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21 Jun 2024 at 01:49
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Bibliography on: Invasive Ductal Carcinoma


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 21 Jun 2024 at 01:49 Created: 

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is cancer that began growing in a milk duct and has invaded the fibrous or fatty tissue of the breast outside of the duct. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, representing 80 percent of all breast cancer diagnoses.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive ductal carcinoma" OR IDC) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-06-20

Mayfield JD, Ataya D, Abdalah M, et al (2024)

Presurgical Upgrade Prediction of DCIS to Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Using Time-dependent Deep Learning Models with DCE MRI.

Radiology. Artificial intelligence [Epub ahead of print].

"Just Accepted" papers have undergone full peer review and have been accepted for publication in Radiology: Artificial Intelligence. This article will undergo copyediting, layout, and proof review before it is published in its final version. Please note that during production of the final copyedited article, errors may be discovered which could affect the content. Purpose To determine whether time-dependent deep learning models can outperform single timepoint models in predicting preoperative upgrade of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive malignancy on dynamic contrastenhanced (DCE) breast MRI without lesion segmentation prerequisite. Materials and Methods In this exploratory study, 154 cases of biopsy-proven DCIS (25 upgraded at surgery and 129 not upgraded) were selected consecutively from a retrospective cohort of preoperative DCE MRI in women with an average age of 58.6 years at time of diagnosis from 2012 to 2022. Binary classification was implemented with convolutional neural network-long short-term memory (CNN-LSTM) architectures benchmarked against traditional CNNs without manual segmentation of the lesions. Combinatorial performance analysis of ResNet50 versus VGG16-based models was performed with each contrast phase. Binary classification area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was reported. Results VGG16-based models consistently provided better hold-out test AUCs than ResNet50 in CNN and CNNLSTM studies (multiphase test AUC: 0.67 versus 0.59, respectively, for CNN models; P = .04 and 0.73 versus 0.62 for CNN-LSTM models; P = .008). The time-dependent model (CNN-LSTM) provided a better multiphase test AUC over single-timepoint (CNN) models (0.73 versus 0.67, P = .04). Conclusion Compared with single-timepoint architectures, sequential deep learning algorithms using preoperative DCE MRI improved prediction of DCIS lesions upgraded to invasive malignancy without the need for lesion segmentation. ©RSNA, 2024.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Corso G, Fusco N, Guerini-Rocco E, et al (2024)

Invasive lobular breast cancer: Focus on prevention, genetics, diagnosis, and treatment.

Seminars in oncology pii:S0093-7754(24)00038-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive lobular cancer (ILC) is the most common of the breast cancer special types, accounting for up to 15% of all breast malignancies. The distinctive biological features of ILC include the loss of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, which drives the tumor's peculiar discohesive growth pattern, with cells arranged in single file and dispersed throughout the stroma. Typically, such tumors originate in the lobules, are more commonly bilateral compared to invasive ductal cancer (IDC) and require a more accurate diagnostic examination through imaging. They are luminal in molecular subtype, and exhibit estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity and HER2 negativity, thus presenting a more unpredictable response to neoadjuvant therapies. There has been a significant increase in research focused on this distinctive breast cancer subtype, including studies on its pathology, its clinical and surgical management, and the high-resolution definition of its genomic profile, as well as the development of new therapeutic perspectives. This review will summarize the heterogeneous pattern of this unique disease, focusing on challenges in its comprehensive clinical management and on future insights and research objectives.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Zhang Z, Lan H, S Zhao (2024)

Analysis of the Value of Quantitative Features in Multimodal MRI Images to Construct a Radio-Omics Model for Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

Breast cancer (Dove Medical Press), 16:305-318.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the diagnostic value of quantitative features in multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images to construct a radio-omics model for breast cancer.

METHODS: Ninety-five patients with breast-related diseases from January 2020 to January 2021 were grouped into the benign group (n=57) and malignant group (n=38) according to the pathological findings. All cases were randomized as the training group (n=66) and validation group (n=29) in a 7:3 ratio based on the examination time. All subjects were examined by T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) multimodality MRI. The MRI findings were analyzed against pathological findings. A diagnostic breast cancer radiomics model was constructed. The diagnostic efficacy of the model in the validation group was analyzed, and the diagnostic efficacy was analyzed via the ROC curve.

RESULTS: Fibroadenoma accounted for 49.12% of benign breast diseases, and invasive ductal carcinoma accounted for 73.68% of malignant breast diseases. The sensitivity of T1WI, T2WI, DWI, ADC, and DCE in diagnosing breast cancer was 61.14%, 66.67%, 73.30%, 78.95%, and 85.96%, using the four-fold table method. The area under the curves (AUCs) of T1WI, T2WI, DWI, ADC, and DCE for diagnosing breast cancer were 0.715, 0.769, 0.785, 0.835, and 0.792, respectively. The AUCs of plain scan, diffuse, enhanced, plain scan + diffuse, plain scan + enhanced, enhanced + diffuse, and plain scan + enhanced + diffuse for diagnosing breast cancer were 0.746, 0.798, 0.816, 0.839, 0.890, 0.906, and 0.927, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The construction of a radio-omics model by quantitative features in multimodal MRI images was valuable in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The value of radio-omics models such as plain scan + enhanced + diffuse was higher than the other models in diagnosing breast cancer and could be widely applied in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Ramamoorthy P, Ramakantha Reddy BR, Askar SS, et al (2024)

Histopathology-based breast cancer prediction using deep learning methods for healthcare applications.

Frontiers in oncology, 14:1300997.

Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of female cancer mortality and is a type of cancer that is a major threat to women's health. Deep learning methods have been used extensively in many medical domains recently, especially in detection and classification applications. Studying histological images for the automatic diagnosis of BC is important for patients and their prognosis. Owing to the complication and variety of histology images, manual examination can be difficult and susceptible to errors and thus needs the services of experienced pathologists. Therefore, publicly accessible datasets called BreakHis and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) are used in this study to analyze histopathological images of BC. Next, using super-resolution generative adversarial networks (SRGANs), which create high-resolution images from low-quality images, the gathered images from BreakHis and IDC are pre-processed to provide useful results in the prediction stage. The components of conventional generative adversarial network (GAN) loss functions and effective sub-pixel nets were combined to create the concept of SRGAN. Next, the high-quality images are sent to the data augmentation stage, where new data points are created by making small adjustments to the dataset using rotation, random cropping, mirroring, and color-shifting. Next, patch-based feature extraction using Inception V3 and Resnet-50 (PFE-INC-RES) is employed to extract the features from the augmentation. After the features have been extracted, the next step involves processing them and applying transductive long short-term memory (TLSTM) to improve classification accuracy by decreasing the number of false positives. The results of suggested PFE-INC-RES is evaluated using existing methods on the BreakHis dataset, with respect to accuracy (99.84%), specificity (99.71%), sensitivity (99.78%), and F1-score (99.80%), while the suggested PFE-INC-RES performed better in the IDC dataset based on F1-score (99.08%), accuracy (99.79%), specificity (98.97%), and sensitivity (99.17%).

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Cicciarelli F, Guiducci E, Galati F, et al (2024)

Digital Mammography (DM) vs. Dynamic Contrast Enhancement-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) in Microcalcifications Assessment: A Radiological-Pathological Comparison.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(11):.

The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of breast microcalcification on digital mammography (DM) with the histological and molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to identify the predictive value of DM and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in assessing microcalcifications for radiologic-pathologic correlation. We relied on our prospectively maintained database of suspicious microcalcifications on DM, from which data were retrospectively collected between January 2020 and April 2023. We enrolled 158 patients, all of whom were subjected to biopsy. Additionally, 63 patients underwent breast DCE-MRI. Microcalcifications with a linear branched morphology were correlated with malignancies (p < 0.001), among which an association was highlighted between triple negatives (TNs) and segmental distribution (p < 0.001). Amorphous calcifications were correlated with atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) (p = 0.013), coarse heterogeneous (p < 0.001), and fine-pleomorphic (p = 0.008) with atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and fine pleomorphic (p = 0.009) with flat epithelial atypia (FEA). Regarding DCE-MRI, no statistical significance was observed between non-mass lesions and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Concerning mass lesions, three were identified as DCIS and five as invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). In conclusion, microcalcifications assessed in DM exhibit promising predictive characteristics concerning breast lesion subtypes, leading to a reduction in diagnostic times and further examination costs, thereby enhancing the clinical management of patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Su HZ, Hong LC, Su YM, et al (2024)

A Nomogram Based on Conventional Ultrasound Radiomics for Differentiating Between Radial Scar and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast.

Ultrasound quarterly, 40(3): pii:00013644-202409000-00002.

We aimed to develop and validate a nomogram based on conventional ultrasound (CUS) radiomics model to differentiate radial scar (RS) from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. In total, 208 patients with histopathologically diagnosed RS or IDC of the breast were enrolled. They were randomly divided in a 7:3 ratio into a training cohort (n = 145) and a validation cohort (n = 63). Overall, 1316 radiomics features were extracted from CUS images. Then a radiomics score was constructed by filtering unstable features and using the maximum relevance minimum redundancy algorithm and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression algorithm. Two models were developed using data from the training cohort: one using clinical and CUS characteristics (Clin + CUS model) and one using clinical information, CUS characteristics, and the radiomics score (radiomics model). The usefulness of nomogram was assessed based on their differentiating ability and clinical utility. Nine features from CUS images were used to build the radiomics score. The radiomics nomogram showed a favorable predictive value for differentiating RS from IDC, with areas under the curve of 0.953 and 0.922 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Decision curve analysis indicated that this model outperformed the Clin + CUS model and the radiomics score in terms of clinical usefulness. The results of this study may provide a novel method for noninvasively distinguish RS from IDC.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Nemerovsky L, Ghetler Y, Wiser A, et al (2024)

Two types of cleavage, from zygote to three cells, result in different clinical outcomes and should be treated differently.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 12:1398684.

RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the utilization rate of embryos that exert inadequate zygote cleavage into three daughter cells?

DESIGN: This study used a retrospective dataset from a single IVF Unit. A total of 3,060 embryos from 1,811 fresh IVF cycles were analyzed. The cleavage pattern, morphokinetics, and outcome were recorded. Only 2pn embryos, fertilized by ejaculated sperm, and cultured in a time-lapse system for at least 5 days were included. We generated three study groups according to the embryo's cleavage pattern: (I) Control, normal cleavage (n = 551); (II) fast cleavage, zygote to three cells within 5 h (n = 1,587); and (III) instant direct tripolar cleavage (IDC) from zygote to three cells (n = 922).

RESULTS: The rate of usable fast cleavage blastocysts was 108/1,587 (6.81%) and usable control blastocysts was 180/551 (32.67%). The time of PN fading and from fading to first cleavage differed significantly between the three groups. Although the pregnancy rate of control and fast cleavage blastocysts were comparable (40.35% and 42.55%, respectively), the amount of instant direct cleavage embryos that reached blastocyst stage was neglectable (only four embryos out of 922 analyzed IDC embryos) and unsuitable for statistical comparison of pregnancy rates.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the need to culture instant direct cleavage embryos for 5 days, up to the blastocyst stage, and avoid transfer of embryos that are fated to arrest even when their morphological grade on day 3 is acceptable, whereas fast cleavage embryos could be transferred on day 3 when there is no alternative.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Ibrahim EH, Ali TA, Sharbatti S, et al (2024)

Histopathological Profile of Different Breast Lesions: A Single-Center Observational Study.

Cureus, 16(5):e60408.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathological pattern of different breast lesions among tissue specimens sent to our laboratory.

METHOD: A record-based study using a retrospective review of 255 histologically diagnosed breast biopsy reports in the histopathology department of authors from December 2016 to November 2021 was conducted. The specimens were collected from core biopsy, lumpectomy, and mastectomy. All data obtained were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 28 (IBM SPSS Statistics, Armonk, NY). Then, the findings were presented using text, tables, and charts.

RESULT: A total of 255 breast lesions were analyzed in this study. Most of the cases were benign (58.8%), followed by inflammatory lesions (21.6%), and malignant (19.6%). Fibroadenoma was the most prevalent benign lesion (36.7%), and most of the patients (70.9%) were in the age group of 20-39 years old. The most common inflammatory lesion was granulomatous mastitis (56.4%), and most of the cases were diagnosed in the age group of 30-39 years old. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) was the most encountered histological type of carcinoma (62%). Of the malignant cases, 52% were diagnosed before the age of 50 years. Among these 50 cases, grade 2 was the most prevalent one (46%).

CONCLUSION: Benign breast lesions are more common than malignant breast lesions, and fibroadenoma is the most common benign subtype. Granulomatous mastitis is the most prevalent inflammatory breast lesion. About two-thirds of malignant cases are non-Arab. Invasive ductal carcinoma with no special type (NST) is the most common malignant subtype.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Vasudevan S, Kannan K, Raghavan AV, et al (2024)

Analyzing Tumor Budding Scores in Invasive Breast Carcinoma: A Tertiary Care Center Study in South India.

Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 16(Suppl 2):S1850-S1853.

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Tumor budding is a distinctive phenomenon which involves the presence of small clusters or individual cancer cells at the invasive front of tumors. Tumor budding has garnered attention due to its potential implications for prognosis, treatment strategies, and our understanding of cancer progression. Our aim is to study the distribution of tumor buds and its scoring in patients with infiltrating breast carcinoma and to associate with other histopathological parameters like the size of the tumor, its grade, lymphovascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a study analyzing the data of 70 resected specimens of primary breast carcinomas and providing a descriptive overview. Tumor budding was recognized, counted, and graded in hematoxylin and eosin slides. The cases were classified as low (0-4), intermediate (5-9), and high (≥10 buds) based on the count of tumor buds. Tumor budding has significant correlation with tumor grade and tumor size.

RESULTS: Of the 70 cases, 60 cases (85.71%) were diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma NOS. The majority [38 (54.28%)] of the cases showed an intermediate tumor budding score of 5-9/10 HPF.

CONCLUSION: Evaluation of tumor budding allows pathologists and oncologists to gather valuable information about the tumor's biological aggressiveness and potential for metastasis. It also helps in better risk stratification of patients, enabling a more personalized and tailored approach to treatment planning. In conclusion, assessing tumor budding in breast carcinoma holds significant clinical importance in the management and prognosis of this disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Rotstein MS, Zimmerman-Brenner S, Davidovitch S, et al (2024)

Gamified Closed-Loop Intervention Enhances Tic Suppression in Children: A Randomized Trial.

Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Gamification of behavioral intervention for tic disorders (TDs) potentially enhances compliance and offers key clinical advantages. By delivering immediate positive feedback upon tic-suppression, games may counteract negative reinforcement, which presumably contribute to tic consolidation by relieving uncomfortable premonitory urges.

OBJECTIVES: We developed a gamified protocol (XTics), which leverages this potential by combining gamified tic-triggering with immediate feedback, and evaluated its clinical value in enhancing tic suppression.

METHODS: XTics encompasses two conditions: Immediate and Contingent Reward (ICR), where game progression is contingent upon successful tic suppression, and Delayed Reward (DR), where game events' outcomes are random. Employing a randomized crossover design, 35 participants (aged 7-15 years) underwent daily gaming sessions over a week per condition. Improvements in our primary measures, including the inter-tic interval (ITI) and tic severity assessment by blinded evaluators (Yale Global Tic Severity-Total Tic Score [YGTSS-TTS], Rush), and parents (Parent Tic Questionnaire [PTQ]), were compared between ICR and DR, and assessed across conditions for the 4-week protocol.

RESULTS: No participant voluntarily left the study before completing its two-phase protocol. As expected, ITI showed significantly larger improvement (Z = 4.19, P = 2.85 × 10-5) after ICR (1442 ± 2250%) versus DR (242 ± 493%) training, increasing at a higher pace (t(67) = 3.15, P = 0.0025). Similarly, Rush tic severity scores reduced more post-ICR versus DR (t(47) = 3.47, P = 0.002). We observed a clinically significant reduction of 25.69 ± 23.39% in YGTSS-TTS following a f4-week protocol including both conditions. Parent-reported tic severity decreased by 42.99 ± 31.69% from baseline to 3 months post-treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: The combination of gamified tic-triggering with immediate and contingent rewards demonstrates a promising approach for enhancing treatment efficacy in TDs, boosting traditional therapeutic methods. © 2024 The Author(s). Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Alabedi HH, Ahmed IK, ASM Jamil (2024)

Incidence of local breast cancer recurrence with delayed radiation therapy.

Breast cancer research and treatment [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research was to examine the probability of ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence in individuals whose RT was delayed after the first chemotherapy and surgery.

PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of delaying RT for breast cancer patients (by more than 6 weeks after treatment).

METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis comprised 136 female breast cancer patients treated at the Baghdad Centre for Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine from 2021 to May 2022. External beam radiation was started more than 6 weeks after chemotherapy was finished for all patients who also had surgery. Clinical examination and ultrasound were part of the follow-up process.

RESULTS: Patients' ages varied from 28 to 71, and the majority (83%) had a mastectomy. The majority of cases (95.5%) were diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma on histopathology, with 49.6% being at stage 2 and 42.6% being at stage 3. Seventy-six percent of patients tested positive for hormones. Although 10 patients (7.35%) acquired distant metastases within 5 years, only 2 (1.47%) had local recurrence because of the delay in RT. Specifically, 91.1% had complete local control with no evidence of disease spread.

CONCLUSION: Delaying RT by more than 6 weeks in patients with breast cancer did not substantially affect local control, according to the results of a new research, the first of its type in Iraq.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Andrianto A, Sudiana IK, DGA Suprabawati (2024)

α-Smooth Muscle Actin as Predictors of Early Recurrence in Early-Stage Ductal Type Breast Cancer After Mastectomy and Chemotherapy.

