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26 Jan 2022 at 01:34
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Bibliography on: Formants: Modulators of Communication


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Jan 2022 at 01:34 Created: 

Formants: Modulators of Communication

Wikipedia: A formant, as defined by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance. In speech science and phonetics, however, a formant is also sometimes used to mean acoustic resonance of the human vocal tract. Thus, in phonetics, formant can mean either a resonance or the spectral maximum that the resonance produces. Formants are often measured as amplitude peaks in the frequency spectrum of the sound, using a spectrogram (in the figure) or a spectrum analyzer and, in the case of the voice, this gives an estimate of the vocal tract resonances. In vowels spoken with a high fundamental frequency, as in a female or child voice, however, the frequency of the resonance may lie between the widely spaced harmonics and hence no corresponding peak is visible. Because formants are a product of resonance and resonance is affected by the shape and material of the resonating structure, and because all animals (humans included) have unqiue morphologies, formants can add additional generic (sounds big) and specific (that's Towser barking) information to animal vocalizations.

Created with PubMed® Query: formant NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-01-17

Almaghrabi SA, Thewlis D, Thwaites S, et al (2022)

The reproducibility of bio-acoustic features is associated with sample duration, speech task and gender.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Bio-acoustic properties of speech show evolving value in analyzing psychiatric illnesses. Obtaining a sufficient speech sample length to quantify these properties is essential, but the impact of sample duration on the stability of bio-acoustic features has not been systematically explored. We aimed to evaluate bio-acoustic features' reproducibility against changes in speech durations and tasks. We extracted source, spectral, formant, and prosodic features in 185 English-speaking adults (98 w, 87 m) for reading-a-story and counting tasks. We compared features at 25% of the total sample duration of the reading task to those obtained from non-overlapping randomly selected sub-samples shortened to 75%, 50%, and 25% of total duration using intraclass correlation coefficients. We also compared the features extracted from entire recordings to those measured at 25% of the duration and features obtained from 50% of the duration. Further, we compared features extracted from reading-a-story to counting tasks. Our results show that the number of reproducible features (out of 125) decreased stepwise with duration reduction. Spectral shape, pitch, and formants reached excellent reproducibility. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs), loudness, and zero-crossing rate achieved excellent reproducibility only at a longer duration. Reproducibility of source, MFCC derivatives, and voicing probability (VP) was poor. Significant gender differences existed in jitter, MFCC first-derivative, spectral skewness, pitch, VP, and formants. Around 97% of features in both genders were not reproducible across speech tasks, in part due to the short counting task duration. In conclusion, bio-acoustic features are less reproducible in shorter samples and are affected by gender.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Gaines JL, Kim KS, Parrell B, et al (2021)

Discrete constriction locations describe a comprehensive range of vocal tract shapes in the Maeda model.

JASA express letters, 1(12):124402.

The Maeda model was used to generate a large set of vocoid-producing vocal tract configurations. The resulting dataset (a) produced a comprehensive range of formant frequencies and (b) displayed discrete tongue body constriction locations (palatal, velar/uvular, and lower pharyngeal). The discrete parameterization of constriction location across the vowel space suggests this is likely a fundamental characteristic of the human vocal tract, and not limited to any specific set of vowel contrasts. These findings suggest that in addition to established articulatory-acoustic constraints, fundamental biomechanical constraints of the vocal tract may also explain such discreteness.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Cheng FY, Xu C, Gold L, et al (2021)

Rapid Enhancement of Subcortical Neural Responses to Sine-Wave Speech.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 15:747303.

The efferent auditory nervous system may be a potent force in shaping how the brain responds to behaviorally significant sounds. Previous human experiments using the frequency following response (FFR) have shown efferent-induced modulation of subcortical auditory function online and over short- and long-term time scales; however, a contemporary understanding of FFR generation presents new questions about whether previous effects were constrained solely to the auditory subcortex. The present experiment used sine-wave speech (SWS), an acoustically-sparse stimulus in which dynamic pure tones represent speech formant contours, to evoke FFRSWS. Due to the higher stimulus frequencies used in SWS, this approach biased neural responses toward brainstem generators and allowed for three stimuli (/bɔ/, /bu/, and /bo/) to be used to evoke FFRSWS before and after listeners in a training group were made aware that they were hearing a degraded speech stimulus. All SWS stimuli were rapidly perceived as speech when presented with a SWS carrier phrase, and average token identification reached ceiling performance during a perceptual training phase. Compared to a control group which remained naïve throughout the experiment, training group FFRSWS amplitudes were enhanced post-training for each stimulus. Further, linear support vector machine classification of training group FFRSWS significantly improved post-training compared to the control group, indicating that training-induced neural enhancements were sufficient to bolster machine learning classification accuracy. These results suggest that the efferent auditory system may rapidly modulate auditory brainstem representation of sounds depending on their context and perception as non-speech or speech.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Meykadeh A, Golfam A, Nasrabadi AM, et al (2021)

First Event-Related Potentials Evidence of Auditory Morphosyntactic Processing in a Subject-Object-Verb Nominative-Accusative Language (Farsi).

Frontiers in psychology, 12:698165.

While most studies on neural signals of online language processing have focused on a few-usually western-subject-verb-object (SVO) languages, corresponding knowledge on subject-object-verb (SOV) languages is scarce. Here we studied Farsi, a language with canonical SOV word order. Because we were interested in the consequences of second-language acquisition, we compared monolingual native Farsi speakers and equally proficient bilinguals who had learned Farsi only after entering primary school. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) to correct and morphosyntactically incorrect sentence-final syllables in a sentence correctness judgment task. Incorrect syllables elicited a late posterior positivity at 500-700 ms after the final syllable, resembling the P600 component, as previously observed for syntactic violations at sentence-middle positions in SVO languages. There was no sign of a left anterior negativity (LAN) preceding the P600. Additionally, we provide evidence for a real-time discrimination of phonological categories associated with morphosyntactic manipulations (between 35 and 135 ms), manifesting the instantaneous neural response to unexpected perturbations. The L2 Farsi speakers were indistinguishable from L1 speakers in terms of performance and neural signals of syntactic violations, indicating that exposure to a second language at school entry may results in native-like performance and neural correlates. In nonnative (but not native) speakers verbal working memory capacity correlated with the late posterior positivity and performance accuracy. Hence, this first ERP study of morphosyntactic violations in a spoken SOV nominative-accusative language demonstrates ERP effects in response to morphosyntactic violations and the involvement of executive functions in non-native speakers in computations of subject-verb agreement.

RevDate: 2021-12-30

Yamada Y, Shinkawa K, Nemoto M, et al (2021)

Automatic Assessment of Loneliness in Older Adults Using Speech Analysis on Responses to Daily Life Questions.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 12:712251.

Loneliness is a perceived state of social and emotional isolation that has been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects in older adults. Automatically assessing loneliness by passively monitoring daily behaviors could potentially contribute to early detection and intervention for mitigating loneliness. Speech data has been successfully used for inferring changes in emotional states and mental health conditions, but its association with loneliness in older adults remains unexplored. In this study, we developed a tablet-based application and collected speech responses of 57 older adults to daily life questions regarding, for example, one's feelings and future travel plans. From audio data of these speech responses, we automatically extracted speech features characterizing acoustic, prosodic, and linguistic aspects, and investigated their associations with self-rated scores of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Consequently, we found that with increasing loneliness scores, speech responses tended to have less inflections, longer pauses, reduced second formant frequencies, reduced variances of the speech spectrum, more filler words, and fewer positive words. The cross-validation results showed that regression and binary-classification models using speech features could estimate loneliness scores with an R 2 of 0.57 and detect individuals with high loneliness scores with 95.6% accuracy, respectively. Our study provides the first empirical results suggesting the possibility of using speech data that can be collected in everyday life for the automatic assessments of loneliness in older adults, which could help develop monitoring technologies for early detection and intervention for mitigating loneliness.

RevDate: 2021-12-20

Zheng Z, Li K, Feng G, et al (2021)

Relative Weights of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Vowel, Consonant, and Lexical Tone Recognition.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 15:744959.

Objectives: Mandarin-speaking users of cochlear implants (CI) perform poorer than their English counterpart. This may be because present CI speech coding schemes are largely based on English. This study aims to evaluate the relative contributions of temporal envelope (E) cues to Mandarin phoneme (including vowel, and consonant) and lexical tone recognition to provide information for speech coding schemes specific to Mandarin. Design: Eleven normal hearing subjects were studied using acoustic temporal E cues that were extracted from 30 continuous frequency bands between 80 and 7,562 Hz using the Hilbert transform and divided into five frequency regions. Percent-correct recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues presented in three, four, and five frequency regions and their relative weights calculated using the least-square approach. Results: For stimuli with three, four, and five frequency regions, percent-correct scores for vowel recognition using E cues were 50.43-84.82%, 76.27-95.24%, and 96.58%, respectively; for consonant recognition 35.49-63.77%, 67.75-78.87%, and 87.87%; for lexical tone recognition 60.80-97.15%, 73.16-96.87%, and 96.73%. For frequency region 1 to frequency region 5, the mean weights in vowel recognition were 0.17, 0.31, 0.22, 0.18, and 0.12, respectively; in consonant recognition 0.10, 0.16, 0.18, 0.23, and 0.33; in lexical tone recognition 0.38, 0.18, 0.14, 0.16, and 0.14. Conclusion: Regions that contributed most for vowel recognition was Region 2 (502-1,022 Hz) that contains first formant (F1) information; Region 5 (3,856-7,562 Hz) contributed most to consonant recognition; Region 1 (80-502 Hz) that contains fundamental frequency (F0) information contributed most to lexical tone recognition.

RevDate: 2021-12-13

Cap H, Deleporte P, Joachim J, et al (2008)

Male vocal behavior and phylogeny in deer.

Cladistics : the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society, 24(6):917-931.

The phylogenetic relationships among 11 species of the Cervidae family were inferred from an analysis of male vocalizations. Eighteen characters, including call types (e.g. antipredator barks, mating loudcalls) and acoustic characteristics (call composition, fundamental frequency and formant frequencies), were used for phylogeny inference. The resulting topology and the phylogenetic consistency of behavioral characters were compared with those of current molecular phylogenies of Cervidae and with separate and simultaneous parsimony analyses of molecular and behavioral data. Our results indicate that male vocalizations constitute plausible phylogenetic characters in this taxon. Evolutionary scenarios for the vocal characters are discussed in relation with associated behaviors.

RevDate: 2021-12-03

Sundberg J, Lindblom B, AM Hefele (2021)

Voice source, formant frequencies and vocal tract shape in overtone singing. A case study.

Logopedics, phoniatrics, vocology [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose: In overtone singing a singer produces two pitches simultaneously, a low-pitched, continuous drone plus a melody played on the higher, flutelike and strongly enhanced overtones of the drone. The purpose of this study was to analyse underlying acoustical, phonatory and articulatory phenomena.Methods: The voice source was analyzed by inverse filtering the sound, the articulation from a dynamic MRI video of the vocal tract profile, and the lip opening from a frontal-view video recording. Vocal tract cross-distances were measured in the MR recording and converted to area functions, the formant frequencies of which computed.Results: Inverse filtering revealed that the overtone enhancement resulted from a close clustering of formants 2 and 3. The MRI material showed that for low enhanced overtone frequencies (FE) the tongue tip was raised and strongly retracted, while for high FE the tongue tip was less retracted but forming a longer constriction. Thus, the tongue configuration changed from an apical/anterior to a dorsal/posterior articulation. The formant frequencies derived from the area functions matched almost perfectly those used for the inverse filtering. Further, analyses of the area functions revealed that the second formant frequency was strongly dependent on the back cavity, and the third on the front cavity, which acted like a Helmholtz resonator, tuned by the tongue tip position and lip opening.Conclusions: This type of overtone singing can be fully explained by the well-established source-filter theory of voice production, as recently found by Bergevin et al. [1] for another type of overtone singing.

RevDate: 2021-12-02

Roberts B, Summers RJ, PJ Bailey (2021)

Mandatory dichotic integration of second-formant information: Contralateral sine bleats have predictable effects on consonant place judgments.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(5):3693.

Speech-on-speech informational masking arises because the interferer disrupts target processing (e.g., capacity limitations) or corrupts it (e.g., intrusions into the target percept); the latter should produce predictable errors. Listeners identified the consonant in monaural buzz-excited three-formant analogues of approximant-vowel syllables, forming a place of articulation series (/w/-/l/-/j/). There were two 11-member series; the vowel was either high-front or low-back. Series members shared formant-amplitude contours, fundamental frequency, and F1+F3 frequency contours; they were distinguished solely by the F2 frequency contour before the steady portion. Targets were always presented in the left ear. For each series, F2 frequency and amplitude contours were also used to generate interferers with altered source properties-sine-wave analogues of F2 (sine bleats) matched to their buzz-excited counterparts. Accompanying each series member with a fixed mismatched sine bleat in the contralateral ear produced systematic and predictable effects on category judgments; these effects were usually largest for bleats involving the fastest rate or greatest extent of frequency change. Judgments of isolated sine bleats using the three place labels were often unsystematic or arbitrary. These results indicate that informational masking by interferers involved corruption of target processing as a result of mandatory dichotic integration of F2 information, despite the grouping cues disfavoring this integration.

RevDate: 2021-12-02

Lodermeyer A, Bagheri E, Kniesburges S, et al (2021)

The mechanisms of harmonic sound generation during phonation: A multi-modal measurement-based approach.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(5):3485.

Sound generation during voiced speech remains an open research topic because the underlying process within the human larynx is hardly accessible for direct measurements. In the present study, harmonic sound generation during phonation was investigated with a model that replicates the fully coupled fluid-structure-acoustic interaction (FSAI). The FSAI was captured using a multi-modal approach by measuring the flow and acoustic source fields based on particle image velocimetry, as well as the surface velocity of the vocal folds based on laser vibrometry and high-speed imaging. Strong harmonic sources were localized near the glottis, as well as further downstream, during the presence of the supraglottal jet. The strongest harmonic content of the vocal fold surface motion was verified for the area near the glottis, which directly interacts with the glottal jet flow. Also, the acoustic back-coupling of the formant frequencies onto the harmonic oscillation of the vocal folds was verified. These findings verify that harmonic sound generation is the result of a strong interrelation between the vocal fold motion, modulated flow field, and vocal tract geometry.

RevDate: 2021-12-02

Barreda S, PF Assmann (2021)

Perception of gender in children's voices.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(5):3949.

To investigate the perception of gender from children's voices, adult listeners were presented with /hVd/ syllables, in isolation and in sentence context, produced by children between 5 and 18 years. Half the listeners were informed of the age of the talker during trials, while the other half were not. Correct gender identifications increased with talker age; however, performance was above chance even for age groups where the cues most often associated with gender differentiation (i.e., average fundamental frequency and formant frequencies) were not consistently different between boys and girls. The results of acoustic models suggest that cues were used in an age-dependent manner, whether listeners were explicitly told the age of the talker or not. Overall, results are consistent with the hypothesis that talker age and gender are estimated jointly in the process of speech perception. Furthermore, results show that the gender of individual talkers can be identified accurately well before reliable anatomical differences arise in the vocal tracts of females and males. In general, results support the notion that the transmission of gender information from voice depends substantially on gender-dependent patterns of articulation, rather than following deterministically from anatomical differences between male and female talkers.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Hedwig D, Poole J, P Granli (2021)

Does Social Complexity Drive Vocal Complexity? Insights from the Two African Elephant Species.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(11): pii:ani11113071.

The social complexity hypothesis (SCH) for communication states that the range and frequency of social interactions drive the evolution of complex communication systems. Surprisingly, few studies have empirically tested the SHC for vocal communication systems. Filling this gap is important because a co-evolutionary runaway process between social and vocal complexity may have shaped the most intricate communication system, human language. We here propose the African elephant Loxodonta spec. as an excellent study system to investigate the relationships between social and vocal complexity. We review how the distinct differences in social complexity between the two species of African elephants, the forest elephant L. cyclotis and the savanna elephant L. africana, relate to repertoire size and structure, as well as complex communication skills in the two species, such as call combination or intentional formant modulation including the trunk. Our findings suggest that Loxodonta may contradict the SCH, as well as other factors put forth to explain patterns of vocal complexity across species. We propose that life history traits, a factor that has gained little attention as a driver of vocal complexity, and the extensive parental care associated with a uniquely low and slow reproductive rate, may have led to the emergence of pronounced vocal complexity in the forest elephant despite their less complex social system compared to the savanna elephant. Conclusions must be drawn cautiously, however. A better understanding of vocal complexity in the genus Loxodonta will depend on continuing advancements in remote data collection technologies to overcome the challenges of observing forest elephants in their dense rainforest habitat, as well as the availability of directly comparable data and methods, quantifying both structural and contextual variability in the production of rumbles and other vocalizations in both species of African elephants.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Du X, Zhang X, Wang Y, et al (2021)

Highly sensitive detection of plant growth regulators by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy combined with metamaterials.

Optics express, 29(22):36535-36545.

The rapid and sensitive detection of plant-growth-regulator (PGR) residue is essential for ensuring food safety for consumers. However, there are many disadvantages in current approaches to detecting PGR residue. In this paper, we demonstrate a highly sensitive PGR detection method by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy combined with metamaterials. We propose a double formant metamaterial resonator based on a split-ring structure with titanium-gold nanostructure. The metamaterial resonator is a split-ring structure composed of a titanium-gold nanostructure based on polyimide film as the substrate. Also, terahertz spectral response and electric field distribution of metamaterials under different analyte thickness and refractive index were investigated. The simulation results showed that the theoretical sensitivity of resonance peak 1 and peak 2 of the refractive index sensor based on our designed metamaterial resonator approaches 780 and 720 gigahertz per refractive index unit (GHz/RIU), respectively. In experiments, a rapid solution analysis platform based on the double formant metamaterial resonator was set up and PGR residues in aqueous solution were directly and rapidly detected through terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The results showed that metamaterials can successfully detect butylhydrazine and N-N diglycine at a concentration as low as 0.05 mg/L. This study paves a new way for sensitive, rapid, low-cost detection of PGRs. It also means that the double formant metamaterial resonator has significant potential for other applications in terahertz sensing.

RevDate: 2021-11-22

Li P, Ross CF, ZX Luo (2021)

Morphological disparity and evolutionary transformations in the primate hyoid apparatus.

Journal of human evolution, 162:103094 pii:S0047-2484(21)00146-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The hyoid apparatus plays an integral role in swallowing, respiration, and vocalization in mammals. Most placental mammals have a rod-shaped basihyal connected to the basicranium via both soft tissues and a mobile bony chain-the anterior cornu-whereas anthropoid primates have broad, shield-like or even cup-shaped basihyals suspended from the basicranium by soft tissues only. How the unique anthropoid hyoid morphology evolved is unknown, and hyoid morphology of nonanthropoid primates is poorly documented. Here we use phylogenetic comparative methods and linear morphometrics to address knowledge gaps in hyoid evolution among primates and their euarchontan outgroups. We find that dermopterans have variable reduction of cornu elements. Cynocephalus volans are sexually dimorphic in hyoid morphology. Tupaia and all lemuroids except Daubentonia have a fully ossified anterior cornu connecting a rod-shaped basihyal to the basicranium; this is the ancestral mammalian pattern that is also characteristic of the last common ancestor of Primates. Haplorhines exhibit a reduced anterior cornu, and anthropoids underwent further increase in basihyal aspect ratio values and in relative basihyal volume. Convergent with haplorhines, lorisoid strepsirrhines independently evolved a broad basihyal and reduced anterior cornua. While a reduced anterior cornu is hypothesized to facilitate vocal tract lengthening and lower formant frequencies in some mammals, our results suggest vocalization adaptations alone are unlikely to drive the iterative reduction of anterior cornua within Primates. Our new data on euarchontan hyoid evolution provide an anatomical basis for further exploring the form-function relationships of the hyoid across different behaviors, including vocalization, chewing, and swallowing.

