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29 Sep 2023 at 01:49
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Bibliography on: Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (causes)


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:49 Created: 

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (causes)

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is cancer that began growing in a milk duct and has invaded the fibrous or fatty tissue of the breast outside of the duct. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, representing 80 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses.

The causes of invasive ductal carcinoma have not been conclusively established. Researchers have determined that cancer can form when the cells in a milk-producing duct undergo changes that cause them to grow uncontrollably, divide very rapidly or remain viable longer than they should. The result is an accumulation of excess cells that can form a mass, or tumor, and potentially spread to nearby lymph nodes and distant areas of the body. The underlying reason for those cellular changes, however, remains unclear.

By evaluating the results of extensive studies, scientists have identified certain hormonal, environmental and lifestyle factors that are believed to influence a person's breast cancer risk, such as smoking, poor nutrition and prior radiation therapy administered to the chest area. Even so, it's important to keep in mind that some individuals who have no risk factors develop cancer, while others with one or more risk factors do not. Most likely, the precise cause is a complex interaction of many factors.

In rare cases, the causes of invasive ductal carcinoma have been traced to inherited attributes, such as mutations of the: (a) Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1), a tumor suppressor gene, (b) Breast cancer gene 2 (BRCA2), a tumor suppressor gene, or (c) ErbB2 gene, which produces the HER2 protein that promotes cellular proliferation.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( ("invasive ductal carcinoma" OR IDC) AND (cause OR caused OR etiology) ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Al-Refai R, Bendari A, Morrar D, et al (2023)

Immunohistochemical Staining Characteristics of Low-Grade Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Using the ADH5 Cocktail (CK5/14, P63, and CK7/18): A Potential Interpretative Pitfall.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(18): pii:diagnostics13182966.

Background: In our practice, the antibody cocktail ADH5 (CK5/14, p63, and CK7/18) helps with diagnostic challenges, such as identifying microinvasion and foci of invasive carcinoma, differentiating atypical ductal hyperplasia from hyperplasia of the usual type, and distinguishing basal phenotypes in triple-negative carcinomas. However, the ADH5 cocktail does have pitfalls and caveats. Methods: We describe our experience with the ADH5 cocktail of antibodies in breast pathology. Institutional knowledge and a literature search form our data sources. Results: We analyzed 44 cases. Four out of a total of 44 cases (9.1%)-two tubular carcinomas and two low-grade invasive breast carcinomas of no special type (ductal) with tubular features-showed an expected pattern of staining for ADH5 with a loss of brown (P63, CK5/14) staining around invasive glands and diffuse red (CK7/18) expression. Forty out of 44 (90.9%) cases showed an unexpected staining pattern (mixture of cytoplasmic brown and red). All 44 cases (100%) showed negative myoepithelial staining around invasive foci when separately stained for P63 and SMMH (Smooth Muscle Myosin Heavy). Conclusions: The unexpected staining pattern of ADH5 in low-grade invasive ductal carcinomas can be challenging to interpret in these lesions with low-grade cytology. The occurrence can cause confusion among users who employ multiplex stains, and it is important for users to be aware of this potential pitfall.

RevDate: 2023-09-27
CmpDate: 2023-09-27

D'Iorio A, Aiello EN, Amboni M, et al (2023)

Validity and diagnostics of the Italian version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in non-demented Parkinson's disease patients.

Aging clinical and experimental research, 35(10):2157-2163.

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at: (1) assessing, in an Italian cohort of non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the construct validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) against both first- and second-level cognitive measures; (2) delivering an exhaustive and updated evaluation of its diagnostic properties.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort of N = 237 non-demented PD patients having been administered the MoCA was addressed, of whom N = 169 further underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and N = 68 the Parkinson's Disease Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS). A subsample (N = 60) also underwent a second-level cognitive battery encompassing measures of attention/executive functioning, language, memory, praxis and visuo-spatial abilities. Construct validity was assessed against both the PD-CRS and the second-level cognitive battery. Diagnostics were tested via receiver-operating characteristics analyses against a below-cut-off MMSE score.

RESULTS: The MoCA was associated with both PD-CRS scores (p < .001) and the vast majority of second-level cognitive measures (ps < .003). Both raw and adjusted MoCA scores proved to be highly accurate to the aim of identifying patients with MMSE-confirmed cognitive dysfunctions. A MoCA score adjusted for age and education according to the most recent normative dataset and < 19.015 is herewith suggested as indexing cognitive impairment in this population (AUC = .92; sensitivity = .92; specificity = .80).

DISCUSSION: The Italian MoCA is a valid and diagnostically sound screener for global cognitive inefficiency in non-demented PD patients. Further studies are nevertheless needed that confirm its diagnostic values against a measure other than the MMSE.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Choi JH, Yu J, Jung M, et al (2023)

Prognostic significance of TP53 and PIK3CA mutations analyzed by next-generation sequencing in breast cancer.

Medicine, 102(38):e35267.

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors affecting women globally. It is a heterogeneous disease characterized by mutations in several genes. Several gene panels have been applied to assess the risk of breast cancer and determine the appropriate treatment. As a powerful tool, Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been widely utilized in cancer research due to its advantages, including high speed, high throughput, and high accuracy. In this study, we aim to analyze the correlation between somatic mutations in breast cancer, analyzed using NGS, and the prognosis of patients. Between May 2018 and May 2019, a total of 313 patients with breast cancer underwent surgical treatment, which included total mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery. Among these patients, 265 were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma. In this study, we analyzed the NGS results, clinicopathological characteristics, and their correlation with prognosis. Using a gene panel, we examined 143 somatic mutations in solid cancers. Notably, the study population included patients who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The mean age of the patients was 53.1 (±10.28) years, and the median follow-up time was 48 months (range, 8-54). Among the 265 patients, 68 had received prior systemic therapy. Of these, 203 underwent breast-conserving surgery, and 62 underwent a mastectomy. Various somatic mutations were observed in NGS, with the most frequent mutation being PIK3CA mutations, which accounted for 44% of all mutations. TP53 mutations were the second most frequent, and ERBB2 mutations were the third most frequent. TP53 mutations were associated with poor disease-free survival (P = .027), while PIK3CA mutations were associated with better disease-free survival (P = .035) than PIK3CA wild-type. In our study, we identified various somatic mutations in breast cancer. Particularly, we found that TP53 and PIK3CA mutations are potentially associated with the prognosis of breast cancer. These findings suggest that the presence of specific mutations may have implications for predicting the prognosis of breast cancer. Further research and validation are needed to gain a deeper understanding of the role of these mutations and their mechanisms in prognosis prediction.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Taylor J, Uhl L, Moll I, et al (2023)

Endothelial Notch1 signaling in white adipose tissue promotes cancer cachexia.

Nature cancer [Epub ahead of print].

Cachexia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with cancer and is characterized by weight loss due to adipose and muscle tissue wasting. Hallmarks of white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling, which often precedes weight loss, are impaired lipid storage, inflammation and eventually fibrosis. Tissue wasting occurs in response to tumor-secreted factors. Considering that the continuous endothelium in WAT is the first line of contact with circulating factors, we postulated whether the endothelium itself may orchestrate tissue remodeling. Here, we show using human and mouse cancer models that during precachexia, tumors overactivate Notch1 signaling in distant WAT endothelium. Sustained endothelial Notch1 signaling induces a WAT wasting phenotype in male mice through excessive retinoic acid production. Pharmacological blockade of retinoic acid signaling was sufficient to inhibit WAT wasting in a mouse cancer cachexia model. This demonstrates that cancer manipulates the endothelium at distant sites to mediate WAT wasting by altering angiocrine signals.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Pourriahi R, Omranipour R, Alipour S, et al (2023)

Clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients admitted to academic surgical wards in Tehran, Iran: an analytical cross-sectional study.

BMC women's health, 23(1):511.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Knowledge of the clinical characteristics of BC in a population may be informative for disease prediction or diagnosis and for developing screening and diagnostic guidelines. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of female patients with BC who were admitted to academic surgical wards in Tehran, Iran.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, demographic information and clinical characteristics of Iranian females with BC who had undergone breast surgery from 2017-2021 in four academic Breast Surgery Units were extracted from medical files and recorded via a pre-designed checklist.

RESULTS: A total of 1476 patients with a mean age of 48.03 (± 11.46) years were enrolled. Among them, 10.4% were aged less than 35. In younger patients, Triple-negative and Her2-enriched subtypes of BC were significantly higher compared to older ones. Overall, 85.7% of tumors were invasive ductal carcinoma, 43.3% were grade 2, 41.4% were located in the UOQ, and 65.2% had presented with mass palpation. The mean pathologic tumor size was 28.94 mm, and the most common subtype was luminal B.

CONCLUSIONS: Many characteristics of breast cancer in this study were similar to other countries and previous studies in Iran. However, a higher proportion of young BC compared with Western countries, and even with older studies in Iran, suggest a trend toward lower age for BC in recent years. These results indicate the need for preventive measures and screening in Iranian women at a younger age.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Sijnesael T, Richard F, Rätze MA, et al (2023)

Canonical Kaiso target genes define a functional signature that associates with breast cancer survival and the invasive lobular carcinoma histological type.

The Journal of pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is a low- to intermediate-grade histological breast cancer type caused by mutational inactivation of E-cadherin function, resulting in the acquisition of anchorage independence (anoikis resistance). Most ILC cases express estrogen receptors, but options are limited in relapsed endocrine-refractory disease as ILC tends to be less responsive to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, ILC can relapse after >15 years, an event that currently cannot be predicted. E-cadherin inactivation leads to p120-catenin-dependent relief of the transcriptional repressor Kaiso (ZBTB33) and activation of canonical Kaiso target genes. Here, we examined whether an anchorage-independent and ILC-specific transcriptional program correlated with clinical parameters in breast cancer. Based on the presence of a canonical Kaiso-binding consensus sequence (cKBS) in the promoters of genes that are upregulated under anchorage-independent conditions, we defined an ILC-specific anoikis resistance transcriptome (ART). Converting the ART genes into human orthologs and adding published Kaiso target genes resulted in the Kaiso-specific ART (KART) 33-gene signature, used subsequently to study correlations with histological and clinical variables in primary breast cancer. Using publicly available data for ER[POS] Her2[NEG] breast cancer, we found that expression of KART was positively associated with the histological ILC breast cancer type (p < 2.7E-07). KART expression associated with younger patients in all invasive breast cancers and smaller tumors in invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST) (<2 cm, p < 6.3E-10). We observed associations with favorable long-term prognosis in both ILC (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.29-0.91, p < 3.4E-02) and IDC-NST (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66-0.93, p < 1.2E-04). Our analysis thus defines a new mRNA expression signature for human breast cancer based on canonical Kaiso target genes that are upregulated in E-cadherin deficient ILC. The KART signature may enable a deeper understanding of ILC biology and etiology. © 2023 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Choo ZY, AZ Xu (2023)

Predictors and outcomes of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma: a retrospective, single-institution review.

Archives of dermatological research, 315(9):2725-2728.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Abdollahi E, H Mozdarani (2023)

Epigenetic regulation of circ-HIPK3, circ-PVT1, miR-25, and miR-149 in radiosensitivity of breast cancer.

Experimental and molecular pathology, 132-133:104865.

Assessing the radiosensitivity of cells before administering radiation therapy (RT) to individuals diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) can facilitate the selection of appropriate treatment regimens and minimize the incidence of adverse side effects in patients undergoing radiation exposure. In this research, blood samples were obtained from 60 women who had been diagnosed with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) Breast Cancer. The average age of the patients was 47 ± 9.93. Additionally, the study incorporated 20 healthy women, with an average age of 44.43 ± 6.7. A standard G2 assay was conducted to predict the cellular response to radiation. Out of the 60 samples, the G2 assay identified 20 patients with breast cancer who exhibited radiosensitivity. Hence, molecular investigations were ultimately conducted on two equivalent cohorts comprising 20 subjects each, one with and the other without cellular radiosensitivity. The expression levels of miR-149, miR-25, circ-PVT1, and circ-HIPK3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the RNAs. An analysis using binary logistic regression was performed to investigate the relationship between RNAs and both BC and cellular radiosensitivity (CR) in patients with BC. The findings revealed a significant upregulation of Circ-HIPK3 and circ-PVT1 in individuals diagnosed with BC. The levels of Circ-HIPK3 and Circ-PVT1 were found to be directly associated with CR in BC patients. The analysis of the ROC curve demonstrated that circ-HIPK3 and circ-PVT1 exhibit favorable specificity and sensitivity in accurately predicting both BC and CR in patients with BC. The findings from the binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that circ-HIPK3 and circ-PVT1 were effective predictors of both BC and CR. The ROC curve and binary logistic regression analyses provide evidence that miR-25 is a reliable predictor for BC patients exclusively. Our research has demonstrated that circ-HIPK3, circ-PVT1, and miR-25 may be involved in BC regulatory processes. The circular RNAs Circ-HIPK3 and circ-PVT1, as well as miR-25, among other significant biomarkers, could potentially serve as promising biomarkers for predicting BC. Furthermore, Circ-HIPK3 and circ-PVT1 have the potential to serve as biomarkers for predicting CR in BC patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Tsilingiris D, Schimpfle L, von Rauchhaupt E, et al (2023)

Dysmetabolism-related Early Sensory Deficits and Their Relationship With Peripheral Neuropathy Development.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 108(10):e979-e988.

AIM: To investigate the association of early peripheral sensory dysfunction (EPSD) identified through quantitative sensory testing (QST) with factors related to a dysmetabolic status in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) without peripheral neuropathy (PN), and the impact of those factors on PN development.

METHODS: A total of 225 individuals (117 and 108 without and with T2DM, respectively) without PN based on clinical and electrophysiological criteria were analyzed. Comparative analysis was conducted between those identified as "healthy" and those with EPSD based on a standardized QST protocol. A total of 196 were followed-up over a mean of 2.64 years for PN occurrence.

RESULTS: Among those without T2DM, apart from male sex, height, and higher fat and lower lean mass, only higher insulin resistance (IR; homeostatic model assessment for IR: odds ratio [OR], 1.70; P = .009; McAuley index OR, 0.62, P = .008), was independently associated with EPSD. In T2DM, metabolic syndrome (OR, 18.32; P < .001) and skin advanced glycation end-products (AGEs; OR, 5.66; P = .003) were independent predictors of EPSD. In longitudinal analysis, T2DM (hazard ratio [HR], 3.32 vs no diabetes mellitus; P < .001), EPSD (adjusted HR, 1.88 vs healthy; P = .049 adjusted for diabetes mellitus and sex), higher IR and AGEs predicted PN development. Among the 3 EPSD-associated sensory phenotypes, "sensory loss" was most strongly associated with PN development (adjusted HR, 4.35; P = .011).

CONCLUSION: We demonstrate for the first time the utility of a standardized QST-based approach in identifying early sensory deficits in individuals with and without T2DM. These are associated with a dysmetabolic status signified by IR markers, metabolic syndrome, and higher AGEs, which in turn are shown to influence PN development.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Lu D, Li F, Zhao C, et al (2023)

A Remineralizing and Antibacterial Coating for Arresting Caries.

Journal of dental research [Epub ahead of print].

Dental caries is a dynamic disease induced by the unbalance between demineralization of dental hard tissues caused by biofilm and remineralization of them; however, although various effective remineralization methods have been well documented, it is a challenge to reestablish the balance by enhancing remineralization alone while ignoring the antibacterial therapy. Therefore, the integration of remineralizing and antibacterial technologies offers a promising strategy to halt natural caries progression in clinical practice. Here, the conception of interrupting dental caries (IDC) was proposed based on the development of dual-functional coating with remineralizing and antibacterial properties. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded octenidine (OCT) successfully to form a BSA-OCT composite. Subsequently, through fast amyloid-like aggregation, the phase-transited BSA-OCT (PTB-OCT) coating can be covered on teeth, resin composite, or sealant surfaces in 30 min by a simple smearing process. The PTB-OCT coating showed satisfactory effects in promoting the remineralization of demineralized enamel and dentin in vitro. Moreover, this coating also exerted significant acid-resistance stability and anti-biofilm properties. Equally importantly, this coating exhibited promising abilities in reducing the microleakage between the tooth and resin composite in vitro and preventing primary and secondary caries in vivo. In conclusion, this novel dual-functional PTB-OCT coating could reestablish the balance between demineralization and remineralization in the process of caries, thereby potentially preventing or arresting caries.

RevDate: 2023-09-08

Moon SY, Lim KR, JS Son (2023)

The role of infectious disease consultations in the management of patients with fever in a long-term care facility.

PloS one, 18(9):e0291421 pii:PONE-D-23-09237.

BACKGROUND: Infectious disease (ID) clinicians can provide essential services for febrile patients in tertiary hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ID consultations (IDC) in managing hospitalized patients with infections in an oriental medical hospital (OMH), which serves as a long-term care facility. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the role of IDCs in managing patients in an OMH.

METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in an OMH in Seoul, Korea, from June 2006 to June 2013.

RESULTS: Among the 465 cases of hospital-acquired fever, 141 (30.3%) were referred for ID. The most common cause of fever was infection in both groups. The peak body temperature of the patient was higher in IDC group (38.8±0.6°C vs. 38.6±0.5°C, p<0.001). Crude mortality at 30 days (14.6% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.043) and infection-attributable mortality (15.3% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.039) were higher in the No-IDC group. Multivariable analysis showed that infection as the focus of fever (adjusted Odd ratio [aOR] 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64-7.44), underlying cancer (aOR 10.32, 95% CI 4.34-24.51,), and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (aOR 15.68, 95% CI 2.06-119.08) were associated with increased 30-day mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that in patients with infectious fever, appropriate antibiotic therapy (aOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.76) was the only factor associated with decreased infection-attributable mortality while underlying cancer (aOR 7.80, 95% CI 2.555-23.807) and severe sepsis or septic shock at the onset of fever (aOR 10.15, 95% CI 1.00-102.85) were associated with increased infection-attributable mortality.

CONCLUSION: Infection was the most common cause of fever in patients hospitalized for OMH. Infection as the focus of fever, underlying cancer, and MODS was associated with increased 30-day mortality in patients with nosocomial fever. Appropriate antibiotic therapy was associated with decreased infection-attributable mortality in patients with infectious fever.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Lee J, Park S, Jung HA, et al (2023)

A phase 2 multicenter study of docetaxel-PM and trastuzumab-pkrb combination therapy in recurrent or metastatic salivary gland carcinomas.

Cancer, 129(19):2966-2974.

BACKGROUND: Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is uncommon but is the most aggressive subtype of salivary gland carcinomas. The high positivity rate for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) led to an investigation of the efficacy of HER2-targeted agents. Docetaxel-PM (polymeric micelle) is a low-molecular-weight, nontoxic, biodegradable, and docetaxel-loaded micellar formulation. Trastuzumab-pkrb is a biosimilar to trastuzumab.

METHODS: This was a multicenter, single-arm, open-label phase 2 study. Patients with HER2-positive (immunohistochemistry [IHC] score of ≥2+ and/or HER2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 [CEP17] ratio of ≥2.0) advanced SDCs were enrolled. Patients received docetaxel-PM (75 mg/m[2]) and trastuzumab-pkrb (8 mg/kg in the first cycle and 6 mg/kg in subsequent cycles) every 3 weeks. Primary end point was objective response rate (ORR).

RESULTS: A total of 43 patients were enrolled. The best objective responses were partial response in 30 (69.8%) patients and stable disease in 10 (23.3%) patients, leading to an ORR of 69.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.9-82.8) and a disease control rate of 93.0% (80.9-98.5). Median progression-free survival, duration of response, and overall survival were 7.9 (6.3-9.5), 6.7 (5.1-8.4), and 23.3 (19.9-26.7) months, respectively. Patients with HER2 IHC score of 3+ or HER2/CEP17 ratio ≥2.0 demonstrated better efficacies compared to those with HER2 IHC score of 2+. Thirty-eight (88.4%) patients experienced treatment-related adverse events (TRAE). Because of TRAE, nine (20.9%), 14 (32.6%), and 19 (44.2%) patients required temporary discontinuation, permanent discontinuation, or dose reduction, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The combination of docetaxel-PM and trastuzumab-pkrb demonstrated promising antitumor activity with a manageable toxicity profile in HER2-positive advanced SDC.

PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is uncommon but is the most aggressive subtype of salivary gland carcinomas. SDC shares morphological and histological similarities with invasive ductal carcinoma of breast, which led to an investigation of hormonal receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu expression status in SDC. In this study, patients with HER2-positive SDC were enrolled and treated with combination of docetaxel-polymeric micelle and trastuzumab-pkrb. Promising antitumor activities were shown with objective response rate of 69.8%, disease control rate of 93.0%, median progression-free survival of 7.9 months, median duration of response of 6.7 months, and median overall survival of 23.3 months.