Iranian journal of pathology, 19(1):67-74.

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer recurrence after surgery was a sign that the progress of the disease was continuing. Early detection of breast cancer patients who are at risk requires development of a marker. Alfa smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) plays a role in the local recurrence process of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Currently, existing tumor markers are used to predict the prognosis of breast cancer in general, not the early stages. Therefore, it was thought that finding α-SMA expression might predict early recurrence in early-stage IDC more accurately than others. This study investigated the potential role of α-SMA expression as a predictor of early recurrence in early-stage IDC and its relationship to clinicopathological factors.

METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional, with data obtained from the medical records of Dr. Koesnadi, General Hospital, Bondowoso, Indonesia. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed to analyze data.

RESULTS: We included 50 subjects divided into the local recurrence group (n=25) and the non-local recurrence group (n=25). We found a statistically significant correlation between the incidence of local recurrence in early-stage IDC and the high expression of α-SMA (odd ratio [OR]=23.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.101-105.7, P=0.001). Clinicopathological variables and α-SMA expression did not have a significant correlation.

CONCLUSION: In early-stage IDC, α-SMA expression had the potential to predict and could be an independent prognostic factor for early recurrence.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Qamar MA, Rehman A, HUR Toor (2024)

Multidisciplinary management of necrotizing fasciitis as a postoperative complication after mastectomy in an adult male in a low- and middle-income country.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2024(6):rjae412.

Necrotizing fasciitis, a rare, potentially life-threatening infection, often necessitates urgent medical intervention and surgical excision of the affected tissue. We present a 55-year-old male patient with a progressively enlarging lump in the left breast that was diagnosed as a breast carcinoma. Post-modified radical mastectomy, histopathological examination revealed Grade II invasive ductal carcinoma with neuroendocrine features. Due to financial constraints, the patient missed post-operative follow-ups and did not complete the prescribed radiotherapy sessions. Three months later, the patient returned with fever, swelling alongside sharp pain in the left arm and oozing blood. A clinical diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was made, leading to urgent surgical debridement. While the wound progressively healed, a contracture developed restricting elbow movement. An Orthopedic Review and Bone scintigraphy revealed metastasis of breast carcinoma to the sternum. This case report highlights the multi-disciplinary management required in such financially constrained rare cases in low- and middle-income countries.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Shetty ND, Dhande R, Parihar P, et al (2024)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Radiation-Induced Brachial Plexopathy.

Cureus, 16(5):e60067.

This report illustrates the case of a 37-year-old woman following chemoradiotherapy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast. The patient underwent surgery and received a radiation dose of 50 gray to the chest wall and 45 gray to the regional lymph nodes in 25 total fractions. She developed motor and sensory weakness in the right upper limb eight years after treatment. Brachial plexus neuropathy in cancer patients may result from either trauma to the plexus during surgery, the spread of cancer, or radiation therapy, and distinguishing between them may be difficult. The case highlights the importance of recognizing the signs, symptoms, and possible differential diagnosis of radiation-induced brachial plexopathy in cancer patients post-radiation therapy. It emphasizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the careful assessment and diagnosis of such a case.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Cheng L, Wang J, L Tang (2024)

Analysis of prognostic factors and construction of prognostic models for invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.

Biomolecules & biomedicine [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) account for most cases of breast cancer. However, there is ongoing debate about any potential variations in overall survival (OS) between ILC and IDC. This study aimed to compare survival between IDC and ILC, identify prognostic factors for ILC patients, and construct a nomogram for predicting OS rates. This retrospective cohort analysis utilized data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Cancer Database. Patients diagnosed with ILC and IDC between 2000 and 2019 were enrolled. To minimize baseline differences in clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes, a propensity score matching (PSM) method was used. Data from the multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to construct a predictive nomogram for OS at 1, 3, and 5 years, incorporating all independent prognostic factors. Following the PSM procedure, patients with ILC exhibited a better prognosis compared to those with IDC. TNM stage, age >70, radiotherapy, surgery, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HR-/HER2+) subtype were identified as independent factors for OS in ILC patients. Surgery and radiotherapy effectively reduced the risk of death, while chemotherapy did not demonstrate the same benefit. This model could support clinicians in evaluating the prognosis of ILC for decision-making and patient counseling.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Hunt KN, Conners AL, Gray L, et al (2024)

Molecular Breast Imaging Biopsy with a Dual-Detector System.

Radiology. Imaging cancer, 6(4):e230186.

Purpose To develop a molecular breast imaging (MBI)-guided biopsy system using dual-detector MBI and to perform initial testing in participants. Materials and Methods The Stereo Navigator MBI Accessory biopsy system comprises a lower detector, upper fenestrated compression paddle, and upper detector. The upper detector retracts, allowing craniocaudal, oblique, or medial or lateral biopsy approaches. The compression paddle allows insertion of a needle guide and needle. Lesion depth is calculated by triangulation of lesion location on the upper detector at 0° and 15° and relative lesion activity on upper and lower detectors. In a prospective study (July 2022-June 2023), participants with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 2, 3, 4, or 5 breast lesions underwent MBI-guided biopsy. After injection of 740 MBq technetium 99m sestamibi, craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique MBI (2-minute acquisition per view) confirmed lesion visualization. A region of interest over the lesion permitted depth calculation in the system software. Upper detector retraction allowed biopsy device placement. Specimen images were obtained on the retracted upper detector, confirming sampling of the target. Results Of 21 participants enrolled (mean age, 50.6 years ± 10.1 [SD]; 21 [100%] women), 17 underwent MBI-guided biopsy with concordant pathology. No lesion was observed at the time of biopsy in four participants. Average lesion size was 17 mm (range, 6-38 mm). Average procedure time, including preprocedure imaging, was 55 minutes ± 13 (range, 38-90 minutes). Pathology results included invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 1), fibroadenoma (n = 4), pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (n = 6), and fibrocystic changes (n = 6). Conclusion MBI-guided biopsy using a dual-head system with retractable upper detector head was feasible, well tolerated, and efficient. Keywords: Breast Biopsy, Molecular Breast Imaging, Image-guided Biopsy, Molecular Breast Imaging-guided Biopsy, Breast Cancer Clinical trial registration no. NCT06058650 © RSNA, 2024.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Pickett MR, Chen YI, Kamra M, et al (2024)

Assessing the impact of extracellular matrix fiber orientation on breast cancer cellular metabolism.

Cancer cell international, 24(1):199.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic and complex microenvironment that modulates cell behavior and cell fate. Changes in ECM composition and architecture have been correlated with development, differentiation, and disease progression in various pathologies, including breast cancer [1]. Studies have shown that aligned fibers drive a pro-metastatic microenvironment, promoting the transformation of mammary epithelial cells into invasive ductal carcinoma via the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [2]. The impact of ECM orientation on breast cancer metabolism, however, is largely unknown. Here, we employ two non-invasive imaging techniques, fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and intensity-based multiphoton microscopy, to assess the metabolic states of cancer cells cultured on ECM-mimicking nanofibers in a random and aligned orientation. By tracking the changes in the intrinsic fluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, as well as expression levels of metastatic markers, we reveal how ECM fiber orientation alters cancer metabolism and EMT progression. Our study indicates that aligned cellular microenvironments play a key role in promoting metastatic phenotypes of breast cancer as evidenced by a more glycolytic metabolic signature on nanofiber scaffolds of aligned orientation compared to scaffolds of random orientation. This finding is particularly relevant for subsets of breast cancer marked by high levels of collagen remodeling (e.g. pregnancy associated breast cancer), and may serve as a platform for predicting clinical outcomes within these subsets [3-6].

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Sun T, Golestani R, Zhan H, et al (2024)

Clinicopathologic Characteristics of MYC Copy Number Amplification in Breast Cancer.

International journal of surgical pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction. MYC overexpression is a known phenomenon in breast cancer. This study investigates the correlation of MYC gene copy number amplification and MYC protein overexpression with coexisting genetic abnormalities and associated clinicopathologic features in breast cancer patients. Methods. The study analyzed data from 81 patients with localized or metastatic breast cancers using targeted next-generation sequencing and MYC immunohistochemical studies, along with pathological and clinical data. Results. Applying the criteria of MYC/chromosome 8 ratio ≥5, MYC copy number amplified tumors (n = 11, 14%) were associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (91% vs 68%, P = .048), poorly differentiated (grade 3, 64% vs 30%, P = .032), mitotically active (Nottingham mitotic score 3, 71% vs 20%, P = .004), estrogen receptor (ER)-negative (45% vs 12%, P = .008), and triple-negative (56% vs 12%, P = .013) compared to MYC non-amplified tumors. Among MYC-amplified breast cancer patients, those with triple-negative status showed significantly shorter disease-free survival time than non-triple negative MYC-amplified patients (median survival month: 25.5 vs 127.6, P = .049). MYC amplification is significantly associated with TP53 mutation (P = .007). The majority (10 of 11; 91%) of MYC-amplified tumors showed positive c-MYC immunostaining. Conclusion. Breast cancers with MYC copy number amplication display distinct clinicopathologic characteristics indicative of more aggressive behavior.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Wang Y, Li G, Chen B, et al (2024)

Myeloid cannabinoid CB1 receptor deletion confers atheroprotection in male mice by reducing macrophage proliferation in a sex-dependent manner.

Cardiovascular research pii:7688406 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Although the cannabinoid CB1 receptor has been implicated in atherosclerosis, its cell-specific effects in this disease are not well understood. To address this, we generated a transgenic mouse model to study the role of myeloid CB1 signaling in atherosclerosis.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report that male mice with myeloid-specific Cnr1 deficiency on atherogenic background developed smaller lesions and necrotic cores than controls, while only minor genotype differences were observed in females. Male Cnr1 deficient mice showed reduced arterial monocyte recruitment and macrophage proliferation with less inflammatory phenotype. The sex-specific differences in proliferation were dependent on estrogen receptor (ER)α-estradiol signaling. Kinase activity profiling identified a CB1-dependent regulation of p53 and cyclin-dependent kinases. Transcriptomic profiling further revealed chromatin modifications, mRNA processing and mitochondrial respiration among the key processes affected by CB1 signaling, which was supported by metabolic flux assays. Chronic administration of the peripherally-restricted CB1 antagonist JD5037 inhibited plaque progression and macrophage proliferation, but only in male mice. Finally, CNR1 expression was detectable in human carotid endarterectomy plaques and inversely correlated with proliferation, oxidative metabolism and inflammatory markers, suggesting a possible implication of CB1-dependent regulation in human pathophysiology.

CONCLUSION: Impaired macrophage CB1 signaling is atheroprotective by limiting their arterial recruitment, proliferation and inflammatory reprogramming in male mice. The importance of macrophage CB1 signaling appears to be sex-dependent.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Voloch L, Icht M, Ben-David BM, et al (2024)

Seven Days of Voice Rest Post-phonosurgery Is Not Better than 3 days: A Prospective Randomized Short-term Outcome Study.

The Laryngoscope [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to compare the short-term effect of 7 versus 3 days of voice rest (VR) on objective vocal (acoustic) parameters following phonosurgery.

METHODS: A prospective randomized study conducted at a tertiary referral medical center. Patients with vocal fold nodules, polyps, or cysts and scheduled for phonosurgery were recruited from the Voice Clinic. They were randomized into groups of 7- or 3-day postoperative VR periods and their voices were recorded preoperatively and at 4-week postoperatively. A mixed linear model statistical analysis (MLMSA) was used to compare pre- and postoperative jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio, and maximum phonation time between the two groups.

RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were recruited, but only 34 fully complied with the study protocol, and their data were included in the final analysis (19 males, 20 females; mean age: 40.6 years; 17 patients in the 7-day VR group and 16 in the 3-day VR group). The groups were comparable in age, sex, and type of vocal lesion distribution. The preoperative MLMSA showed no significant group differences in the tested vocal parameters. Both groups exhibited significant (p < 0.05) and comparable improvement in all vocal parameters at postoperative week 4.

CONCLUSIONS: A VR duration of 7 days showed no greater benefit on the examined vocal parameters than the 3-day protocol 4-week postoperatively. Our results suggest that a 3-day VR regimen can be followed by patients who undergo phonosurgery without compromising the vocal results. Larger-scale and longer-duration studies are needed to confirm our findings.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Laryngoscope, 2024.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Wang WE, Ho CC, CH Chang (2024)

Taxane-Induced Cutaneous Toxic Effects.

JAMA dermatology pii:2819236 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Wang L, Vasudevaraja V, Tran I, et al (2024)

Novel Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 in Gynecologic Tumors.

International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists pii:00004347-990000000-00164 [Epub ahead of print].

Androgen receptor splicing variant 7 (AR-V7) is a truncated variant of the AR mRNA that may be a predictive biomarker for AR-targeted therapy. AR-V7 has been described in prostate, breast, salivary duct, and hepatocellular carcinomas as well as mammary and extra-mammary Paget disease. We report 2 gynecologic cancers occurring in the lower uterine segment and ovary and both harboring AR-V7 by targeted RNA sequencing. The uterine tumor was an undifferentiated carcinoma consisting of epithelioid cells and focally spindled cells arranged in sheets, nests, and cords associated with brisk mitotic activity and tumor necrosis. The ovarian tumor consisted of glands with cribriform and solid architecture and uniform cytologic atypia. ER and PR were positive in the ovarian tumor and negative in the uterine tumor. Both were positive for AR and negative for HER2, GATA3, and NKX3.1. DNA methylation profiling showed epigenetic similarity of the AR-V7-positive gynecologic cancers to AR-V7-positive breast cancers rather than to prostate cancers. AR-V7 may underpin rare gynecologic carcinomas with undifferentiated histology or cribriform growth reminiscent of prostatic adenocarcinoma and breast invasive ductal carcinoma.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Wearn A, Tremblay SA, Tardif CL, et al (2024)

Neuromodulatory subcortical nucleus integrity is associated with white matter microstructure, tauopathy and APOE status.

Nature communications, 15(1):4706.

The neuromodulatory subcortical nuclei within the isodendritic core (IdC) are the earliest sites of tauopathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). They project broadly throughout the brain's white matter. We investigated the relationship between IdC microstructure and whole-brain white matter microstructure to better understand early neuropathological changes in AD. Using multiparametric quantitative magnetic resonance imaging we observed two covariance patterns between IdC and white matter microstructure in 133 cognitively unimpaired older adults (age 67.9 ± 5.3 years) with familial risk for AD. IdC integrity related to 1) whole-brain neurite density, and 2) neurite orientation dispersion in white matter tracts known to be affected early in AD. Pattern 2 was associated with CSF concentration of phosphorylated-tau, indicating AD specificity. Apolipoprotein-E4 carriers expressed both patterns more strongly than non-carriers. IdC microstructure variation is reflected in white matter, particularly in AD-affected tracts, highlighting an early mechanism of pathological development.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Morla-Barcelo PM, Laguna-Macarrilla D, Cordoba O, et al (2024)

Unraveling malignant phenotype of peritumoral tissue: transcriptomic insights into early-stage breast cancer.

Breast cancer research : BCR, 26(1):89.

BACKGROUND: Early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma displays high survival rates due to early detection and treatments. However, there is still a chance of relapse of 3-15% after treatment. The aim of this study was to uncover the distinctive transcriptomic characteristics and monitoring prognosis potential of peritumoral tissue in early-stage cases.

METHODS: RNA was isolated from tumoral, peritumoral, and non-tumoral breast tissue from surgical resection of 10 luminal early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Transcriptome expression profiling for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identification was carried out through microarray analysis. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathways enrichment analysis were explored for functional characterization of identified DEGs. Protein-Protein Interactions (PPI) networks analysis was performed to identify hub nodes of peritumoral tissue alterations and correlated with Overall Survival and Relapse Free Survival.

RESULTS: DEGs closely related with cell migration, extracellular matrix organization, and cell cycle were upregulated in peritumoral tissue compared to non-tumoral. Analyzing PPI networks, we observed that the proximity to tumor leads to the alteration of gene modules involved in cell proliferation and differentiation signaling pathways. In fact, in the peritumoral area were identified the top ten upregulated hub nodes including CDK1, ESR1, NOP58, PCNA, EZH2, PPP1CA, BUB1, TGFBR1, CXCR4, and CCND1. A signature performed by four of these hub nodes (CDK1, PCNA, EZH2, and BUB1) was associated with relapse events in untreated luminal breast cancer patients.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study characterizes in depth breast peritumoral tissue providing clues on the changes that tumor signaling could cause in patients with early-stage breast cancer. We propose that the use of a four gene signature could help to predict local relapse. Overall, our results highlight the value of peritumoral tissue as a potential source of new biomarkers for early detection of relapse and improvement in invasive ductal carcinoma patient's prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Sitharthan D, P Sved (2024)

A rare case of fatal rectal perforation and sepsis following traumatic urinary catheterization.

Urology case reports, 54:102706.

This case report details a fatal rectal perforation and sepsis in a comorbid 96-year-old male after traumatic urinary catheterization, highlighting the risks of IDC management in elderly patients with complex health backgrounds. Despite maximal medical therapy, including escalated antibiotics and ICU care, the patient died from septic shock linked to improper catheter insertion by a non-specialist nurse in the community. This case emphasizes the urgent need for better catheterization practices, specialized nursing education, and clear guidelines to prevent such outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

LaRota-Aguilera MJ, Zapata-Caldas E, Buitrago-Bermúdez O, et al (2024)

New criteria for sustainable land use planning of metropolitan green infrastructures in the tropical Andes.

Landscape ecology, 39(6):112.

CONTEXT: Urbanization is rapidly increasing worldwide, with about 60% of the global population currently residing in cities and expected to reach 68% by 2050. In Latin America's tropical Andes region, managing these changes poses challenges, including biodiversity loss and vulnerability to climate change.