RevDate: 2021-11-20

Xu L, Luo J, Xie D, et al (2021)

Reverberation Degrades Pitch Perception but Not Mandarin Tone and Vowel Recognition of Cochlear Implant Users.

Ear and hearing pii:00003446-900000000-98400 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of reverberation on Mandarin tone and vowel recognition of cochlear implant (CI) users and normal-hearing (NH) listeners. To understand the performance of Mandarin tone recognition, this study also measured participants' pitch perception and the availability of temporal envelope cues in reverberation.

DESIGN: Fifteen CI users and nine NH listeners, all Mandarin speakers, were asked to recognize Mandarin single-vowels produced in four lexical tones and rank harmonic complex tones in pitch with different reverberation times (RTs) from 0 to 1 second. Virtual acoustic techniques were used to simulate rooms with different degrees of reverberation. Vowel duration and correlation between amplitude envelope and fundamental frequency (F0) contour were analyzed for different tones as a function of the RT.

RESULTS: Vowel durations of different tones significantly increased with longer RTs. Amplitude-F0 correlation remained similar for the falling Tone 4 but greatly decreased for the other tones in reverberation. NH listeners had robust pitch-ranking, tone recognition, and vowel recognition performance as the RT increased. Reverberation significantly degraded CI users' pitch-ranking thresholds but did not significantly affect the overall scores of tone and vowel recognition with CIs. Detailed analyses of tone confusion matrices showed that CI users reduced the flat Tone-1 responses but increased the falling Tone-4 responses in reverberation, possibly due to the falling amplitude envelope of late reflections after the original vowel segment. CI users' tone recognition scores were not correlated with their pitch-ranking thresholds.

CONCLUSIONS: NH listeners can reliably recognize Mandarin tones in reverberation using salient pitch cues from spectral and temporal fine structures. However, CI users have poorer pitch perception using F0-related amplitude modulations that are reduced in reverberation. Reverberation distorts speech amplitude envelopes, which affect the distribution of tone responses but not the accuracy of tone recognition with CIs. Recognition of vowels with stationary formant trajectories is not affected by reverberation for both NH listeners and CI users, regardless of the available spectral resolution. Future studies should test how the relatively stable vowel and tone recognition may contribute to sentence recognition in reverberation of Mandarin-speaking CI users.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Melchor J, Vergara J, Figueroa T, et al (2021)

Formant-Based Recognition of Words and Other Naturalistic Sounds in Rhesus Monkeys.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 15:728686.

In social animals, identifying sounds is critical for communication. In humans, the acoustic parameters involved in speech recognition, such as the formant frequencies derived from the resonance of the supralaryngeal vocal tract, have been well documented. However, how formants contribute to recognizing learned sounds in non-human primates remains unclear. To determine this, we trained two rhesus monkeys to discriminate target and non-target sounds presented in sequences of 1-3 sounds. After training, we performed three experiments: (1) We tested the monkeys' accuracy and reaction times during the discrimination of various acoustic categories; (2) their ability to discriminate morphing sounds; and (3) their ability to identify sounds consisting of formant 1 (F1), formant 2 (F2), or F1 and F2 (F1F2) pass filters. Our results indicate that macaques can learn diverse sounds and discriminate from morphs and formants F1 and F2, suggesting that information from few acoustic parameters suffice for recognizing complex sounds. We anticipate that future neurophysiological experiments in this paradigm may help elucidate how formants contribute to the recognition of sounds.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Cartei V, Reby D, Garnham A, et al (2022)

Peer audience effects on children's vocal masculinity and femininity.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1841):20200397.

Existing evidence suggests that children from around the age of 8 years strategically alter their public image in accordance with known values and preferences of peers, through the self-descriptive information they convey. However, an important but neglected aspect of this 'self-presentation' is the medium through which such information is communicated: the voice itself. The present study explored peer audience effects on children's vocal productions. Fifty-six children (26 females, aged 8-10 years) were presented with vignettes where a fictional child, matched to the participant's age and sex, is trying to make friends with a group of same-sex peers with stereotypically masculine or feminine interests (rugby and ballet, respectively). Participants were asked to impersonate the child in that situation and, as the child, to read out loud masculine, feminine and gender-neutral self-descriptive statements to these hypothetical audiences. They also had to decide which of those self-descriptive statements would be most helpful for making friends. In line with previous research, boys and girls preferentially selected masculine or feminine self-descriptive statements depending on the audience interests. Crucially, acoustic analyses of fundamental frequency and formant frequency spacing revealed that children also spontaneously altered their vocal productions: they feminized their voices when speaking to members of the ballet club, while they masculinized their voices when speaking to members of the rugby club. Both sexes also feminized their voices when uttering feminine sentences, compared to when uttering masculine and gender-neutral sentences. Implications for the hitherto neglected role of acoustic qualities of children's vocal behaviour in peer interactions are discussed. This article is part of the theme issue 'Voice modulation: from origin and mechanism to social impact (Part II)'.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Pisanski K, Anikin A, D Reby (2022)

Vocal size exaggeration may have contributed to the origins of vocalic complexity.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1841):20200401.

Vocal tract elongation, which uniformly lowers vocal tract resonances (formant frequencies) in animal vocalizations, has evolved independently in several vertebrate groups as a means for vocalizers to exaggerate their apparent body size. Here, we propose that smaller speech-like articulatory movements that alter only individual formants can serve a similar yet less energetically costly size-exaggerating function. To test this, we examine whether uneven formant spacing alters the perceived body size of vocalizers in synthesized human vowels and animal calls. Among six synthetic vowel patterns, those characterized by the lowest first and second formant (the vowel /u/ as in 'boot') are consistently perceived as produced by the largest vocalizer. Crucially, lowering only one or two formants in animal-like calls also conveys the impression of a larger body size, and lowering the second and third formants simultaneously exaggerates perceived size to a similar extent as rescaling all formants. As the articulatory movements required for individual formant shifts are minor compared to full vocal tract extension, they represent a rapid and energetically efficient mechanism for acoustic size exaggeration. We suggest that, by favouring the evolution of uneven formant patterns in vocal communication, this deceptive strategy may have contributed to the origins of the phonemic diversification required for articulated speech. This article is part of the theme issue 'Voice modulation: from origin and mechanism to social impact (Part II)'.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Grawunder S, Uomini N, Samuni L, et al (2022)

Chimpanzee vowel-like sounds and voice quality suggest formant space expansion through the hominoid lineage.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1841):20200455.

The origins of human speech are obscure; it is still unclear what aspects are unique to our species or shared with our evolutionary cousins, in part due to a lack of a common framework for comparison. We asked what chimpanzee and human vocal production acoustics have in common. We examined visible supra-laryngeal articulators of four major chimpanzee vocalizations (hoos, grunts, barks, screams) and their associated acoustic structures, using techniques from human phonetic and animal communication analysis. Data were collected from wild adult chimpanzees, Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. Both discriminant and principal component classification procedures revealed classification of call types. Discriminating acoustic features include voice quality and formant structure, mirroring phonetic features in human speech. Chimpanzee lip and jaw articulation variables also offered similar discrimination of call types. Formant maps distinguished call types with different vowel-like sounds. Comparing our results with published primate data, humans show less F1-F2 correlation and further expansion of the vowel space, particularly for [i] sounds. Unlike recent studies suggesting monkeys achieve human vowel space, we conclude from our results that supra-laryngeal articulatory capacities show moderate evolutionary change, with vowel space expansion continuing through hominoid evolution. Studies on more primate species will be required to substantiate this. This article is part of the theme issue 'Voice modulation: from origin and mechanism to social impact (Part II)'.

RevDate: 2021-11-10

Davatz GC, Yamasaki R, Hachiya A, et al (2021)

Source and Filter Acoustic Measures of Young, Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults for Application in Vowel Synthesis.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00304-0 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The output sound has important changes throughout life due to anatomical and physiological modifications in the larynx and vocal tract. Understanding the young adult to the elderly speech acoustic characteristics may assist in the synthesis of representative voices of men and women of different age groups.

OBJECTIVE: To obtain the fundamental frequency (f0), formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, F4), and bandwidth (B1, B2, B3, B4) values extracted from the sustained vowel /a/ of young, middle-aged, and elderly adults who are Brazilian Portuguese speakers; to present the application of these parameters in vowel synthesis.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study.

METHODS: The acoustic analysis of tokens of the 162 sustained vowel /a/ produced by vocally healthy adults, men, and women, between 18 and 80 years old, was performed. The adults were divided into three groups: young adults (18 to 44 years old); middle-aged adults (45 to 59 years old) and, elderly adults (60 to 80 years old). The f0, F1, F2, F3, F4, B1, B2, B3, B4 were extracted from the audio signals. Their average values were applied to a source-filter mathematical model to perform vowel synthesis in each age group both men and woman.

RESULTS: Young women had higher f0 than middle-aged and elderly women. Elderly women had lower F1 than middle-aged women. Young women had higher F2 than elderly women. For the men's output sound, the source-filter acoustic measures were statistically equivalent among the age groups. Average values of the f0, F1, F2, F3, F4, B1, and B2 were higher in women. The sound waves distance in signals, the position of formant frequencies and the dimension of the bandwidths visible in spectra of the synthesized sounds represent the average values extracted from the volunteers' emissions for the sustained vowel /a/ in Brazilian Portuguese.

CONCLUSION: Sustained vowel /a/ produced by women presented different values of f0,F1 and F2 between age groups, which was not observed for men. In addition to the f0 and the formant frequencies, the bandwidths were also different between women and men. The synthetic vowels available represent the acoustic changes found for each sex as a function of age.

RevDate: 2021-11-04

Rowe HP, Stipancic KL, Lammert AC, et al (2021)

Validation of an Acoustic-Based Framework of Speech Motor Control: Assessing Criterion and Construct Validity Using Kinematic and Perceptual Measures.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose This study investigated the criterion (analytical and clinical) and construct (divergent) validity of a novel, acoustic-based framework composed of five key components of motor control: Coordination, Consistency, Speed, Precision, and Rate. Method Acoustic and kinematic analyses were performed on audio recordings from 22 subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis during a sequential motion rate task. Perceptual analyses were completed by two licensed speech-language pathologists, who rated each subject's speech on the five framework components and their overall severity. Analytical and clinical validity were assessed by comparing performance on the acoustic features to their kinematic correlates and to clinician ratings of the five components, respectively. Divergent validity of the acoustic-based framework was then assessed by comparing performance on each pair of acoustic features to determine whether the features represent distinct articulatory constructs. Bivariate correlations and partial correlations with severity as a covariate were conducted for each comparison. Results Results revealed moderate-to-strong analytical validity for every acoustic feature, both with and without controlling for severity, and moderate-to-strong clinical validity for all acoustic features except Coordination, without controlling for severity. When severity was included as a covariate, the strong associations for Speed and Precision became weak. Divergent validity was supported by weak-to-moderate pairwise associations between all acoustic features except Speed (second-formant [F2] slope of consonant transition) and Precision (between-consonant variability in F2 slope). Conclusions This study demonstrated that the acoustic-based framework has potential as an objective, valid, and clinically useful tool for profiling articulatory deficits in individuals with speech motor disorders. The findings also suggest that compared to clinician ratings, instrumental measures are more sensitive to subtle differences in articulatory function. With further research, this framework could provide more accurate and reliable characterizations of articulatory impairment, which may eventually increase clinical confidence in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with different articulatory phenotypes.

RevDate: 2021-11-03

Abur D, Subaciute A, Daliri A, et al (2021)

Feedback and Feedforward Auditory-Motor Processes for Voice and Articulation in Parkinson's Disease.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose Unexpected and sustained manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production result in "reflexive" and "adaptive" responses, which can shed light on feedback and feedforward auditory-motor control processes, respectively. Persons with Parkinson's disease (PwPD) have shown aberrant reflexive and adaptive responses, but responses appear to differ for control of vocal and articulatory features. However, these responses have not been examined for both voice and articulation in the same speakers and with respect to auditory acuity and functional speech outcomes (speech intelligibility and naturalness). Method Here, 28 PwPD on their typical dopaminergic medication schedule and 28 age-, sex-, and hearing-matched controls completed tasks yielding reflexive and adaptive responses as well as auditory acuity for both vocal and articulatory features. Results No group differences were found for any measures of auditory-motor control, conflicting with prior findings in PwPD while off medication. Auditory-motor measures were also compared with listener ratings of speech function: first formant frequency acuity was related to speech intelligibility, whereas adaptive responses to vocal fundamental frequency manipulations were related to speech naturalness. Conclusions These results support that auditory-motor processes for both voice and articulatory features are intact for PwPD receiving medication. This work is also the first to suggest associations between measures of auditory-motor control and speech intelligibility and naturalness.

RevDate: 2021-10-31

Cheung ST, Thompson K, Chen JL, et al (2021)

Response patterns to vowel formant perturbations in children.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(4):2647.

Auditory feedback is an important component of speech motor control, but its precise role in developing speech is less understood. The role of auditory feedback in development was probed by perturbing the speech of children 4-9 years old. The vowel sound /ɛ/ was shifted to /æ/ in real time and presented to participants as their own auditory feedback. Analyses of the resultant formant magnitude changes in the participants' speech indicated that children compensated and adapted by adjusting their formants to oppose the perturbation. Older and younger children responded to perturbation differently in F1 and F2. The compensatory change in F1 was greater for younger children, whereas the increase in F2 was greater for older children. Adaptation aftereffects were observed in both groups. Exploratory directional analyses in the two-dimensional formant space indicated that older children responded more directly and less variably to the perturbation than younger children, shifting their vowels back toward the vowel sound /ɛ/ to oppose the perturbation. Findings support the hypothesis that auditory feedback integration continues to develop between the ages of 4 and 9 years old such that the differences in the adaptive and compensatory responses arise between younger and older children despite receiving the same auditory feedback perturbation.

RevDate: 2021-10-30

Tang DL, McDaniel A, KE Watkins (2021)

Disruption of speech motor adaptation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the articulatory representation in primary motor cortex.

Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior, 145:115-130 pii:S0010-9452(21)00310-5 [Epub ahead of print].

When auditory feedback perturbation is introduced in a predictable way over a number of utterances, speakers learn to compensate by adjusting their own productions, a process known as sensorimotor adaptation. Despite multiple lines of evidence indicating the role of primary motor cortex (M1) in motor learning and memory, whether M1 causally contributes to sensorimotor adaptation in the speech domain remains unclear. Here, we aimed to assay whether temporary disruption of the articulatory representation in left M1 by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) impairs speech adaptation. To induce sensorimotor adaptation, the frequencies of first formants (F1) were shifted up and played back to participants when they produced "head", "bed", and "dead" repeatedly (the learning phase). A low-frequency rTMS train (.6 Hz, subthreshold, 12 min) over either the tongue or the hand representation of M1 (between-subjects design) was applied before participants experienced altered auditory feedback in the learning phase. We found that the group who received rTMS over the hand representation showed the expected compensatory response for the upwards shift in F1 by significantly reducing F1 and increasing the second formant (F2) frequencies in their productions. In contrast, these expected compensatory changes in both F1 and F2 did not occur in the group that received rTMS over the tongue representation. Critically, rTMS (subthreshold) over the tongue representation did not affect vowel production, which was unchanged from baseline. These results provide direct evidence that the articulatory representation in left M1 causally contributes to sensorimotor learning in speech. Furthermore, these results also suggest that M1 is critical to the network supporting a more global adaptation that aims to move the altered speech production closer to a learnt pattern of speech production used to produce another vowel.

RevDate: 2021-10-21

König A, Mallick E, Tröger J, et al (2021)

Measuring neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with early cognitive decline using speech analysis.

European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 64(1):e64 pii:S0924933821022367.

BACKGROUND: Certain neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), namely apathy, depression, and anxiety demonstrated great value in predicting dementia progression, representing eventually an opportunity window for timely diagnosis and treatment. However, sensitive and objective markers of these symptoms are still missing. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the association between automatically extracted speech features and NPS in patients with mild neurocognitive disorders.

METHODS: Speech of 141 patients aged 65 or older with neurocognitive disorder was recorded while performing two short narrative speech tasks. NPS were assessed by the neuropsychiatric inventory. Paralinguistic markers relating to prosodic, formant, source, and temporal qualities of speech were automatically extracted, correlated with NPS. Machine learning experiments were carried out to validate the diagnostic power of extracted markers.

RESULTS: Different speech variables are associated with specific NPS; apathy correlates with temporal aspects, and anxiety with voice quality-and this was mostly consistent between male and female after correction for cognitive impairment. Machine learning regressors are able to extract information from speech features and perform above baseline in predicting anxiety, apathy, and depression scores.

CONCLUSIONS: Different NPS seem to be characterized by distinct speech features, which are easily extractable automatically from short vocal tasks. These findings support the use of speech analysis for detecting subtypes of NPS in patients with cognitive impairment. This could have great implications for the design of future clinical trials as this cost-effective method could allow more continuous and even remote monitoring of symptoms.

RevDate: 2021-10-15

Lester-Smith RA, Derrick E, CR Larson (2021)

Characterization of Source-Filter Interactions in Vocal Vibrato Using a Neck-Surface Vibration Sensor: A Pilot Study.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00281-2 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Vocal vibrato is a singing technique that involves periodic modulation of fundamental frequency (fo) and intensity. The physiological sources of modulation within the speech mechanism and the interactions between the laryngeal source and vocal tract filter in vibrato are not fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if differences in the rate and extent of fo and intensity modulation could be captured using simultaneously recorded signals from a neck-surface vibration sensor and a microphone, which represent features of the source before and after supraglottal vocal tract filtering.

METHOD: Nine classically-trained singers produced sustained vowels with vibrato while simultaneous signals were recorded using a vibration sensor and a microphone. Acoustical analyses were performed to measure the rate and extent of fo and intensity modulation for each trial. Paired-samples sign tests were used to analyze differences between the rate and extent of fo and intensity modulation in the vibration sensor and microphone signals.

RESULTS: The rate and extent of fo modulation and the extent of intensity modulation were equivalent in the vibration sensor and microphone signals, but the rate of intensity modulation was significantly higher in the microphone signal than in the vibration sensor signal. Larger differences in the rate of intensity modulation were seen with vowels that typically have smaller differences between the first and second formant frequencies.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the rate of intensity modulation at the source prior to supraglottal vocal tract filtering, as measured in neck-surface vibration sensor signals, was lower than the rate of intensity modulation after supraglottal vocal tract filtering, as measured in microphone signals. The difference in rate varied based on the vowel. These findings provide further support of the resonance-harmonics interaction in vocal vibrato. Further investigation is warranted to determine if differences in the physiological source(s) of vibrato account for inconsistent relationships between the extent of intensity modulation in neck-surface vibration sensor and microphone signals.

RevDate: 2021-10-14

Harvey RG, DH Lloyd (1995)

The Distribution of Bacteria (Other than Staphylococci and Propionibacterium acnes) on the Hair, at the Skin Surface and Within the Hair Follicles of Dogs.

Veterinary dermatology, 6(2):79-84.

Résumé- La distribution des bactéries, autres que les staphlocoques sur la tige des poils, à la surface cutanée et dans les follicules pileux de 8 chiens est analysée. Sur la tige des poils Micrococcus spp. et les bactéries aérobies gram mégatifs sont plus nombreuses avec des numérations variant de 1,12 à 0,84 log10 (colonies formant unites par cm2). Des nombres hautement significatifs (p < 0,05) sont également trouvés. A la surface cutanée Micrococcus spp. des bactéries aérobies gram négatifs et Clostridium sp. sont les plus nombreuses avec des numérations respectives variant de 0,62, 1,12 et 0,84 log10 (colonies formant unités par cm2). Des nombres hautement significatifs (p < 0,05) de Micrococcus spp. sont trouvés de façon plus importante à l'intérieur des follicules pileux qu' à la surface cutanée, les Streptocoques et Bacillus sp. ont été trouvés respectivement sur cinq et quatre chiens. Proteus sp., Pseudomonas sp. Nocardia sp. sont occasion-nellement trouvés. [HARVEY, R.G., LLOYD, D.H. The distribution of bacteria (other than Staphylococci and Propionibacterium acnes) on the hair, at the skin surface and within the hair follicles of dogs (Distribution des bactéries autres que Staphylococci et Propionibacterium acnes) sur le poil, à la surface de al peau et dans les follicules pileux). Resumen- Presentamos la localizatión de bacterias noestafilocócicas en el pelo, en la superficie cutánea y dentro del foliculo piloso de ocho perros. En los pelos, Micrococcus spp. abundantes, con contajes medios entre 1.12 a 0.84 Log10 (unidades formadoras de colonias +1) cm-1 , respectivamente. Se encontró a nivel proximal un número significativamente mayor (p < 0.05) de bacterias aeróbicas gram-negativas y Bacillus spp. En la superficie cutánea, Micrococcus spp., las bacterias aeróbicas contajes medios de 0.62, 1.12 y 0.84 Log10 (unidades formadoras de colonias +1) cm"2 , respectivamente. Se aisló un número significativamente mayor (p < 0.05) de Micrococcus spp. dentro de los foliculos pilosos que en la superficie cutánea (p < 0.05). Se aisló Streptococi y Bacillus spp. en cinco y cuatro perros, respectivamente. Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp. y Nocardia spp. fueron hallados ocasionalmente. [HARVEY, R.G., LLOYD, D.H. The distribution of bacteria (other than Staphylococci and Propionibacterium acnes) on the hair, at the skin surface and within the hair follicles of dogs (Localizatión de bacterias (exceptuando Staphilococci y Propionibacterium acnes) en el pelo, en la superficie cutánea y dentro de los foliculos pilosos). Abstract- The distribution of bacteria, other than staphylococci, on the hair shaft, at the skin surface and within the hair follicles of eight dogs is reported. On the hair shafts Micrococcus spp. and aerobic Gram-negative bacteria were most numerous, with mean counts ranging from 1.12 to 0.84 Log10 (colony forming units + 1) cm"1 respectively. Significantly higher numbers (p < 0.05) of Gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus sp. were found proximally. At the skin surface Micrococcus spp., aerobic Gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium spp. were the most numerous with mean counts of 0.62, 1.12 and 0.84 Log10 (colony forming units + 1) cm"2 , respectively. Significantly higher numbers (p < 0.05) of Micrococcus spp. were found within the hair follicles than on the skin surface (p < 0.05). Streptococci and Bacillus spp. were found on five and four dogs, respectively. Proteus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Nocardia spp. were occasionally found.

RevDate: 2021-10-13

Lee Y, Park HJ, Bae IH, et al (2021)

Resonance Characteristics in Epiglottic Cyst: Formant Frequency, Vowel Space Area, Vowel Articulatory Index, and Formant Centralization Ratio.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00308-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Resonance characteristics can change due to alterations in the shape of the vocal tract in patients with epiglottic cysts. This study aimed to analyze the resonance characteristics before and after the surgical excision of epiglottic cysts.

METHODS: Twelve male patients with epiglottic cysts were enrolled in this study. We analyzed the first and second formants (F1 and F2) in vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/, vowel space area (VSA), vowel articulatory index (VAI), and formant centralization ratio (FCR). We measured these parameters before and after the surgical excision of epiglottic cysts.

RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the F1 values of /a/, VSA, and VAI, and a significant decrease in the value of FCR after the surgery.

CONCLUSION: We confirmed the change in the resonance characteristics in patients with epiglottic cysts. It is considered that further studies on epiglottic cysts and resonance changes are needed in the future.

RevDate: 2021-10-11

Coto-Solano R, Stanford JN, SK Reddy (2021)

Advances in Completely Automated Vowel Analysis for Sociophonetics: Using End-to-End Speech Recognition Systems With DARLA.

Frontiers in artificial intelligence, 4:662097 pii:662097.

In recent decades, computational approaches to sociophonetic vowel analysis have been steadily increasing, and sociolinguists now frequently use semi-automated systems for phonetic alignment and vowel formant extraction, including FAVE (Forced Alignment and Vowel Extraction, Rosenfelder et al., 2011; Evanini et al., Proceedings of Interspeech, 2009), Penn Aligner (Yuan and Liberman, J. Acoust. Soc. America, 2008, 123, 3878), and DARLA (Dartmouth Linguistic Automation), (Reddy and Stanford, DARLA Dartmouth Linguistic Automation: Online Tools for Linguistic Research, 2015a). Yet these systems still have a major bottleneck: manual transcription. For most modern sociolinguistic vowel alignment and formant extraction, researchers must first create manual transcriptions. This human step is painstaking, time-consuming, and resource intensive. If this manual step could be replaced with completely automated methods, sociolinguists could potentially tap into vast datasets that have previously been unexplored, including legacy recordings that are underutilized due to lack of transcriptions. Moreover, if sociolinguists could quickly and accurately extract phonetic information from the millions of hours of new audio content posted on the Internet every day, a virtual ocean of speech from newly created podcasts, videos, live-streams, and other audio content would now inform research. How close are the current technological tools to achieving such groundbreaking changes for sociolinguistics? Prior work (Reddy et al., Proceedings of the North American Association for Computational Linguistics 2015 Conference, 2015b, 71-75) showed that an HMM-based Automated Speech Recognition system, trained with CMU Sphinx (Lamere et al., 2003), was accurate enough for DARLA to uncover evidence of the US Southern Vowel Shift without any human transcription. Even so, because that automatic speech recognition (ASR) system relied on a small training set, it produced numerous transcription errors. Six years have passed since that study, and since that time numerous end-to-end automatic speech recognition (ASR) algorithms have shown considerable improvement in transcription quality. One example of such a system is the RNN/CTC-based DeepSpeech from Mozilla (Hannun et al., 2014). (RNN stands for recurrent neural networks, the learning mechanism for DeepSpeech. CTC stands for connectionist temporal classification, the mechanism to merge phones into words). The present paper combines DeepSpeech with DARLA to push the technological envelope and determine how well contemporary ASR systems can perform in completely automated vowel analyses with sociolinguistic goals. Specifically, we used these techniques on audio recordings from 352 North American English speakers in the International Dialects of English Archive (IDEA), extracting 88,500 tokens of vowels in stressed position from spontaneous, free speech passages. With this large dataset we conducted acoustic sociophonetic analyses of the Southern Vowel Shift and the Northern Cities Chain Shift in the North American IDEA speakers. We compared the results using three different sources of transcriptions: 1) IDEA's manual transcriptions as the baseline "ground truth", 2) the ASR built on CMU Sphinx used by Reddy et al. (Proceedings of the North American Association for Computational Linguistics 2015 Conference, 2015b, 71-75), and 3) the latest publicly available Mozilla DeepSpeech system. We input these three different transcriptions to DARLA, which automatically aligned and extracted the vowel formants from the 352 IDEA speakers. Our quantitative results show that newer ASR systems like DeepSpeech show considerable promise for sociolinguistic applications like DARLA. We found that DeepSpeech's automated transcriptions had significantly fewer character error rates than those from the prior Sphinx system (from 46 to 35%). When we performed the sociolinguistic analysis of the extracted vowel formants from DARLA, we found that the automated transcriptions from DeepSpeech matched the results from the ground truth for the Southern Vowel Shift (SVS): five vowels showed a shift in both transcriptions, and two vowels didn't show a shift in either transcription. The Northern Cities Shift (NCS) was more difficult to detect, but ground truth and DeepSpeech matched for four vowels: One of the vowels showed a clear shift, and three showed no shift in either transcription. Our study therefore shows how technology has made progress toward greater automation in vowel sociophonetics, while also showing what remains to be done. Our statistical modeling provides a quantified view of both the abilities and the limitations of a completely "hands-free" analysis of vowel shifts in a large dataset. Naturally, when comparing a completely automated system against a semi-automated system involving human manual work, there will always be a tradeoff between accuracy on the one hand versus speed and replicability on the other hand [Kendall and Joseph, Towards best practices in sociophonetics (with Marianna DiPaolo), 2014]. The amount of "noise" that can be tolerated for a given study will depend on the particular research goals and researchers' preferences. Nonetheless, our study shows that, for certain large-scale applications and research goals, a completely automated approach using publicly available ASR can produce meaningful sociolinguistic results across large datasets, and these results can be generated quickly, efficiently, and with full replicability.

RevDate: 2021-10-11

Sondhi S, Salhan A, Santoso CA, et al (2021)

Voice processing for COVID-19 scanning and prognostic indicator.

Heliyon, 7(10):e08134.

COVID-19 pandemic has posed serious risk of contagion to humans. There is a need to find reliable non-contact tests like vocal correlates of COVID-19 infection. Thirty-six Asian ethnic volunteers 16 (8M & 8F) infected subjects and 20 (10M &10F) non-infected controls participated in this study by vocalizing vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. Voice correlates of 16 COVID-19 positive patients were compared during infection and after recovery with 20 non-infected controls. Compared to non-infected controls, significantly higher values of energy intensity for /o/ (p = 0.048); formant F1 for /o/ (p = 0.014); and formant F3 for /u/ (p = 0.032) were observed in male patients, while higher values of Jitter (local, abs) for /o/ (p = 0.021) and Jitter (ppq5) for /a/ (p = 0.014) were observed in female patients. However, formant F2 for /u/ (p = 0.018), mean pitch F0 for /e/, /i/ and /o/ (p = 0.033; 0.036; 0.047) decreased for female patients under infection. Compared to recovered conditions, HNR for /e/ (p = 0.014) was higher in male patients under infection, while Jitter (rap) for /a/ (p = 0.041); Jitter (ppq5) for /a/ (p = 0.032); Shimmer (local, dB) for /i/ (p = 0.024); Shimmer (apq5) for /u/ (p = 0.019); and formant F4 for vowel /o/ (p = 0.022) were higher in female patients under infection. However, HNR for /e/ (p = 0.041); and formant F1 for /o/ (p = 0.002) were lower in female patients compared to their recovered conditions. Obtained results support the hypothesis since changes in voice parameters were observed in the infected patients which can be correlated to a combination of acoustic measures like fundamental frequency, formant characteristics, HNR, and voice perturbations like jitter and shimmer for different vowels. Thus, voice analysis can be used for scanning and prognosis of COVID-19 infection. Based on the findings of this study, a mobile application can be developed to analyze human voice in real-time to detect COVID-19 symptoms for remedial measures and necessary action.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Wang Y, Qiu X, Wang F, et al (2021)

Single-crystal ordered macroporous metal-organic framework as support for molecularly imprinted polymers and their integration in membrane formant for the specific recognition of zearalenone.

Journal of separation science [Epub ahead of print].

Zearalenone is a fungal contaminant that is widely present in grains. Here, a novel molecularly imprinted membrane based on SOM-ZIF-8 was developed for the rapid and highly selective identification of zearalenone in grain samples. The molecularly imprinted membrane was prepared using polyvinylidene fluoride, cyclododecyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate as a template and SOM-ZIF-8 as a carrier. The factors influencing the extraction of zearalenone using this membrane, including the solution pH, extraction time, elution solvent, elution time and elution volume were studied in detail. The optimized conditions were 5 mL of sample solution at pH 6, extraction time of 45 min, 4 mL of acetonitrile:methanol=9:1 as elution solvent, and elution time of 20 min. This method displayed a good linear range of 12∼120 ng·g-1 (R2 =0.998) with the limits of detection and quantification of this method are 1.7 ng·g-1 and 5.5 ng·g-1 , respectively. In addition, the membrane was used to selectively identify zearalenone in grain samples with percent recoveries ranging from 87.9% to 101.0% and relative standard deviation of less than 6.6 %. Overall, this study presents a simple and effective chromatographic pretreatment method for detecting zearalenone in food samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Erdur OE, BS Yilmaz (2021)

Voice changes after surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.

American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics pii:S0889-5406(21)00563-1 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate voice changes in patients who had surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME).

METHODS: Nineteen adult patients with maxillary transverse deficiency were asked to pronounce the sounds "[a], [ϵ], [ɯ], [i], [ɔ], [œ] [u], [y]" for 3 seconds. Voice records were taken before the expansion appliance was placed (T0) and 5.8 weeks after removal (T1, after 5.2 months of retention). The same records were taken for the control group (n = 19). The formant frequencies (F0, F1, F2, and F3), shimmer, jitter, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR) parameters were considered with Praat (version 6.0.43).

RESULTS: In the SARME group, significant differences were observed in the F1 of [a] (P = 0.005), F2 of [ϵ] (P = 0.008), and [œ] sounds (P = 0.004). The postexpansion values were lower than those recorded before. In contrast, the F1 of [y] sound (P = 0.02), F2 of [u] sound (P = 0.01), the jitter parameter of [ɯ] and [i] sounds (P = 0.04; P = 0.002), and the NHR value of [ϵ] sound (P = 0.04) were significantly than the baseline values. In the comparison with the control group, significant differences were found in the F0 (P = 0.025) and F1 (P = 0.046) of the [u] sound, the F1 of the [a] sound (P = 0.03), and the F2 of the [ϵ] sound (P = 0.037). Significant differences were also found in the shimmer of [i] (P = 0.017) and [ɔ] (P = 0.002), the jitter of [ϵ] (P = 0.046) and [i] (P = 0.017), and the NHR of [i] (P = 0.012) and [ɔ] (P = 0.009).

CONCLUSION: SARME led to significant differences in some of the acoustics parameters.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Perlman M, Paul J, G Lupyan (2021)

Vocal communication of magnitude across language, age, and auditory experience.

Journal of experimental psychology. General pii:2021-82980-001 [Epub ahead of print].

Like many other vocalizing vertebrates, humans convey information about their body size through the sound of their voice. Vocalizations of larger animals are typically longer in duration, louder in intensity, and lower in frequency. We investigated people's ability to use voice-size correspondences to communicate about the magnitude of external referents. First, we asked hearing children, as well as deaf children and adolescents, living in China to improvise nonlinguistic vocalizations to distinguish between paired items contrasting in magnitude (e.g., a long vs. short string, a big vs. small ball). Then we played these vocalizations back to adult listeners in the United States and China to assess their ability to correctly guess the intended referents. We find that hearing and deaf producers both signaled greater magnitude items with longer and louder vocalizations and with smaller formant spacing. Only hearing producers systematically used fundamental frequency, communicating greater magnitude with higher fo. The vocalizations of both groups were understandable to Chinese and American listeners, although accuracy was higher with vocalizations from older producers. American listeners relied on the same acoustic properties as Chinese listeners: both groups interpreted vocalizations with longer duration and greater intensity as referring to greater items; neither American nor Chinese listeners consistently used fo or formant spacing as a cue. These findings show that the human ability to use vocalizations to communicate about the magnitude of external referents is highly robust, extending across listeners of disparate linguistic and cultural backgrounds, as well as across age and auditory experience. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Stansbury AL, VM Janik (2021)

The role of vocal learning in call acquisition of wild grey seal pups.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 376(1836):20200251.

Pinnipeds have been identified as one of the best available models for the study of vocal learning. Experimental evidence for their learning skills is demonstrated with advanced copying skills, particularly in formant structure when copying human speech sounds and melodies. By contrast, almost no data are available on how learning skills are used in their own communication systems. We investigated the impact of playing modified seal sounds in a breeding colony of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) to study how acoustic input influenced vocal development of eight pups. Sequences of two or three seal pup calls were edited so that the average peak frequency between calls in a sequence changed up or down. We found that seals copied the specific stimuli played to them and that copies became more accurate over time. The differential response of different groups showed that vocal production learning was used to achieve conformity, suggesting that geographical variation in seal calls can be caused by horizontal cultural transmission. While learning of pup calls appears to have few benefits, we suggest that it also affects the development of the adult repertoire, which may facilitate social interactions such as mate choice. This article is part of the theme issue 'Vocal learning in animals and humans'.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Stehr DA, Hickok G, Ferguson SH, et al (2021)

Examining vocal attractiveness through articulatory working space.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(2):1548.

Robust gender differences exist in the acoustic correlates of clearly articulated speech, with females, on average, producing speech that is acoustically and phonetically more distinct than that of males. This study investigates the relationship between several acoustic correlates of clear speech and subjective ratings of vocal attractiveness. Talkers were recorded producing vowels in /bVd/ context and sentences containing the four corner vowels. Multiple measures of working vowel space were computed from continuously sampled formant trajectories and were combined with measures of speech timing known to co-vary with clear articulation. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) modeling was used to predict ratings of vocal attractiveness for male and female talkers based on the acoustic measures. PLS components that loaded on size and shape measures of working vowel space-including the quadrilateral vowel space area, convex hull area, and bivariate spread of formants-along with measures of speech timing were highly successful at predicting attractiveness in female talkers producing /bVd/ words. These findings are consistent with a number of hypotheses regarding human attractiveness judgments, including the role of sexual dimorphism in mate selection, the significance of traits signalling underlying health, and perceptual fluency accounts of preferences.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Sahoo S, S Dandapat (2021)

Analyzing the vocal tract characteristics for out-of-breath speech.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(2):1524.

In this work, vocal tract characteristic changes under the out-of-breath condition are explored. Speaking under the influence of physical exercise is called out-of-breath speech. The change in breathing pattern results in perceptual changes in the produced sound. For vocal tract, the first four formants show a lowering in their average frequency. The bandwidths BF1 and BF2 widen, whereas the other two get narrowed. The change in bandwidth is small for the last three. For a speaker, the change in frequency and bandwidth may not be uniform across formants. Subband analysis is carried out around formants for comparing the variation of the vocal tract with the source. A vocal tract adaptive empirical wavelet transform is used for extracting formant specific subbands from speech and source. The support vector machine performs the subband-based binary classification between the normal and out-of-breath speech. For all speakers, it shows an F1-score improvement of 4% over speech subbands. Similarly, a performance improvement of 5% can be seen for both male and female speakers. Furthermore, the misclassification amount is less for source compared to speech. These results suggest that physical exercise influences the source more than the vocal tract.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Dastolfo-Hromack C, Bush A, Chrabaszcz A, et al (2021)

Articulatory Gain Predicts Motor Cortex and Subthalamic Nucleus Activity During Speech.

Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) pii:6362001 [Epub ahead of print].

Speaking precisely is important for effective verbal communication, and articulatory gain is one component of speech motor control that contributes to achieving this goal. Given that the basal ganglia have been proposed to regulate the speed and size of limb movement, that is, movement gain, we explored the basal ganglia contribution to articulatory gain, through local field potentials (LFP) recorded simultaneously from the subthalamic nucleus (STN), precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. During STN deep brain stimulation implantation for Parkinson's disease, participants read aloud consonant-vowel-consonant syllables. Articulatory gain was indirectly assessed using the F2 Ratio, an acoustic measurement of the second formant frequency of/i/vowels divided by/u/vowels. Mixed effects models demonstrated that the F2 Ratio correlated with alpha and theta activity in the precentral gyrus and STN. No correlations were observed for the postcentral gyrus. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher phase locking values for beta activity between the STN and precentral gyrus were correlated with lower F2 Ratios, suggesting that higher beta synchrony impairs articulatory precision. Effects were not related to disease severity. These data suggest that articulatory gain is encoded within the basal ganglia-cortical loop.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Aires MM, de Vasconcelos D, Lucena JA, et al (2021)

Effect of Wendler glottoplasty on voice and quality of life of transgender women.

Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology pii:S1808-8694(21)00134-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Wendler glottoplasty on voice feminization, voice quality and voice-related quality of life.

METHODS: Prospective interventional cohort of transgender women submitted to Wendler glottoplasty. Acoustic analysis of the voice included assessment of fundamental frequency, maximum phonation time formant frequencies (F1 and F2), frequency range, jitter and shimmer. Voice quality was blindly assessed through GRBAS scale. Voice-related quality of life was measured using the Trans Woman Voice Questionnaire and the self-perceived femininity of the voice.

RESULTS: A total of 7 patients were included. The mean age was 35.4 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up time was 13.7 months. There was a mean increase of 47.9 ± 46.6 Hz (p = 0.023) in sustained/e/F0 and a mean increase of 24.6 ± 27.5 Hz (p = 0.029) in speaking F0 after glottoplasty. There was no statistical significance in the pre- and postoperative comparison of maximum phonation time, formant frequencies, frequency range, jitter, shimmer, and grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain scale. Trans Woman Voice Questionnaire decreased following surgery from 98.3 ± 9.2 to 54.1 ± 25.0 (p = 0.007) and mean self-perceived femininity of the voice increased from 2.8 ± 1.8 to 7.7 ± 2.4 (p = 0.008). One patient (14%) presented a postoperative granuloma and there was 1 (14%) premature suture dehiscence.

CONCLUSION: Glottoplasty is safe and effective for feminizing the voice of transgender women. There was an increase in fundamental frequency, without aggravating other acoustic parameters or voice quality. Voice-related quality of life improved after surgery.

RevDate: 2021-08-16

Chung H (2021)

Acoustic Characteristics of Pre- and Post-vocalic /l/: Patterns from One Southern White Vernacular English.

Language and speech [Epub ahead of print].

This study examined acoustic characteristics of the phoneme /l/ produced by young female and male adult speakers of Southern White Vernacular English (SWVE) from Louisiana. F1, F2, and F2-F1 values extracted at the /l/ midpoint were analyzed by word position (pre- vs. post-vocalic) and vowel contexts (/i, ɪ/ vs. /ɔ, a/). Descriptive analysis showed that SWVE /l/ exhibited characteristics of the dark /l/ variant. The formant patterns of /l/, however, differed significantly by word position and vowel context, with pre-vocalic /l/ showing significantly higher F2-F1 values than post-vocalic /l/, and /l/ in the high front vowel context showing significantly higher F2-F1 values than those in the low back vowel context. Individual variation in the effects of word position and vowel contexts on /l/ pattern was also observed. Overall, the findings of the current study showed a gradient nature of SWVE /l/ variants whose F2-F1 patterns generally fell into the range of the dark /l/ variant, while varying by word position and vowel context.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Yang L, Fu K, Zhang J, et al (2021)

Non-native acoustic modeling for mispronunciation verification based on language adversarial representation learning.

Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society, 142:597-607.

Non-native mispronunciation verification is designed to provide feedback to guide language learners to correct their pronunciation errors in their further learning and it plays an important role in the computer-aided pronunciation training (CAPT) system. Most existing approaches focus on establishing the acoustic model directly using non-native corpus thus they are suffering the data sparsity problem due to time-consuming non-native speech data collection and annotation tasks. In this work, to address this problem, we propose a pre-trained approach to utilize the speech data of two native languages (the learner's native and target languages) for non-native mispronunciation verification. We set up an unsupervised model to extract knowledge from a large scale of unlabeled raw speech of the target language by making predictions about future observations in the speech signal, then the model is trained with language adversarial training using the learner's native language to align the feature distribution of two languages by confusing a language discriminator. In addition, sinc filter is incorporated at the first convolutional layer to capture the formant-like feature. Formant is relevant to the place and manner of articulation. Therefore, it is useful not only for pronunciation error detection but also for providing instructive feedback. Then the pre-trained model serves as the feature extractor in the downstream mispronunciation verification task. Through the experiments on the Japanese part of the BLCU inter-Chinese speech corpus, the experimental results demonstrate that for the non-native phone recognition and mispronunciation verification tasks (1) the knowledge learned from two native languages speech with the proposed unsupervised approach is useful for these two tasks (2) our proposed language adversarial representation learning is effective to improve the performance (3) formant-like feature can be incorporated by introducing sinc filter to further improve the performance of mispronunciation verification.

RevDate: 2021-08-13

Leyns C, Corthals P, Cosyns M, et al (2021)

Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Articulation Exercises in Transgender Women.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00242-3 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: This study measured the impact of articulation exercises using a cork and articulation exercises for lip spreading on the formant frequencies of vowels and listener perceptions of femininity in transgender women.

METHODS: Thirteen transgender women were recorded before and after the cork exercise and before and after the lip spreading exercise. Speech samples included continuous speech during reading and were analyzed using Praat software. Vowel formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5) and vowel space were determined. A listening experiment was organized using naïve cisgender women and cisgender men rating audio samples of continuous speech. Masculinity/femininity, vocal quality and age were rated, using a visual analogue scale (VAS).

RESULTS: Concerning vowel formant frequencies, F2 /a/ and F5 /u/ significantly increased after the lip spreading exercise, as well as F3 /a/, F3 /u/ and F4 /a/ after the cork exercise. The lip spreading exercise had more impact on the F2 /a/ than the cork exercise. Vowel space did not change after the exercises. The fundamental frequency (fo) increased simultaneously during both exercises. Both articulation exercises were associated with significantly increased listener perceptions of femininity of the voice.

CONCLUSION: Subtle changes in formant frequencies can be observed after performing articulation exercises, but not in every formant frequency or vowel. Cisgender listeners rated the speech of the transgender women more feminine after the exercises. Further research with a more extensive therapy program and listening experiment is needed to examine these preliminary findings.

RevDate: 2021-08-05
CmpDate: 2021-08-05

Yang JJ, Cheng LY, W Xu (2021)

[Study on changes of voice characteristics after adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy in children].

Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, 56(7):724-729.

Objective: To study voice changes in children after adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy and the relationship with the vocal tract structure. Methods: Fifty patients were recruited in this study prospectively, aged from 4 to 12 years old with the median age of 6. They were underwent adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy in Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University from July 2019 to August 2020. In the cases, there are 31 males and 19 females. Thirty-six patients underwent adenotonsillectomy and 14 patients underwent adenoidectomy alone. Twenty-two children (13 males, 9 females) with Ⅰ degree of bilateral tonsils without adenoid hypertrophy and no snoring were selected as normal controls. Adenoid and tonsil sizes were evaluated. Subjective changes of voice were recorded after surgery. Moreover, voice data including fundamental frequency(F0), jitter, shimmer, noise to harmonic ratio(NHR), maximum phonation time(MPT), formant frequencies(F1-F5) and bandwidths(B1-B5) of vowel/a/and/i/were analyzed before, 3 days and 1 month after surgery respectively.SPSS 23.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Thirty-six patients(72.0%,36/50) complained of postoperative voice changes. The incidence was inversely correlated with age. In children aged 4-6, 7-9, and 10-12, the incidence was 83.3%(25/30), 63.6%(7/11) and 44.4%(4/9) respectively. Voice changes appeared more common in children underwent adenotonsillectomy(77.8%,28/36) than in those underwent adenoidectomy alone(57.1%,8/14), but there was no statistical difference. After operation, for vowel/a/, MPT(Z=2.18,P=0.041) and F2(t=2.13,P=0.040) increased, B2(Z=2.04,P=0.041) and B4(Z=2.00,P=0.046) decreased. For vowel/i/, F2(t=2.035,P=0.050) and F4(t=4.44,P=0.0001) increased, B2(Z=2.36,P=0.019) decreased. Other acoustic parameters were not significantly different from those before surgery. The F2(r=-0.392, P =0.032) of vowel/a/and F2(r=-0.279, P=0.048) and F4 (r=-0.401, P =0.028) of vowel/i/after adenotonsillectomy were significantly higher than those of adenoidectomy alone. Half of patients with postopertive voice changes can recover spontaneously 1 month after surgery. Conclusions: Voice changes in children underwent adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy might be related to their changes in formants and bandwidths. The effect of adenotonsillectomy on voice was more significant compared with that of adenoidectomy alone. The acoustic parameters did not change significantly after surgery except MPT.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Frey R, Wyman MT, Johnston M, et al (2021)

Roars, groans and moans: Anatomical correlates of vocal diversity in polygynous deer.

Journal of anatomy [Epub ahead of print].

Eurasian deer are characterized by the extraordinary diversity of their vocal repertoires. Male sexual calls range from roars with relatively low fundamental frequency (hereafter fo) in red deer Cervus elaphus, to moans with extremely high fo in sika deer Cervus nippon, and almost infrasonic groans with exceptionally low fo in fallow deer Dama dama. Moreover, while both red and fallow males are capable of lowering their formant frequencies during their calls, sika males appear to lack this ability. Female contact calls are also characterized by relatively less pronounced, yet strong interspecific differences. The aim of this study is to examine the anatomical bases of these inter-specific and inter-sexual differences by identifying if the acoustic variation is reflected in corresponding anatomical variation. To do this, we investigated the vocal anatomy of male and female specimens of each of these three species. Across species and sexes, we find that the observed acoustic variability is indeed related to expected corresponding anatomical differences, based on the source-filter theory of vocal production. At the source level, low fo is associated with larger vocal folds, whereas high fo is associated with smaller vocal folds: sika deer have the smallest vocal folds and male fallow deer the largest. Red and sika deer vocal folds do not appear to be sexually dimorphic, while fallow deer exhibit strong sexual dimorphism (after correcting for body size differences). At the filter level, the variability in formants is related to the configuration of the vocal tract: in fallow and red deer, both sexes have evolved a permanently descended larynx (with a resting position of the larynx much lower in males than in females). Both sexes also have the potential for momentary, call-synchronous vocal tract elongation, again more pronounced in males than in females. In contrast, the resting position of the larynx is high in both sexes of sika deer and the potential for further active vocal tract elongation is virtually absent in both sexes. Anatomical evidence suggests an evolutionary reversal in larynx position within sika deer, that is, a secondary larynx ascent. Together, our observations confirm that the observed diversity of vocal behaviour in polygynous deer is supported by strong anatomical differences, highlighting the importance of anatomical specializations in shaping mammalian vocal repertoires. Sexual selection is discussed as a potential evolutionary driver of the observed vocal diversity and sexual dimorphisms.

RevDate: 2021-08-05
CmpDate: 2021-08-05

Strycharczuk P, Ćavar M, S Coretta (2021)

Distance vs time. Acoustic and articulatory consequences of reduced vowel duration in Polish.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(1):592.

This paper presents acoustic and articulatory (ultrasound) data on vowel reduction in Polish. The analysis focuses on the question of whether the change in formant value in unstressed vowels can be explained by duration-driven undershoot alone or whether there is also evidence for additional stress-specific articulatory mechanisms that systematically affect vowel formants. On top of the expected durational differences between the stressed and unstressed conditions, the duration is manipulated by inducing changes in the speech rate. The observed vowel formants are compared to expected formants derived from the articulatory midsagittal tongue data in different conditions. The results show that the acoustic vowel space is reduced in size and raised in unstressed vowels compared to stressed vowels. Most of the spectral reduction can be explained by reduced vowel duration, but there is also an additional systematic effect of F1-lowering in unstressed non-high vowels that does not follow from tongue movement. The proposed interpretation is that spectral vowel reduction in Polish behaves largely as predicted by the undershoot model of vowel reduction, but the effect of undershoot is enhanced for low unstressed vowels, potentially by a stress marking strategy which involves raising the fundamental frequency.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Petersen EA, Colinot T, Silva F, et al (2021)

The bassoon tonehole lattice: Links between the open and closed holes and the radiated sound spectrum.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(1):398.

The acoustics of the bassoon has been the subject of relatively few studies compared with other woodwind instruments. One reason for this may lie in its complicated resonator geometry, which includes irregularly spaced toneholes with chimney heights ranging from 3 to 31 mm. The current article evaluates the effect of the open and closed tonehole lattice (THL) on the acoustic response of the bassoon resonator. It is shown that this response can be divided into three distinct frequency bands that are determined by the open and closed THL: below 500 Hz, 500-2200 Hz, and above 2200 Hz. The first is caused by the stopband of the open THL, where the low frequency effective length of the instrument is determined by the location of the first open tonehole. The second is due to the passband of the open THL, such that the modes are proportional to the total length of the resonator. The third is due to the closed THL, where part of the acoustical power is trapped within the resonator. It is proposed that these three frequency bands impact the radiated spectrum by introducing a formant in the vicinity of 500 Hz and suppressing radiation above 2200 Hz for most first register fingerings.

RevDate: 2021-08-05
CmpDate: 2021-08-05

Uezu Y, Hiroya S, T Mochida (2021)

Articulatory compensation for low-pass filtered formant-altered auditory feedback.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(1):64.

Auditory feedback while speaking plays an important role in stably controlling speech articulation. Its importance has been verified in formant-altered auditory feedback (AAF) experiments where speakers utter while listening to speech with perturbed first (F1) and second (F2) formant frequencies. However, the contribution of the frequency components higher than F2 to the articulatory control under the perturbations of F1 and F2 has not yet been investigated. In this study, a formant-AAF experiment was conducted in which a low-pass filter was applied to speech. The experimental results showed that the deviation in the compensatory response was significantly larger when a low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 3 kHz was used compared to that when cutoff frequencies of 4 and 8 kHz were used. It was also found that the deviation in the 3-kHz condition correlated with the fundamental frequency and spectral tilt of the produced speech. Additional simulation results using a neurocomputational model of speech production (SimpleDIVA model) and the experimental data showed that the feedforward learning rate increased as the cutoff frequency decreased. These results suggest that high-frequency components of the auditory feedback would be involved in the determination of corrective motor commands from auditory errors.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Lynn E, Narayanan SS, AC Lammert (2021)

Dark tone quality and vocal tract shaping in soprano song production: Insights from real-time MRI.

JASA express letters, 1(7):075202.

Tone quality termed "dark" is an aesthetically important property of Western classical voice performance and has been associated with lowered formant frequencies, lowered larynx, and widened pharynx. The present study uses real-time magnetic resonance imaging with synchronous audio recordings to investigate dark tone quality in four professionally trained sopranos with enhanced ecological validity and a relatively complete view of the vocal tract. Findings differ from traditional accounts, indicating that labial narrowing may be the primary driver of dark tone quality across performers, while many other aspects of vocal tract shaping are shown to differ significantly in a performer-specific way.

RevDate: 2021-07-18

Joshi A, Procter T, PA Kulesz (2021)

COVID-19: Acoustic Measures of Voice in Individuals Wearing Different Facemasks.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: The global health pandemic caused by the SARS-coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) has led to the adoption of facemasks as a necessary safety precaution. Depending on the level of risk for exposure to the virus, the facemasks that are used can vary. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different types of facemasks, typically used by healthcare professionals and the public during the COVID-19 pandemic, on measures of voice.

METHODS: Nineteen adults (ten females, nine males) with a normal voice quality completed sustained vowel tasks. All tasks were performed for each of the six mask conditions: no mask, cloth mask, surgical mask, KN95 mask and, surgical mask over a KN95 mask with and without a face shield. Intensity measurements were obtained at a 1ft and 6ft distance from the speaker with sound level meters. Tasks were recorded with a 1ft mouth-to-microphone distance. Acoustic variables of interest were fundamental frequency (F0), and formant frequencies (F1, F2) for /a/ and /i/ and smoothed cepstral peak prominence (CPPs) for /a/.

RESULTS: Data were analyzed to compare differences between sex and mask types. There was statistical significance between males and females for intensity measures and all acoustic variables except F2 for /a/ and F1 for /i/. Few pairwise comparisons between masks reached significance even though main effects for mask type were observed. These are further discussed in the article.

CONCLUSION: The masks tested in this study did not have a significant impact on intensity, fundamental frequency, CPPs, first or second formant frequency compared to voice output without a mask. Use of a face shield seemed to affect intensity and CPPs to some extent. Implications of these findings are discussed further in the article.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Easwar V, Birstler J, Harrison A, et al (2021)

The Influence of Sensation Level on Speech-Evoked Envelope Following Responses.

Ear and hearing pii:00003446-900000000-98474 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sensation level (SL)-dependent characteristics of envelope following responses (EFRs) elicited by band-limited speech dominant in low, mid, and high frequencies.

DESIGN: In 21 young normal hearing adults, EFRs were elicited by 8 male-spoken speech stimuli-the first formant, and second and higher formants of /u/, /a/ and /i/, and modulated fricatives, /∫/ and /s/. Stimulus SL was computed from behaviorally measured thresholds.

RESULTS: At 30 dB SL, the amplitude and phase coherence of fricative-elicited EFRs were ~1.5 to 2 times higher than all vowel-elicited EFRs, whereas fewer and smaller differences were found among vowel-elicited EFRs. For all stimuli, EFR amplitude and phase coherence increased by roughly 50% for every 10 dB increase in SL between ~0 and 50 dB.

CONCLUSIONS: Stimulus and frequency dependency in EFRs exist despite accounting for differences in audibility of speech sounds. The growth rate of EFR characteristics with SL is independent of stimulus and its frequency.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Zealouk O, Satori H, Hamidi M, et al (2021)

Analysis of COVID-19 Resulting Cough Using Formants and Automatic Speech Recognition System.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation [Epub ahead of print].

As part of our contributions to researches on the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide, we have studied the cough changes to the infected people based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) speech recognition classification, formants frequency and pitch analysis. In this paper, An HMM-based cough recognition system was implemented with 5 HMM states, 8 Gaussian Mixture Distributions (GMMs) and 13 dimensions of the basic Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) with 39 dimensions of the overall feature vector. A comparison between formants frequency and pitch extracted values is realized based on the cough of COVID-19 infected people and healthy ones to confirm our cough recognition system results. The experimental results present that the difference between the recognition rates of infected and non-infected people is 6.7%. Whereas, the formant analysis variation based on the cough of infected and non-infected people is clearly observed with F1, F3, and F4 and lower for F0 and F2.

RevDate: 2021-07-15
CmpDate: 2021-07-15

Zhang C, Jepson K, Lohfink G, et al (2021)

Comparing acoustic analyses of speech data collected remotely.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 149(6):3910.

Face-to-face speech data collection has been next to impossible globally as a result of the COVID-19 restrictions. To address this problem, simultaneous recordings of three repetitions of the cardinal vowels were made using a Zoom H6 Handy Recorder with an external microphone (henceforth, H6) and compared with two alternatives accessible to potential participants at home: the Zoom meeting application (henceforth, Zoom) and two lossless mobile phone applications (Awesome Voice Recorder, and Recorder; henceforth, Phone). F0 was tracked accurately by all of the devices; however, for formant analysis (F1, F2, F3), Phone performed better than Zoom, i.e., more similarly to H6, although the data extraction method (VoiceSauce, Praat) also resulted in differences. In addition, Zoom recordings exhibited unexpected drops in intensity. The results suggest that lossless format phone recordings present a viable option for at least some phonetic studies.

RevDate: 2021-08-08

Diamant N, O Amir (2021)

Examining the voice of Israeli transgender women: Acoustic measures, voice femininity and voice-related quality-of-life.

International journal of transgender health, 22(3):281-293.

Background: Transgender women may experience gender-dysphoria associated with their voice and the way it is perceived. Previous studies have shown that specific acoustic measures are associated with the perception of voice-femininity and with voice-related quality-of-life, yet results are inconsistent.

Aims: This study aimed to examine the associations between specific voice measures of transgender women, voice-related quality-of-life, and the perception of voice-femininity by listeners and by the speakers themselves.

Methods: Thirty Hebrew speaking transgender women were recorded. They had also rated their voice-femininity and completed the Hebrew version of the TVQMtF questionnaire. Recordings were analyzed to extract mean fundamental frequency (F0), formant frequencies (F1, F2, F3), and vocal-range (calculated in Hz. and in semitones). Recordings were also rated on a voice-gender 7-point scale, by 20 naïve cisgender listeners.

Results: Significant correlations were found between both F0 and F1 and listeners' as well as speakers' evaluation of voice-femininity. TVQMtF scores were significantly correlated with F0 and with the lower and upper boundaries of the vocal-range. Voice-femininity ratings were strongly correlated with vocal-range, when calculated in Hz, but not when defined in semitones. Listeners' evaluation and speakers' self-evaluation of voice-femininity were significantly correlated. However, TVQMtF scores were significantly correlated only with the speakers' voice-femininity ratings, but not with those of the listeners.

Conclusion: Higher F0 and F1, which are perceived as more feminine, jointly improved speakers' satisfaction with their voice. Speakers' self-evaluation of voice-femininity does not mirror listeners' judgment, as it is affected by additional factors, related to self-satisfaction and personal experience. Combining listeners' and speakers' voice evaluation with acoustic analysis is valuable by providing a more holistic view on how transgender women feel about their voice and how it is perceived by listeners.

RevDate: 2021-08-06
CmpDate: 2021-08-06

Leung Y, Oates J, Chan SP, et al (2021)

Associations Between Speaking Fundamental Frequency, Vowel Formant Frequencies, and Listener Perceptions of Speaker Gender and Vocal Femininity-Masculinity.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(7):2600-2622.

Purpose The aim of the study was to examine associations between speaking fundamental frequency (f os), vowel formant frequencies (F), listener perceptions of speaker gender, and vocal femininity-masculinity. Method An exploratory study was undertaken to examine associations between f os, F 1-F 3, listener perceptions of speaker gender (nominal scale), and vocal femininity-masculinity (visual analog scale). For 379 speakers of Australian English aged 18-60 years, f os mode and F 1-F 3 (12 monophthongs; total of 36 Fs) were analyzed on a standard reading passage. Seventeen listeners rated speaker gender and vocal femininity-masculinity on randomized audio recordings of these speakers. Results Model building using principal component analysis suggested the 36 Fs could be succinctly reduced to seven principal components (PCs). Generalized structural equation modeling (with the seven PCs of F and f os as predictors) suggested that only F 2 and f os predicted listener perceptions of speaker gender (male, female, unable to decide). However, listener perceptions of vocal femininity-masculinity behaved differently and were predicted by F 1, F 3, and the contrast between monophthongs at the extremities of the F 1 acoustic vowel space, in addition to F 2 and f os. Furthermore, listeners' perceptions of speaker gender also influenced ratings of vocal femininity-masculinity substantially. Conclusion Adjusted odds ratios highlighted the substantially larger contribution of F to listener perceptions of speaker gender and vocal femininity-masculinity relative to f os than has previously been reported.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Easwar V, Boothalingam S, R Flaherty (2021)

Fundamental frequency-dependent changes in vowel-evoked envelope following responses.

Hearing research, 408:108297.

Scalp-recorded envelope following responses (EFRs) provide a non-invasive method to assess the encoding of the fundamental frequency (f0) of voice that is important for speech understanding. It is well-known that EFRs are influenced by voice f0. However, this effect of f0 has not been examined independent of concomitant changes in spectra or neural generators. We evaluated the effect of voice f0 on EFRs while controlling for vowel formant characteristics and potentially avoiding significant changes in dominant neural generators using a small f0 range. EFRs were elicited by a male-spoken vowel /u/ (average f0 = 100.4 Hz) and its lowered f0 version (average f0 = 91.9 Hz) with closely matched formant characteristics. Vowels were presented to each ear of 17 young adults with normal hearing. EFRs were simultaneously recorded between the vertex and the nape, and the vertex and the ipsilateral mastoid-the two most common electrode montages used for EFRs. Our results indicate that when vowel formant characteristics are matched, an increase in f0 by 8.5 Hz reduces EFR amplitude by 25 nV, phase coherence by 0.05 and signal-to-noise ratio by 3.5 dB, on average. The reduction in EFR characteristics was similar across ears of stimulation and the two montages used. These findings will help parse the influence of f0 or stimulus spectra on EFRs when both co-vary.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Eravci FC, Yildiz BD, Özcan KM, et al (2021)

Acoustic parameter changes after bariatric surgery.

Logopedics, phoniatrics, vocology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acoustic parameter changes after weight loss in bariatric surgery patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted with 15 patients with planned bariatric surgery, who were evaluated pre-operatively and at 6 months post-operatively. Fundamental frequency (F0), Formant frequency (F1, F2, F3, and F4), Frequency perturbation (Jitter), Amplitude perturbation (Shimmer) and Noise-to-Harmonics Ratio (NHR) parameters were evaluated for /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ vowels. Changes in the acoustic analysis parameters for each vowel were compared. The study group was separated into two groups according to whether the Mallampati score had not changed (Group 1) or had decreased (Group 2) and changes in the formant frequencies were compared between these groups.

RESULTS: A total of 15 patients with a median age of 40 ± 11 years completed the study. The median weight of the patients was 122 ± 14 kg pre-operatively and 80 ± 15 kg, post-operatively. BMI declined from 46 ± 4 to 31 ± 5 kg/m2. The Mallampati score decreased by one point in six patients and remained stable in nine. Of the acoustic voice analysis parameters of vowels, in general, fundamental frequency tended to decrease, and shimmer and jitter values tended to increase. Some of the formant frequencies were specifically affected by the weight loss and this showed statistical significance between Group 1 and Group 2.

CONCLUSION: The present study reveals that some specific voice characteristics might be affected by successful weight loss after bariatric surgery.HighlightsObesity reduces the size of the pharyngeal lumen at different levels.The supralaryngeal vocal tract size and configuration is a determinative factor in the features of the voice.Changes in the length and shape of the vocal tract, or height and position of the tongue can result in changes especially in formant frequencies in acoustic analysis.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Yang J (2021)

Vowel development in young Mandarin-English bilingual children.

Phonetica, 78(3):241-272 pii:phon-2021-2006.

This study examined the development of vowel categories in young Mandarin -English bilingual children. The participants included 35 children aged between 3 and 4 years old (15 Mandarin-English bilinguals, six English monolinguals, and 14 Mandarin monolinguals). The bilingual children were divided into two groups: one group had a shorter duration (<1 year) of intensive immersion in English (Bi-low group) and one group had a longer duration (>1 year) of intensive immersion in English (Bi-high group). The participants were recorded producing one list of Mandarin words containing the vowels /a, i, u, y, ɤ/ and/or one list of English words containing the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, u, ʊ, o, ɑ, ʌ/. Formant frequency values were extracted at five equidistant time locations (the 20-35-50-65-80% point) over the course of vowel duration. Cross-language and within-language comparisons were conducted on the midpoint formant values and formant trajectories. The results showed that children in the Bi-low group produced their English vowels into clusters and showed positional deviations from the monolingual targets. However, they maintained the phonetic features of their native vowel sounds well and mainly used an assimilatory process to organize the vowel systems. Children in the Bi-high group separated their English vowels well. They used both assimilatory and dissimilatory processes to construct and refine the two vowel systems. These bilingual children approximated monolingual English children to a better extent than the children in the Bi-low group. However, when compared to the monolingual peers, they demonstrated observable deviations in both L1 and L2.

RevDate: 2021-06-12

Lin Y, Cheng L, Wang Q, et al (2021)

Effects of Medical Masks on Voice Assessment During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00163-6 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Voice assessment is of great significance to the evaluation of voice quality. Our study aims to explore the effects of medical masks on healthy people in acoustic, aerodynamic and formant parameters during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we also attempted to verify the differences between different sexes and ages.

METHODS: Fifty-three healthy participants (25 males and 28 females) were involved in our study. The acoustic parameters, including fundamental frequency (F0), sound pressure level (SPL), percentage of jitter (%), percentage of shimmer (%), noise to harmonic ratio (NHR) and cepstral peak prominence (CPP), aerodynamic parameter (maximum phonation time, MPT) and formant parameters (formant frequency, F1, F2, F3) without and with wearing medical masks were included. We further investigated the potential differences in the impact on different sexes and ages (≤45 years old and >45 years old).

RESULTS: While wearing medical masks, the SPL significantly increased (71.22±4.25 dB, 72.42±3.96 dB, P = 0.021). Jitter and shimmer significantly decreased (jitter 1.19±0.83, 0.87±0.67 P = 0.005; shimmer 4.49±2.20, 3.66±2.02 P = 0.002), as did F3 (2855±323.34 Hz, 2781.89±353.42 Hz P = 0.004). F0, MPT, F1 and F2 showed increasing trends without statistical significance, and NHR as well as CPP showed little change without and with wearing medical masks. There were no significant differences seen between males and females. Regarding to age, a significant difference in MPT was seen (>45-year-old 16.15±6.98 s, 15.38±7.02 s; ≤45-year-old 20.26±6.47 s, 21.44±6.98 s, P = 0.032).

CONCLUSION: Healthy participants showed a significantly higher SPL, a smaller perturbation and an evident decrease in F3 after wearing medical masks. These changes may result from the adjustment of the vocal tract and the filtration function of medical masks, leading to the stability of voices we recorded being overstated. The impacts of medical masks on sex were not evident, while the MPT in the >45-year-old group was influenced more than that in the ≤45-year-old group.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Madrid AM, Walker KA, Smith SB, et al (2021)

Relationships between click auditory brainstem response and speech frequency following response with development in infants born preterm.

Hearing research, 407:108277.

The speech evoked frequency following response (sFFR) is used to study relationships between neural processing and functional aspects of speech and language that are not captured by click or toneburst evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The sFFR is delayed, deviant, or weak in school age children having a variety of disorders, including autism, dyslexia, reading and language disorders, in relation to their typically developing peers. Much less is known about the developmental characteristics of sFFR, especially in preterm infants, who are at risk of having language delays. In term neonates, phase locking and spectral representation of the fundamental frequency is developed in the early days of life. Spectral representation of higher harmonics and latencies associated with transient portions of the stimulus are still developing in term infants through at least 10 months of age. The goal of this research was to determine whether sFFR could be measured in preterm infants and to characterize its developmental trajectory in the time and frequency domain. Click ABR and sFFR were measured in 28 preterm infants at ages 33 to 64 weeks gestational age. The sFFR could be measured in the majority of infants at 33 weeks gestational age, and the detectability of all sFFR waves was 100% by 64 weeks gestational age. The latency of all waves associated with the transient portion of the response (waves V, A, and O), and most waves (waves D and E) associated with the quasi-steady state decreased with increasing age. The interpeak wave A-O latency did not change with age, indicating that these waves share a neural generator, or the neural generators are developing at the same rate. The spectral amplitude of F0 and the lower frequencies of the first formant increased with age, but that for higher frequencies of the first formant and higher harmonics did not. The results suggest that the sFFR can be reliably recorded in preterm infants, including those cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit. These findings support that in preterm infants, F0 amplitude continues to develop within the first 6 months of life and develops before efficient representation of higher frequency harmonics. Further research is needed to determine if the sFFR in preterm infants is predictive of long-term language or learning disorders.

RevDate: 2021-05-28

Andrade PA, Frič M, Z Otčenášek (2021)

Assessment of Changes in Laryngeal Configuration and Voice Parameters Among Different Frequencies of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) and Cumulative Effects of NMES in a Normophonic Subject: A Pilot Study.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00114-4 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a complementary resource to voice therapy that can be used for the treatment of hypofunctional voice disorders. Although positive clinical studies have been reported, neutral and even potentially harmful effects of NMES are also described in the literature. Furthermore, in the studies examined by the authors, the use of different methods of NMES have been identified, which further contributes to the inconsistent results found among studies. Moreover, limited rationale is provided for the chosen NMES parameters such as electrode placement, frequency of NMES and length of treatment. The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the a) impact of different frequencies of NMES on glottal configuration and vocal fold vibration patterns and b) changes in laryngeal configuration and vocal output across 12 minutes of NMES.

METHOD: Three experiments were carried out looking at changes in laryngeal configuration and voice output using different imaging techniques (fibreoptic nasolaryngoscopy and high-speed video), acoustical analysis (F0, formant analysis, SPL, CPPS and LHSR values), electroglottography (EGG) and Relative Fundamental Frequency (RFF) analyses. Glottal parameters and acoustical measures were recorded before, during, and after stimulation. Data was collected at rest and during phonation.

RESULTS: Overall the results showed global changes in laryngeal configuration from normal to hyperfunctional (ie, increased RFF, SPL, CQ, and stiffness). Changes were more pronounced for lower frequencies of NMES and were significant within less than three minutes of application.

CONCLUSION: NMES is an effective resource for the activation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles producing significant levels of adduction within few minutes of application. Lower NMES frequencies produced greater muscle activation when compared to higher frequencies.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Souza PE, Ellis G, Marks K, et al (2021)

Does the Speech Cue Profile Affect Response to Amplitude Envelope Distortion?.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(6):2053-2069.

Purpose A broad area of interest to our group is to understand the consequences of the "cue profile" (a measure of how well a listener can utilize audible temporal and/or spectral cues for listening scenarios in which a subset of cues is distorted. The study goal was to determine if listeners whose cue profile indicated that they primarily used temporal cues for recognition would respond differently to speech-envelope distortion than listeners who utilized both spectral and temporal cues. Method Twenty-five adults with sensorineural hearing loss participated in the study. The listener's cue profile was measured by analyzing identification patterns for a set of synthetic syllables in which envelope rise time and formant transitions were varied. A linear discriminant analysis quantified the relative contributions of spectral and temporal cues to identification patterns. Low-context sentences in noise were processed with time compression, wide-dynamic range compression, or a combination of time compression and wide-dynamic range compression to create a range of speech-envelope distortions. An acoustic metric, a modified version of the Spectral Correlation Index, was calculated to quantify envelope distortion. Results A binomial generalized linear mixed-effects model indicated that envelope distortion, the cue profile, the interaction between envelope distortion and the cue profile, and the pure-tone average were significant predictors of sentence recognition. Conclusions The listeners with good perception of spectro-temporal contrasts were more resilient to the detrimental effects of envelope compression than listeners who used temporal cues to a greater extent. The cue profile may provide information about individual listening that can direct choice of hearing aid parameters, especially those parameters that affect the speech envelope.

RevDate: 2021-07-27
CmpDate: 2021-07-27

Stilp CE, AA Assgari (2021)

Contributions of natural signal statistics to spectral context effects in consonant categorization.

Attention, perception & psychophysics, 83(6):2694-2708.

Speech perception, like all perception, takes place in context. Recognition of a given speech sound is influenced by the acoustic properties of surrounding sounds. When the spectral composition of earlier (context) sounds (e.g., a sentence with more energy at lower third formant [F3] frequencies) differs from that of a later (target) sound (e.g., consonant with intermediate F3 onset frequency), the auditory system magnifies this difference, biasing target categorization (e.g., towards higher-F3-onset /d/). Historically, these studies used filters to force context stimuli to possess certain spectral compositions. Recently, these effects were produced using unfiltered context sounds that already possessed the desired spectral compositions (Stilp & Assgari, 2019, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 81, 2037-2052). Here, this natural signal statistics approach is extended to consonant categorization (/g/-/d/). Context sentences were either unfiltered (already possessing the desired spectral composition) or filtered (to imbue specific spectral characteristics). Long-term spectral characteristics of unfiltered contexts were poor predictors of shifts in consonant categorization, but short-term characteristics (last 475 ms) were excellent predictors. This diverges from vowel data, where long-term and shorter-term intervals (last 1,000 ms) were equally strong predictors. Thus, time scale plays a critical role in how listeners attune to signal statistics in the acoustic environment.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Dromey C, Richins M, T Low (2021)

Kinematic and Acoustic Changes to Vowels and Diphthongs in Bite Block Speech.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(6):1794-1801.

Purpose We examined the effect of bite block insertion (BBI) on lingual movements and formant frequencies in corner vowel and diphthong production in a sentence context. Method Twenty young adults produced the corner vowels (/u/, /ɑ/, /æ/, /i/) and the diphthong /ɑɪ/ in sentence contexts before and after BBI. An electromagnetic articulograph measured the movements of the tongue back, middle, and front. Results There were significant decreases in the acoustic vowel articulation index and vowel space area following BBI. The kinematic vowel articulation index decreased significantly for the back and middle of the tongue but not for the front. There were no significant acoustic changes post-BBI for the diphthong, other than a longer transition duration. Diphthong kinematic changes after BBI included smaller movements for the back and middle of the tongue, but not the front. Conclusions BBI led to a smaller acoustic working space for the corner vowels. The adjustments made by the front of the tongue were sufficient to compensate for the BBI perturbation in the diphthong, resulting in unchanged formant trajectories. The back and middle of the tongue were likely biomechanically restricted in their displacement by the fixation of the jaw, whereas the tongue front showed greater movement flexibility.

RevDate: 2021-05-12

Onosson S, J Stewart (2021)

The Effects of Language Contact on Non-Native Vowel Sequences in Lexical Borrowings: The Case of Media Lengua.

Language and speech [Epub ahead of print].

Media Lengua (ML), a mixed language derived from Quichua and Spanish, exhibits a phonological system that largely conforms to that of Quichua acoustically. Yet, it incorporates a large number of vowel sequences from Spanish which do not occur in the Quichua system. This includes the use of mid-vowels, which are phonetically realized in ML as largely overlapping with the high-vowels in acoustic space. We analyze and compare production of vowel sequences by speakers of ML, Quichua, and Spanish through the use of generalized additive mixed models to determine statistically significant differences between vowel formant trajectories. Our results indicate that Spanish-derived ML vowel sequences frequently differ significantly from their Spanish counterparts, largely occupying a more central region of the vowel space and frequently exhibiting markedly reduced trajectories over time. In contrast, we find only one case where an ML vowel sequence differs significantly from its Quichua counterpart-and even in this case the difference from Spanish is substantially greater. Our findings show how the vowel system of ML successfully integrates novel vowel sequence patterns from Spanish into what is essentially Quichua phonology by markedly adapting their production, while still maintaining contrasts which are not expressed in Quichua.

RevDate: 2021-08-18

Xiao Y, Wang T, Deng W, et al (2021)

Data mining of an acoustic biomarker in tongue cancers and its clinical validation.

Cancer medicine, 10(11):3822-3835.

The promise of speech disorders as biomarkers in clinical examination has been identified in a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, a validated acoustic marker with established discriminative and evaluative properties has not yet been developed for oral tongue cancers. Here we cross-sectionally collected a screening dataset that included acoustic parameters extracted from 3 sustained vowels /ɑ/, /i/, /u/ and binary perceptual outcomes from 12 consonant-vowel syllables. We used a support vector machine with linear kernel function within this dataset to identify the formant centralization ratio (FCR) as a dominant predictor of different perceptual outcomes across gender and syllable. The Acoustic analysis, Perceptual evaluation and Quality of Life assessment (APeQoL) was used to validate the FCR in 33 patients with primary resectable oral tongue cancers. Measurements were taken before (pre-op) and four to six weeks after (post-op) surgery. The speech handicap index (SHI), a speech-specific questionnaire, was also administrated at these time points. Pre-op correlation analysis within the APeQoL revealed overall consistency and a strong correlation between FCR and SHI scores. FCRs also increased significantly with increasing T classification pre-operatively, especially for women. Longitudinally, the main effects of T classification, the extent of resection, and their interaction effects with time (pre-op vs. post-op) on FCRs were all significant. For pre-operative FCR, after merging the two datasets, a cut-off value of 0.970 produced an AUC of 0.861 (95% confidence interval: 0.785-0.938) for T3-4 patients. In sum, this study determined that FCR is an acoustic marker with the potential to detect disease and related speech function in oral tongue cancers. These are preliminary findings that need to be replicated in longitudinal studies and/or larger cohorts.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Chiu YF, Neel A, T Loux (2021)

Exploring the Acoustic Perceptual Relationship of Speech in Parkinson's Disease.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(5):1560-1570.

Purpose Auditory perceptual judgments are commonly used to diagnose dysarthria and assess treatment progress. The purpose of the study was to examine the acoustic underpinnings of perceptual speech abnormalities in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method Auditory perceptual judgments were obtained from sentences produced by 13 speakers with PD and five healthy older adults. Twenty young listeners rated overall ease of understanding, articulatory precision, voice quality, and prosodic adequacy on a visual analog scale. Acoustic measures associated with the speech subsystems of articulation, phonation, and prosody were obtained, including second formant transitions, articulation rate, cepstral and spectral measures of voice, and pitch variations. Regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between perceptual judgments and acoustic variables. Results Perceptual impressions of Parkinsonian speech were related to combinations of several acoustic variables. Approximately 36%-49% of the variance in the perceptual ratings were explained by the acoustic measures indicating a modest acoustic perceptual relationship. Conclusions The relationships between perceptual ratings and acoustic signals in Parkinsonian speech are multifactorial and involve a variety of acoustic features simultaneously. The modest acoustic perceptual relationships, however, suggest that future work is needed to further examine the acoustic bases of perceptual judgments in dysarthria.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Parrell B, Ivry RB, Nagarajan SS, et al (2021)

Intact Correction for Self-Produced Vowel Formant Variability in Individuals With Cerebellar Ataxia Regardless of Auditory Feedback Availability.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(6S):2234-2247.

Purpose Individuals with cerebellar ataxia (CA) caused by cerebellar degeneration exhibit larger reactive compensatory responses to unexpected auditory feedback perturbations than neurobiologically typical speakers, suggesting they may rely more on feedback control during speech. We test this hypothesis by examining variability in unaltered speech. Previous studies of typical speakers have demonstrated a reduction in formant variability (centering) observed during the initial phase of vowel production from vowel onset to vowel midpoint. Centering is hypothesized to reflect feedback-based corrections for self-produced variability and thus may provide a behavioral assay of feedback control in unperturbed speech in the same manner as the compensatory response does for feedback perturbations. Method To comprehensively compare centering in individuals with CA and controls, we examine centering in two vowels (/i/ and /ɛ/) under two contexts (isolated words and connected speech). As a control, we examine speech produced both with and without noise to mask auditory feedback. Results Individuals with CA do not show increased centering compared to age-matched controls, regardless of vowel, context, or masking. Contrary to previous results in neurobiologically typical speakers, centering was not affected by the presence of masking noise in either group. Conclusions The similar magnitude of centering seen with and without masking noise questions whether centering is driven by auditory feedback. However, if centering is at least partially driven by auditory/somatosensory feedback, these results indicate that the larger compensatory response to altered auditory feedback observed in individuals with CA may not reflect typical motor control processes during normal, unaltered speech production.

RevDate: 2021-04-17

Lã FMB, Silva LS, S Granqvist (2021)

Long-Term Average Spectrum Characteristics of Portuguese Fado-Canção from Coimbra.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00104-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Descriptions of acoustical characteristics of Fado, a Portuguese urban style sung in Lisbon and Oporto, are scarce, particularly concerning Fado-Canção, a related style sung in Coimbra. The present study aims at describing long-term average spectrum (LTAS) parameters of 16 professional singers while singing and reading the lyrics of a typical Fado-Canção. LTAS parameters were investigated in terms of: (1) equivalent sound level (Leq); (2) spectral differences between 3 frequency bands 0-2, 2-5, and 5-8 kHz; and (3) quantification of spectral prominence between 2 and 4 kHz, calculated as the level difference between the peak in this frequency region and a reference trendline between 1 and 5 kHz, henceforth Formant Cluster Prominence (FCP). Given that Fado-Canção, besides Fado and traditional styles, originated also from classical singing, and that previous studies on Fado suggest the absence of a singer's formant cluster, the averaged LTAS for all Fado-Canção singers was further compared to the LTAS of two world-touring opera baritones singing an operatic aria and a lied. Results show that Fado-Canção is commonly sung with a Leq of 86.4 dB and a FCP of about 10 dB, values significantly higher when compared to reading. The FCP in Fado-Canção, although smaller than for the two classical opera singers' examples (14.8 and 20 dB, respectively), suggests that the style preserved some of its original lyrical influence. However, because younger singers present higher energy in the 5-8 kHz region relative to the remaining frequency bands as compared to older singers, it seems that Fado-Canção may be drifting towards non-classical vocal practices. FCP seems to be a promising straightforward method to quantify the degree of formant clustering around the region of the singer's formant in LTAS, allowing comparisons between different singers and singing styles.

RevDate: 2021-08-18
CmpDate: 2021-08-18

Loni DY, S Subbaraman (2021)

Genetically related singers-acoustic feature analysis and impact on singer identification.

Journal of applied genetics, 62(3):459-467.

Studies relating music with genetics have been one of the fascinating fields of research. In this study, we have attempted to answer the most curious question-how acoustically close are the genetically related singers? The present study has investigated this perception using two genetically different relations-three female sibling singers and father-son singer relation. These are famous Indian playback singers and the acoustic features are extracted using the songs of Bollywood films. Three different sets of self-developed cappella database are used for the experimentation. Positive correlations among the major musical aptitudes-pitch, vibrato, formant, and harmonic spectral envelope for both the singer relationships-revealed the genetic impact on the acoustic features. Also, the investigation of timbre spectral feature proved it a significant acoustic feature that differentiates similar voices. With Spearman's correlation coefficient, we conclude that strong acoustical association was observed between the acoustic features of genetically related singers, especially the female sibling singers. This was further validated by correlating these singers with genetically unrelated singers. A human perception test performed using cover songs indicated the genetic impact in voice similarity, while the automatic singer identification system discriminated singers more accurately than the human listeners.

RevDate: 2021-04-10

Hsieh IH, WT Yeh (2021)

The Interaction Between Timescale and Pitch Contour at Pre-attentive Processing of Frequency-Modulated Sweeps.

Frontiers in psychology, 12:637289.

Speech comprehension across languages depends on encoding the pitch variations in frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps at different timescales and frequency ranges. While timescale and spectral contour of FM sweeps play important roles in differentiating acoustic speech units, relatively little work has been done to understand the interaction between the two acoustic dimensions at early cortical processing. An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the interaction of timescale and pitch contour at pre-attentive processing of FM sweeps. Event-related potentials to frequency sweeps that vary in linguistically relevant pitch contour (fundamental frequency F0 vs. first formant frequency F1) and timescale (local vs. global) in Mandarin Chinese were recorded. Mismatch negativities (MMNs) were elicited by all types of sweep deviants. For local timescale, FM sweeps with F0 contours yielded larger MMN amplitudes than F1 contours. A reversed MMN amplitude pattern was obtained with respect to F0/F1 contours for global timescale stimuli. An interhemispheric asymmetry of MMN topography was observed corresponding to local and global-timescale contours. Falling but not rising frequency difference waveforms sweep contours elicited right hemispheric dominance. Results showed that timescale and pitch contour interacts with each other in pre-attentive auditory processing of FM sweeps. Findings suggest that FM sweeps, a type of non-speech signal, is processed at an early stage with reference to its linguistic function. That the dynamic interaction between timescale and spectral pattern is processed during early cortical processing of non-speech frequency sweep signal may be critical to facilitate speech encoding at a later stage.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Wright E, Grawunder S, Ndayishimiye E, et al (2021)

Chest beats as an honest signal of body size in male mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

Scientific reports, 11(1):6879.

Acoustic signals that reliably indicate body size, which usually determines competitive ability, are of particular interest for understanding how animals assess rivals and choose mates. Whereas body size tends to be negatively associated with formant dispersion in animal vocalizations, non-vocal signals have received little attention. Among the most emblematic sounds in the animal kingdom is the chest beat of gorillas, a non-vocal signal that is thought to be important in intra and inter-sexual competition, yet it is unclear whether it reliably indicates body size. We examined the relationship among body size (back breadth), peak frequency, and three temporal characteristics of the chest beat: duration, number of beats and beat rate from sound recordings of wild adult male mountain gorillas. Using linear mixed models, we found that larger males had significantly lower peak frequencies than smaller ones, but we found no consistent relationship between body size and the temporal characteristics measured. Taken together with earlier findings of positive correlations among male body size, dominance rank and reproductive success, we conclude that the gorilla chest beat is an honest signal of competitive ability. These results emphasize the potential of non-vocal signals to convey important information in mammal communication.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Jekiel M, K Malarski (2021)

Musical Hearing and Musical Experience in Second Language English Vowel Acquisition.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(5):1666-1682.

Purpose Former studies suggested that music perception can help produce certain accentual features in the first and second language (L2), such as intonational contours. What was missing in many of these studies was the identification of the exact relationship between specific music perception skills and the production of different accentual features in a foreign language. Our aim was to verify whether empirically tested musical hearing skills can be related to the acquisition of English vowels by learners of English as an L2 before and after a formal accent training course. Method Fifty adult Polish speakers of L2 English were tested before and after a two-semester accent training in order to observe the effect of musical hearing on the acquisition of English vowels. Their L2 English vowel formant contours produced in consonant-vowel-consonant context were compared with the target General British vowels produced by their pronunciation teachers. We juxtaposed these results with their musical hearing test scores and self-reported musical experience to observe a possible relationship between successful L2 vowel acquisition and musical aptitude. Results Preexisting rhythmic memory was reported as a significant predictor before training, while musical experience was reported as a significant factor in the production of more native-like L2 vowels after training. We also observed that not all vowels were equally acquired or affected by musical hearing or musical experience. The strongest estimate we observed was the closeness to model before training, suggesting that learners who already managed to acquire some features of a native-like accent were also more successful after training. Conclusions Our results are revealing in two aspects. First, the learners' former proficiency in L2 pronunciation is the most robust predictor in acquiring a native-like accent. Second, there is a potential relationship between rhythmic memory and L2 vowel acquisition before training, as well as years of musical experience after training, suggesting that specific musical skills and music practice can be an asset in learning a foreign language accent.

RevDate: 2021-06-01

Michell CT, T Nyman (2021)

Microbiomes of willow-galling sawflies: effects of host plant, gall type, and phylogeny on community structure and function.

Genome, 64(6):615-626.

While free-living herbivorous insects are thought to harbor microbial communities composed of transient bacteria derived from their diet, recent studies indicate that insects that induce galls on plants may be involved in more intimate host-microbe relationships. We used 16S rDNA metabarcoding to survey larval microbiomes of 20 nematine sawfly species that induce bud or leaf galls on 13 Salix species. The 391 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) detected represented 69 bacterial genera in six phyla. Multi-variate statistical analyses showed that the structure of larval microbiomes is influenced by willow host species as well as by gall type. Nevertheless, a "core" microbiome composed of 58 ASVs is shared widely across the focal galler species. Within the core community, the presence of many abundant, related ASVs representing multiple distantly related bacterial taxa is reflected as a statistically significant effect of bacterial phylogeny on galler-microbe associations. Members of the core community have a variety of inferred functions, including degradation of phenolic compounds, nutrient supplementation, and production of plant hormones. Hence, our results support suggestions of intimate and diverse interactions between galling insects and microbes and add to a growing body of evidence that microbes may play a role in the induction of insect galls on plants.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Zhang K, Sjerps MJ, G Peng (2021)

Integral perception, but separate processing: The perceptual normalization of lexical tones and vowels.

Neuropsychologia, 156:107839.

In tonal languages, speech variability arises in both lexical tone (i.e., suprasegmentally) and vowel quality (segmentally). Listeners can use surrounding speech context to overcome variability in both speech cues, a process known as extrinsic normalization. Although vowels are the main carriers of tones, it is still unknown whether the combined percept (lexical tone and vowel quality) is normalized integrally or in partly separate processes. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the time course of lexical tone normalization and vowel normalization to answer this question. Cantonese adults listened to synthesized three-syllable stimuli in which the identity of a target syllable - ambiguous between high vs. mid-tone (Tone condition) or between /o/ vs. /u/ (Vowel condition) - was dependent on either the tone range (Tone condition) or the formant range (Vowel condition) of the first two syllables. It was observed that the ambiguous tone was more often interpreted as a high-level tone when the context had a relatively low pitch than when it had a high pitch (Tone condition). Similarly, the ambiguous vowel was more often interpreted as /o/ when the context had a relatively low formant range than when it had a relatively high formant range (Vowel condition). These findings show the typical pattern of extrinsic tone and vowel normalization. Importantly, the EEG results of participants showing the contrastive normalization effect demonstrated that the effects of vowel normalization could already be observed within the N2 time window (190-350 ms), while the first reliable effect of lexical tone normalization on cortical processing was observable only from the P3 time window (220-500 ms) onwards. The ERP patterns demonstrate that the contrastive perceptual normalization of lexical tones and that of vowels occur at least in partially separate time windows. This suggests that the extrinsic normalization can operate at the level of phonemes and tonemes separately instead of operating on the whole syllable at once.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Smith ML, MB Winn (2021)

Individual Variability in Recalibrating to Spectrally Shifted Speech: Implications for Cochlear Implants.

Ear and hearing, 42(5):1412-1427.

OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implant (CI) recipients are at a severe disadvantage compared with normal-hearing listeners in distinguishing consonants that differ by place of articulation because the key relevant spectral differences are degraded by the implant. One component of that degradation is the upward shifting of spectral energy that occurs with a shallow insertion depth of a CI. The present study aimed to systematically measure the effects of spectral shifting on word recognition and phoneme categorization by specifically controlling the amount of shifting and using stimuli whose identification specifically depends on perceiving frequency cues. We hypothesized that listeners would be biased toward perceiving phonemes that contain higher-frequency components because of the upward frequency shift and that intelligibility would decrease as spectral shifting increased.

DESIGN: Normal-hearing listeners (n = 15) heard sine wave-vocoded speech with simulated upward frequency shifts of 0, 2, 4, and 6 mm of cochlear space to simulate shallow CI insertion depth. Stimuli included monosyllabic words and /b/-/d/ and /∫/-/s/ continua that varied systematically by formant frequency transitions or frication noise spectral peaks, respectively. Recalibration to spectral shifting was operationally defined as shifting perceptual acoustic-phonetic mapping commensurate with the spectral shift. In other words, adjusting frequency expectations for both phonemes upward so that there is still a perceptual distinction, rather than hearing all upward-shifted phonemes as the higher-frequency member of the pair.

RESULTS: For moderate amounts of spectral shifting, group data suggested a general "halfway" recalibration to spectral shifting, but individual data suggested a notably different conclusion: half of the listeners were able to recalibrate fully, while the other halves of the listeners were utterly unable to categorize shifted speech with any reliability. There were no participants who demonstrated a pattern intermediate to these two extremes. Intelligibility of words decreased with greater amounts of spectral shifting, also showing loose clusters of better- and poorer-performing listeners. Phonetic analysis of word errors revealed certain cues were more susceptible to being compromised due to a frequency shift (place and manner of articulation), while voicing was robust to spectral shifting.

CONCLUSIONS: Shifting the frequency spectrum of speech has systematic effects that are in line with known properties of speech acoustics, but the ensuing difficulties cannot be predicted based on tonotopic mismatch alone. Difficulties are subject to substantial individual differences in the capacity to adjust acoustic-phonetic mapping. These results help to explain why speech recognition in CI listeners cannot be fully predicted by peripheral factors like electrode placement and spectral resolution; even among listeners with functionally equivalent auditory input, there is an additional factor of simply being able or unable to flexibly adjust acoustic-phonetic mapping. This individual variability could motivate precise treatment approaches guided by an individual's relative reliance on wideband frequency representation (even if it is mismatched) or limited frequency coverage whose tonotopy is preserved.

RevDate: 2021-08-12
CmpDate: 2021-08-12

Chen F, Zhang H, Ding H, et al (2021)

Neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech and nonspeech in children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 14(7):1357-1374.

The presence of vowel exaggeration in infant-directed speech (IDS) may adapt to the age-appropriate demands in speech and language acquisition. Previous studies have provided behavioral evidence of atypical auditory processing towards IDS in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), while the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech and nonspeech in 24 4- to 11-year-old children with ASD and 24 typically-developing (TD) peers. The EEG data were recorded using an alternating block design, in which each stimulus type (exaggerated/non-exaggerated sound) was presented with equal probability. ERP waveform analysis revealed an enhanced P1 for vowel formant exaggeration in the TD group but not in the ASD group. This speech-specific atypical processing in ASD was not found for the nonspeech stimuli which showed similar P1 enhancement in both ASD and TD groups. Moreover, the time-frequency analysis indicated that children with ASD showed differences in neural synchronization in the delta-theta bands for processing acoustic formant changes embedded in nonspeech. Collectively, the results add substantiating neurophysiological evidence (i.e., a lack of neural enhancement effect of vowel exaggeration) for atypical auditory processing of IDS in children with ASD, which may exert a negative effect on phonetic encoding and language learning. LAY SUMMARY: Atypical responses to motherese might act as a potential early marker of risk for children with ASD. This study investigated the neural responses to such socially relevant stimuli in the ASD brain, and the results suggested a lack of neural enhancement responding to the motherese even in individuals without intellectual disability.

RevDate: 2021-03-29

Oren L, Rollins M, Gutmark E, et al (2021)

How Face Masks Affect Acoustic and Auditory Perceptual Characteristics of the Singing Voice.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00091-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Wearing a face mask has been accepted as one of the most effective ways for slowing the spread of COVID-19. Yet information regarding the degree to which masks affect acoustics and perception associated with voice performers is scarce. This study examines these effects with common face masks, namely a neck gaiter, disposable surgical mask, and N95 mask, as well as a novel material that could be used as a mask (acoustic foam). A recorded excerpt from the "Star-Spangled Banner" was played through a miniature speaker placed inside the mouth of a masked manikin. Experienced listeners were asked to rate perceptual qualities of these singing stimuli by blindly comparing them with the same recording captured without a mask. Acoustic analysis showed that face masks affected the sound by enhancing or suppressing different frequency bands compared to no mask. Acoustic energy around the singer's formant was reduced when using surgical and N95 masks, which matches observations that these masks are more detrimental to the perceptions of singing voice compared with neck gaiter or acoustic foam. It suggests that singers can benefit from masks designed for minimal impact on auditory perception of the singing voice while maintaining reasonable efficacy of filtering efficiency.

RevDate: 2021-03-28

Havel M, Sundberg J, Traser L, et al (2021)

Effects of Nasalization on Vocal Tract Response Curve.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00065-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have shown that nasalization affects the radiated spectrum by modifying the vocal tract transfer function in a complex manner.

METHODS: Here we study this phenomenon by measuring sine-sweep response of 3-D models of the vowels /u, a, ᴂ, i/, derived from volumetric MR imaging, coupled by means of tubes of different lengths and diameters to a 3-D model of a nasal tract.

RESULTS: The coupling introduced a dip into the vocal tract transfer function. The dip frequency was close to the main resonance of the nasal tract, a result in agreement with the Fujimura & Lindqvist in vivo sweep tone measurements [Fujimura & Lindqvist, 1972]. With increasing size of the coupling tube the depth of the dip increased and the first formant peak either changed in frequency or was split by the dip. Only marginal effects were observed of the paranasal sinuses. For certain coupling tube sizes, the spectrum balance was changed, boosting the formant peaks in the 2 - 4 kHz range.

CONCLUSION: A velopharyngeal opening introduces a dip in the transfer function at the main resonance of the nasal tract. Its depth increases with the area of the opening and its frequency rises in some vowels.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Coughler C, Hamel EM, Cardy JO, et al (2021)

Compensation to Altered Auditory Feedback in Children With Developmental Language Disorder and Typical Development.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(6S):2363-2376.

Purpose Developmental language disorder (DLD), an unexplained problem using and understanding spoken language, has been hypothesized to have an underlying auditory processing component. Auditory feedback plays a key role in speech motor control. The current study examined whether auditory feedback is used to regulate speech production in a similar way by children with DLD and their typically developing (TD) peers. Method Participants aged 6-11 years completed tasks measuring hearing, language, first formant (F1) discrimination thresholds, partial vowel space, and responses to altered auditory feedback with F1 perturbation. Results Children with DLD tended to compensate more than TD children for the positive F1 manipulation and compensated less than TD children in the negative shift condition. Conclusion Our findings suggest that children with DLD make atypical use of auditory feedback.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Arenillas-Alcón S, Costa-Faidella J, Ribas-Prats T, et al (2021)

Neural encoding of voice pitch and formant structure at birth as revealed by frequency-following responses.

Scientific reports, 11(1):6660.

Detailed neural encoding of voice pitch and formant structure plays a crucial role in speech perception, and is of key importance for an appropriate acquisition of the phonetic repertoire in infants since birth. However, the extent to what newborns are capable of extracting pitch and formant structure information from the temporal envelope and the temporal fine structure of speech sounds, respectively, remains unclear. Here, we recorded the frequency-following response (FFR) elicited by a novel two-vowel, rising-pitch-ending stimulus to simultaneously characterize voice pitch and formant structure encoding accuracy in a sample of neonates and adults. Data revealed that newborns tracked changes in voice pitch reliably and no differently than adults, but exhibited weaker signatures of formant structure encoding, particularly at higher formant frequency ranges. Thus, our results indicate a well-developed encoding of voice pitch at birth, while formant structure representation is maturing in a frequency-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility to assess voice pitch and formant structure encoding within clinical evaluation times in a hospital setting, and suggest the possibility to use this novel stimulus as a tool for longitudinal developmental studies of the auditory system.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Emrani E, Ghaemi H, Labafchi A, et al (2021)

The Effect of Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery on Voice Characteristics in Skeletal Class 3 Deformity Patients: An Evaluation Using Acoustic Analysis.

The Journal of craniofacial surgery, 32(6):2129-2133.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of bimaxillary orthognathic surgery on the acoustic voice characteristics of skeletal class 3 patients. All healthy nonsyndromic patients with Class 3 deformity who were eligible for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, were included in this before and after quasi-experimental study. This experiment's main intervention was mandibular setback surgery by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy plus maxillary advancement using LeFort 1 osteotomy. Age, sex, and intraoperative jaw movements were recorded. Acoustic analysis of voice samples (vowels /a/ and /i/) was performed with Praat software as outcome variables. The formant frequencies (F0, F1, F2, and F3) of these vowels were extracted 1 week preoperatively (T0), 1 and 6 months (T1, T2) postoperatively by a speech therapist. The significance level was set at 0.05 using SPSS 19. The study sample comprised 20 patients including 11 women (55%) and 9 men (45%) with a mean age of 31.95 ± 4.72 years. The average mandibular setback and maxillary advancement were 3.30 ± 0.86 and 2.85 ± 0.74 mm, respectively. The fundamental frequency (F0) and the first, second, and third formants (F1, F2, F3) of vowels /i/ and /a/ were significantly decreased over time intervals, postoperatively (P < 0.05). The finding revealed that bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (maxillary advancement and mandibular setback with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy) might reduce the acoustic formant parameters of voice to the normal frequency ranges, in patients with class 3 skeletal deformities. More clinical trials with greater sample sizes and long-term follow-ups are suggested in the future.

RevDate: 2021-05-24
CmpDate: 2021-05-24

König A, Riviere K, Linz N, et al (2021)

Measuring Stress in Health Professionals Over the Phone Using Automatic Speech Analysis During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Observational Pilot Study.

Journal of medical Internet research, 23(4):e24191.

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health professionals have been directly confronted with the suffering of patients and their families. By making them main actors in the management of this health crisis, they have been exposed to various psychosocial risks (stress, trauma, fatigue, etc). Paradoxically, stress-related symptoms are often underreported in this vulnerable population but are potentially detectable through passive monitoring of changes in speech behavior.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the use of rapid and remote measures of stress levels in health professionals working during the COVID-19 outbreak. This was done through the analysis of participants' speech behavior during a short phone call conversation and, in particular, via positive, negative, and neutral storytelling tasks.

METHODS: Speech samples from 89 health care professionals were collected over the phone during positive, negative, and neutral storytelling tasks; various voice features were extracted and compared with classical stress measures via standard questionnaires. Additionally, a regression analysis was performed.

RESULTS: Certain speech characteristics correlated with stress levels in both genders; mainly, spectral (ie, formant) features, such as the mel-frequency cepstral coefficient, and prosodic characteristics, such as the fundamental frequency, appeared to be sensitive to stress. Overall, for both male and female participants, using vocal features from the positive tasks for regression yielded the most accurate prediction results of stress scores (mean absolute error 5.31).

CONCLUSIONS: Automatic speech analysis could help with early detection of subtle signs of stress in vulnerable populations over the phone. By combining the use of this technology with timely intervention strategies, it could contribute to the prevention of burnout and the development of comorbidities, such as depression or anxiety.

RevDate: 2021-03-20

Strycharczuk P, López-Ibáñez M, Brown G, et al (2020)

General Northern English. Exploring Regional Variation in the North of England With Machine Learning.

Frontiers in artificial intelligence, 3:48.

In this paper, we present a novel computational approach to the analysis of accent variation. The case study is dialect leveling in the North of England, manifested as reduction of accent variation across the North and emergence of General Northern English (GNE), a pan-regional standard accent associated with middle-class speakers. We investigated this instance of dialect leveling using random forest classification, with audio data from a crowd-sourced corpus of 105 urban, mostly highly-educated speakers from five northern UK cities: Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, and Sheffield. We trained random forest models to identify individual northern cities from a sample of other northern accents, based on first two formant measurements of full vowel systems. We tested the models using unseen data. We relied on undersampling, bagging (bootstrap aggregation) and leave-one-out cross-validation to address some challenges associated with the data set, such as unbalanced data and relatively small sample size. The accuracy of classification provides us with a measure of relative similarity between different pairs of cities, while calculating conditional feature importance allows us to identify which input features (which vowels and which formants) have the largest influence in the prediction. We do find a considerable degree of leveling, especially between Manchester, Leeds and Sheffield, although some differences persist. The features that contribute to these differences most systematically are typically not the ones discussed in previous dialect descriptions. We propose that the most systematic regional features are also not salient, and as such, they serve as sociolinguistic regional indicators. We supplement the random forest results with a more traditional variationist description of by-city vowel systems, and we use both sources of evidence to inform a description of the vowels of General Northern English.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Niziolek CA, B Parrell (2021)

Responses to Auditory Feedback Manipulations in Speech May Be Affected by Previous Exposure to Auditory Errors.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(6S):2169-2181.

Purpose Speakers use auditory feedback to guide their speech output, although individuals differ in the magnitude of their compensatory response to perceived errors in feedback. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the compensatory response or how fixed or flexible they are within an individual. Here, we test whether manipulating the perceived reliability of auditory feedback modulates speakers' compensation to auditory perturbations, as predicted by optimal models of sensorimotor control. Method Forty participants produced monosyllabic words in two separate sessions, which differed in the auditory feedback given during an initial exposure phase. In the veridical session exposure phase, feedback was normal. In the noisy session exposure phase, small, random formant perturbations were applied, reducing reliability of auditory feedback. In each session, a subsequent test phase introduced larger unpredictable formant perturbations. We assessed whether the magnitude of within-trial compensation for these larger perturbations differed across the two sessions. Results Compensatory responses to downward (though not upward) formant perturbations were larger in the veridical session than the noisy session. However, in post hoc testing, we found the magnitude of this effect is highly dependent on the choice of analysis procedures. Compensation magnitude was not predicted by other production measures, such as formant variability, and was not reliably correlated across sessions. Conclusions Our results, though mixed, provide tentative support that the feedback control system monitors the reliability of sensory feedback. These results must be interpreted cautiously given the potentially limited stability of auditory feedback compensation measures across analysis choices and across sessions. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14167136.

RevDate: 2021-03-10

Riedinger M, Nagels A, Werth A, et al (2021)

Asymmetries in Accessing Vowel Representations Are Driven by Phonological and Acoustic Properties: Neural and Behavioral Evidence From Natural German Minimal Pairs.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 15:612345.

In vowel discrimination, commonly found discrimination patterns are directional asymmetries where discrimination is faster (or easier) if differing vowels are presented in a certain sequence compared to the reversed sequence. Different models of speech sound processing try to account for these asymmetries based on either phonetic or phonological properties. In this study, we tested and compared two of those often-discussed models, namely the Featurally Underspecified Lexicon (FUL) model (Lahiri and Reetz, 2002) and the Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework (Polka and Bohn, 2011). While most studies presented isolated vowels, we investigated a large stimulus set of German vowels in a more naturalistic setting within minimal pairs. We conducted an mismatch negativity (MMN) study in a passive and a reaction time study in an active oddball paradigm. In both data sets, we found directional asymmetries that can be explained by either phonological or phonetic theories. While behaviorally, the vowel discrimination was based on phonological properties, both tested models failed to explain the found neural patterns comprehensively. Therefore, we additionally examined the influence of a variety of articulatory, acoustical, and lexical factors (e.g., formant structure, intensity, duration, and frequency of occurrence) but also the influence of factors beyond the well-known (perceived loudness of vowels, degree of openness) in depth via multiple regression analyses. The analyses revealed that the perceptual factor of perceived loudness has a greater impact than considered in the literature and should be taken stronger into consideration when analyzing preattentive natural vowel processing.

RevDate: 2021-07-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-30

Kim KS, L Max (2021)

Speech auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback lacks an explicit component: Reduced adaptation in adults who stutter reflects limitations in implicit sensorimotor learning.

The European journal of neuroscience, 53(9):3093-3108.

The neural mechanisms underlying stuttering remain poorly understood. A large body of work has focused on sensorimotor integration difficulties in individuals who stutter, including recently the capacity for sensorimotor learning. Typically, sensorimotor learning is assessed with adaptation paradigms in which one or more sensory feedback modalities are experimentally perturbed in real time. Our own previous work on speech with perturbed auditory feedback revealed substantial auditory-motor learning limitations in both children and adults who stutter (AWS). It remains unknown, however, which subprocesses of sensorimotor learning are impaired. Indeed, new insights from research on upper limb motor control indicate that sensorimotor learning involves at least two distinct components: (a) an explicit component that includes intentional strategy use and presumably is driven by target error and (b) an implicit component that updates an internal model without awareness of the learner and presumably is driven by sensory prediction error. Here, we attempted to dissociate these components for speech auditory-motor learning in AWS versus adults who do not stutter (AWNS). Our formant-shift auditory-motor adaptation results replicated previous findings that such sensorimotor learning is limited in AWS. Novel findings are that neither control nor stuttering participants reported any awareness of changing their productions in response to the auditory perturbation and that neither group showed systematic drift in auditory target judgments made throughout the adaptation task. These results indicate that speech auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback relies exclusively on implicit learning processes. Thus, limited adaptation in AWS reflects poor implicit sensorimotor learning. Speech auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback lacks an explicit component: Reduced adaptation in adults who stutter reflects limitations in implicit sensorimotor learning.

RevDate: 2021-03-05

Stefanich S, J Cabrelli (2021)

The Effects of L1 English Constraints on the Acquisition of the L2 Spanish Alveopalatal Nasal.

Frontiers in psychology, 12:640354.

This study examines whether L1 English/L2 Spanish learners at different proficiency levels acquire a novel L2 phoneme, the Spanish palatal nasal /ɲ/. While alveolar /n/ is part of the Spanish and English inventories, /ɲ/, which consists of a tautosyllabic palatal nasal+glide element, is not. This crosslinguistic disparity presents potential difficulty for L1 English speakers due to L1 segmental and phonotactic constraints; the closest English approximation is the heterosyllabic sequence /nj/ (e.g., "canyon" /kænjn/ ['khæn.jn], cf. Spanish cañón "canyon" /kaɲon/ [ka.'ɲon]). With these crosslinguistic differences in mind, we ask: (1a) Do L1 English learners of L2 Spanish produce acoustically distinct Spanish /n/ and /ɲ/ and (1b) Does the distinction of /n/ and /ɲ/ vary by proficiency? In the case that learners distinguish /n/ and /ɲ/, the second question investigates the acoustic quality of /ɲ/ to determine (2a) if learners' L2 representation patterns with that of an L1 Spanish representation or if learners rely on an L1 representation (here, English /nj/) and (2b) if the acoustic quality of L2 Spanish /ɲ/ varies as a function of proficiency. Beginner (n = 9) and advanced (n = 8) L1 English/L2 Spanish speakers and a comparison group of 10 L1 Spanish/L2 English speakers completed delayed repetition tasks in which disyllabic nonce words were produced in a carrier phrase. English critical items contained an intervocalic heterosyllabic /nj/ sequence (e.g., ['phan.jə]); Spanish critical items consisted of items with either intervocalic onset /ɲ/ (e.g., ['xa.ɲa]) or /n/ ['xa.na]. We measured duration and formant contours of the following vocalic portion as acoustic indices of the /n/~/ɲ/ and /ɲ/ ~/nj/ distinctions. Results show that, while L2 Spanish learners produce an acoustically distinct /n/ ~ /ɲ/ contrast even at a low level of proficiency, the beginners produce an intermediate /ɲ/ that falls acoustically between their English /nj/ and the L1 Spanish /ɲ/ while the advanced learners' Spanish /ɲ/ and English /nj/ appear to be in the process of equivalence classification. We discuss these outcomes as they relate to the robustness of L1 phonological constraints in late L2 acquisition coupled with the role of perceptual cues, functional load, and questions of intelligibility.

RevDate: 2021-08-02
CmpDate: 2021-08-02

Tabas A, K von Kriegstein (2021)

Neural modelling of the encoding of fast frequency modulation.

PLoS computational biology, 17(3):e1008787.

Frequency modulation (FM) is a basic constituent of vocalisation in many animals as well as in humans. In human speech, short rising and falling FM-sweeps of around 50 ms duration, called formant transitions, characterise individual speech sounds. There are two representations of FM in the ascending auditory pathway: a spectral representation, holding the instantaneous frequency of the stimuli; and a sweep representation, consisting of neurons that respond selectively to FM direction. To-date computational models use feedforward mechanisms to explain FM encoding. However, from neuroanatomy we know that there are massive feedback projections in the auditory pathway. Here, we found that a classical FM-sweep perceptual effect, the sweep pitch shift, cannot be explained by standard feedforward processing models. We hypothesised that the sweep pitch shift is caused by a predictive feedback mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we developed a novel model of FM encoding incorporating a predictive interaction between the sweep and the spectral representation. The model was designed to encode sweeps of the duration, modulation rate, and modulation shape of formant transitions. It fully accounted for experimental data that we acquired in a perceptual experiment with human participants as well as previously published experimental results. We also designed a new class of stimuli for a second perceptual experiment to further validate the model. Combined, our results indicate that predictive interaction between the frequency encoding and direction encoding neural representations plays an important role in the neural processing of FM. In the brain, this mechanism is likely to occur at early stages of the processing hierarchy.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Levy ES, Chang YM, Hwang K, et al (2021)

Perceptual and Acoustic Effects of Dual-Focus Speech Treatment in Children With Dysarthria.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(6S):2301-2316.

Purpose Children with dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy may experience reduced speech intelligibility and diminished communicative participation. However, minimal research has been conducted examining the outcomes of behavioral speech treatments in this population. This study examined the effect of Speech Intelligibility Treatment (SIT), a dual-focus speech treatment targeting increased articulatory excursion and vocal intensity, on intelligibility of narrative speech, speech acoustics, and communicative participation in children with dysarthria. Method American English-speaking children with dysarthria (n = 17) received SIT in a 3-week summer camplike setting at Columbia University. SIT follows motor-learning principles to train the child-friendly, dual-focus strategy, "Speak with your big mouth and strong voice." Children produced a story narrative at baseline, immediate posttreatment (POST), and at 6-week follow-up (FUP). Outcomes were examined via blinded listener ratings of ease of understanding (n = 108 adult listeners), acoustic analyses, and questionnaires focused on communicative participation. Results SIT resulted in significant increases in ease of understanding at POST, that were maintained at FUP. There were no significant changes to vocal intensity, speech rate, or vowel spectral characteristics, with the exception of an increase in second formant difference between vowels following SIT. Significantly enhanced communicative participation was evident at POST and FUP. Considerable variability in response to SIT was observed between children. Conclusions Dual-focus treatment shows promise for improving intelligibility and communicative participation in children with dysarthria, although responses to treatment vary considerably across children. Possible mechanisms underlying the intelligibility gains, enhanced communicative participation, and variability in treatment effects are discussed.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Howson PJ, MA Redford (2021)

The Acquisition of Articulatory Timing for Liquids: Evidence From Child and Adult Speech.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(3):734-753.

Purpose Liquids are among the last sounds to be acquired by English-speaking children. The current study considers their acquisition from an articulatory timing perspective by investigating anticipatory posturing for /l/ versus /ɹ/ in child and adult speech. Method In Experiment 1, twelve 5-year-old, twelve 8-year-old, and 11 college-aged speakers produced carrier phrases with penultimate stress on monosyllabic words that had /l/, /ɹ/, or /d/ (control) as singleton onsets and /æ/ or /u/ as the vowel. Short-domain anticipatory effects were acoustically investigated based on schwa formant values extracted from the preceding determiner (= the) and dynamic formant values across the /ə#LV/ sequence. In Experiment 2, long-domain effects were perceptually indexed using a previously validated forward-gated audiovisual speech prediction task. Results Experiment 1 results indicated that all speakers distinguished /l/ from /ɹ/ along F3. Adults distinguished /l/ from /ɹ/ with a lower F2. Older children produced subtler versions of the adult pattern; their anticipatory posturing was also more influenced by the following vowel. Younger children did not distinguish /l/ from /ɹ/ along F2, but both liquids were distinguished from /d/ in the domains investigated. Experiment 2 results indicated that /ɹ/ was identified earlier than /l/ in gated adult speech; both liquids were identified equally early in 5-year-olds' speech. Conclusions The results are interpreted to suggest a pattern of early tongue-body retraction for liquids in /ə#LV/ sequences in children's speech. More generally, it is suggested that children must learn to inhibit the influence of vowels on liquid articulation to achieve an adultlike contrast between /l/ and /ɹ/ in running speech.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Raharjo I, Kothare H, Nagarajan SS, et al (2021)

Speech compensation responses and sensorimotor adaptation to formant feedback perturbations.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 149(2):1147.

Control of speech formants is important for the production of distinguishable speech sounds and is achieved with both feedback and learned feedforward control. However, it is unclear whether the learning of feedforward control involves the mechanisms of feedback control. Speakers have been shown to compensate for unpredictable transient mid-utterance perturbations of pitch and loudness feedback, demonstrating online feedback control of these speech features. To determine whether similar feedback control mechanisms exist in the production of formants, responses to unpredictable vowel formant feedback perturbations were examined. Results showed similar within-trial compensatory responses to formant perturbations that were presented at utterance onset and mid-utterance. The relationship between online feedback compensation to unpredictable formant perturbations and sensorimotor adaptation to consistent formant perturbations was further examined. Within-trial online compensation responses were not correlated with across-trial sensorimotor adaptation. A detailed analysis of within-trial time course dynamics across trials during sensorimotor adaptation revealed that across-trial sensorimotor adaptation responses did not result from an incorporation of within-trial compensation response. These findings suggest that online feedback compensation and sensorimotor adaptation are governed by distinct neural mechanisms. These findings have important implications for models of speech motor control in terms of how feedback and feedforward control mechanisms are implemented.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Carignan C (2021)

A practical method of estimating the time-varying degree of vowel nasalization from acoustic features.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 149(2):911.

This paper presents a simple and easy-to-use method of creating a time-varying signal of the degree of nasalization in vowels, generated from acoustic features measured in oral and nasalized vowel contexts. The method is presented for separate models constructed using two sets of acoustic features: (1) an uninformed set of 13 Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and (2) a combination of the 13 MFCCs and a phonetically informed set of 20 acoustic features of vowel nasality derived from previous research. Both models are compared against two traditional approaches to estimating vowel nasalization from acoustics: A1-P0 and A1-P1, as well as their formant-compensated counterparts. Data include productions from six speakers of different language backgrounds, producing 11 different qualities within the vowel quadrilateral. The results generated from each of the methods are compared against nasometric measurements, representing an objective "ground truth" of the degree of nasalization. The results suggest that the proposed method is more robust than conventional acoustic approaches, generating signals which correlate strongly with nasometric measures across all vowel qualities and all speakers and accurately approximate the time-varying change in the degree of nasalization. Finally, an experimental example is provided to help researchers implement the method in their own study designs.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Chung H, G Weismer (2021)

Formant Trajectory Patterns of American English /l/ Produced by Adults and Children.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(3):809-822.

Purpose Most acoustic and articulatory studies on /l/ have focused on either duration, formant frequencies, or tongue shape during the constriction interval. Only a limited set of data exists for the transition characteristics of /l/ to and from surrounding vowels. The aim of this study was to examine second formant (F2) transition characteristics of /l/ produced by young children and adults. This was to better understand articulatory behaviors in the production of /l/ and potential clinical applications of these data to typical and delayed /l/ development. Method Participants included 17 children with typically developing speech between the ages of 2 and 5 years, and 10 female adult speakers of Southern American English. Each subject produced single words containing pre- and postvocalic /l/ in two vowel contexts (/i, ɪ/ and /ɔ, ɑ/). F2 transitions, out of and into /l/ constriction intervals from the adjacent vowels, were analyzed for perceptually acceptable /l/ productions. The F2 transition extent, duration, and rate, as well as F2 loci data, were compared across age groups by vowel context for both pre- and postvocalic /l/. Results F2 transitions of adults' /l/ showed a great similarity across and within speakers. Those of young children showed greater variability, but became increasingly similar to those of adults with age. The F2 loci data seemed consistent with greater coarticulation among children than adults. This conclusion, however, must be regarded as preliminary due to the possible influence of different vocal tract size across ages and variability in the data. Conclusions The results suggest that adult patterns can serve as a reliable reference to which children's /l/ productions can be evaluated. The articulatory configurations associated with the /l/ constriction interval and the vocal tract movements into and out of that interval may provide insight into the underlying difficulties related to misarticulated /l/.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Ng ML, HK Woo (2021)

Effect of total laryngectomy on vowel production: An acoustic study of vowels produced by alaryngeal speakers of Cantonese.

International journal of speech-language pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose: To investigate the effect of total laryngectomy on vowel production, the present study examined the change in vowel articulation associated with different types of alaryngeal speech in comparison with laryngeal speech using novel derived formant metrics.Method: Six metrics derived from the first two formants (F1 and F2) including the First and Second Formant Range Ratios (F1RR and F2RR), triangular and pentagonal Vowel Space Area (tVSA and pVSA), Formant Centralisation Ratio (FCR) and Average Vowel Spacing (AVS) were measured from vowels (/i, y, ɛ, a, ɔ, œ, u/) produced by oesophageal (ES), tracheoesophageal (TE), electrolaryngeal (EL), pneumatic artificial laryngeal (PA) speakers, as well as laryngeal speakers.Result: Data revealed a general reduction in articulatory range and a tendency of vowel centralisation in Cantonese alaryngeal speakers. Significant articulatory difference was found for PA and EL compared with ES, TE, and laryngeal speakers.Conclusion: The discrepant results among alaryngeal speakers may be related to the difference in new sound source (external vs internal). Sensitivity and correlation analyses confirmed the use of the matrix of derived formant metrics provided a more comprehensive profile of the articulatory pattern in the alaryngeal population.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Maryn Y, Wuyts FL, A Zarowski (2021)

Are Acoustic Markers of Voice and Speech Signals Affected by Nose-and-Mouth-Covering Respiratory Protective Masks?.

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Worldwide use of nose-and-mouth-covering respiratory protective mask (RPM) has become ubiquitous during COVID19 pandemic. Consequences of wearing RPMs, especially regarding perception and production of spoken communication, are gradually emerging. The present study explored how three prevalent RPMs affect various speech and voice sound properties.

METHODS: Pre-recorded sustained [a] vowels and read sentences from 47 subjects were played by a speech production model ('Voice Emitted by Spare Parts', or 'VESPA') in four conditions: without RPM (C1), with disposable surgical mask (C2), with FFP2 mask (C3), and with transparent plastic mask (C4). Differences between C1 and masked conditions were assessed with Dunnett's t test in 26 speech sound properties related to voice production (fundamental frequency, sound intensity level), voice quality (jitter percent, shimmer percent, harmonics-to-noise ratio, smoothed cepstral peak prominence, Acoustic Voice Quality Index), articulation and resonance (first and second formant frequencies, first and second formant bandwidths, spectral center of gravity, spectral standard deviation, spectral skewness, spectral kurtosis, spectral slope, and spectral energy in ten 1-kHz bands from 0 to 10 kHz).

RESULTS: C2, C3, and C4 significantly affected 10, 15, and 19 of the acoustic speech markers, respectively. Furthermore, absolute differences between unmasked and masked conditions were largest for C4 and smallest for C2.

CONCLUSIONS: All RPMs influenced more or less speech sound properties. However, this influence was least for surgical RPMs and most for plastic RPMs. Surgical RPMs are therefore preferred when spoken communication is priority next to respiratory protection.

RevDate: 2021-08-11
CmpDate: 2021-08-11

Cavalcanti JC, Eriksson A, PA Barbosa (2021)

Acoustic analysis of vowel formant frequencies in genetically-related and non-genetically related speakers with implications for forensic speaker comparison.

PloS one, 16(2):e0246645.

The purpose of this study was to explore the speaker-discriminatory potential of vowel formant mean frequencies in comparisons of identical twin pairs and non-genetically related speakers. The influences of lexical stress and the vowels' acoustic distances on the discriminatory patterns of formant frequencies were also assessed. Acoustic extraction and analysis of the first four speech formants F1-F4 were carried out using spontaneous speech materials. The recordings comprise telephone conversations between identical twin pairs while being directly recorded through high-quality microphones. The subjects were 20 male adult speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (BP), aged between 19 and 35. As for comparisons, stressed and unstressed oral vowels of BP were segmented and transcribed manually in the Praat software. F1-F4 formant estimates were automatically extracted from the middle points of each labeled vowel. Formant values were represented in both Hertz and Bark. Comparisons within identical twin pairs using the Bark scale were performed to verify whether the measured differences would be potentially significant when following a psychoacoustic criterion. The results revealed consistent patterns regarding the comparison of low-frequency and high-frequency formants in twin pairs and non-genetically related speakers, with high-frequency formants displaying a greater speaker-discriminatory power compared to low-frequency formants. Among all formants, F4 seemed to display the highest discriminatory potential within identical twin pairs, followed by F3. As for non-genetically related speakers, both F3 and F4 displayed a similar high discriminatory potential. Regarding vowel quality, the central vowel /a/ was found to be the most speaker-discriminatory segment, followed by front vowels. Moreover, stressed vowels displayed a higher inter-speaker discrimination than unstressed vowels in both groups; however, the combination of stressed and unstressed vowels was found even more explanatory in terms of the observed differences. Although identical twins displayed a higher phonetic similarity, they were not found phonetically identical.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Lau HYC, RC Scherer (2021)

Objective Measures of Two Musical Interpretations of an Excerpt From Berlioz's "La mort d'Ophélie".

Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation pii:S0892-1997(21)00011-4 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to determine objective production differences relative to two emotional interpretations in performing an excerpt from a classical art song. The null hypothesis was proposed.

METHODS: The first author recorded an excerpt from an art song. The excerpt was sung with two contrasting musical interpretations: an "empathetic legato" approach, and a "sarcastic" approach characterized by emphatic attacks. Microphone, airflow, and electroglottography signals were digitized. The vowels were analyzed in terms of intensity, long term average spectra, fundamental frequency (fo), airflow vibrato rate and extent, vowel onset slope, intensity comparison of harmonic frequencies, and glottal measures based on electroglottograph waveforms. Four consonant tokens were analyzed relative to airflow, voice onset time, and production duration.

RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The emphatic performance had faster vowel onset, increased glottal adduction, increased intensity of harmonics in 2-3 kHz, increased intensity in the fourth and fifth formants, inferred subglottal pressure increase, increased airflow for /f/, and greater aspiration airflow for /p, t/. Vibrato extents for intensity, fo, and airflow were wider in the emphatic approach. Findings revealed larger EGGW25 and peak-to-peak amplitude values of the electroglottography waveform, suggesting greater vocal fold contact area and longer glottal closure for the emphatic approach. Long-term average spectrum analyses of the entire production displayed minor variation across all formant frequencies, suggesting an insignificant change in vocal tract shaping between the two approaches. This single-case objective study emphasizes the reality of physiological, aerodynamic, and acoustic production differences in the interpretive and pedagogical aspects of art song performance.

RevDate: 2021-07-28
CmpDate: 2021-07-28

Easwar V, Bridgwater E, D Purcell (2021)

The Influence of Vowel Identity, Vowel Production Variability, and Consonant Environment on Envelope Following Responses.

Ear and hearing, 42(3):662-672 pii:00003446-202105000-00017.

OBJECTIVES: The vowel-evoked envelope following response (EFR) is a useful tool for studying brainstem processing of speech in natural consonant-vowel productions. Previous work, however, demonstrates that the amplitude of EFRs is highly variable across vowels. To clarify factors contributing to the variability observed, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate: (1) the influence of vowel identity and the consonant context surrounding each vowel on EFR amplitude and (2) the effect of variations in repeated productions of a vowel on EFR amplitude while controlling for the consonant context.

DESIGN: In Experiment 1, EFRs were recorded in response to seven English vowels (/ij/, /Ι/, /ej/, /ε/, /æ/, /u/, and /JOURNAL/earher/04.03/00003446-202105000-00017/inline-graphic1/v/2021-04-30T105427Z/r/image-tiff/) embedded in each of four consonant contexts (/hVd/, /sVt/, /zVf/, and /JOURNAL/earher/04.03/00003446-202105000-00017/inline-graphic2/v/2021-04-30T105427Z/r/image-tiffVv/). In Experiment 2, EFRs were recorded in response to four different variants of one of the four possible vowels (/ij/, /ε/, /æ/, or /JOURNAL/earher/04.03/00003446-202105000-00017/inline-graphic3/v/2021-04-30T105427Z/r/image-tiff/), embedded in the same consonant-vowel-consonant environments used in Experiment 1. All vowels were edited to minimize formant transitions before embedding in a consonant context. Different talkers were used for the two experiments. Data from a total of 30 and 64 (16 listeners/vowel) young adults with normal hearing were included in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. EFRs were recorded using a single-channel electrode montage between the vertex and nape of the neck while stimuli were presented monaurally.

RESULTS: In Experiment 1, vowel identity had a significant effect on EFR amplitude with the vowel /æ/ eliciting the highest amplitude EFRs (170 nV, on average), and the vowel /ej/ eliciting the lowest amplitude EFRs (106 nV, on average). The consonant context surrounding each vowel stimulus had no statistically significant effect on EFR amplitude. Similarly in Experiment 2, consonant context did not influence the amplitude of EFRs elicited by the vowel variants. Vowel identity significantly altered EFR amplitude with /ε/ eliciting the highest amplitude EFRs (104 nV, on average). Significant, albeit small, differences (<21 nV, on average) in EFR amplitude were evident between some variants of /ε/ and /u/.

CONCLUSION: Based on a comprehensive set of naturally produced vowel samples in carefully controlled consonant contexts, the present study provides additional evidence for the sensitivity of EFRs to vowel identity and variations in vowel production. The surrounding consonant context (after removal of formant transitions) has no measurable effect on EFRs, irrespective of vowel identity and variant. The sensitivity of EFRs to nuances in vowel acoustics emphasizes the need for adequate control and evaluation of stimuli proposed for clinical and research purposes.

RevDate: 2021-02-14

Hodges-Simeon CR, Grail GPO, Albert G, et al (2021)

Testosterone therapy masculinizes speech and gender presentation in transgender men.

Scientific reports, 11(1):3494.

Voice is one of the most noticeably dimorphic traits in humans and plays a central role in gender presentation. Transgender males seeking to align internal identity and external gender expression frequently undergo testosterone (T) therapy to masculinize their voices and other traits. We aimed to determine the importance of changes in vocal masculinity for transgender men and to determine the effectiveness of T therapy at masculinizing three speech parameters: fundamental frequency (i.e., pitch) mean and variation (fo and fo-SD) and estimated vocal tract length (VTL) derived from formant frequencies. Thirty transgender men aged 20 to 40 rated their satisfaction with traits prior to and after T therapy and contributed speech samples and salivary T. Similar-aged cisgender men and women contributed speech samples for comparison. We show that transmen viewed voice change as critical to transition success compared to other masculine traits. However, T therapy may not be sufficient to fully masculinize speech: while fo and fo-SD were largely indistinguishable from cismen, VTL was intermediate between cismen and ciswomen. fo was correlated with salivary T, and VTL associated with T therapy duration. This argues for additional approaches, such as behavior therapy and/or longer duration of hormone therapy, to improve speech transition.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Yang J, L Xu (2021)

Vowel Production in Prelingually Deafened Mandarin-Speaking Children With Cochlear Implants.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 64(2):664-682.

Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize the acoustic profile and to evaluate the intelligibility of vowel productions in prelingually deafened, Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). Method Twenty-five children with CIs and 20 age-matched children with normal hearing (NH) were recorded producing a list of Mandarin disyllabic and trisyllabic words containing 20 Mandarin vowels [a, i, u, y, ɤ, ɿ, ʅ, ai, ei, ia, ie, ye, ua, uo, au, ou, iau, iou, uai, uei] located in the first consonant-vowel syllable. The children with CIs were all prelingually deafened and received unilateral implantation before 7 years of age with an average length of CI use of 4.54 years. In the acoustic analysis, the first two formants (F1 and F2) were extracted at seven equidistant time locations for the tested vowels. The durational and spectral features were compared between the CI and NH groups. In the vowel intelligibility task, the extracted vowel portions in both NH and CI children were presented to six Mandarin-speaking, NH adult listeners for identification. Results The acoustic analysis revealed that the children with CIs deviated from the NH controls in the acoustic features for both single vowels and compound vowels. The acoustic deviations were reflected in longer duration, more scattered vowel categories, smaller vowel space area, and distinct formant trajectories in the children with CIs in comparison to NH controls. The vowel intelligibility results showed that the recognition accuracy of the vowels produced by the children with CIs was significantly lower than that of the NH children. The confusion pattern of vowel recognition in the children with CIs generally followed that in the NH children. Conclusion Our data suggested that the prelingually deafened children with CIs, with a relatively long duration of CI experience, still showed measurable acoustic deviations and lower intelligibility in vowel productions in comparison to the NH children.

RevDate: 2021-03-25

Carl M, M Icht (2021)

Acoustic vowel analysis and speech intelligibility in young adult Hebrew speakers: Developmental dysarthria versus typical development.

International journal of language & communication disorders, 56(2):283-298.

BACKGROUND: Developmental dysarthria is a motor speech impairment commonly characterized by varying levels of reduced speech intelligibility. The relationship between intelligibility deficits and acoustic vowel space among these individuals has long been noted in the literature, with evidence of vowel centralization (e.g., in English and Mandarin). However, the degree to which this centralization occurs and the intelligibility-acoustic relationship is maintained in different vowel systems has yet to be studied thoroughly. In comparison with American English, the Hebrew vowel system is significantly smaller, with a potentially smaller vowel space area, a factor that may impact upon the comparisons of the acoustic vowel space and its correlation with speech intelligibility. Data on vowel space and speech intelligibility are particularly limited for Hebrew speakers with motor speech disorders.

AIMS: To determine the nature and degree of vowel space centralization in Hebrew-speaking adolescents and young adults with dysarthria, in comparison with typically developing (TD) peers, and to correlate these findings with speech intelligibility scores.

METHODS & PROCEDURES: Adolescents and young adults with developmental dysarthria (secondary to cerebral palsy (CP) and other motor deficits, n = 17) and their TD peers (n = 17) were recorded producing Hebrew corner vowels within single words. For intelligibility assessments, naïve listeners transcribed those words produced by speakers with CP, and intelligibility scores were calculated.

OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Acoustic analysis of vowel formants (F1, F2) revealed a centralization of vowel space among speakers with CP for all acoustic metrics of vowel formants, and mainly for the formant centralization ratio (FCR), in comparison with TD peers. Intelligibility scores were correlated strongly with the FCR metric for speakers with CP.

The main results, vowel space centralization for speakers with CP in comparison with TD peers, echo previous cross-linguistic results. The correlation of acoustic results with speech intelligibility carries clinical implications. Taken together, the results contribute to better characterization of the speech production deficit in Hebrew speakers with motor speech disorders. Furthermore, they may guide clinical decision-making and intervention planning to improve speech intelligibility. What this paper adds What is already known on the subject Speech production and intelligibility deficits among individuals with developmental dysarthria (e.g., secondary to CP) are well documented. These deficits have also been correlated with centralization of the acoustic vowel space, although primarily in English speakers. Little is known about the acoustic characteristics of vowels in Hebrew speakers with motor speech disorders, and whether correlations with speech intelligibility are maintained. What this paper adds to existing knowledge This study is the first to describe the acoustic characteristics of vowel space in Hebrew-speaking adolescents and young adults with developmental dysarthria. The results demonstrate a centralization of the acoustic vowel space in comparison with TD peers for all measures, as found in other languages. Correlation between acoustic measures and speech intelligibility scores were also documented. We discuss these results within the context of cross-linguistic comparisons. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? The results confirm the use of objective acoustic measures in the assessment of individuals with motor speech disorders, providing such data for Hebrew-speaking adolescents and young adults. These measures can be used to determine the nature and severity of the speech deficit across languages, may guide intervention planning, as well as measure the effectiveness of intelligibility-based treatment programmes.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

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