RevDate: 2023-08-31
CmpDate: 2022-10-26

Shoshani A, A Kor (2022)

The mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents: Risk and protective factors.

Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy, 14(8):1365-1373.

OBJECTIVE: The restrictions to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have led to considerable social isolation, posing significant threats to mental health worldwide. The preventive lockdowns may be especially difficult for children and adolescents, who rely extensively on their daily routines and peer connections for stability and optimal development. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal research examining the mental health and daily life impact of the pandemic among children and adolescents. This study addresses this gap by examining the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents' mental health and well-being, and potential risk and protective moderators of mental health change.

METHOD: In the present study, 1,537 Israeli children and adolescents (Mage = 13.97; 52% girls) completed a battery of questionnaires in September 2019; before the COVID-19 outbreak and immediately after an 8-week lockdown period when schools reopened in May 2020.

RESULTS: A repeated measures multivariant analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed significantly greater anxiety, depression, and panic symptoms, increases in video game, Internet and TV screen time use, and decreases in positive emotions, life satisfaction, social media use, and peer support during the pandemic. Participants with higher baseline mental health symptoms showed greater symptoms after the lockdown period. Perceived social support and consistent daily routines were found to act as significant protective factors against symptomatology.

CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the significant mental health consequences of the pandemic on children and adolescents, and substantiate the significant parents' and peers' roles in children's and adolescents' coping during this global pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2023-08-29
CmpDate: 2023-08-29

Barlier A, Romanet P, NS Pellegata (2023)

Editorial: New insights into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1266148.

RevDate: 2023-08-29
CmpDate: 2023-08-29

Chen BF, Tsai YF, Lien PJ, et al (2023)

Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma: analyses of 54,832 taiwan cancer registry index cases.

Breast cancer research and treatment, 201(3):547-560.

PURPOSE: Invasive lobular cancer (ILC) is the second most common histology type of breast cancer followed by invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). This study aimed to investigate the characteristic, treatment strategies, and clinical outcomes of ILC based on a national population-based cancer registry.

METHODS: This study recruited 2671 ILC and 52,215 IDC patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 using the Taiwan Cancer Registry (TCR). Correlations between ILC and IDC subgroups were assessed using 1:4 propensity score matching and compared using the χ2 test. Disease free survival(DFS) and overall survival(OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test. The risk of disease relapse and mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS: ILC patients had larger tumor sizes, more positive axillary lymph node involvement, lower tumor grade, and higher cancer stage than IDC patients. After matching, ILC patients had a significantly higher rate of receiving mastectomy (58.93% and 53.85%) and positive surgical margin regardless of surgery type. ILC exhibited a significantly higher rate of distant metastasis than IDC(3.67% and 2.93%), but no difference in local recurrence rate, DFS or OS between the two groups. Higher cancer stage, higher grade, and mastectomy were risk factors for disease relapse and cancer-specific mortality. The hormone receptor-positive and HER2 over-expression subtypes were found to be associated with a reduced risk of disease relapse, while only PR positivity was associated with a decreased risk of mortality. (all P-values < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: ILC patients had a higher mastectomy rate, higher surgical margin rate and distant metastasis rate than IDC patients. There is no significant difference in DFS or OS between ILC and IDC patients. Mastectomy was associated with poor outcomes regardless of ILC or IDC.

RevDate: 2023-08-29
CmpDate: 2023-08-29

Tsunokake S, Iwabuchi E, Miki Y, et al (2023)

SGLT1 as an adverse prognostic factor in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

Breast cancer research and treatment, 201(3):499-513.

PURPOSE: Sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1 and 2 expression in carcinoma cells was recently examined, but their association with the clinicopathological factors of the patients and their biological effects on breast carcinoma cells have remained remain virtually unknown. Therefore, in this study, we explored the expression status of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in breast cancer patients and examined the effects of SGLT1 inhibitors on breast carcinoma cells in vitro.

METHODS: SGLT1 and SGLT2 were immunolocalized and we first correlated the findings with clinicopathological factors of the patients. We then administered mizagliflozin and KGA-2727, SGLT1 specific inhibitors to MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 breast carcinoma cell lines, and their growth-inhibitory effects were examined. Protein arrays were then used to further explore their effects on the growth factors.

RESULTS: The SGLT1 high group had significantly worse clinical outcome including both overall survival and disease-free survival than low group. SGLT2 status was not significantly correlated with clinical outcome of the patients. Both mizagliflozin and KGA-2727 inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines. Of particular interest, mizagliflozin inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, even under very low glucose conditions. Mizagliflozin downregulated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 phosphorylation.

CONCLUSION: High SGLT1 expression turned out as an adverse clinical prognostic factor in breast cancer patient. This is the first study demonstrating that SGLT1 inhibitors suppressed breast carcinoma cell proliferation. These results indicated that SGLT1 inhibitors could be used as therapeutic agents for breast cancer patients with aggressive biological behaviors.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Abbasi A, Ghaffarizadeh F, H Mojdeganlou (2023)

Prognostic Significance of Microvessel Density in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of Breast.

International journal of hematology-oncology and stem cell research, 17(2):100-105.

Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor and cause of death in women. Factors that play role in tumor metastasis are lymph node involvement, lack of tumor differentiation and hormone receptor expression, high proliferation rate, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the microvessel density (MVD) using Immunohistochemistry for the CD34 marker to investigate the amount of angiogenesis in breast cancer and its relationship with other histopathological parameters and compare it with normal tissue. Materials and Methods: 58 paraffin-embedded samples of breast cancer were enrolled. All blocks were sectioned and stained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2(HER 2/neu), ki67, and CD34 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) method. Results: The mean age of patients in this study was 49.6 ± 10.6 years. Statistically, there was a significant relationship between the grade of the tumor (P = 0.01), absence of expression of estrogen receptor (P = 0.008), and progesterone receptor (P = 0.003) with MVD. Conclusion: Due to the association between MVD, tumor grade, and absence of ER and PR expression, this valuable marker can play an important role in the prediction of prognosis in breast cancer patients and can lead to new-targeted therapy in the future.

RevDate: 2023-08-25
CmpDate: 2023-08-25

Wu K, Li W, Liu H, et al (2023)

Metabolome Sequencing Reveals that Protein Arginine-N-Methyltransferase 1 Promotes the Progression of Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma of the Breast and Predicts a Poor Prognosis.

The American journal of pathology, 193(9):1267-1283.

Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast is a special histopathologic type of cancer with a high recurrence rate and the biological features of invasion and metastasis. Previous spatial transcriptome studies indicated extensive metabolic reprogramming in IMPC, which contributes to tumor cell heterogeneity. However, the impact of metabolome alterations on IMPC biological behavior is unclear. Herein, endogenous metabolite-targeted metabolomic analysis was done on frozen tumor tissue samples from 25 patients with breast IMPC and 34 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An IMPC-like state, which is an intermediate transitional morphologic phenotype between IMPC and IDC-NOS, was observed. The metabolic type of IMPC and IDC-NOS was related to breast cancer molecular type. Arginine methylation modification and 4-hydroxy-phenylpyruvate metabolic changes play a major role in the metabolic reprogramming of IMPC. High protein arginine-N-methyltransferase (PRMT) 1 expression was an independent factor related to the poor prognosis of patients with IMPC in terms of disease-free survival. PRMT1 promoted H4R3me2a, which induced tumor cell proliferation via cell cycle regulation and facilitated tumor cell metastasis via the tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway. This study identified the metabolic type-related features and intermediate transition morphology of IMPC. The identification of potential targets of PRMT1 has the potential to provide a basis for the precise diagnosis and treatment of breast IMPC.

RevDate: 2023-08-15
CmpDate: 2023-08-15

Bódis K, Bombrich M, Schön M, et al (2023)

Effects of TM6SF2 rs58542926 polymorphism on hepatocellular lipids and insulin resistance in early type 2 diabetes.

Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD, 33(9):1785-1796.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased hepatocellular lipid content (HCL) is linked to insulin resistance, risk of type 2 diabetes and related complications. Conversely, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (TM6SF2[EK]; rs58542926) in the transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2-gene has been associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but lower cardiovascular risk. This case-control study tested the role of this polymorphism for tissue-specific insulin sensitivity during early course of diabetes.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Males with recent-onset type 2 diabetes with (TM6SF2[EK]: n = 16) or without (TM6SF2[EE]: n = 16) the heterozygous TM6SF2-polymorphism of similar age and body mass index, underwent Botnia-clamps with [6,6-[2]H2]glucose to measure whole-body-, hepatic- and adipose tissue-insulin sensitivity. HCL was assessed with [1]H-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy. A subset of both groups (n = 24) was re-evaluated after 5 years. Despite doubled HCL, TM6SF2[EK] had similar hepatic- and adipose tissue-insulin sensitivity and 27% higher whole-body-insulin sensitivity than TM6SF2[EE]. After 5 years, whole-body-insulin sensitivity, HCL were similar between groups, while adipose tissue-insulin sensitivity decreased by 87% and 55% within both groups and circulating triacylglycerol increased in TM6SF2[EE] only.

CONCLUSIONS: The TM6SF2-polymorphism rs58542926 dissociates HCL from insulin resistance in recent-onset type 2 diabetes, which is attenuated by disease duration. This suggests that diabetes-related metabolic alterations dominate over effects of the TM6SF2-polymorphism during early course of diabetes and NAFLD.

RevDate: 2023-08-14
CmpDate: 2023-08-14

Chen J, Gao P, Xiao W, et al (2023)

Multi-omics dissection of stage-specific artemisinin tolerance mechanisms in Kelch13-mutant Plasmodium falciparum.

Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy, 70:100978.

AIMS: We investigated the stage-specific mechanisms of partial resistance to artemisinin (ART, an antimalarial drug) in Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) carrying the Kelch13 C580Y mutation.

METHODS: Using fluorescence labeling and activity-based protein profiling, we systematically profile the ART activation levels in P. falciparum during the entire intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC), and determined the ART-targets profile of the ART-sensitive and -resistant strains at different stages. We retrieved and integrated datasets of single-cell transcriptomics and label-free proteomics across three IDC stages of wild-type P. falciparum. We also employed lipidomics to validate lipid metabolic reprogramming in the resistant strain.

RESULTS: The activation and expression patterns of genes and proteins of ART-targets in both ART-sensitive and resistant strains varied at different stages and periods of P. falciparum development, with the late trophozoite stage harboring the largest number of ART targets. We identified and validated 36 overlapping targets, such as GAPDH, EGF-1a, and SpdSyn, during the IDC stages in both strains. We revealed the ART-insensitivity of fatty acid-associated activities in the partially resistant strain at both the early ring and early trophozoite stages.

CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-omics strategies provide novel insights into the mechanisms of ART partial resistance in Kelch13 mutant P. falciparum, demonstrating the stage-specific interaction between ART and malaria parasites.

RevDate: 2023-08-11
CmpDate: 2023-08-11

Doi K, Fujii T, Hanamoto M, et al (2023)

[A Case of BRCA2 Mutation-Positive Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate].

Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica, 69(7):189-192.

A 75-year-old man presented with macroscopic hematuria and a high serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Macroscopic hematuria had subsided by the time of consultation. The PSA level was 38.590 ng/ml, which, along with rectal examination and magnetic resonance imaging findings, led to the suspicion of prostate cancer. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate revealed intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P). Computed tomography and bone scintigraphy were performed, and the prostate cancer was classified as cT2cN0M0. After 6 months of combined androgen blockade therapy, a radical prostatectomy was performed; however, PSA levels continued to increase, and the patient was diagnosed with castration resistant prostate cancer. Multiple bone metastases appeared 5 months after the initiation of abiraterone therapy. Three courses of docetaxel and two courses of cabazitaxel were administered, but the disease progression continued. The IDC-P was found to be positive for the BRCA2 mutation by BRACAnalysis® performed at the start of cabazitaxel therapy. To our knowledge, no other cases of BRCA2 mutation positive IDC-P have been reported in Japan. After we started administration of Olaparib, the patient's PSA level was lowered and the disease progression stopped.

RevDate: 2023-08-10

Bai X, Fang C, Liu B, et al (2023)

Breast cancer metastases to the thyroid and stomach: A case report.

Oncology letters, 26(3):386.

The most common sites of metastasis for breast cancer are the soft tissues, bones, lungs, liver and brain; however, metastases to the gastrointestinal tract and thyroid gland from breast cancer rarely occur. The present study describes the case of a 30-year-old woman who developed gastric and thyroid metastases 5 years after her initial diagnosis of invasive ductal breast carcinoma. The initial pathological diagnosis when receiving modified radical mastectomy was invasive ductal carcinoma, and further immunohistochemical examination revealed the cancer to be estrogen receptor (-), progesterone receptor (-), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; ++) and Ki-67 (70%). Genetic testing indicated the HER2 amplification mutation, whereas BRCA1/2 testing was negative. A total of 21 months after surgery, during regular follow-up, the patient was revealed to have developed an enlarged lymph node in the left side of the neck and the first recurrence was confirmed. Approximately 5 years after surgery, the patient gradually developed multi-site metastasis, and developed metastases to the thyroid gland and stomach confirmed by pathology and imaging. Combined chemotherapy and targeted therapy were administered and exhibited good efficacy; however, the patient subsequently died due to heart failure. This case report describes the occurrence of gastric and thyroid metastases from breast cancer, and highlights the importance of distinguishing between metastatic and primary tumors. Distinguishing between a metastatic and primary tumor is crucial as treatment protocols vary significantly for these two types of tumors. For patients with a history of breast cancer it should first be considered whether they have metastasis of the primary disease or discomfort caused by treatment; however, the possibility of a second primary tumor cannot be ignored. If the patient has symptoms such as loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain and stomach discomfort, a gastroscopy should be performed in a timely manner.

RevDate: 2023-08-07

Mooshage CM, Schimpfle L, Kender Z, et al (2023)

Association of Small Fiber Function with Microvascular Perfusion of Peripheral Nerves in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes : Study using Quantitative Sensory Testing and Magnetic Resonance Neurography.

Clinical neuroradiology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Diabetic small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is caused by damage to thinly myelinated A‑fibers (δ) and unmyelinated C‑fibers. This study aimed to assess associations between quantitative sensory testing (QST) and parameters of peripheral nerve perfusion obtained from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in type 2 diabetes patients with and without SFN.

METHODS: A total of 18 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 8 with SFN, 10 without SFN) and 10 healthy controls (HC) took part in this cross-sectional single-center study and underwent QST of the right leg and DCE-MRN of the right thigh with subsequent calculation of the sciatic nerve constant of capillary permeability (K[trans]), extravascular extracellular volume fraction (Ve), and plasma volume fraction (Vp).

RESULTS: The K[trans] (HC 0.031 min[-1] ± 0.009, T2D 0.043 min[-1] ± 0.015; p = 0.033) and Ve (HC 1.2% ± 1.5, T2D: 4.1% ± 5.1; p = 0.027) were lower in T2D patients compared to controls. In T2D patients, compound z‑scores of thermal and mechanical detection correlated with K[trans] (r = 0.73; p = 0.001, and r = 0.57; p = 0.018, respectively) and Ve (r = 0.67; p = 0.002, and r = 0.69; p = 0.003, respectively). Compound z‑scores of thermal pain and Vp (r = -0.57; p = 0.015) correlated negatively.

DISCUSSION: The findings suggest that parameters of peripheral nerve microcirculation are related to different symptoms in SFN: A reduced capillary permeability may result in a loss of function related to insufficient nutritional supply, whereas increased capillary permeability may be accompanied by painful symptoms related to a gain of function.

RevDate: 2023-08-02

Kishore A, Venkataramana L, Prasad DVV, et al (2023)

Enhancing the prediction of IDC breast cancer staging from gene expression profiles using hybrid feature selection methods and deep learning architecture.

Medical & biological engineering & computing [Epub ahead of print].

Prediction of the stage of cancer plays an important role in planning the course of treatment and has been largely reliant on imaging tools which do not capture molecular events that cause cancer progression. Gene-expression data-based analyses are able to identify these events, allowing RNA-sequence and microarray cancer data to be used for cancer analyses. Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, and is classified into four stages - stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 [2]. While machine learning models have previously been explored to perform stage classification with limited success, multi-class stage classification has not had significant progress. There is a need for improved multi-class classification models, such as by investigating deep learning models. Gene-expression-based cancer data is characterised by the small size of available datasets, class imbalance, and high dimensionality. Class balancing methods must be applied to the dataset. Since all the genes are not necessary for stage prediction, retaining only the necessary genes can improve classification accuracy. The breast cancer samples are to be classified into 4 classes of stages 1 to 4. Invasive ductal carcinoma breast cancer samples are obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC) datasets and combined. Two class balancing techniques are explored, synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) and SMOTE followed by random undersampling. A hybrid feature selection pipeline is proposed, with three pipelines explored involving combinations of filter and embedded feature selection methods: Pipeline 1 - minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy (mRMR) and correlation feature selection (CFS), Pipeline 2 - mRMR, mutual information (MI) and CFS, and Pipeline 3 - mRMR and support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE). The classification is done using deep learning models, namely deep neural network, convolutional neural network, recurrent neural network, a modified deep neural network, and an AutoKeras generated model. Classification performance post class-balancing and various feature selection techniques show marked improvement over classification prior to feature selection. The best multiclass classification was found to be by a deep neural network post SMOTE and random undersampling, and feature selection using mRMR and recursive feature elimination, with a Cohen-Kappa score of 0.303 and a classification accuracy of 53.1%. For binary classification into early and late-stage cancer, the best performance is obtained by a modified deep neural network (DNN) post SMOTE and random undersampling, and feature selection using mRMR and recursive feature elimination, with an accuracy of 81.0% and a Cohen-Kappa score (CKS) of 0.280. This pipeline also showed improved multiclass classification performance on neuroblastoma cancer data, with a best area under the receiver operating characteristic (auROC) curve score of 0.872, as compared to 0.71 obtained in previous work, an improvement of 22.81%. The results and analysis reveal that feature selection techniques play a vital role in gene-expression data-based classification, and the proposed hybrid feature selection pipeline improves classification performance. Multi-class classification is possible using deep learning models, though further improvement particularly in late-stage classification is necessary and should be explored further.

RevDate: 2023-07-30

Amato S, Ramsey J, Ahern TP, et al (2023)

Exploring the presence of bovine leukemia virus among breast cancer tumors in a rural state.

Breast cancer research and treatment [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus that causes malignant lymphoma and lymphosarcomas in cattle globally and has high prevalence among large scale U.S. dairy herds. Associations between presence of BLV DNA in human mammary tissue and human breast cancer incidence have been reported. We sought to estimate the prevalence of BLV DNA in breast cancer tissue samples in a rural state with an active dairy industry.

METHODS: We purified genomic DNA from 56 fresh-frozen breast cancer tissue samples (51 tumor samples, 5 samples representing adjacent normal breast tissue) banked between 2016 and 2019. Using nested PCR assays, multiple BLV tax sequence primers and primers for the long terminal repeat (LTR) were used to detect BLV DNA in tissue samples and known positive control samples, including the permanently infected fetal lamb kidney cell line (FLK-BLV) and blood from BLV positive cattle.

RESULTS: The median age of patients from which samples were obtained at the time of treatment was 60 (40-93) and all were female. Ninety percent of patients had invasive ductal carcinoma. The majority were poorly differentiated (60%). On PCR assay, none of the tumor samples tested positive for BLV DNA, despite having consistent signals in positive controls.

CONCLUSION: We did not find BLV DNA in fresh-frozen breast cancer tumors from patients presenting to a hospital in Vermont. Our findings suggest a low prevalence of BLV in our patient population and a need to reevaluate the association between BLV and human breast cancer.

RevDate: 2023-08-01
CmpDate: 2023-07-31

Hardt LM, Herrmann HJ, Reljic D, et al (2023)

Are Guideline Recommendations on Supportive Nutrition and Exercise Therapy for Cancer Patients Implemented in Clinical Routine? A National Survey with Real-Life Data.

Nutrients, 15(14):.

Malnutrition and cancer cachexia are highly prevalent comorbidities of cancer, limiting patients' quality of life and being relevant to prognosis. International and national clinical guidelines recommend supportive nutrition and exercise therapy for cancer patients. However, there is little current epidemiological evidence on the implementation of these guideline recommendations in clinical routine. To close this data gap, a national survey in Germany using an online questionnaire was conducted. There were 261 of a total of 5074 contacted hospitals and medical offices who participated in the survey (5.1% response rate). The data indicated that nutrition and exercise therapy for cancer patients is so far inadequately implemented, with 59% of the respondents reporting nutrition therapy as an integral part of oncological treatment, 66.7% having a nutrition specialist/team, and 65.1% routinely conducting a screening for nutritional status. Only half of the participants stated that there are defined goals in nutrition therapy. The majority of respondents (85.8%) generally recommend exercise therapy, but only a few of them provide specific offers at their own institution (19.6%) or at cooperation partners (31.7%). In order to implement the recommended combined nutrition and exercise therapy as part of regular care, there is a need for nationwide availability of multidisciplinary nutrition teams and targeted offers of individualized exercise therapy. Health policy support would be important to create the structural, financial, and staff conditions for appropriate guideline implementation in order to achieve the optimal treatment of cancer patients.

RevDate: 2023-07-27

Ding W, Ye D, Zhu H, et al (2023)

Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Node-Positive Breast Cancer With a 21-Gene Recurrence Score of 14 to 25: A Real-World Study Based on the Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting Method.

Clinical breast cancer pii:S1526-8209(23)00190-8 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The role of recurrence score in predicting the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph-node-positive breast cancer remains uncertain. We studied chemotherapy usage in patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes and a recurrence score (RS) of 25 or lower to assess changes in clinical practice based on the RxPONDER trial.

METHODS: A retrospective study using the SEER database identified female patients diagnosed with ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes, and an RS of 25 or lower between 2010 and 2015. Patients were divided into nonchemotherapy and chemotherapy groups, with propensity score weighting to balance clinicopathologic factors.

RESULTS: Among 7965 patients, 5774 (72.5%) were in the nonchemotherapy group, while 2191 (27.5%) were in the chemotherapy group. Median follow-up was 39 months. Breast cancer accounted for 67 deaths, while 128 deaths were due to other causes. The weighted 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 95.7% for the nonchemotherapy group and 97.2% for the chemotherapy group. For high-risk patients, the weighted 5-year OS rates were 95.2% and 97.0% for the nonchemotherapy and chemotherapy groups, respectively, with a significant absolute difference of 1.8% (P = .014). Multivariate analysis showed a significant difference in weighted hazard ratios for OS between the nonchemotherapy and chemotherapy groups in high-risk patients (hazard ratio: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86). However, there were no significant differences in weighted hazard ratios for lower-risk patients, and similar results were observed for breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS).

CONCLUSION: Patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer and 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes, assessed by a 21-gene RS of 0 to 25, exhibited heterogeneous prognosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy provided a significant survival benefit, especially for patients with RS of 14 to 25, particularly those with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 2 to 3 positive lymph nodes.

RevDate: 2023-07-28
CmpDate: 2023-07-28

Konishi K, Araya J, Nagabuchi M, et al (2023)

[A Case of Breast Carcinoma That Changed Subtype to Squamous Cell Carcinoma after Chemotherapy].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 50(7):825-827.

Metaplastic carcinoma is a rare histological malignancy, often triple-negative, and has a poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of breast cancer in which the primary lesion degenerated into squamous cell carcinoma(triple negative)after drug treatment for invasive ductal carcinoma(Luminal type). The patient was a 41-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Stage Ⅳ left breast cancer T2N2bM1(HEP)(ER 90%, PR 70%, HER2 2+, FISH-)at another hospital and participated in the PATHWAY study(tamoxifen plus goserelin plus palbociclib/placebo). Since the primary lesion and liver metastasis increased in size, the study was discontinued after 8 weeks. She was treated at our hospital thereafter, with capecitabine plus cyclophosphamide, palbociclib plus fulvestrant plus leuprorelin, paclitaxel plus bevacizumab, eribulin, EC therapy, and docetaxel. However, both the primary lesion and liver metastasis increased. In particular, the increase in primary lesion size was remarkable, and the QOL significantly reduced due to bleeding and exudation. Biopsy performed during docetaxel treatment revealed metaplastic/squamous cell carcinoma(ER-, PR-, HER2 0, Ki-67 90-100%)histopathological findings. BRCA and microsatellite instability tests were negative, and PDL1 expression was less than 1%. Although Mohs ointment was used, tumor bleeding, exudate, and stink were poorly controlled, and the patient experienced painful symptoms due to the weight of the tumor. Therefore, left mastectomy plus pectoralis major muscle resection was performed. The patient died one month after the operation.

RevDate: 2023-07-24
CmpDate: 2023-07-24

Shi K, Liu XL, Guo Q, et al (2023)

TMEM41A overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and immune alterations in patients with endometrial carcinoma.

PloS one, 18(7):e0285817.

BACKGROUND: Expression levels of transmembrane protein 41A (TMEM41A) are related to the progression of malignant tumors. However, the association between TMEM41A expression and endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains unclear. This study aims to identify the roles of TMEM41A expression in the prognosis of patients with EC and its correlation with EC progression.

METHODS: The TMEM41A expression and its correlation with the survival of patients with EC were assessed. Cox regression analysis was used to identify the prognostic factors, while nomograms were used to examine the association between the prognostic factors and the survival of patients with EC. Finally, the link between TMEM41A level and immune microenvironment and RNA modifications was investigated in EC.

RESULTS: TMEM41A was overexpressed in EC. TMEM41A overexpression could diagnose the EC and evaluate the poor prognosis of patients. Overexpression of TMEM41A was associated with clinical stage, age, weight, histological subtype, tumor grade, and survival status of patients with EC. Clinical stage, age, tumor grade, radiotherapy, and TMEM41A overexpression were factors of poor prognosis in patients with EC. The nomograms revealed the correlation between the TMEM41A level and survival time of patients with EC at 1, 3, and 5 years. Furthermore, TMEM41A overexpression was significantly correlated with the level of the stromal score, immune score, estimate score, NK CD56 bright cells, iDC, NK cells, eosinophils, pDC, T cells, TReg, cytotoxic cells, mast cells, Th17 cells, neutrophils, aDC, NK CD56 dim cells, TFH, Th2 cells, CD8 T cells, macrophages, immune cell markers, and RNA modifications.

CONCLUSIONS: TMEM41A is overexpressed in EC tissues and is associated with the prognosis, immune microenvironment, and RNA modification. Our preliminary studies indicate that overexpression of TMEM41A can potentially serve as a biomarker for EC treatment.

RevDate: 2023-07-18

Li S, Tong J, Li H, et al (2023)

L. pneumophila Infection Diagnosed by tNGS in a Lady with Lymphadenopathy.

Infection and drug resistance, 16:4435-4442.

We report a case of a 34-year-old lady with multiple joint pain. Autoimmune diseases were considered first with a positive result of anti-Ro antibody and her right knee joint cavity effusion. Later, bilateral interstitial changes in her lungs and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were found after chest CT scanning. Empirical quinolone therapy was given although pathological examinations of blood, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) did not find anything. Finally, Legionella pneumophila was identified by target next-generation sequencing (tNGS) detection. This case highlighted the timely use of tNGS, a new tool with fast speed, high accuracy and effective cost, could help to identify atypical infection and start an early therapy.

RevDate: 2023-08-07
CmpDate: 2023-08-07

Ji H, Englmaier F, Morigny P, et al (2023)

Development of a peptide drug restoring AMPK and adipose tissue functionality in cancer cachexia.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 31(8):2408-2421.

Cancer cachexia is a severe systemic wasting disease that negatively affects quality of life and survival in patients with cancer. To date, treating cancer cachexia is still a major unmet clinical need. We recently discovered the destabilization of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex in adipose tissue as a key event in cachexia-related adipose tissue dysfunction and developed an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based approach to prevent AMPK degradation and prolong cachexia-free survival. Here, we show the development and optimization of a prototypic peptide, Pen-X-ACIP, where the AMPK-stabilizing peptide ACIP is fused to the cell-penetrating peptide moiety penetratin via a propargylic glycine linker to enable late-stage functionalization using click chemistry. Pen-X-ACIP was efficiently taken up by adipocytes, inhibited lipolysis, and restored AMPK signaling. Tissue uptake assays showed a favorable uptake profile into adipose tissue upon intraperitoneal injection. Systemic delivery of Pen-X-ACIP into tumor-bearing animals prevented the progression of cancer cachexia without affecting tumor growth and preserved body weight and adipose tissue mass with no discernable side effects in other peripheral organs, thereby achieving proof of concept. As Pen-X-ACIP also exerted its anti-lipolytic activity in human adipocytes, it now provides a promising platform for further (pre)clinical development toward a novel, first-in-class approach against cancer cachexia.

RevDate: 2023-07-04

Shulder S, Tamma PD, Fiawoo S, et al (2023)

Infectious Diseases Consultation Associated with Reduced Mortality in Gram-Negative Bacteremia.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:7218962 [Epub ahead of print].

Gram-negative bacteremia (GN-BSI) can cause significant morbidity and mortality, but the benefit of ID consultation (IDC) is not well defined. A 24-site observational cohort study of unique hospitalized patients with 4,861 GN-BSI episodes demonstrated a 40% decreased risk of 30-day mortality in patients with IDC compared to those without IDC.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Maggi G, Vitale C, Delle Curti A, et al (2023)

Unawareness of Apathy in Parkinson's Disease: The Role of Executive Dysfunction on Symptom Recognition.

Brain sciences, 13(6):.

Altered self-awareness or anosognosia may impact patients' everyday life by interfering with their safe and independent functioning. Symptom awareness has been linked to executive dysfunctions caused by damage to frontal regions. Apathy is a frequent neuropsychiatric manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is considered a consequence of altered functioning of cortico-subcortical circuitries connecting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) with the basal ganglia. Thus, apathetic PD patients may be not be fully aware of their condition due to shared neuropathophysiological mechanisms. The present study aimed to explore the awareness of apathy in PD patients by comparing the self-reported evaluations with their caregivers' ratings. Moreover, we explored the clinical predictors of possible discrepancies and their consequences on patients' self-reported evaluation of quality of life (QoL). We found a fair agreement between patients' self-reports and caregivers' ratings on apathy scores, with patients reporting less severe apathetic symptoms, especially those related to executive and auto-activation processing, compared to their caregivers' reports. Executive functioning was found to mediate the relationship between disease stage and awareness of the apathetic state. Awareness of executive apathy impacted patients' self-reported QoL. Therefore, PD patients might be unaware of their apathetic symptoms, especially those with worse executive functioning, which plays a key role in metacognitive processes such as self-monitoring and error detection. Anosognosia for apathy in PD patients may affect their QoL perception and leads to misleading self-report evaluations that delay diagnosis and treatment.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Kara Tahhan N, Abou Azan A, Jomaa Al Ali I, et al (2023)

Cutaneous metastases as a primary manifestation of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: a case report.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 85(6):3062-3065.

UNLABELLED: Cutaneous metastases as the first sign of invasive ductal carcinoma are not common. The ambiguous presentation of asymptomatic lesions may result in various diagnoses including dermatologic causes. Early diagnosis is essential in such cases.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old woman with no risk factors for developing breast cancer at a young age was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast after dermatologic complaints of diffuse lesions on the left-back and right subclavian region. The patient remained asymptomatic except for the recent cutaneous presentation, which did not arouse much suspicion.

CONCLUSION: Cutaneous metastases of breast cancer remain uncommon, but at the same time represent a poor prognosis for the patient, and when they do occur, treatment options are limited. The delay in taking the proper diagnostic measures in such cases imposes a need to adopt a wider perspective when dealing with the possible occurrence of advanced disease. This also adds up to the importance of breast self-examination by women at a young age and full examination by physicians, especially when they encounter a misguiding presentation.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Singh S, Singh AL, Pal KK, et al (2023)

Accumulation of resveratrol, ferulic acid and iron in seeds confer iron deficiency chlorosis tolerance to a novel genetic stock of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) grown in calcareous soils.

Physiology and molecular biology of plants : an international journal of functional plant biology, 29(5):725-737.

UNLABELLED: Peanut is mostly grown in calcareous soils with high pH which are deficient in available iron (Fe[2+]) for plant uptake causing iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC). The most pertinent solution is to identify efficient genotypes showing tolerance to limited Fe availability in the soil. A field screening of 40 advanced breeding lines of peanut using NRCG 7472 and ICGV 86031 as IDC susceptible and tolerant checks, respectively, was envisaged for four years. PBS 22040 and 29,192 exhibited maximum tolerance while PBS 12215 and 12,185 were most susceptible. PBS 22040 accumulated maximum seed resveratrol (5.8 ± 0.08 ppm), ferulic acid (378.6 ± 0.31 ppm) and Fe (45.59 ± 0.41 ppm) content. Enhanced chlorophyll retention (8.72-9.50 µg ml[-1]), carotenoid accumulation (1.96-2.08 µg ml[-1]), and antioxidant enzyme activity (APX: 35.9-103.9%; POX: 51- 145%) reduced the MDA accumulation (5.61-9.11 µM cm[-1]) in tolerant lines. The overexpression of Fe transporters IRT1, ZIP5, YSL3 was recorded to the tune of 2.3-9.54; 1.45-3.7; 2.20-2.32- folds respectively in PBS 22040 and 29,192, over NRCG 7472. PBS 22040 recorded the maximum pod yield (282 ± 4.6 g/row), hundred kernel weight (55 ± 0.7 g) and number of pods per three plants (54 ± 1.7). The study thus reports new insights into the roles of resveratrol, ferulic acid and differential antioxidant enzyme activities in imparting IDC tolerance. PBS 22040, being the best performing line, can be the potent source of IDC tolerance for introgression in high yielding but susceptible genotypes under similar edaphic conditions.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-023-01321-9.

RevDate: 2023-07-01

Wani K, Patel K, V Dabak (2023)

Hepatotoxicity After CDK 4/6 Inhibitor Initiation in the Treatment of Hormone-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Cureus, 15(6):e40871.

Cancer cells proliferate using various mechanisms. One mechanism of preventing tumor cell growth is blockade of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 axis. Multiple CDK 4/6 inhibitors - ribociclib, palbociclib, and abemaciclib - have significantly improved progression-free survival rates. However, they can cause hepatotoxicity. We present a case of a 67-year-old female who was diagnosed with stage 1C invasive ductal carcinoma. She was treated with letrozole and ribociclib due to recurrence as metastatic disease, but within 10 days, she developed transaminitis. She then started palbociclib but experienced elevated transaminases within two weeks, needing discontinuation of palbociclib. Subsequent positron-emission tomography/computed tomography imaging showed disease progression, and she was started on fulvestrant. We considered adding abemaciclib, but the patient declined and has had stable disease for more than a year on fulvestrant. CDK 4/6 inhibitors are used to treat metastatic breast cancer and are generally well tolerated. The most common side effect is neutropenia; however, our patient developed transaminitis. The novelty of our case is the development of hepatotoxicity even after the introduction of another CDK 4/6 inhibitor, indicating at least some degree of class effect. In summary, CDK 4/6 inhibitors have significantly improved outcomes in hormone-positive metastatic breast cancers. However, a small percentage suffer from hepatic injury enough to warrant discontinuation of the drug, and we must continue to assess the risk versus benefit profile when offering them to our patients.

RevDate: 2023-06-19

Jain AK (2023)

Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Response Evaluation to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy by Clinico-Histopathological Parameters and Molecular Imaging.

Indian journal of surgical oncology, 14(2):279-287.

In India, breast cancer (BC) is not only the commonest cancer but also the commonest cause of cancer mortality among females. Advanced BC constitutes >70% of BC cases at initial presentation in India, among which locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) requires a multi-disciplinary approach with a combination of systemic and locoregional therapies. This descriptive hospital-based study was conducted over 1½ years after seeking approval from the institutional ethics committee. Fifty-five patients satisfying all the criteria of the study were enrolled. The data, thus, collected was pooled into Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. Most of the patients were postmenopausal, multiparous with breast lump being the commonest symptom. Mean baseline characteristics were age - 48 years, SUV max - 9.2, and Ki-67 - 17.8%. cT4 and cN2 were the commonest pre-NACT tumor and lymph node stage. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the commonest tumor type with the most common tumor grade being grade 3. Hormone receptor positivity and HER2 overexpression were seen in 33 and 17 patients respectively. Post-NACT 32 patients underwent breast-conserving surgery. Pathological complete response (pCR), i.e., ypT0N0, was seen in 13 patients (23.6%). There was slight alteration in hormone receptor status, HER2 expression and Ki-67 in the post-NACT resected tumor. pCR, which is a surrogate marker for improved clinical outcome (DFS and OS) in LABC patients, occurred more commonly in patients with pre-NACT grade 3 tumors, high Ki-67, hormone receptor-negative, and HER2 overexpressing BC (overall, in triple negative BC) but was statistically significant only with Ki-67. Post-NACT, SUV max with a cut off ≤1.5, and ΔSUV max of >80% correlated closely with pCR.

RevDate: 2023-07-19
CmpDate: 2023-07-18

Nieborak A, Lukauskas S, Capellades J, et al (2023)

Depletion of pyruvate kinase (PK) activity causes glycolytic intermediate imbalances and reveals a PK-TXNIP regulatory axis.

Molecular metabolism, 74:101748.

OBJECTIVE: Cancer cells convert more glucose into lactate than healthy cells, what contributes to their growth advantage. Pyruvate kinase (PK) is a key rate limiting enzyme in this process, what makes it a promising potential therapeutic target. However, currently it is still unclear what consequences the inhibition of PK has on cellular processes. Here, we systematically investigate the consequences of PK depletion for gene expression, histone modifications and metabolism.

METHODS: Epigenetic, transcriptional and metabolic targets were analysed in different cellular and animal models with stable knockdown or knockout of PK.

RESULTS: Depleting PK activity reduces the glycolytic flux and causes accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). Such metabolic perturbation results in stimulation of the activity of a heterodimeric pair of transcription factors MondoA and MLX but not in a major reprogramming of the global H3K9ac and H3K4me3 histone modification landscape. The MondoA:MLX heterodimer upregulates expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) - a tumour suppressor with multifaceted anticancer activity. This effect of TXNIP upregulation extends beyond immortalised cancer cell lines and is applicable to multiple cellular and animal models.

CONCLUSIONS: Our work shows that actions of often pro-tumorigenic PK and anti-tumorigenic TXNIP are tightly linked via a glycolytic intermediate. We suggest that PK depletion stimulates the activity of MondoA:MLX transcription factor heterodimers and subsequently, increases cellular TXNIP levels. TXNIP-mediated inhibition of thioredoxin (TXN) can reduce the ability of cells to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to the oxidative damage of cellular structures including DNA. These findings highlight an important regulatory axis affecting tumour suppression mechanisms and provide an attractive opportunity for combination cancer therapies targeting glycolytic activity and ROS-generating pathways.

RevDate: 2023-06-08
CmpDate: 2023-06-08

Bukamal Z, A AlRayes (2023)

Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations Among High-risk Bahraini Patients with Breast Cancer.

The Gulf journal of oncology, 1(42):22-25.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose is to study the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in high-risk Bahraini patients diagnosed with breast cancer, its relation to family history, and to determine the clinicopathologic features of breast cancer associated with these genetic mutations, over a period of 7 years.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer occurring in women and the second most common type generally. Approximately 12% of women worldwide will develop carcinoma of the breast sometime during their life. Additionally, 72% of women with an inherited BRCA1 mutation and 69% of those with a mutated BRCA2 will develop breast cancer by 80 years of age. The incidence of breast cancer in Bahraini women have increased over the last decade. Still, the data on BRCA1 & BRCA2 mutations in relation to breast cancer patients is limited in the Arab region, not omitting Bahrain as a country with deficient BRCA prevalence data.

METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out in Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain, to determine the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and to observe the breast cancer's histopathologic features that are associated with these mutations.

RESULTS: 271 patients underwent the BRCA gene testing between 2013 and 2019. Out of 271 patients, 35 were excluded. Out of the 236 breast cancer patients, 219 (93%) did not have the mutation. The BRCA gene was carried by a total of 17 (7%) patients; 13 (5%) BRCA1 and 4 (2%) BRCA2. Thirteen BRCA carrier patients had invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) (76%), 2 had ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (12%), while 2 patients' histopathology was not available. Molecular subtypes showed 4 triple negative basal sub-type (TNBC), 10 positive ER and PR hormonal status, 1 positive HER-2, while 2 patients' hormonal receptor status was not available. Two BRCA1 carriers had both breast and ovarian cancers. A total of 5 (2%) breast cancer male patients were among the tested population, out of which, 1 (0.4% of the total and 20% of the male patients) was a BRCA2 carrier. Out of the 236 patients, 76 (32%) were younger than 40 years of age at the time of diagnosis. Then again, out of the 17 BRCA carrier patients, 7 (41%) were younger than 40 years.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of BRCA mutation in high risk Bahraini breast cancer patients is 7%. Among those patients, BRCA1 mutation is the most prevalent (5%) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common histopathological subtype. However, there was not enough data to conclude the most prevalent molecular subtype of breast cancer in BRCA carriers due to deficiency of overseas pathology reports for patients operated outside Bahrain. When developing treatment plans for younger patients with breast cancer, inherited syndromes and precisely BRCA mutations need to be considered. Bahrain is implementing genetic testing for breast cancer patients ≤ 50 years of age since 2018, according to NCCN guidelines. We will continue to build our database to better characterize breast cancer subtypes and determine their hereditary pattern for identification of high risk families in Bahrain and for future development of more specific therapeutic approaches.

KEY WORDS: Breast cancer, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRCA mutation, Bahrain, Arab region.

RevDate: 2023-06-04
CmpDate: 2023-06-04

Kender Z, von Rauchhaupt E, Schwarz D, et al (2023)

Six-month periodic fasting does not affect somatosensory nerve function in type 2 diabetes patients.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1143799.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Current strategies for preventing diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) are limited mainly to glucose control but rapid decrease of glycemia can lead to acute onset or worsening of DSPN. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of periodic fasting on somatosensory nerve function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Somatosensory nerve function was assessed in thirty-one patients with T2D (HbA1c 7.8 ± 1.3% [61.4 ± 14.3 mmol/mol]) before and after a six-month fasting-mimicking diet (FMD; n=14) or a control Mediterranean diet (M-diet; n=17). Neuropathy disability score (NDS), neuropathy symptoms score (NSS), nerve conduction velocity and quantitative sensory testing (QST) were analyzed. 6 participants of the M-Diet group and 7 of the FMD group underwent diffusion-weighted high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of the right leg before and after the diet intervention.

RESULTS: Clinical neuropathy scores did not differ between study groups at baseline (64% in the M-Diet group and 47% in the FMD group had DSPN) and no change was found after intervention. The differences in sensory NCV and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of sural nerve were comparable between study groups. Motor NCV of tibial nerve decreased by 12% in the M-Diet group (P=0.04), but did not change in the FMD group (P=0.39). Compound motor action potential (CMAP) of tibial nerve did not change in M-Diet group (P=0.8) and increased in the FMD group by 18% (P=0.02). Motor NCV and CMAP of peroneal nerve remained unchanged in both groups. In QST M-diet-group showed a decrease by 45% in heat pain threshold (P=0.02), FMD group showed no change (P=0.50). Changes in thermal detection, mechanical detection and mechanical pain did not differ between groups. MRN analysis showed stable fascicular nerve lesions irrespective of the degree of structural pathology. Fractional anisotropy and T2-time did not change in both study groups, while a correlation with the clinical degree of DSPN could be confirmed for both.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that six-month periodic fasting was safe in preserving nerve function and had no detrimental effects on somatosensory nerve function in T2D patients.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://drks.de/search/en/trial/DRKS00014287, identifier DRKS00014287.

RevDate: 2023-08-07
CmpDate: 2023-08-07

Abdollahi E, Mozdarani H, BZ Alizadeh (2023)

Role of circ-FOXO3 and miR-23a in radiosensitivity of breast cancer.

Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan), 30(5):714-726.

Identifying the radiosensitivity of cells before radiotherapy (RT) in breast cancer (BC) patients allows appropriate switching between routinely used treatment regimens and reduces adverse side effects in exposed patients. In this study, blood was collected from 60 women diagnosed with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) BC and 20 healthy women. To predict cellular radiosensitivity, a standard G2-chromosomal assay was performed. From these 60 samples, 20 BC patients were found to be radiosensitive based on the G2 assay. Therefore, molecular studies were finally performed on two equal groups (20 samples each) of patients with and without cellular radiosensitivity. QPCR was performed to examine the expression levels of circ-FOXO3 and miR-23a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RNA sensitivity and specificity were determined by plotting Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify RNA involvement in BC and cellular radiosensitivity (CR) in BC patients. Meanwhile, qPCR was used to compare differential RNA expression in the radiosensitive MCF-7 and radioresistant MDA-MB-231 cell lines. An annexin -V FITC/PI binding assay was used to measure cell apoptosis 24 and 48 h after 2 Gy, 4 Gy, and 8 Gy gamma-irradiation. Results indicated that circ-FOXO3 was downregulated and miR-23a was upregulated in BC patients. RNA expression levels were directly associated with CR. Cell line results showed that circ-FOXO3 overexpression induced apoptosis in the MCF-7 cell line and miR-23a overexpression inhibited apoptosis in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. Evaluation of the ROC curves revealed that both RNAs had acceptable specificity and sensitivity in predicting CR in BC patients. Binary logistic regression showed that both RNAs were also successful in predicting breast cancer. Although only circ-FOXO3 has been shown to predict CR in BC patients, circ-FOXO3 may function as a tumor suppressor and miR-23a may function as oncomiR in BC. Circ-FOXO3 and miR-23a may be promising potential biomarkers for BC prediction. Furthermore, Circ-FOXO3 could be a potential biomarker for predicting CR in BC patients.

RevDate: 2023-06-25
CmpDate: 2023-06-25

Shawky A, Sabit H, Nazih M, et al (2023)

CYP2C19 Polymorphism in Ischemic Heart Disease Patients Taking Clopidogrel After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Egypt.

Journal of epidemiology and global health, 13(2):374-383.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered a leading cause of death worldwide. Allelic variation in the CYP2C19 gene leads to a dysfunctional enzyme, and patients with this loss-of-function allele will have an impaired clopidogrel metabolism, which eventually results in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Ischemic heart disease patients (n = 102) who underwent percutaneous cardiac intervention (PCI) followed by clopidogrel were enrolled in the present study.

METHODS: The genetic variations in the CYP2C19 gene were identified using the TaqMan chemistry-based qPCR technique. Patients were followed up for 1 year to monitor MACE, and the correlations between the allelic variations in CYP2C19 and MACE were recorded.

RESULTS: During the follow-up, we reported 64 patients without MACE (29 with unstable angina (UA), 8 with myocadiac infarction (MI), 1 patient with non-STEMI, and 1 patient with ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC)). Genotyping of CYP2C19 in the patients who underwent PCI and were treated with clopidogrel revealed that 50 patients (49%) were normal metabolizers for clopidogrel with genotype CYP2C19*1/*1 and 52 patients (51%) were abnormal metabolizers, with genotypes CYP2C19*1/*2 (n = 15), CYP2C19*1/*3 (n = 1), CYP2C19*1/*17 (n = 35), and CYP2C19*2/*17 (n = 1). Demographic data indicated that age and residency were significantly associated with abnormal clopidogrel metabolism. Moreover, diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with the abnormal metabolism of clopidogrel. These data shed light on the inter-ethnic variation in metabolizing clopidogrel based on the CYP2C19 allelic distribution.

CONCLUSION: This study, along with other studies that address genotype variation of clopidogrel-metabolizing enzymes, might pave the way for further understanding of the pharmacogenetic background of CVD-related drugs.

RevDate: 2023-06-19

Mekni K, Mejri O, Ayadi A, et al (2023)

Unexpected association between breast cancer and molar pregnancy in a 52-year-old woman: A case report.

International journal of surgery case reports, 107:108253.

INTRODUCTION: There was no prior discussion about the association between breast cancer and molar pregnancy, particularly at an advanced age. Through our case and a systematic review, we will discuss the relevance of ovarian castration in hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.

CASE PRESENTATION: We reported the case of a 52-year-old woman, not yet menopausal, who was diagnosed with a right breast tumor classified as BI-RADS category 4. The anatomopathological analysis of mammary biopsy revealed an invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (grade 2). Hormone receptors were positive. It was a HER2-negative Breast cancer. It was then decided to treat the patient with radical surgery followed by chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonotherapy. The patient had a "Patey operation". The postoperative course was without significant complications. No medical or surgical castration was indicated in the expectation that chemotherapy would cause ovarian failure. Unlikely, during chemotherapy course our patient developed a molar pregnancy.

CLINICAL DISCUSSION: Our case illustrates the possibility of pregnancy in non-menopausal women with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. The combination of tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors with ovarian suppression as standard adjuvant therapy may be recommended in such cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian function suppression in non-menopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer seems to be necessary. So that, we can avoid unexpected manifestations like molar pregnancy.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Koçberber Z, Willemsen N, A Bartelt (2023)

The role of proteasome activators PA28αβ and PA200 in brown adipocyte differentiation and function.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1176733.

INTRODUCTION: Brown adipocytes produce heat through non shivering thermogenesis (NST). To adapt to temperature cues, they possess a remarkably dynamic metabolism and undergo substantial cellular remodeling. The proteasome plays a central role in proteostasis and adaptive proteasome activity is required for sustained NST. Proteasome activators (PAs) are a class of proteasome regulators but the role of PAs in brown adipocytes is unknown. Here, we studied the roles of PA28α (encoded by Psme1) and PA200 (encoded by Psme4) in brown adipocyte differentiation and function.

METHODS: We measured gene expression in mouse brown adipose tissue. In cultured brown adipocytes, we silenced Psme1 and/or Psme4 expression through siRNA transfection. We then assessed impact on the ubiquitin proteasome system, brown adipocyte differentiation and function.

RESULTS: We found that Psme1 and Psme4 are expressed in brown adipocytes in vivo and in vitro. Through silencing of Psme1 and/or Psme4 expression in cultured brown adipocytes, we found that loss of PAs did not impair proteasome assembly or activity, and that PAs were not required for proteostasis in this model. Loss of Psme1 and/or Psme4 did not impair brown adipocyte development or activation, suggesting that PAs are neither required for brown adipogenesis nor NST.

DISCUSSION: In summary, we found no role for Psme1 and Psme4 in brown adipocyte proteostasis, differentiation, or function. These findings contribute to our basic understanding of proteasome biology and the roles of proteasome activators in brown adipocytes.

RevDate: 2023-06-05
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Amer NN, Khairat R, Hammad AM, et al (2023)

DDX43 mRNA expression and protein levels in relation to clinicopathological profile of breast cancer.

PloS one, 18(5):e0284455.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most often diagnosed cancer in women globally. Cancer cells appear to rely heavily on RNA helicases. DDX43 is one of DEAD- box RNA helicase family members. But, the relationship between clinicopathological, prognostic significance in different BC subtypes and DDX43 expression remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the clinicopathological significance of DDX43 protein and mRNA expression in different BC subtypes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 80 females newly diagnosed with BC and 20 control females that were age-matched were recruited for this study. DDX43 protein levels were measured by ELISA technique. We used a real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification (real-time PCR) to measure the levels of DDX43 mRNA expression. Levels of DDX43 protein and mRNA expression within BC patients had been compared to those of control subjects and correlated with clinicopathological data.

RESULTS: The mean normalized serum levels of DDX43 protein were slightly higher in control than in both benign and malignant groups, but this result was non-significant. The mean normalized level of DDX43 mRNA expression was higher in the control than in both benign and malignant cases, although the results were not statistically significant and marginally significant, respectively. Moreover, the mean normalized level of DDX43 mRNA expression was significantly higher in benign than in malignant cases. In malignant cases, low DDX43 protein expression was linked to higher nuclear grade and invasive duct carcinoma (IDC), whereas high mRNA expression was linked to the aggressive types of breast cancer such as TNBC, higher tumor and nuclear grades.

CONCLUSION: This study explored the potential of using blood DDX43 mRNA expression or protein levels, or both in clinical settings as a marker of disease progression in human breast cancer. DDX43 mRNA expression proposes a less invasive method for discriminating benign from malignant BC.

RevDate: 2023-07-31

Murata S, Yamashita H, Kido S, et al (2023)


Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 60(1):130-136.

Background : Nutritional management is crucial for severely ill patients. Measuring metabolism is believed to be necessary for the acute sepsis phase to accurately estimate nutrition. Indirect calorimetry (IDC) is assumed to be useful for acute intensive care; however, there are few studies on long-term IDC measurement in patients with systemic inflammation. Methods : Rats were categorized into the LPS received or control groups; LPS rats were categorized into underfeeding (UF), adjusted feeding (AF), and overfeeding (OF) groups. Indirect calorimetry measurement was performed until 72 or 144 h. Body composition was measured at -24 and 72 or 144 h, and tissue weight was measured at 72 or 144 h. Results : Low energy consumption and loss of diurnal variation of resting energy expenditure were observed in the LPS group compared with the control group until 72 h, after which the LPS group recovered. The resting energy expenditure in the OF group was higher than that in the UF and AF groups. In the first phase, low energy consumption was observed in all groups. In the second and third phases, higher energy consumption occurred in the OF group than in the UF and AF groups. In the third phase, diurnal variation recovered in all groups. Muscle atrophy caused body weight loss, but fat tissue loss did not occur. Conclusions : We observed metabolic changes with IDC during the acute systemic inflammation phase owing to differences in calorie intake. This is the first report of long-term IDC measurement using the LPS-induced systemic inflammation rat model.

RevDate: 2023-07-06
CmpDate: 2023-07-06

Wei S, Bao M, Zhu Y, et al (2023)

Identifying potential targets for lung cancer intervention by analyzing the crosstalk of cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune and metabolism microenvironment.

Environmental toxicology, 38(8):1951-1967.

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been reported to play a crucial role in the tumor microenvironment and progression.

METHODS: The data used in this study were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus databases, and all analyses were performed using R software.

RESULTS: We first quantified the CAFs infiltration through single sample gene set enrichment analysis in the TCGA and combined GEO cohort (GSE30219, GSE37745, and GSE50081). Our result showed that patients with high levels of CAF infiltration were associated with worse clinical features and poor prognosis. Immune microenvironment analysis indicated that high CAF infiltration might result in increased infiltration of immune cells, including aDC, B cells, CD8+ T cells, cytotoxic cells, DC, eosinophils, iDC, macrophages, mast cells, neutrophils, NK CD56dim cells, NK cells, pDC, and T cells. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between CAFs and M2 macrophages, while a negative correlation was found between CAFs and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that glycerophospholipid metabolism was a protective factor against lung cancer. Biological enrichment analysis showed that pathways such as allograft rejection, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, KRAS signaling, TNF-α signaling, myogenesis, IL6/JAK/STAT3 signaling, IL2/STAT5 signaling were upregulated in the patients with high CAF infiltration. Moreover, patients with high CAF infiltration had a lower proportion of immunotherapy responders. Genome analysis showed that low CAFs infiltration was associated with high genome instability. We identified FGF5 and CELF3 as key genes involved in the interaction between CAFs, M2 macrophages, and glycerophospholipid metabolism, and further analyzed FGF5. In vitro experiments showed that FGF5 promoted the proliferation, invasion and migration of lung cancer cells and was primarily localized in the nucleoli fibrillar center.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel insights into the roles of CAFs in lung cancer progression and the underlying crosstalk of tumor metabolism and immune microenvironment.

RevDate: 2023-05-12

Antón Rodriguez Á, Odriozola Herrán A, Echavarría Rodríguez VJ, et al (2023)

Secondary sclerosing cholangitis induced by systemic chemotherapy.

Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas [Epub ahead of print].

There are multiple causes of secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC), including mechanical obstruction, ischemia, congenital abnormalities, cholangiopathy of the critically ill patient and, rarely, chemotherapy (1,2). We present the case of a 52-year-old woman with a history of left breast invasive ductal carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (adriamycin, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel), surgery and radiotherapy in March 2021. She was admitted in July 2022 for painless jaundice and pruritus with marked serum cholestasis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed multiple strictures and dilatations involving the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts (Figure 1.A), without any extrinsic stenotic cause. Findings were confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with cholangioscopy (Figure 1.B). Biopsies were negative for malignancy and IgG4 disease. In addition, autoantibodies were negative and serum IgG4 levels were normal. Because of these findings and the history of recent chemotherapy, the patient was diagnosed with paclitaxel-induced sclerosing cholangitis, initiating treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Over the following two months, she suffered two episodes of Klebsiella Pneumoniae bacteraemia due to acute cholangitis. Dilatation and placement of plastic stents in both biliary trees were performed and prophylactic antibiotherapy was started. The patient had a poor evolution, she was not candidate to liver transplantation on account of recent neoplasia. She died six months later due to sepsis secondary to multiple hepatic abscesses.

RevDate: 2023-05-11
CmpDate: 2023-05-08

Cipolletti M, Leone S, Bartoloni S, et al (2023)

A functional genetic screen for metabolic proteins unveils GART and the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway as novel targets for the treatment of luminal A ERα expressing primary and metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1129162.

Targeting tumor cell metabolism is a new frontier in cancer management. Thus, metabolic pathway inhibitors could be used as anti-estrogen receptor α (ERα) breast cancer (BC) drugs. Here, the interplay among metabolic enzyme(s), the ERα levels and cell proliferation was studied. siRNA-based screen directed against different metabolic proteins in MCF10a, MCF-7 and MCF-7 cells genetically resistant to endocrine therapy (ET) drugs and metabolomic analyses in numerous BC cell lines unveil that the inhibition of GART, a key enzyme in the purine de novo biosynthetic pathway, induces ERα degradation and prevent BC cell proliferation. We report here that a reduced GART expression correlates with a longer relapse-free-survival (RFS) in women with ERα-positive BCs. ERα-expressing luminal A invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) are sensitive to GART inhibition and GART expression is increased in receptor-positive IDCs of high grade and stage and plays a role in the development of ET resistance. Accordingly, GART inhibition reduces ERα stability and cell proliferation in IDC luminal A cells where it deregulates 17β-estradiol (E2):ERα signaling to cell proliferation. Moreover, the GART inhibitor lometrexol (LMX) and drugs approved for clinical treatment of primary and metastatic BC (4OH-tamoxifen and the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors) exert synergic antiproliferative effects in BC cells. In conclusion, GART inhibition by LMX or other inhibitors of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway could be a novel effective strategy for the treatment of primary and metastatic BCs.

RevDate: 2023-07-18
CmpDate: 2023-07-07

Ikegami M (2023)

Prognostic benefit of comprehensive genomic profiling in clinical practice remains uncertain.

Cancer science, 114(7):3053-3055.

The overall survival of patients who received genomically matched therapy was not significantly longer than that of patients receiving treatment only other than genomically matched therapy in the breast invasive ductal carcinoma (A), colorectal adenocarcinoma (B), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (C) cohorts.

RevDate: 2023-04-28

Xiang S, Wei M, Zhao L, et al (2023)

Integrated Analyses of the Expression and Prognostic Value of EPHB6 in Cervical Cancer and Its Correlation with Immune Infiltrates.

Journal of oncology, 2023:2258906.

Among women, cervical cancer (CC) ranks as the third most frequent form of carcinoma and the fourth greatest cancer-related cause of deaths. There is increasing evidence that points to the dysregulation of EPH receptor B6 (EPHB6) in various cancers. On the other hand, neither the expression nor the function of EPHB6 in CC has been researched. In the first part of this investigation, we analyzed the data from the TCGA and discovered that the level of EPHB6 was much lower in CC tissues than in normal cervical tissues. ROC assays revealed that high EPHB6 expression had an AUC value of 0.835 for CC. The survival study revealed that both the overall and disease-specific survivals in this condition were considerably lower among patients who had a low EPHB6 level compared to those who had a high EPHB6 level. It is important to note that the multivariate COX regression analysis indicated that the expression of EPHB6 was an independent predictive factor. In addition to this, the C-indexes and calibration plots of a nomogram derived from multivariate assays revealed an accurate prediction performance among patients with CC. Immune infiltration analysis indicated that the expression of EPHB6 was positively associated with the levels of Tcm, TReg, B cells, T cells, iDC, T helper cells, cytotoxic cells, and DC, while negatively associated with NK CD56bright cells and neutrophils. In summary, the downregulation of EPHB6 was strongly linked to a more aggressive clinical development of CC, suggesting its potential utility as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in CC.

RevDate: 2023-04-26

Norooznezhad AH, Yarani R, Payandeh M, et al (2023)

Treatment of persistent chemotherapy-induced hair loss (Alopecia) with human mesenchymal stromal cells exosome enriched extracellular vesicles: A case report.

Heliyon, 9(4):e15165.

INTRODUCTION: Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide and affects a considerable number of individuals. Chemotherapy is one the most common treatment for this condition and hair loss is among one of the most prevalent side effects. In this study, we report successful treatment of a patient suffering from persistent chemotherapy-induced alopecia (PCIA) with extracellular enriched vesicles (EVs) derived from human placental mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).

CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 36-year-old woman with a history of invasive ductal carcinoma, underwent six courses of chemotherapy with paclitaxel and adriamycin. Following this treatment and for almost 18 months, she, unfortunately, had no regrowth of hair except some light vellus hairs on the scalp. She then received MSC-derived EVs with scalp injection (subcutaneous) every 4 weeks for 3 continuous months at which point she presented complete regrowth of terminal hair on her scalp.

CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates that MSC-derived EVs could be a possible treatment for permanent chemotherapy-induced alopecia; however, further studies and trials are necessary.

RevDate: 2023-06-28
CmpDate: 2023-06-27

Chovsepian A, Prokopchuk O, Petrova G, et al (2023)

Diabetes increases mortality in patients with pancreatic and colorectal cancer by promoting cachexia and its associated inflammatory status.

Molecular metabolism, 73:101729.

OBJECTIVES: Cancer is considered an emerging diabetes complication, with higher incidence and worse prognosis in patients with diabetes. Cancer is frequently associated with cachexia, a systemic metabolic disease causing wasting. It is currently unclear how diabetes affects the development and progression of cachexia.

METHODS: We investigated the interplay between diabetes and cancer cachexia retrospectively in a cohort of 345 patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancer. We recorded body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, clinical serum values, and survival of these patients. Patients were grouped either into diabetic/non-diabetic groups based on previous diagnosis, or into obese/non-obese groups based on body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m[2] was considered obese).

RESULTS: The pre-existence of type 2 diabetes, but not obesity, in patients with cancer led to increased cachexia incidence (80%, compared to 61% without diabetes, p ≤ 0.05), higher weight loss (8.9% vs. 6.0%, p ≤ 0.001), and reduced survival probability (median survival days: 689 vs. 538, Chi square = 4.96, p ≤ 0.05) irrespective of the initial body weight or tumor progression. Patients with diabetes and cancer showed higher serum levels of C-reactive protein (0.919 μg/mL vs. 0.551 μg/mL, p ≤ 0.01) and interleukin 6 (5.98 pg/mL vs. 3.75 pg/mL, p ≤ 0.05) as well as lower serum albumin levels (3.98 g/dL vs. 4.18 g/dL, p ≤ 0.05) than patients with cancer without diabetes. In a sub-analysis of patients with pancreatic cancer, pre-existing diabetes worsened weight loss (9.95% vs. 6.93%, p ≤ 0.01), and increased the duration of hospitalization (24.41 days vs. 15.85 days, p ≤ 0.001). Further, diabetes aggravated clinical manifestations of cachexia, as changes in the aforementioned biomarkers were more pronounced in patients with diabetes and cachexia co-existence, compared to cachectic patients without diabetes (C-reactive protein: 2.300 μg/mL vs. 0.571 μg/mL, p ≤ 0.0001; hemoglobin: 11.24 g/dL vs. 12.52 g/dL, p ≤ 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that pre-existing diabetes aggravates cachexia development in patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancer. This is important when considering cachexia biomarkers and weight management in patients with co-existing diabetes and cancer.

RevDate: 2023-04-25

Zhou D, Li M, Yasin MH, et al (2023)

The prognostic value and immune microenvironment association of AR in HER2+ nonmetastatic breast cancer.

NPJ breast cancer, 9(1):30.

This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of AR in HER2+ nonmetastatic breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and its relationship with the immune microenvironment. HER2+ nonmetastatic breast IDC patients diagnosed by pathology who underwent surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from 2016 to 2017 were included. AR+ and AR- breast IDC samples were matched 1:1 in age, T stage, and N stage for immune infiltration analysis. A total of 554 patients with HER2+ nonmetastatic breast cancer were included in this retrospective study, regardless of HR status. The cut-off value for AR was set at 10%. ER+ (p < 0.001) and PR+ (p < 0.001) were associated with positive AR expression. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis suggested that AR was closely correlated with overall survival (OS) (p = 0.001) but not disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.051). After eliminating the potential impact caused by HR, AR also predicted longer OS (p = 0.014) and was an independent predictive factor for OS of HER2+HR- nonmetastatic breast IDC patients, as revealed by multivariate analysis (p = 0.036). For AR+ and AR- matched HER2+HR- patients, TILs (p = 0.043) and PD-L1 (p = 0.027) levels were significantly lower in AR+ patients. The strongest negative correlation was observed between AR and PD-L1 (Pearson's r = -0.299, p = 0.001). AR+ status was markedly related to better OS in HER2+HR- nonmetastatic breast cancer patients, while a negative correlation was observed between AR and PD-L1/TILs. We provide new insights into the prognostic value of AR and its association with the immune microenvironment to optimize treatment strategies in HER2+ nonmetastatic breast IDCs.

RevDate: 2023-05-08
CmpDate: 2023-05-08

van Balkom IDC, Burdeus-Olavarrieta M, Cooke J, et al (2023)

Consensus recommendations on mental health issues in Phelan-McDermid syndrome.

European journal of medical genetics, 66(6):104770.

Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a rare genetic condition caused by a deletion encompassing the 22q13.3 region or a pathogenic variant of the gene SHANK3. The clinical presentation is variable, but main characteristics include global developmental delay/intellectual disability (ID), marked speech impairment or delay, along with other features like hypotonia and somatic or psychiatric comorbidities. This publication delineates mental health, developmental and behavioural themes across the lifetime of individuals with PMS as informed by parents/caregivers, experts, and other key professionals involved in PMS care. We put forward several recommendations based on the available literature concerning mental health and behaviour in PMS. Additionally, this article aims to improve our awareness of the importance of considering developmental level of the individual with PMS when assessing mental health and behavioural issues. Understanding how the discrepancy between developmental level and chronological age may impact concerning behaviours offers insight into the meaning of those behaviours and informs care for individuals with PMS, enabling clinicians to address unmet (mental health) care needs and improve quality of life.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Bilici A, Olmez OF, Kaplan MA, et al (2023)

Impact of adding pertuzumab to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy in neoadjuvant treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer patients: a multicenter real-life HER2PATH study.

Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden), 62(4):381-390.

AIM: To investigate the pathological complete response (pCR) achieved after neoadjuvant therapy with versus without adding pertuzumab (P) to trastuzumab (H) plus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in HER2+ breast cancer (BC) patients in a real-life setting.

METHODS: A total of 1528 female HER2+ BC patients who received NCT plus H with or without P were included in this retrospective real-life study. Primary endpoint was pCR rate (ypT0/Tis ypN0). Clinicopathological characteristics, event-free survival (EFS) time, and relapse rates were evaluated with respect to HER2 blockade (NCT-H vs. NCT-HP) and pCR.

RESULTS: Overall, 62.2% of patients received NCT-H and 37.8% received NCT-HP. NCT-HP was associated with a significantly higher pCR rate (66.4 vs. 56.8%, p < 0.001) and lower relapse (4.5 vs. 12.2%, p < 0.001) in comparison to NCT-H. Patients with pCR had a significantly lower relapse (5.6 vs. 14.9%, p < 0.001) and longer EFS time (mean(SE) 111.2(1.9) vs. 93.9(2.7) months, p < 0.001) compared to patients with non-pCR. Patients in the NCT-HP group were more likely to receive docetaxel (75.0 vs. 40.6%, p < 0.001), while those with pCR were more likely to receive paclitaxel (50.2 vs. 40.7%, p < 0.001) and NCT-HP (41.5 vs. 32.1%, p < 0.001). Hormone receptor status and breast conservation rates were similar in NCT-HP vs. NCT-H groups and in patients with vs. without pCR. Invasive ductal carcinoma (OR, 2.669, 95% CI 1.596 to 4.464, p < 0.001), lower histological grade of the tumor (OR, 4.052, 95% CI 2.446 to 6.713, p < 0.001 for grade 2 and OR, 3.496, 95% CI 2.020 to 6.053, p < 0.001 for grade 3), lower T stage (OR, 1.959, 95% CI 1.411 to 2.720, p < 0.001) and paclitaxel (vs. docetaxel, OR, 1.571, 95% CI 1.127 to 2.190, p = 0.008) significantly predicted the pCR.

CONCLUSIONS: This real-life study indicates that adding P to NCT-H enables higher pCR than NCT-H in HER2+ BC, while pCR was associated with lower relapse and better EFS time.

RevDate: 2023-06-14
CmpDate: 2023-06-06

Hacking SM, Yakirevich E, Y Wang (2023)

Defining triple-negative breast cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation (TNBC-NED).

The journal of pathology. Clinical research, 9(4):313-321.

Primary breast neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms are uncommon, and definitions harbor controversy. We retrospectively collected 73 triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) and evaluated NE biomarker expression along with p53 aberrant staining (which correlates with TP53 gene mutation) and Rb protein loss by immunohistochemistry. In the study cohort, we found 11 (15%) cases of TNBC with neuroendocrine differentiation (TNBC-NED) showing positivity for one or more NE markers (synaptophysin/chromogranin/insulinoma-associated protein 1 [INSM1]). We also identified one separate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Histologic types for these 11 TNBC-NED cases were as follows: 8 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) not otherwise specified (NOS), 2 IDC with apocrine features, 1 IDC with solid papillary features. INSM1 had the highest positivity and was seen in all 11 carcinomas. Seven (64%) cases showed p53 aberrant staining, 6 (55%) had Rb protein loss, while 6 (55%) had p53/Rb co-aberrant staining/protein loss. TNBC-NED was associated with Rb protein loss (p < 0.001), as well as p53/Rb co-aberrant staining/protein loss (p < 0.001). In 61 cases negative for NE markers, 37 (61%) showed p53 aberrant staining, while 5 (8%) had Rb protein loss. We also analyzed genomic and transcriptomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) PanCancer Atlas of 171 basal/TNBC patients. Transcriptomic analysis revealed mRNA expression of RB1 to be correlated negatively with SYN1 mRNA expression (p = 0.0400) and INSM1 mRNA expression (p = 0.0106) in this cohort. We would like to highlight the importance of these findings. TNBC-NED is currently diagnosed as TNBC, and although it overlaps morphologically with TNBC without NED, the unique p53/Rb signature highlights a genetic overlap with NE carcinomas of the breast.

RevDate: 2023-04-21
CmpDate: 2023-04-18

López-Janeiro Á, Rodriguez AM, Mendiola M, et al (2023)

Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with sarcomatous transformation. A case report.

Revista espanola de patologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Anatomia Patologica y de la Sociedad Espanola de Citologia, 56(2):124-128.

Mixed pancreatic epithelial and mesenchymal tumors are rare, usually invasive, entities. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a precursor of invasive ductal carcinoma and shares mutations with its invasive counterparts. We report the case of a 72-year-old female with a previously undescribed sarcomatous transformation of a residual IPMN with no evidence of an invasive component. The mesenchymal component showed no heterologous differentiation. Both the epithelial and the mesenchymal populations showed aberrant expression of p53 protein and the same point mutation in KRAS gene. After a 6 month follow up, there were no signs of local or distant relapse. The present case suggests that sarcomatous transformation is possible in non-invasive, intraductal pancreatic lesions.

RevDate: 2023-05-29
CmpDate: 2023-05-29

Lin Y, Amkul K, Laosatit K, et al (2023)

Fine mapping of QTL conferring resistance to calcareous soil in mungbean reveals VrYSL3 as candidate gene for the resistance.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology, 332:111698.

Iron is a crucial nutrient for biological functions in plants. High-pH and calcareous soil is a major stress causing iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) symptoms and yield losses in crops. Use of calcareous soil-tolerance genetic resources is the most effective preventative method to combat the effects of high-pH and calcareous soils. A previous study using a mungbean recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of the cross Kamphaeg Saen 2 (KPS2; IDC susceptible) × NM-10-12 identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL), qIDC3.1, which controls resistance and explains more than 40% of IDC variation. In this study, we fine-mapped qIDC3.1 and identified an underlying candidate gene. A genome wide association analysis (GWAS) using 162 mungbean accessions identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6; several SNPs were associated with soil plant analysis development (SPAD) values and IDC visual scores of mungbeans planted on calcareous soil, respectively. These SNPs corresponded to qIDC3.1. Using the same RIL population as in the previous study and an advanced backcross population developed from KPS2 and IDC-resistant inbred line RIL82, qIDC3.1 was further confirmed and fine-mapped to an interval of 217 kilobases harboring five predicted genes, including LOC106764181 (VrYSL3), which encodes a yellow stripe1-like-3 (YSL3) protein, YSL3 is involved in iron deficiency resistance. Gene expression analysis revealed that VrYSL3 was highly expressed in mungbean roots. In calcareous soil, expression of VrYSL3 was significantly up-regulated, and it was more obviously upregulated in the roots of RIL82, than in those of KPS2. Sequence comparison of VrYSL3 between the RIL82 and KPS2 revealed four SNPs that result in amino acid changes in the VrYSL3 protein and a 20-bp insertion/deletion in the promoter where a cis-regulatory element resides. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing VrYSL3 showed enhanced iron and zinc contents in the leaves. Taken together, these results indicate that VrYSL3 is a strong candidate gene responsible for calcareous soil resistance in mungbean.

RevDate: 2023-06-23
CmpDate: 2023-06-23

Kawaguchi S, Kinowaki K, Tamura N, et al (2023)

High-accuracy prediction of axillary lymph node metastasis in invasive lobular carcinoma using focal cortical thickening on magnetic resonance imaging.

Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan), 30(4):637-646.

BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) grows diffusely in a single-cell fashion, sometimes presenting only subtle changes in preoperative imaging; therefore, axillary lymph node (ALN) metastases of ILC are difficult to detect using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Preoperative underestimation of nodal burden occurs more frequently in ILC than in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), however, the morphological assessment for metastatic ALNs of ILC have not fully been investigated. We hypothesized that the high false-negative rate in ILC is caused by the discrepancy in the MRI findings of ALN metastases between ILC and IDC and aimed to identify the MRI finding with a strong correlation with ALN metastasis of ILC.

METHOD: This retrospective analysis included 120 female patients (mean ± standard deviation age, 57.2 ± 11.2 years) who underwent upfront surgery for ILC at a single center between April 2011 and June 2022. Of the 120 patients, 35 (29%) had ALN metastasis. Using logistic regression, we constructed prediction models based on MRI findings: primary tumor size, focal cortical thickening (FCT), cortical thickness, long-axis diameter (LAD), and loss of hilum (LOH).

RESULTS: The area under the curves were 0.917 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.869-0.968), 0.827 (95% CI 0.758-0.896), 0.754 (95% CI 0.671-0.837), and 0.621 (95% CI 0.531-0.711) for the FCT, cortical thickness, LAD, and LOH models, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: FCT may be the most relevant MRI finding for ALN metastasis of ILC, and although its prediction model may lead to less underestimation of the nodal burden, rigorous external validation is required.

RevDate: 2023-04-21
CmpDate: 2023-04-21

Zheng L, Wu H, Wen N, et al (2023)

Aptamer-Functionalized Nanovaccines: Targeting In Vivo DC Subsets for Enhanced Antitumor Immunity.

ACS applied materials & interfaces, 15(15):18590-18597.

Cancer vaccines, which directly pulsed in vivo dendritic cells (DCs) with specific antigens and immunostimulatory adjuvants, showed great potential for cancer immunoprevention. However, most of them were limited by suboptimal outcomes, mainly owing to overlooking the complex biology of DC phenotypes. Herein, based on adjuvant-induced antigen assembly, we developed aptamer-functionalized nanovaccines for in vivo DC subset-targeted codelivery of tumor-related antigens and immunostimulatory adjuvants. We chose two aptamers, iDC and CD209, and tested their performance on DC targeting. Our results verified that these aptamer-functionalized nanovaccines could specifically recognize circulating classical DCs (cDCs), a subset of DCs capable of priming naïve T cells, noting that iDC outperformed CD209 in this regard. With excellent cDC-targeting capability, the iDC-functionalized nanovaccine induced potent antitumor immunity, leading to effective inhibition of tumor occurrence and metastasis, thus providing a promising platform for cancer immunoprevention.

RevDate: 2023-05-03
CmpDate: 2023-04-07

Oh J, Oh JM, SY Cho (2023)

METTL3-mediated downregulation of splicing factor SRSF11 is associated with carcinogenesis and poor survival of cancer patients.

European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, 27(6):2561-2570.

OBJECTIVE: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most abundant post-transcriptional modifications in eukaryotic RNA. As m6A modifications play an important role in RNA processing, abnormal m6A regulation caused by aberrant expression of m6A regulators is closely related to carcinogenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of METTL3 expression in carcinogenesis, regulation of splicing factor expression by METTL3, and their effects in survival period and cancer-related metabolisms.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the correlation between each splicing factor and METTL3 in breast invasive ductal carcinoma (BRCA), colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and gastric adenocarcinoma (STAD). Survival analysis was performed based on the expression of each splicing factor. To determine the molecular mechanism of SRSF11 in carcinogenesis, gene set enrichment analysis using RNA sequencing data was performed according to SRSF11 expression.

RESULTS: Among the 64 splicing factors used for correlation analysis, 13 splicing factors showed a positive correlation with METTL3 in all four cancer types. We found that when METTL3 expression was decreased, the expression of SRSF11 was also decreased in all four types of cancer tissue when compared to that in normal tissue. Decreased SRSF11 expression was associated with poor survival in patients with BRCA, COAD, LUAD, and STAD. Gene set enrichment analysis according to SRSF11 expression showed that the p53/apoptosis, inflammation/immune response, and ultraviolet/reactive oxygen species stimulus-response pathways were enriched in cancers with decreased SRSF11 expression.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that METTL3 regulates SRSF11 expression, which could influence mRNA splicing in m6A modified cancer cells. METTL3-mediated downregulation of SRSF11 expression in cancer patients correlates with poor prognosis.

RevDate: 2023-04-10
CmpDate: 2023-04-04

Kender Z, Jende JME, Kurz FT, et al (2023)

Sciatic nerve fractional anisotropy and neurofilament light chain protein are related to sensorimotor deficit of the upper and lower limbs in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1046690.

BACKGROUND: Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) is one of the most prevalent and poorly understood diabetic microvascular complications. Recent studies have found that fractional anisotropy (FA), a marker for microstructural nerve integrity, is a sensitive parameter for the structural and functional nerve damage in DSPN. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of proximal sciatic nerve's FA on different distal nerve fiber deficits of the upper and lower limbs and its correlation with the neuroaxonal biomarker, neurofilament light chain protein (NfL).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 30 healthy controls underwent detailed clinical and electrophysiological assessments, complete quantitative sensory testing (QST), and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance neurography of the sciatic nerve. NfL was measured in the serum of healthy controls and patients with T2DM. Multivariate models were used to adjust for confounders of microvascular damage.

RESULTS: Patients with DSPN showed a 17% lower sciatic microstructural integrity compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). FA correlated with tibial and peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) (r=0.6; p<0.001 and r=0.6; p<0.001) and sural sensory NCV (r=0.50; p<0.001). Participants with reduced sciatic nerve´s FA showed a loss of function of mechanical and thermal sensation of upper (r=0.3; p<0.01 and r=0.3; p<0.01) and lower (r=0.5; p<0.001 and r=0.3; p=<0.01) limbs and reduced functional performance of upper limbs (Purdue Pegboard Test for dominant hand; r=0.4; p<0.001). Increased levels of NfL and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were associated with loss of sciatic nerve´s FA (r=-0.5; p<0.001 and r= -0.3, p= 0.001). Of note, there was no correlation between sciatic FA and neuropathic symptoms or pain.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study showing that microstructural nerve integrity is associated with damage of different nerve fiber types and a neuroaxonal biomarker in DSPN. Furthermore, these findings show that proximal nerve damage is related to distal nerve function even before clinical symptoms occur. The microstructure of the proximal sciatic nerve and is also associated with functional nerve fiber deficits of the upper and lower limbs, suggesting that diabetic neuropathy involves structural changes of peripheral nerves of upper limbs too.

RevDate: 2023-06-26
CmpDate: 2023-04-25

Aiello EN, D'Iorio A, Solca F, et al (2023)

Clinimetrics and feasibility of the Italian version of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) in non-demented Parkinson's disease patients.

Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996), 130(5):687-696.

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the cross-sectional and longitudinal clinimetrics and feasibility of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) in non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients.

METHODS: N = 109 PD patients underwent the FAB and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). A subsample of patients further underwent a thorough motor, functional and behavioral evaluation (the last including measures of anxiety, depression and apathy). A further subsample was administered a second-level cognitive battery tapping on attention, executive functioning, language, memory, praxis and visuo-spatial abilities. The following properties of the FAB were tested: (1) concurrent validity and diagnostics against the MoCA; (2) convergent validity against the second-level cognitive battery; (4) association with motor, functional and behavioral measures; (5) capability to discriminate patients from healthy controls (HCs; N = 96); (6) assessing its test-retest reliability, susceptibility to practice effects and predictive validity against the MoCA, as well as deriving reliable change indices (RCIs) for it, at a ≈ 6-month interval, within a subsample of patients (N = 33).

RESULTS: The FAB predicted MoCA scores at both T0 and T1, converged with the vast majority of second-level cognitive measures and was associated with functional independence and apathy. It accurately identified cognitive impairment (i.e., a below-cut-off MoCA score) in patients, also discriminating patients from HCs. The FAB was reliable at retest and free of practice effects; RCIs were derived according to a standardized regression-based approach.

DISCUSSION: The FAB is a clinimetrically sound and feasible screener for detecting dysexecutive-based cognitive impairment in non-demented PD patients.

RevDate: 2023-03-30
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Cheng X, Jia X, Wang C, et al (2023)

Hyperglycemia induces PFKFB3 overexpression and promotes malignant phenotype of breast cancer through RAS/MAPK activation.

World journal of surgical oncology, 21(1):112.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common tumor in women worldwide. Diabetes mellitus is a global chronic metabolic disease with increasing incidence. Diabetes mellitus has been reported to positively regulate the development of many tumors. However, the specific mechanism of hyperglycemic environment regulating breast cancer remains unclear. PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructose-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase 3) is a key regulatory factor of the glycolysis process in diabetes mellitus, as well as a promoter of breast cancer. So, we want to explore the potential link between PFKFB3 and the poor prognosis of breast cancer patients with hyperglycemia in this study.

METHODS: Cell culture was utilized to construct different-glucose breast cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to analyze the protein level of PFKFB3 in benign breast tissues, invasive ductal carcinoma with diabetes and invasive ductal carcinoma without diabetes. The Kaplan-Meier plotter database and GEO database (GSE61304) was adopted to analyze the survival of breast cancer patients with different PFKFB3 expression. Western blot was adopted to analyze the protein level of PFKFB3, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related protein and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) in breast cancer cells. Gene Set Cancer Analysis (GSCA) was utilized to investigate the potential downstream signaling pathways of PFKFB3. TargetScan and OncomiR were utilized to explore the potential mechanism of PFKFB3 overexpression by hyperglycemia. Transfections (including siRNAs and miRNA transfection premiers) was utilized to restrain or mimic the expression of the corresponding RNA. Cell functional assays (including cell counting, MTT, colony formation, wound-healing, and cell migration assays) were utilized to explore the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells.

RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of PFKFB3 in breast cancer complicated with hyperglycemia was higher than that in breast cancer with euglycemia through cell experiment in vitro and histological experiment. PFKFB3 overexpression decreased the survival period of breast cancer patients and was correlated with a number of clinicopathological parameters of breast cancer complicated with diabetes. PFKFB3 promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer in a hyperglycemic environment and might be regulated by miR-26. In addition, PFKFB3 stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer in a hyperglycemic environment. In terms of downstream mechanism exploration, we predicted and verified the cancer-promoting effect of PFKFB3 in breast cancer complicated with hyperglycemia through RAS/MAPK pathway.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, PFKFB3 could be overexpressed by hyperglycemia and might be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer complicated with diabetes.

RevDate: 2023-03-30
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Tong S, Jiang N, Wan JH, et al (2023)

The effects of the prognostic biomarker SAAL1 on cancer growth and its association with the immune microenvironment in lung adenocarcinoma.

BMC cancer, 23(1):275.

BACKGROUND: Inhibition of Serum Amyloid A-like 1 (SAAL1) expression could inhibit cancer progression and improve the prognosis of cancer patients. At present, the correlation between SAAL1 and lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remains unclear. Therefore, this study surveyed the worth and pathway of SAAL1 in LAC progression and immunity.

METHODS: Bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the SAAL1 expression in LAC. The roles of SAAL1 expression in the existence values of LAC patients were explored, and the nomograms were constructed. Clinical values of SAAL1 co-expressed genes were evaluated by COX regression, survival, and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. EDU and western blotting methods were used to inquiry the functions and pathways of the SAAL1 in cell growths. The correlation between the SAAL1 level and immune microenvironment was visualized using correlation research.

RESULTS: SAAL1 level was elevated in LAC tissues, and was observed in cancer tissues of dead patients. SAAL1 overexpression had something to do with shorter overall survival, progression-free interval, and disease-specific survival in LAC. The area under the curve of SAAL1 was 0.902 in normal tissues and cancer tissues. Inhibition of SAAL1 expression could inhibit cancer cell proliferation, which may be related to the decreased expression of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 proteins. In LAC, SAAL1 level had something to do with stromal, immune, and estimate scores, and correlated with macrophages, T cells, Th2 cells, CD8 T cells, NK CD56dim cells, DC, eosinophils, NK CD56bright cells, pDC, iDC, cytotoxic cells, Tgd, aDC cells, B cells, Tcm, and TFH levels. SAAL1 overexpression had something to do with existence values and the immunity in LAC.

CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of SAAL1 expression could regulate cancer growth via cyclin D1 and Bcl-2. SAAL1 is a promising prognostic biomarker in LAC patients.

RevDate: 2023-06-02
CmpDate: 2023-06-02

Mareti E, Vavoulidis E, Papanastasiou A, et al (2023)

Evaluating the potential role of human papilloma virus infection in breast carcinogenesis via real-time polymerase chain reaction analyzes of breast fine needle aspiration samples from Greek patients.

Diagnostic cytopathology, 51(7):414-422.

BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV), in addition to its known clinical contribution to cervical cancer is probably actively involved in the development of breast tumors in various populations worldwide. Predominant HPV types in breast cancer patients vary geographically. The present study further examines HPV incidence in Greece, based on molecular analysis of clinical cytological samples.

METHODS: Greek patient fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy samples were examined using RT-PCR and immunohistological staining. FNA biopsy samples were collected from 114 female patients, diagnosed between the years 2018 and 2021, 57 with C5 diagnosed breast cancer lesions and 57 diagnosed with benign diseases.

RESULTS: A total of three different HPV types were identified within the patient sample. HPV-39 was found only in the control group, in 1.8% of patients, while HPV-59 was present in both control and study groups in 1.8% and 3.5% respectively. HPV-16, on the other hand, was present only in the study group in 12.3% of cases. HPV type presence was statistically differentiated between histological groups. HPV-16 was exclusively in IDC, HPV-39 was present in one cyst diagnosed sample and HPV-59 was present in 3 samples that included fibroadenoma, IDC and LN diagnosis.

CONCLUSION: More international comparative studies are required to investigate population differences and HPV genotype distribution to offer definite answers to the effect that certain HPV types might have a role in breast cancer, as this study also supports, albeit in a cofactory role.

RevDate: 2023-04-18
CmpDate: 2023-04-18

Varun K, Zoltan K, Alba S, et al (2023)

Elevated markers of DNA damage and senescence are associated with the progression of albuminuria and restrictive lung disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

EBioMedicine, 90:104516.

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the cascade involving DNA damage, senescence, and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in experimental diabetes and in a four-year follow-up study in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Kidney, lung, and liver were studied in 4 months diabetic db/db mice and age-matched controls for the presence of DNA damage and fibrosis. DNA damage (comet-tail-length and ɤH2Ax-positivity in white blood cells), urinary p21-excretion, and plasma IL-6 and TGF-β1 were determined from 115 healthy participants, 34 patients with pre-diabetes and 221 with type 2 diabetes. Urinary albumin-creatinine-ratio, lung function, and transient elastography of the liver were performed in a prospective follow-up study over 4 years.

FINDINGS: db/db mice showed an increased nuclear ɤH2AX signal in all tissues as compared to the background control. Markers for DNA damage, senescence, and SASP were increased in patients with diabetes. The presence of nephropathy, restrictive lung disease (RLD), and increased liver stiffness was in a cross-sectional design associated with increased markers for DNA damage, senescence, and SASP. The progression of nephropathy over 4 years was predicted by increased DNA damage, senescence, and SASP, while the progression of RLD was associated with increased DNA damage and IL-6 only. The progression of liver stiffness was not associated with any of these parameters. HbA1c was not predictive for progression.

INTERPRETATION: In db/db mice, the cascade of DNA damage is associated with diabetes-related complications. In patients with diabetes, the progression of complications in the kidney and lung is predicted by markers reflecting DNA damage, and senescence-triggered organ fibrosis.

FUNDING: This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the CRC 1118 and CRC 1158, by the GRK DIAMICOM, by the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.), and by the Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts, Baden-Württemberg (Kompetenznetzwerk Präventivmedizin).

RevDate: 2023-06-26
CmpDate: 2023-06-26

Vormittag-Nocito E, Acosta AM, Agarwal S, et al (2023)

In-Depth Comparison of Genetic Variants Demonstrates a Close Relationship Between Invasive and Intraductal Components of Prostate Cancer.

Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc, 36(6):100130.

Intraductal carcinoma (IDC) of the prostate is often associated with concurrent high-grade invasive prostate cancer (PCa) and poor clinical outcomes. In this context, IDC is thought to represent the retrograde spread of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma into the acini and ducts. Prior studies have demonstrated a concordance of PTEN loss and genomic instability between the IDC and high-grade invasive components of PCa, but larger genomic association studies to solidify our understanding of the relationship between these 2 lesions are lacking. Here, we evaluate the genomic relationship between duct-confined (high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and IDC) and invasive components of high-grade PCa using genetic variants generated by whole exome sequencing. High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and IDC were laser-microdissected, and PCa and nonneoplastic tissue was manually dissected from 12 radical prostatectomies. A targeted next-generation sequencing panel was used to identify disease-relevant variants. Additionally, the degree of overlap between adjacent lesions was determined by comparing exome-wide variants detected using whole exome sequencing data. Our results demonstrate that IDC and invasive high-grade PCa components show common genetic variants and copy number alterations. Hierarchical clustering of genome-wide variants suggests that in these tumors, IDC is more closely related to the high-grade invasive components of the tumor compared with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. In conclusion, this study reinforces the concept that, in the context of high-grade PCa, IDC likely represents a late event associated with tumor progression.

RevDate: 2023-05-03
CmpDate: 2023-05-03

Cardona Barberán A, Bonte D, Boel A, et al (2023)

Assisted oocyte activation does not overcome recurrent embryo developmental problems.

Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 38(5):872-885.

STUDY QUESTION: Can recurrent embryo developmental problems after ICSI be overcome by assisted oocyte activation (AOA)?

SUMMARY ANSWER: AOA did not improve blastocyst formation in our patient cohort with recurrent embryo developmental problems after ICSI.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The use of AOA to artificially induce calcium (Ca2+) rises by using Ca2+ ionophores (mainly calcimycin and ionomycin) has been reported as very effective in overcoming fertilization failure after ICSI, especially in patients whose Ca2+ dynamics during fertilization are deficient. However, there is only scarce and contradictory literature on the use of AOA to overcome embryo developmental problems after ICSI, and it is not clear whether abnormal Ca2+ patterns during fertilization disturb human preimplantation embryo development. Moreover, poor embryo development after ICSI has also been linked to genetic defects in the subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) genes.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This prospective cohort single-center study compared ICSI-AOA cycles and previous ICSI cycles in couples with normal fertilization rates (≥60%) but impaired embryonic development (≤15% blastocyst formation) in at least two previous ICSI cycles. In total, 42 couples with embryo developmental problems were included in this study from January 2018 to January 2021.

Of the 42 couples included, 17 underwent an ICSI-AOA cycle consisting of CaCl2 injection and double ionomycin exposure. Fertilization, blastocyst development, pregnancy, and live birth rates after ICSI-AOA were compared to previous ICSI cycles. In addition, the calcium pattern induced by the male patient's sperm was investigated by mouse oocyte calcium analysis. Furthermore, all 42 couples underwent genetic screening. Female patients were screened for SCMC genes (TLE6, PADI6, NLRP2, NLRP5, NLRP7, and KHDC3L) and male patients were screened for the sperm-oocyte-activating factor PLCZ1.

We compared 17 AOA cycles to 44 previous ICSI cycles from the same patient cohort. After AOA, a total fertilization rate of 68.95% (131/190), a blastocyst development rate of 13.74% (18/131), a pregnancy rate of 29.41% (5/17), and a live birth rate of 23.53% (4/17) were achieved, which was not different from the previous ICSI cycles (76.25% (321/421, P-value = 0.06); 9.35% (30/321, P-value = 0.18), 25.00% (11/44, P-value = 0.75), and 15.91% (7/44, P-value = 0.48), respectively). Calcium analysis showed that patient's sperm induced calcium patterns similar to control sperm samples displaying normal embryo developmental potential. Genetic screening revealed 10 unique heterozygous variants (in NLRP2, NLRP5, NLRP7, TLE6, and PADI6) of uncertain significance (VUS) in 14 females. Variant NLRP5 c.623-12_623-11insTTC (p.?) was identified in two unrelated individuals and variant NLRP2 c.1572T>C (p.Asp524=) was identified in four females. Interestingly, we identified a previously reported homozygous mutation PLCZ1, c.1499C>T (p.Ser500Leu), in a male patient displaying impaired embryonic development, but not showing typical fertilization failure.

Our strict inclusion criteria, requiring at least two ICSI cycles with impaired embryo development, reduced cycle-to-cycle variability, while the requirement of a lower blastocyst development not influenced by a poor fertilization excluded couples who otherwise would be selective cases for AOA; however, these criteria limited the sample size of this study. Targeted genetic screening might be too restricted to identify a genetic cause underlying the phenotype of poor embryo development for all patients. Moreover, causality of the identified VUS should be further determined.

Strong evidence for AOA overcoming impaired embryonic development is still lacking in the literature. Thus far, only one article has reported a beneficial effect of AOA (using calcimycin) compared to previous ICSI cycles in this patient population, whilst two more recent sibling-oocyte control studies (one using calcimycin and the other ionomycin) and our research (using ionomycin) could not corroborate these findings. Although no major abnormalities have been found in children born after AOA, this technique should be reserved for couples with a clear Ca2+-release deficiency. Finally, genetic screening by whole-exome sequencing may reveal novel genes and variants linked to embryo developmental problems and allow the design of more personalized treatment options, such as wild-type complementary RNA or recombinant protein injection.

This study was supported by the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research (grant FWO.OPR.2015.0032.01 to B.H. and grant no. 1298722N to A.B.). A.C.B., D.B., A.B., V.T., R.P., F.M., I.D.C., L.L., D.S., P.D.S., P.C., and F.V.M. have nothing to disclose. B.H. reports a research grant from the Flemish Fund for Scientific Research and reports being a board member of the Belgian Society for Reproductive Medicine and the Belgian Ethical Committee on embryo research.


RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Mitsuyoshi A, Yanagawa T, Kikumori K, et al (2023)

[A Case of De Novo Stage Ⅳ Breast Cancer with Umbilical Metastasis and Peritoneal Dissemination].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 50(3):366-368.

The patient was a 48-year-old woman. At the time of consultation, a hard mass of 30 mm in size was palpated in area A of the right breast, and a firm mass of about 10 mm was seen in the umbilical region. Histological diagnosis of the breast mass was invasive ductal carcinoma. PET-CT scan showed accumulation in the right breast, as well as suspicion of umbilical metastasis and peritoneal dissemination, uterine mass, and left ovarian cancer. Since this is an atypical metastatic site for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, and the possibility of peritoneal dissemination due to gynecological cancer complications cannot be ruled out, resection of the umbilical mass and laparoscopy was performed. The review laparoscopy revealed no evidence of primary cancer in the uterine body or left ovary, and a white nodular lesion of suspected seeding in the peritoneum around the left ovary. The histology and immunostaining results of the umbilical mass and left peri-ovarian nodule both showed glandular luminal structures similar to those of the primary breast cancer, and the left peri-ovarian nodule was ER positive, GATA3 positive, and PAX8 negative, leading to the diagnosis of umbilical metastasis and peritoneal seeding derived from breast cancer. Umbilical metastasis is often referred to as Sister Mary Joseph's nodule in the case of visceral malignancies and is often associated with peritoneal dissemination and is often caused by invasive metastasis of peritoneal dissemination lesions on the dorsal side of the umbilical region. In this case, histological examination of the umbilical specimen showed no disseminated lesion on the peritoneal side, so it was not considered to be an invasive metastasis due to peritoneal dissemination.

RevDate: 2023-07-24
CmpDate: 2023-07-24

Tholany J, Suzuki H, Livorsi DJ, et al (2023)

The association of infectious diseases consultation and 30-day mortality rates among veterans with enterococcal bacteraemia: a propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 29(8):1039-1044.

OBJECTIVES: Infectious disease consultation (IDC) has been associated with improved outcomes in several infections, but the benefit of IDC among patients with enterococcal bacteraemia has not been fully evaluated.

METHODS: We performed a 1:1 propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study evaluating all patients with enterococcal bacteraemia at 121 Veterans Health Administration acute-care hospitals from 2011 to 2020. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. We performed conditional logistic regression to calculate the OR to determine the independent association of IDC and 30-day mortality adjusted for vancomycin susceptibility and the primary source of bacteraemia.

RESULTS: A total of 12,666 patients with enterococcal bacteraemia were included; 8400 (63.3%) had IDC, and 4266 (36.7%) did not have IDC. Two thousand nine hundred seventy-two patients in each group were included after propensity score matching. Conditional logistic regression revealed that IDC was associated with a significantly lower 30-day mortality rate compared with patients without IDC (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.50-0.64). The association of IDC was observed irrespective of vancomycin susceptibility, and when the primary source of bacteraemia was a urinary tract infection, or from an unknown primary source. IDC was also associated with higher appropriate antibiotic use, blood culture clearance documentation, and the use of echocardiography.

DISCUSSION: Our study suggests that IDC was associated with improved care processes and 30-day mortality rates among patients with enterococcal bacteraemia. IDC should be considered for patients with enterococcal bacteraemia.

RevDate: 2023-06-23
CmpDate: 2023-06-23

Kikuchi M, Gomi N, Ueki A, et al (2023)

Effectiveness and tasks of breast MRI surveillance for high-risk women with cancer susceptibility genes other than BRCA1/2: a single institution study.

Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan), 30(4):577-583.

BACKGROUND: In Japan, with the introduction of multigene panel testing, there is an urgent need to build a new medical system for hereditary breast cancer patients that covers pathogenic variants other than BRCA1/2. The aim of this study was to reveal the current status of breast MRI surveillance for high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes other than BRCA1/2 and the characteristics of detected breast cancer.

METHODS: We retrospectively examined 42 breast MRI surveillance with contrast performed on patients with hereditary tumors other than BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants at our hospital from 2017 to 2021. MRI exams were evaluated independently by two radiologists. Final histopathological diagnosis for malignant lesions were obtained from surgical specimen.

RESULTS: A total of 16 patients included TP53, CDH1, PALB2, ATM pathogenic variants and 3 variant of unknown significance. 2 patients with TP53 pathogenic variants were detected breast cancer by annual MRI surveillance. The rate of cancer detection was 12.5% (2/16). One patient was detected synchronous bilateral breast cancer and unilateral multiple breast cancers (3 lesions in 1 patient), so there were 4 malignant lesions in total. Surgical pathology of 4 lesions were 2 ductal carcinoma in situ, 1 invasive lobular carcinoma, and 1 invasive ductal carcinoma. MRI findings of 4 malignant lesions were detected as 2 non mass enhancement, 1 focus and 1 small mass. All of 2 patients with PALB2 pathogenic variants had previously developed breast cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: Germline TP53 and PALB2 were strongly associated with breast cancer, suggesting that MRI surveillance is essential for breast cancer-related hereditary predisposition.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Göransson S, Chen S, Olofsson H, et al (2023)

An extracellular matrix stiffness-induced breast cancer cell transcriptome resembles the transition from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 654:73-79.

Identifying mechanisms driving the transition from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive breast cancer remains a challenge in breast cancer research. Breast cancer progression is accompanied by remodelling and stiffening of the extracellular matrix, leading to increased proliferation, survival, and migration. Here, we studied stiffness-dependent phenotypes in MCF10CA1a (CA1a) breast cancer cells cultured on hydrogels with stiffness corresponding to normal breast and breast cancer. This revealed a stiffness-associated morphology consistent with acquisition of an invasive phenotype in breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, this strong phenotypic switch was accompanied by relatively modest transcriptome-wide alterations in mRNA levels, as independently quantified using both DNA-microarrays and bulk RNA sequencing. Strikingly, however, the stiffness-dependent alterations in mRNA levels overlapped with those contrasting ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). This supports a role of matrix stiffness in driving the pre-invasive to invasive transition and suggests that mechanosignalling may be a target for prevention of invasive breast cancer.

RevDate: 2023-04-18
CmpDate: 2023-04-14

Verspyck E, N Attal (2023)

Diagnosing nociplastic pain in cancer survivors: a major step forward.

British journal of anaesthesia, 130(5):515-518.

Nociplastic pain syndromes include particular fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, headache, complex regional pain syndrome, and idiopathic orofacial pain. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for nociplastic pain including central sensitisation, alterations of pain modulatory controls, epigenetic changes, and peripheral mechanisms. Importantly, nociplastic pain might also be present in patients with cancer pain, particularly those with pain related to complications of cancer treatment. Increased awareness of nociplastic pain associated with cancer should have important implications for monitoring and managing such patients.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Ali Khadem Z, S Abdul Wadood Al-Shammaree (2022)

Prognostic Value of Intracellular Transcription of Factors HIF-1α and p53 and Their Relation to Estradiol and TNM Parameters of Breast Cancer Tissues in Women with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma in Thi-Qar Province, Iraq.

Archives of Razi Institute, 77(4):1341-1348.

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women's health, with an increasing incidence worldwide. This study aimed to measure the intracellular concentration of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α), tumor suppression protein p53, and estradiol (E2) in tumor tissues of adult females with breast cancer and their relation to tumor grade, tumor size, and lymph node metastases (LNM). The study was conducted on 65 adult female participants with breast mass admitted to the operating theater in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital and Al-Habboby Teaching Hospital in Nasiriyah, Iraq, from January to November 2021. Fresh breast tumor tissues were collated and homogenized for intracellular biochemical analysis using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. In total, 44 (58%) out of 65 patients, in the age range of 18-42 years and the mean±SD age of 32.55±6.40 years, had fibroadenomas, and other 21 (42%) cases, in the age range of 32-80 years and the mean±SD age of 56±14.4 years had invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) breast cancer. Intracellular levels of HIF-1α, p53, and E2 were elevated significantly (P<0.001) in IDC cases compared to the benign group. The most malignant tumors of IDC cases were in grade III and sizes T2 and T3. The tissue concentrations of HIF-1α, P53, and E2 were significantly elevated in patients with tumor stage T3 compared to T2 and T1. A significant elevation was found in the levels of HIF-1α, p53, and E2 in the positive LNM subgroup compared to the negative LNM group. Based on the obtained results, the prognostic value of the intracellular HIF-1α is considered to be a useful prognostic factor in Iraqi women with ICD and the combination of a HIF-1α protein with the nonfunctional p53 and E2 tends to indicate the proliferation, invasiveness, and metastases of the breast tumors.

RevDate: 2023-04-11
CmpDate: 2023-04-11

Aktan Ç, Küçükaslan AŞ, Türk BA, et al (2023)

Expression analysis of novel long non-coding RNAs for invasive ductal and invasive lobular breast carcinoma cases.

Pathology, research and practice, 244:154391.

AIM: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) serve as important regulatory molecules of gene expression and protein functionality at multiple biological levels, and their deregulation plays a key role in tumorigenesis including in breast cancer metastasis. Therefore, in this study, we aim to compare the expression of novel lncRNAs in the landscape of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular (ILC) carcinoma of breast.

MAIN METHODS: We have designed an in-silico approach to find the lncRNAs that regulate the breast cancer. Then, we used the clinical samples to carry out the verification of our in silico finding. In the present study, the tissues of breast cancer were deparaffinized. RNA was extracted by the TRIzole method. After synthesizing cDNA from the extracted RNA, expression levels of lncRNAs were analyzed by qPCR using primers specifically designed and validated for the targeted lncRNAs. In this study, breast biopsy materials from 41 female patients with IDC and 10 female patients with ILC were examined histopathological and expression changes of candidate lncRNAs were investigated in line with the findings. The results were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 25 version.

RESULTS: The mean age of the cases was 53.78 ± 14.96. The minimum age was 29, while the maximum age was 87. While 27 of the cases were pre-menopausal, 24 cases were post-menopausal. The number of hormone receptor-positive cases was found to be 40, 35, and 27 for ER, PR, and cerb2/neu, respectively. While the expressions of LINC00501, LINC00578, LINC01209, LINC02015, LINC02584, ABCC5-AS1, PEX5L-AS2, SHANK2-AS3 and SOX2-OT showed significant differences (p < 0.05), the expressions of LINC01206, LINC01994, SHANK2-AS1, and TPRG1-AS2 showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In addition, it was determined that the regulation of all lncRNAs could be able to involve in the development of cancer such as the NOTCH1, NFKB, and estrogen receptor signalings.

CONCLUSION: As a result, it was thought that the discovery of novel lncRNAs might be an important player in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic development of breast cancer.

RevDate: 2023-02-22
CmpDate: 2023-02-22

Arias Ramos D, Alzate JA, Moreno Gómez GA, et al (2023)

Empirical treatment and mortality in bacteremia due to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESβL-E), a retrospective cross-sectional study in a tertiary referral hospital from Colombia.

Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 22(1):13.

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) producing bacteria are common and problematic. When they cause bloodstream infections, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted in a single center in Pereira, Colombia. It included people hospitalized with bacteremia due to gram-negative bacilli with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing phenotype. A logistic regression analysis was constructed. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for death from sepsis were established.

RESULTS: The prevalence of bacteremia due to Enterobacterales with extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing phenotype was 17%. 110 patients were analyzed. Most patients were men (62%) with a median age of 58 years, hospital mortality was 38%. Admission to intensive care was 45%. The following risk factors for mortality were established: shock requiring vasoactive support, Pitt score > 3 points, and not having an infectious disease consultation (IDC).

CONCLUSIONS: bacteremia due to Enterobacterales with extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing phenotype have a high mortality. Early recognition of sepsis, identification of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance, and prompt initiation of appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment are important. An infectious disease consultation may help improve outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-15

Sekido N, Matsuoka M, Takahashi R, et al (2023)

Cross-sectional internet survey exploring symptomatic urinary tract infection by type of urinary catheter in persons with spinal cord lesion in Japan.

Spinal cord series and cases, 9(1):3.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study by members of patient advocacy groups.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence and frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection (sUTI) in persons with spinal cord lesion (SCL) using different types of catheters based on an internet survey in Japan.

SETTING: An internet survey.

METHODS: We conducted an Internet survey of persons with SCL who were considered to be able to perform intermittent self-catheterization (ISC). We evaluated the incidence and frequency of sUTI over the last year in persons performing ISC and those managed by indwelling catheterization (IDC). We also compared the same parameters between persons in the ISC group using reusable silicone catheters and single-use catheters and those with and without a concomitant use of intermittent balloon catheters (i-IDC).

RESULTS: Two-hundred and eighty-two persons were analyzed. In the ISC and IDC groups, sUTI occurred in 52.2% and 31.4% of persons (p = 0.021), respectively, in the last year, and the frequencies were 2.8 and 3.5 times a year (p = 0.127), respectively. There were no significant differences in the incidence or frequency of sUTI between persons using reusable catheters and single-use catheters or those with and without the concomitant use of i-IDC.

CONCLUSIONS: sUTI occurred in about 1 in 2 persons with SCL performing ISC, which was significantly higher than in the IDC group, and the frequency of sUTI in persons performing ISC was about 3 times a year. The different types of catheters used for ISC were not associated with the incidence or frequency of sUTI. Sponsorship Coloplast Japan Inc.

RevDate: 2023-02-14
CmpDate: 2023-02-14

Górnicki T, Lambrinow J, Mrozowska M, et al (2023)

Expression of RBMS3 in Breast Cancer Progression.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(3):.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the localization and intensity of RNA-binding motif single-stranded-interacting protein 3 (RBMS3) expression in clinical material using immunohistochemical (IHC) reactions in cases of ductal breast cancer (in vivo), and to determine the level of RBMS3 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels in breast cancer cell lines (in vitro). Moreover, the data obtained in the in vivo and in vitro studies were correlated with the clinicopathological profiles of the patients. Material for the IHC studies comprised 490 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases and 26 mastopathy tissues. Western blot and RT-qPCR were performed on four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231) and the HME1-hTERT (Me16C) normal immortalized breast epithelial cell line (control). The Kaplan-Meier plotter tool was employed to analyze the predictive value of overall survival of RBMS3 expression at the mRNA level. Cytoplasmatic RBMS3 IHC expression was observed in breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The statistical analysis revealed a significantly decreased RBMS3 expression in the cancer specimens when compared with the mastopathy tissues (p < 0.001). An increased expression of RBMS3 was corelated with HER2(+) cancer specimens (p < 0.05) and ER(-) cancer specimens (p < 0.05). In addition, a statistically significant higher expression of RBMS3 was observed in cancer stromal cells in comparison to the control and cancer cells (p < 0.0001). The statistical analysis demonstrated a significantly higher expression of RBMS3 mRNA in the SK-BR-3 cell line compared with all other cell lines (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was revealed between the expression of RBMS3, at both the mRNA and protein levels, and longer overall survival. The differences in the expression of RBMS3 in cancer cells (both in vivo and in vitro) and the stroma of breast cancer with regard to the molecular status of the tumor may indicate that RBMS3 could be a potential novel target for the development of personalized methods of treatment. RBMS3 can be an indicator of longer overall survival for potential use in breast cancer diagnostic process.

RevDate: 2023-02-15
CmpDate: 2023-02-14

Sui Y, Li S, Fu XQ, et al (2023)

Bioinformatics analyses of combined databases identify shared differentially expressed genes in cancer and autoimmune disease.

Journal of translational medicine, 21(1):109.

BACKGROUND: Inadequate immunity caused by poor immune surveillance leads to tumorigenesis, while excessive immunity due to breakdown of immune tolerance causes autoimmune genesis. Although the function of immunity during the onset of these two processes appears to be distinct, the underlying mechanism is shared. To date, gene expression data for large bodies of clinical samples are available, but the resemblances of tumorigenesis and autoimmune genesis in terms of immune responses remains to be summed up.

METHODS: Considering the high disease prevalence, we chose invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to study the potential commonalities of immune responses. We obtained gene expression data of IDC/SLE patients and normal controls from five IDC databases (GSE29044, GSE21422, GSE22840, GSE15852, and GSE9309) and five SLE databases (GSE154851, GSE99967, GSE61635, GSE50635, and GSE17755). We intended to identify genes differentially expressed in both IDC and SLE by using three bioinformatics tools including GEO2R, the limma R package, and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to perform function enrichment, protein-protein network, and signaling pathway analyses.

RESULTS: The mRNA levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase like (OASL), and PML nuclear body scaffold (PML) were found to be differentially expressed in both IDC and SLE by using three different bioinformatics tools of GEO2R, the limma R package and WGCNA. From the combined databases in this study, the mRNA levels of STAT1 and OAS1 were increased in IDC while reduced in SLE. And the mRNA levels of OASL and PML were elevated in both IDC and SLE. Based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and QIAGEN Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, both IDC and SLE were correlated with the changes of multiple components involved in the Interferon (IFN)-Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway.

CONCLUSION: The expression levels of STAT1 and OAS1 manifest the opposite expression tendency across cancer and autoimmune disease. They are components in the IFN-JAK-STAT signaling pathway related to both tumorigenesis and autoimmune genesis. STAT1 and OAS1-associated IFN-JAK-STAT signaling could explain the commonalities during tumorigenesis and autoimmune genesis and render significant information for more precise treatment from the point of immune homeostasis.

RevDate: 2023-02-16
CmpDate: 2023-02-14

Langley RG, Sofen H, Dei-Cas I, et al (2023)

Secukinumab long-term efficacy and safety in psoriasis through to year 5 of treatment: results of a randomized extension of the phase III ERASURE and FIXTURE trials.

The British journal of dermatology, 188(2):198-207.

BACKGROUND: In the long-term extension study of the ERASURE and FIXTURE trials, the efficacy of secukinumab (a fully human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody) was demonstrated to have been maintained through to year 3 of treatment in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of secukinumab through to year 5 of treatment in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

METHODS: Responders with ≥ 75% improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 75) from two core trials - ERASURE and FIXTURE - were randomized 2 : 1 at year 1 (end of core trials) to either the same dose (300 or 150 mg, continuous treatment) or placebo (treatment withdrawal) every 4 weeks, until year 3 or relapse (> 50% reduction in maximal PASI from core study baseline). Partial responders (achieving PASI 50 but not PASI 75) at year 1 continued at the same dose as in the core trials. At year 3, all patients received open-label secukinumab treatment, with those on secukinumab 300 mg continuing on their dose, while those on secukinumab 150 mg or placebo received secukinumab 150 or 300 mg based on the physician's discretion. The study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT01544595.

RESULTS: Most patients randomized to placebo at year 1 relapsed, but the response was rapidly recaptured upon reinitiation of treatment. PASI responses were sustained with secukinumab through to year 5. The PASI responses for the 300 mg responders + partial responders group at year 1 (PASI 75/90/100: 86.8%/72.8%/45.9%) trended downwards until year 3 (PASI 75/90/100: 82.3%/58.4%/32.7%) and then remained stable through year 4 (PASI 75/90/100: 83.3%/60.1%/32.2%) until year 5 (PASI 75/90/100: 81.1%/62.8%/35.1%). Dermatology Life Quality Index showed sustained benefit up to year 5. Absolute PASI responses were maintained throughout the study. The most common adverse events (AEs) were infections and infestations, nasopharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). The overall exposure-adjusted incidence rate (EAIR; with 95% confidence interval) for all AEs was 139.9 (130.3-149.9). EAIRs for Crohn's disease and neutropenia were 0.1 (0.0-0.3) and 0.5 (0.3-0.8), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The 4-year extension of two pivotal phase III trials demonstrated that secukinumab treatment was effective through to year 5 and improved quality of life in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. The most common AEs were infections and infestations, nasopharyngitis, and URTIs. The safety profile was consistent with that in the secukinumab phase II/III clinical development programme.

RevDate: 2023-08-07
CmpDate: 2023-07-27

Chang H, Hu T, Hu J, et al (2023)

Complete response in patient with liver metastasis of HER2-positive breast cancer following therapy with margetuximab: a case report.

Anti-cancer drugs, 34(7):883-887.

Metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer has a poor prognosis and few effective targeted therapies. However, several anti-HER2 agents are emerging in conjunction with chemotherapy, which may lead to increased rates of pathological complete response in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Among them, margetuximab demonstrated a significant improvement in progression-free survival compared with trastuzumab, when combined with chemotherapy in pretreated patients. Here we present a case of a 67-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with HER2-positive, histological grade III and invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast in September 2018. She received postoperative adjuvant therapy with EC-TH plus radiotherapy, followed by therapy with HER2-targeted trastuzumab for 1 year (till December 2019). In May 2020, routine reexamination showed a supraclavicular lymph node and bone metastasis. Patient was then treated with pyrotinib, capecitabine and bisphosphonate for a period of 3 months. In December 2020, liver MRI revealed multiple liver metastases. The patient received eight cycles of second-line therapy (vinorelbine plus margetuximab) from January 2021. Since the ninth cycle, the patient was continued with only margetuximab. In March 2021, MRI showed a 70% decrease in the liver metastasis lesions. By June 2021, liver lesions were totally disappeared. During therapy, patient experienced only grade-1 anemia. This case demonstrates that margetuximab plus chemotherapy is safe and might bring clinical benefits for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer with liver metastasis. Further studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of margetuximab in Chinese HER2-positive breast cancer patients are needed.

RevDate: 2023-03-29
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Maggi G, Vitale C, Cerciello F, et al (2023)

Sleep and wakefulness disturbances in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis on prevalence and clinical aspects of REM sleep behavior disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia.

Sleep medicine reviews, 68:101759.

Sleep disorders (SDs) are common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) with wide variability in their prevalence rates. The etiology of SDs in PD is multifactorial because the degenerative processes underlying the disease and their interaction with drugs and clinical features may promote REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and insomnia. Therefore, we designed a meta-analytic study to provide a reliable estimate of the prevalence and associated clinical and neuropsychiatric aspects of SDs in PD. A systematic literature search was performed up to February 2022. Pooled RBD prevalence was 46%, and its occurrence was associated with older age, lower education, longer disease duration, higher levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), worse motor and autonomic manifestations, poorer quality of life and autonomy, and more severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. The pooled prevalence of EDS was 35% and was associated with older age, longer disease duration, worse motor and autonomic symptoms, higher LEDD, reduced autonomy, and more severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. Insomnia was reported in 44% of PD patients and was related to longer disease duration, higher LEDD, and more severe depression. SDs are associated with a more severe PD clinical phenotype; further studies should explore the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SDs and develop targeted therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Feredj E, Audureau E, Boueilh A, et al (2023)

Impact of a Dedicated Pretransplant Infectious Disease Consultation on Respiratory Tract Infections in Kidney Allograft Recipients: A Retrospective Study of 516 Recipients.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1):.

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a leading cause of death after kidney transplant. Preventive strategies may be implemented during a dedicated infectious disease consultation (IDC) before transplantation. Impact of IDC on RTIs after transplant has not been determined.

METHODS: We conducted a monocentric retrospective cohort analysis including all kidney transplant recipients from January 2015 to December 2019. We evaluated the impact of IDC on RTIs and identified risk and protective factors associated with RTIs.

RESULTS: We included 516 kidney transplant recipients. Among these, 145 had an IDC before transplant. Ninety-five patients presented 123 RTIs, including 75 (61%) with pneumonia. Patient that benefited from IDC presented significantly less RTIs (p = 0.049). RTIs were an independent risk factor of mortality (HR = 3.64 (1.97-6.73)). Independent risk factors for RTIs included HIV (OR = 3.33 (1.43-7.74)) and HCV (OR = 3.76 (1.58-8.96)). IDC was identified as an independent protective factor (OR = 0.48 (0.26-0.88)). IDC prior to transplantation is associated with diminished RTIs and is an independent protective factor. RTIs after kidney transplant are an independent risk factor of death. Implementing systematic IDC may have an important impact on reducing RTIs and related morbidity and mortality.

RevDate: 2023-02-13
CmpDate: 2023-01-24

Yang Y, Luo D, Gao W, et al (2023)

Combination Analysis of Ferroptosis and Immune Status Predicts Patients Survival in Breast Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.

Biomolecules, 13(1):.

Ferroptosis is a new form of iron-dependent cell death and plays an important role during the occurrence and development of various tumors. Increasingly, evidence shows a convincing interaction between ferroptosis and tumor immunity, which affects cancer patients' prognoses. These two processes cooperatively regulate different developmental stages of tumors and could be considered important tumor therapeutic targets. However, reliable prognostic markers screened based on the combination of ferroptosis and tumor immune status have not been well characterized. Here, we chose the ssGSEA and ESTIMATE algorithms to evaluate the ferroptosis and immune status of a TCGA breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cohort, which revealed their correlation characteristics as well as patients' prognoses. The WGCNA algorithm was used to identify genes related to both ferroptosis and immunity. Univariate COX, LASSO regression, and multivariate Cox regression models were used to screen prognostic-related genes and construct prognostic risk models. Based on the ferroptosis and immune scores, the cohort was divided into three groups: a high-ferroptosis/low-immune group, a low-ferroptosis/high-immune group, and a mixed group. These three groups exhibited distinctive survival characteristics, as well as unique clinical phenotypes, immune characteristics, and activated signaling pathways. Among them, low-ferroptosis and high-immune statuses were favorable factors for the survival rates of patients. A total of 34 differentially expressed genes related to ferroptosis-immunity were identified among the three groups. After univariate, Lasso regression, and multivariate stepwise screening, two key prognostic genes (GNAI2, PSME1) were identified. Meanwhile, a risk prognosis model was constructed, which can predict the overall survival rate in the validation set. Lastly, we verified the importance of model genes in three independent GEO cohorts. In short, we constructed a prognostic model that assists in patient risk stratification based on ferroptosis-immune-related genes in IDC. This model helps assess patients' prognoses and guide individualized treatment, which also further eelucidatesthe molecular mechanisms of IDC.

RevDate: 2023-06-10
CmpDate: 2023-04-17

Maggi G, D'Iorio A, Aiello EN, et al (2023)

Psychometrics and diagnostics of the Italian version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in Parkinson's disease.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology, 44(5):1607-1612.

INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most disabling neuropsychiatric manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) and requires proper screening and diagnosis because it affects the overall prognosis and quality of life of patients. This study aimed to assess the psychometric and diagnostic properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in an Italian PD cohort.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty consecutive outpatients with PD underwent the Italian version of the BDI-II and other questionnaires to evaluate anxiety and apathetic symptoms. Patients' caregivers completed the depression/dysphoria domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-D). We evaluated the internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and factorial structure of BDI-II. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios were computed using ROC analyses, and an optimal cutoff was defined using the Youden index.

RESULTS: The BDI-II proved to be internally consistent (Cronbach's α = 0.840) and substantially met the bi-factorial structure. Regarding construct validity, the BDI-II was substantially related to anxiety measures, but not to apathy. With the combination of the NPI-D and anxiety score used as the gold standard, the BDI-II overall showed good accuracy (AUC = 0.859) with adequate sensitivity (75%) and specificity (87%). The optimal cutoff point was defined at 14.50.

CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence of the psychometric and diagnostic properties of the Italian version of the BDI-II as a screening tool for depression in patients with PD. The BDI-II was found to be reliable and valid for the measurement of depression in patients with PD; therefore, it is available for use in clinical research and practice.

RevDate: 2023-01-17
CmpDate: 2023-01-17

Manginstar C, Oley MH, Oley MC, et al (2022)

Correlation analysis of HIF-1α and Ca15-3 in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer: A cohort study in Indonesia.

Breast disease, 41(1):481-487.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide and a leading cause of death in Indonesia. The primary treatment of locally advanced BC is neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). The rapid proliferation of tumor cells in a neoplastic microenvironment is largely due to hypoxia, which also encourages the development of chemoresistant BC. The master regulator of the hypoxia response is hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) is an objective response metric that demonstrates the efficacy of a NAC based mostly on the size of the tumor. Ca15-3 is the protein product of the MUC1 gene and is the most widely used serum marker in BC. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between HIF-1α and RECIST and between Ca15-3 and RECIST and to assess the relationship among all of them in BC.

METHODS: This observational study used the prospective cohort method included 11 patients with histopathologically confirmed BC, specifically invasive ductal carcinoma. We evaluated the changes in HIF-1α and Ca15-3 serum levels using ELISA and measured tumor lesions with RECIST. The procedure was carried out twice. Serum levels were measured at baseline, and after receiving two cycles of NAC (5 weeks).

RESULTS: Among the 11 patients included in this study, HIF-1α, Ca15-3, and RECIST decreased significantly after NAC. The changes in RECIST correlated with Ca15-3: each unit decrease in RECIST score was associated with a 0.3-unit decrease in Ca15-3 levels (p = 0.019).

CONCLUSIONS: There was a decrease in HIF-1α, followed by a decrease in Ca15-3 and RECIST in response to chemotherapy. There was a statistically significant correlation between Ca15-3 and response to chemotherapy. This study evidences the relationship between factors that shape the local tumor microenvironment.

RevDate: 2023-01-18
CmpDate: 2023-01-18

Kridis WB, Feki A, Khmiri S, et al (2022)

Prognostic factors in inflammatory breast cancer: A single-center study.

Breast disease, 41(1):461-469.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that poor prognostic indicators of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) include younger age at diagnosis, poorer tumor grade, negative estrogen receptor, lesser degree of pathological response in the breast and lymph nodes.

METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted over a period of 12 years between January 2008 and December 2019 at the medical oncology department at Habib Bourguiba University Hospital in Sfax. We included in this study women with confirmed IBC. We excluded patients with no histological evidence, those whose medical records were unusable. Data collection was done from patient files. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors of poor prognosis of this entity.

RESULTS: During a period of 12 years (2008-2019), 2879 cases of breast cancer were treated at Habib Bourguiba hospital in Sfax. 81 IBC were included. The incidence of IBC was 3%. The average age was 52.4 years (26-87 years). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (85.7%). Hormone receptor were positive in 64%. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 (HER2) was overexpressed in 35.9% of cases. The proliferation index Ki-67 was analyzed in 34 cases. It was >20% in 24 cases. Luminal A, luminal B, HER2+++, triple negative were found in 13%, 50.7%, 16% and 20% respectively. Metastases at diagnosis were found in 38%. Poor prognostic factors significantly influencing overall survival in univariate analysis were metastatic stage, high SBR grade, lymph node involvement, in particular greater than 3 nodes, negative hormone receptors, triple-negative molecular profile and occurrence of relapse.

CONCLUSION: Number of positive lymph nodes greater than 3 and the occurrence of relapse were independent prognostic factors in case of localized IBC. Metastatic stage was associated with a very poor prognosis.

RevDate: 2023-05-05
CmpDate: 2023-05-04

Zhi R, Wu K, Zhang J, et al (2023)

PRMT3 regulates the progression of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast.

Cancer science, 114(5):1912-1928.

Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is a special histopathological subtype of breast cancer. Clinically, IMPC exhibits a higher incidence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis compared with that of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the most common type. However, the metabolic characteristics and related mechanisms underlying malignant IMPC biological behaviors are unknown. We performed large-scale targeted metabolomics analysis on resected tumors obtained from chemotherapy-naïve IMPC (n = 25) and IDC (n = 26) patients to investigate metabolic alterations, and we integrated mass spectrometry analysis, RNA sequencing, and ChIP-sequencing data to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms. The metabolomics revealed distinct metabolic profiles between IMPC and IDC. For IMPC patients, the metabolomic profile was characterized by significantly high levels of arginine methylation marks, and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) was identified as a critical regulator that catalyzed the formation of these arginine methylation marks. Notably, overexpression of PRMT3 was an independent risk factor for poor IMPC prognosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PRMT3 was a key regulator of breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo, and treatment with a preclinical PRMT3 inhibitor decreased the xenograft tumorigenic capacity. Mechanistically, PRMT3 regulated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathway by facilitating histone H4 arginine 3 asymmetric dimethylation (H4R3me2a), which may endow breast cancer cells with great proliferative and metastatic capacity. Our findings highlight PRMT3 importance in regulating the malignant biological behavior of IMPC and suggest that small-molecule inhibitors of PRMT3 activity might be promising breast cancer treatments.

RevDate: 2023-01-11
CmpDate: 2023-01-06

Serrano-Quintero A, Sequeda-Juárez A, Pérez-Hernández CA, et al (2022)

Immunogenic analysis of epitope-based vaccine candidate induced by photodynamic therapy in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy, 40:103174.

BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used to treat tumors through selective cytotoxic effects. PDT induces damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) expression, which can cause an immunogenic death cell (IDC). In this study we identified potential immunogenic epitopes generated by PDT on triple-negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231).

METHODS: MDA-MB-231 cells were exposed to PDT using ALA (160 µg/mL)/630 nm at 8 J/cm[2]. Membrane proteins were extracted and separated by 2D PAGE. Proteins overexpressed were identified by LC-MS/MS and analyzed in silico through a peptide-HLA docking in order to identify the epitopes with more immunogenicity and antigenicity properties, as well as lower allergenicity and toxicity activity. The selected peptides were evaluated in response to macrophage activation and cytokine release by flow cytometry.

RESULTS: Differential proteins were overexpressed in the cells treated with PDT. A group of 16 peptides were identified from them, established in a rigorous selection by measuring antigenicity, immunogenicity, allergenicity, and toxicity in silico. The final selection was based on molecular dynamics, where 2 peptides showed the highest stability regarding to the RMSD value. These peptides were obtained from the proteins calreticulin and HSP90. The cytokine analysis evidenced macrophage activation by the releasing of TNF.

CONCLUSION: Two peptides were identified from calreticulin and HSP90; proteins induced by PDT in MDA-MB-231 cells. Both epitopes showed immunogenic potential as a peptide-based vaccine for triple-negative breast cancer.

RevDate: 2023-03-05
CmpDate: 2023-01-03

Levy-Jurgenson A, Tekpli X, Kristensen VN, et al (2023)

Analysis of Spatial Molecular Data.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2614:349-356.

Digital analysis of pathology whole-slide images has been recently gaining interest in the context of cancer diagnosis and treatment. In particular, deep learning methods have demonstrated significant potential in supporting pathology analysis, recently detecting molecular traits never before recognized in pathology H&E whole-slide images (WSIs). Alongside these advancements in the digital analysis of WSIs, it is becoming increasingly evident that both spatial and overall tumor heterogeneity may be significant determinants of cancer prognosis and treatment outcome. In this chapter, we describe methods that aim to support these two elements. We describe both an end-to-end deep learning pipeline for producing limited spatial transcriptomics from WSIs with associated bulk gene expression data, as well as an algorithm for quantifying spatial tumor heterogeneity based on the results of this pipeline.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2023-01-24

Ying Z, van Eenige R, Beerepoot R, et al (2023)

Mirabegron-induced brown fat activation does not exacerbate atherosclerosis in mice with a functional hepatic ApoE-LDLR pathway.

Pharmacological research, 187:106634.

Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) with the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 protects mice from atherosclerosis development, and the presence of metabolically active BAT is associated with cardiometabolic health in humans. In contrast, exposure to cold or treatment with the clinically used β3-adrenergic receptor agonist mirabegron to activate BAT exacerbates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E (ApoE)- and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice, both lacking a functional ApoE-LDLR pathway crucial for lipoprotein remnant clearance. We, therefore, investigated the effects of mirabegron treatment on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a humanized lipoprotein metabolism model with a functional ApoE-LDLR clearance pathway. Mirabegron activated BAT and induced white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, accompanied by selectively increased fat oxidation and attenuated fat mass gain. Mirabegron increased the uptake of fatty acids derived from triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins by BAT and WAT, which was coupled to increased hepatic uptake of the generated cholesterol-enriched core remnants. Mirabegron also promoted hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production, likely due to an increased flux of fatty acids from WAT to the liver, and resulted in transient elevation in plasma TG levels followed by a substantial decrease in plasma TGs. These effects led to a trend toward lower plasma cholesterol levels and reduced atherosclerosis. We conclude that BAT activation by mirabegron leads to substantial metabolic benefits in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, and mirabegron treatment is certainly not atherogenic. These data underscore the importance of the choice of experimental models when investigating the effect of BAT activation on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis.

RevDate: 2023-06-28
CmpDate: 2023-06-28

Bendarkawi Y, Cherif Chefchaouni A, Lkhoyaali S, et al (2023)

Tamoxifen induced hands deformities.

Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners, 29(5):1246-1250.

INTRODUCTION: Tamoxifen is widely used for the treatment of hormone-responsive breast cancer. In this article, we report a case of a patient who developed hand deformities following long-term administration of tamoxifen.

CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old woman, followed for invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast under tamoxifen for 7 years, presenting joint pain with deformities in her fingers.

MANAGEMENT & OUTCOME: Following the appearance of the adverse effect, tamoxifen was stopped. A series of biologic and radiologic analysis were performed in order to explain the appearance of this event. A substitution treatment was discussed and a rheumatologist's opinion was requested.

DISCUSSION: Tamoxifen appears to be associated with the development of inflammatory osteoarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis. Possible mechanisms of such an effect are discussed.

RevDate: 2023-06-22
CmpDate: 2023-06-22

Braun A, Reddy S, Cheng L, et al (2023)

Clinicopathologic Review of Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Gynecologic Tract.

International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists, 42(4):414-420.

Metastatic spread is the single most significant predictor of poor survival in breast cancer. Some of the most common metastatic sites are the bones, lungs, liver, brain, and peritoneal cavity. Clinically metastatic breast cancer to the gynecologic tract is usually asymptomatic and diagnosed as an incidental finding during a histologic examination of gynecologic specimens resected for other reasons. Cases of metastatic breast cancer to gynecologic organs diagnosed from August 1995 to January 2021 were retrieved from our institution's pathology databases, and their clinicopathologic features were reviewed. The most common site of metastasis was the ovary which was involved in about 79% (22 of 28 cases) of metastases to the gynecologic tract. Clinically, only 8 cases (36%) presented with ovarian mass detected in imaging studies and the rest of the cases were all incidental findings. Among ovarian metastasis, 59% of cases were invasive lobular carcinoma and 41% were invasive ductal carcinoma. In 5 cases, metastatic breast cancer was found in the endometrium, including 2 cases with endometrial metastasis only and 3 cases with multiple gynecologic organs involved. Metastatic breast cancer rarely involved the lower gynecologic tract, with only 7% vaginal metastasis and 4% found in the vulva. The absolute majority of metastatic breast cancer outside of the ovaries were lobular carcinoma (88%). Most of the metastatic breast carcinomas were positive for estrogen receptor on immunohistochemistry (27 of 28 cases, 96%). Her-2/neu immunostaining was positive in 4 cases only (14%). Metastatic breast cancer needs to be distinguished from gynecologic primary neoplasms and metastatic tumors from adjacent urinary and GI tracts. A careful review of the patient's history and adequate immunohistochemistry panel are helpful to render the diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-01-12

Shapiro-Kulnane L, Selengut M, HK Salz (2022)

Safeguarding Drosophila female germ cell identity depends on an H3K9me3 mini domain guided by a ZAD zinc finger protein.

PLoS genetics, 18(12):e1010568.

H3K9me3-based gene silencing is a conserved strategy for securing cell fate, but the mechanisms controlling lineage-specific installation of this epigenetic mark remain unclear. In Drosophila, H3K9 methylation plays an essential role in securing female germ cell fate by silencing lineage inappropriate phf7 transcription. Thus, phf7 regulation in the female germline provides a powerful system to dissect the molecular mechanism underlying H3K9me3 deposition onto protein coding genes. Here we used genetic studies to identify the essential cis-regulatory elements, finding that the sequences required for H3K9me3 deposition are conserved across Drosophila species. Transposable elements are also silenced by an H3K9me3-mediated mechanism. But our finding that phf7 regulation does not require the dedicated piRNA pathway components, piwi, aub, rhino, panx, and nxf2, indicates that the mechanisms of H3K9me3 recruitment are distinct. Lastly, we discovered that an uncharacterized member of the zinc finger associated domain (ZAD) containing C2H2 zinc finger protein family, IDENTITY CRISIS (IDC; CG4936), is necessary for H3K9me3 deposition onto phf7. Loss of idc in germ cells interferes with phf7 transcriptional regulation and H3K9me3 deposition, resulting in ectopic PHF7 protein expression. IDC's role is likely to be direct, as it localizes to a conserved domain within the phf7 gene. Collectively, our findings support a model in which IDC guides sequence-specific establishment of an H3K9me3 mini domain, thereby preventing accidental female-to-male programming.

RevDate: 2023-03-05
CmpDate: 2022-12-20

Ansari N, Nisar MI, Khalid F, et al (2022)

Prevalence and risk factors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection in women and children in peri-urban communities in Pakistan: A prospective cohort study.

Journal of global health, 12:05055.

BACKGROUND: Population-based seroepidemiological surveys provide accurate estimates of disease burden. We compare the COVID-19 prevalence estimates from two serial serological surveys and the associated risk factors among women and children in a peri-urban area of Karachi, Pakistan.

METHODS: The AMANHI-COVID-19 study enrolled women and children between November 2020 and March 2021. Blood samples were collected from March to June 2021 (baseline) and September to December 2021 (follow-up) to test for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using ROCHE Elecsys®. Participants were visited or called weekly during the study for recording symptoms of COVID-19. We report the proportion of participants with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and symptoms in each survey and describe infection risk factors using step-wise binomial regression analysis.

RESULTS: The adjusted seroprevalence among women was 45.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 42.6-47.9) and 82.3% (95% CI = 79.9-84.4) at baseline and follow-up survey, respectively. Among children, it was 18.4% (95% CI = 16.1-20.7) and 57.4% (95% CI = 54.3-60.3) at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Of the women who were previously seronegative, 404 (74.4%) tested positive at the follow-up survey, as did 365 (50.4%) previously seronegative children. There was a high proportion of asymptomatic infection. At baseline, being poorest and lacking access to safe drinking water lowered the risk of infection for both women (risk ratio (RR) = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7-0.9 and RR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1-1.4, respectively) and children (RR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-1.0 and RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8, respectively). At the follow-up survey, the risk of infection was lower for underweight women and children (RR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.3-0.7 and RR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.8, respectively) and for women in the 30-39 years age group and children who were 24-36 months of age (RR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.9 and RR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5-0.9, respectively). In both surveys, paternal employment was an important predictor of seropositivity among children (RR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6-0.9 and RR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7-1.0, respectively).

CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of seroconversion among women and children. Infection was generally mild. Parental education plays an important role in protection of children from COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-12-21
CmpDate: 2022-12-19

Yuce E, Karakullukcu S, Bulbul H, et al (2023)

The effect of the change in hemoglobin-albumin-lymphocyte-platelet scores occurring with neoadjuvant chemotherapy on clinical and pathological responses in breast cancer.

Bratislavske lekarske listy, 124(1):59-63.

INTRODUCTION: Breast-cancer is a common-cause of death in women.(1) We investigated the effects of before/after-NACT on hemoglobin-albumin-lymphocyte-platelet (HALP) scores and of changes therein on clinical/pathological-responses.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred-twenty-seven breast-cancer-patients receiving-NACT between December 2009 - January 2019 were investigated retrospectively.

RESULTS: The mean - age was 50.3±12.3 (min 27 - max 79), and 125 patients (98.4 %) were women. Fifty-four (42.5 %) were premenopausal and 71 (55.9 %) postmenopausal. Invasive-ductal-carcinoma was present in 111 patients (92.5 %). Eighty patients (70.2 %) were ≤ T2 and 34 (29.8 %) > T2. Lymph-node-status was positive in 99 patients (83.2 %) and negative in 20 (16.8 %). Ki-67 was ≤ 10 % in 22 (28.9 %), 11-20 % in 23 (30.3 %), and > 20 % in 31 (40.8 %). Complete clinical response was observed in 27 (21.3 %), partial-response in 76 (59.8 %), stable-disease in 21 (16.5 %), and progressive-disease in 3 patients (2.4 %). The objective-response-rate (ORR) was 103 (81.1 %). Pathological-complete-response (pCR) was observed in 24 patients (18.9 %). ORR was higher in Ki-67 > 20 % compared to ≤ 10 % and 10-20 % (90.3 % vs 59.0 % / 78.3 %, respectively, p: 0.027), but no difference occurred in pCR. Neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte-ratio (PLR), prognostic-nutritional-index (PNI), and HALP were measured before/after NACT. Associations with ORR and pCR were investigated via changes in these with NACT (excepting-PNI), but no-significant results emerged.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher ORR occurred post-NACT in patients with Ki-67 >20 %, while NLR, PLR, PNI, and HALP before/after-NACT and post-NACT-changes (excepting-PNI) had no-effect on ORR/pCR (Tab. 5, Ref. 21). Text in PDF www.elis.sk Keywords: breast cancer, objective response rate (ORR), pathological complete response (pCR), hemoglobin-albumin-lymphocyte-platelet (HALP) score.

RevDate: 2022-12-21
CmpDate: 2022-12-14

Azmat H, Faridi J, Habib HM, et al (2022)

Correlation of B-cell lymphoma 2 immunoexpression in invasive carcinoma of breast, no special type with hormone receptor status, proliferation index, and molecular subtypes.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 18(Supplement):S313-S319.

BACKGROUND: B-cell lymphoma 2 is involved in various cancers including breast carcinoma. Its expression in breast cancer has been associated with good prognostic factors such as hormone receptor expression, low Ki-67, low grade, and earlier stage. It is also considered to be an independent prognostic factor for luminal and triple-negative tumors.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in different molecular subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast and its association with prognostic indicators.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty samples of invasive carcinoma of breast, no special type (NST), were categorized into molecular subtypes according to immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), and Ki-67 and then evaluated for BCL2 expression. The expression of BCL2 was correlated with ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67 and compared between luminal and nonluminal subtypes.

RESULTS: The BCL2 expression was seen in 68% of the cases with a significant association with ER, PR, and luminal subtypes. No significant association of BCL2 expression was seen with grade, HER2 and Ki-67 status of the tumor, or age group of the patients. BCL2 expression is significantly associated with ER, PR, and luminal subtypes in breast cancer.

CONCLUSION: BCL2 is a marker of good prognosis in invasive carcinoma of breast, NST.

RevDate: 2022-12-21

Gupta NK, Gaur S, DK Pal (2022)

Role of videourodynamics in the identification of causes of lower urinary tract symptoms and low uroflow in young men.

Urology annals, 14(4):332-335.

INTRODUCTION: The etiology of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is multifactorial with causes attributed either to the dysfunction of the bladder or its outlet. Although the etiologies are well studied in aged men, very limited research trials are available in young men with LUTS. Most of the time young men presenting with chronic irritative or obstructive symptoms are labeled with chronic prostatitis or prostatodynia and are treated empirically. In this study using videourodynamics, we prospectively investigated the etiologies of LUTS and low uroflow in young men.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty male patients, 18-50 years of age attending the urology outpatient department at a tertiary care center from January 2021 to December 2021 with symptoms suggestive of chronic LUTS and low uroflow (maximum urinary flow rate [Qmax] <15 ml/s at a voided volume >150 ml) were included in the study and underwent multichannel videourodynamic study (VUDS). Clinical characteristics and urodynamic results in different diagnostic groups were tabulated and analyzed. The P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: Out of 50 enrolled patients, primary bladder neck obstruction was seen in 21 patients (42%), dysfunctional voiding in 14 (28%), impaired detrusor contractility (IDC) in 9 (18%), and benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) was noted in 6 patients (12%). The mean age and size of the prostate of patients with BPO were greater than those in the remaining groups and patients with IDC had lower Qmax and Pdet at Qmax than those in the remaining patients.

CONCLUSION: Chronic LUTS in young men has a variety of underlying etiologies and VUDS in this population is helpful in attaining an accurate diagnosis and thus may guide toward efficient management.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Cancer is the generic name for more than 100 diseases in which cells begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged, they die and new cells take their place. Cancer begins when genetic changes impair this orderly process so that some cells start to grow uncontrollably. The Emperor of All Maladies is a "biography" of cancer — from its first documented appearances thousands of years ago through the epic battles in the twentieth century to cure, control, and conquer it to a radical new understanding of its essence. This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in cancer. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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