OBJECTIVES: This study assesses urban growth and agricultural intensification impacts on the ecological functionality of metropolitan green infrastructures and their capacity to provide ecosystem services using a landscape sustainability and sociometabolic approach. Specifically, it aims to identify landscape configurations promoting socio-ecological sustainability amidst rapid urbanization.

METHODS: A landscape-metabolic model (IDC) was applied to evaluate the interactions between land use changes and ecosystem functions in the metropolitan region of Cali.

RESULTS: Agricultural intensification and industrialization, coupled with uncontrolled urban growth, have significantly transformed the landscape, posing threats to its sustainability. The prevailing biocultural landscapes hold a substantial potential to provide essential ecosystem services to the metropolis. The IDC offers an approach that utilizes a land cover map and agricultural production/metabolism data to calculate an indicator closely related to ecosystem services and multifunctionality.

CONCLUSIONS: The IDC model stands out for efficiently capturing landscape dynamics, providing insights into landscape configuration and social metabolism without extensive resource requirements. This research highlights the importance of adopting a landscape-metabolic and green infrastructure framework to guide territorial policies in the tropical Andes and similar regions. It stresses the need for informed land use planning to address challenges and leverage opportunities presented by biocultural landscapes for regional sustainability amidst rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Roca Navarro MJ, Oliver Goldaracena JM, Garrido Alonso D, et al (2024)

Pre-surgical cryoablation in ≤ 2 cm ER + /HER2-tumors. Prognostic factors for the presence of residual invasive carcinoma.

Breast cancer research and treatment [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer remains the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is the standard approach for small low-risk tumors. If the efficacy of cryoablation is demonstrated, it could provide a minimally invasive alternative to surgery.

PURPOSE: To determine the success of ultrasound-guided cryoablation in achieving the absence of Residual Invasive Cancer (RIC) for patients with ER + /HER2- tumors ≤ 2cm and sonographically negative axillary nodes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was carried out from April 2021 to June 2023, and involved 60 preoperative cryoablation procedures on ultrasound-visible, node-negative (cN0) infiltrating ductal carcinomas (IDC). Standard diagnostic imaging included mammography and tomosynthesis, supplemented by ultrasound-guided biopsy. MRI was performed in patients with associated intraductal carcinoma (DCIS) and an invasive component on core needle biopsy (18 out of 22 cases). All tumors were tagged with ferromagnetic seeds. A triple-phase protocol (freezing-thawing-freezing) with Argon was used, with an average procedure duration of 40 min. A logistic regression model was applied to determine significant correlation between RIC and the study variables.

RESULTS: Fifty-nine women (mean age 63 ± 8 years) with sixty low-risk unifocal IDC underwent cryoablation prior to surgery. Pathological examination of lumpectomy specimens post-cryoablation revealed RIC in only one of 38 patients with pure IDC and in 4 of 22 mixed IDC/DCIS cases. All treated tumors had clear surgical margins, with no significant procedural complications.

CONCLUSIONS: Cryoablation was effective in eradicating 97% of pure infiltrating ER + /HER2-tumors ≤ 2cm, demonstrating its potential as a surgical alternative in selected patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Burns N, A Bourke (2024)

Recurrence in lobular carcinoma of the breast: A 14-year review.

Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The two most common types of breast cancer are invasive or infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive or infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) (Pestalozzi et al., J. Clin. Oncol., 26, 2008, 3006). Between 5% and 15% of invasive breast carcinomas are lobular carcinomas (Pestalozzi et al., J. Clin. Oncol., 26, 2008, 3006; Dossus and Benusiglio, Breast Cancer Res., 17, 2015, 37; Braunstein et al., Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 149, 2015, 555). The paucity of data relating to recurrence rates of lobular cancers prompted this study.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all cases of lobular breast carcinoma reported to the Western Australia Cancer Registry with the clinical and pathological details between 2000 and 2014.

RESULTS: Overall, 2463 subjects with a total of 2526 events of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast. 11/2463 (0.45%) subjects met criteria for local recurrence of invasive lobular breast cancer, with an incidence of 1 in 224.

CONCLUSION: There are clinical implications for the management and follow-up for patients with a diagnosis of lobular cancer of the breast. Due to the low recurrence rate, now, the standard practice in our institution does not offer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of the follow-up for ILC patients. Other centres should establish local recurrence rates to aid development of appropriate management protocols.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Peng L, Ma M, Zhao D, et al (2024)

Comparison of clinical characteristics and outcomes in primary neuroendocrine breast carcinoma versus invasive ductal carcinoma.

Frontiers in oncology, 14:1291034.

BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine breast carcinoma (NECB) is a rare, special histologic type of breast cancer. There are some small sample studies on the clinical outcomes of NECB patients, which are worthy of further discussion.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical characteristics and outcomes among patients with primary NECB versus invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) between November 2004 and November 2017 in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing. NST patients were strictly matched 1:4 during the same period based on the TNM stage. Statistical comparisons were performed to determine the differences in survival between NST and NECB patients and to identify clinical factors that correlate with prognosis.

RESULTS: A total of 121 participants affected by primary NECB were included in our analysis from November 2004 to November 2017. Elderly persons (>60 years of age) were more likely to have primary NECB than young persons (p=0.001). In addition, primary NECB patients had significantly higher odds of having tumors 2-5 cm (36.5%) and >5 cm (6.1%) in size than NST patients. Despite a significant difference in tumor size, the proportion of patients with lymph node metastases showed no difference between the two groups (p=0.021). In addition, the rate of patients with ER-negative tumors in the NECB group (4.2%) was significantly lower than that in the primary NST group (29.8%). Significant differences were noted in the PR-negative (13.3% versus 36.6%, P<0.001) and HER2-negative (90.5% versus 76.4%, P=0.001) expression statuses among these patients. Of 121 primary NECB patients, 11 (9.1%) experienced relapses during the follow-up period. We found that tumor size was an independent risk factor for relapse. For hormone receptors on tumor cells, ER-positive breast cancer patients had significantly lower odds of relapse than receptor-negative patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate no significant difference in mortality and relapse between the primary NECB and NST groups. The tumor size in the primary NECB group was significantly larger than that in the NST group. In addition, the absence of ER independently increased the relapse rate for breast carcinoma patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Voß F, Zweck E, Ipek R, et al (2024)

Myocardial Mitochondrial Function Is Impaired in Cardiac Light-Chain Amyloidosis Compared to Transthyretin Amyloidosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Makhlouf S, Atallah NM, Polotto S, et al (2024)

Deciphering the Clinical Behaviour of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast Defines an Aggressive Subtype.

Cancers, 16(10):.

BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), the most common special type of breast cancer (BC), has unique clinical behaviour and is different from invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST). However, ILC further comprises a diverse group of tumours with distinct features. This study aims to examine the clinicopathological and prognostic features of different variants of ILC, with a particular focus on characterising aggressive subtypes.

METHODS: A large (n = 7140) well-characterised and histologically reviewed BC cohort with treatment and long-term follow-up data was investigated. The cohort was classified based on the WHO classification of tumours into main histological subtypes, including ILC and IDC-NST. ILCs were further classified into variants. Clinicopathological parameters and patient outcomes in terms of BC-specific survival (BCSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated.

RESULTS: ILC constituted 11% of the cohort. The most common non-classic ILC variants were pleomorphic (pILC) and solid (sILC), constituting 19% of ILC. Compared to classic and related variants (alveolar, trabecular, papillary, and tubulolobular; cILC), pILC and sILC variants were associated with aggressive tumour characteristics. The histologic grade of ILC was an important prognostic variable. The survival patterns identified an aggressive ILC subtype encompassing pILC and high-grade sILC. These tumours, which comprised 14% of the cases, were associated with clinicopathological characteristics of poor prognosis and had high BC-specific death and recurrence rates compared not only to cILC (p < 0.001) but also to IDC-NST (p = 0.02) patients. Contrasting this, cILC patients had significantly longer BCSS and DFS than IDC-NST patients in the first 10 to 15 years of follow-up. Adjuvant chemotherapy did not improve the outcome of patients with aggressive ILC subtypes.

CONCLUSIONS: pILC and high-grade sILC variants comprise an aggressive ILC subtype associated with poor prognostic characteristics and a poor response to chemotherapy. These results warrant confirmation in randomised clinical trials.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Ben-David BM, Chebat DR, M Icht (2024)

"Love looks not with the eyes": supranormal processing of emotional speech in individuals with late-blindness versus preserved processing in individuals with congenital-blindness.

Cognition & emotion [Epub ahead of print].

Processing of emotional speech in the absence of visual information relies on two auditory channels: semantics and prosody. No study to date has investigated how blindness impacts this process. Two theories, Perceptual Deficit, and Sensory Compensation, yiled different expectations about the role of visual experience (or its lack thereof) in processing emotional speech. To test the effect of vision and early visual experience on processing of emotional speech, we compared individuals with congenital blindness (CB, n = 17), individuals with late blindness (LB, n = 15), and sighted controls (SC, n = 21) on identification and selective-attention of semantic and prosodic spoken-emotions. Results showed that individuals with blindness performed at least as well as SC, supporting Sensory Compensation and the role of cortical reorganisation. Individuals with LB outperformed individuals with CB, in accordance with Perceptual Deficit, supporting the role of early visual experience. The LB advantage was moderated by executive functions (working-memory). Namely, the advantage was erased for individuals with CB who showed higher levels of executive functions. Results suggest that vision is not necessary for processing of emotional speech, but early visual experience could improve it. The findings support a combination of the two aforementioned theories and reject a dichotomous view of deficiencies/enhancements of blindness.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Ahmad H, Ali A, Khalil AT, et al (2024)

Clinico-genomic findings, molecular docking, and mutational spectrum in an understudied population with breast cancer patients from KP, Pakistan.

Frontiers in genetics, 15:1383284.

In this study, we report the mutational profiles, pathogenicity, and their association with different clinicopathologic and sociogenetic factors in patients with Pashtun ethnicity for the first time. A total of 19 FFPE blocks of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) from the Breast Cancer (BC) tissue and 6 normal FFPE blocks were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Various somatic and germline mutations were identified in cancer-related genes, i.e., ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, and XRCC2. Among a total of 18 mutations, 14 mutations were somatic and 4 were germline. The ATM gene exhibited the maximum number of mutations (11/18), followed by CHEK2 (3/18), PALB2 (3/18), and XRCC2 (1/18). Except one frameshift deletion, all other 17 mutations were nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). SIFT prediction revealed 7/18 (38.8%) mutations as deleterious. PolyPhen-2 and MutationTaster identified 5/18 (27.7%) mutations as probably damaging and 10/18 (55.5%) mutations as disease-causing, respectively. Mutations like PALB2 p.Q559R (6/19; 31.5%), XRCC2 p.R188H (5/19; 26.31%), and ATM p.D1853N (4/19; 21.05%) were recurrent mutations and proposed to have a biomarker potential. The protein network prediction was performed using GeneMANIA and STRING. ISPRED-SEQ indicated three interaction site mutations which were further used for molecular dynamic simulation. An average increase in the radius of gyration was observed in all three mutated proteins revealing their perturbed folding behavior. Obtained SNVs were further correlated with various parameters related to the clinicopathological status of the tumors. Three mutation positions (ATM p. D1853N, CHEK2 p.M314I, and PALB2 p.T1029S) were found to be highly conserved. Finally, the wild- and mutant-type proteins were screened for two drugs: elagolix (DrugBank ID: DB11979) and LTS0102038 (a triterpenoid, isolated from the anticancer medicinal plant Fagonia indica). Comparatively, a higher number of interactions were noted for normal ATM with both compounds, as compared to mutants.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Wang S, Zhang Q, Zhang T, et al (2024)

Invasive papillary carcinoma of the breast: A case report.

Oncology letters, 28(1):300.

Invasive papillary carcinoma (IPC) of the breast is a rare form of cancer. The current report documents a case of IPC characterized by a large tumor size and skin involvement. Surgical exploration revealed no evidence of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. Due to financial constraints, the patient opted solely for anastrozole endocrine therapy at a dosage of 1 mg/day for a period of 5 years post-surgery, foregoing other treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Since discharge, 2.5 years have passed, during which the patient has been followed up via phone every 3 months, showing a good prognosis. A literature review indicated that IPC is prevalent amongst the elderly population and can be misdiagnosed due to its morphological, cytomorphological and immunophenotypic overlap with other types of papillary neoplasms. This tumor exhibits a more favorable prognosis compared with IDC, primarily attributed to its advantageous gene and molecular expression patterns, coupled with its decreased invasiveness. Despite limited evidence-based research on the treatment of IPC, the present case report, albeit with limitations, underscores the importance of avoiding over-treatment and suggests the feasibility of combining surgery with endocrine therapy for IPC.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Dor YI, Algom D, Shakuf V, et al (2024)

Age-related differences in processing of emotions in speech disappear with babble noise in the background.

Cognition & emotion [Epub ahead of print].

Older adults process emotional speech differently than young adults, relying less on prosody (tone) relative to semantics (words). This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these age-related differences via an emotional speech-in-noise test. A sample of 51 young and 47 older adults rated spoken sentences with emotional content on both prosody and semantics, presented on the background of wideband speech-spectrum noise (sensory interference) or on the background of multi-talker babble (sensory/cognitive interference). The presence of wideband noise eliminated age-related differences in semantics but not in prosody when processing emotional speech. Conversely, the presence of babble resulted in the elimination of age-related differences across all measures. The results suggest that both sensory and cognitive-linguistic factors contribute to age-related changes in emotional speech processing. Because real world conditions typically involve noisy background, our results highlight the importance of testing under such conditions.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Langer HT, Rohm M, Goncalves MD, et al (2024)

AMPK as a mediator of tissue preservation: time for a shift in dogma?.

Nature reviews. Endocrinology [Epub ahead of print].

Ground-breaking discoveries have established 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a central sensor of metabolic stress in cells and tissues. AMPK is activated through cellular starvation, exercise and drugs by either directly or indirectly affecting the intracellular AMP (or ADP) to ATP ratio. In turn, AMPK regulates multiple processes of cell metabolism, such as the maintenance of cellular ATP levels, via the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake, glycolysis, autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation, and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, AMPK inhibits anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis and protein synthesis. These findings support the notion that AMPK is a crucial regulator of cell catabolism. However, studies have revealed that AMPK's role in cell homeostasis might not be as unidirectional as originally thought. This Review explores emerging evidence for AMPK as a promoter of cell survival and an enhancer of anabolic capacity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue during catabolic crises. We discuss AMPK-activating interventions for tissue preservation during tissue wasting in cancer-associated cachexia and explore the clinical potential of AMPK activation in wasting conditions. Overall, we provide arguments that call for a shift in the current dogma of AMPK as a mere regulator of cell catabolism, concluding that AMPK has an unexpected role in tissue preservation.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Ma S, Li Y, Yin J, et al (2024)

Prospective study of AI-assisted prediction of breast malignancies in physical health examinations: role of off-the-shelf AI software and comparison to radiologist performance.

Frontiers in oncology, 14:1374278.

OBJECTIVE: In physical health examinations, breast sonography is a commonly used imaging method, but it can lead to repeated exams and unnecessary biopsy due to discrepancies among radiologists and health centers. This study explores the role of off-the-shelf artificial intelligence (AI) software in assisting radiologists to classify incidentally found breast masses in two health centers.

METHODS: Female patients undergoing breast ultrasound examinations with incidentally discovered breast masses were categorized according to the 5[th] edition of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS), with categories 3 to 5 included in this study. The examinations were conducted at two municipal health centers from May 2021 to May 2023.The final pathological results from surgical resection or biopsy served as the gold standard for comparison. Ultrasonographic images were obtained in longitudinal and transverse sections, and two junior radiologists and one senior radiologist independently assessed the images without knowing the pathological findings. The BI-RADS classification was adjusted following AI assistance, and diagnostic performance was compared using receiver operating characteristic curves.

RESULTS: A total of 196 patients with 202 breast masses were included in the study, with pathological results confirming 107 benign and 95 malignant masses. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that experienced breast radiologists had higher diagnostic performance in BI-RADS classification than junior radiologists, similar to AI classification (AUC = 0.936, 0.806, 0.896, and 0.950, p < 0.05). The AI software improved the accuracy, sensitivity, and negative predictive value of the adjusted BI-RADS classification for the junior radiologists' group (p< 0.05), while no difference was observed in the senior radiologist group. Furthermore, AI increased the negative predictive value for BI-RADS 4a masses and the positive predictive value for 4b masses among radiologists (p < 0.05). AI enhances the sensitivity of invasive breast cancer detection more effectively than ductal carcinoma in situ and rare subtypes of breast cancer.

CONCLUSIONS: The AI software enhances diagnostic efficiency for breast masses, reducing the performance gap between junior and senior radiologists, particularly for BI-RADS 4a and 4b masses. This improvement reduces unnecessary repeat examinations and biopsies, optimizing medical resource utilization and enhancing overall diagnostic effectiveness.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Shaw AK, Khurana D, S Soni (2024)

Assessment of thermal damage for plasmonic photothermal therapy of subsurface tumors.

