uterine cancers, respectively.

LESSONS: To our knowledge, this is the first review of triple or more primary malignancies including breast cancer. These malignancies occur predominantly in older female patients. The most prevalent tumors of triple or more primary malignancies including breast cancer occur in the colon, uterus, and lung. A favorable prognosis is associated with early-stage malignancies.

RevDate: 2020-09-14
CmpDate: 2020-09-14

Mema E, Schnabel F, Chun J, et al (2020)

The relationship of breast density in mammography and magnetic resonance imaging in women with triple negative breast cancer.

European journal of radiology, 124:108813.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between mammographic density, background parenchymal enhancement and fibroglandular tissue on MRI in women with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to women with non-triple negative breast cancer (non-TNBC).

METHODS: The institutional Breast Cancer Database was queried to identify the clinicopathologic and imaging characteristics among women who underwent mammography and breast MRI between 2010-2018. Statistical analyses included Pearson's Chi Square, Wilcoxon Rank-Sum and logistic regression.

RESULTS: Of 2995 women, 225 (7.5 %) had TNBC with a median age of 60 years (23-96) and median follow-up of 5.69 years. Compared to women with non-TNBC, TNBC was associated with African-American race 36/225 (16 %), BRCA1,2 positivity 34/225 (15.1 %), previous history of breast cancer 35/225 (15.6 %), presenting on breast exam 126/225 (56 %) or MRI 13/225 (5.8 %), palpability 133/225 (59.1 %), more invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) 208/225 (92.4 %), higher stage (stage III) 37/225 (16.5 %), higher grade (grade 3) 186/225 (82.7 %) (all p < 0.001), lower mammographic breast density (MBD) 18/225 (8 %) (p = 0.04), lower fibroglandular tissue (FGT) 17/225 (7.6 %) (p = 0.01), and lower background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) 89/225 (39.8 %) (p = 0.02). Nine of 225 (4 %) women with TNBC experienced recurrence with no significant association with MBD, FGT, or BPE. There was no significant difference in median age of our TNBC and non-TNBC cohorts.

CONCLUSIONS: The higher proportion of women with lower MBD, FGT and BPE in women with TNBC suggests that MBD, amount of FGT and degree of BPE may be associated with breast cancer risk in women with TNBC.

RevDate: 2020-09-08
CmpDate: 2020-09-08

Jelacic TM, Ribot WJ, Chua J, et al (2020)

Human Innate Immune Cells Respond Differentially to Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Polymers from Bacillus anthracis and Nonpathogenic Bacillus Species.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 204(5):1263-1273.

The poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule produced by Bacillus anthracis is composed entirely of d-isomer glutamic acid, whereas nonpathogenic Bacillus species produce mixed d-, l-isomer PGAs. To determine if B. anthracis PGA confers a pathogenic advantage over other PGAs, we compared the responses of human innate immune cells to B. anthracis PGA and PGAs from nonpathogenic B. subtilis subsp. chungkookjang and B. licheniformis Monocytes and immature dendritic cells (iDCs) responded differentially to the PGAs, with B. anthracis PGA being least stimulatory and B. licheniformis PGA most stimulatory. All three elicited IL-8 and IL-6 from monocytes, but B. subtilis PGA also elicited IL-10 and TNF-α, whereas B. licheniformis PGA elicited all those plus IL-1β. Similarly, all three PGAs elicited IL-8 from iDCs, but B. subtilis PGA also elicited IL-6, and B. licheniformis PGA elicited those plus IL-12p70, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Only B. licheniformis PGA induced dendritic cell maturation. TLR assays also yielded differential results. B. subtilis PGA and B. licheniformis PGA both elicited more TLR2 signal than B. anthracis PGA, but only responses to B. subtilis PGA were affected by a TLR6 neutralizing Ab. B. licheniformis PGA elicited more TLR4 signal than B. anthracis PGA, whereas B. subtilis PGA elicited none. B. anthracis PGA persisted longer in high m.w. form in monocyte and iDC cultures than the other PGAs. Reducing the m.w. of B. anthracis PGA reduced monocytes' cytokine responses. We conclude that B. anthracis PGA is recognized less effectively by innate immune cells than PGAs from nonpathogenic Bacillus species, resulting in failure to induce a robust host response, which may contribute to anthrax pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-09-08
CmpDate: 2020-09-08

Xu Q, Shao Y, Zhang J, et al (2020)

Anterior Gradient 3 Promotes Breast Cancer Development and Chemotherapy Response.

Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association, 52(1):218-245.

PURPOSE: Anterior gradient 3 (AGR3) belongs to human anterior gradient (AGR) family. The function of AGR3 on cancer remains unknown. This research aimed to investigate if AGR3 had prognostic values in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of breast cancer and could promote tumor progression.

Materials and Methods: AGR3 expression was detected in breast benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ and IDC by immunohistochemistry analysis. AGR3's correlations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of IDC patients were analyzed. By cell function experiments, collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test and cytotoxic analysis, AGR3's impacts on proliferation, invasion ability, and chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity of breast cancer cells were also detected.

RESULTS: AGR3 was up-regulated in luminal subtype of histological grade I-II of IDC patients and positively correlated with high risks of recurrence and distant metastasis. AGR3 high expression could lead to bone or liver metastasis and predict poor prognosis of luminal B. In cell lines, AGR3 could promote proliferation and invasion ability of breast cancer cells which were consistent with clinical analysis. Besides, AGR3 could indicate poor prognosis of breast cancer patients treated with taxane but a favorable prognosis with 5-fluoropyrimidines. And breast cancer cells with AGR3 high expression were resistant to taxane but sensitive to 5-fluoropyrimidines.

CONCLUSION: AGR3 might be a potential prognostic indicator in luminal B subtype of IDC patients of histological grade I-II. And patients with AGR3 high expression should be treated with chemotherapy regimens consisting of 5-fluoropyrimidines but no taxane.

RevDate: 2020-09-02

Salim TR, Andrade TM, Klein CH, et al (2020)

Inequalities in Mortality Rates from Malformations of Circulatory System Between Brazilian Macroregions in Individuals Younger Than 20 Years.

Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia pii:S0066-782X2020005010202 [Epub ahead of print].

Background Deaths from malformations of the circulatory system (MCS) have a major impact on mortality reduction. given that most cases are avoidable with correct diagnosis and treatment. Objectives To describe the distribution of mortality from MCS by sex. age. and macroregion in Brazil. in individuals under the age of 20. between 2000 and 2015. Methods A descriptive study of mortality rates and proportional mortality (PM) from MCS. other congenital malformations (OCM). circulatory system disease (CSD). ill-defined causes (IDC). and external causes (EC) in Brazil. Results There were 1.367.355 deaths from all causes in individuals younger than 20. 55.0% under 1 year of age. A total of 144.057 deaths were caused by congenital malformations. 39% of them by MCS. In both sexes. the annual mortality from MCS was 5.3/100.000. PM from MCS was 4.2%. CSD 2.2%. IDC 6.2% and EC 24.9%. Unspecified MCS showed the highest PM rates in both sexes and age groups. especially in the north and northeast regions (60%). Deaths from malformations occurred 5.7 times more frequently during the first year of life than in other ages (MCS: 5.0; OCM: 6.4). Conclusions MCS was the leading cause of death among all malformations. being twice as important as CSD. mainly under 1 year of age. The frequency of misdiagnosis of MCS as cause of death was high in all ages and both sexes. especially in the north and northeast regions. These findings highlight the need for the development of public health strategies focused on correct diagnosis and early treatment of congenital cardiopathies. leading to a reduction in mortality. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print. PP.0-0).

RevDate: 2020-08-31
CmpDate: 2020-08-31

Morimoto M, Horikoshi Y, Nakaso K, et al (2020)

Oncogenic role of TYRO3 receptor tyrosine kinase in the progression of pancreatic cancer.

Cancer letters, 470:149-160.

The expression and functions of TYRO3, a member of the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family, in pancreatic cancer (PC) have not been specifically elucidated. In this study, we confirmed TYRO3 expression in five human PC cell lines (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, BxPC-3, AsPC-1, and PK-9) using Western blotting. TYRO3 silencing and overexpression studies have revealed that TYRO3 promotes cell proliferation and invasion in PC via phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Using a mouse xenograft model, we showed that tumor growth was significantly suppressed in mice subcutaneously inoculated with TYRO3-knockdown PC cells compared with mice inoculated with control PC cells. Furthermore, TYRO3 expression was examined in PC tissues obtained from 106 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for invasive ductal carcinoma through immunohistochemical staining. TYRO3-positive patients had poor prognoses for overall survival and disease-specific survival compared with TYRO3-negative patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that TYRO3 expression is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Our study demonstrates the critical role of TYRO3 in PC progression through Akt and ERK activation and suggests TYRO3 as a novel promising target for therapeutic strategies against PC.

RevDate: 2020-08-28

Chowdhury SS, Khatun M, Khan TH, et al (2020)

Mutation in Exon2 of BRCA1 Gene in Adult Bengali Bangladeshi Female Patients with Breast Cancer: An Experience from Two Tertiary-Care Hospitals.

Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP, 21(8):2265-2270.

BACKGROUND: The occurrence rate of BRCA1 mutations is found to be high in South Asian countries where early onset of breast cancer is common. In Bangladesh, noticeable percentage of patients experience breast cancer in their reproductive ages. The objective of this study was to identify any mutation in exon2 of the BRCA1 gene in adult Bengali Bangladeshi female patients with breast cancer.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of adult fifty Bengali Bangladeshi female breast cancer patients. The whole region of exon2 of the BRCA1 gene was amplified and the amplified DNA products were sequenced using Sanger sequencing. The raw chromatogram data were analyzed using Chromas software, and analyzed sequences were compared with the NCBI RefSeq database by BLAST search. The resultant amino acid change was detected by MEGA X software.

RESULTS: We found the mean age at diagnosis 44.66 years, whereas 96% of patients were married, 90% were multiparous and 86% breastfed their children. All patients had unilateral breast cancer and among them 94% had invasive ductal carcinoma. Only 24.5% of the patients had associated omorbidity. The family history of breast cancer or other BRCA-associated cancer was positive only for 4% of patients. A total of five mutations were identified all of which caused by substitutions. Among them three were nonsynonymous and two were synonymous. Only 2.5% of the patients, within the age group of 18-50 years, were found to have mutations in their blood, whereas 26.66% of the patients above 50 years found to have mutations in this study.

CONCLUSIONS: Among this small sample size, we found five mutations in exon2 of the BRCA1 gene and this indicates the necessity to find out the mutation spectra of the BRCA1 gene in the Bangladeshi population.

RevDate: 2020-08-24
CmpDate: 2020-08-24

Moon HR, Ospina-Muñoz N, Noe-Kim V, et al (2020)

Subtype-specific characterization of breast cancer invasion using a microfluidic tumor platform.

PloS one, 15(6):e0234012.

Understanding progression of breast cancers to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) can significantly improve breast cancer treatments. However, it is still difficult to identify genetic signatures and the role of tumor microenvironment to distinguish pathological stages of pre-invasive lesion and IDC. Presence of multiple subtypes of breast cancers makes the assessment more challenging. In this study, an in-vitro microfluidic assay was developed to quantitatively assess the subtype-specific invasion potential of breast cancers. The developed assay is a microfluidic platform in which a ductal structure of epithelial cancer cells is surrounded with a three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrix. In the developed platform, two triple negative cancer subtypes (MDA-MB-231 and SUM-159PT) invaded into the surrounding matrix but the luminal A subtype, MCF-7, did not. Among invasive subtypes, SUM-159PT cells showed significantly higher invasion and degradation of the surrounding matrix than MDA-MB-231. Interestingly, the cells cultured on the platform expressed higher levels of CD24 than in their conventional 2D cultures. This microfluidic platform may be a useful tool to characterize and predict invasive potential of breast cancer subtypes or patient-derived cells.

RevDate: 2020-08-24
CmpDate: 2020-08-24

Subudhi AK, O'Donnell AJ, Ramaprasad A, et al (2020)

Malaria parasites regulate intra-erythrocytic development duration via serpentine receptor 10 to coordinate with host rhythms.

Nature communications, 11(1):2763 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-16593-y.

Malaria parasites complete their intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) in multiples of 24 h suggesting a circadian basis, but the mechanism controlling this periodicity is unknown. Combining in vivo and in vitro approaches utilizing rodent and human malaria parasites, we reveal that: (i) 57% of Plasmodium chabaudi genes exhibit daily rhythms in transcription; (ii) 58% of these genes lose transcriptional rhythmicity when the IDC is out-of-synchrony with host rhythms; (iii) 6% of Plasmodium falciparum genes show 24 h rhythms in expression under free-running conditions; (iv) Serpentine receptor 10 (SR10) has a 24 h transcriptional rhythm and disrupting it in rodent malaria parasites shortens the IDC by 2-3 h; (v) Multiple processes including DNA replication, and the ubiquitin and proteasome pathways, are affected by loss of coordination with host rhythms and by disruption of SR10. Our results reveal malaria parasites are at least partly responsible for scheduling the IDC and coordinating their development with host daily rhythms.

RevDate: 2020-08-24
CmpDate: 2020-08-24

Lodd E, Wiggenhauser LM, Morgenstern J, et al (2019)

The combination of loss of glyoxalase1 and obesity results in hyperglycemia.

JCI insight, 4(12):.

The increased formation of methylglyoxal (MG) under hyperglycemia is associated with the development of microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus; however, the effects of elevated MG levels in vivo are poorly understood. In zebrafish, a transient knockdown of glyoxalase 1, the main MG detoxifying system, led to the elevation of endogenous MG levels and blood vessel alterations. To evaluate effects of a permanent knockout of glyoxalase 1 in vivo, glo1-/- zebrafish mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9. In addition, a diet-induced-obesity zebrafish model was used to analyze glo1-/- zebrafish under high nutrient intake. Glo1-/- zebrafish survived until adulthood without growth deficit and showed increased tissue MG concentrations. Impaired glucose tolerance developed in adult glo1-/- zebrafish and was indicated by increased postprandial blood glucose levels and postprandial S6 kinase activation. Challenged by an overfeeding period, fasting blood glucose levels in glo1-/- zebrafish were increased which translated into retinal blood vessel alterations. Thus, the data have identified a defective MG detoxification as a metabolic prerequisite and glyoxalase 1 alterations as a genetic susceptibility to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus under high nutrition intake.

RevDate: 2020-08-21
CmpDate: 2020-08-21

Zhao C, Zheng S, Yan Z, et al (2020)

CCL18 promotes the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer through Annexin A2.

Oncology reports, 43(2):571-580.

Chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 18 (CCL18) is derived from breast tumor‑associated macrophages (TAMs), which are primarily a macrophage subpopulation with an M2 phenotype. CCL18 binds to its receptor, PYK2 N‑terminal domain interacting receptor 1 (Nir1), and promotes tumor progression and metastasis by inducing epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β/Snail signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. Recent research shows that Annexin A2 (AnxA2) plays a significant role in the invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, proliferation, F‑actin polymerization and multidrug resistance to chemotherapy of breast cancer. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which CCL18 promotes breast cancer progression through AnxA2 which are not fully understood. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of AnxA2 was upregulated in highly invasive breast cancer cell lines and invasive ductal carcinoma. Furthermore, through chemotaxis, scratch, Matrigel invasion, and spontaneous metastasis assays, it was demonstrated that AnxA2 enhanced the invasion of breast cancer cells and the metastasis of human breast cancer cells to lungs of SCID mice with CCL18 stimulation. Cellular F‑actin measurement assay showed that reduction of AnxA2 suppressed CCL18‑induced F‑actin polymerization though phosphorylation of integrin β1 in breast cancer cells. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis revealed that AnxA2 promoted CCL18‑induced EMT via the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β/Snail signaling pathway, and LY294002 inhibited the phosphorylation of AnxA2 in vitro. In brief, AnxA2, as a downstream molecule of Nir 1 binding to CCL18, promotes invasion and metastasis by EMT through the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β/Snail signaling pathway in breast cancer. This study suggests that AnxA2 is a potential anti‑invasion/metastasis target for therapeutic intervention in breast cancer.

RevDate: 2020-08-19
CmpDate: 2020-08-19

Kaur P, Porras TB, Ring A, et al (2019)

Comparison of TCGA and GENIE genomic datasets for the detection of clinically actionable alterations in breast cancer.

Scientific reports, 9(1):1482.

Whole exome sequencing (WES), targeted gene panel sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays are increasingly used for the identification of actionable alterations that are critical to cancer care. Here, we compared The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Genomics Evidence Neoplasia Information Exchange (GENIE) breast cancer genomic datasets (array and next generation sequencing (NGS) data) in detecting genomic alterations in clinically relevant genes. We performed an in silico analysis to determine the concordance in the frequencies of actionable mutations and copy number alterations/aberrations (CNAs) in the two most common breast cancer histologies, invasive lobular and invasive ductal carcinoma. We found that targeted sequencing identified a larger number of mutational hotspots and clinically significant amplifications that would have been missed by WES and SNP arrays in many actionable genes such as PIK3CA, EGFR, AKT3, FGFR1, ERBB2, ERBB3 and ESR1. The striking differences between the number of mutational hotspots and CNAs generated from these platforms highlight a number of factors that should be considered in the interpretation of array and NGS-based genomic data for precision medicine. Targeted panel sequencing was preferable to WES to define the full spectrum of somatic mutations present in a tumor.

RevDate: 2020-08-17
CmpDate: 2020-08-17

Westwood ML, O'Donnell AJ, Schneider P, et al (2020)

Testing possible causes of gametocyte reduction in temporally out-of-synch malaria infections.

Malaria journal, 19(1):17.

BACKGROUND: The intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC) of the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi is coordinated with host circadian rhythms. When this coordination is disrupted, parasites suffer a 50% reduction in both asexual stages and sexual stage gametocytes over the acute phase of infection. Reduced gametocyte density may not simply follow from a loss of asexuals because investment into gametocytes ("conversion rate") is a plastic trait; furthermore, the densities of both asexuals and gametocytes are highly dynamic during infection. Hence, the reasons for the reduction of gametocytes in infections that are out-of-synch with host circadian rhythms remain unclear. Here, two explanations are tested: first, whether out-of-synch parasites reduce their conversion rate to prioritize asexual replication via reproductive restraint; second, whether out-of-synch gametocytes experience elevated clearance by the host's circadian immune responses.

METHODS: First, conversion rate data were analysed from a previous experiment comparing infections of P. chabaudi that were in-synch or 12 h out-of-synch with host circadian rhythms. Second, three new experiments examined whether the inflammatory cytokine TNF varies in its gametocytocidal efficacy according to host time-of-day and gametocyte age.

RESULTS: There was no evidence that parasites reduce conversion or that their gametocytes become more vulnerable to TNF when out-of-synch with host circadian rhythms.

CONCLUSIONS: The factors causing the reduction of gametocytes in out-of-synch infections remain mysterious. Candidates for future investigation include alternative rhythmic factors involved in innate immune responses and the rhythmicity in essential resources required for gametocyte development. Explaining why it matters for gametocytes to be synchronized to host circadian rhythms might suggest novel approaches to blocking transmission.

RevDate: 2020-08-17
CmpDate: 2020-08-17

Erro R, Picillo M, Amboni M, et al (2019)

Comparing postural instability and gait disorder and akinetic-rigid subtyping of Parkinson disease and their stability over time.

European journal of neurology, 26(9):1212-1218.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parkinson disease (PD) patients are classically classified according to two alternative motor subtyping methods: (i) tremor-dominant versus postural instability and gait disorder; (ii) tremor-dominant versus akinetic-rigid. The degree of overlap between the two classification systems at diagnosis of PD and their temporal stability, as well as the correspondence between the two systems, were examined over a follow-up period of 4 years.

METHODS: Newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients were classified as tremor-dominant versus postural instability and gait disorder and tremor-dominant versus akinetic-rigid at baseline and after 2 and 4 years.

RESULTS: There was a poor overlap between the two classification systems at any time point and baseline subtype status could not predict 4-year subtype membership. In fact, about half of our cohort shifted category during the first 2 years, regardless of the classification scheme adopted. A lower rate of shift was observed from 2- to 4-year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: The two classical motor subtyping methods of PD poorly overlap, which implies that a patient can be categorized as tremor-dominant in one classification system but not in the other. Moreover, their temporal instability undermines their prognostic value in the early stage of PD.

RevDate: 2020-08-07
CmpDate: 2020-08-07

Harbertson J, Scott PT, Lemus H, et al (2019)

Cross-Sectional Study of Sexual Behavior, Alcohol Use, and Mental Health Conditions Associated With Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Deploying Shipboard US Military Personnel.

Military medicine, 184(11-12):e693-e700.

INTRODUCTION: Limited comprehensive data exist on risk behavior associated with sexually transmitted infections (STI) among ship-assigned US military personnel during the predeployment time period (PDT). This study examined whether sexual risk behaviors, alcohol use, involuntary drug consumption (IDC), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression during the 12 months prior to deployment were associated with provider-diagnosed STIs in this population.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using cross-sectional data collected during 2012-2014 among sexually active personnel, multivariable regression assessed factors associated with STIs among all men (n = 1,831). Stratified analyses were conducted among men who have sex with women (MSW, n = 1,530), men who have sex with men or men and women (MSM, n = 83), and excluded those not reporting sexual partner gender (n = 218).

RESULTS: Among MSW, transactional sex (AOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.5-9.4) meeting sexual partners at work (AOR 4.3, 95% CI 2.0-9.2), IDC (AOR 6.6, 95% CI 3.0-14.5), and incomplete mental health assessments (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 1.6-12.0) were significantly associated with STIs after adjustment. Among all men, those who identified as MSM (AOR 4.6, 95% CI 1.9-11.2) and drug screen positive (AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.6) were significantly more likely to report an STI.

CONCLUSIONS: Previously unreported factors significantly associated with STIs at the PDT among MSW in the adjusted analysis were meeting sexual partners at work and IDC. IDC during the PDT warrants further exploration. These results can inform tailored STI reduction interventions among shipboard personnel and similarly aged civilians undergoing similar transition/travel experiences.

RevDate: 2020-08-05
CmpDate: 2020-08-05

Lin L, Wang X, Tang C, et al (2019)

Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Gastrointestinal Metastases in Solid Tumor Patients: A Retrospective Study and Review of Literatures.

Analytical cellular pathology (Amsterdam), 2019:4508756.

Background: According to the literature and our experience, patients with gastrointestinal metastases are relatively rare. Numerous case reports and literature reviews have been reported. We present one of the larger case series of gastrointestinal metastases.

Objectives: To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal tract metastases, which are rare metastatic sites.

Methods: Patients with gastrointestinal metastases in the setting of stage IV primary carcinomas treated at Beijing Ditan Hospital and Peking University International Hospital from November 1992 to August 2017 were included in this study. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal tract metastases was based on histopathology.

Results: 30 patients (median age 56 years, 56.7% female) were included. The most common primary carcinomas associated with gastrointestinal metastases were breast (11 patients, 36.7%), stomach (9 patients, 30.0%), and lung (4 patients, 13.3%) cancer. The major pathological types were adenocarcinoma (16 patients, 53.3%) and ductal carcinoma (9 patients, 30.0%). Ten patients (33.3%) underwent local gastrointestinal treatment, and 20 patients (66.7%) underwent nonlocal treatment (involving chemotherapy alone or best supportive care). For breast cancer patients and gastric cancer patients who underwent local therapy, a significant survival advantage was observed (p = 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively). The presence of other common metastases was identified as an independent poor prognostic factor through multivariate analysis with a HR (hazard ratio) of survival of 0.182 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.523, p = 0.031).

Conclusion: Gastrointestinal metastases are most frequently from breast invasive ductal carcinoma. The presentation of other common metastases with gastrointestinal metastasis indicates poor prognosis, and selected patients may benefit from surgical intervention.

RevDate: 2020-08-03
CmpDate: 2020-08-03

Sarhan MS, Mourad EF, Nemr RA, et al (2020)

An inoculum-dependent culturing strategy (IDC) for the cultivation of environmental microbiomes and the isolation of novel endophytic Actinobacteria.

The Journal of antibiotics, 73(1):66-71.

The recent introduction of plant-only-based culture media enabled cultivation of not-yet-cultured bacteria that exceed 90% of the plant microbiota communities. Here, we further prove the competence and challenge of such culture media, and further introduce "the inoculum-dependent culturing strategy, IDC". The strategy depends on direct inoculating plant serial dilutions onto plain water agar plates, allowing bacteria to grow only on the expense of natural nutrients contained in the administered inoculum. Developed colonies are successively transferred/subcultured onto plant-only-based culture media, which contains natural nutrients very much alike to those found in the prepared plant inocula. Because of its simplicity, the method is recommended as a powerful tool in screening programs that require microbial isolation from a large number of diverse plants. Here, the method comfortably and successfully recovered several isolates of endophytic Actinobacteria represented by the six genera of Curtobacterium spp., Plantibacter spp., Agreia spp., Herbiconiux spp., Rhodococcus spp., and Nocardioides spp. Furthermore, two of the isolates are most likely novel species belonging to Agreia spp. and Herbiconiux spp.

RevDate: 2020-08-03
CmpDate: 2020-08-03

Chen S, Chen H, Yi Y, et al (2019)

Comparative study of breast cancer with or without concomitant Paget disease: An analysis of the SEER database.

Cancer medicine, 8(8):4043-4054.

BACKGROUND: Most mammary Paget disease (MPD) is associated with underlying in situ or invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes between breast cancer with Paget disease (PD) and breast cancer alone.

METHODS: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, 2000-2015, of the US National Cancer Institute, we identified 1569 women who had PD with invasive ductal carcinoma (PD-IDC) and 1489 women who had PD with ductal carcinoma in situ (PD-DCIS). Independent demographic and clinicopathological variables as well as survival outcomes of these patients were compared to patients with the corresponding breast cancer without concomitant PD.

RESULTS: PD-IDC and PD-DCIS both had worse survival outcomes and poorer tumor characteristics than the corresponding disease without PD. Contrary to in the breast cancer alone groups, in the breast cancer with PD groups, the HR status (P = 0.182 in PD-IDC and P = 0.371 in PD-DCIS), HER2 status (P = 0.788 in PD-IDC and P = 0.643 in PD-DCIS), and combined molecular subtype (P = 0.196 in PD-IDC and P = 0.853 in PD-DCIS) were not found to affect disease prognosis. After matching tumor characteristics and treatment approaches, PD-IDC as well as PD-DCIS exhibited no significant difference in disease prognosis with corresponding IDC and DCIS. Finally, by comparative analysis, a kind of PD-DCIS (ICD-O-3 code 8543/3) showed many invasive behaviors (31.8% of 8543/3 patients had stage I-III cancer) and was associated with worse survival outcomes than the other type of PD-DCIS.

CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer with concomitant PD was associated with more aggressive tumor characteristics and worse survival outcomes. The HR status, HER2 status, and combined molecular subtype could not affect the prognosis of breast cancer with PD. Moreover, a portion of the PD-DCIS cases were invasive breast cancer cases that required special treatment.

RevDate: 2020-07-24
CmpDate: 2020-07-24

Liu Q, Zhang J, Kulkarni HR, et al (2020)

177Lu-DOTATOC Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy in a Patient With Neuroendocrine Breast Carcinoma and Breast Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.

Clinical nuclear medicine, 45(5):e232-e235.

Radiolabeled somatostatin analogs for somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-targeted imaging and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) have demonstrated remarkable success in the management of SSTR-expressing neuroendocrine neoplasms. Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinoma is rare. Heterogeneous SSTR overexpression has also been documented in breast cancer, in both human breast cancer specimens and clinical studies. We report here a case of a 69-year-old woman who had both breast invasive ductal carcinoma and primary large-cell neuroendocrine breast carcinoma (Ki-67 proliferation index of 20%), with disseminated bone and lymph node metastases, demonstrating exceptional tracer uptake on Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT, and remarkably partial remission after Lu-DOTATOC PRRT.

RevDate: 2020-07-23

Richards D, Ayala AA, Wu Y, et al (2020)

Carcinoma In Situ Involving Sclerosing Adenosis on Core Biopsy: Diagnostic Pearls to Aid the Practicing Clinician and Avoid Overtreatment.

Oncology and therapy, 8(1):81-89.

INTRODUCTION: Involvement of pre-existing benign lesions by ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or lobular neoplasia (LN) can present difficult diagnostic challenges, and can easily cause misdiagnosis of invasive carcinoma and over-management of localized disease. Our objective was to gather the largest case series of DCIS and LN involving sclerosing adenosis (SA), and to report the characteristic features of these lesions, in order to provide histologic criteria for the diagnostician.

METHODS: Our database was searched for core biopsy material diagnosed as carcinoma in situ involving adenosis. Glass slides and pathology reports were reviewed. The cases were studied for salient features, and clinical follow-up was also obtained.

RESULTS: Thirty-one cases of DCIS or LN involving SA were obtained (12 cases of DCIS, 19 cases of LN including LCIS and ALH). Histomorphologic features commonly seen with DCIS or LN involving SA included lobulocentric architecture (31/31, 100%), myoepithelial cells visible by H&E at least focally (31/31, 100%), and separate areas of SA not involved by neoplasia (29/31, 93.5%). Features that were sometimes seen included hyaline basement membranes surrounding the lesion (14/31, 45.2%), DCIS/LN apart from the area of involvement by SA (16/31, 51.6%), and calcifications associated with DCIS/LN/SA (12/31, 38.7%). Features that were not commonly seen included desmoplasia (6/31, 19.4%), dense inflammation (4/31, 12.9%), and single epithelial cells enveloped by flattened myoepithelial cells (6/31, 19.4%). Of the ten cases of DCIS with known follow-up, four showed DCIS involving either SA or a complex SA on excision (4/10, 40%), four had only DCIS (4/10, 40%), one had DCIS with a small 1.8-mm focus of predominantly tubular carcinoma (1/10, 10%), and one showed invasive ductal carcinoma on excision (1/10, 10%). The latter case of invasive ductal carcinoma occurred in a patient who had a delay of 3 years from diagnosis to surgical resection. Of the eight cases of LN with surgical follow-up, seven had LCIS (7/8, 87.5%), and one showed only fibroadenoma and SA with no residual LN in the excised specimen (1/8, 12.5%). Importantly, no invasive carcinoma was identified in any of the resections for LN involving SA.

CONCLUSIONS: In our series of carcinoma in situ (CIS) involving sclerosing adenosis diagnosed on core biopsy, lobular lesions involving SA were more common than ductal lesions. Ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ involving adenosis were best diagnosed by the low-power appearance of a lobulocentric pattern of growth. The most helpful diagnostic feature was the observation of additional foci of carcinoma in situ away from the adenosis. Immunohistochemical stains for myoepithelial cells were useful in particularly difficult cases. The presence of stromal desmoplasia does not preclude the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ involving adenosis. Knowledge of these diagnostic pearls can reduce over-interpretation of CIS on core biopsy and subsequent overtreatment.

RevDate: 2020-07-21
CmpDate: 2020-07-21

Tamaoki M, Nio Y, Tamaoki M, et al (2020)

[Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma That Developed in the Irradiated Residual Breast after Breast-Conserving Surgery for Breast Cancer-A Case Report and Review of the Literature].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(1):77-81.

We report a radiation-associated angiosarcoma(RAAS)of the breast, which is a rare but important complication after breast-conserving surgery(BCS)and radiotherapy(RT)for breast cancer. A7 2-year-old woman had undergone BCS for invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast(pT2pN1M0, StageⅡB), followed by RT of 50 Gy; she was treated with doxifluridine and anastrozole for 5 year. She noticed a bloody cutaneous bulla in the right breast 64 months later, and the skin lesions gradually expanded. She was brought to our clinic for the treatment of massive bleeding from the skin lesions. Ulcer biopsy revealed cutaneous AS(cells were CD31[+], CD34[+], VEGF[-], and VEGF-R[+]). She underwent mastectomy and latissimus dorsal flap surgery. She died of local recurrence and liver metastasis 13 months later. RAAS is rare, but it should be considered in patients with skin lesions, such as erosion and bloody bulla, after BCS and RT for breast cancer. To our knowledge, only 12 cases of RAAS, including the present case, have been reported in Japan, and we reviewed the Japanese RAAS cases in comparison with those reported in the Western literature.

RevDate: 2020-07-21
CmpDate: 2020-07-21

Shelef L, Klomek AB, Fruchter E, et al (2019)

Suicide ideation severity is associated with severe suicide attempts in a military setting.

European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 61:49-55.

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate on the effectiveness of suicidal behavior prevention measures in the military. The association of three widely used tools with severe suicide attempts was assessed in this setting.

METHODS: Thirty-nine Israeli soldiers (59% males), mean age 19 yrs., who attempted suicide during military service were divided into two groups: severe (n = 14; 35.9%) and moderate suicide attempts, and were assessed using the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS).

RESULTS: Seven items from the SSI (p = 0.008), two items from SIS and one item from C-SSRS were associated with severe suicide attempts. Kendall's tau-b correlation with bootstrap demonstrated stability of these correlations.

CONCLUSION: Greater severity of suicidal ideation was associated with more severe suicide attempts. The combination of male gender, available firearms and current severe suicide ideation is high-risk danger sign in a military setting, even when reported intent to die is low.

RevDate: 2020-07-20
CmpDate: 2020-07-20

Zong L, Mo S, Yu S, et al (2020)

Expression of the immune checkpoint VISTA in breast cancer.

Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII, 69(8):1437-1446.

V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a novel immune checkpoint that is an emerging target for cancer immunotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the expression of VISTA and its association with clinicopathologic parameters as well as with the key immune markers including programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast [corrected]. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect VISTA, PD-1, PD-L1, and CD8 in tissue microarrays from 919 patients with IDC (N = 341 in the exploratory cohort and = 578 in the validation cohort). VISTA was expressed on the immune cells of 29.1% (267/919) of the samples and on the tumor cells of 8.2% (75/919). VISTA was more frequently expressed in samples that were estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, poorly differentiated, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched, and consisting of basal-like tumors. VISTA on immune cells correlated with PD-1, PD-L1, stromal CD8, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte expression and was an independent prognostic factor for improved relapse-free and disease-specific survival in patients with estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and basal-like IDC. These findings support therapeutic strategies that modulate VISTA expression, perhaps in combination with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, in human breast cancer immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2020-07-16
CmpDate: 2020-07-16

Komaei I, Guccione F, Sarra F, et al (2019)

Radiation-induced undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the breast: a rare but serious complication following breast-conserving therapy. A case report and literature review.

Il Giornale di chirurgia, 40(6):544-550.

BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of the breast is an extremely rare, but aggressive subtype of sarcoma that can develop in radiotherapy (RT)-treated breast cancer patients. Due to the low incidence, there are many uncertainties regarding the adequate management of these tumors. We present a rare case of radiation-induced UPS in a 63-year-old woman who had undergone breast conserving therapy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast, six years prior to presentation.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 63-year-old woman presented with a rapidly growing left breast mass. She had been diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast for which she underwent a left upper outer quadrantectomy and ipsilateral axillary dissection followed by RT, six years previously. During her routine oncologic follow-up, the mammography revealed a dense, nodular opacity with microcalcifications. The breast ultrasound (US) confirmed the presence of the nodule. US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of UPS was made, the reason for which the patient underwent wide local excision of the left breast.

CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of RT-induced UPS is challenging and often missed due to the low incidence, long latency period, unspecific imaging findings, and difficulties in clinical and histological detection of these lesions. These tumors should be considered in differential diagnoses of rapidly-growing breast masses in previously RT-treated breast cancer patients, as they can mimic the local recurrence of the primary tumor. Since the prevalence of breast-conserving surgery followed by RT has been increasing, the careful monitoring of at risk patients is of utmost importance, as UPSs are highly aggressive tumors associated with very poor outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-07-15

Escott CE, Zaenger D, Switchencko JM, et al (2020)

The Influence of Histologic Grade on Outcomes of Elderly Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Surgery With or Without Radiotherapy.

Clinical breast cancer pii:S1526-8209(20)30109-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Two large randomized trials, CALGB 9343 and PRIME II, support omission of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS) in elderly women with favorable-risk early stage breast cancer intending to take endocrine therapy. However, patients with grade 3 histology were underrepresented on these trials. We hypothesized that high-grade disease may be unsuitable for treatment de-escalation and report the oncologic outcomes for elderly women with favorable early stage breast cancer treated with BCS with or without radiotherapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for women between 70 and 79 years of age with invasive ductal carcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2007. This cohort was narrowed to women with T1mic-T1c, N0, estrogen receptor-positive, invasive ductal carcinoma treated with BCS with or without external beam radiation (EBRT). The primary endpoints were 5- and 10-year cause-specific survival (CSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Propensity-score matching of T-stage, year of diagnosis, and age was utilized to reduce selection bias while comparing treatment arms within the grade 3 subgroup.

RESULTS: A total of 12,036 women met inclusion criteria, and the median follow-up was 9.4 years. EBRT was omitted in 22% of patients, including 21% with grade 3 disease. Patients in the EBRT cohort were slightly younger (median, 74 vs. 75 years; P < .01) and had fewer T1a tumors (11% vs. 13%; P = .02). Histologic grades 1, 2, and 3 comprised 36%, 50%, and 14% of the cohort, respectively, and there were no differences in EBRT utilization by grade. Utilization of EBRT decreased following the publication of the CALGB trial in 2004 decreasing from 82% to 85% in 1998 to 2000 to 73% to 75% in 2005 to 2007 (P < .01). Unadjusted outcomes showed that in grade 1 disease, there were no differences in CSS with or without EBRT at 5 (99%) and 10 years (95%-96%). EBRT was associated with an improvement in CSS in grade 2 histology at 5 years (97% vs. 98%) and 10 years (92% vs. 95%) (P = .004). The benefit was more pronounced in grade 3 disease with CSS increasing from 93% to 96% at 5 years and from 87% to 92% at 10 years (P = .02) with EBRT. In the grade 3 subgroup, propensity-score matching confirmed EBRT was associated with superior CSS compared with surgery alone (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.98; P = .043).

CONCLUSION: In this database analysis, omission of radiotherapy after BCS in elderly women with favorable-risk, early stage, grade 3 breast cancer was associated with inferior CSS. Further prospective data in this patient population are needed to confirm our findings and conclusions.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Cancer is the generic name for more than 100 diseases in which cells begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged, they die and new cells take their place. Cancer begins when genetic changes impair this orderly process so that some cells start to grow uncontrollably. The Emperor of All Maladies is a "biography" of cancer — from its first documented appearances thousands of years ago through the epic battles in the twentieth century to cure, control, and conquer it to a radical new understanding of its essence. This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in cancer. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )