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22 Jan 2021 at 01:42
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Bibliography on: Invasive Ductal Carcinoma


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 Jan 2021 at 01:42 Created: 

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is cancer that began growing in a milk duct and has invaded the fibrous or fatty tissue of the breast outside of the duct. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, representing 80 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive ductal carcinoma" OR IDC) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-01-21

Erdogan O, Parlakgumus A, Turan U, et al (2021)

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma within malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast.

Nigerian journal of clinical practice, 24(1):135-137.

Phyllodes tumors are uncommon breast neoplasms that constitute of 1-2% of breast malignancies. The tumor can mimic fibroadenoma clinically, radiologically and histologically. Ductal carcinoma in-situ in the epithelial component of phyllodes tumor is very rare. When ductal carcinoma in-situ is detected within the specimen, the management of treatment changes completely. We report a rare case of low grade ductal carcinoma in-situ arising in a malignant phyllodes tumor in a 55-year-old female patient.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

da Silva JL, Rodrigues FR, de Mesquita GG, et al (2021)

Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Assessing the Role of Immunohistochemical Biomarkers on Neoadjuvant Treatment.

Breast cancer (Dove Medical Press), 13:31-44 pii:287320.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the influence of immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers in the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and survival outcomes in the subset of locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).

Materials and Methods: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), androgen receptor (AR), cytokeratins (CK5/6, CK14 and CK17), Ki67 and p53 immunohistochemistry were evaluated on 171 cases of TNBC submitted to NACT and subsequently to surgery. Intensity and percentage of the expression of these biomarkers were combined to formulate a specific score, that was correlated with prognostic features and assessed for survival outcomes.

Results: Most patients had advanced clinical-stage tumors (stage III: 83.6%; cT3/T4: 85.9%; cN1-3: 71.3%). The predominant histological subtype was high-grade (67.3%) and invasive ductal carcinoma (93.6%). The residual cancer burden (RCB) 0-1 corresponded to 28.7% of cases and low-risk lymph node ratio (LNR) represented 77.2%. High Ki67 expression only showed a significant correlation with grade 3 tumors (p = 0.0157). CK5/6 was observed in 16% (27/169), CK14 was positive in 10.1% (17/169), CK17 in 91.1% (153/168), p53 in 52.6% (70/133), EGFR in 92.9% (157/169 cases), AR in 13% (22/169) and Ki67 index was scored ≥40% in 57.9% (95/165). No IHC biomarker significantly impacted response or survival. Regarding the analysis of the outcomes of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS), clinical stage (p = 0.014 and p = 0.042, respectively), RCB (p < 0.0001 and p <0.0001, respectively) and LNR (p <0.0001 and p <0.0001, respectively) showed significant association.

Conclusion: No IHC biomarker evaluated showed a significant association with a response or survival outcomes in TNBC patients. Clinical stage, LNR and RCB stood out for strongly influencing survival.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Ogasawara K, Hasebe T, Nara M, et al (2020)

[A Case of Pancreatotomy of the Pancreatic Tail with a Preserved Residual Stomach Using ICG Fluorescence Method for Pancreatic Cancer after Gastrectomy of the Pyloric Side].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):2415-2417.

A 53-year-old male had a history of gastrectomy of the pyloric side for gastric cancer and Billroth Ⅰ reconstruction done 20 years ago. The patient visited the gastrointestinal internal medical department of our hospital with abdominal pain as the chief complaint. Pancreatic cancer was diagnosed with the help of an abdominal CT, and he was then referred to our department. The preoperative disease stage was cT3, N0, M0, Stage ⅡA. As it was over 20 years since the previous surgery and the preoperative CT showed cardiac branches of the left inferior phrenic artery, we inferred that the residual stomach can be preserved. The blood flow was confirmed by the intraoperative ICG fluorescence method, and we then performed pancreatotomy of the pancreatic tail, preserving the stomach and a splenectomy. The pathologic findings were invasive ductal carcinoma, pT3, N1a, M0, Stage ⅡB, and R0. S-1 was administered orally as postoperative adjunctive chemotherapy. The postoperative course has been favorable without recurrence for 2 years. In case a pancreatotomy of the pancreatic tail is performed for cancer of the pancreatic body after gastrectomy of the pyloric side, it was considered that the intraoperative ICG fluorescence method was useful to confirm the blood flow of the residual stomach.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Nabeya M, Maeda N, Sato Y, et al (2020)

[A Case of Local Recurrence in the Reconstructed Breast Three Years after Reconstructive Surgery and Seven Years after Breast Cancer Surgery].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):2403-2405.

In recent years, breast reconstruction has been increasingly performed in breast cancer surgery with improving the appearance of the breast. We report a case of local breast cancer recurrence after artificial breast reconstruction. The patient was a 52-year-old woman. She had undergone total mastectomy for left breast cancer 11 years ago, and reconstruction with breast implant 3 years ago. She presented to our hospital with the chief complaint of skin redness and induration of the reconstructed breast. A core needle biopsy was performed, and its results showed in the invasive ductal carcinoma. She had an operation of resection of tumor and reconstruction implant. As a result of histopathological diagnosis, it was a local recurrence of breast cancer 11 years ago. After the surgery, she underwent endocrine therapy and there is no recurrence. As the increase in the number of cases of breast reconstruction, the number of recurrences in the reconstructed breast is expected to increase the future. The treatment strategy for cases of local recurrence after breast reconstruction is currently under review, the accumulation of evidence is necessary.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Aoki K, Kametaka H, Makino H, et al (2020)

[A Case of Primary Breast Cancer and Gastric Cancer Metastasis to the Skin-Usefulness of Immunohistochemistry in Differentiating Primary Breast Cancer from Metastatic Breast Cancer].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):2352-2354.

We herein report the case of a 76-year-old female patient who had undergone gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer (histologically tubular adenocarcinoma)before 5 months, presenting with abdominal skin tumor. A skin biopsy revealed tubular adenocarcinoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomographic scanning detected right breast tumor. A partial mastectomy of the right breast and local resection of abdominal skin tumor were performed and both tumors depicted similar histology of tubular adenocarcinoma in routine pathological examination. Immunohistochemically, positive for CDX2 and MUC5AC in previously resected gastric cancer and skin tumor tissues, whereas negative for both antigens in breast cancer. Thus, the final pathological diagnosis demonstrated skin metastasis originating from gastric cancer and primary breast cancer(invasive ductal carcinoma)histologically mimicking gastric cancer. We emphasize difficulties in diagnosis of this situation and that immunohistochemistry is helpful to distinguish primary breast cancer from gastric cancer metastasizing to the breast.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Yamamuro M, Konishi J, Nozaki Y, et al (2020)

[A Case of Lung Metastasis of the Breast Cancer with a Remarkable Response to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy(SBRT)].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):1878-1880.

A 69-year-old woman admitted to our hospital with the lump in the left breast. Further examination was performed for the lesion, and it was diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma. Partial resection and sentinel lymph node biopsy were performed. Pathological diagnosis was metaplastic carcinoma with squamous metaplasia. As the adjuvant treatment, docetaxel and cyclophosphamide(TC)therapy and radiotherapy was performed. Following the treatment of those, tegafur-uracil was administered for 2 years. Three years after the surgery, an isolated lung metastasis was revealed by CT. Capecitabine and cyclophosphamide(XC)therapy was administered, but not effective. Stereotactic body radiation therapy(SBRT)was performed for the lesion. As a result, the metastatic lesion was obscured. Drug therapy was stopped due to adverse events, and she is observed by no medication. Thirty-six months after SBRT and 78 months after the surgery, the patient is alive without recurrence. SBRT could be an effective treatment strategy for the oligometastais of the lung.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Okazaki S, Takahashi M, Fukahori M, et al (2020)

[A Case Report of Accessory Breast Cancer in the Right Axillary Region].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):1863-1865.

An 80-year-old woman visited a previous hospital complaining of a lump in the right axillary region. Because it was suspected of accessory breast cancer from the findings of image inspection, she was referred for surgery. Based on mammography and ultrasonography, both bilateral mammary glands were reported normal, but an irregular mass was found in the right axillary region. Resection biopsy showed adenocarcinoma like invasive ductal carcinoma. In addition, ER and PgR were positive. With a preoperative diagnosis of accessory breast cancer, she underwent wide local resection of the right axillary region with lymph-node dissection(Level Ⅰ), and local pedicle flap formation. Histopathological findings revealed that the tumor was composed of invasive ductal carcinoma. The center of tumor was consisted of ductal tissue discontinuous with normal mammary gland. So, a diagnosis of accessory breast cancer in the right axillary region was confirmed. She is currently in recurrence-free survival. Accessory breast cancer is relatively rare. We report a case of accessory breast cancer in the axillary region with some review of the literature.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Asano Y, Kashiwagi S, Kawano Y, et al (2020)

[Effectiveness of Atezolizumab Combination Therapy for PD-L1(SP142)Positive Lung and Breast Double Cancer-A Case Report].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):1741-1743.

The anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab has become the standard of immunochemotherapy with the results of the international phase Ⅲ trials in lung cancer and breast cancer. We report a case in which atezolizumab was efficiency in PD-L1 (SP142)-positive lung and breast double cancer. A 56-years-old woman. She noticed a lump in her right breast and visited a nearby doctor, who referred her to our hospital for close examination and treatment. Ultrasonography revealed about 5 cm mass on the right mammary gland and axillary lymph nodes swelling. Core-needle biopsy was confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma(ER negative, PgR negative, HER2 negative, Ki-67 high expression). CT findings showed right mammary mass, right axillary lymph nodes swelling, liver mass, and lung tumor with mediastinal lymph nodes swelling. Therefore, a bronchoscopic biopsy was performed and a diagnosis of primary lung cancer was obtained. Pretreatment diagnosis was lung adenocarcinoma, cT2a, N2/3, M1b/1c(HEP, OSS), Stage ⅢA/B or ⅣA/B(PD-L1 positive), and right breast cancer, T4b, N2, M0/1 (HEP, OSS, LYM), Stage ⅢB or Ⅳ triple-negative(PD-L1 positive)double cancer. We underwent surgery(mastectomy with axillar lymph nodes dissection), followed by immunochemotherapy(atezolizumab, carboplatin, paclitaxel)and it was efficiency.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Ishihara S, Kashiwagi S, Asano Y, et al (2020)

[A Case of Dermatitis Caused by Metronidazole Gel That Needed to Be Differentiated from Breast Cancer Skin Metastasis].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):2089-2091.

Seventy years old woman noticed a mass in her right breast before 3 years. Since she had ulcer bleeding, she visited our hospital. In physical findings, a hemorrhagic about 8 cm mass with an ulcer was found in the upper right breast. Breast ultrasonography revealed a large tumor of approximately 8 cm in the right A area, and needle biopsy revealed invasive ductal carcinoma(ER positive, PgR positive, HER2 positive, Ki-67 low expression). Right axillary lymph node metastasis was confirmed, but no clear distant metastasis was observed. Pretreatment diagnosis was right breast cancer, cT4bN1M0, Stage ⅢB, Luminal HER. Chemotherapy was started with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel, and the tumor was reduced after 6 cycles. Due to side effects, the drug was changed to a molecular targeted drug only and the treatment was continued. However, redness was observed in the entire right breast, and breast cancer skin metastasis was suspected. Since the dermatitis caused by metronidazole gel was also distinguished, the redness was improved when the application was stopped. When confirmed by a patch test, a reaction to metronidazole gel was observed, leading to the diagnosis of dermatitis caused by metronidazole gel.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Tanaka A, Nakayama H, Ono Y, et al (2020)

[Case of Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Breast Resistant Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(13):2041-2043.

We report a rare case of spindle cell carcinoma of the breast which grew rapidly during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A 72- year-old female was presenting with chief complaint of a mass in the right breast; a tumor about 20 mm in size. Core needle biopsy of tumor revealed invasive ductal carcinoma and fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph node was Class Ⅴ. So she was diagnosis breast cancer as cT2N1M0, cStage ⅡB. The tumor subtype was triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). She received the neoadjuvant chemotherapy by FEC100. After FEC 4 courses, we detected a huge and rapid growing breast mass of 40 mm by CT. She was administered received mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection after 4 months from initial contact. Pathological finding was spindle cell carcinoma of the breast. Postoperatively, she was treated with weekly PTX for a total of 12 courses and radiation therapy for a right chest wall and supraclavicular fossa. Although the tumor was resistant for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, she is alive and well without metastasis for more than 3 years.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Mota-Romero E, Tallón-Martín B, García-Ruiz MP, et al (2021)

Frailty, Complexity, and Priorities in the Use of Advanced Palliative Care Resources in Nursing Homes.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 57(1): pii:medicina57010070.

Background and objectives: This study aimed to determine the frailty, prognosis, complexity, and palliative care complexity of nursing home residents with palliative care needs and define the characteristics of the cases eligible for receiving advanced palliative care according to the resources available at each nursing home. Materials and Methods: In this multi-centre, descriptive, and cross-sectional study, trained nurses from eight nursing homes in southern Spain selected 149 residents with palliative care needs. The following instruments were used: the Frail-VIG index, the case complexity index (CCI), the Diagnostic Instrument of Complexity in Palliative Care (IDC-Pal), the palliative prognosis index, the Barthel index (dependency), Pfeiffer's test (cognitive impairment), and the Charlson comorbidity index. A consensus was reached on the complexity criteria of the Diagnostic Instrument of Complexity in Palliative Care that could be addressed in the nursing home (no priority) and those that required a one-off (priority 2) or full (priority 1) intervention of advanced palliative care resources. Non-parametric tests were used to compare non-priority patients and patients with some kind of priority. Results: A high percentage of residents presented frailty (80.6%), clinical complexity (80.5%), and palliative care complexity (65.8%). A lower percentage of residents had a poor prognosis (10.1%) and an extremely poor prognosis (2%). Twelve priority 1 and 14 priority 2 elements were identified as not matching the palliative care complexity elements that had been previously identified. Of the studied cases, 20.1% had priority 1 status and 38.3% had priority 2 status. Residents with some kind of priority had greater levels of dependency (p < 0.001), cognitive impairment (p < 0.001), and poorer prognoses (p < 0.001). Priority 1 patients exhibited higher rates of refractory delirium (p = 0.003), skin ulcers (p = 0.041), and dyspnoea (p = 0.020). Conclusions: The results indicate that there are high levels of frailty, clinical complexity, and palliative care complexity in nursing homes. The resources available at each nursing home must be considered to determine when advanced palliative care resources are required.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Gao R, Bai S, Henderson YC, et al (2021)

Delineating copy number and clonal substructure in human tumors from single-cell transcriptomes.

Nature biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Single-cell transcriptomic analysis is widely used to study human tumors. However, it remains challenging to distinguish normal cell types in the tumor microenvironment from malignant cells and to resolve clonal substructure within the tumor. To address these challenges, we developed an integrative Bayesian segmentation approach called copy number karyotyping of aneuploid tumors (CopyKAT) to estimate genomic copy number profiles at an average genomic resolution of 5 Mb from read depth in high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data. We applied CopyKAT to analyze 46,501 single cells from 21 tumors, including triple-negative breast cancer, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, anaplastic thyroid cancer, invasive ductal carcinoma and glioblastoma, to accurately (98%) distinguish cancer cells from normal cell types. In three breast tumors, CopyKAT resolved clonal subpopulations that differed in the expression of cancer genes, such as KRAS, and signatures, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, DNA repair, apoptosis and hypoxia. These data show that CopyKAT can aid in the analysis of scRNA-seq data in a variety of solid human tumors.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Deshpande D, Agarwal N, Fleming T, et al (2021)

Loss of POMC-mediated antinociception contributes to painful diabetic neuropathy.

Nature communications, 12(1):426.

Painful neuropathy is a frequent complication in diabetes. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is an endogenous opioid precursor peptide, which plays a protective role against pain. Here, we report dysfunctional POMC-mediated antinociception in sensory neurons in diabetes. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice the Pomc promoter is repressed due to increased binding of NF-kB p50 subunit, leading to a loss in basal POMC level in peripheral nerves. Decreased POMC levels are also observed in peripheral nervous system tissue from diabetic patients. The antinociceptive pathway mediated by POMC is further impaired due to lysosomal degradation of μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Importantly, the neuropathic phenotype of the diabetic mice is rescued upon viral overexpression of POMC and MOR in the sensory ganglia. This study identifies an antinociceptive mechanism in the sensory ganglia that paves a way for a potential therapy for diabetic neuropathic pain.

RevDate: 2021-01-17

Song BI (2021)

A machine learning-based radiomics model for the prediction of axillary lymph-node metastasis in breast cancer.

Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan) [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate machine learning-based radiomics model for predicting axillary lymph-node (ALN) metastasis in invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).

METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive IDC patients who underwent surgical resection of primary tumor with sentinel lymph-node biopsy and/or ALN dissection without any neoadjuvant treatment were analyzed. Volume of interests (VOIs) were drawn more than 2.5 of standardized uptake value in the primary tumor on the PET scan using 3D slicer. Pyradiomics package was used for the extraction of texture features in python. The radiomics prediction model for ALN metastasis was developed in 75 patients of the training cohort and validated in 25 patients of the test cohort. XGBoost algorithm was utilized to select features and build radiomics model. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the predictive model were calculated.

RESULTS: ALN metastasis was found in 43 patients (43%). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for the diagnosis of ALN metastasis in the entire patients were 55.8%, 93%, and 77%, respectively. The radiomics model for the prediction of ALN metastasis was successfully developed. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the radiomics model for the prediction of ALN metastasis in the test cohorts were 90.9%, 71.4%, and 80%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The machine learning-based radiomics model showed good sensitivity for the prediction of ALN metastasis and could assist the preoperative individualized prediction of ALN status in patients with IDC.

RevDate: 2021-01-16

Dortaj H, Dolatyari M, Zarghami A, et al (2021)

High-speed and high-precision PbSe/PbI2 solution process mid-infrared camera.

Scientific reports, 11(1):1533.

Infrared (IR) cameras based on semiconductors grown by epitaxial methods face two main challenges, which are cost and operating at room temperature. The alternative new technologies which can tackle these two difficulties develop new and facile material and methods. Moreover, the implementation of high speed camera, which makes high resolution images with normal methods, is very expensive. In this paper, a new nanostructure based on a cost-effective solution processed technology for the implementation of the high-speed mid-infrared light camera at room temperature is proposed. To this end, the chemically synthesized PbSe-PbI2 core-shell Quantum Dots (QDs) are used. In this work, a camera including 10 × 10 pixels is fabricated and synthesized QDs spin-coated on interdigitated contact (IDC) and then the fabricated system passivated by epoxy resin. Finally, using an electronic reading circuit, all pixels are converted to an image on the monitor. To model the fabricated camera, we solved Schrodinger-Poisson equations self consistently. Then output current from each pixel is modeled based on semiconductor physics and dark and photocurrent, as well as Responsivity and Detectivity, are calculated. Then the fabricated device is examined, and dark and photocurrents are measured and compared to the theoretical results. The obtained results indicate that the obtained theoretical and measured experimental results are in good agreement together. The fabricated detector is high speed with a rise time of 100 ns. With this speed, we can get 10 million frames per second; this means we can get very high-resolution images. The speed of operation is examined experimentally using a chopper that modulates input light with 50, 100, 250, and 500 Hz. It is shown that the fabricated device operates well in these situations, and it is not limited by the speed of detector. Finally, for the demonstration of the proposed device operation, some pictures and movies taken by the camera are attached and inserted in the paper.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Sutton EJ, Braunstein LZ, El-Tamer MB, et al (2021)

Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Biopsy to Verify Breast Cancer Pathologic Complete Response After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

JAMA network open, 4(1):e2034045 pii:2775220.

Importance: After neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), pathologic complete response (pCR) is an optimal outcome and a surrogate end point for improved disease-free and overall survival. To date, surgical resection remains the only reliable method for diagnosing pCR.

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided biopsy for diagnosing a pCR after NAC compared with reference-standard surgical resection.

Single-arm, phase 1, nonrandomized controlled trial in a single tertiary care cancer center from September 26, 2017, to July 29, 2019. The median follow-up was 1.26 years (interquartile range, 0.85-1.59 years). Data analysis was performed in November 2019. Eligible patients had (1) stage IA to IIIC biopsy-proven operable invasive breast cancer; (2) standard-of-care NAC; (3) MRI before and after NAC, with imaging complete response defined as no residual enhancement on post-NAC MRI; and (4) definitive surgery. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years, had a medical reason precluding study participation, or had a prior history of breast cancer.

Interventions: Post-NAC MRI-guided biopsy without the use of intravenous contrast of the tumor bed before definitive surgery.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the negative predictive value of MRI-guided biopsy, with true-negative defined as negative results of the biopsy (ie, no residual cancer) corresponding to a surgical pCR. Accuracy, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and specificity were also calculated. Two clinical definitions of pCR were independently evaluated: definition 1 was no residual invasive cancer; definition 2, no residual invasive or in situ cancer.

Results: Twenty of 23 patients (87%) had evaluable data (median [interquartile range] age, 51.5 [39.0-57.5] years; 20 women [100%]; 13 White patients [65%]). Of the 20 patients, pre-NAC median tumor size on MRI was 3.0 cm (interquartile range, 2.0-5.0 cm). Nineteen of 20 patients (95%) had invasive ductal carcinoma; 15 of 20 (75%) had stage II cancer; 11 of 20 (55%) had ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)-positive cancer; and 6 of 20 (30%) had triple-negative cancer. Surgical pathology demonstrated a pCR in 13 of 20 (65%) patients and no pCR in 7 of 20 patients (35%) when pCR definition 1 was used. Results of MRI-guided biopsy had a negative predictive value of 92.8% (95% CI, 66.2%-99.8%), with accuracy of 95% (95% CI, 75.1%-99.9%), sensitivity of 85.8% (95% CI, 42.0%-99.6%), positive predictive value of 100%, and specificity of 100% for pCR definition 1. Only 1 patient had a false-negative MRI-guided biopsy result (surgical pathology showed <0.02 cm of residual invasive cancer).

Conclusions and Relevance: This study's results suggest that the accuracy of MRI-guided biopsy to diagnose a post-NAC pCR approaches that of reference-standard surgical resection. MRI-guided biopsy may be a viable alternative to surgical resection for this population after NAC, which supports the need for further investigation.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03289195.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Zhang C, Li J, Jiang H, et al (2020)

Use of fiberoductoscopy for the management of pathological nipple discharge: ten years follow up of a single center in China.

Gland surgery, 9(6):2035-2043.

Background: Pathological nipple discharge (PND) is usually associated with benign intraductal papilloma, which has a higher malignant rate than other benign tumors in most cases. Fiberoductoscopy (FDS) is an alternative possibility in diagnostic and finding lesions in PND patients. Previously, the bloody discharge was presumed to show papilloma or breast cancer. However, as we started using FDS, papilloma or cancer also can be found in the cases with a transparent or yellow discharge. This study investigated the value of FDS for the diagnosis and locating of intraductal lesions in cases with nipple discharge.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 3,696 cases that initially presented with pathologic nipple discharge was performed. There were 4,456 FDSs performed, and the correlations between the FDS findings for distinct types of lesions and the pathological diagnosis were determined.

Results: Among the 2,816 cases of elevated lesions, FDS confirmed 1,933 cases of intraductal papilloma, 584 cases of intraductal papillomatosis, and 299 cases of intraductal carcinoma. Among the 880 cases of non-elevated lesions, FDS confirmed 380 cases of duct dilation, 350 cases of duct inflammation, 136 cases of duct dilation and inflammation, and 14 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). All patients followed up 3 months to 12 years. There were 241 DCIS in total, and 8 cases had local recurrence, 2 cases had metastasis. Invasive ductal carcinoma, 41 cases, 3 had recurrence and 3 had metastases, and 1 for death. Invasive lobular carcinoma 23 cases, recurrence 2 cases, metastasis 1 case.

Conclusions: FDS has a high positive predictive rate and correlates well with the results of the pathological examination. The advantage of FDS is that it can observe the lesions, increasing the detection rate of early stage breast cancer, simple to operate, low cost, and no need for the appointment, appropriate for Chinese conditions.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Wang L, Yang W, Xie X, et al (2020)

Application of digital mammography-based radiomics in the differentiation of benign and malignant round-like breast tumors and the prediction of molecular subtypes.

Gland surgery, 9(6):2005-2016.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of radiomic features based on digital mammography (DM) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant round-like (round and oval) solid tumors with circumscribed or obscured margins but without suspicious malignant or benign macrocalcifications and to investigate whether quantitative radiomic features can distinguish triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) from non-TNBC (NTNBC).

Methods: This retrospective study included 112 patients with round-like tumors who underwent DM within 20 days preoperatively. Breast masses were segmented manually on the DM images, then radiomic features were extracted. The predictive models were used to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors and to predict TNBC in invasive ductal carcinoma. The receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs) for these models were obtained for initial DM characteristics, radiomic features to predict malignant tumors and TNBC. The decision curve was obtained to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the model for the prediction of benign or malignant tumors.

Results: The study cohort included 79 patients with pathologically confirmed malignant masses and 33 patients with benign (training cohort: n=79; testing cohort: n=33). A total of 396 features were extracted from the DM images for each patient. The radiomics model for the prediction of malignant tumors achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-1.00] in the testing cohort; the radiomics model for the prediction of TNBC achieved an AUC of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.73-0.96). In contrast, DM characteristics alone poorly predicted malignant tumors, with the density achieving an AUC 0.69 (95% CI, 0.59-0.79); there was no significant difference in DM characteristics between TNBC and NTNBC (P>0.05, all). The decision curve showed the good clinical usefulness of the model for the prediction of malignant tumors.

Conclusions: This study showed that DM-based radiomics can accurately discriminate between benign and malignant round-like tumors with circumscribed or obscured margins but without suspicious malignant or benign macrocalcifications. Additionally, it can be used to predict TNBC in invasive ductal carcinoma. DM-based radiomics can aid radiologists in mammogram reading, clinical diagnosis and decision-making.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Bartovská Z, Andrle F, Beran O, et al (2020)

Data from the first wave of Covid-19 from the Central Military Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Epidemiologie, mikrobiologie, imunologie : casopis Spolecnosti pro epidemiologii a mikrobiologii Ceske lekarske spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne, 69(4):164-171.

AIMS: To process data from the first wave of Covid-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) collected in the Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) of the First Faculty of Medicine and Central Military Hospital, Prague. To analyse some clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of Covid-19 in the context of the Czech Republic and to compare them with the data from the most recent literature.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analysed data on patients admitted to the IDC between 12 March 2020 and 5 May 2020. The study cohort included 53 patients with Covid-19, 25 females and 28 males, with an average age of 57 years. The parameters analysed were clinical symptoms, average length of hospital stay, complications, and death. Additional data concerned the age, weight, smoking habits, history of comorbidities, and selected laboratory results. These data were compared between groups of patients differing in severity of the course of Covid-19. Finally, imaging findings, serology results, and therapy outcomes were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using the SigmaStat software.

RESULTS: Eleven (20.8%) patients had a mild course of the disease, 16 (30.2%) patients had a moderate course, 22 (41.5%) patients had a severe course, and four (7.5%) patients had a critical course. The study patients presented with the following clinical symptoms: fever in 88.5% of cases, cough in 84.6% of cases, difficulty breathing in 77.4% of cases, diarrhoea in 23.1% of cases, chest pain in 17.3% of cases, and anosmia in 11.5% of cases. The average length of hospital stay was eight days. The most common complication was a bacterial superinfection, reported in 17 (32.1%) study patients. The overall case fatality rate for Covid-19 in our study was 5.7%. The average age of the study cohort was 57 years, and patients with a severe course of the disease were of older average age than those with a less severe course of the disease (p < 0.05). The predominant comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The analysis of the baseline laboratory data showed significant differences between the groups of patients differing in severity of the course of Covid-19 in CRP, procalcitonin, and d-dimers but not in lymphocyte count. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of the lungs was performed in 22 patients, and 21 of them had typical findings for Covid-19. The average MuLBSTA score for Covid-19 pneumonia severity in our study cohort was 11.5 points and was not associated with the severity of the course of the disease. Serology tests were performed in 43 study patients, with 29 (67.4%) of them turning out positive in the first test and other five (11.6%) testing positive when retested. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was given experimentally as monotherapy or in combination with azithromycin (AZI) to 24 (45.3%) patients. Two patients on HCQ therapy also received inosinum pranobexum (isoprinosine) for severe lymphopenia, one patient received convalescent plasma, six patients were given AZI alone, and one patient was treated with inosinum pranobexum alone. Altogether 37.7% of study patients were prescribed other antibiotics for confirmed or suspected bacterial superinfection. Standard clinical and pharmaceutical care was provided to patients with particular focus on the safety of off-label drug use. HCQ was with drawn in three patients due to a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc).

CONCLUSIONS: In the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, our study patients showed comorbidities and risk factors which are consistent with the international literature, but the course of the disease was mostly moderate to severe, with a low proportion of critically ill patients and fatal outcomes. As soon as new information became available, new diagnostic and therapeutic options were introduced into routine practice. Based on our experience, we are well prepared for a possible second wave of SARS-CoV-2 in terms of the diagnostics, but the therapeutic options still remain very limited.

RevDate: 2021-01-14

Trinh A, Gil Del Alcazar CR, Shukla SA, et al (2020)

Genomic alterations during the in situ to invasive ductal breast carcinoma transition shaped by the immune system.

Molecular cancer research : MCR pii:1541-7786.MCR-20-0949 [Epub ahead of print].

The drivers of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) transition are poorly understood. Here, we conducted an integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and whole-slide image analysis to evaluate changes in copy number profiles, mutational profiles, expression, neoantigen load and topology in 6 cases of matched pure DCIS and recurrent IDC. We demonstrate through combined copy number and mutational analysis that recurrent IDC can be genetically related to its pure DCIS despite long latency periods and therapeutic interventions. Immune "hot" and "cold" tumors can arise as early as DCIS and are subtype-specific. Topologic analysis showed a similar degree of pan-leukocyte-tumor mixing in both DCIS and IDC but differ when assessing specific immune subpopulations such as CD4 T-cells and CD68 macrophages. Tumor-specific copy number aberrations in MHC-I presentation machinery and losses in 3p,4q, and 5p are associated with differences in immune signaling in estrogen receptor (ER) negative IDC. Common oncogenic hotspot mutations in genes including TP53 and PIK3CA are predicted to be neoantigens yet are paradoxically conserved during the DCIS-to-IDC transition, and are associated with differences in immune signaling. We highlight both tumor and immune-specific changes in the transition of pure DCIS to IDC, including genetic changes in tumor cells that may have a role in modulating immune function and assist in immune escape, driving the transition to IDC. Implications: We demonstrate that the in situ to invasive breast carcinoma evolutionary bottleneck is shaped by both tumor and immune cells.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Schlein C, Fischer AW, Sass F, et al (2021)

Endogenous Fatty Acid Synthesis Drives Brown Adipose Tissue Involution.

Cell reports, 34(2):108624.

Thermoneutral conditions typical for standard human living environments result in brown adipose tissue (BAT) involution, characterized by decreased mitochondrial mass and increased lipid deposition. Low BAT activity is associated with poor metabolic health, and BAT reactivation may confer therapeutic potential. However, the molecular drivers of this BAT adaptive process in response to thermoneutrality remain enigmatic. Using metabolic and lipidomic approaches, we show that endogenous fatty acid synthesis, regulated by carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP), is the central regulator of BAT involution. By transcriptional control of lipogenesis-related enzymes, ChREBP determines the abundance and composition of both storage and membrane lipids known to regulate organelle turnover and function. Notably, ChREBP deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of lipogenesis during thermoneutral adaptation preserved mitochondrial mass and thermogenic capacity of BAT independently of mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, we establish lipogenesis as a potential therapeutic target to prevent loss of BAT thermogenic capacity as seen in adult humans.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Abdolahi M, Salehi M, Shokatian I, et al (2020)

Artificial intelligence in automatic classification of invasive ductal carcinoma breast cancer in digital pathology images.

Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 34:140.

Background: Breast cancer is one of the most causes of death in women. Early diagnosis and detection of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) is an important key for the treatment of IDC. Computer-aided approaches have great potential to improve diagnosis accuracy. In this paper, we proposed a deep learning-based method for the automatic classification of IDC in whole slide images (WSI) of breast cancer. Furthermore, different types of deep neural networks training such as training from scratch and transfer learning to classify IDC were evaluated. Methods: In total, 277524 image patches with 50×50-pixel size form original images were used for model training. In the first method, we train a simple convolutional neural network (named it baseline model) on these images. In the second approach, we used the pre-trained VGG-16 CNN model via feature extraction and fine-tuning for the classification of breast pathology images. Results: Our baseline model achieved a better result for the automatic classification of IDC in terms of F-measure and accuracy (83%, 85%) in comparison with original paper on this data set and achieved a comparable result with a new study that introduced accepted-rejected pooling layer. Also, transfer learning via feature extraction yielded better results (81%, 81%) in comparison with handcrafted features. Furthermore, transfer learning via feature extraction yielded better classification results in comparison with the baseline model. Conclusion: The experimental results demonstrate that using deep learning approaches yielded better results in comparison with handcrafted features. Also, using transfer learning in histopathology image analysis yielded significant results in comparison with training from scratch in much less time.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Xia Y, Liu X, Li W, et al (2021)

Potential role of significant GATA3 mutation in male breast cancer responding to endocrine therapy: A case report.

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 64(1):161-164.

A 60-year-old Chinese male with a hard mass, pressure pain, and ulcerous skin under his left axilla was first diagnosed with apocrine carcinoma, most likely metastasis from breast cancer. PET/CT scan detected multiple bone metastasis and enlarged lymph nodes at left axilla, mediastinal area 7, and left pulmonary hilus. Lumpectomy was performed to remove the mass followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy against focal bone metastasis, left axillary lesion, and left subcutaneous chest wall. PET/CT examination showed progressive disease after the completion of the treatments. Two nontender hard nodules were noticed on the patient's left upper arm and multiple immobile nodules were palpated under his left axillary skin. Immunohistochemistry (HER2++, ER+, PR+, AR-) of the biopsy tissue combined with histopathology indicated invasive ductal carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. Metastatic Luminal B subtype breast cancer was preferred. Anti-estrogen endocrine therapy was then performed and PET/CT scan showed partial remission after one month's fulvestrant administration. Two significant somatic mutations, AR R616H and GATA3 S408Afs*99, were detected in the biopsy tissue by next-generation sequencing. GATA3 is associated with estrogen receptor signaling and was identified as a driver gene of female breast cancer. However, the function of GATA3 in male breast cancer remains controversial. Report of this case hopefully will contribute to exploring the role of GATA3 mutation in molecular mechanisms and endocrine therapy of male breast cancer.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Farrag MS, Anter AH, Farrag NS, et al (2021)

"Switch of E-Cadherin to N-Cadherin expression in different molecular subtypes of breast invasive duct carcinomas and its correlation with clinicopathological features".

Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 64(1):38-46.

Background: In breast cancer, metastasis and recurrence is the main culprit in treatment failure. This study aimed to explore the role of E-cadherin/N-cadherin Switch in progression, spread and metastasis in breast invasive duct carcinoma.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study on 118 formalinfixed paraffinembedded mastectomy specimens of invasive breast duct carcinoma. Primary antibodies for E-cadherin (monoclonal, clone HECD-1; Zymed Laboratories; dilution 1:600) and N-cadherin (monoclonal, clone 3B9; Zymed Laboratories, Inc., Montrouge, France; dilution 1:200) were applied for all cases. The study revealed that E-cadherin high expression was significantly associated with advanced TNM clinical stage (P = 0.021), and nodal metastasis (P < 0.001). High expression of N-cadherin was significantly positively correlated with tumor sizes (P < 0.00), advanced clinical stage (P < 0.00), and nodal metastasis (P < 0.008). Mean OS was 39.99 months in cases with negative expression versus 41.8 months in cases with positive expression. Mean DFS in cases with positive E. cadh expression was 41.89 months was higher than mean DFS in cases with negative E. cadh expression which was 40.52 months, but it showed no statistical significance (P = 0.57).

Conclusions/Significance: This study demonstrated that loss of E-cadherin and gain of N-cadherin promotes invasion, migration, and metastasis in invasive ductal carcinoma cells. Importantly, these findings may exploit new cancer therapies using N-cadherin antagonists.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Abraham E, Zagoory-Sharon O, R Feldman (2021)

Early maternal and paternal caregiving moderates the links between preschoolers' reactivity and regulation and maturation of the HPA-immune axis.

Developmental psychobiology [Epub ahead of print].

While early caregiving and child's temperamental dispositions work in concert to shape social-emotional outcomes, their unique and joint contribution to the maturation of the child's stress and immune systems remain unclear. We followed children longitudinally from infancy to preschool to address the buffering effect of early parenting on the link between temperamental dysregulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-immune axis in preschool-aged children. Participants included 47 typically developing children and their 94 parents in both mother-father and two-father families followed across the first 4-years of family formation. In infancy, we observed parent-infant synchrony and measured parental oxytocin; in preschool, we observed temperamental reactivity and self-regulation and assessed children's cortisol and secretory Immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), biomarkers of the stress and immune systems. Greater self-regulation and lower negative emotionality were associated with lower baseline s-IgA and cortisol, respectively. However, these links were defined by interactive effects so that preschoolers with low self-regulation displayed higher s-IgA levels only in cases of low parent-infant synchrony and negative emotionality linked with greater baseline cortisol levels only when parental oxytocin levels were low. Results emphasize the long-term stress-buffering role of the neurobiology of parental care, demonstrate comparable developmental paths for mothers and fathers, and delineate the complex developmental cascades to the maturation of children's stress-management systems.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Landolfi A, Ricciardi C, Donisi L, et al (2021)

Machine Learning Approaches in Parkinson's Disease.

Current medicinal chemistry pii:CMC-EPUB-113198 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. Its diagnosis is challenging and mainly relies on clinical aspects. At present, no biomarker is available to obtain a diagnosis of certainty in vivo.

OBJECTIVE: The present review aims at describing machine learning algorithms as they have been variably applied to different aspects of Parkinson's disease diagnosis and characterization.

METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed in December 2019, resulting in 230 publications obtained with the following search query: "Machine Learning" "AND" "Parkinson Disease".

RESULTS: the obtained publications were divided into 6 categories, based on different application fields: "Gait Analysis - Motor Evaluation", "Upper Limb Motor and Tremor Evaluation", "Handwriting and typing evaluation", "Speech and Phonation evaluation", "Neuroimaging and Nuclear Medicine evaluation", "Metabolomics application", after excluding the papers of general topic. As a result, a total of 166 articles were analyzed, after elimination of papers written in languages other than English or not directly related to the selected topics.

CONCLUSION: Machine learning algorithms are computer-based statistical approaches which can be trained and are able to find common patterns from big amounts of data. The machine learning approaches can help clinicians in classifying patients according to several variables at the same time.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Karatas M, Zengel B, Durusoy R, et al (2021)

Clinicopathologic features of single bone metastasis in breast cancer.

Medicine, 100(1):e24164.

ABSTRACT: The most common site for metastasis in patients with breast cancer is the bone. In this case series, we investigated patients whose surgical and medical treatment for primary breast cancer was conducted at our center and first disease recurrence was limited to only 1 bone.We analyzed 910 breast cancer patients, 863 had no metastasis and 47 cases had a single bone metastasis ≥ 6 months after their first diagnosis. Demographic, epidemiological, histopathological and intrinsic tumor subtype differences between the non-metastatic group and the group with solitary bone metastases and their statistical significance were examined. Among established breast cancer risk factors, we studied twenty-nine variables.Three variables (Type of tumor surgery, TNM Stage III tumors and mixed type (invasive ductalcarsinoma + invasive lobular carcinoma) histology) were significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, the risk of developing single bone metastasis was approximately 15 times higher in patients who underwent mastectomy and 4.8 and 2.8 times higher in those with TNM Stage III tumors and with mixed type (invasive ductal carcinoma + invasive lobular carcinoma) histology, respectively.In conclusion, the risk of developing single bone metastasis is likely in non-metastatic patients with Stage III tumors and possibly in mixed type tumors. Knowing this risk, especially in patients with mixed type tumors, may be instrumental in taking measures with different adjuvant therapies in future studies. Among these, treatment modalities such as prolonged hormone therapy and addition of bisphosphonates to the adjuvant treatments of stage III and mixed breast cancer patients may be considered.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Nevagi RJ, Good MF, DI Stanisic (2021)

Plasmodium infection and drug cure for malaria vaccine development.

Expert review of vaccines [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: Despite decades of research into the development of a vaccine to combat the malaria parasite, a highly efficacious malaria vaccine is not yet available. Different whole parasite-based vaccine approaches, including deliberate Plasmodium infection and drug cure (IDC), have been evaluated in pre-clinical and early phase clinical trials. The advantage of whole parasite vaccines is that they induce immune responses against multiple parasite antigens, thus lowering the impact of antigenic diversity. Deliberate Plasmodium IDC, as a vaccine approach, involves administering infectious, live parasites in combination with an anti-malarial drug, which controls the infection and enables induction of protective immune responses.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Zhang H, Zhang N, Li Y, et al (2020)

Evaluation of efficacy of chemotherapy for mucinous carcinoma: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results cohort study.

Therapeutic advances in medical oncology, 12:1758835920975603 pii:10.1177_1758835920975603.

Background: In this study, we investigated the impact of chemotherapy on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) in patients with mucinous carcinoma using the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database.

Methods: A large-scale SEER-based retrospective analysis was conducted; 13,329 patients with mucinous carcinoma from 1994 to 2014 were identified. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared using the chi-square test. BCSS curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of all demographic and clinicopathological characteristics and treatment patterns were calculated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses.

Results: Mucinous carcinoma was demonstrated to be less aggressive than invasive ductal carcinoma and predicted a better prognosis in the Kaplan-Meier analysis (hazard ratios = 0.336, 95% confidence interval: 0.308-0.368, p < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that chemotherapy did not provide any additional benefit for patients with mucinous carcinoma. Predictors for receiving chemotherapy were younger age, estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive status, higher grade, larger tumor size, lymph node involvement, radiation reception, and mastectomy. Further subgroup analysis verified that regardless of the hormone receptor (HR) and lymph node (LN) status, patients did not benefit from chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Our study showed that patients with HR+/LN- mucinous carcinoma did not benefit from chemotherapy and that chemotherapy could not improve the survival of all subtypes of mucinous carcinoma based on large-scale SEER data. These results support that patients with mucinous carcinoma could be exempt from chemotherapy. Additional research is needed to further evaluate the impact of adjuvant treatments, particularly in patients with favorable histology.

RevDate: 2021-01-10

Huang K, Appiah L, Mishra A, et al (2021)

Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Prognosis of Invasive Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast.

The Journal of surgical research, 261:105-112 pii:S0022-4804(20)30887-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Invasive papillary carcinoma (IPC) of the breast is thought to carry a more favorable prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics between IPC and IDC and their prognosis using a large nationwide data set.

METHODS: Female patients diagnosed with malignant IPC and IDC between 2005 and 2014 were analyzed. Patients with incomplete survival data, stage 0/IV, unknown stage, or recurrent disease were excluded. Five-year overall survival was compared between IPC and IDC.

RESULTS: Among 308,426 patients, 1147 had IPC and 307,279 had IDC. IPC presented more in older postmenopausal women, black Americans, and people who had government insurance. IPC had larger tumor size, lower-grade, and earlier-stage disease, less node-positive disease, higher hormone positivity, and lower human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 amplification. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy rates were lower in IPC than those in IDC. IPC had a similar 5-year overall survival as compared with IDC overall (86.8% versus 88.7%) (P = 0.06). Age, pathologic stage, and radiation treatment were shown to be independent prognostic factors of IPC.

CONCLUSIONS: IPC has a similar prognosis as IDC, suggesting that these patients should follow the same treatment protocols.

RevDate: 2021-01-09

Hoshina H, Takei H, Sakatani T, et al (2020)

CDX2-positive breast cancer presented with axillary lymph node metastases: A case report.

Cancer treatment and research communications, 26:100300 pii:S2468-2942(20)30135-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The caudal type homeobox 2 transcription factor (CDX2) is a specific and sensitive marker for intestinal carcinoma, but usually not expressed in breast cancer. In CDX2-positive metastatic cancer of occult primary, the origin is highly suspicious of an enteric carcinoma.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old woman complained of enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) in the right axilla. Mammography and ultrasonography scans showed no abnormal findings in her breasts. Core needle biopsy (CNB) revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CDX2 intensely. The primary tumor was suspicious of intestinal adenocarcinoma. A dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed an accentuated lesion which was detected using a second-look ultrasound, and diagnosed invasive ductal carcinoma by CNB. A partial mastectomy of the right breast with level I and II axillary LN dissection was performed. A few cells of primary cancer were expressed CDX2 and estrogen receptor. The final pathological diagnosis was T1bN3aM0 stage IIIC. The fluorescent double staining showed that CDX2 simultaneously expressed on the Ki67 positive cells of metastatic tumors. The adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy and radiation, followed by tamoxifen administration. The patient survived without any recurrences over the following 36 months.

CONCLUSIONS: We report a rare case of CDX2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the axillary LNs. As some literatures reported vitamin D pathways induced cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition, these metastatic cells of our case might play the effort of autoregulation of inhibiting progression.

RevDate: 2021-01-09

Lopes BC, Braga CZ, Ventura FV, et al (2021)

miR-210 and miR-152 as Biomarkers by Liquid Biopsy in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.

Journal of personalized medicine, 11(1): pii:jpm11010031.

Detecting circulating microRNAs (miRNAs; miRs) by means of liquid biopsy is an important tool for the early diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer (BC). We aimed to identify and validate miR-210 and miR-152 as non-invasive circulating biomarkers, for the diagnosis and staging of BC patients, confirming their involvement in tumor angiogenesis.

METHODS: RT-qPCR was performed and MiRNA expression analysis was obtained from plasma and fragments of BC and benign breast condition (BBC) women patients, plus healthy subjects. Additionally, the immunohistochemistry technique was carried out to analyze the expression of target proteins.

RESULTS: Tumor fragments showed increased expression of oncomiR-210 and decreased expression of miR-152 tumoral suppressor. Both miRNAs were increased in plasma samples from BC patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that only the expression of oncomiR-210 in tissue samples and only the expression of the miR-152 suppressor in plasma have the appropriate sensitivity and specificity for use as differential biomarkers between early/intermediate and advanced stages of BC patients. In addition, there was an increase in the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in BC patients. On the contrary, a decrease in Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein expression was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that increased levels of miR-210 and decreased levels of miR152, in addition to the expressions of their target proteins, could indicate, respectively, the oncogenic and tumor suppressive role of these miRNAs in fragments. Both miRNAs are potential diagnostic biomarkers for BC by liquid biopsy. In addition, miR-152 proved to be a promising biomarker for disease staging.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Téllez-Duarte A, LV González-Ramírez (2020)

[COVID-19 in orthopedics].

Acta ortopedica mexicana, 34(3):153-157.

STUDY DESIGN: This is a systematic literature review for COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 with Orthopedic and Spine Surgery relevance.

OBJECTIVES: It is to determine in Orthopedic surgery and Spine Surgery and its branches the new required safety protocols when attending patients with risk of infection, or transmission for COVID-19 and comorbidities in the outpatient and inpatient hospital setting.

METHODS: A systematic literature review.

RESULTS: Recent knowledge for this disease has changed the Virus affects ORF-8 protein of the Hemoglobin destroying B-Hemoglobin, and IDC (intravascular disseminated coagulation) is found to happen in many patients, together with its capsular capability to adhere to metallic and plastic surfaces, pneumonic pattern associated with ventilator use, and the relapse in some patients, changes the view, preventative measures and treatment of this disease. Publication of global statistics show that patients with hypertension tend to have a higher rate of suffering the disease. Some new measures are proposed.

CONCLUSIONS: New care guidelines for COVID-19 patients are proposed based on the new research on SARS-CoV-2 clinical pathologic findings are necessary.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Lu N, Zhang M, Lu L, et al (2020)

miRNA‑490‑3p promotes the metastatic progression of invasive ductal carcinoma.

Oncology reports [Epub ahead of print].

MicroRNA (miRNA/mir)‑490‑3p has been defined as a tumor suppressor in different types of cancer, including breast cancer. However, miR‑490‑3p has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor and promoter in a context‑dependent manner in hepatocellular and lung cancer. Contrary to previous studies, the present study revealed that miR‑490‑3p expression was significantly higher in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissue specimens, the most common form of breast cancer, compared to tumor‑adjacent normal tissue specimens (n=20). Its expression was also higher in the more metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA‑MB‑231, compared to the non‑metastatic breast cancer cell line, MCF7, and the moderately metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA‑MB‑468. The expression of miR‑490‑3p was induced following transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β‑induced epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A cells. Gain‑and loss‑of‑function assays revealed that the expression of miR‑490‑3p regulated the proliferation, colony formation, EMT, migration and invasion in vitro, but not the apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑468 and MDA‑MB‑231 cells. The knockdown of miR‑490‑3p expression in MDA‑MB‑231 cells inhibited experimental metastasis in a tumor xenograft assay. As in lung cancer, miR‑490‑3p was found to target and downregulate the expression of the tumor suppressor RNA binding protein poly r(C) binding protein 1 (PCBP1). PCBP1 protein and miR‑490‑3p expression inversely correlated in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; n=10; no nodal involvement) and IDC (n=10; different stages of metastatic progression) with a significantly higher miR‑490‑3p expression in patients with IDC compared to those with DCIS. The expression of miR‑490‑3p was negatively associated with both overall and disease‑free survival in the patients with breast cancer included in the present study. On the whole, the results confirm a pro‑metastatic role of miR‑490‑3p in IDC, establishing it as a biomarker for disease progression in these patients.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Zimmerman-Brenner S, Pilowsky-Peleg T, Rachamim L, et al (2021)

Group behavioral interventions for tics and comorbid symptoms in children with chronic tic disorders.

European child & adolescent psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP), Habit Reversal Training (HRT) and Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) are effective in reducing tic severity. ERP and HRT have recently gained primary support in a group setting, while CBIT has not been examined similarly. We compared the efficacy of group-CBIT to group-Educational Intervention for Tics (group-EIT) for tics and comorbid symptoms. Children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) or Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD) were randomized to group-CBIT or group-EIT. Tics and comorbid symptoms were assessed in forty-six children pre- and postintervention, and 3-month later. Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) Motor tic severity decreased following both interventions, and was maintained at follow-up for group-CBIT only. The Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ) showed significant decrease in total and motor tic severity following group-CBIT only, a gain maintained three months later. YGTSS impairment score decreased following both interventions and was maintained at follow-up. YGTSS vocal tic severity score increased following both interventions, and then decreased significantly at follow up. Co-morbid symptoms including anxiety, behavioral problems, and aggressive behavior decreased following both interventions. Children with behavioral problems benefitted less while children with higher intellectual ability benefit more from intervention. Both group interventions showed efficacy in reducing tic impairment and comorbid symptoms. Group-CBIT was superior to group-EIT in reducing motor tic severity at 3-month follow-up, showing an advantage for tic-focused treatment. Based on the PTQ, group-CBIT was superior to group-EIT in reducing motor, vocal, and total tic scores, a gain maintained three months later. Clinical trial registry information-Group Intervention for Children with Chronic Tics Syndrome: CBIT vs Psychoeducational Intervention URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov , Identifier: NCT02407951, http://www.controlled-trials.com).

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Yang C, Lei C, Zhang Y, et al (2020)

Comparison of Overall Survival Between Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma and Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma: A Propensity Score Matching Study Based on SEER Database.

Frontiers in oncology, 10:590643.

Objective: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) account for most breast cancers. However, the overall survival (OS) differences between ILC and IDC remain controversial. This study aimed to compare nonmetastatic ILC to IDC in terms of survival and prognostic factors for ILC.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer Database (www.seer.cancer.gov). Women diagnosed with nonmetastatic ILC and IDC between 2006 and 2016 were included. A propensity score matching (PSM) method was used in our analysis to reduce baseline differences in clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test were used for survival analysis.

Results: Compared to IDC patients, ILC patients were diagnosed later in life with poorly differentiated and larger lesions, as well as increased expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and/or progesterone receptors (PRs). A lower rate of radiation therapy and chemotherapy was observed in ILC. After PSM, ILC, and IDC patients exhibited similar OS (HR=1.017, p=0.409, 95% CI: 0.967-1.069). In subgroup analysis of HR-negative, AJCC stage III, N2/N3 stage patients, or those who received radiotherapy, ILC patients exhibited worse OS compared to IDC patients. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed a 47% survival benefit for IDC compared to ILC in HR-negative patients who received chemotherapy (HR=1.47, p=0.01, 95% CI: 1.09-1.97).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that ILC and IDC patients had similar OS after PSM. However, ILC patients with high risk indicators had worse OS compared to IDC patients by subgroup analysis.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Zeng XQ, Jiang SS, Peng YY, et al (2020)

Trastuzumab-Induced Severe Thrombocytopenia:A Case Report and Literature Review.

Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih, 35(4):377-382.

We present a 29-year-old woman with pT2N0M0 breast cancer, histological diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma, ER and PR low positive, and HER-2 (3+). The patient developed trastuzumab-induced thrombocytopenia in 6 hours after an intravenous infusion of trastuzumab at the second cycle of trastuzumab treatment with the symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Laboratory exam revealed a sharp drop of platelet count down to 3×109/L. With the treatment of single-donor platelet transfusions, glucocorticoids, oxytocin and thrombopoietic drugs, the platelet count recovered completely in 11 days. This case was confirmed to be severe thrombocytopenia induced by trastuzumab, and retreatment with trastuzumab was not attempted. With increasing clinical utilization of trastuzumab, clinicians are likely to encounter more life-threatening trastuzumab induced severe thrombocytopenia. By this case report and literature review, we hope to increase the awareness, attach the attentions to this condition, and help with the effective treatment.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Mayopoulos GA, Ein-Dor T, Dishy GA, et al (2020)

COVID-19 is associated with traumatic childbirth and subsequent mother-infant bonding problems.

Journal of affective disorders, 282:122-125 pii:S0165-0327(20)33191-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of women's experience of childbirth in the outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and associated maternal health outcomes is scarce.

METHODS: A sample of primarily American women who gave birth around the height of COVID-19 (n = 1,611) and matched controls, i.e., women who gave birth before COVID-19 (n = 640), completed an anonymous Internet survey about recent childbirth, birth-related traumatic stress (peritraumatic distress inventory; PTSD-checklist), maternal bonding (maternal attachment inventory; mother-to-infant bonding scale) and breastfeeding status. Groups (n = 637 in each) were matched on demographics, prior mental health/trauma and childbirth factors to determine the unique contribution of COVID-19 to the psychological experience of childbirth.

RESULTS: Mothers in COVID-19-exposed communities endorsed more clinically acute stress response to childbirth than matched controls (Z = 2.65, p = .008, OR= 1.38). A path mediation model revealed that acute stress mediated the relationship between study group and postpartum outcomes. Specifically, higher acute stress response in birth was associated with more childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (β = .42, p < .001) and less bonding with the infant (β = .26, p < .001), including breastfeeding problems (β = .10, p < .01).

LIMITATIONS: Use of a convenient internet sample introduces bias towards more educated women and reliance on retrospective self-report assessments may entail recall bias.

CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is a major stressor for delivering women. It can heighten traumatic childbirth experiences and interfere with successful postpartum adjustment. Clinical attention to traumatic stress in childbirth and problems with caring for the young during this pandemic is important.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Ohara M, Koi Y, Sasada T, et al (2021)

Spontaneous regression of breast cancer with immune response: a case report.

Surgical case reports, 7(1):10.

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous regression (SR) is a rare phenomenon in which a cancer disappears or remits without treatment. We report a case of breast cancer that showed spontaneous tumor regression in the surgical specimen after core needle biopsy.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old woman came to our hospital complaining of a painful lump in the right breast. In the upper-outer quadrant of the right breast, a tumor with an unclear boundary, 30 mm in diameter, was palpable. In pathological findings from needle biopsy, the tumor was diagnosed as solid-type invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Partial coagulation necrosis was generated in estrogen receptor-negative, HER2-negative, and AE1/AE3-positive ductal carcinoma without infiltration of lymphocytes. Surgery for right breast cancer was then performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen revealed the tumor was invasive ductal carcinoma with lymphocyte infiltration, coagulation necrosis, and fibrous tissue with hemosiderin. The tumor formed a solid nest, 3 mm in diameter, suggesting the possibility of SR.

CONCLUSIONS: Immune responses, infection, hormones, surgical stress, and ischemia have been reported as mechanisms of SR. The findings in this case strongly suggest that SR of breast cancer is associated with anti-tumor immune responses.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Sinduja R, Kumaran R, Sundaramurthi S, et al (2020)

Carcinoma of the Accessory Axillary Breast: A Diagnostic Dilemma and a Management Challenge.

Cureus, 12(12):e11844.

Carcinoma of the accessory axillary breast is uncommon, with an incidence of 0.2 to 0.6%. We report a patient whose biopsy of a suspicious lesion in the axilla present for one year revealed invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). There was presence of breast tissue and absence of lymphoid tissue in the biopsy, suggesting a breast malignancy. Magnetic resonance mammography was suggestive of the lesion well away from the normal breast, confirming an accessory axillary breast. She was offered wide local excision of the lesion with axillary lymph node dissection and modified radical mastectomy (MRM), and she chose the latter. Her post-operative biopsy showed the involvement of all the 25 lymph nodes harvested. Any suspicious lesion in the axilla should be promptly worked up for malignancy. Accessory axillary breast carcinoma, if confirmed, can be addressed with wide local excision along with axillary lymph node dissection. However, further studies should clarify this and the outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Lee YJ, Shin J, Jung JM, et al (2020)

Bilateral Metachronous Paget's Disease of the Accessory Breasts in a Male.

Journal of breast cancer, 23(6):665-671.

Bilateral axillary Paget's disease in men is a rare occurrence with limited reports on its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Here, we report the case of a 55-year-old Korean male, who presented with a palpable mass and eczematous skin lesion on the left axilla. An incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination indicated invasive ductal carcinoma with Paget's disease arising in the accessory breast. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography revealed no malignancy in the normal breast and other organs. The patient was subjected to a wide excision, wherein the left axillary lymph node was dissected, followed by the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. After 17 months of disease-free survival, the patient was diagnosed with Paget's disease of the contralateral accessory breast. He underwent wide excision surgery along with radiation therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral extramammary Paget's disease in a male.

RevDate: 2021-01-07

Yamashita M, Kamei Y, Murakami A, et al (2021)

Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast and BRCA1 germline mutation: a case report and review.

Hereditary cancer in clinical practice, 19(1):3.

BACKGROUND: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast consists of both invasive ductal carcinoma and metaplastic carcinoma. This rare subtype of cancer has a poor prognosis. The development of metaplastic breast cancer and relationship with BRCA1 are not well known. Here, we report a rare case of germline BRCA1 mutation-positive breast cancer with chondroid metaplasia.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old Japanese woman with a family history of breast cancer in her mother and ovarian cancer in her maternal grandmother consulted at our hospital with a left breast mass. Needle biopsy for the mass was performed, leading to a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer with chondroid metaplasia. We performed left mastectomy + sentinel lymph node biopsy + tissue expander insertion and replaced with a silicone implant later. Pathological examination revealed that the patient had triple-negative breast cancer. Four courses of doxorubicin+ cyclophosphamide therapy were performed as adjuvant therapy after surgery. We performed genetic counseling and genetic testing, and the results suggested the germline BRCA1 mutation 307 T> A (L63*). She has currently lived without a relapse for 2 years post-surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: There have been only 6 cases of metaplastic breast carcinoma with germline BRCA1 mutations including our case. Patients with BRCA1 mutations may develop basal-like subtypes or M type of triple-negative breast cancer besides metaplastic breast cancers.

RevDate: 2021-01-06

Mnejja M, Kallel S, Thabet W, et al (2021)

[Ductal carcinomas of the parotid gland].

Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique pii:S1278-3218(20)30333-4 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To describe the clinical, therapeutic and prognostic features of ductal carcinomas of the parotid gland.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five patients with ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland (primary and secondary carcinoma) treated, between 2007 and 2019, in our ENT department, were reviewed.

RESULTS: Four men and one woman were included. The mean age was 61,4 years. One patient had a history of an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Four patients consulted for swelling in the parotid region. One patient referred to our department for dysfunction of facial nerve. Skin invasion was found in one case. Four patients underwent total parotidectomy with sacrifice of the facial nerve (three cases). One patient underwent extended parotidectomy involving the skin. An ipsilateral selective neck dissection was performed in four cases. One patient had a parotid gland biopsy. Ductal carcinoma was primary in four cases and metastatic from breast origin in one case. Four patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Remission was obtained in three cases. One patient had a local and meningeal recurrence. The patient with metastatic carcinoma had pulmonary, bone, hepatic and brain progression.

CONCLUSION: Ductal carcinoma is a rare and aggressive tumor of the parotid gland. It can be primary or secondary. The treatment is based on surgery and radiotherapy. The prognosis is poor.

RevDate: 2021-01-06

Mohr H, Ballke S, Bechmann N, et al (2021)

Mutation of the Cell Cycle Regulator p27kip1 Drives Pseudohypoxic Pheochromocytoma Development.

Cancers, 13(1): pii:cancers13010126.

BACKGROUND: Pseudohypoxic tumors activate pro-oncogenic pathways typically associated with severe hypoxia even when sufficient oxygen is present, leading to highly aggressive tumors. Prime examples are pseudohypoxic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (p-PPGLs), neuroendendocrine tumors currently lacking effective therapy. Previous attempts to generate mouse models for p-PPGLs all failed. Here, we describe that the rat MENX line, carrying a Cdkn1b (p27) frameshift-mutation, spontaneously develops pseudohypoxic pheochromocytoma (p-PCC).

METHODS: We compared rat p-PCCs with their cognate human tumors at different levels: histology, immunohistochemistry, catecholamine profiling, electron microscopy, transcriptome and metabolome. The vessel architecture and angiogenic potential of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) was analyzed by light-sheet fluorescence microscopy ex vivo and multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in vivo.

RESULTS: The analysis of tissues at various stages, from hyperplasia to advanced grades, allowed us to correlate tumor characteristics with progression. Pathological changes affecting the mitochrondrial ultrastructure where present already in hyperplasias. Rat PCCs secreted high levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis revealed changes in oxidative phosphorylation that aggravated over time, leading to an accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate, and to hypermethylation, evident by the loss of the epigenetic mark 5-hmC. While rat PCC xenografts showed high oxygenation, induced by massive neoangiogenesis, rat primary PCC transcriptomes possessed a pseudohypoxic signature of high Hif2a, Vegfa, and low Pnmt expression, thereby clustering with human p-PPGL.

CONCLUSION: Endogenous rat PCCs recapitulate key phenotypic features of human p-PPGLs. Thus, MENX rats emerge as the best available animal model of these aggressive tumors. Our study provides evidence of a link between cell cycle dysregulation and pseudohypoxia.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Has Simsek D, Isik EG, Engin MN, et al (2021)

Somatostatin receptor-positive breast lesions on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT.

Annals of nuclear medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This study sets out to evaluate patients with increased uptake in breast lesions on 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT (DOTA PET) and determine the clinical significance of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positive breast lesions.

METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all patients with increased SSTR uptake in breast lesions on DOTA PET. Patients with physiological (e.g., lactation) or normal variant breast uptake (e.g., mild diffuse glandular uptake) were excluded. The maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated using a manually drawn region of interest in the most intense uptake of breast lesions. All lesions were correlated with breast imaging, including mammography and ultrasonography. Histopathological correlation was performed if the lesion was suspicious for malignancy. Lesions were followed up radiologically (1-8 years).

RESULTS: Out of 1573 retrospectively analyzed DOTA PET scans, the incidence of SSTR + breast lesions was measured as 1.1% (n = 18); however, 4 of 18 patients were excluded due to the lack of final diagnosis of lesions. The median age was 35 (range 14-58 years), and all patients were female. The median SUVmax of SSTR + breast lesions was 5.2 (range 1.5-12.6) for a total of 14 patients. Twelve patients had a single SSTR + breast lesion, while 2 patients had multiple SSTR + lesions on bilateral breasts. In 6 patients, single SSTR + lesions were considered as fibroadenoma; in 2 patients, multiple SSTR + lesions were considered as metastases of NET, based on correlative breast imaging. In 6 patients, histopathological confirmation was needed for the final diagnosis. Histopathologic findings confirmed fibroadenoma in 4 patients by biopsy, in 1 patient with surgical removal of the lesion. The last patient who had a history of IDC was diagnosed with a recurrence of IDC with biopsy. The median SUVmax was 5.1 (range 1.5-9.4) for malignant breast lesions and 5.4 (range 2.2-12.6) for benign breast lesions.

CONCLUSION: SSTR + breast lesions on DOTA PET are rarely seen in clinical practice. Uptakes of breast lesions in our cases were variable and not useful for differential diagnosis of lesions. It seems that SSTR + breast lesions should be evaluated with clinical and radiological characteristics, and correlative breast imaging and/or histopathological verification should be performed for suspicious lesions to avoid misdiagnosis.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Bouri S, Simon P, D'Haene N, et al (2020)

Invasive ductal carcinoma arising in borderline phyllode tumor: A potential role of PIK3CA mutation.

International journal of surgery case reports, 77:701-703.

INTRODUCTION: Carcinomatous lesions associated with phyllodes tumors are extremely rare and are found in less than 1% of all cases. To date, the molecular biological mechanisms associated with this carcinomatous transformation remain unknown.

PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present here the case of a 61-year-old patient with invasive ductal of no special type (NST) carcinoma originating in a borderline phyllode tumor with mutation in the PIK3CA gene.

DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this mutation has never been described in this type of association.

CONCLUSION: Based on these data, we can better understand the ethiopathogenic molecular mechanisms in this type of lesion. Consequently, they could also in the future give rise to new therapeutic alternatives.

RevDate: 2021-01-04

Pardo JA, Fan B, Mele A, et al (2021)

The Role of Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score in Predicting Axillary Response After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer.

Annals of surgical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Oncotype DX® recurrence score (RS) is well-recognized for guiding decision making in adjuvant chemotherapy; however, the predictive capability of this genomic assay in determining axillary response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) has not been established.

METHODS: Using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), we identified patients diagnosed with T1-T2, clinically N1/N2, estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (ER +/HER2 -) invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast between 2010 and 2015. Patients with an Oncotype DX® RS who received NCT were included. RS was defined as low (< 18), intermediate (18-30), or high (> 30). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were performed to determine the association between axillary pathologic complete response (pCR) and RS.

RESULTS: This study included a total of 158 women. RS was low in 56 (35.4%) patients, intermediate in 62 (39.2%) patients, and high in 40 (25.3%) patients. The majority of patients presented with clinical N1 disease (89.2%). Axillary pCR was achieved in 23 (14.6%) patients. When stratifying patients with axillary pCR by RS, 11 (47.8%) patients had a high RS, 6 (26.1%) patients had an intermediate RS, and 6 (26.1%) patients had a low RS. Comparing cohorts by RS, 27.5% of patients with high RS tumors had an axillary pCR, compared with only 9.7% in the intermediate RS group, and 10.7% in the low RS group (p = 0.0268).

CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that Oncotype DX® RS is an independent predictor of axillary pCR in patients with ER +/HER2 - breast cancers receiving NCT. A greater proportion of patients with a high RS achieved axillary pCR. These results support Oncotype DX® as a tool to improve clinical decision making in axillary management.

RevDate: 2021-01-04

De Pauw V, Navez J, Holbrechts S, et al (2020)

Acute appendicitis as an unusual cause of invasive ductal breast carcinoma metastasis.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2020(12):rjaa535 pii:rjaa535.

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain at the emergency room. In rare cases, it can be caused by malignancy, even metastatic lesions from extra-abdominal neoplasia. Herein, we report a case of a 64-year-old female with a history of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast treated by chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and hormonotherapy, relapsing several years later as a bone and a pleura metastasis successfully cured by locoregional therapy and hormonal treatment. She presented with acute abdominal pain without signs of peritonitis. Abdominal computed tomodensitometry showed sign of appendicitis. Therefore, laparoscopic exploration and appendicectomy was performed. During surgery, multiple peritoneal nodules were found and harvested. Pathology showed metastatic nodules of invasive ductal breast carcinoma, including in the appendicular wall, concluding to peritoneal carcinomatosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the patient died 1 year later after refusing anticancer treatment.

RevDate: 2021-01-03

Jackson CR, Felty CC, Marotti JD, et al (2021)

Encapsulated papillary carcinoma with and without frank invasion: Comparison of clinicopathologic features and role of axillary staging.

The breast journal [Epub ahead of print].

To investigate clinical and pathologic features of encapsulated papillary carcinomas (EPCs) that may be associated with invasive disease and characterize the axillary staging practices for EPCs at our institution. A pathology database search for cases containing "papillary carcinoma" was performed. Slides were reviewed by two pathologists. Clinicopathological features and axillary staging practices of EPCs with and without invasion were compared. Twenty-five cases of EPCs were identified. Fifteen cases contained a frank invasive tumor (60%), which were all pT1 (0.7 ± 0.56 cm), and the majority were ER-positive, HER2-negative, low-grade IDC-NST. Seventeen patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsies (SLNB). No nodal metastases were identified. Follow-up was available for 24 patients (mean = 39 ± 29 months); 23 had no NED. Patients that presented with a self-palpated mass (versus screening) were more likely to have an invasive component; however, no pathologic or radiologic features differentiated EPCs with and without frank invasion. Pathologic and radiologic characteristics did not differentiate EPCs with and without frank invasion. EPCs have an excellent prognosis supported by the notable disease-free survival and negative nodal status in our cohort, which supports the notion that patients with EPCs may forgo axillary staging.

RevDate: 2021-01-03

Ha SM, Chang JM, Kim SY, et al (2021)

Prediction of axillary nodal burden in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma using MRI.

Breast cancer research and treatment [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To investigate clinical and imaging features associated with a high nodal burden (≥ 3 metastatic lymph nodes [LNs]) and compare diagnostic performance of US and MRI in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

METHODS: Retrospective search revealed 239 patients with ILC and 999 with IDC who underwent preoperative US and MRI between January 2016 and June 2019. Patients with ILC were propensity-score-matched with patients with IDC. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with ≥ 3 metastatic LNs.

RESULTS: 412 patients (206 ILC and 206 IDC) were evaluated. Of all patients with ILC, 27.2% (56/206) were node-positive and 7.8% (16/206) showed a high nodal burden. In multivariate analysis, the clinical N stage was the only independent factor associated with a high nodal burden in patients with IDC (odds ratio [OR] 6.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-24.73; P = 0.009), but not in patients with ILC. Increased cortical thickness with loss of fatty hilum on US was associated with a high nodal burden in patients with ILC (OR 58.40; 95% CI 5.09-669.71; P = 0.001) and IDC (OR 24.14; 95% CI 3.52-165.37; P = 0.001), while suspicious LN findings at MRI were independently associated with a high nodal burden in ILC only (OR 13.94; 95% CI 2.61-74.39; P = 0.002).

CONCLUSION: In patients with ILC, MRI findings of suspicious LNs were helpful to predict a high nodal disease burden.

RevDate: 2021-01-03

Rosenberg A, D Hamiel (2021)

Reducing Test Anxiety and Related Symptoms Using a Biofeedback Respiratory Practice Device: A Randomized Control Trial.

Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback [Epub ahead of print].

Test Anxiety is a widespread psychological phenomenon. With prevalence rates of 20-40 percent of university students, it impedes adaptive functioning and life quality. Many available treatments for Test Anxiety involve the intervention of clinicians and usually a few months are required before symptom reduction is reported. The present randomized controlled trial examined a simple behavioral intervention-the use of breathing tools-as an exclusive therapy for Test Anxiety. Specifically, the efficacy of a biofeedback respiratory practice device was examined. 34 students were assigned to 3 treatment groups during their exam period: Biofeedback device group, self-directed breathing exercise group, and psychoeducation group. Self-report measures of Test Anxiety were collected pre- and post-intervention. Participants also reported additional exploratory measures such as depression and anxiety, quality of life, and their perceived adaptive functioning post-intervention. The results reveal that only participants from the biofeedback device group reported a significant reduction in Test Anxiety symptoms (p's < 0.05). Participants from the biofeedback device group also reported a decrease in depression and anxiety symptoms and an increase in psychological wellbeing (p's < 0.05), a subscale of the quality of life questionnaire. Findings support the notion that using biofeedback respiratory devices may reduce students' Test Anxiety symptoms. Indications for further research are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-01-01

Kato M, Hirakawa A, Sato H, et al (2021)

Grade group 2 (10% ≥ GP4) patients have very similar malignant potential with grade group 1 patients, given the risk of intraductal carcinoma of the prostate.

International journal of clinical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: It has been argued that grade group 2 (GG2) with a low Gleason pattern 4 (GP4) proportion should be an indication for active surveillance (AS) of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the cut-off GP4 proportion for AS remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of GP4 proportion and IDC-P on cancer recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP) in GG1 and GG2 patients, and identified candidates for AS.

METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 646 patients with PCa who underwent RP between 2005 and 2014, and whose specimens were of GG1 or GG2 status.

RESULTS: The GGs were as follows: GG1, 25.2% (n = 163); GG2 (5% ≥ GP4), 11.4% (n = 74); GG2 (5% < GP4 ≤ 10%), 25.9% (n = 167); and GG2 (20% ≤ GP4), 37.5% (n = 242). IDC-P was detected in 26 patients (4%), i.e., in 2/167 GG2 (5% < GP4 ≤ 10%; 1%) cases and 24/242 GG2 (20% ≤ GP4; 10%) cases. GG2 patients with IDC-P exhibited a significantly poorer prognosis than did those without IDC-P (P < 0.0001), as did GG2 (20% ≤ GP4) patients without IDC-P (P < 0.05). The GG2 (5% ≥ GP4) and (5% < GP4 ≤ 10%) groups exhibited prognoses similar to those of the GG1 patients. In multivariate analysis, GG2 (20% ≤ GP4) without IDC-P, the presence of IDC-P, and the prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis significantly predicted prognosis (P < 0.05, < 0.0001, and < 0.0001, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that GG2 (GP4 ≤ 10%) patients could be indicated for AS, similar to GG1 patients, given the risk of IDC-P tumors.

RevDate: 2021-01-01

Zhu X, Xu M, Zhao X, et al (2020)

The Detection of Plasma Soluble Podoplanin of Patients with Breast Cancer and Its Clinical Signification.

Cancer management and research, 12:13207-13214.

Background: Podoplanin (PDPN) is a type-1 membrane sialoglycoprotein that is expressed in many cancer tumors including breast cancer; nonetheless, its roles in tumor occurrence, development, and metastasis are unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of plasma soluble PDPN (sPDPN) levels in patients with breast cancer and its significance in the diagnosis and metastasis.

Materials and Methods: Blood samples from healthy controls (CTL), patients with fibroadenomas of breast (FOB), and breast cancer (pathological type: invasive ductal carcinoma, IDC) were collected. sPDPN levels in the plasma of CTL and patients with FOB and IDC were measured by the ELISA.

Results: The plasma sPDPN levels in IDC patients (159 cases, 22.59±3.70 ng/mL) were higher than those in FOB patients (50 cases, 8.29±1.09 ng/mL; P<0.05) and CTL (100 cases, 1.21±0.12 ng/mL; P<0.0001). The sPDPN levels in patients at stage III and stage IV (30.08±4.66 ng/mL) were higher than in patients at stage I and stage II (11.84±1.12 ng/mL; P=0.005). The sPDPN levels in patients with high-moderate and moderate differentiation (17.50±3.02 ng/mL) were lower than those in patients with moderately low and low differentiation (35.73±4.26 ng/mL; P=0.026). The sPDPN levels in patients with metastasis (30.60±4.27 ng/mL) were much higher than those in patients without metastasis (13.02±1.30 ng/mL; P=0.017).

Conclusion: Plasma sPDPN may be used as a new marker for the determination of the clinical stage, differentiation degree, and metastasis status of breast cancer.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Toprak N, Toktas O, Ince S, et al (2020)

Does ARFI elastography complement B-mode ultrasonography in the radiological diagnosis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis and invasive ductal carcinoma?.

Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a chronic, unpleasant autoimmune inflammatory condition and is clinically and radiologically often confused with breast malignancy.

PURPOSE: To investigate the contributions of qualitative and quantitative aspects of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography to the differential diagnosis between IGM and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in the breast.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-four women with IDC and 39 with IGM were included in the study. Shear wave velocity (SWV) was calculated for all lesions using quantitative elastography. Next, each lesion's correspondence on qualitative elastographic images to those on the B-mode images was evaluated: pattern 1, no findings on elastography images; pattern 2, lesions that were bright inside; pattern 3, lesions that contained both bright and dark areas; and pattern 4, lesions that were dark inside. Pattern 4 was subdivided into 4a (dark area same size as lesion) and 4b (dark area larger than lesion size). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated.

RESULTS: The mean SWV based on ARFI elastography was 3.78 ± 1.26 m/s for IGM and 5.34 ± 1.43 m/s for IDC lesions (P < 0.05). Based on qualitative ARFI elastography, IDC lesions were mostly classified as pattern 4b, while IGM lesions were mostly classified as pattern 1 or 2 (P = 0.01). Evaluation of both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of ARFI elastography yielded a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 84%.

CONCLUSION: ARFI elastography may facilitate the differential diagnosis between IGM and IDC.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Ben-Gal Dahan A, M Mikulincer (2020)

Attachment and task persistence: attachment orientations, perception of teacher's responsiveness, and adolescents' persistence in academic tasks.

Attachment & human development [Epub ahead of print].

The goal of the two studies reported here was to examine the contribution of adolescents' attachment orientations (anxiety, avoidance) and their perception of teacher's responsiveness to persistence in academic tasks. In Study 1 (N = 160), we assessed self-reports of persistence in schoolwork. In Study 2 (N = 240), we manipulated the symbolic presence of participants' teacher (teacher priming) and assessed their actual persistence in a cognitive task. Across the two studies, attachment anxiety was associated with decreased persistence, and the perception of teacher as a responsive figure contributed to heightened persistence and buffered the detrimental effects of attachment anxiety. Study 2's findings also showed that the beneficial effects of perceived teacher's responsiveness on actual task persistence were found only when the teacher was made contextually salient but not when the teacher was not salient. We discussed the dispositional and contextual sources of attachment security that contribute to task persistence.

RevDate: 2021-01-01

Yue L, Wentao L, Xin Z, et al (2020)

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer with novel epidermal growth factor receptor -ZNF880 fusion and epidermal growth factor receptor E114K mutations effectively treated with pyrotinib: A case report.

Medicine, 99(51):e23406.

INTRODUCTION: In about 15% to 20% of breast cancer cases, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) over-expression or gene-amplification is associated with poor prognosis. Thanks to the development of target therapies, HER2 positive patients can be managed using HER2-targeting drugs. There are several kinds ofHER2 inhibitors, such as trastuzumab, lapatinib, and pyrotinib. Pyrotinib which exert different functions, of note, the latest generation of the drug, is an irreversible small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (HER1) and/or HER2 and/or HER4. Both lapatinib and pyrotinib potentially target EGFR and/or HER2, but in some instances, induces different responses of patients with EGFR and/or HER2 mutations. This is attributed to the different mutations in EGFR and HER2 genes, which may form distinct types of HER2 dimers, with different binding capacities to drugs.

PATIENT CONCERNS: Five years ago, a patient underwent a radical mastectomy in an external hospital. Results of the resection histopathology revealed an invasive ductal carcinoma, pT3N0M0, stage IIB, HER2 positive. The lady patient received 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy and was subjected to adjuvant trastuzumab therapy for 1 year. After a regular 1-year follow-up and in March 2018, she complained of chest pain and visited our hospital. We diagnosed her with metastatic breast cancer, positive for HER2.

DIAGNOSIS: positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed multiple metastases in the lung and sternum, while the breast lesions did not progress, the curative effect of which we evaluated as a progressive disease. Then, lapatinib integrated with chemotherapy was administered to the patient. After 5 cycles of the treatment, the patient experienced lower back pain. Through CT examination, it was revealed that she had multiple metastases in the lung and sternum, in addition to new metastases in the lumbar spine and right lobe of the liver. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple metastases in the brain, and the disease further progressed. The results of circulating tumor DNA assays showed that other than HER2 amplification, novel EGFR-ZNF880 fusion and EGFR E114K mutations developed.

INTERVENTIONS: The patient was administered with a combination of pyrotinib with chemotherapy.

OUTCOMES: After 2 months of pyrotinib treatment, the metastases of the lung, sternum, lumbar spine, and right lobe of the liver disappeared. Also, the size of the brain metastases reduced while bone metastases were relieved. The curative effect was evaluated as a partial response. Following the results of circulating tumor DNA assays, HER2 amplification, EGFR-ZNF880 fusion, and EGFR E114K mutations disappeared. However, since a small lesion was present in the brain, the patient was subjected to radiotherapy in the head. Notably, after 9 months treatment with pyrotinib, enhanced CT indicated that tumors in the breast, liver, both lungs, brain, and bone were under control. The patient continually received oral pyrotinib, however, a new brain lesion appeared 6 months later. Overall, we managed to regulate the efficacy of pyrotinib for up to 15 months.

CONCLUSION: This case report demonstrates that EGFR-ZNF880 fusion and EGFR E114K mutations may contribute or lead to the formation of a special HER2 dimer, which is rapidly resistant to lapatinib but sensitive to pyrotinib. Of note, this is the first report that such a new fusion has been found.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Wang M, Zeng W, Zhang Z, et al (2020)

The Improvement of Immune Effect of Recombinant Human Beta-Defensin 2 on Hepatitis B Vaccine in Mice.

Viral immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Immunization with hepatitis B vaccine is an effective measure for prevention and control of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. Although lots of efforts to improve the effect of hepatitis B vaccine have been made, the function of human beta defensin 2 (hBD2) on hepatitis B vaccine keeps unclear. In this article, we report that hBD2 not only promoted the activation and maturation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) by increasing MHC II and CD86 expression, but it also significantly upregulated the mRNA level of IL-6 and IL-12B in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. The serum concentrations of IFN-γ in mice stimulated with 300 ng hBD2 increased from 25.21 to 42.04 pg/mL, with a time extension from 4 to 12 h post-injection. During the process of three times immunization (1, 14, 28 days) with 3 μg hepatitis B vaccine combined with or without 300 ng hBD2 with a 2 week interval in BALB/c mice, the antibody against HBsAg (HBsAb) concentration in serum at every time point of observation in the combined group was statistically higher than the hepatitis B vaccine group. The serum concentration of IgG2a subclass HBsAb on the 14th day post last injection in the combined group was significantly higher than the hepatitis B vaccine group. Further, the splenic cells from the mice treated with both hBD2 and hepatitis B vaccine possessed a greater ability to produce a surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) specific IFN-γ than those treated with hepatitis B vaccine alone. The percentages of CD3+/CD4+ T cells and CD3+/CD8+ T lymphocytes in spleens from the mice treated with 300 ng hBD2 were statistically higher than the phosphate buffered saline group. These data suggest that hBD2 improves iDC maturation and the immune efficiency of hepatitis B vaccine in BALB/c mice.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Haruvi Catalan L, Levis Frenk M, Adini Spigelman E, et al (2020)

Ultra-Brief Crisis IPT-A Based Intervention for Suicidal Children and Adolescents (IPT-A-SCI) Pilot Study Results.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 11:553422.

In recent years, suicidal behaviors have shown substantial increase worldwide. This trend is also prominent in Israel and has led to a dramatic increase in mental health treatment demand resulting in long wait times and low treatment acceptance rate. To address the critical need in crisis intervention for children and adolescents at suicidal risk we developed an ultra-brief acute crisis intervention, based on Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). IPT is an evidence-based intervention for various psychopathologies among different age groups. The current adaptation of IPT-A is comprised of five weekly sessions, followed by monthly follow-up caring email contacts to the patients and their parents, over a period of 3 months. This paper aims to review the theoretical foundation of this intervention, describe the research design, and present preliminary results of a pilot study. Preliminary Results from our samples of 26 adolescents indicate meaningful trends for both the suicidal ideation (SIQ) and depression (MFQ) outcome measures. Significant interaction was found concerning suicidal ideation but not for depression. Main limitations include small sample size and stratified controls. The treatment appears to be safe, feasible and acceptable and initial results show promising trends to support further study of the approach.

RevDate: 2020-12-29

Hasan-Aslih S, Shuman E, Pliskin R, et al (2020)

With or without you: The paradoxical role of identification in predicting joint and ingroup collective action in intergroup conflict.

European journal of social psychology, 50(6):1334-1343.

While we have a rich understanding of the motivations of disadvantaged group members to act collectively with their group, especially the important role played by identification, we know less about the disadvantaged's motivations to engage in joint action with the advantaged. This research examines the role of identification in predicting joint and ingroup collective action in intergroup conflicts. Since joint action inherently diffuses the perception of "us versus them", we propose that identification predicts ingroup action, but not joint action. We also examine conflict intensity as a moderator, and examine how changing identification is linked to change in support for joint action. We test these hypotheses in a three-wave longitudinal study in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Results support our hypotheses, demonstrating that identification positively predicts ingroup action but not necessarily joint action, and that when conflict intensifies, changes in identification are negatively related to joint action with outgroup members.

RevDate: 2020-12-31

Alawami HA, Al-Faraj ZH, Al Duhileb MA, et al (2020)

Unusual collision tumor with infiltrating ductal carcinoma and breast skin squamous cell carcinoma: A case report and literature review.

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is the most common type, on the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCC) overlying the breast is a rare tumor. The co-presence of two tumor types in one organ is even a rarer entity, termed as collision tumor. Only 3 known cases of collision tumor with breast invasive ductal and skin squamous carcinoma were reported in the literature.

CASE PRESENTATION: An otherwise medically free 91-year-old, postmenopausal, female presented with left breast fungating mass for four months. Pre-operative core tissue biopsy and incisional skin biopsy revealed two distinct tumor subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma, positive for progesterone, estrogen receptors and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, as well as skin squamous cell carcinoma, and axillary lymph node metastasis. Patient underwent left breast modified radical mastectomy and split skin grafting for wound closure. The final histopathology was consistent with grade 2 IDC. The nipple and areola complex were involved by moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Currently patient on adjuvant hormonal treatment. Follow up showed no local recurrence or distal metastasis.

CONCLUSION: Collision tumors of the breast with IDC and SCC of the overlying skin is very rare. The surgeon has to be aware of of such entity as the proper peri-operative management should be tailored to target the most aggressive histologic subtype.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Venkatesh SL, Oseni TO, M Bahl (2020)

Symptomatic ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Upstaging risk and predictors.

Clinical imaging, 73:101-107 pii:S0899-7071(20)30501-5 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To estimate the upstaging risk of symptomatic ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive disease and to identify features related to upstaging risk.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective investigation includes symptomatic women with DCIS at core needle biopsy from January 2007 to December 2016 at a large academic institution. Patient characteristics, findings at imaging, core needle biopsy histopathology results, and final surgical histopathology results were retrieved from the medical records. Using standard statistical tests, patient, imaging, and pathology features were compared between DCIS cases that were upstaged to invasive disease at surgery versus cases that were not upstaged.

RESULTS: From 2007 to 2016, fewer than 5% (63/1399) of women diagnosed with DCIS presented with symptoms. Therefore, 63 women (mean age, 51; range, 27-88 years) comprised the study cohort. 84.1% (n = 53) presented with an area of clinical concern, and 15.9% (n = 10) presented with pathologic nipple discharge. The most common finding at mammography was calcifications with or without an associated asymmetry or mass (74.1%, 40/54). The upstaging rate of symptomatic DCIS to invasive disease was 34.9% (22/63). Imaging modality used for biopsy was associated with higher upstaging risk, with cases that were biopsied under MRI guidance accounting for 22.7% of upstaged cases versus 4.9% of non-upstaged cases (p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: Women with DCIS uncommonly present with symptoms, and the upstaging rate of symptomatic DCIS is high at nearly 35%. Biopsy modality type of MRI is associated with higher upstaging risk.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Zhong S, Wong HC, Low HY, et al (2020)

Phototriggerable Transient Electronics via Fullerene-Mediated Degradation of Polymer:Fullerene Encapsulation Layer.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Transient electronics is an emerging class of electronics that has attracted a lot of attention because of its potential as an environmental-friendly alternative to the existing end-of-life product disposal or treatments. However, the controlled degradation of transient electronics under environmentally benign conditions remains a challenge. In this work, the tunable degradation of transient electronics including passive resistor devices and active memory devices was realized by photodegradable thin polymer films comprising fullerene derivatives, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl esters (PCBM). The photodegradation of polymer:PCBM under an aqueous environment is triggered by ultraviolet (UV) light. Experimental results demonstrate that the addition of PCBM in commodity polymers, including but not limited to polystyrene, results in a catalytic effect on polymer photodegradation when triggered by UV light. The degradation mechanism of transient electronics is ascribed to the photodegradation of polymer:PCBM encapsulation layers caused by the synergistic effect between UV and water exposure. The polymer:PCBM encapsulation system presented herein offers a simple way to achieve the realization of light-triggered device degradation for bioapplication and expands the material options for tailorable degradation of transient electronics.

RevDate: 2020-12-23

Duguid RC, Al Reesi M, Bartlett AW, et al (2020)

Impact of Infectious Diseases Consultation on Management and Outcome of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Children.

Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society pii:6046021 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: To examine the impact of infectious diseases consultation (IDC) on the management and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) in children.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of children with SAB at a teritary pediatric hospital (January 2009-June 2015) identified by medical record review as to whether they received an IDC for SAB at the discretion of the admitting physician or surgeon was conducted. Differences in management and outcomes for those with and without IDC were evaluated, and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with cure.

RESULTS: There were 100 patients included in the analysis. Fifty-five patients received IDC and 45 had no IDC (NIDC). Appropriate directed therapy within 24 hours (54/55 = 98.2% vs 34/45 = 75.6%, P < .01), choice (54/55 = 98.2% vs 37/45 = 82.2%, P < .01), dose (54/55 = 98.2% vs 36/45 = 80%, P < .01), and duration (52/55 = 94.5% vs 24/45 = 53.3%, P < .01) of directed antibiotic therapy were appropriate in more IDC group patients. Achievement of source control in indicated cases was also more common in the IDC group (28/32 = 87.5% vs 5/26 = 19.1%, P < .01). Appropriate investigation with repeat blood cultures and echocardiograms was not significantly different. All 55 patients in the IDC group had a complete response (cure) compared with 40 of the 45 (88.9%) patients in the NIDC group: 2 patients died and 3 patients had a relapse of infection with subsequent cure. In multivariate regression analysis, methicillin-susceptible SAB and IDC were factors independently associated with cure.

CONCLUSIONS: Children who received IDC for SAB in a tertiary pediatric setting were more likely to have appropriate investigations and management and had improved outcomes.

RevDate: 2020-12-21

Reis APAM, Teixeira CMS, Medeiros ARL, et al (2020)

Sociodemographic and Clinical-pathological Study of Molecular Subtitles of Breast Carcinoma in a Reference Unit of Maranhão.

Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetricia : revista da Federacao Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetricia, 42(12):820-828.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of the main sociodemographic and clinical-pathological characteristics in women with breast cancer according to the molecular profile by immunohistochemistry.

METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective, analytical and quantitative study was performed, with an analysis of 137 medical records from January 2015 to December 2018 of women attending the High Complexity in Oncology Unit of the city of Imperatriz, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The immunohistochemical profile of tumors based on the estrogen and progesterone receptor, Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor-type 2 (HER2) overexpression and Ki67 cell proliferation index was defined, from which six molecular subtypes were determined: luminal A, luminal B-HER2 negative, luminal B-HER2 positive, triple negative, overexpression of HER2 and inconclusive.

RESULTS: A total of 52.6% of the patients were postmenopausal, mean age 52.1 years old, brown (56.2%), had a schooling level < 9 years (40%), staging > IIB (52.6%) and 23.4% had metastasis. Invasive ductal carcinoma accounted for 84.7%, tumor size was 2 to 5 cm (48.9%), with lymph node involvement (56.2%), axillary lymphadenectomy in 67.2%, and mastectomy in 73.7% of the patients. The most frequent molecular subtype was the luminal B-HER2 negative (36.5%), and the luminal A subtype showed characteristics of better prognosis when compared with the others.

CONCLUSION: It was concluded that in the association of molecular subtypes with sociodemographic and clinical-pathological characteristics, there were no statistically significant results obtained, except for complementary therapy, referring to hormone therapy, and there was a high index of metastasis at diagnosis, which was a worrying factor and indicative of failures in the screening and early diagnosis of this population.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Yang P, Peng SJ, Dong YM, et al (2020)

Neoadjuvant targeted therapy for apocrine carcinoma of the breast: A case report.

World journal of clinical cases, 8(23):6036-6042.

BACKGROUND: Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a special type of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast that is rare in clinical practice. Neoadjuvant therapy, especially neoadjuvant targeted therapy, has rarely been reported for apocrine carcinoma of the breast.

CASE SUMMARY: A 63-year-old woman presented with apocrine carcinoma of the left breast underwent core needle biopsy. The patient was diagnosed with apocrine carcinoma by immunohistochemical staining and negative hormone status (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) but showed overexpression of human epidermal factor receptor 2 (HER-2). Moreover, positive expression of androgen receptor (approximately 60%) and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 was observed. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant targeted therapy consisting of the TCH regimen (docetaxel, carboplatin area under curve 6 and trastuzumab) every 21 d. The mass in the left breast was significantly reduced, and pain in the breast and left upper arm also improved.

CONCLUSION: HER-2 positive apocrine carcinoma of the breast can be improved by neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with targeted therapy.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Fehl A, Ferrari S, Wecht Z, et al (2019)

Breast Cancer in the Transgender Population.

Journal of the advanced practitioner in oncology, 10(4):387-394.

ES is a 41-year-old transgender male who presented to medical oncology as a referral from surgical oncology for T2N0M0 right breast cancer. At that time, he was receiving weekly testosterone injections intramuscularly at 0.25 mg, and had been on this regimen for 7 months. He was planning bilateral mastectomies in the spring. That winter, he palpated a mass in his right breast, and imaging revealed a 2.5-cm hypoechoic mass. A biopsy of the mass revealed invasive ductal carcinoma, with a nuclear grade of 3. His tumor was estrogen receptor positive (H-score of 180), progesterone receptor positive (H-score of 90), androgen receptor positive (H-score of 220), and HER-2/neu positive by FISH, with a Ki-67 of 90%. The clinical experience of ES illustrates challenges common to the sexual and gender minority population. ES presented to the clinic with a female friend. At that time, his name and gender in the electronic medical record (EMR) matched his driver's license, and not his preferred name or gender. Consequently, when he was called from the waiting room, he was called by his former name. The staff had not been notified of the appropriate name or pronoun to use prior to ES's arrival, and consequently was associating ES with a female gender, as indicated in the EMR. When the question about menstrual status was addressed, he stated that he had not had a period in 7 months since beginning testosterone treatment. The medical assistant questioned the use of testosterone, and ES had to explain his gender reassignment journey. By the time the physician assistant (PA) entered the room to perform the first part of the shared visit, ES was visibly upset, expressing anger with nonverbal cues. During the conversation, the PA did not acknowledge or establish the relationship of ES's female friend. The PA did not address the issue of gender identity, the use of testosterone, or plans for reassignment surgery. The physician also deferred discussion of gender reassignment during his portion of the visit and, without asking about gender reassignment, recommended cessation of testosterone therapy. Neoadjuvant docetaxel/cyclophosphamide/trastuzumab/pertuzumab was ordered, and ES agreed to treatment, but declined following the suggestion to stop testosterone. At each treatment visit, ES had to check in at the desk with his former name, resulting in confusion from the staff. With each lab draw, his name and birthdate were confirmed using the former name. With every administration of chemotherapy, double-nurse verification at the chairside was performed by reading his arm band and comparing it to the drug label. For each visit, ES had to use his old name six times. With new staff assigned to him each week, he felt pressured to explain his gender identity to several new people at each visit. At one particular visit, a patient's family in the next cubicle overheard this conversation, and ES overheard them discussing and laughing about his gender identity. ES dreaded his chemotherapy appointments not just due to the expected toxicity, but also because of the insensitivity toward his chosen gender. ES tolerated chemotherapy and proceeded to surgery. He underwent bilateral mastectomies by the surgical oncologist, who had discussed his gender reassignment with him and had referred him to plastic surgery for co-management of the surgical intervention. The plastic surgery team planned for reconstruction to include skin and soft-tissue rearrangement to give an incision line along the lower border of the pectoralis for better male cosmetic outcomes. Together, they performed bilateral mastectomies with right sentinel lymph node biopsy, horizontal mastopexy, and nipple-areolar grafting. Ultimately, the pathology revealed a complete response, and ES was pleased with the cosmetic outcome. ES was then started on tamoxifen. Again it was suggested that he discontinue testosterone therapy. He determined that he was more comfortable with an increased risk of recurrence than he was with feminine physical characteristics and chose to continue testosterone. After 6 weeks of tamoxifen, his menses resumed. He elected to discontinue tamoxifen. He had no more vaginal bleeding after that episode. He was referred for bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy (BSO), with the intent to treat with an aromatase inhibitor. He proceeded with BSO and opted against the aromatase inhibitor, citing concerns about unknown interactions with gender-affirming medication. He completed 1 year of trastuzumab (Herceptin) and continued surveillance visits.

RevDate: 2020-12-22
CmpDate: 2020-12-22

Shinseki K, Takahashi M, Kushima A, et al (2020)

[One Case of Accessory Breast Cancer Complicated by Contralateral Breast Cancer].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 47(12):1703-1705.

We experienced a case of right sided accessory breast cancer complicated by contralateral breast cancer. A 50-year-old woman came to us for an examination because a tumor in her left breast was pointed out at breast cancer screening. A breast MRI confirmed a tumor in her left breast and a tumor continuing from the skin to the subcutis of the right axilla. A skin biopsy for the tumor in the right axilla and a core needle biopsy(CNB)for the tumor in the left breast were performed. The pathological result of the CNB for the left breast indicated an invasive ductal carcinoma of the tubular formative scirrhous type. Although the tumor of the right axilla was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma demonstrating cord-like arrays, it was examined by skin biopsy and therefore no deep part of the tissue was included. We conducted immunostaining, in consideration of the possibility of metastasis from the left sided breast cancer. ER, PgR, mammaglobin, GATA 3 were positive, strongly suggesting that the tumor in the right axilla was also derived from a mammary gland. We also performed a wide local excision of the right axilla plus axillary dissection(level Ⅰ)in addition to conducting a left mastectomy plus sentinel lymph node biopsy, in consideration of the possibility of primary right sided accessory breast cancer. The pathological result following surgery confirmed a difference in the histologic features between both sides, residual normal accessory mammary glands around the tumor on the right side, and the presence of rich DCIS and a lobular replacement image, leading to a definitive diagnosis of primary invasive ductal carcinoma of the accessory breast on the right side.

RevDate: 2020-12-21

Mohapatra M, YS Sarma (2020)

A study on clinico-pathological assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast carcinoma.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 16(6):1419-1425.

Context: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has become a strategy in the multidisciplinary treatment approach to breast cancer. Since clinical and radiological responses do not correlate well with residual tumor after treatment, pathological evaluation of tumor response to chemotherapy is essential for accurate assessment.

Aims: The aim of this study is to assess clinicopathological response to NACT in patients with invasive breast carcinoma.

Settings and Design: Single institution, retrospective study was conducted for 4 years.

Subjects and Methods: The study included 95 cases with the clinical diagnosis of locally advanced breast cancer and invasive breast carcinoma on histopathological examination of core needle biopsy/lumpectomy specimen. These cases were assessed for estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptors and treated with four cycles of NACT (adriamycin-cyclophosphamide) therapy. Histopathological examination of postchemo modified radical mastectomy specimens was performed following standard protocol. The pathological response of tumor to chemotherapy was assessed on Miller-Payne grading (MPG) and residual disease in breast and lymph node (RDBN) level.

Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed in percentages and presented in charts and tables.

Results: Histopathological examination of pre-chemo biopsy specimens revealed invasive ductal carcinoma No special type (NST) in maximum, 89 (93.7%) cases. Majority 43 (45.3%) cases were HER2-positive followed by estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor positive and HER2-positive type seen in 23 (24.2%) cases and 22 (23.1%) cases were triple negative. Sixteen (16.8%) and 76 (80%) cases showed pathological complete response (pCR) and partial pathological response, respectively, to NACT on MPG; 12 (12.6%) and 83 (87.4%) cases showed pCR and residual disease, respectively, on RDBN level. Majority 37.5% and 50% of cases showing pCR on MPG and RDBN level, respectively, were triple negative.

Conclusions: This study highlights the clinicopathological response to NACT in carcinoma breast patients and identifies the molecular subtypes of these patients likely to respond to NACT.

RevDate: 2020-12-21

Yadav BS, Sharma SC, Singh R, et al (2020)

Male breast cancer: Outcome with adjuvant treatment.

Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 16(6):1287-1293.

Introduction: Male breast cancer (MBC) incidence is <1%, but it is increasing. MBC incidence increases with age. There are no randomized trials on MBC because of low number of patients seen in any institution and hence its management is derived from breast cancer (BC) in women. In this study, we analyzed outcome in MBC patients with adjuvant treatment.

Materials and Methods: From 1991 to 2014, 81 men with BC were retrospectively analyzed for demographic, clinicopathological, and treatment outcomes. Disease-free survival (DFS) was defined as time duration from diagnosis to first recurrence. Overall survival (OS) was defined as time duration from pathologic diagnosis to death or last follow-up with any death defined as an event. DFS and OS were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared between patients receiving and not receiving adjuvant treatment using log-rank test.

Results: The median age was 57 years (range 30-86 years). Right, left, and bilateral BCs were seen in 41 (51%), 38 (47%), and 2 (2%) men, respectively. The mean duration of symptoms was 25 months (range 1-240 months). Comorbidity and family history was present in 31 (38%) and 3 (4%) men, respectively. The mean tumor size was 5 cm × 5 cm (range, 1 cm × 1 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm). Nipple was involved in 46 (57%) men. Early, locally advanced, and metastatic disease were seen in ??30 (37%), 34 (42%), and 17 (21%) men, respectively. Majority (71, 88%) of men had invasive ductal carcinoma histology. In radically treated 64 men, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 12 (19%) patients (fluorouracil, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide [FAC] to 9 and FAC + taxanes to 3), with CR in 4 (33.3%) and partial response (PR) in 8 (66.7%) patients. Mastectomy was done in 55 (86%) and wide local excision in 9 (14%) men. Margins and nodes were positive in 17 (27%) and 38 (59%) men, respectively. Estrogen receptor, PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu positive were seen in 27 (42%), 17 (26.5%), and 2 (3%) patients, respectively. Adjuvant hypofractionated radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and tamoxifen were received by 51 (80%), 35 (55%), and 45 (70%) men, respectively. Median follow-up was 60 months (range 4-278 months). Locoregional recurrence occurred in 8 (12.5%) and distant metastasis in 22 (34%) men, respectively. DFS and OS at 10 years were 42% and 53%, respectively. DFS and OS were significantly better in men with adjuvant radiation (54% vs. 24%, P = 0.007 and 57% vs. 35%, P = 0.022, respectively) and hormonal therapy (57% vs. 14.5%, P = 0.004 and 62% vs. 39%, P = 0.045, respectively). Chemotherapy had no impact on DFS and OS.

Conclusion: Adjuvant hypofractionated radiotherapy and hormonal therapy significantly improved DFS and OS in MBC patients. Chemotherapy had no impact on DFS and OS.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Liang RB, Yu K, Wu JL, et al (2020)

Risk factors and their diagnostic values for ocular metastases in invasive ductal carcinoma.

Cancer medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a major type of breast cancer. Ocular metastasis (OM) in IDC is rarely seen, but patients with OM often have a poor prognosis. Furthermore, OM is difficult to detect in the early stages by common imaging examinations. In the present study, we tried to figure out the risk factors of OM in IDC and evaluate their diagnostic values for early detection. There were 1192 IDC patients who were divided into two groups according to ocular metastasis involved in this study. Clinical parameters of those patients were used to detect differences. The binary logistic regression test was then used to determine the risk factors of OM in IDC. Furthermore, ROC curves of both single and combined risk factors were established to examine their diagnostic values. The incidence of axillary lymph node metastases was significantly higher in the OM group (p = 0.002). Higher carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153), lower apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), and hemoglobin (Hb) were risk factors for OM in IDC (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.038, respectively). In the single risk factor ROC analysis, cutoff values of CA153, ApoA1, and Hb were 43.3 u/mL (CI: 0.966-0.984, p < 0.001), 1.11 g/L (CI: 0.923-0.951, p < 0.001), and 112 g/L (CI: 0.815-0.857, p < 0.001), respectively. Among the ROC curves of combined risk factors, CA153+ApoA1+Hb had the best accuracy, with the sensitivity and specificity of 89.47% and 99.32%, respectively (CI: 0.964-0.983, p < 0.001). CA153, ApoA1, and Hb are risk factors for OM in IDC. In clinical practice, the three parameters could be used as predictive factors for the early detection of OM.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Zeng Y, Gao W, Chen X, et al (2020)

Comprehensive analysis of the 21-gene recurrence score in invasive ductal breast carcinoma with or without ductal carcinoma in situ component.

British journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is often accompanied by ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Whether the DCIS component affects the 21-gene recurrence score (RS) is unclear.

METHODS: Consecutive ER-positive, HER2-negative, N0-1 patients with RS results were included. Patients were divided into pure IDC and IDC with DCIS (IDC/DCIS) groups. The RS, the expression of its 16 cancer genes and prognosis were compared between IDC and IDC/DCIS patients.

RESULTS: A total of 1458 patients were enrolled, 320 of whom had concomitant DCIS. DCIS component was independently associated with lower RS (P = 0.038). IDC/DCIS patients more often had a low-risk RS (P = 0.018) or intermediate-risk RS (P = 0.024). Regarding individual genes in the RS panel, Ki67, CCNB1 and MYBL2 in the proliferation group and MMP11 and CTSL2 in the invasion group were significantly lower among IDC/DCIS patients than pure IDC patients. Among IDC/DCIS patients, lower RS was independently correlated with a higher DCIS proportion and lower DCIS grade. Within a median follow-up of 31 months, the DCIS component in IDC did not significantly influence prognosis.

CONCLUSIONS: IDC with DCIS component is associated with a lower 21-gene RS, possibly due to lower expression of proliferation and invasion genes. DCIS proportion and grade independently influenced the 21-gene RS in IDC/DCIS patients. Due to the relatively short follow-up period and low recurrence rate, the impact of the DCIS component in IDC on prognosis needs further evaluation.

RevDate: 2020-12-29
CmpDate: 2020-12-29

Bertoldi AS, Guetter CR, Coltro GA, et al (2020)


Arquivos brasileiros de cirurgia digestiva : ABCD = Brazilian archives of digestive surgery, 33(3):e1525.

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension (PH) can be measured indirectly through a hepatic vein pressure gradient greater than 5 mmHg. Cirrhosis is the leading cause for PH and can present as complications ascites, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and esophagogastric varices, characterizing gastropathy.

AIM: To evaluate the use of carvedilol as primary prophylaxis in the development of collateral circulation in rats submitted to the partial portal vein ligament (PPVL) model.

METHOD: This is a combined qualitative and quantitative experimental study in which 32 Wistar rats were divided into four groups (8 animals in each): group I - cirrhosis + carvedilol (PPVL + C); group II - cirrhosis + vehicle (PPVL); group III - control + carvedilol (SO-sham-operated + C); group IV - control + vehicle (SO-sham-operated). After seven days of the surgical procedure (PPVL or sham), carvedilol (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (1 mL normal saline) were administered to the respective groups daily for seven days.

RESULTS: The histological analysis showed no hepatic alteration in any group and a decrease in edema and vasodilatation in the PPVL + C group. The laboratory evaluation of liver function did not show a statistically significant change between the groups.

CONCLUSION: Carvedilol was shown to have a positive effect on gastric varices without significant adverse effects.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Gelezhe PB, Blokhin IA, Marapov DI, et al (2020)

Quantitative parameters of MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the prediction of breast cancer prognosis and molecular type: an original study.

American journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, 10(6):279-292.

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the quantitative parameters of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) as well as positron-emission tomography, combined with computer tomography (PET/CT), with 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose, in the prediction of breast cancer molecular type. We studied the correlation between a set of parameters in the invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) as it is the most common invasive breast tumor. The parameters were as follows: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in DWI, positive enhancement integral (PEI) in DCE, maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in 18F-FDG PET/CT, tumor size, grade, and Ki-67 index, level of lymph node metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the probability of a statistically significant difference in mean ADC, PEI, and SUVmax values for patient groups with different Nottingham prognostic index (NPI) and molecular tumor type. Statistically significant correlations between SUVmax, tumor size, and NPI, mean and minimal ADC values with Ki-67 and molecular tumor type were found. The PEI showed a correlation with the NPI risk level and was characterized by a relationship with the magnitude of the predicted NPI risk and regional lymph node involvement. The prognostic model created in our work allows for NPI risk group prediction. The SUVmax, ADC and PEI are non-invasive prognostic markers in the invasive breast cancer of no specific type. The correlation between ADC values and the expression of some tumor receptors can be used for in vivo molecular tumor type monitoring and treatment adjustment.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Niespolo C, Johnston JM, Deshmukh SR, et al (2020)

Tribbles-1 Expression and Its Function to Control Inflammatory Cytokines, Including Interleukin-8 Levels are Regulated by miRNAs in Macrophages and Prostate Cancer Cells.

Frontiers in immunology, 11:574046.

The pseudokinase TRIB1 controls cell function in a range of contexts, by regulating MAP kinase activation and mediating protein degradation via the COP1 ubiquitin ligase. TRIB1 regulates polarization of macrophages and dysregulated Trib1 expression in murine models has been shown to alter atherosclerosis burden and adipose homeostasis. Recently, TRIB1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, where it is often overexpressed, even in the absence of genetic amplification. Well described TRIB1 effectors include MAP kinases and C/EBP transcription factors, both in immune cells and in carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms that regulate TRIB1 itself remain elusive. Here, we show that the long and conserved 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of TRIB1 is targeted by miRNAs in macrophage and prostate cancer models. By using a systematic in silico analysis, we identified multiple "high confidence" miRNAs potentially binding to the 3'UTR of TRIB1 and report that miR-101-3p and miR-132-3p are direct regulators of TRIB1 expression and function. Binding of miR-101-3p and miR-132-3p to the 3'UTR of TRIB1 mRNA leads to an increased transcription and secretion of interleukin-8. Our data demonstrate that modulation of TRIB1 by miRNAs alters the inflammatory profile of both human macrophages and prostate cancer cells.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Roth Y, Plonsky O, Shalev E, et al (2020)

On the Value of Alert Systems and Gentle Rule Enforcement in Addressing Pandemics.

Frontiers in psychology, 11:577743.

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major challenge to policy makers on how to encourage compliance to social distancing and personal protection rules. This paper compares the effectiveness of two policies that aim to increase the frequency of responsible health behavior using smartphone-tracking applications. The first involves enhanced alert capabilities, which remove social externalities and protect the users from others' reckless behavior. The second adds a rule enforcement mechanism that reduces the users' benefit from reckless behavior. Both strategies should be effective if agents are expected-value maximizers, risk averse, and behave in accordance with cumulative prospect theory (Tversky and Kahneman, 1992) or in accordance with the Cognitive Hierarchy model (Camerer et al., 2004). A multi-player trust-game experiment was designed to compare the effectiveness of the two policies. The results reveal a substantial advantage to the enforcement application, even one with occasional misses. The enhanced-alert strategy was completely ineffective. The findings align with the small samples hypothesis, suggesting that decision makers tend to select the options that lead to the best payoff in a small sample of similar past experiences. In the current context, the tendency to rely on a small sample appears to be more consequential than other deviations from rational choice.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Wu SG, Yang SP, Zhang WW, et al (2020)

The longitudinal risk of mortality between invasive ductal carcinoma and metaplastic breast carcinoma.

Scientific reports, 10(1):22070.

The management of metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) has largely paralleled the paradigms used for invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in the current National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines of breast cancer. However, patients with IDC and MBC have been shown to have a different prognosis, and there are significant differences in risk and failure patterns after treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) and hazard function between IDC and MBC. We included patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program with stage I-III IDC and MBC between 2000 and 2012. Statistical analyses were including chi-square analysis, life-table methods, multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, and propensity score matching (PSM). We identified 294,719 patients; 293,199 patients with IDC and 1520 patients with MBC. Multivariate analyses showed that the MBC subtype had significantly lower BCSS than the IDC subtype before and after PSM (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in the hazard curve between IDC and MBC. The hazard curve for breast cancer mortality in the IDC cohort peaked at 3 years (2%), and then changed to a slowly decreasing plateau after prolonged follow up. However, the hazard curve for breast cancer mortality in the MBC cohort peaked at 2 years (7%), then declined sharply between 3 and 6 years, and changed to a low death rate after a follow-up time exceeding 6 years. Subgroup analyses revealed that the hazard curves significantly differed between IDC and MBC after stratifying by tumor stage and hormone receptor status. Our study suggests that patients with MBC should receive more effective systemic agents and intensive follow-up because of their significantly augmented risk of death compared to IDC patients.

RevDate: 2020-12-20

Guan X, Xu G, Shi A, et al (2020)

Comparison of clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis among patients with pure invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive ductal carcinoma coexisted with invasive micropapillary carcinoma, and invasive ductal carcinoma coexisted with ductal carcinoma in situ: A retrospective cohort study.

Medicine, 99(50):e23487.

This paper aimed to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of invasive ductal carcinoma with an invasive micropapillary carcinoma component (IDC + IMPC), invasive ductal carcinoma with a ductal carcinoma in situ component (IDC + DCIS), and compare the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis to those of IDC.A total of 1713 patients (130 IDC + IMPC cases, 352 IDC + DCIS cases, and 1231 pure IDC cases) who underwent appropriate surgery from June 2011 to September 2017 were retrospectively selected.Compared to the pure IDC and IDC + DCIS patients, the IDC + IMPC patients presented with more aggressive characteristics, such as a higher proportion of vascular invasion (P < .001), fewer progesterone receptor (PR)-positive patients (P < .001), a lower proportion of cases in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I (P < .001), a higher recurrence risk (P < .001), more deaths (P < .001), and more metastatic cases (P < .001). Compared to the pure IDC and IDC + IMPC patients, the IDC+DCIS patients presented with less aggressive characteristics, such as a higher proportion of estrogen receptor-positive patients (P < .001) and PR-positive patients (P < .001), a lower proportion of cases with nerve invasion (P < .001) and vascular invasion (P < .001), a higher proportion of cases in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I (P < .001), fewer deaths (P < .001), and fewer metastatic cases (P < .001). The patients with IDC + DCIS had significantly better disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to those with pure IDC and IDC + IMPC (P < .001). The patients with IDC + IMPC had significantly worse DFS and OS compared to those with pure IDC and IDC + DCIS (P < .001). In univariate analysis, the presence of an IMPC component in IDC (P = .007), estrogen receptor status (P = .05), and PR status (P = .003) were factors associated with OS. In multivariate analysis, coexisting IMPC (P = .04) was the only independent prognostic factor associated with OS.Compared to IDC and IDC + DCIS, IDC + IMPC had more aggressive characteristics and significantly worse DFS and OS. Compared to IDC and IDC + IMPC, IDC + DCIS had less aggressive characteristics and significantly better DFS and OS.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Zhang J, Lu CY, Chen HM, et al (2020)

Pathologic response rates for breast cancer stages as a predictor of outcomes in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast-conserving surgery.

Surgical oncology, 36:91-98 pii:S0960-7404(20)30448-5 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To determine easy-to-use predictors of overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence (LRR), and distant metastasis (DM) in patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by breast-conserving surgery (BCS), we obtained pathologic response rates (PRRs) for combined primary and nodal diseases (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stages) from clinical and pathologic reports, and we used these as predictors.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled patients with IDC who had received NACT followed by BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for the patients' PRRs; other independent predictors were controlled for or stratified in the analysis.

RESULTS: We analyzed 1047 patients with IDC (611, 260, and 176 patients in clinical stages IIB, IIIA, and IIIB-C, respectively) receiving NACT and BCS. After multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted HRs (aHRs; 95% CI) in patients with pathologic complete response (ypT0N0) were 0.26 (0.13-0.56), 0.36 (0.15-0.85), and 0.15 (0.08-0.31) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively. The aHRs (95% CI) in patients with downstaging of AJCC stages were 0.55 (0.35-0.89), 0.91 (0.62-0.96), and 0.63 (0.43-0.91) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively. The aHRs (95% CI) in patients with upstaging of AJCC stages were 1.77 (1.06-2.24), 1.08 (1.03-1.82), and 1.19 (1.07-2.01) for all-cause mortality, LRR, and DM, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The impacts of AJCC-stage PRRs are useful predictive tools and strong predictors for OS, LRR, and DM in patients with breast IDC receiving NACT followed by BCS.

RevDate: 2020-12-16

Jing N, Ma MW, Gao XS, et al (2020)

Development and validation of a prognostic nomogram for patients with triple-negative breast cancer with histology of infiltrating duct carcinoma.

Annals of translational medicine, 8(21):1447.

Background: The purpose of this study was to develop prognostic nomograms from a cohort of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with histology of infiltrating duct carcinoma (IDC) by correlating their clinical and pathological parameters with the rates of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed TNBC patients with histology of IDC at our institution between 2009 and 2012. Age, family history, menopausal status, surgery type, T stage, N stage, histological grade, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, cytokeratin 5/6 status, Ki-67 expression, and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) status were analyzed. Predictors were used in multivariable logistic regression analysis to develop a nomogram to predict DFS and OS rates. The nomograms were then subjected to internal validation, with external validation of the nomogram for predicting OS using separate cohorts of TNBC patients known from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Using the concordance index (C-index) with calibration curves, the predictive accuracy and discriminative ability were calculated.

Results: A total of 242 eligible TNBC patients were included for analysis. The median follow-up time was 70.73 months. Of the patients, 32.6%, 42.6%, and 24.8% had stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. The 3- and 5-year survival rates were 81.0% and 76.5% for DFS, and 86.5% and 81.1%, for OS, respectively. Age, T stage, N stage, and E-cadherin status were found to be risk factors. The nomograms based on those risk factors accurately predicted the 3- and 5-year survival rates. The C-index was 0.798 and 0.821 for DFS and OS, respectively. Besides, the nomogram for OS showed relatively reliable performance in stratifying different risk groups of patients in training and validation cohorts identified from the TCGA database. The C-index reached 0.843. DFS validation was not completed, as there was insufficient data.

Conclusions: Using clinicopathological information, we produced a prognostic nomogram that accurately predicts the 3- and 5-year DFS and OS for patients with TNBC with histology of IDC. More external confirmation is required.

RevDate: 2020-12-30

Aliyu UM, AA Musa (2020)

Assessment of breast cancer immunohistochemistry and tumor characteristics in Nigeria.

World journal of clinical oncology, 11(11):935-944.

BACKGROUND: Female breast cancer is the leading type of cancer worldwide with an incidence of approximately 2.1 million in 2018. Hormone receptor status plays a vital role in its management.

AIM: To determine the molecular expression pattern of biomarkers in breast cancer and their correlation with tumor variables.

METHODS: This prospective study was designed to analyze expression patterns of estrogen receptor(ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor(HER2/neu) in breast cancer patients. The dataset has been taken from the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria from 1 January 2015 to 2 December 2019. The dataset had 259 records and 7 attributes. SPSS version 23.0 for statistical analysis was used. The data analyzed demographic and other clinicopathological characteristics as categorical variables. The mean and standard deviation were determined for the quantitative variable.

RESULTS: A total of 259 breast cancer cases were included in the study. The mean age was 48.3 ± 11.0, with an age range of 26-80 years and a median age of 46 years. The morphological categories were invasive ductal carcinoma 258 (99.6%) and invasive lobular carcinoma 1 (0.4%). ER, positivity increased in 73 patients (50%) under the age of 50 years, as well as PR positivity increased in 34 patients (23.6%) under the age of 50 years. HER/2neupositivity decreased in 8 patients (5.6%) under the age of 50 years. Hormonal receptors were statistically significant with clinicopathological characteristics (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Our study showed that ER, PR and HER2/neuexpression had a strong correlation with age, tumor grade, tumor size and lymph node status. Hence, hormone receptor assessment is highly recommended because of its significance in clinical management and prognostication.

RevDate: 2020-12-14

Declemy A, Chesnel C, Charlanes A, et al (2020)

Short-term reproducibility of cystometry in multiple sclerosis patients.

Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie pii:S1166-7087(20)30735-1 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproducibility of detrusor activity cystometric pattern in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, which is poorly documented in the medical literature, by means of successive filling.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in MS patients; cystometry was repeated twice at 5minutes of interval if a detrusor overactivity before 300mL of filling was observed. Thus, 3 successive cystometries were analysed. The following characteristics were recorded: detrusor maximum pressure (Pmax), volume at the first involuntary detrusor contraction (IDC), maximum cystometric capacity (MCC), pressure at the first IDC, the existence of an overactive detrusor classified as phasic or terminal.

RESULTS: We included 31 patients (19 women and 12 men); only 6 patients were naïve-treatment, the mean EDSS was: 5.3 (±1.6) and the mean age was 48.4 (±12.5) years. All the patients had an overactive detrusor for each cystometry. The reproducibility was good for all the parameters (range ICC between 0.7 and 0.83).

CONCLUSION: Quantitative and qualitative cystometric data have a good reproducibility in MS patients with detrusor overactivity before 300mL of filling.


RevDate: 2020-12-29

Wanderley J, Buffolo E, JT Mendonça (2020)

Brazilian Academy of Cardiovascular Surgery: From Idea to Reality.

Brazilian journal of cardiovascular surgery, 35(6):IV-VI.

RevDate: 2020-12-15

Halbony H, Salman K, Alqassieh A, et al (2020)

Breast cancer epidemiology among surgically treated patients in Jordan: A retrospective study.

Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 34:73.

Background: Multiple risk factors contribute to the development of breast cancer, including age, positive family history, early menarche, late menopause and the strongest factor being female gender. In this study, we aimed to investigate the proportion of breast cancer patients with certain risk factors, the prevalence of each cancer type, in addition to the surgical procedures performed. Methods: The medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2010 to November 2015 were evaluated retrospectively regarding demographics, breast cancer risk factors, comorbidities, diagnostic methods, tumor location, cancer type and stage, pathological findings, tumor markers, harvested lymph nodes and the types of surgical procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed as number, mean, and frequency as percentages. Cases with deficient medical records were excluded from the analysis of certain parameters. Results: The sample consisted of 120 patients, 118 (98.3%) of whom were women. The mean age was 56.5±12.0 years. The most common diagnostic method at presentation was self-exam in 93.3% of patients. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common type of tumor (80.0%). The pathological stages could be determined for only 106 patients, and 26 patients (24.5%) were at stage 1 disease, 45 patients (42.5%) were at stage 2 whereas 34 patients (32.1%) were at stage 3. According to the results of pathological examinations, 72.6% (85 patients) of the cases were estrogen receptor positive, 61.2% (71 patients) were progesterone receptor positive while 24.8% (27 patients) were HER positive. Modified radical mastectomy (MRM) was performed in 52 (43.3%) patients and wide local excision (WLE) was preferred in 46 (38.3%) cases. Conclusion: Advanced age, positive family history, and prolonged estrogen exposure were remarkable in the majority of patients. Moreover, the most common type of breast cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma, and around half of the patients presented at stage 2 disease. Modified radical mastectomy and WLE were the most commonly performed surgical procedures.

RevDate: 2020-12-16

Desa DE, Strawderman RL, Wu W, et al (2020)

Intratumoral heterogeneity of second-harmonic generation scattering from tumor collagen and its effects on metastatic risk prediction.

BMC cancer, 20(1):1217.

BACKGROUND: Metastases are the leading cause of breast cancer-related deaths. The tumor microenvironment impacts cancer progression and metastatic ability. Fibrillar collagen, a major extracellular matrix component, can be studied using the light scattering phenomenon known as second-harmonic generation (SHG). The ratio of forward- to backward-scattered SHG photons (F/B) is sensitive to collagen fiber internal structure and has been shown to be an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis-free survival time (MFS). Here we assess the effects of heterogeneity in the tumor matrix on the possible use of F/B as a prognostic tool.

METHODS: SHG imaging was performed on sectioned primary tumor excisions from 95 untreated, estrogen receptor-positive, lymph node negative invasive ductal carcinoma patients. We identified two distinct regions whose collagen displayed different average F/B values, indicative of spatial heterogeneity: the cellular tumor bulk and surrounding tumor-stroma interface. To evaluate the impact of heterogeneity on F/B's prognostic ability, we performed SHG imaging in the tumor bulk and tumor-stroma interface, calculated a 21-gene recurrence score (surrogate for OncotypeDX®, or S-ODX) for each patient and evaluated their combined prognostic ability.

RESULTS: We found that F/B measured in tumor-stroma interface, but not tumor bulk, is prognostic of MFS using three methods to select pixels for analysis: an intensity threshold selected by a blinded observer, a histogram-based thresholding method, and an adaptive thresholding method. Using both regression trees and Random Survival Forests for MFS outcome, we obtained data-driven prediction rules that show F/B from tumor-stroma interface, but not tumor bulk, and S-ODX both contribute to predicting MFS in this patient cohort. We also separated patients into low-intermediate (S-ODX < 26) and high risk (S-ODX ≥26) groups. In the low-intermediate risk group, comprised of patients not typically recommended for adjuvant chemotherapy, we find that F/B from the tumor-stroma interface is prognostic of MFS and can identify a patient cohort with poor outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that intratumoral heterogeneity in F/B values can play an important role in its possible use as a prognostic marker, and that F/B from tumor-stroma interface of primary tumor excisions may provide useful information to stratify patients by metastatic risk.

RevDate: 2020-12-10

Chen QX, Zhang YX, Li K, et al (2020)

[Characteristics and prognosis of female breast cancer in Guangzhou, 2008-2017].

Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi, 41(11):1831-1835.

Objective: To describe the distributions of demographic and clinic pathological characteristics and relations with survival on female breast cancer patients in Guangzhou from 2008 to 2017. Methods: The baseline information of the subjects was obtained from the Guangzhou cancer registry and the outcomes were from the Cancer Follow-up System of Guangzhou. Kaplan-Meier was used to calculate the 1-, 3-, 5-year overall survival rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify the factors related to the overall survival. Results: Among the 12 465 breast cancer patients recruited in the study, the average age at diagnosis was 53.9 years old, with those aged 45 to 54 making up the largest proportion (43.9%). Only 15.6% of the patients had college or above degrees. Patients with normal BMI accounted for 78.2%. Most of the patients (90.0%) had received surgical treatment. Invasive ductal carcinoma appeared the most common histologic type, accounting for 82.3%. Among the 2 640 patients diagnosed in the four large hospitals, clinical stages 0-Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ accounted for 35.0%, 44.8%, 17.2% and 3.0%, respectively. The proportions of ER-positive, PR-positive and HER-2 positive breast cancer were 79.5%, 70.8%, and 19.2%, respectively. In terms of subtypes, Luminal B was the most common one, accounted for 53.3%. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates were 99.0%, 95.3% and 92.1%, respectively. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that factors as: age over 55 years old at diagnosis, advanced TNM stage, ER negative, PR negative, Luminal B subtype and triple-negative subtype were associated with poorer prognosis. Conclusions: Compared with the previous hospital-based studies in China, this population-based study revealed that the proportions of patients with advanced age, early clinical stage or ER positive breast cancer were relatively high and the overall survival rate for breast cancer was higher than that in the previous studies. Relationships between characteristics and prognosis of breast cancer were consistent with the previous findings.

RevDate: 2020-12-09

Roy M, Teshome M, Damodaran S, et al (2020)

Male Mammary Paget Disease: A Tale of 2 Contrasting Cases.

The American Journal of dermatopathology, 42(12):981-985.

Mammary Paget disease (MPD) comprises 1.45% all male breast cancers, compared with only 0.68% of all female breast cancers. Patients usually present in the fifth and sixth decades of life with ulceration, eczematous changes, discharge, bleeding, itching, and induration of the nipple and areola. Typically, there is a delay in definitive diagnosis and treatment from the onset of symptoms because most patients are initially treated for a rash. At the time of diagnosis, about half of the patients may have palpable breast mass, positive lymph nodes, or both. In this article, we present 2 cases of male MPD representing the extremes of clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic spectrum of the disease. One patient presented with a rash of the nipple of several months duration without an underlying lesion, whereas the other presented with sensitivity and pain of the nipple for 1 year and an underlying mass. Biopsies were diagnostic of MPD in both cases, and definitive surgery revealed an underlying ductal carcinoma in situ in the first case and an invasive ductal carcinoma in the second, highlighting the importance of early biopsy to initiate appropriate management.

RevDate: 2020-12-10

Zhang Y, R Liu (2020)

Robust Power Optimization for Downlink Cloud Radio Access Networks with Physical Layer Security.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(2):.

Since the cloud radio access network (C-RAN) transmits information signals by jointly transmission, the multiple copies of information signals might be eavesdropped on. Therefore, this paper studies the resource allocation algorithm for secure energy optimization in a downlink C-RAN, via jointly designing base station (BS) mode, beamforming and artificial noise (AN) given imperfect channel state information (CSI) of information receivers (IRs) and eavesdrop receivers (ERs). The considered resource allocation design problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem of power minimization under the quality of service (QoS) for each IR, the power constraint for each BS, and the physical layer security (PLS) constraints for each ER. To solve this non-trivial problem, we first adopt smooth ℓ 0 -norm approximation and propose a general iterative difference of convex (IDC) algorithm with provable convergence for a difference of convex programming problem. Then, a three-stage algorithm is proposed to solve the original problem, which firstly apply the iterative difference of convex programming with semi-definite relaxation (SDR) technique to provide a roughly (approximately) sparse solution, and then improve the sparsity of the solutions using a deflation based post processing method. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated with extensive simulations for power minimization in secure downlink C-RANs.

RevDate: 2020-12-12

Katano K, Yoshimitsu Y, Kyuno T, et al (2020)

Temporary spontaneous regression of male breast cancer: a case report.

Surgical case reports, 6(1):311.

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous regression (SR) of a malignant tumor is the partial or complete disappearance of primary or metastatic tumor tissue in the absence of treatment, which can be temporary or permanent. Here, we report an extremely rare case of male breast cancer that exhibited temporary SR followed by reappearance 8 months after tumor disappearance.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old man presented at our hospital with a primary complaint of pain and a lump in his left breast. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion measuring 12 mm × 10 mm × 8 mm. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed numerous necrotic and degenerated cells and few sheet-like clusters of atypical ductal epithelial cells. The atypical cells had mildly enlarged nuclei with nucleoli, were focally overlapped and formed tubular patterns. The cytological diagnosis indicated a suspicion of malignancy. Core needle biopsy (CNB) revealed necrotic and degenerated cells with microcalcification. The pathological diagnosis was indeterminate because there was no area of viable atypical cells. An excisional biopsy of the left breast lesion was scheduled one month later. However, it was difficult to detect the tumor during physical examination and ultrasonography performed 1 month after the patient's first visit. The operation was canceled, and the patient received follow-up observation. After 8 months of follow-up, ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed reappearance of a 0.6-cm-diameter breast tumor in the same place. CNB was performed again and revealed invasive ductal carcinoma. A total mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed 13 months after the first tumor disappeared. Histopathological examination revealed invasive cribriform carcinoma without sentinel lymph node metastasis. The patient did not have any complications, and adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen was started. The patient was alive without recurrence 7 months after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: Temporary SR followed by tumor reappearance can occur in breast cancer cases, and it is important to follow patients even if their breast tumor has seemingly disappeared. When breast tumors disappear without treatment, clinicians must be aware of the possibility of SR of cancer and should follow the patient for early detection of tumor reappearance.

RevDate: 2020-12-21

Crown A, Carlson E, Rocha FG, et al (2020)

Oncoplastic breast-conserving therapy and intraoperative radiotherapy for management of carcinoma in situ of the breast: A single-center experience.

The breast journal, 26(12):2391-2394.

Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been shown to reduce local recurrence rates among women with early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma, but data regarding its use among women with in situ carcinoma are limited. In this single-institution study, 50 women with in situ carcinoma were treated with oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery (OPS) and single-dose IORT. All 50 patients had "no tumor on ink," but 9 (16%) had margins < 2 mm and required additional therapy. No local recurrences were observed after a median follow-up of 46 months. Single-dose IORT is an efficacious treatment for well-selected patients with DCIS.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Leshem R, Icht M, Bentzur R, et al (2020)

Processing of Emotions in Speech in Forensic Patients With Schizophrenia: Impairments in Identification, Selective Attention, and Integration of Speech Channels.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 11:601763.

Individuals with schizophrenia show deficits in recognition of emotions which may increase the risk of violence. This study explored how forensic patients with schizophrenia process spoken emotion by: (a) identifying emotions expressed in prosodic and semantic content separately, (b) selectively attending to one speech channel while ignoring the other, and (c) integrating the prosodic and the semantic channels, compared to non-clinical controls. Twenty-one forensic patients with schizophrenia and 21 matched controls listened to sentences conveying four emotions (anger, happiness, sadness, and neutrality) presented in semantic or prosodic channels, in different combinations. They were asked to rate how much they agreed that the sentences conveyed a predefined emotion, focusing on one channel or on the sentence as a whole. Forensic patients with schizophrenia performed with intact identification and integration of spoken emotions, but their ratings indicated reduced discrimination, larger failures of selective attention, and under-ratings of negative emotions, compared to controls. This finding doesn't support previous reports of an inclination to interpret social situations in a negative way among individuals with schizophrenia. Finally, current results may guide rehabilitation approaches matched to the pattern of auditory emotional processing presented by forensic patients with schizophrenia, improving social interactions and quality of life.

RevDate: 2020-12-06

Jafferbhoy SF, Goussous G, Chandarana M, et al (2020)

Impact of Preoperative MRI in Invasive Ductal Carcinoma With Lobular Features on Core Biopsy.

Clinical breast cancer pii:S1526-8209(20)30212-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Invasive breast cancer is comprised of a wide spectrum of histological types with different clinical presentations, imaging characteristics, and behaviors. Almost 10% of breast cancers with predominantly invasive ductal features have lobular components on core biopsy at primary diagnosis. Although the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with purely lobular cancers is well-established, it is not clear if preoperative MRI is indicated in ductal cancer with lobular features. The aim of this study was to assess the role of preoperative MRI in patients with invasive ductal cancers with lobular features on core biopsy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data regarding patients with lobular features on core biopsy who underwent a preoperative MRI from January 2015 to December 2017 were retrospectively identified and analyzed. Imaging findings, additional investigations, and changes in treatment plans following the MRI scan were reviewed.

RESULTS: The study included 120 patients, of whom 42 (35%) patients required a second-look ultrasound. Following a repeat ultrasound scan, 25 breasts and 4 axillae were biopsied. Thirty-eight percent of the breast biopsies and 50% of the axillary biopsies were malignant. Based on MRI findings, treatment plans changed in 22.5% of patients. MRI size was concordant with the histological size in 58.3% of cases, and MRI was accurate in 90% of patients in detecting multifocal disease requiring mastectomy. The majority of patients with changes in the management plans had mixed ductal and lobular cancer on final histology.

CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that MRI picks up additional malignancies and changes management plans in patients with lobular features on core biopsy and should be considered in the preoperative workup.

RevDate: 2020-12-05

Hadano Y, Kakuma T, Matsumoto T, et al (2020)

Reduction of 30-day death rates from Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia by mandatory infectious diseases consultation: Comparative study interventions with and without an infectious disease specialist.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(20)32514-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Most Japanese hospitals need to keep higher Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) quality-of-care indicators (QCIs) and create strategies that can maximise the effect of these QCIs in a small number of infectious diseases specialists. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with SAB before and after the enhancement of the mandatory infectious diseases consultations (IDCs).

METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Japan. The primary outcome was the 30-day mortality between each period. A generalised structural equation model was employed to examine the effect of the mandatory IDC enhancement on 30-day mortality among patients with SAB.

RESULTS: A total of 114 patients with SAB were analysed. The 30-day all-cause mortality was significant between the two periods (17.3% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.02). Age, 3 QCI point ≥1, and Pitt bacteraemia score ≥3 were the significant risk factors for 30-day mortality. The intervention was also significantly associated with improved adherence to QCIs.

CONCLUSION: Mandatory IDCs for SAB improved 30-day mortality and adherence of QCIs after the intervention. In Japan, improving the quality of management in patients with SAB should be an important target.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Kim G, Mercaldo S, M Bahl (2020)

Impact of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) on finding types leading to true-positive and false-positive examinations.

Clinical imaging, 71:155-159 pii:S0899-7071(20)30419-8 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To investigate the frequencies of finding types with combined digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and digital mammography (DM) leading to true-positive (TP) and false-positive (FP) examinations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive screening mammograms at an academic medical center from March 2008 to February 2011 (DM group) and from January 2013 to December 2017 (DBT/DM group) were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare the proportions of mammographic finding types leading to TP and FP examinations between the two groups.

RESULTS: The DM group had 554 TP and 7278 FP examinations, and the DBT/DM group had 1271 TP and 14,544 FP examinations. The finding type of calcifications led to a lower proportion of TP examinations in the DBT/DM than DM group (34.3% versus 47.7%, p < 0.001) but also a lower proportion of FP examinations (18.7% versus 21.7%, p < 0.001). Mass led to a higher proportion of TP examinations in the DBT/DM than DM group (5.7% versus 1.3%, p < 0.001) but also a higher proportion of FP examinations (4.6% versus 0.3%, p < 0.001). Asymmetry led to a higher proportion of TP examinations in the DBT/DM than DM group (58.3% versus 50.4%, p = 0.03) and a lower proportion of FP examinations (75.9% versus 77.6%, p < 0.001). Architectural distortion led a similar proportion of TP examinations in the DBT/DM and DM groups (1.7% versus 0.7%, p = 0.12) but a higher proportion of FP examinations (0.8% versus 0.4%, p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS: Mammographic findings leading to TP and FP examinations have shifted with the addition of DBT to DM.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Hashmi AA, Iftikhar SN, Munawar S, et al (2020)

Encapsulated Papillary Carcinoma of Breast: Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Parameters.

Cureus, 12(10):e11282.

Introduction Encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) is a rare malignant papillary breast tumor that, despite a lack of distinct myoepithelial layer, is considered an in situ carcinoma unless associated with a frank invasive component. Data regarding clinicopathologic features of rare breast tumors like EPC are especially scarce. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the clinicopathologic features of EPC and performed a clinicopathological comparison with conventional invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Methods It was a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, from January 2013 to December 2019 over a period of seven years. During this period, 16 cases were diagnosed as EPC, and 634 cases were labeled as IDC. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu) immunohistochemical (IHC) stains were performed on both EPC and IDC cases. Moreover, myoepithelial IHC stains were performed on all cases of EPC. Clinicopathologic features of EPC were compared with IDC. Results The mean age of the EPC patients was 51.81±13.94 years, with a mean tumor size of 2.97±2.46 cm. The majority of cases were grade II, and axillary metastasis was present in 18.8% of cases. About 56.3% of cases were in situ, and 43.8% showed foci of invasion in the form of IDC. Recurrence was noted in 12.5% of cases with a survival rate of 93.8%. ER, PR, and HER2/neu positivity was noted in 81.3%, 75%, and 12.5% cases, respectively. EPC was significantly noted to have lower tumor grade and pathological T-stage than IDC. Similarly, a lower frequency of axillary metastasis was noted in EPC than IDC. Conclusion EPC is a rare distinct subtype of papillary breast tumors with overall good survival and low recurrence rate. Compared to IDC, we found EPC to be associated with better prognostic parameters such as lower tumor grade and T-stage and lower frequency of axillary metastasis.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Cheung SM, Husain E, Mallikourti V, et al (2020)

Intra-tumoural lipid composition and lymphovascular invasion in breast cancer via non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

European radiology pii:10.1007/s00330-020-07502-4 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Despite improved survival due to new treatments, the 10-year survival rate in patients with breast cancer is approximately 75%. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI), a prognostic marker independent from histological grade and stage, can only be fully determined at final histological examination. Lipid composition is deregulated in tumour via de novo lipogenesis, with alteration in lipogenic genes in LVI. We hypothesise alteration in lipid composition derived from novel non-invasive spectroscopy method is associated with LVI positivity.

METHODS: Thirty female patients (age 39-78) with invasive ductal carcinoma were enrolled, with 13 LVI negative and 17 LVI positive. Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides (SFA, MUFA, PUFA and TRG) were quantified from ex vivo breast tumours freshly excised from patients on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner, and proliferative activity marker Ki-67 and serotonin derived histologically.

RESULTS: There were significantly lower MUFA (p = 0.0189) in LVI positive (median: 0.37, interquartile range (IQR): 0.25-0.64) than negative (0.63, 0.49-0.96). There were significantly lower TRG (p = 0.0226) in LVI positive (1.32, 0.95-2.43) than negative (2.5, 1.92-4.15). There was no significant difference in SFA (p = 0.6009) or PUFA (p = 0.1641). There was no significant correlation between lipid composition against Ki-67 or serotonin, apart from a borderline negative correlation between PUFA and serotonin (r = - 0.3616, p = 0.0496).

CONCLUSION: Lipid composition might provide a biomarker to study lymphovascular invasion in breast cancer.

KEY POINTS: • Monounsaturated fatty acids in lymphovascular invasion (LVI) positive invasive breast carcinoma were significantly lower than that in LVI negative. • Triglycerides in LVI positive invasive breast carcinoma were significantly lower than that in LVI negative. • Lipid composition from MR spectroscopy reflects the rate of de novo lipogenesis and provides a potential biomarker independent from histological grade and stage.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Fredolini C, Pathak KV, Paris L, et al (2020)

Shotgun proteomics coupled to nanoparticle-based biomarker enrichment reveals a novel panel of extracellular matrix proteins as candidate serum protein biomarkers for early-stage breast cancer detection.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 22(1):135.

BACKGROUND: The lack of specificity and high degree of false positive and false negative rates when using mammographic screening for detecting early-stage breast cancer is a critical issue. Blood-based molecular assays that could be used in adjunct with mammography for increased specificity and sensitivity could have profound clinical impact. Our objective was to discover and independently verify a panel of candidate blood-based biomarkers that could identify the earliest stages of breast cancer and complement current mammographic screening approaches.

METHODS: We used affinity hydrogel nanoparticles coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis to enrich and analyze low-abundance proteins in serum samples from 20 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) breast cancer and 20 female control individuals with positive mammograms and benign pathology at biopsy. We compared these results to those obtained from five cohorts of individuals diagnosed with cancer in organs other than breast (ovarian, lung, prostate, and colon cancer, as well as melanoma) to establish IDC-specific protein signatures. Twenty-four IDC candidate biomarkers were then verified by multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) in an independent validation cohort of 60 serum samples specifically including earliest-stage breast cancer and benign controls (19 early-stage (T1a) IDC and 41 controls).

RESULTS: In our discovery set, 56 proteins were increased in the serum samples from IDC patients, and 32 of these proteins were specific to IDC. Verification of a subset of these proteins in an independent cohort of early-stage T1a breast cancer yielded a panel of 4 proteins, ITGA2B (integrin subunit alpha IIb), FLNA (Filamin A), RAP1A (Ras-associated protein-1A), and TLN-1 (Talin-1), which classified breast cancer patients with 100% sensitivity and 85% specificity (AUC of 0.93).

CONCLUSIONS: Using a nanoparticle-based protein enrichment technology, we identified and verified a highly specific and sensitive protein signature indicative of early-stage breast cancer with no false positives when assessing benign and inflammatory controls. These markers have been previously reported in cell-ECM interaction and tumor microenvironment biology. Further studies with larger cohorts are needed to evaluate whether this biomarker panel improves the positive predictive value of mammography for breast cancer detection.

RevDate: 2020-12-02

D'Alfonso TM, Pareja F, Da Cruz Paula A, et al (2020)

Whole-exome sequencing analysis of juvenile papillomatosis and coexisting breast carcinoma.

The journal of pathology. Clinical research [Epub ahead of print].

Juvenile papillomatosis (JP) of the breast is a rare benign mass-forming lesion occurring in young women, which is histologically characterized by a constellation of proliferative changes and large cysts, giving it the gross appearance of Swiss cheese. A subset of patients with JP report a family history of breast carcinoma and/or coexisting or subsequent breast carcinoma. We performed whole-exome sequencing of the hyperplastic epithelial component of three JPs, including one with coexisting ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST). JPs harbored clonal somatic PIK3CA hotspot mutations in two cases. In the JP with coexisting DCIS and IDC-NST, these lesions were clonally related to the associated JP, sharing a clonal PIK3CA E542K somatic hotspot mutation. JP showed a paucity of copy number alterations, whereas the associated DCIS and IDC-NST showed concurrent 1q gains/16q losses, hallmarks of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. We observed JP to harbor a dominant aging-related mutational signature, whereas coexisting DCIS and IDC-NST showed greater exposure to an APOBEC signature. Taken together, our findings suggest that, at least in a subset of cases, JP might constitute the substrate from which DCIS and invasive breast carcinomas develop.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Hashmi AA, Iftikhar SN, Haider R, et al (2020)

Solid Papillary Carcinoma of Breast: Clinicopathologic Comparison With Conventional Ductal Carcinoma of Breast.

Cureus, 12(10):e11172.

Introduction Solid papillary carcinoma (SPC) is a distinct rare subtype of breast tumour that often exhibits a neuroendocrine differentiation. Due to the rarity of these tumours, few studies have assessed the clinicopathological features of these tumours. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the clinical and pathological profiles of SPC and compared the pathologic features with conventional invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in our population. Methods It was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College from January 2013 until December 2019 over seven years. Cases with histological diagnosis of SPC and IDC were included in the study, and clinicopathological characteristics were compared. Results We included 39 cases of SPC in our study diagnosed during the study period. During the same timeline, 634 cases of IDC were reported and therefore included in the study for comparison. The mean age of the patients with SPC was 53.97 ± 12.15 years, and the mean tumour size was 3.42 ± 1.87 cm. Axillary metastasis was noted in 15.4% of cases. 94.9% of cases of SPC were invasive. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu) and synaptophysin positivity was seen in 84.6%, 87.2%, 10.3%, and 59% respectively. Recurrence was noted in 10.3% of cases with 94.9% survival rate. Cases of SPC had significantly lower grade (grade I + II), tumour (T) and nodal (N) stage than IDC. Moreover, the frequency of hormonal receptor expression (ER and PR) was higher, and the frequency of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression was lower compared to IDC. Conclusion SPC is a distinct variant of malignant papillary breast tumours with overall better prognostic parameters than IDC. Therefore, it is essential to recognize the histological features of this rare breast tumour.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Kunnuru SKR, Thiyagarajan M, Martin Daniel J, et al (2020)

A Study on Clinical and Pathological Responses to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Carcinoma.

Breast cancer (Dove Medical Press), 12:259-266.

Aim and objectives: To assess the effectiveness of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and its impact on the clinical and pathological response in locally advanced breast cancer. To compare molecular subtypes of breast cancer with response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

Patients and methods: This was a prospective study on patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma for a 3-year period. A total of 60 patients who presented with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Forty patients were treated with the 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) schedule, 16 patients were treated with Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (AC), and four patients were treated with oral cyclophosphamide, intravenous methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF). Taxol was added in all node-positive cases, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), and Her 2 positive cases. The clinical response was assessed with RECIST criteria after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The response was compared with molecular subtypes of carcinoma breast and receptor status individually.

Results: A total of 60 female patients receiving primary chemotherapy for locally advanced breast malignancy were studied. The median age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 44 years (range=24-73). In terms of menopausal status, 25 (42%) patients were pre-menopausal and 35 (58%) patients were post-menopausal. Histological classification showed invasive ductal carcinoma in 72% of patients, invasive lobular carcinoma in 15% of patients, and other types including mixed patterns in 13% of patients. Among 60 patients, 16 patients (26.6%) had clinically complete remission (cCR), 30 patients (50%) had partial remission, eight patients (13.3%) had stable disease, and six patients (10%) had progressive disease. Following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 46 (76.6%) patient underwent Modified radical mastectomy surgery. Target therapy was given for Her2 neu patients after surgery. Hormonal therapy was added to hormone ER PR positive cases postoperatively. Eight patients (13.3%) among this operated cases attained complete pathological response.

Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy downstages the primary tumors and axillary metastasis in patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma. Comparison of molecular subtypes with chemotherapy response is a better way to find out the predictors of response to chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

de Vera P, Azzolini M, Sushko G, et al (2020)

Multiscale simulation of the focused electron beam induced deposition process.

Scientific reports, 10(1):20827.

Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a powerful technique for 3D-printing of complex nanodevices. However, for resolutions below 10 nm, it struggles to control size, morphology and composition of the structures, due to a lack of molecular-level understanding of the underlying irradiation-driven chemistry (IDC). Computational modeling is a tool to comprehend and further optimize FEBID-related technologies. Here we utilize a novel multiscale methodology which couples Monte Carlo simulations for radiation transport with irradiation-driven molecular dynamics for simulating IDC with atomistic resolution. Through an in depth analysis of [Formula: see text] deposition on [Formula: see text] and its subsequent irradiation with electrons, we provide a comprehensive description of the FEBID process and its intrinsic operation. Our analysis reveals that simulations deliver unprecedented results in modeling the FEBID process, demonstrating an excellent agreement with available experimental data of the simulated nanomaterial composition, microstructure and growth rate as a function of the primary beam parameters. The generality of the methodology provides a powerful tool to study versatile problems where IDC and multiscale phenomena play an essential role.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Cancer is the generic name for more than 100 diseases in which cells begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged, they die and new cells take their place. Cancer begins when genetic changes impair this orderly process so that some cells start to grow uncontrollably. The Emperor of All Maladies is a "biography" of cancer — from its first documented appearances thousands of years ago through the epic battles in the twentieth century to cure, control, and conquer it to a radical new understanding of its essence. This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in cancer. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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