Physical and engineering sciences in medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) involves the use of nanoparticles and near-infrared radiation to attain a temperature above 50 °C within the tumor for its thermal damage. PPTT is largely explored for superficial tumors, and its potential to treat deeper subsurface tumors is dealt feebly, requiring the assessment of thermal damage for such tumors. In this paper, the extent of thermal damage is numerically analyzed for PPTT of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) situated at 3-9 mm depths. The developed numerical model is validated with suitable tissue-tumor mimicking phantoms. Tumor (IDC) embedded with gold nanorods (GNRs) is subjected to broadband near-infrared radiation. The effect of various GNRs concentrations and their spatial distributions [viz. uniform distribution, intravenous delivery (peripheral distribution) and intratumoral delivery (localized distribution)] are investigated for thermal damage for subsurface tumors situated at various depths. Results show that lower GNRs concentrations lead to more uniform internal heat generation, eventually resulting in uniform temperature rise. Also, the peripheral distribution of nanoparticles provides a more uniform spatial temperature rise within the tumor. Overall, it is concluded that PPTT has potential to induce thermal damage for subsurface tumors, at depths of upto 9 mm, by proper choice of nanoparticle distribution, dose/concentration and irradiation parameters based on the tumor location. Moreover, intravenous administration of nanoparticles seems a good choice for shallower tumors, while for deeper tumors, uniform distribution is required to attain the necessary thermal damage. In the future, the algorithm may be extended further, involving 3D patient-specific tumors and through mice model-based experiments.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Lv Y, Zhang H, Zhao Y, et al (2024)

A case report of low-dose apatinib in the treatment of advanced triple-negative breast cancer.

Translational breast cancer research : a journal focusing on translational research in breast cancer, 5:8.

BACKGROUND: The current study shows that the incidence rate of triple-negative breast cancer accounts for 10-17% of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. There is no specific treatment target, the age of onset is relatively small, and the recurrence rate is relatively fast. The prognosis of breast cancer in different subtypes is the most unsatisfactory, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 15%. We report a typical case of metastatic advanced triple-negative breast cancer who responded well to apatinib mesylate after chemotherapy failure and achieved significant progression-free survival, which is relatively rare in triple-negative breast cancer with limited treatment means.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 55-year-old female was surgically diagnosed as triple-negative breast cancer on April 17, 2015. After surgery, she had lung metastasis after standard adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. After receiving the NX regimen (vinorelbine, capecitabine) for 8 cycles, she progressed. Because the patient refused later, she was adjusted to apatinib mesylate, and serious adverse reactions occurred during the treatment process. By adjusting the drug dose, and low-dose apatinib treatment, the lung lesions were close to complete response (CR), reaching a progression-free survival period of 45 months.

CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose apatinib may be a promising anti-tumor drug for triple-negative breast cancer patients, which needs more samples to verify. This case may provide a reference for the treatment selection of triple-negative metastatic breast cancer in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Luo T, Zhu K, Zhong X, et al (2023)

CDK4/6 inhibitors for primary endocrine resistant HR-positive/HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: a case report.

Translational breast cancer research : a journal focusing on translational research in breast cancer, 4:33.

BACKGROUND: We report a case of hormone receptor (HR) positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) negative breast cancer with multiple liver metastases who achieved good clinical benefit across cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors in combination with endocrine therapy. Prior to this, the patient underwent neoadjuvant therapy and surgery as well as adjuvant endocrine therapy. We present and discuss three important treatment decision nodes associated with it.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast (cT4bN2M0, stage IIIB, Luminal B HER2-negative type) at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in 2020, and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and modified radical mastectomy of the left breast from 2020 to 2021. Postoperative radiotherapy was performed in the left chest wall and left upper and lower clavicular region. Adjuvant therapy is anastrozole endocrine therapy. Multiple liver metastases developed in 2022. The pathological molecular typing of liver metastases was confirmed to be consistent with the primary lesion. In the context of primary endocrine resistance, the first-line treatment of choice was fulvestrant in combination with a targeted CDK4/6 inhibitor (abemaciclib). This combination regimen made the liver metastases visibly shrunk, leading to partial response (PR) and has achieved a progression-free survival of 12 months. And there were no serious drug-related adverse events during first-line treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: CDK4/6 inhibitor is a promising antineoplastic agent for HR positive, HER2 negative breast cancer patients. With the development of research, the application scope of CDK4/6 inhibitors is gradually expanding, and the precision treatment of breast cancer requires more rational drug selection and combination.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Shirazi B, Niaz M, MA Khan (2024)

The characteristics and risk factors of breast cancer patients trend distinctive regional differences: a cross-sectional study.

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 74(4):672-676.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and risk factors of breast cancer patients in a tertiary care setting.

METHODS: The retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, and comprised data of all patients diagnosed with breast cancer from March 2017 to December 2021. Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, stage of the disease and histopathological characteristics were noted. Data related to all the variables was not available in all cases. Data was analysed using SPSS 23.

RESULTS: Of the 690 patients, 683(99%) were females and 7(1%) were males. The mean age at presentation was 49.3±13.5 years, while the mean duration of symptoms was 10.24±17.64) months. Most of the females were married 642(93%) and multiparous 484(70.9%), while 293(42.5%) had breastfed their children for >1 year, and 412(59.7%) had no history of contraception use. The most common stage at presentation was stage II (48.6%), and most patients had grade II 395(57.2%) invasive ductal carcinoma, with Luminal A molecular subtype noted in 287(41.6%) cases.

CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of breast cancer in the sample had certain distinctions compared to other populations. It is important to integrate all datasets and develop guidelines appropriate to Pakistani population.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Stindt KR, MN McClean (2024)

Tuning interdomain conjugation to enable in situ population modification in yeasts.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The ability to modify and control natural and engineered microbiomes is essential for biotechnology and biomedicine. Fungi are critical members of most microbiomes, yet technology for modifying the fungal members of a microbiome has lagged far behind that for bacteria. Interdomain conjugation (IDC) is a promising approach, as DNA transfer from bacterial cells to yeast enables in situ modification. While such genetic transfers have been known to naturally occur in a wide range of eukaryotes and are thought to contribute to their evolution, IDC has been understudied as a technique to control fungal or fungal-bacterial consortia. One major obstacle to the widespread use of IDC is its limited efficiency. In this work, we manipulated metabolic and physical interactions between genetically tractable Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to control the incidence of IDC. We test the landscape of population interactions between the bacterial donors and yeast recipients to find that bacterial commensalism leads to maximized IDC, both in culture and in mixed colonies. We demonstrate the capacity of cell-to-cell binding via mannoproteins to assist both IDC incidence and bacterial commensalism in culture and model how these tunable controls can predictably yield a range of IDC outcomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these controls can be utilized to irreversibly alter a recipient yeast population, by both "rescuing" a poor-growing recipient population and collapsing a stable population via a novel IDC-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 system.IMPORTANCEFungi are important but often unaddressed members of most natural and synthetic microbial communities. This work highlights opportunities for modifying yeast microbiome populations through bacterial conjugation. While conjugation has been recognized for its capacity to deliver engineerable DNA to a range of cells, its dependence on cell contact has limited its efficiency. Here, we find "knobs" to control DNA transfer, by engineering the metabolic dependence between bacterial donors and yeast recipients and by changing their ability to physically adhere to each other. Importantly, we functionally validate these "knobs" by irreversibly altering yeast populations. We use these controls to "rescue" a failing yeast population, demonstrate the capacity of conjugated CRISPR/Cas9 to depress or collapse populations, and show that conjugation can be easily interrupted by disrupting cell-to-cell binding. These results offer building blocks toward in situ mycobiome editing, with significant implications for clinical treatments of fungal pathogens and other fungal system engineering.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Rampal R, Jones S, Hogg W, et al (2024)

Evaluation of long-term outcome following therapeutic mammaplasty: the effect of wound complication on initiation of adjuvant therapy and subsequent oncological outcome.

Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic mammaplasty (TM) facilitates large tumour resection while maintaining optimal aesthetic outcome. It carries higher wound complication risks, which may delay adjuvant therapy initiation. Whether this delay affects oncological outcome requires evaluation.

METHODS: Data were collected for consecutive patients receiving TM at the Leeds breast unit (2009-2017). A prospectively maintained database was used to determine tumour characteristics, wound complication rates, receipt of adjuvant therapy and breast cancer recurrence or death.

RESULTS: In total 112 patients (median age of 54 years) underwent 114 TM procedures. The most common histological subtypes were invasive ductal carcinoma (61.4%), invasive lobular carcinoma (13.2%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (13.2%). Of the patients, 88.2% had oestrogen receptor-positive cancer and 14% had human epidermal growth factor receptor-positive cancer; 26.3% had multifocal cancer. The median tumour size was 30mm. The median Nottingham Prognostic Index was 4.2. The local recurrence rate was 3.5% (median follow-up of 8.6 years). The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 88.5% and 83.5%, and the equivalent overall survival (OS) rates were 94% and 83.5%. Wound complication rate was 23.6% (n=27), the commonest being wound infection (11.4%; n=13) and T-junction wound breakdown (10.5%; n=12). The median time to adjuvant therapy was 72 days (interquartile range [IQR] 56-90) for patients with wound complications, and 51 days (IQR 42-58) for those without. However, this delay did not affect DFS or OS (log-rank test; p=0.58 and p=0.94, respectively). This was confirmed on Cox regression analysis.

CONCLUSION: Our study finding demonstrates that although wound complications after TM leads to a modest delay to adjuvant therapy, the long-term oncological outcomes were comparable with those in patients without wound complications.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Thiriveedhi VK, Krishnaswamy D, Clunie D, et al (2024)

Cloud-based large-scale curation of medical imaging data using AI segmentation.

Research square.

Rapid advances in medical imaging Artificial Intelligence (AI) offer unprecedented opportunities for automatic analysis and extraction of data from large imaging collections. Computational demands of such modern AI tools may be difficult to satisfy with the capabilities available on premises. Cloud computing offers the promise of economical access and extreme scalability. Few studies examine the price/performance tradeoffs of using the cloud, in particular for medical image analysis tasks. We investigate the use of cloud-provisioned compute resources for AI-based curation of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) Computed Tomography (CT) images available from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Imaging Data Commons (IDC). We evaluated NCI Cancer Research Data Commons (CRDC) Cloud Resources - Terra (FireCloud) and Seven Bridges-Cancer Genomics Cloud (SB-CGC) platforms - to perform automatic image segmentation with TotalSegmentator and pyradiomics feature extraction for a large cohort containing >126,000 CT volumes from >26,000 patients. Utilizing >21,000 Virtual Machines (VMs) over the course of the computation we completed analysis in under 9 hours, as compared to the estimated 522 days that would be needed on a single workstation. The total cost of utilizing the cloud for this analysis was $1,011.05. Our contributions include: 1) an evaluation of the numerous tradeoffs towards optimizing the use of cloud resources for large-scale image analysis; 2) CloudSegmentator, an open source reproducible implementation of the developed workflows, which can be reused and extended; 3) practical recommendations for utilizing the cloud for large-scale medical image computing tasks. We also share the results of the analysis: the total of 9,565,554 segmentations of the anatomic structures and the accompanying radiomics features in IDC as of release v18.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Tan RYC, Ong WS, Lee KH, et al (2024)

Outcomes in Nonmetastatic Hormone Receptor-Positive HER2-Negative Pure Mucinous Breast Cancer: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Although considered a favorable subtype, pure mucinous breast cancer (PMBC) can recur, and evidence for adjuvant therapy is limited. We aimed to compare outcomes of nonmetastatic PMBC with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) to address these uncertainties.

METHODS: Individual patient-level data from 6 centers on stage I-III hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative PMBC, IDC, and ILC were used to analyze recurrence-free interval (RFI), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS), and to identify prognostic factors for PMBC.

RESULTS: Data from 20,684 IDC cases, 1,475 ILC cases, and 943 PMBC cases were used. Median follow-up was 6.6 years. Five-year RFI, RFS, and OS for PMBC were 96.1%, 94.9%, and 98.1%, respectively. On multivariable Cox regression, PMBC demonstrated superior RFI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43-0.80), RFS (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.89), and OS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.96) compared with IDC. ILC showed comparable outcomes to IDC. Fewer than half (48.7%) of recurrences in PMBC were distant, which was a lower rate than for IDC (67.3%) and ILC (80.6%). In contrast to RFI, RFS events were driven more by non-breast cancer deaths in older patients. Significant prognostic factors for RFI among PMBC included positive lymph node(s) (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.08-5.40), radiotherapy (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85), and endocrine therapy (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.09-0.70). No differential chemotherapy associations with outcomes were detected across PMBC subgroups by nodal stage, tumor size, and age. A separate SEER database analysis also did not find any association of improved survival with adjuvant chemotherapy in these subgroups.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with IDC, PMBC demonstrated superior RFI, RFS, and OS. Lymph node negativity, adjuvant radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy were associated with superior RFI. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with better outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Song L, Qiu Y, Huang W, et al (2024)

Untypical bilateral breast cancer with peritoneal fibrosis on [18]F-FDG PET/CT: case report and literature review.

Frontiers in medicine, 11:1353822.

BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal fibrosis, a condition of uncertain origin, is rarely linked to 8% of malignant cases, including breast, lung, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, thyroid, and carcinoid. The mechanism leading to peritoneal fibrosis induced by tumors is not well understood, possibly encompassing direct infiltration of neoplastic cells or the initiation of inflammatory responses prompted by cytokines released by tumor cells. We report a case of breast cancer with renal metastasis and retroperitoneal fibrosis detected using [18]F-FDG PET/CT, providing help for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old woman was referred to the hospital with elevated creatinine and oliguria for over a month. Abdominal computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a retroperitoneal fibrosis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) was suspected. However, a percutaneous biopsy of the kidney lesion confirmed metastasis from breast cancer. The physical examination revealed inverted nipples and an orange peel appearance on the skin of both breasts. Ultrasonography revealed bilateral hyperplasia (BIRADS 4a) of the mammary glands and bilateral neck and axillary lymphadenopathy. Subsequently, [18]F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography ([18]F-FDG PET/CT) detected abnormally high uptake (SUVmax) in the bilateral mammary glands and axillary lymph nodes, suggesting bilateral breast cancer. Furthermore, abnormal [18]F-FDG uptake was detected in the kidney, suggesting renal metastasis. In addition, abnormal [18]F-FDG uptake was observed in the vertebrae, accompanied by an elevation in inhomogeneous bone mineral density, raising suspicion of bone metastases. However, the possibility of myelodysplasia cannot be dismissed, and further investigations will be conducted during close follow-ups. There was significant [18]F-FDG uptake in the retroperitoneal position indicating a potential association between retroperitoneal fibrosis and breast cancer. The final pathological diagnosis of the breast tissue confirmed bilateral invasive ductal carcinoma. The patient had been treated with 11 cycles of albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel (0.3 mg) and had no significant adverse reaction.

CONCLUSION: In this case, neither the bilateral breast cancer nor the kidney metastatic lesion showed typical nodules or masses, so breast ultrasound, abdominal CT, and MRI did not suggest malignant lesions. PET/CT played an important role in detecting occult metastases and primary lesions, thereby contributing to more accurate staging, monitoring treatment responses, and prediction of prognosis in breast cancer.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Ahuja S, G K, S Zaheer (2024)

Evaluation of Histomorphological Changes in Breast Cancer Post-Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

Indian journal of surgical oncology, 15(2):236-240.

Breast cancer, a leading cause of global female mortality, demands comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This study delves into the nuanced realm of post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy breast cancer specimens, emphasizing the imperative need for pathologists to discern stromal and nuclear alterations adeptly. The investigation, encompassing 100 female patients with a mean age of 47.5 years, elucidates the demographic and clinicopathological parameters. Predominantly presenting as palpable lumps (85%), invasive ductal carcinoma emerged as the predominant histological type (98%). The primary focus of the study revolves around the morphological changes post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with a meticulous qualitative analysis encompassing stromal elements (fibrosis, elastosis, calcification) and nuclear features (pyknosis, hyperchromasia). Notably, the response to chemotherapy, classified by the International Union against Cancer criteria, delineates a substantial pathological complete response (55%), partial response (35%), and limited non-response (10%). The therapeutic landscape includes a majority of cases undergoing extensive chemotherapy cycles, primarily featuring the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel regimen. Remarkably, this investigation unveils fibrosis (63%) and elastosis/collagenization (51%) as prevalent stromal changes, while pyknosis (58%) and hyperchromasia (48%) dominate nuclear alterations. In conclusion, this retrospective study provides a comprehensive overview of post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy breast cancer specimens, shedding light on the intricate interplay of clinical parameters, treatment responses, and histopathological changes. The findings underscore the pivotal role of pathologists in accurately diagnosing and grading tumors in the evolving landscape of breast cancer management.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Amado IR, Romaní-Pérez M, Fuciños P, et al (2024)

Editorial: Novel and emerging therapies for the treatment of obesity and related disorders.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 15:1371113.

RevDate: 2024-05-12

Greenland NY, Cooperberg MR, Carroll PR, et al (2024)

Morphologic patterns observed in prostate biopsy cases with discrepant grade group and molecular risk classification.

The Prostate [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Molecular-based risk classifier tests are increasingly being utilized by urologists and radiation oncologists to guide clinical decision making. The Decipher prostate biopsy test is a 22-gene RNA biomarker assay designed to predict likelihood of high-grade disease at radical prostatectomy and risk of metastasis and mortality. The test provides a risk category of low, intermediate, or high. We investigated histologic features of biopsies in which the Grade Group (GG) and Decipher risk category (molecular risk) were discrepant.

METHODS: Our institutional urologic outcomes database was searched for men who underwent prostate biopsies with subsequent Decipher testing from 2016 to 2020. We defined discrepant GG and molecular risk as either GG1-2 with high Decipher risk category or GG ≥ 3 with low Decipher risk category. The biopsy slide on which Decipher testing was performed was re-reviewed for GG and various histologic features, including % Gleason pattern 4, types of Gleason pattern 4 and 5, other "high risk" features (e.g., complex papillary, ductal carcinoma, intraductal carcinoma [IDC]), and other unusual and often "difficult to grade" patterns (e.g., atrophic carcinoma, mucin rupture, pseudohyperplastic carcinoma, collagenous fibroplasia, foamy gland carcinoma, carcinoma with basal cell marker expression, carcinoma with prominent vacuoles, and stromal reaction). Follow-up data was also obtained from the electronic medical record.

RESULTS: Of 178 men who underwent prostate biopsies and had Decipher testing performed, 41 (23%) had discrepant GG and molecular risk. Slides were available for review for 33/41 (80%). Of these 33 patients, 23 (70%) had GG1-2 (GG1 n = 5, GG2 n = 18) with high Decipher risk, and 10 (30%) had GG ≥ 3 with low Decipher risk. Of the 5 GG1 cases, one case was considered GG2 on re-review; no other high risk features were identified but each case showed at least one of the following "difficult to grade" patterns: 3 atrophic carcinoma, 1 collagenous fibroplasia, 1 carcinoma with mucin rupture, and 1 carcinoma with basal cell marker expression. Of the 18 GG2 high Decipher risk cases, 2 showed GG3 on re-review, 5 showed large cribriform and/or other high risk features, and 10 showed a "difficult to grade" pattern. Of the 10 GG ≥ 3 low Decipher risk cases, 5 had known high risk features including 2 with large cribriform, 1 with IDC, and 1 with Gleason pattern 5.

CONCLUSIONS: In GG1-2 high Decipher risk cases, difficult to grade patterns were frequently seen in the absence of other known high risk morphologic features; whether these constitute true high risk cases requires further study. In the GG ≥ 3 low Decipher risk cases, aggressive histologic patterns such as large cribriform and IDC were observed in half (50%) of cases; therefore, the molecular classifier may not capture all high risk histologic patterns.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Hua B, Yang G, An Y, et al (2024)

Clinical and Imaging Characteristics of Contrast-enhanced Mammography and MRI to Distinguish Microinvasive Carcinoma from Ductal Carcinoma In situ.

Academic radiology pii:S1076-6332(24)00258-7 [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The prognosis of ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion (DCISM) is more similar to that of small invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) than to pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). It is particularly important to accurately distinguish between DCISM and DCIS. The present study aims to compare the clinical and imaging characteristics of contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between DCISM and pure DCIS, and to identify predictive factors of microinvasive carcinoma, which may contribute to a comprehensive understanding of DCISM in clinical diagnosis and support surveillance strategies, such as surgery, radiation, and other treatment decisions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven female patients diagnosed with DCIS were included in the study from May 2019 to August 2023. Patients were further divided into two groups based on pathological diagnosis: DCIS and DCISM. Clinical and imaging characteristics of these two groups were analyzed statistically. The independent clinical risk factors were selected using multivariate logistic regression and used to establish the logistic model [Logit(P)]. The diagnostic performance of independent predictors was assessed and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and DeLong's test.

RESULTS: In CEM, the maximum cross-sectional area (CSAmax), the percentage signal difference between the enhancing lesion and background in the craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique projection (%RSCC, and %RSMLO) were found to be significantly higher for DCISM compared to DCIS (p = 0.001; p < 0.001; p = 0.008). Additionally, there were noticeable statistical differences in the patterns of enhancement morphological distribution (EMD) and internal enhancement pattern (IEP) between DCIS and DCISM (p = 0.047; p = 0.008). In MRI, only CSAmax (p = 0.012) and IEP (p = 0.020) showed significant statistical differences. The multivariate regression analysis suggested that CSAmax (in CEM or MR) and %RSCC were independent predictors of DCISM (all p < 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) of CSAmax (CEM), %RSCC (CEM), Logit(P) (CEM), and CSAmax (MR) were 0.764, 0.795, 0.842, and 0.739, respectively. There were no significant differences in DeLong's test for these values (all p > 0.10). DCISM was significantly associated with high nuclear grade, comedo type, high axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis, and high Ki-67 positivity compared to DCIS (all p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The tumor size (CSAmax), enhancement index (%RS), and internal enhancement pattern (IEP) were highly indicative of DCISM. DCISM tends to express more aggressive pathological features, such as high nuclear grade, comedo-type necrosis, ALN metastasis, and Ki-67 overexpression. As with MRI, CEM has the capability to help predict when DCISM is accompanying DCIS.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Abigail BC, DC Suzanne (2024)

Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated oncogenic activity is dependent on breast cancer subtype.

The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology pii:S0960-0760(24)00066-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Breast cancer incidence has been steadily rising and is the leading cause of cancer death in women due to its high metastatic potential. Individual breast cancer subtypes are classified by both cell type of origin and receptor expression, namely estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptors (ER, PR and HER2). Recently, the importance and context-dependent role of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the natural history and prognosis of breast cancer subtypes has been uncovered. In ER-positive breast cancer, GR expression is associated with a better prognosis as a result of ER-GR crosstalk. GR appears to modulate ER-mediated gene expression resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation and a more indolent cancer phenotype. In ER-negative breast cancer, including GR-positive triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), GR expression enhances migration, chemotherapy resistance and cell survival. In invasive lobular carcinoma, GR function is relatively understudied, and more work is required to determine whether lobular subtypes behave similarly to their invasive ductal carcinoma counterparts. Importantly, understanding GR signaling in individual breast cancer subtypes has potential clinical implications because of the recent development of highly selective GR non-steroidal ligands, which represent a therapeutic approach for modulating GR activity systemically.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Wasinger G, Cussenot O, E Compérat (2024)

Clinical Management of Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate.

Cancers, 16(9):.

Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) has emerged as a distinct entity with significant clinical implications in prostate cancer (PCa) management. Despite historically being considered an extension of invasive PCa, IDC-P shows unique biological characteristics that challenge traditional diagnostic and therapeutic settings. This review explores the clinical management of IDC-P. While the diagnosis of IDC-P relies on specific morphological criteria, its detection remains challenging due to inter-observer variability. Emerging evidence underscores the association of IDC-P with aggressive disease and poor clinical outcomes across various PCa stages. However, standardized management guidelines for IDC-P are lacking. Recent studies suggest considering adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies in specific patient cohorts to improve outcomes and tailor treatment strategies based on the IDC-P status. However, the current level of evidence regarding this is low. Moving forward, a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of IDC-P and its interaction with conventional PCa subtypes is crucial for refining risk stratification and therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Li H, Hou Y, Xue LY, et al (2024)

Use of MRI Radiomics Models in Evaluating the Low HER2 Expression in Breast Cancer.

Current medical imaging pii:CMIR-EPUB-140264 [Epub ahead of print].

To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiomics models in evaluating the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2) expression in breast cancer.

Materials and Methods: The MRI data of 161 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (non-special type) of breast cancer were retrospectively collected, and the MRI radiomics models were established based on the MRI imaging features of the fat suppression T2 weighted image (T2WI) sequence, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-T1WIsequence and joint sequences. The T-test and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm were used for feature dimensionality reduction and screening, respectively, and the random forest (RF) algorithm was used to construct the classification model.

Results: The model established by the LASSO-RF algorithm was used in the ROC curve analysis. In predicting the low expression state of HER2 in breast cancer, the radiomics models of the fat suppression T2WI sequence, DCE-T1WI sequence, and the combination of the two sequences showed better predictive efficiency. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for the verification set of low, negative, and positive HER2 expression, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) value was 0.81, 0.72, and 0.62 for the DCE-T1WI sequence model, 0.79, 0.65 and 0.77 for the T2WI sequence model, and 0.84, 0.73 and 0.66 for the joint sequence model, respectively. The joint sequence model had the highest AUC value.

Conclusions: The MRI radiomics models can be used to effectively predict the HER2 expression in breast cancer and provide a non-invasive and early assistant method for clinicians to formulate individualized and accurate treatment plans.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Yagyu T, Miki H, Kikawa Y, et al (2024)

Appendiceal Metastasis of Breast Cancer: A Case Report and a Literature Review.

Cureus, 16(4):e57929.

Appendiceal metastases of breast cancer (BC) are very rare, and there are few reports of resection. Asymptomatic appendiceal enlargement is often suspected to be a primary appendiceal tumor, making it difficult to suspect metastatic tumors, especially metastases from BC. On the other hand, advances in drug therapy, including hormonal therapy for BC, have prolonged survival, and there is a possibility of encountering metastatic cases that have rarely been seen before. We herein present a case in which an enlarged appendix, identified during hormonal therapy for advanced BC, was laparoscopically removed and diagnosed as BC metastasis. A 53-year-old woman had been diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) based on a breast biopsy, and the appendiceal specimen was diagnosed as invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). We herein report this unique case and provide a detailed review of 13 previous reports.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Owolabi ATY, Schneider P, SE Reece (2024)

Virulence is associated with daily rhythms in the within-host replication of the malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi.

Evolutionary applications, 17(5):e13696.

Most malaria (Plasmodium spp.) parasite species undergo asexual replication synchronously within the red blood cells of their vertebrate host. Rhythmicity in this intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) enables parasites to maximise exploitation of the host and align transmission activities with the time of day that mosquito vectors blood feed. The IDC is also responsible for the major pathologies associated with malaria, and plasticity in the parasite's rhythm can confer tolerance to antimalarial drugs. Both the severity of infection (virulence) and synchrony of the IDC vary across species and between genotypes of Plasmodium; however, this variation is poorly understood. The theory predicts that virulence and IDC synchrony are negatively correlated, and we tested this hypothesis using two closely related genotypes of the rodent malaria model Plasmodium chabaudi that differ markedly in virulence. We also test the predictions that, in response to perturbations to the timing (phase) of the IDC schedule relative to the phase of host rhythms (misalignment), the virulent parasite genotype recovers the correct phase relationship faster, incurs less fitness losses and so hosts benefit less from misalignment when infected with a virulent genotype. Our predictions are partially supported by results suggesting that the virulent parasite genotype is less synchronous in some circumstances and recovers faster from misalignment. While hosts were less anaemic when infected by misaligned parasites, the extent of this benefit did not depend on parasite virulence. Overall, our results suggest that interventions to perturb the alignment between the IDC schedule, and host rhythms and increase synchrony between parasites within each IDC, could alleviate disease symptoms. However, virulent parasites, which are better at withstanding conventional antimalarial treatment, would also be intrinsically better able to tolerate such interventions.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Samba S, Bensghier A, Berhili S, et al (2024)

Apocrine Breast Cancer: A Case Report.

Cureus, 16(4):e57789.

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women worldwide, including a wide range of histological subtypes, from typical expressions like invasive ductal carcinoma to less common variations like apocrine breast carcinoma. This document discusses the case of a 65-year-old female with apocrine breast cancer, who presented with a chronic mastodynia. This case highlights the importance of being aware of apocrine breast cancer.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Abu-Rahmah R, Nechushtan H, Hidmi S, et al (2024)

The functional role of Nudt2 in human triple negative breast cancer.

Frontiers in oncology, 14:1364663.

The main known function of Nudix hydrolase 2 (Nudt2) is to hydrolyze the secondary messenger diadenosine 5', 5'''-p1, p4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A). In this study we examined the role of Nudt2 in breast carcinoma through its expression in human invasive ductal carcinoma tissues, and its functions in human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. A significantly higher expression of Nudt2 was observed in human invasive ductal carcinoma tissues compared to that in normal breast tissue. Knockdown of Nudt2 in TNBC cell lines resulted in a significant reduction in cellular proliferation via the Ki67 marker, accompanied by G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, in the migration and invasion of these cells and in tumorigenicity and anchorage-independent growth. It can therefore be concluded that Nudt2 plays a significant role in promoting TNBC growth.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Hwang J, Cheney P, Kanick SC, et al (2024)

Hyperspectral dark-field microscopy of human breast lumpectomy samples for tumor margin detection in breast-conserving surgery.

Journal of biomedical optics, 29(9):093503.

SIGNIFICANCE: Hyperspectral dark-field microscopy (HSDFM) and data cube analysis algorithms demonstrate successful detection and classification of various tissue types, including carcinoma regions in human post-lumpectomy breast tissues excised during breast-conserving surgeries.

AIM: We expand the application of HSDFM to the classification of tissue types and tumor subtypes in pre-histopathology human breast lumpectomy samples.

APPROACH: Breast tissues excised during breast-conserving surgeries were imaged by the HSDFM and analyzed. The performance of the HSDFM is evaluated by comparing the backscattering intensity spectra of polystyrene microbead solutions with the Monte Carlo simulation of the experimental data. For classification algorithms, two analysis approaches, a supervised technique based on the spectral angle mapper (SAM) algorithm and an unsupervised technique based on the K-means algorithm are applied to classify various tissue types including carcinoma subtypes. In the supervised technique, the SAM algorithm with manually extracted endmembers guided by H&E annotations is used as reference spectra, allowing for segmentation maps with classified tissue types including carcinoma subtypes.

RESULTS: The manually extracted endmembers of known tissue types and their corresponding threshold spectral correlation angles for classification make a good reference library that validates endmembers computed by the unsupervised K-means algorithm. The unsupervised K-means algorithm, with no a priori information, produces abundance maps with dominant endmembers of various tissue types, including carcinoma subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive mucinous carcinoma. The two carcinomas' unique endmembers produced by the two methods agree with each other within <2% residual error margin.

CONCLUSIONS: Our report demonstrates a robust procedure for the validation of an unsupervised algorithm with the essential set of parameters based on the ground truth, histopathological information. We have demonstrated that a trained library of the histopathology-guided endmembers and associated threshold spectral correlation angles computed against well-defined reference data cubes serve such parameters. Two classification algorithms, supervised and unsupervised algorithms, are employed to identify regions with carcinoma subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive mucinous carcinoma present in the tissues. The two carcinomas' unique endmembers used by the two methods agree to <2% residual error margin. This library of high quality and collected under an environment with no ambient background may be instrumental to develop or validate more advanced unsupervised data cube analysis algorithms, such as effective neural networks for efficient subtype classification.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Tang H, Laskin WB, Luan Y, et al (2024)

Adenocarcinoma of anogenital mammary gland type arising from encapsulated papillary carcinoma: A rare vulvar tumor mimicking breast carcinoma.

Anogenital mammary-like glands are normal structures of the anogenital region. Tumors originating from these glands often exhibit a striking resemblance to their mammary gland counterparts. Herein, we present a rare case of adenocarcinoma of mammary gland type in the vulva of a 69-year-old female. Histopathologic examination revealed a complex lesion, which included a large encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) with associated invasive carcinoma of mammary gland type and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The invasive component consisted mostly of invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type, with a notable focus of invasive mucinous carcinoma. p40 immunostain demonstrated a lack of myoepithelial cells in both the EPC and invasive carcinoma, but such cells expressed p40 around the ducts involved by DCIS. The main component of this lesion, EPC, was characterized by a papillary proliferation within a cystic space surrounded by a fibrous capsule without a myoepithelial layer. The histopathologic features of anogenital EPC closely resemble cutaneous hidradenoma papilliferum. Indeed, there have been a few reports in the literature describing cases where in situ and invasive carcinoma arose from a preexisting hidradenoma papilliferum. As tumors of anogenital mammary-like glands bear a closer resemblance to breast lesions than to skin tumors, we recommend that they be aligned with the classification of well-established breast lesions rather than cutaneous adnexal tumors.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

van den Dobbelsteen M, Hackett SL, van Asselen B, et al (2024)

Treatment planning evaluation and experimental validation of the magnetic resonance-based intrafraction drift correction.

Physics and imaging in radiation oncology, 30:100580.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MRI-guided online adaptive treatments can account for interfractional variations, however intrafraction motion reduces treatment accuracy. Intrafraction plan adaptation methods, such as the Intrafraction Drift Correction (IDC) or sub-fractionation, are needed. IDC uses real-time automatic monitoring of the tumor position to initiate plan adaptations by repositioning segments. IDC is a fast adaptation method that occurs only when necessary and this method could enable margin reduction. This research provides a treatment planning evaluation and experimental validation of the IDC.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in silico treatment planning evaluation was performed for 13 prostate patients mid-treatment without and with intrafraction plan adaptation (IDC and sub-fractionation). The adaptation methods were evaluated using dose volume histogram (DVH) metrics. To experimentally verify IDC a treatment was mimicked whereby a motion phantom containing an EBT3 film moved mid-treatment, followed by repositioning of segments. In addition, the delivered treatment was irradiated on a diode array phantom for plan quality assurance purposes.

RESULTS: The planning study showed benefits for using intrafraction adaptation methods relative to no adaptation, where the IDC and sub-fractionation showed consistently improved target coverage with median target coverages of 100.0%. The experimental results verified the IDC with high minimum gamma passing rates of 99.1% and small mean dose deviations of maximum 0.3%.

CONCLUSION: The straightforward and fast IDC technique showed DVH metrics consistent with the sub-fractionation method using segment weight re-optimization for prostate patients. The dosimetric and geometric accuracy was shown for a full IDC workflow using film and diode array dosimetry.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Zhang S, Yang B, Yang H, et al (2024)

Potential rapid intraoperative cancer diagnosis using dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography and deep learning: A prospective cohort study in breast cancer patients.

Science bulletin pii:S2095-9273(24)00217-2 [Epub ahead of print].

An intraoperative diagnosis is critical for precise cancer surgery. However, traditional intraoperative assessments based on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology, such as frozen section, are time-, resource-, and labor-intensive, and involve specimen-consuming concerns. Here, we report a near-real-time automated cancer diagnosis workflow for breast cancer that combines dynamic full-field optical coherence tomography (D-FFOCT), a label-free optical imaging method, and deep learning for bedside tumor diagnosis during surgery. To classify the benign and malignant breast tissues, we conducted a prospective cohort trial. In the modeling group (n = 182), D-FFOCT images were captured from April 26 to June 20, 2018, encompassing 48 benign lesions, 114 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 10 invasive lobular carcinoma, 4 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and 6 rare tumors. Deep learning model was built up and fine-tuned in 10,357 D-FFOCT patches. Subsequently, from June 22 to August 17, 2018, independent tests (n = 42) were conducted on 10 benign lesions, 29 IDC, 1 DCIS, and 2 rare tumors. The model yielded excellent performance, with an accuracy of 97.62%, sensitivity of 96.88% and specificity of 100%; only one IDC was misclassified. Meanwhile, the acquisition of the D-FFOCT images was non-destructive and did not require any tissue preparation or staining procedures. In the simulated intraoperative margin evaluation procedure, the time required for our novel workflow (approximately 3 min) was significantly shorter than that required for traditional procedures (approximately 30 min). These findings indicate that the combination of D-FFOCT and deep learning algorithms can streamline intraoperative cancer diagnosis independently of traditional pathology laboratory procedures.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Geng J, Jinli S, Guo W, et al (2024)

Expression and clinical significance of CA125, CA153 and CEA in nipple discharge of breast cancer patients.

Journal of medical biochemistry, 43(2):234-242.

BACKGROUND: It is an important clinical means to identify benign and malignant breast diseases caused by nipple discharge through the detection and analysis of components in nipple discharge. This study was aimed to test the expression and clinical significance of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in nipple discharge of breast cancer patients.

METHODS: From January 2017 to December 2018, 86 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast with nipple discharge (breast cancer group) and 50 patients with ordinary breast duct hyperplasia with nipple discharge (benign control group) were selected, and the levels of CA125, CA153 and CEA in nipple discharge and serum were detected by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Agreda-Castañeda F, Freixa-Sala R, Franco M, et al (2024)

Predictive factors of post-HoLEP incontinence: differences between stress and urgency urinary incontinence.

World journal of urology, 42(1):281.

INTRODUCTION: The analysis of post-HoLEP urinary incontinence (UI) has traditionally focused on stress UI. Our aim is to evaluate the factors associated with stress and urgency UI in the first month after the surgery.

METHODS: Data were obtained from patients who underwent HoLEP by the same experienced surgeon. UI was evaluated at one month and at 6 months after the surgery. Three groups were defined: continent patients, patients with pure urgency UI and patients with stress or mixed UI. Preoperative, intraoperative, urodynamic and clinical variables were analyzed and compared between the three groups.

RESULTS: In total, 235 subjects were included. One month after the surgery, 156 (66.5%) were continent (group 1), 49 (20.8%) reported pure urgency UI (group 2), and 30 (12.7%) reported some level of stress UI (group 3). In Group 2, the factors associated with urgency UI in the univariate analysis were age, presurgical urgency UI, having diabetes or hypertension. In Group 3, age, prostatic volume, preoperative PSA, time of enucleation, weight of the resection in grams, having an IDC or being diabetic were significant in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, age predicts both types of UI, while prostatic volume and having an IDC predict stress or mixed UI.

CONCLUSION: In the first month post-HoLEP, age is a predictive factor of urgency UI and stress UI. In addition, prostatic volume and the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter are predictive factors of stress UI.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Iradukunda Y, Kang JY, Zhao XB, et al (2024)

Triple Sensing Modes for Triggered β-Galactosidase Activity Assays Based on Kaempferol-Deduced Silicon Nanoparticles and Biological Imaging of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

ACS applied bio materials, 7(5):3154-3163.

β-Galactosidase (β-Gala) is an essential biomarker enzyme for early detection of breast tumors and cellular senescence. Creating an accurate way to monitor β-Gala activity is critical for biological research and early cancer detection. This work used fluorometric, colorimetric, and paper-based color sensing approaches to determine β-Gala activity effectively. Via the sensing performance, the catalytic activity of β-Gala resulted in silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), fluorescent indicators obtained via a one-pot hydrothermal process. As a standard enzymatic hydrolysis product of the substrate, kaempferol 3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (KOβDG) caused the fluorometric signal to be attenuated on kaempferol-silicon nanoparticles (K-SiNPs). The sensing methods demonstrated a satisfactory linear response in sensing β-Gala and a low detection limit. The findings showed the low limit of detection (LOD) as 0.00057 and 0.098 U/mL for fluorometric and colorimetric, respectively. The designed probe was then used to evaluate the catalytic activity of β-Gala in yogurt and human serum, with recoveries ranging from 98.33 to 107.9%. The designed sensing approach was also applied to biological sample analysis. In contrast, breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were used as a model to test the in vitro toxicity and molecular fluorescence imaging potential of K-SiNPs. Hence, our fluorescent K-SiNPs can be used in the clinic to diagnose breast cellular carcinoma, since they can accurately measure the presence of invasive ductal carcinoma in serologic tests.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Pouptsis A, Cano Gimeno J, Martinez Rubio C, et al (2024)

Metastatic Occult Primary Lobular Breast Cancer: A Case Report.

Cureus, 16(4):e58586.

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women. Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the second most common histologic subtype after invasive ductal carcinoma. Metastatic occult primary breast cancer, although rare, is a well-known clinical entity that usually presents with axillary lymphadenopathy without a detectable breast tumour. A perimenopausal woman in her 50s presented with abdominal pain, fatigue, and weight loss. Imaging showed peritoneal carcinomatosis with ascites, ovarian masses, and a lesion in the ascending colon. Gastric and colon biopsies showed infiltration from lobular breast cancer. Diagnostic workup, including mammography, breast ultrasound, and breast MRI, showed no evidence of breast pathology or axillary lymphadenopathy. First-line treatment with goserelin, letrozole, and palbociclib commenced with clinical improvement and radiological response. This case illustrates the challenges faced by clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of lobular breast cancer without an identifiable primary lesion or axillary lymphadenopathy.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Sui X, Feng P, Sun X, et al (2024)

Correlation Analysis of Digital Mammography, Ultrasonography, and Pathologic Features in Pure Invasive Micropapillary Carcinoma of the Breast (PIMPC).

Breast cancer (Dove Medical Press), 16:245-252.

PURPOSE: This study determined the digital mammography and ultrasonography imaging features of pure invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast (PIMPC) and the correlation with pathologic features.

PATIENTS METHODS: Nineteen patients diagnosed with PIMPC at Yantaishan Hospital from October 2015 to February 2022 were included in the study group. Forty patients with breast masses diagnosed as nonspecific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (NIDC) from July to December 2021 were included in the control group. Digital mammography and ultrasonography features were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: Patients with PIMPC had a younger age profile compared to patients with NIDC (P=0.017). Moreover, PIMPC masses were smaller than NIDC masses (P=0.040). Imaging features analysis revealed significant differences in age groups (<45 years: χ²=5.971, P=0.044) and the presence of spiculations or the crab claw sign (χ²=8.583, P=0.004) between patients with PIMPC and NIDC. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the presence of calcifications, blood flow grading, pathologic molecular subtypes between the study and control groups. The Ki-67 proliferative index (χ²=1.052, P=0.389), vascular invasion (χ²=2.263, P=0.197), and lymph node metastasis (χ²=1.968, P=0.386) showed no significant differences between PIMPC and NIDC patients.

CONCLUSION: PIMPC imaging features show specificity, such as tiny breast masses, spiculated edges, or crab claw-like patterns, and malignant signs appeared when the lesion was <2 cm in diameter. PIMPC mainly occurs in middle-aged women 45-59 y of age. Patients with PIMPC and NIDC of the breast are frequently associated with lymph node metastases and greater than one-half of the cases (74%) were shown to have a Ki-67 index >30%, suggesting a significant risk of recurrence and metastasis. Early therapeutic care for these patients is crucial. These results warrant further validation with additional samples from several centers due to the limited single-center sample size in the current study.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Koenig ZA, Koenig NI, Climov M, et al (2024)

Safety and Feasibility of Oncoplastic Reconstruction in the Setting of Prior Breast Reduction.

Eplasty, 24:e19.

BACKGROUND: Breast conservation therapy typically consists of lumpectomy, which often leads to poor cosmetic outcomes. Concurrent oncoplastic reductions are performed to maximize aesthetics and patient outcome. We present an oncoplastic breast reconstruction in a breast re-reduction case in this study.

METHODS: A 62-year-old female was diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the left upper outer breast by core needle biopsy. The patient had a prior bilateral breast reduction using a superior-central pedicle approach 15 years ago and desired breast conservation therapy.

RESULTS: The oncoplastic reconstruction technique used was a superomedial pedicle Wise-pattern bilateral breast reduction. The lump was excised lateral to the pedicle after initial de-epithelialization and incision of the superomedial pedicle's lateral aspect. The remainder of the pedicle was developed, and the same procedure was performed on the right breast at the same time. Excess tissue was excised bilaterally from the medial, superior, and inferior, and the optimal new nipple position was obtained. Both nipples were viable and well perfused following closure of the incisions.

CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer is uncommon in patients who have had bilateral breast reductions. Oncoplastic reduction is an uncommon procedure used in patients who want to preserve their breasts while maintaining their aesthetic appearance. There is currently no agreement on the most effective and safest surgical technique for breast re- reduction surgery, and no reports on oncoplastic reconstruction in patients requiring breast re-reductions. In an oncoplastic reconstruction case, we achieved an acceptable outcome with our superomedial pedicled Wise-pattern bilateral breast reduction technique.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

Khani S, Topel H, Kardinal R, et al (2024)

Cold-induced expression of a truncated adenylyl cyclase 3 acts as rheostat to brown fat function.

Nature metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity innovatively targets obesity and metabolic disease. While thermogenic activation of BAT is well understood, the rheostatic regulation of BAT to avoid excessive energy dissipation remains ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate that adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3) is key for BAT function. We identified a cold-inducible promoter that generates a 5' truncated AC3 mRNA isoform (Adcy3-at), whose expression is driven by a cold-induced, truncated isoform of PPARGC1A (PPARGC1A-AT). Male mice lacking Adcy3-at display increased energy expenditure and are resistant to obesity and ensuing metabolic imbalances. Mouse and human AC3-AT are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, unable to translocate to the plasma membrane and lack enzymatic activity. AC3-AT interacts with AC3 and sequesters it in the endoplasmic reticulum, reducing the pool of adenylyl cyclases available for G-protein-mediated cAMP synthesis. Thus, AC3-AT acts as a cold-induced rheostat in BAT, limiting adverse consequences of cAMP activity during chronic BAT activation.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-04-29

de Oliveira RM, Paiva MUB, Picossi CRC, et al (2024)

Metabolomic insights in advanced cardiomyopathy of chronic chagasic and idiopathic patients that underwent heart transplant.

Scientific reports, 14(1):9810.

Heart failure (HF) studies typically focus on ischemic and idiopathic heart diseases. Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is a progressive degenerative inflammatory condition highly prevalent in Latin America that leads to a disturbance of cardiac conduction system. Despite its clinical and epidemiological importance, CCC molecular pathogenesis is poorly understood. Here we characterize and discriminate the plasma metabolomic profile of 15 patients with advanced HF referred for heart transplantation - 8 patients with CCC and 7 with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) - using gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared to the 12 heart donor individuals, also included to represent the control (CTRL) scenario, patients with advanced HF exhibited a metabolic imbalance with 21 discriminating metabolites, mostly indicative of accumulation of fatty acids, amino acids and important components of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. CCC vs. IDC analyses revealed a metabolic disparity between conditions, with 12 CCC distinctive metabolites vs. 11 IDC representative metabolites. Disturbances were mainly related to amino acid metabolism profile. Although mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of metabolic flexibility may be a central mechanistic event in advanced HF, metabolic imbalance differs between CCC and IDC populations, possibly explaining the dissimilar clinical course of Chagas' patients.

RevDate: 2024-04-30

Shaghaghi Torkdari Z, Khalaj-Kondori M, MA Hosseinpour Feizi (2024)

Plasma Circulating Terminal Differentiation-Induced Non-Coding RNA Serves as a Biomarker in Breast Cancer.

International journal of hematology-oncology and stem cell research, 18(1):1-6.

Background: Breast cancer is identified as the most common malignancy and cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Compared with healthy controls, this study evaluated the expression level and diagnostic power of lncRNA plasma TINCR in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight women diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma and fifty healthy age- matched controls were included in the study. TRIzol[®] LS regent was used to isolate the total RNA from the whole plasma. Total RNA was converted to cDNA using Prime Script[TM] RT reagent kit and the expression levels of TINCR were quantified by qRT-PCR. Results: Low levels of TINCR lncRNA were observed in the plasma of breast cancer patients compared with control subjects. Plasma TINCR level was also positively correlated with the diagnostic age of breast cancer patients. Conclusion: A low level of plasma TINCR could discriminate breast cancer patients from healthy control subjects.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-04-28

Rostami B, Kahrizi S, Ghorbani Yekta B, et al (2024)

Correlation of IDH1 gene expression error in breast tumor biopsy in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma.

Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 70(4):242-247.

One of the most important cancers in terms of worldwide prevalence is breast tumors, which have been less investigated in correlation with the enzyme Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene. The aim of this study was that expression of this gene could have significant effects on the progression of metastasis and invasive disease in breast cancer patients. We used the molecular method of RT-PCR with SYBR-Green to analyze breast tumor tissue from patients with metastasis and non-metastasis, the latter confirmed by the pathology department of Shohada-e Tajrish Hospital (serving as a control group). Also, patients population and its relationship with the degree of tumor in the IDH1 gene was investigated. The IDH1 gene has shown high expression in patients with metastatic breast cancer rather than in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. The metastatic samples were compared with non-metastatic samples for IDH1 mRNA expression. In this research work, 72.5% (29 samples) were up-regulated in comparison to 27.5% of samples (11 samples) that did not exhibit high expression (P=0.000). This study examined the IDH1 gene expression, suggesting that changes in this gene's expression could impact the prognosis of breast cancer. However, further research is needed to draw definitive conclusions.

RevDate: 2024-04-27
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

de Souza IC, FW Langer (2024)

Post-radiation angiosarcoma of the breast in a patient with a history of invasive ductal carcinoma.

Lancet (London, England), 403(10437):1681-1682.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

Yousef YA, Mohammad M, Khalil H, et al (2024)

Ocular and Periocular Metastasis in Breast Cancer: Clinical Characteristics, Prognostic Factors and Treatment Outcome.

Cancers, 16(8):.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity worldwide. Ocular and periocular metastasis present as a rare but clinically significant manifestation. This study aims to explore demographics and clinical aspects of ocular and periocular metastasis in breast cancer patients.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study comprising 45 breast cancer patients with ocular or periocular metastasis treated between 2013 and 2023. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, diagnostic methods, treatment modalities, visual outcomes, and survival data were analyzed.

RESULTS: Among 9902 breast cancer patients, 0.5% developed ocular or periocular metastasis, constituting 2.4% of metastatic cases. The median age was 50 years. Ocular metastasis timing varied: 5% before breast cancer, 24% concurrent, 22% within a year, and 49% after. The most common presentations included incidental MRI findings (42%) and vision decline (31%). Metastasis involved the orbit (47%), choroid (40%), optic nerve (11%), and iris (2%), with 44% having bilateral involvement. Predictive factors included invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) (p < 0.0001) and brain metastasis (p < 0.0001), with ILC exhibiting a sixfold higher likelihood of ocular metastasis than invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Primary treatment was radiation therapy (89%), yielding a 55% maintenance of excellent vision (<0.5), with 93% developing dry eye disease. Patients with ocular metastasis faced an increased risk of disease-related mortality (p < 0.0001), with 71% succumbing within 10 months post-diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Ocular metastasis in breast cancer is rare (0.5%) but signifies poor outcome. It is linked to ILC and concurrent brain metastasis. Primary treatment involves radiation therapy, with a favorable visual prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

Mubarak F, Kowkabany G, Popp R, et al (2024)

Early Stage Breast Cancer: Does Histologic Subtype (Ductal vs. Lobular) Impact 5 Year Overall Survival?.

Cancers, 16(8):.

Histology is an important predictor of the behavior of breast cancer. We aim to study the impact of histology on the overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients. We studied 11,085 breast cancer patients diagnosed with T1-T2 tumors, clinically node-negative and non-metastatic, from 2004 to 2019 included in the National Cancer Database. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and Cox regression models were used to study the impact of histology and other variables on OS. In our patient population, 8678 (78.28%) had ductal cancer (IDC), while 2407 (21.71%) had lobular cancer (ILC). ILC patients were significantly more likely to be older, Caucasian, have a lower grade at diagnosis and be hormone receptor-positive compared to IDC patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the 5-year OS of early stage ductal (16.8%) and lobular cancer patients (16.7%) (p = 0.200). Patients of Hispanic and African American origin had worse OS rates compared to non-Hispanic and Caucasian patients, respectively. For node-positive disease, HER2+ tumors and triple-negative tumors, chemotherapy had a positive influence on OS (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93, p = 0.0012). Histology did not have a significant impact on the 5-year OS of early stage breast cancer patients.

RevDate: 2024-04-28

Peter A, Schleicher E, Kliemank E, et al (2024)

Accumulation of Non-Pathological Liver Fat Is Associated with the Loss of Glyoxalase I Activity in Humans.

Metabolites, 14(4):.

The underlying molecular mechanisms for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and its progression to advanced liver diseases remain elusive. Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) loss, leading to elevated methylglyoxal (MG) and dicarbonyl stress, has been implicated in various diseases, including obesity-related conditions. This study aimed to investigate changes in the glyoxalase system in individuals with non-pathological liver fat. Liver biopsies were obtained from 30 individuals with a narrow range of BMI (24.6-29.8 kg/m[2]). Whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed using HOMA-IR. Liver biopsies were analyzed for total triglyceride content, Glo1 and Glo2 mRNA, protein expression, and activity. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determined liver dicarbonyl content and oxidation and glycation biomarkers. Liver Glo1 activity showed an inverse correlation with HOMA-IR and liver triglyceride content, but not BMI. Despite reduced Glo1 activity, no associations were found with elevated liver dicarbonyls or glycation markers. A sex dimorphism was observed in Glo1, with females exhibiting significantly lower liver Glo1 protein expression and activity, and higher liver MG-H1 content compared to males. This study demonstrates that increasing liver fat, even within a non-pathological range, is associated with reduced Glo1 activity.

RevDate: 2024-04-28

Galily Y (2024)

From Sport Psychology to Action Philosophy: Immanuel Kant and the Case of Video Assistant Referees.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 14(4):.

The implementation of Video Assistant Referees (VARs) in 2018 has had a significant impact on the multi-billion-dollar soccer industry. As the most popular and watched sport globally, soccer's financial stakes are high, with clubs, leagues, broadcasters, sponsors, and fans heavily invested in the game. The ongoing debate surrounding the VAR system brings to light the intricate balance between preserving the authenticity of football (soccer) and harnessing technology to improve accuracy. It is crucial to strike the right equilibrium in order to uphold football's metaphorical power and sustain the timeless joy it has brought to fans throughout generations. In this context, Immanuel Kant's philosophy can offer valuable insights into the utilization of VARs in soccer. According to Kantian ethics, using VARs can be justified if it serves to enhance fairness and accuracy, aligning with the moral duties of referees. Nevertheless, it is important to consider the potential dehumanizing effects and the necessity of preserving the value of human judgment in the game. Therefore, this paper aims to explore in-depth the intricate dynamics that arise when technology is integrated into traditional practices, emphasizing the significance of critical reflection on the implications of such advancements.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Mocha Campillo F, Comín Orce AM, Monreal Cepero ML, et al (2024)

Analysis of the Complexity of Palliative Care for Cancer Patients.

The American journal of hospice & palliative care [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The Spanish National Health System has defined complexity as a set of factors of increased difficulty that require the intervention of a palliative care team. Palliative care aims to improve the quality of life of patients with chronic terminal illnesses. This study aims to describe the degree of complexity of cancer patients in palliative care, to determine which elements of complexity are most prevalent and to determine which other hospital clinical factors are associated with the level of complexity.

METHODS: This study is a descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional analysis that included patients diagnosed with advanced oncological pathology undergoing palliative treatment who were admitted to the Medical Oncology ward of the Miguel Servet University Hospital between March and April 2023.

RESULT: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. According to the IDC-Pal, 68% of patients were classified as highly complex, 26% of patients were complex and only 6% of patients were classified as non-complex. The presence of pain (P < .001), nausea and vomiting (P = .027), depression (P = .033) and functional status (P = .011) were statistically independent predictors of high complexity.

DISCUSSION: This study has shown that a high proportion of hospitalized palliative care cancer patients have high complexity, suggesting a good matching of healthcare resources to patient complexity. Four factors related to complexity have been identified, namely pain, nausea and vomiting, depression and a bedridden functional state. The presence of any of the 4 factors could help healthcare professionals to identify patients for early specialized palliative care.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Kikuchi M, Miyabe R, Matsushima H, et al (2024)

Tumor lysis syndrome following letrozole for locally advanced breast cancer: a case report.

Surgical case reports, 10(1):100.

BACKGROUND: Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is used to treat breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a complication that can trigger multiple organ failure caused by the release of intracellular nucleic acids, phosphate, and potassium into the blood due to rapid tumor cell disintegration induced by drug therapy. TLS is uncommon in solid tumors and occurs primarily in patients receiving chemotherapy. Herein, we report a rare occurrence of TLS that developed in a patient with locally advanced breast cancer following treatment with letrozole.

CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old woman with increased bleeding from a fist-sized left-sided breast mass presented to our hospital. Histological examination led to a diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma of the luminal type. The patient refused chemotherapy and was administered hormonal therapy with letrozole. Seven days after letrozole initiation, she complained of anorexia and diarrhea. Blood test results revealed elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels, and she was admitted to our hospital for intravenous infusions. On the second day after admission, marked elevations of LDH, BUN, Cr, potassium, calcium, and uric acid levels were observed. Furthermore, metabolic acidosis and prolonged coagulation capacity were observed. We suspected TLS and discontinued letrozole, and the patient was treated with hydration, febuxostat, and maintenance hemodialysis. On the third day after admission, her respiratory status worsened because of acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with hypercytokinemia, and she was intubated. On the fourth day after admission, her general condition did not improve, and she died.

CONCLUSIONS: Although TLS typically occurs after chemotherapy initiation, the findings from the present case confirm that this syndrome can also occur after hormonal therapy initiation and should be treated with caution.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Butler SC, Rofeberg V, Smith-Parrish M, et al (2024)

Caring for hearts and minds: a quality improvement approach to individualized developmental care in the cardiac intensive care unit.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 12:1384615.

INTRODUCTION: Infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at high risk for developmental differences which can be explained by the cumulative effect of medical complications along with sequelae related to the hospital and environmental challenges. The intervention of individualized developmental care (IDC) minimizes the mismatch between the fragile newborn brain's expectations and the experiences of stress and pain inherent in the intensive care unit (ICU) environment.

METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of experts was assembled to implement quality improvement (QI) to increase the amount of IDC provided, using the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP), to newborn infants in the cardiac ICU. A Key Driver Diagram was created, PDSA cycles were implemented, baseline and ongoing measurements of IDC were collected, and interventions were provided.

RESULTS: We collected 357 NIDCAP audits of bedside IDC. Improvement over time was noted in the amount of IDC including use of appropriate lighting, sound management, and developmentally supportive infant bedding and clothing, as well as in promoting self-regulation, therapeutic positioning, and caregiving facilitation. The area of family participation and holding of infants in the CICU was the hardest to support change over time, especially with the most ill infants. Infants with increased medical complexity were less likely to receive IDC.

DISCUSSION: This multidisciplinary, evidence-based QI intervention demonstrated that the implementation of IDC in the NIDCAP model improved over time using bedside auditing of IDC.

RevDate: 2024-04-22

Kaltenecker D, Al-Maskari R, Negwer M, et al (2024)

Virtual reality-empowered deep-learning analysis of brain cells.

Nature methods [Epub ahead of print].

Automated detection of specific cells in three-dimensional datasets such as whole-brain light-sheet image stacks is challenging. Here, we present DELiVR, a virtual reality-trained deep-learning pipeline for detecting c-Fos[+] cells as markers for neuronal activity in cleared mouse brains. Virtual reality annotation substantially accelerated training data generation, enabling DELiVR to outperform state-of-the-art cell-segmenting approaches. Our pipeline is available in a user-friendly Docker container that runs with a standalone Fiji plugin. DELiVR features a comprehensive toolkit for data visualization and can be customized to other cell types of interest, as we did here for microglia somata, using Fiji for dataset-specific training. We applied DELiVR to investigate cancer-related brain activity, unveiling an activation pattern that distinguishes weight-stable cancer from cancers associated with weight loss. Overall, DELiVR is a robust deep-learning tool that does not require advanced coding skills to analyze whole-brain imaging data in health and disease.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Kani V, Chander V, Sonti S, et al (2024)

A Rare and Intriguing Case Report of Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma.

Cureus, 16(3):e56619.

Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare and aggressive subtype of breast cancer characterized by the presence of both epithelial and mesenchymal components within the tumor. Its clinical and radiological appearance is comparable to other types of breast cancer, but it grows rapidly. The diagnosis of metaplastic carcinoma is largely based on the epithelial origin of the cells confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Compared to invasive ductal carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma has a worse overall survival rate. Any patient with a rapidly growing breast mass should be assessed with suspicion of sarcomatoid or metaplastic malignant neoplasm. We report this case due to its rarity and the complex nature of the disease.

RevDate: 2024-04-24
CmpDate: 2024-04-23

Satoh E, Innami Y, Uehira D, et al (2024)

[A Long-Surviving Case of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer with Multiple Lung Metastasis].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 51(4):427-429.

We report a case of right advanced breast cancer with multiple lung metastases in a 66-year-old woman. Her breast cancer(invasive ductal carcinoma, cT4bN1M1, Stage Ⅳ)was resected in October 2007(mastectomy plus axillary lymph node dissection)after local arterial infusion therapy(total dose 5-FU 4,735 mg plus adriamycin 180 mg), which caused bilateral lung arterial embolism due to deep vein thrombosis in right her leg. She had to be treated by anticoagulant therapy, mechanical ventilation and placement of IVC filter before her operation. Subsequent chemo-endocrine therapy(docetaxel 6 courses plus anastrozole)was continued. In October 2008, a CT scan showed disappearance of multiple lung metastases (complete response). In November 2015 (8 years after her operation), a CT scan showed recurrence of multiple lung metastases and endocrine therapy was changed to tamoxifen. A year later, a CT scan showed disappearance of multiple lung metastases(complete response)again and keep a condition of complete response in her breast cancer until May 2023 (15 years after her operation).

RevDate: 2024-04-24
CmpDate: 2024-04-23

Tanaka Y, Ohshima Y, Fukaya Y, et al (2024)

[Case Report of Occult Breast Cancer with Triple Negative Subtype].

Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 51(4):421-423.

A 61-year-old woman presented at a nearby clinic with a complaint of a mass in the right axilla. Initial imaging examinations, including mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MRI, did not reveal any obvious intramammary lesions, although a swollen lymph node was observed in the right axilla. Fine-needle aspiration cytology confirmed malignancy. Hence, a core needle biopsy was performed. The results indicated a suspected metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma(ER-, PgR-, HER2-); however, the primary tumor could not be definitively determined. Despite an extensive whole-body examination, the primary tumor remained unidentified. Nonetheless, metastasis of occult breast cancer in the right axillary lymph node was postulated. Subsequent axillary dissection revealed metastases in only one lymph node. Taking the clinical findings into consideration, the patient was diagnosed with right occult breast cancer, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy were planned.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Zhou H, Liu D, Chen L, et al (2024)

Metastasis to the bladder from primary breast cancer: A case report and literature review.

Oncology letters, 27(6):249.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant tumor affecting women and represents the leading cause of female cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although distant organ metastasis accounts for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths, reports on bladder metastasis are limited in the existing literature. The present study describes the case of a patient with bladder metastasis originating from breast cancer. In addition, the present study also provides a review of 54 cases of similar disease that have been documented in the currently available literature. The literature review aims to elucidate the clinicopathological characteristics and therapeutic approaches for such conditions. The median time from breast cancer diagnosis to bladder metastasis was found to be 5.6 years (range, 0-28 years). The origin of the bladder metastases was predominantly invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) accounting for 52.3% of cases, followed by invasive lobular carcinoma, accounting for 40.9% of cases. The pathology in the primary tumor was the same as the pathology of the bladder metastases in all cases. There was an 88.9% concordance rate for estrogen receptor status, while the progesterone receptor status was 83.3% and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression status was 100%. The primary initial symptoms included urinary system manifestations, such as increased frequency, urgency, dysuria, urinary incontinence, nocturia and gross hematuria. For the cystoscopic examination, the predominant findings were bladder wall thickening or masses, along with ureteral orifice masses. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of bladder metastasis often follows the metastasis of other organs, with IDC being the most prevalent subtype. The pathological characteristics between the primary tumor and bladder metastasis exhibit a high degree of concordance.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Chaane N, Kuehnast M, G Rubin (2024)

An audit of breast cancer in patients 40 years and younger in two Johannesburg academic hospitals.

SA journal of radiology, 28(1):2772.

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females, usually diagnosed after the age of 50 years. There is a perceived increase in breast cancer cases in young women in two public sector Johannesburg academic hospitals; however, there is a shortage of data to confirm this.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess data on breast cancer in young patients and determine any increase in the number of cases in patients 40 years and younger.

METHOD: A retrospective analysis of radiology and histopathology reports of patients 40 years and younger, seen at the radiology departments of two Johannesburg academic hospitals, was performed over a 5-year period. The frequency, histology and immunohistochemical results of breast cancer diagnoses were determined in patients with a Breast Imaging - Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification of 4 or above.

RESULTS: Breast cancer was diagnosed in 73% of the total eligible 469 patients. The mean patient age was 34.35 years. Invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed in 83% (n = 283) of patients classified as BI-RADS 5 on imaging. Luminal A and B subtypes were the most common. The highest number of patients (n = 142) were seen in 2016 of which 92 had breast cancer.

CONCLUSION: In this very specific sample set, there was a lower number of breast cancer diagnoses in 2015 and then an increase of breast cancer diagnoses in young patients from 2016 to 2018.

CONTRIBUTION: Earlier breast cancer detection benefits the patient, their families and their reproductive ability. Knowledge of breast cancers in young patients can increase awareness, leading to effective, early diagnoses.

RevDate: 2024-04-25
CmpDate: 2024-04-18

Cipolla C, Lupo S, Grassi N, et al (2024)

Correlation between sentinel lymph node biopsy and non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in patients with cN0 breast carcinoma: comparison of invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma.

World journal of surgical oncology, 22(1):100.

BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) can be avoided in women with cN0 breast cancer with 1-2 positive sentinel nodes (SLNs). However, these studies included only a few patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), so the validity of omitting ALDN in these patients remains controversial. This study compared the frequency of non-sentinel lymph nodes (non-SLNs) metastases in ILC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

MATERIALS METHODS: Data relating to a total of 2583 patients with infiltrating breast carcinoma operated at our institution between 2012 and 2023 were retrospectively analyzed: 2242 (86.8%) with IDC and 341 (13.2%) with ILC. We compared the incidence of metastasis to SLNs and non-SLNs between the ILC and IDC cohorts and examined factors that influenced non-SLNs metastasis.

RESULTS: SLN biopsies were performed in 315 patients with ILC and 2018 patients with IDC. Metastases to the SLNs were found in 78/315 (24.8%) patients with ILC and in 460 (22.8%) patients with IDC (p = 0.31). The incidence of metastases to non-SLNs was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in ILC (52/78-66.7%) compared to IDC (207/460 - 45%). Multivariate analysis showed that ILC was the most influential predictive factor in predicting the presence of metastasis to non-SLNs.

CONCLUSIONS: ILC cases have more non-SLNs metastases than IDC cases in SLN-positive patients. The ILC is essential for predicting non-SLN positivity in macro-metastases in the SLN. The option of omitting ALND in patients with ILC with 1-2 positive SLNs still requires further investigation.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Petrakis IL, Meshberg-Cohen S, Nich C, et al (2024)

Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) versus individual drug counseling (IDC) for PTSD for veterans with opioid use disorder maintained on buprenorphine.

The American journal on addictions [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are high rates of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid use disorder (OUD). Evidence-based trauma-focused psychotherapies such as Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) are a first-line treatment for PTSD. Veterans with OUD are treated primarily in substance use disorder (SUD) clinics where the standard of care is drug counseling; they often do not have access to first-line PTSD treatments. This study tested whether CPT can be conducted safely and effectively in veterans with comorbid OUD treated with buprenorphine.

METHODS: This 12-week, 2-site, randomized clinical trial (RCT) included open-label randomization to two groups: (a) CPT versus (b) Individual Drug Counselling (IDC) in veterans with PTSD and comorbid OUD who were maintained on buprenorphine (N = 38).

RESULTS: Veterans randomized to either IDC (n = 18) or CPT (n = 20) showed a significant reduction in self-reported PTSD symptoms over time as measured by the PTSD checklist (PCL-5) but there were no treatment group differences; there was some indication that reduction in PTSD symptoms in the CPT group were sustained in contrast to the IDC group. Recruitment was significantly impacted by COVID-19 pandemic, so this study serves as a proof-of-concept pilot study.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Veterans with OUD and PTSD can safely and effectively participate in evidence-based therapy for PTSD; further work should confirm that trauma-focused treatment may be more effective in leading to sustained remission of PTSD symptoms than drug counseling.

SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to evaluate CPT for PTSD in the context of buprenorphine treatment for OUD.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Dye A, Jhaveri V, Ozdemir S, et al (2024)

Recurrent invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast with metastasis to the uterine cervix: A case report.

Case reports in women's health, 42:e00607.

This article presents a case of cervical metastasis from recurrence of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast >20 years after initial diagnosis. The diagnosis was made after the patient presented with three months of intermittent post-menopausal vaginal spotting. She underwent palliative radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy and was disease free at the time of writing. Cervical metastasis of a primary breast cancer is extremely rare and can present with a variety of symptoms. This case report highlights the importance of life-long gynecologic care and surveillance in patients with a history of breast cancer.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Lue M, Harrah P, Shrestha S, et al (2024)

Reconstruction after Resection of Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Invasive Ductal Carcinoma in a Patient with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome.

Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open, 12(4):e5737.

This case exhibits a presentation of multiple primary malignancies in a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, necessitating surgical excision and multistaged reconstruction. Due to Li-Fraumeni syndrome patients' predisposition to developing malignancies, management includes lifelong surveillance and aggressive treatment of cancers. Plastic surgeons can minimize damage to patient's quality of life by carrying out reconstruction in a thoughtful manner that maximizes function and considers a potential lifetime of future reconstructive needs.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-04-17

Roy S, Shanmugam G, Rakshit S, et al (2024)

Exploring the immunomodulatory potential of Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) in the treatment of invasive ductal carcinoma.

Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England), 41(5):115.

Bacopa monnieri (L) Wettst, commonly known as Brahmi, stands as a medicinal plant integral to India's traditional medical system, Ayurveda, where it is recognized as a "medhya rasayana"-a botanical entity believed to enhance intellect and mental clarity. Its significant role in numerous Ayurvedic formulations designed to address conditions such as anxiety, memory loss, impaired cognition, and diminished concentration underscores its prominence. Beyond its application in cognitive health, Brahmi has historically been employed in Ayurvedic practices for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. In contemporary biomedical research, Bacopa monnieri can attenuate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in animal models. However, there remains a paucity of information regarding Bacopa's potential as an anticancer agent, warranting further investigation in this domain. Based on previous findings with Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), the current study aims to find out the role of Brahmi plant preparation (BPP) in immunomodulatory actions on IDC. Employing a specific BPP concentration, we conducted a comprehensive study using MTT assay, ELISA, DNA methylation analysis, Western blotting, ChIP, and mRNA profiling to assess BPP's immunomodulatory properties. Our research finding showed the role of BPP in augmenting the action of T helper 1 (TH1) cells which secreted interferon-γ (IFN-γ) which in turn activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) to kill the cells of IDC (*p < 0.05). Moreover, we found out that treatment with BPP not only increased the activities of tumor-suppressor genes (p53 and BRCA1) but also decreased the activities of oncogenes (Notch1 and DNAPKcs) in IDC (*p < 0.05). BPP had an immense significance in controlling the epigenetic dysregulation in IDC through the downregulation of Histone demethylation & Histone deacetylation and upregulation of Histone methylation and Histone acetylation (*p < 0.05). Our Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR data showed BPP treatment increased percentage enrichment of STAT1 & BRCA1 (*p < 0.05) and decreased percentage enrichment of STAT3, STAT5 & NF ΚB (*p < 0.05) on both TBX21 and BRCA1 gene loci in IDC. In addition, BPP treatment reduced the hypermethylation of the BRCA1-associated-DNA, which is believed to be a major factor in IDC (*p < 0.05). BPP not only escalates the secretion of type 1 specific cytokines but also escalates tumor suppression and harmonizes various epigenetic regulators and transcription factors associated with Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) to evoke tumor protective immunity in IDC.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Sánchez-Dávila JN, Verástegui EL, Peña-Nieves A, et al (2024)

Integration of the geriatric palliative care in oncological care of elderly patient with cancer.

Palliative & supportive care pii:S1478951524000294 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the profile of the population attended to by the palliative geriatrics clinic and to evaluate the symptomatic control derived from the care provided.

METHODS: During 2017 a model based on a holistic approach was implemented, in this model the team geriatric palliative care plays a fundamental role by being part of the palliative care team and functioning as a liaison with the oncology team and other required services. We outlined the profile of 100 patients aged 70 and older seen between 2017 and 2019 at our geriatric palliative care clinic. Descriptive statistics were used. In addition, the symptoms and the care clinic model effect on the symptomatic control were analyzed, as well as the complexity of patients in palliative care with IDC-Pal.

RESULTS: The patients median age was 83.5 years. Patients were classified by type of management: 47% within the supportive care group and 53% with palliative care only; 58% had metastatic disease and 84% presented at least 1 comorbidity. Frailty was observed in 78% and a Karnofsky scale of 60 or less was observed in 59% of the overall population.

SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Elderly cancer patients have a complex profile and may have multiple needs. Integrating geriatric palliative care can help to provide better and personalized care along with symptomatic control. Further studies are required to establish the ideal care model for these patients. Importantly, a personalized treatment with a geriatric palliative care specialist is a key element.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Kosie JE, C Lew-Williams (2024)

Infant-directed communication: Examining the many dimensions of everyday caregiver-infant interactions.

Developmental science [Epub ahead of print].

Everyday caregiver-infant interactions are dynamic and multidimensional. However, existing research underestimates the dimensionality of infants' experiences, often focusing on one or two communicative signals (e.g., speech alone, or speech and gesture together). Here, we introduce "infant-directed communication" (IDC): the suite of communicative signals from caregivers to infants including speech, action, gesture, emotion, and touch. We recorded 10 min of at-home play between 44 caregivers and their 18- to 24-month-old infants from predominantly white, middle-class, English-speaking families in the United States. Interactions were coded for five dimensions of IDC as well as infants' gestures and vocalizations. Most caregivers used all five dimensions of IDC throughout the interaction, and these dimensions frequently overlapped. For example, over 60% of the speech that infants heard was accompanied by one or more non-verbal communicative cues. However, we saw marked variation across caregivers in their use of IDC, likely reflecting tailored communication to the behaviors and abilities of their infant. Moreover, caregivers systematically increased the dimensionality of IDC, using more overlapping cues in response to infant gestures and vocalizations, and more IDC with infants who had smaller vocabularies. Understanding how and when caregivers use all five signals-together and separately-in interactions with infants has the potential to redefine how developmental scientists conceive of infants' communicative environments, and enhance our understanding of the relations between caregiver input and early learning. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Infants' everyday interactions with caregivers are dynamic and multimodal, but existing research has underestimated the multidimensionality (i.e., the diversity of simultaneously occurring communicative cues) inherent in infant-directed communication. Over 60% of the speech that infants encounter during at-home, free play interactions overlap with one or more of a variety of non-speech communicative cues. The multidimensionality of caregivers' communicative cues increases in response to infants' gestures and vocalizations, providing new information about how infants' own behaviors shape their input. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding how caregivers use a diverse set of communicative behaviors-both separately and together-during everyday interactions with infants.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Park SY, Lee J, Park JY, et al (2024)

Primary Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Arising in Axillary Accessory Breast: A Case Report.

Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology, 85(2):421-427.

Ectopic breast tissue can develop along the mammary ridge from the axilla to the groin, and the most common site is the axillae. Primary carcinoma of ectopic breast tissue is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old woman with a palpable mass in her left axilla who had a history of surgical excision of accessory breast tissue in the same area. Mammography (MMG), including axillary tail view, ultrasound (US), and breast MRI were performed. We evaluated the extent and characteristics of the microcalcifications in the axillary tail view. A US-guided biopsy was done, and histopathology revealed an invasive ductal carcinoma. Enhanced abdominal CT revealed multiple hepatic masses consistent with metastases, and the patient received palliative chemotherapy. Herein, we present a rare case of breast cancer arising from accessory breast tissue in the axilla, best appreciated on the axillary tail view of the patient's MMG.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Sato A, Fujioka T, Onishi I, et al (2024)

Arterial Calcification Disappearance in Breast Imaging: A Key Indicator for Transition to Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(7):.

A woman in her 70s, initially suspected of having fibroadenoma due to a well-defined mass in her breast, underwent regular mammography and ultrasound screenings. Over several years, no appreciable alterations in the mass were observed, maintaining the fibroadenoma diagnosis. However, in the fourth year, an ultrasound indicated slight enlargement and peripheral irregularities in the mass, even though the mammography images at that time showed no alterations. Interestingly, mammography images over time showed the gradual disappearance of previously observed arterial calcification around the mass. Pathological examination eventually identified the mass as invasive ductal carcinoma. Although the patient had breast tissue arterial calcification typical of atherosclerosis, none was present around the tumor-associated arteries. This case highlights the importance of monitoring arterial calcification changes in mammography, suggesting that they are crucial indicators in breast cancer diagnosis, beyond observing size and shape alterations.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Bensenane R, Beddok A, Lesueur F, et al (2024)

Safety of the Breast Cancer Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Variant Carriers.

Cancers, 16(7):.

The Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) gene is implicated in DNA double-strand break repair. Controversies in clinical radiosensitivity remain known for monoallelic carriers of the ATM pathogenic variant (PV). An evaluation of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801516 (G-A) showed different results regarding late subcutaneous fibrosis after breast radiation therapy (RT). The main objective of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities in carriers of a rare ATM PV or predicted PV and in carriers of minor allele A of rs1801516 facing breast RT. Fifty women with localized breast cancer treated with adjuvant RT between 2000 and 2014 at Institut Curie were selected. Acute and late toxicities in carriers of a rare PV or predicted PV (n= 9), in noncarriers (n = 41) and in carriers of SNP rs1801516 (G-A) (n = 8), were examined. The median age at diagnosis was 53 years old and 82% of patients had an invasive ductal carcinoma and 84% were at clinical stage I-IIB. With a median follow-up of 13 years, no significant difference between carriers and noncarriers was found for acute toxicities (p > 0.05). The same results were observed for late toxicities without an effect from the rs1801516 genotype on toxicities. No significant difference in acute or late toxicities was observed between rare ATM variant carriers and noncarriers after breast RT for localized breast cancer.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Weed C, Wang T, Mohan SC, et al (2024)

Comparison of Clinical Breast Exam to Breast MRI Surveillance in Patients Following Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy.

Clinical breast cancer pii:S1526-8209(24)00097-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM) is increasingly being performed for patients with breast cancer. However, optimal postoperative surveillance has not been defined.

METHODS: A prospectively maintained database identified patients with in-situ and invasive cancer who underwent NSM between 2007-2021. Clinical data on postoperative breast surveillance and interventions were collected. Patients who had MRI surveillance versus clinical breast exam (CBE) alone were compared with respect to tumor characteristics, recurrence, and survival.

RESULTS: A total of 483 NSMs were performed on 399 patients. 255 (63.9%) patients had invasive ductal carcinoma, 31 (7.8%) invasive lobular carcinoma, 92 (23.1%) DCIS, 6 (1.5%) mixed ductal and lobular carcinoma, 9 (2.3%) others, and 6 (1.5%) unknown. Postoperatively, 265 (66.4%) patients were followed with CBE alone and 134 (33.6%) had surveillance MRIs. At a median follow-up of 33 months, 20 patients (5.0%) developed in-breast recurrence, 6 patients had (1.5%) an axillary recurrence, and 28 with (7.0%) distant recurrence. 14 (53.8%) LRR were detected in the CBE group and 12 (46.2%) were detected in the MRI group (P = .16). Overall survival (OS) was 99%, with no difference in OS between patients who had CBE alone versus MRI (P = .46). MRI was associated with higher biopsy rates compared to CBE alone (15.8% vs. 7.8%, P = .01).

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CBE alone, the use of screening MRI following NSM results in higher rate of biopsy and no difference in overall survival.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Wang K, Schober L, Fischer A, et al (2024)

Opposing effects of cannabidiol in patient-derived neuroendocrine tumor, pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma primary cultures.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism pii:7644371 [Epub ahead of print].

CONTEXT: Treatment options for advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (together PPGLs) are still limited. In recent years, anti-tumor effects of cannabinoids have been reported; however, there are only very limited data available in NETs or PPGLs.

OBJECTIVE: Investigation of the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on patient-derived human NET/PPGL primary cultures and on NET/PPGL cell lines.

METHODS: We established primary cultures derived from 46 different patients with PPGLs (n = 35) or NETs (n = 11) who underwent tumor resection at two centers. Treatment of patient primary cultures with clinically relevant doses (5 µM) and slightly higher doses (10 µM) of CBD was performed.

RESULTS: We found opposing effects of 5 µM CBD: significant anti-tumor effects in 5/35 (14%) and significant tumor-promoting effects in 6/35 (17%) of PPGL primary cultures. In terms of anti-tumor effects, cluster 2-related PPGLs showed significantly stronger responsivity to CBD compared to cluster 1-related PPGLs (p = 0.042). Of the cluster 2-related tumors, NF1 PPGLs showed strongest responsivity (4/5 PPGL primary cultures with a significant decrease in cell viability were NF1-mutated). We also found opposing effects of 10 µM CBD in PPGLs and NETs: significant anti-tumor effects in 9/33 of PPGL (27%) and 3/11 of NET (27%) primary cultures, significant tumor-promoting effects in 6/33 of PPGL (18%) and 2/11 of NET (18%) primary cultures.

CONCLUSIONS: We suggest a potential novel treatment option for some NETs/PPGLs, but also provide evidence for caution when applying cannabinoids as supportive therapy for pain or appetite management to cancer patients, and possibly as health supplements.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Sefidbakht S, Beizavi Z, Kanaani Nejad F, et al (2024)

Association of imaging and pathological findings of breast cancer in very young women: Report of a twenty-year retrospective study.

Clinical imaging, 110:110094.

PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to assess the new trends in characteristics, molecular subtypes, and imaging findings of breast cancer in very young women.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the database of a primary breast cancer referral center in southern Iran in 342 cases of 30-year-old or younger women from 2001 to 2020. Pathologic data, including nuclear subtype and grade, tumor stage, presence of in situ cancer, imaging data including lesion type in mammogram and ultrasound, and treatment data were recorded. Descriptive statistics were applied. Differences between categorical values between groups were compared using Pearson's Chi-square test.

RESULTS: The mean age was 27.89 years. The tumor type was invasive ductal carcinoma in 82 % of cases. Fourteen patients (4.4 %) had only in situ cancer, and 170 patients had in situ components (49.7 %). Molecular subtypes were available in 278 patients, including 117 (42.1 %) Luminal A, 64 (23.0 %) Luminal B, 58 (20.9 %) triple negative, and 39 (14 %) HER2 Enriched. In those with mammograms available, 63 (30.1 %) had no findings, 53 (25.3 %) had mass, 27 (12.9 %) had asymmetry, whether focal or global, 21 (10 %) had microcalcifications solely, and 45 (21.5 %) had more than one finding. Microcalcifications were significantly more common in Luminal cancers than HER2 and triple-negative cancers (p = 0.041).

CONCLUSION: Our study shows the most common subtype to be Luminal A cancer, with 74 % of the tumors being larger than 2 cm at the time of diagnosis. Irregular masses with non-circumscribed margins were the most common imaging findings.

RevDate: 2024-04-26
CmpDate: 2024-04-11

Wang S, Zhou Z, Yuan Q, et al (2024)

Trueness evaluation of three intraoral scanners for the recording of maximal intercuspal position.

Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology, 42(2):227-233.

OBJECTIVES: This clinical study aimed to assess the trueness of three intraoral scanners for the recor-ding of the maximal intercuspal position (MIP) to provide a reference for clinical practice.

METHODS: Ten participants with good occlusal relationship and healthy temporomandibular joint were recruited. For the control group, facebow transferring procedures were performed, and bite registrations at the MIP were used to transfer maxillary and mandibular casts to a mechanical articulator, which were then scanned with a laboratory scanner to obtain digital cast data. For the experimental groups, three intraoral scanners (Trios 3, Carestream 3600, and Aoralscan 3) were used to obtain digital casts of the participants at the MIP following the scanning workflows endorsed by the corresponding manufacturers. Subsequently, measurement points were marked on the control group's digital casts at the central incisors, canines, and first molars, and corresponding distances between these points on the maxillary and mandibular casts were measured to calculate the sum of measured distances (DA). Distances between measurement points in the incisor (DI), canine (DC), and first molar (DM) regions were also calculated. The control group's maxillary and mandibular digital casts with the added measurement points were aligned with the experimental group's casts, and DA, DI, DC, and DM values of the aligned control casts were determined. Statistical analysis was performed on DA, DI, DC, and DM obtained from both the control and experimental groups to evaluate the trueness of the three intraoral scanners for the recording of MIP.

RESULTS: In the control group, DA, DI, DC, and DM values were (39.58±6.40), (13.64±3.58), (14.91±2.85), and (11.03±1.56) mm. The Trios 3 group had values of (38.99±6.60), (13.42±3.66), (14.55±2.87), and (11.03±1.69) mm. The Carestream 3600 group showed values of (38.57±6.36), (13.56±3.68), (14.45±2.85), and (10.55±1.41) mm, while the Aoralscan 3 group had values of (38.16±5.69), (13.03±3.54), (14.23±2.59), and (10.90±1.54) mm. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups for overall deviation DA (P=0.96), as well as local deviations DI (P=0.98), DC (P=0.96), and DM (P=0.89).

CONCLUSIONS: With standardized scanning protocols, the three intraoral scanners demonstrated comparable trueness to traditional methods in recording MIP, fulfilling clinical requirements.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Rukhsana , Supty AT, Hussain M, et al (2024)

STK3 higher expression association with clinical characteristics in intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer invasive ductal carcinoma patients.

Breast cancer research and treatment [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: STK3 has a central role in maintaining cell homeostasis, proliferation, growth, and apoptosis. Previously, we investigated the functional link between STK3/MST2, and estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. To expand the investigation, this study evaluated STK3's higher expression and associated genes in breast cancer intrinsic subtypes using publicly available data.

METHODS: The relationship between clinical pathologic features and STK3 high expression was analyzed using descriptive and multivariate analysis.

RESULTS: Increased STK3 expression in breast cancer was significantly associated with higher pathological cancer stages, and a different expression level was observed in the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that breast cancer with high STK3 had a lower survival rate in IDC patients than that with low STK3 expression (p < 0.05). The multivariate analysis unveiled a strong correlation between STK3 expression and the survival rate among IDC patients, demonstrating hazard ratios for lower expression. In the TCGA dataset, the hazard ratio was 0.56 (95% CI 0.34-0.94, p = 0.029) for patients deceased with tumor, and 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.92, p = 0.017) for all deceased patients. Additionally, in the METABRIC dataset, the hazard ratio was 0.76 (95% CI 0.64-0.91, p = 0.003) for those deceased with tumor. From GSEA outcomes 7 gene sets were selected based on statistical significance (FDR < 0.25 and p < 0.05). Weighted Sum model (WSM) derived top 5% genes also have higher expression in basal and lower in luminal A in association with STK3.

CONCLUSION: By introducing a novel bioinformatics approach that combines GSEA and WSM, the study successfully identified the top 5% of genes associated with higher expression of STK3.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Cancer is the generic name for more than 100 diseases in which cells begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged, they die and new cells take their place. Cancer begins when genetic changes impair this orderly process so that some cells start to grow uncontrollably. The Emperor of All Maladies is a "biography" of cancer — from its first documented appearances thousands of years ago through the epic battles in the twentieth century to cure, control, and conquer it to a radical new understanding of its essence. This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in cancer. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )