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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 07 Dec 2019 at 01:37 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-12-06

Severyn CJ, Brewster R, TM Andermann (2019)

Microbiota modification in hematology: still at the bench or ready for the bedside?.

Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program, 2019(1):303-314.

Growing evidence suggests that human microbiota likely influence diverse processes including hematopoiesis, chemotherapy metabolism, and efficacy, as well as overall survival in patients with hematologic malignancies and other cancers. Both host genetic susceptibility and host-microbiota interactions may impact cancer risk and response to treatment; however, microbiota have the potential to be uniquely modifiable and accessible targets for treatment. Here, we focus on strategies to modify microbiota composition and function in patients with cancer. First, we evaluate the use of fecal microbiota transplant to restore microbial equilibrium following perturbation by antibiotics and chemotherapy, and as a treatment of complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), such as graft-versus-host disease and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. We then address the potential use of both probiotics and dietary prebiotic compounds in targeted modulation of the microbiota intended to improve outcomes in hematologic diseases. With each type of therapy, we highlight the role that abnormal, or dysbiotic, microbiota play in disease, treatment efficacy, and toxicity and evaluate their potential promise as emerging strategies for microbiota manipulation in patients with hematologic malignancies and in those undergoing HSCT.

RevDate: 2019-12-06

Mohammed Y, Kootte RS, Kopatz WF, et al (2019)

The intestinal microbiome potentially affects thrombin generation in human subjects.

Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome plays a versatile role in the etiology of arterial thrombosis. In venous thrombosis, driven chiefly by plasma coagulation, no such role has yet been established. We hypothesized that the intestinal microbiome composition affects coagulation in humans.

METHODS: We used healthy donor fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) to experimentally change the microbiome composition in metabolic syndrome patients. 35 subjects were randomized in a blinded fashion to healthy donor FMT or autologous FMT as a control in a 2:1 ratio. We measured thrombin generation at baseline and after 6 weeks using automated calibrated thrombinography, and we determined plasma abundance of 32 coagulation related proteins using a targeted mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics assay with heavy labeled internal standards.

RESULTS: Healthy donor FMT prolonged the thrombinography lag time (median delta 0.0 vs. 0.25 minutes, p=0.039). The other thrombinography parameters showed no significant difference. Unsupervised cluster analysis suggested overall downregulation of coagulation related plasma proteins in subject clusters containing predominantly subjects that had a metabolic response to healthy donor FMT. FMT treatment status itself showed no clear clustering pattern with up- or downregulation however, and proteins did not cluster according to an apparent biological grouping.

DISCUSSION: A single healthy donor FMT tends to modestly suppress the onset thrombin generation in metabolic syndrome patients, representing initial proof-of-principle that the intestinal microbiota composition might affect the coagulation system in humans. The findings merit external validation as a role for intestinal microbiota in coagulation can have clinically important implications.

RevDate: 2019-12-06

Vaughn VM, Greene MT, Ratz D, et al (2019)

Antibiotic stewardship teams and Clostridioides difficile practices in United States hospitals: A national survey in The Joint Commission antibiotic stewardship standard era.

Infection control and hospital epidemiology pii:S0899823X19003131 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) can be prevented through infection prevention practices and antibiotic stewardship. Diagnostic stewardship (ie, strategies to improve use of microbiological testing) can also improve antibiotic use. However, little is known about the use of such practices in US hospitals, especially after multidisciplinary stewardship programs became a requirement for US hospital accreditation in 2017. Thus, we surveyed US hospitals to assess antibiotic stewardship program composition, practices related to CDI, and diagnostic stewardship.

METHODS: Surveys were mailed to infection preventionists at 900 randomly sampled US hospitals between May and October 2017. Hospitals were surveyed on antibiotic stewardship programs; CDI prevention, treatment, and testing practices; and diagnostic stewardship strategies. Responses were compared by hospital bed size using weighted logistic regression.

RESULTS: Overall, 528 surveys were completed (59% response rate). Almost all (95%) responding hospitals had an antibiotic stewardship program. Smaller hospitals were less likely to have stewardship team members with infectious diseases (ID) training, and only 41% of hospitals met The Joint Commission accreditation standards for multidisciplinary teams. Guideline-recommended CDI prevention practices were common. Smaller hospitals were less likely to use high-tech disinfection devices, fecal microbiota transplantation, or diagnostic stewardship strategies.

CONCLUSIONS: Following changes in accreditation standards, nearly all US hospitals now have an antibiotic stewardship program. However, many hospitals, especially smaller hospitals, appear to struggle with access to ID expertise and with deploying diagnostic stewardship strategies. CDI prevention could be enhanced through diagnostic stewardship and by emphasizing the role of non-ID-trained pharmacists and clinicians in antibiotic stewardship.

RevDate: 2019-12-05

He Y, Li X, Yu H, et al (2019)

The Functional Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:393.

Increasingly studies revealed that dysbiosis of gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has drawn more and more attention and become an important therapeutic approach. This study aims to examine the facts about the effective components and look into potential mechanisms of FMT. Colitis was induced by 3% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Colitis mice were administered by oral gavage with fecal suspension, fecal supernatant, fecal bacteria, or boiling-killed fecal bacteria from healthy controls and the disease activity index was monitored daily. On the seventh day, mice were euthanized. The length, histological score, parameters related to inflammation, gut barrier functions of the colon, activities of digestive protease and β-glucuronidase in feces were measured. All of the four fecal components showed certain degree of efficacy in DSS-induced colitis, while transplantation of fecal suspension showed the most potent effect as demonstrated by less body weight loss, lower disease activity scores, more expression of tight junction proteins and TRAF6 and IκBα, less expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, TLR-4, and MyD88 in gut tissue, as well as restoration of fecal β-glucuronidase and decreases in fecal digestive proteases. These results provide a novel insight into the possible mechanism of FMT and may help to improve and optimize clinical use of FMT.

RevDate: 2019-12-05

Yin A, Luo Y, Chen W, et al (2019)

FAM96A Protects Mice From Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis by Preventing Microbial Dysbiosis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:381.

Family with sequence similarity 96 member A (FAM96A) is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular protein that is involved in the maturation of the Fe/S protein, iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), and the mitochondria-related apoptosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells. In this study, we used a mouse model of chemically induced colitis to investigate the physiological role of FAM96A in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. At baseline, colons from Fam96a-/- mice exhibited microbial dysbiosis, dysregulated epithelial cell turnover, an increased number of goblet cells, and disordered tight junctions with functional deficits affecting intestinal permeability. After cohousing, the differences between wild-type and Fam96a-/- colons were abrogated, suggesting that FAM96A affects colonic epithelial cells in a microbiota-dependent manner. Fam96a deficiency in mice resulted in increased susceptibility to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Importantly, the colitogenic activity of Fam96a-/- intestinal microbiota was transferable to wild-type littermate mice via fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), leading to exacerbation of DSS-induced colitis. Taken together, our data indicate that FAM96A helps to maintain colonic homeostasis and protect against DSS-induced colitis by preventing gut microbial dysbiosis. This study used gene knockout animals to help to understand the in vivo effects of the Fam96a gene for the first time and provides new evidence regarding host-microbiota interactions.

RevDate: 2019-12-05

Oksi J, Anttila VJ, E Mattila (2019)

Treatment of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection.

Annals of medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides (formerly: Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of diarrhea for inpatients as well as outpatients. Usually, CDI is healthcare-associated but the number of community-acquired infections is increasing. CDI is generally associated with changes in the normal intestinal microbiota caused by administration of antibiotics. Elderly and immunocompromised patients are at greater risk for CDI and CDI recurrence. Recently, the treatment options of CDI have undergone major changes: current recommendations speak against using metronidazole for primary CDI, fidaxomicin and bezlotoxumab have been added to the treatment armamentarium and microbial replacement therapies have emerged. Several other therapies are undergoing clinical trials. In this paper we review current treatment guidelines, present the most recent data on the options to treat CDI and glance toward future developments. Key messages:The cornerstones for the treatment of CDI are vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Metronidazole should be used only in mild-to-moderate disease in younger patients who have no or only few risk factors for recurrence.In recurrent CDI, bezlotoxumab infusion (a monoclonal antibody against C. difficile toxin B) may be considered as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy in addition to the standard care provided to patients with several risk factors for recurrence.Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) should be offered to patients with frequently recurring CDI.

RevDate: 2019-12-04

Wang Z, Hua W, Li C, et al (2019)

Protective Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Colitis and Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer in Mice Is Associated With Treg Cells.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2498.

Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is the most serious outcome of inflammatory bowel disease, which has an alteration of commensal intestinal microbiota. However, the role of intestinal microbiota on CAC progression is not well-understood. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used for treating murine azoxymethane-dextran sodium sulfate (AOM-DSS) model of CAC. Composition of gut microbiota during FMT treatment was analyzed. RT-PCR and ELISA were used to detect the inflammatory factors, and immunofluorescence was applied to examine the phospho-nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65/p100 and Ki67-positive cells in the colons. In addition, flow cytometry was performed to analyze the immune cell after FMT treatment. Rehabilitation of the intestinal microbiota by FMT restored both the ratio and diversity of microbiota during CAC progression. Remarkably, a favorable morphometric outcome characterized by decreased tumor load and size was observed in CAC mice with FMT treatment. In addition, an anti-inflammatory function of FMT was demonstrated by decreasing pro-inflammatory factors but increasing anti-inflammatory factors through inhibiting canonical NF-κB activity and cellular proliferation in colons of CAC mice. The expression of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) was significantly increased after FMT treatment in CAC mice, but not T helper (Th)1/2/17 cells. Our study aids in the understanding of CAC pathogenesis and reveals a previously unrecognized role for FMT in the treatment of CAC through restoring the intestinal microbiota and inducing regulatory T cells.

RevDate: 2019-12-04

Magruder M, Sholi AN, Gong C, et al (2019)

Gut uropathogen abundance is a risk factor for development of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection.

Nature communications, 10(1):5521 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-13467-w.

The origin of most bacterial infections in the urinary tract is often presumed to be the gut. Herein, we investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota and future development of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI). We perform gut microbial profiling using 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing on 510 fecal specimens from 168 kidney transplant recipients and metagenomic sequencing on a subset of fecal specimens and urine supernatant specimens. We report that a 1% relative gut abundance of Escherichia is an independent risk factor for Escherichia bacteriuria and UTI and a 1% relative gut abundance of Enterococcus is an independent risk factor for Enterococcus bacteriuria. Strain analysis establishes a close strain level alignment between species found in the gut and in the urine in the same subjects. Our results support a gut microbiota-UTI axis, suggesting that modulating the gut microbiota may be a potential novel strategy to prevent UTIs.

RevDate: 2019-12-02

Canakis A, Haroon M, HC Weber (2019)

Irritable bowel syndrome and gut microbiota.

Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recent studies exploring the gut microbiota in pathogenesis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

RECENT FINDINGS: Primary bacterial gut disturbances have been linked to the development and severity of IBS. Dysbiosis, or alteration in the normal intestinal flora, modulates intestinal permeability, inflammation, gut motility and likely quality of life. These biomechanical changes are associated with enteric and central nervous system processing as well. When compared to healthy controls, IBS patients display poor quality of life measures and are at increased risk of depression and anxiety. The severity of psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS has been linked with a distinct intestinal microbiota signature. Efforts to modulate intestinal dysbiosis in IBS have shown little improvement in large systematic reviews. The low FODMAP diet reduces bacteria, such as Bifidobacterum and Actinobacteria. Although rifaximin improves symptoms, it may only stimulate a transient effect on the gut microbiota. Fecal microbiota transplant does not provide prolonged symptom relief in IBS.

SUMMARY: This review elucidates recent advances in IBS and the gut microbiota. Microbiota changes are one underlying factor in perpetuating global IBS symptoms. The opportunity to exploit this disturbance through treatment modalities requires further investigation.

RevDate: 2019-12-02

Grinspan A (2019)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients With Clostridium difficile Infection.

Gastroenterology & hepatology, 15(9):481-483.

RevDate: 2019-12-02
CmpDate: 2019-12-02

Hata T, Miyata N, Takakura S, et al (2019)

The Gut Microbiome Derived From Anorexia Nervosa Patients Impairs Weight Gain and Behavioral Performance in Female Mice.

Endocrinology, 160(10):2441-2452.

Anorexia nervosa (AN) results in gut dysbiosis, but whether the dysbiosis contributes to AN-specific pathologies such as poor weight gain and neuropsychiatric abnormalities remains unclear. To address this, germ-free mice were reconstituted with the microbiota of four patients with restricting-type AN (gAN mice) and four healthy control individuals (gHC mice). The effects of gut microbes on weight gain and behavioral characteristics were examined. Fecal microbial profiles in recipient gnotobiotic mice were clustered with those of the human donors. Compared with gHC mice, gAN mice showed a decrease in body weight gain, concomitant with reduced food intake. Food efficiency ratio (body weight gain/food intake) was also significantly lower in gAN mice than in gHC mice, suggesting that decreased appetite as well as the capacity to convert ingested food to unit of body substance may contribute to poor weight gain. Both anxiety-related behavior measured by open-field tests and compulsive behavior measured by a marble-burying test were increased only in gAN mice but not in gHC mice. Serotonin levels in the brain stem of gAN mice were lower than those in the brain stem of gHC mice. Moreover, the genus Bacteroides showed the highest correlation with the number of buried marbles among all genera identified. Administration of Bacteroides vulgatus reversed compulsive behavior but failed to exert any substantial effect on body weight. Collectively, these results indicate that AN-specific dysbiosis may contribute to both poor weight gain and mental disorders in patients with AN.

RevDate: 2019-12-02
CmpDate: 2019-12-02

Frøland SS (2019)

Fecal transplantation and the microbiome.

Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke, 139(11): pii:19-0445.

RevDate: 2019-12-01

Liu Y, Wang Y, Ni Y, et al (2019)

Gut Microbiome Fermentation Determines the Efficacy of Exercise for Diabetes Prevention.

Cell metabolism pii:S1550-4131(19)30608-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Exercise is an effective strategy for diabetes management but is limited by the phenomenon of exercise resistance (i.e., the lack of or the adverse response to exercise on metabolic health). Here, in 39 medication-naive men with prediabetes, we found that exercise-induced alterations in the gut microbiota correlated closely with improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (clinicaltrials.gov entry NCT03240978). The microbiome of responders exhibited an enhanced capacity for biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids and catabolism of branched-chain amino acids, whereas those of non-responders were characterized by increased production of metabolically detrimental compounds. Fecal microbial transplantation from responders, but not non-responders, mimicked the effects of exercise on alleviation of insulin resistance in obese mice. Furthermore, a machine-learning algorithm integrating baseline microbial signatures accurately predicted personalized glycemic response to exercise in an additional 30 subjects. These findings raise the possibility of maximizing the benefits of exercise by targeting the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Herndon CC, Wang YP, CL Lu (2019)

Targeting the gut microbiota for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder that affects an estimated 11% of people across the world. IBS patients are one of the largest subgroups seen in gastroenterology clinics, exhibit a lesser quality of life, and take greater use of the healthcare system. The exact etiology of IBS remains uncertain. Alterations in the gut microbiome may characterize apotential mechanism in the pathogenesis of IBS. This hypothesis is paralleled by rodent models in which manipulation of the gut microbiota leads to disturbed physiological functions along the brain-gut axis. Recent research in IBS treatments has redirected its focus towards gu microbiome based therapeutics. In this review, we discuss potential roles of enteric bacteria in the pathogenesis of IBS and its comorbidities. We then explore the manipulation of the enteric microbiota by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, dietary changes, and fecal microbiota transfer. We also discuss the positive and negative effects of these therapeutics on IBS symptoms.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Wang W, Zhai S, Xia Y, et al (2019)

Ochratoxin A induces liver inflammation: involvement of intestinal microbiota.

Microbiome, 7(1):151 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0761-z.

BACKGROUND: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin and induces liver inflammation to human and various species of animals. The intestinal microbiota has critical importance in liver inflammation; however, it remains to know whether intestinal microbiota mediates the liver inflammation induced by OTA. Here, we treated ducklings with oral gavage of OTA (235 μg/kg body weight) for 2 weeks. Then, the microbiota in the cecum and liver were analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing, and the inflammation in the liver was analyzed. To explore the role of intestinal microbiota in OTA-induced liver inflammation, intestinal microbiota was cleared with antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation was conducted.

RESULTS: Here, we find that OTA treatment in ducks altered the intestinal microbiota composition and structure [e.g., increasing the relative abundance of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-producing Bacteroides], and induced the accumulation of LPS and inflammation in the liver. Intriguingly, in antibiotic-treated ducks, OTA failed to induce these alterations in the liver. Notably, with the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) program, in which ducks were colonized with intestinal microbiota from control or OTA-treated ducks, we elucidated the involvement of intestinal microbiota, especially Bacteroides, in liver inflammation induced by OTA.

CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the role of gut microbiota in OTA-induced liver inflammation and open a new window for novel preventative or therapeutic intervention for mycotoxicosis.

RevDate: 2019-11-28

Wang Q, Fu YW, Wang YQ, et al (2019)

[Fecal microbiota transplantation for patients with refractory diarrhea after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi, 40(10):853-855.

Objective: To explore the availability and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation for patients with refractory diarrhea after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) . Methods: Four acute leukemia patients suffered from refractory diarrhea after allo-HSCT. One of them was refractory intestinal infection, the others were intestinal graft versus host disease. One or two doses of fecal microbiota, 3.4-6.0 U for one dose, were infused via nasal-jejunal tube. The curative effect and side effects were reviewed. Results: Three cases achieved complete remission while 1 was stable disease. The side effects included fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea, which all were Ⅰ grade. Conclusion: Fecal microbiota transplantation was effective and safe for refractory diarrhea after allo-HSCT.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Lv WJ, Wu XL, Chen WQ, et al (2019)

The Gut Microbiome Modulates the Changes in Liver Metabolism and in Inflammatory Processes in the Brain of Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Rats.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2019:7902874.

Generally, depression is the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Recent studies have showed that the gut microbiota can affect brain function through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, the underlying mechanism of the microbiota and potential influence of depression remain elusive. We aimed to determine how gut microbiome contributes to the process of depression and further influences the host. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) is used to establish a depression model. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is applied to illustrate that depression can be transmitted via microbiota, and metabolism of liver analysis is applied to demonstrate further influence to the liver. We also analyzed the astrocyte activation in the brain by immunofluorescence (IF). Here, we show that the structure of the gut microbiome changes markedly after rats undergo CUMS. Notably, we found that the ratio of Lactobacillus to Clostridium can be a vital index for the development of depression. Depression-like behavior can be duplicated through FMT. Moreover, increased zonulin and fatty acid binding protein-2 indicates that gut barrier integrity is broken after FMT. Subsequently, metabolomics shows that liver metabolic disorder occurs and leads to liver coagulative necrosis. In addition, increased inflammatory cytokine expression and higher astrocyte activation indicate an inflammatory process in the brain. These findings suggest that dysbiosis gut microbiome contributes to development of depression and further causes liver metabolic disorders in a way that may be relevant to the Lactobacillus to Clostridium ratio.

RevDate: 2019-11-26

Lee MSL, Ramakrishna B, Moss AC, et al (2019)

Successful Treatment of Fulminant Clostridioides difficile Infection with Emergent Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Prolonged, Severe Neutropenia.

We present a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and prolonged, severe neutropenia who developed fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection refractory to medical therapy and was high-risk for surgical intervention. He was treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for life-saving cure. The patient had subsequent clinical improvement, however, developed multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia two days post-procedure. We describe subsequent investigation of this event that found this bacteremia was not related to the donor stool administered during FMT. This case adds to the literature that FMT could be considered in heavily immunocompromised patients with fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection where maximal medical therapy has been ineffective and surgery may carry an excessively high mortality risk.

RevDate: 2019-11-26

Bowman JA, GH Utter (2019)

Evolving Strategies to Manage Clostridium difficile Colitis.

Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract pii:10.1007/s11605-019-04478-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridium difficile infection remains a common nosocomial illness with a significant impact on health care delivery. As molecular phenotyping of this organism has changed our understanding of its transmission and virulence, so too have diagnostic methods and treatment strategies evolved in recent years. The burden of this infection falls predominantly on elderly patients with comorbidities who have recently received antibiotics. Oral or enteral vancomycin is now preferred for first-line antimicrobial treatment across the disease spectrum, including mild-moderate initial cases. Fidaxomicin (a novel macrolide antibiotic), bezlotoxumab (a monoclonal antibody against toxin TcdB), and fecal microbiota transplantation expand the therapeutic armamentarium, particularly for recurrent infection. Operative treatment should be reserved for patients with fulminant infection, and early identification of patients who would benefit from an operation remains a challenge. Less invasive surgical options-such as laparoscopic diverting ileostomy with colonic irrigation-may improve survival and other outcomes relative to total abdominal colectomy and represent an attractive alternative particularly for frail patients.

RevDate: 2019-12-01

Seishima J, Iida N, Kitamura K, et al (2019)

Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host.

Genome biology, 20(1):252.

BACKGROUND: Recent metagenomic analyses have revealed dysbiosis of the gut microbiota of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. However, the impacts of this dysbiosis are not fully understood, particularly at the strain level.

RESULTS: We perform whole-genome shotgun sequencing of fecal DNA extracts from 13 healthy donors and 16 UC and 8 Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The microbiota of UC and CD patients is taxonomically and functionally divergent from that of healthy donors, with E. faecium being the most differentially abundant species between the two microbial communities. Transplantation of feces from UC or CD patients into Il10-/- mice promotes pathological inflammation and cytokine expression in the mouse colon, although distinct cytokine expression profiles are observed between UC and CD. Unlike isolates derived from healthy donors, E. faecium isolates from the feces of UC patients, along with E. faecium strain ATCC 19434, promotes colitis and colonic cytokine expression. Inflammatory E. faecium strains, including ATCC 19434 and a UC-derived strain, cluster separately from commercially available probiotic strains based on whole-genome shotgun sequencing analysis. The presence of E. faecium in fecal samples is associated with large disease extent and the need for multiple medications in UC patients.

CONCLUSIONS: E. faecium strains derived from UC patients display an inflammatory genotype that causes colitis.

RevDate: 2019-11-25

Albuhairi S, R Rachid (2020)

Novel Therapies for Treatment of Food Allergy.

Immunology and allergy clinics of North America, 40(1):175-186.

Food allergy prevalence has increased over the past 2 decades and is estimated to affect 8% of children and 4% to 10% of adults. There is an unmet need to evaluate new therapeutic modalities that may decrease the risk of food-induced anaphylaxis and improve patients' quality of life. Oral, epicutaneous, and sublingual food immunotherapies have different safety and efficacy profiles, and their long-term outcome and applicability are unclear. Food allergy trials are currently evaluating different biologics (given as monotherapy or adjunct to immunotherapy), modified food proteins, DNA vaccines, and fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2019-12-02

Chen Y, Zhang L, Hong G, et al (2019)

Probiotic mixtures with aerobic constituent promoted the recovery of multi-barriers in DSS-induced chronic colitis.

Life sciences, 240:117089 pii:S0024-3205(19)31016-1 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Gut microbiota has been closely linked to the mucosal immune and been regarded as a reliable target for intestinal inflammation. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic roles of probiotic mixtures of Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis with (quadruple probiotics, P-qua) or without (triple probiotics, P-tri) aerobic Bacillus cereus in colitis, focusing on the multiple barrier functions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chronic colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice. The probiotic mixtures P-qua or P-tri was gavage administrated respectively, while fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a positive control. The intestinal inflammation and functions of multiple barriers were assessed, including the mucus barrier, epithelial barrier and endothelial barrier known as gut-vascular barrier (GVB). Altered composition and diversity in gut microbiota were observed via sequencing analysis.

KEY FINDINGS: Both P-qua and P-tri relieved the intestinal inflammation and improved the functions of multiple barriers with increased integrity of mucous layer, enhanced transepithelial electrical resistance, declined epithelial and endothelial permeability to macromolecules in DSS-colitis. Aerobe-contained P-qua revealed a more active role in barrier recovering relative to P-tri, while FMT as a positive control seemed to get better results than pure probiotics. Indeed, P-qua was effective in rebuilding the structure and diversity of gut flora in DSS-colitis, especially increased abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides.

SIGNIFICANCE: Aerobe-contained P-qua was a powerful adjuvant therapy for chronic colitis, via restoring the intestinal microflora and recovering the multi-barriers in the inflamed gut.

RevDate: 2019-11-23

Cheng H, Guan X, Chen D, et al (2019)

The Th17/Treg Cell Balance: A Gut Microbiota-Modulated Story.

Microorganisms, 7(12): pii:microorganisms7120583.

The intestinal tract of vertebrates is normally colonized with a remarkable number of commensal microorganisms that are collectively referred to as gut microbiota. Gut microbiota has been demonstrated to interact with immune cells and to modulate specific signaling pathways involving both innate and adaptive immune processes. Accumulated evidence suggests that the imbalance of Th17 and Treg cells is associated with the development of many diseases. Herein, we emphatically present recent findings to show how specific gut microbiota organisms and metabolites shape the balance of Th17 and Treg cells. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in diseases caused by the imbalance of Th17 and Treg cells.

RevDate: 2019-11-21

Basson AR, Gomez-Nguyen A, Menghini P, et al (2019)

Human Gut Microbiome Transplantation in Ileitis Prone Mice: A Tool for the Functional Characterization of the Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5637456 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong digestive disease characterized by periods of severe inflammation and remission. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing a variable effect on ileitis severity from human gut microbiota isolated from IBD donors in remission and that of healthy controls in a mouse model of IBD.

METHODS: We conducted a series of single-donor intensive and nonintensive fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments using feces from IBD patients in remission and healthy non-IBD controls (N = 9 donors) in a mouse model of Crohn's disease (CD)-like ileitis that develops ileitis in germ-free (GF) conditions (SAMP1/YitFC; N = 96 mice).

RESULTS: Engraftment studies demonstrated that the microbiome of IBD in remission could have variable effects on the ileum of CD-prone mice (pro-inflammatory, nonmodulatory, or anti-inflammatory), depending on the human donor. Fecal microbiota transplantation achieved a 95% ± 0.03 genus-level engraftment of human gut taxa in mice, as confirmed at the operational taxonomic unit level. In most donors, microbiome colonization abundance patterns remained consistent over 60 days. Microbiome-based metabolic predictions of GF mice with Crohn's or ileitic-mouse donor microbiota indicate that chronic amino/fatty acid (valine, leucine, isoleucine, histidine; linoleic; P < 1e-15) alterations (and not bacterial virulence markers; P > 0.37) precede severe ileitis in mice, supporting their potential use as predictors/biomarkers in human CD.

CONCLUSION: The gut microbiome of IBD remission patients is not necessarily innocuous. Characterizing the inflammatory potential of each microbiota in IBD patients using mice may help identify the patients' best anti-inflammatory fecal sample for future use as an anti-inflammatory microbial autograft during disease flare-ups.

RevDate: 2019-11-26

Lin DM, Koskella B, Ritz NL, et al (2019)

Transplanting Fecal Virus-Like Particles Reduces High-Fat Diet-Induced Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Mice.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:348.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective tool for treating Clostridium difficile infection in the setting of dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiome. FMT for other forms of human disorders linked to dysbiosis have been less effective. The fecal microbiota contains a high density of virus-like particles (VLP), up to 90% of which are bacteriophages, thought to have a role in regulating gut bacterial populations. We hypothesized that transplantation of the phage-containing fecal VLP fraction may reduce bacterial density in the dysbiotic setting of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). In an experiment using fecal transplantation, we compared the effect of the fecal VLP fraction (bacteria removed) against "Whole" FMT (bacteria intact) on the ileal microbiome. Recipients were either treated with a 30-day high-fat diet (HFD) as a model of dysbiosis to induce SIBO or were on a standard diet (SD). We observed that transplantation of fecal VLPs from donors on a HFD was sufficient to alter the ileal microbiota, but the effect was dependent on diet of the recipient. In recipients on a HFD, ileal bacterial density was reduced. In recipients on a SD, the ileal microbiome transitioned toward the composition associated with a HFD. In both recipient groups, transplantation of fecal VLP fraction alone produced the same outcome as whole FMT. Neither treatment altered expression of antimicrobial peptides. These findings demonstrated a potential role of VLPs, likely phages, for modifying the gut microbiome during dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-11-21

Quaranta G, Fancello G, Ianiro G, et al (2019)

Laboratory Handling Practice for Faecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Faecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) consists of the infusion of faeces from a healthy donor to the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient patient to treat disease associated with alterations in gut microbiota. The objective of this article is to describe laboratory workflow of an FMT lab to provide tips for preparing the faecal suspensions to be infused.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-stool solutions obtained from ten donors were prepared using two different protocols: Magnet Plate Emulsion (MPE) and Seward StomacherTM Emulsion (SSE). We evaluated parameters such as preparation time, handiness, and aerobic and anaerobic microbial count. For three donors, we monitored bacterial counts after defrosting at different time-points. MPE requires more time than SSE. In terms of microbial load, both methods showed similar values, with small and statistically differences (p ≤ 0·05) regarding anaerobes in favour of SSE. Frozen aliquots showed the same bacterial load values after defrosting.

CONCLUSION: Although both methods allow an easy and available preparation of a stool suspension, SSE seems more suitable, particularly for stool banking. Aerobic and anaerobic species are preserved with both protocols; and safety for laboratory operators is guaranteed.

In recent years, FMT has become a fascinating and interesting subject. Nevertheless, there are no real guidelines describing laboratory facilities and procedures. This paper aims to be a useful and simple guide to increase the number FMT centres as much possible.

RevDate: 2019-11-20

Cheng YW, M Fischer (2019)

Treatment of Severe and Fulminnant Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Current treatment options in gastroenterology pii:10.1007/s11938-019-00262-1 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article will review current management strategies for severe and fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).

RECENT FINDINGS: Clostridioides difficile is the most common nosocomial cause of infectious diarrhea. With the rise of hypervirulent strains of CDI, almost 8% of patients hospitalized with CDI are afflicted with severe CDI (SCDI) or fulminant CDI (FCDI). A significant proportion of these patients do not respond to recommended anti-CDI antibiotic therapy such as oral vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Current recommendations suggest that patients with refractory CDI should proceed to colectomy or diverting loop ileostomy with colonic lavage. However, both of these surgical interventions result in high rates of post-surgical mortality approaching 30%. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapy that is recommended in recurrent CDI. Recent studies have found that FMT can safely produce cure rates between 70 and 90% in patients with SCDI and FCDI, while significantly decreasing rates of CDI-related mortality and colectomy. A patient population likely to benefit the most from FMT is elderly patients due to their increased risk for CDI, treatment failure, and high comorbidity burden that may preclude surgical intervention. FMT should be considered in patients with SCDI or FCDI particularly when traditional anti-CDI antibiotics are ineffective.

RevDate: 2019-11-19

Fu A, Mo Q, Wu Y, et al (2019)

Protective effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens against Salmonella via polarizing macrophages to M1 phenotype directly and to M2 depended on microbiota.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SC06 (BaSC06), a potential probiotic, plays a positive role in animal growth performance and immune function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of BaSC06 against Salmonella infection and its association with macrophage polarization. C57BL/6 mice were fed with or without a BaSC06-containing diet before Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) challenge. Results showed that BaSC06 had a protective effect against ST inoculation and induced both M1 and M2 macrophage polarization in the cecum. An in vitro co-culture model demonstrated that BaSC06 promoted M1 polarization directly, and thus increased the phagocytosis and bactericidal activity against ST. In addition, adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated by BaSC06 significantly decreased the counts of ST in the spleen. Furthermore, 16S rRNA-based analysis of cecal content showed that BaSC06 significantly increased the proportion of Verrucomicrobia and decreased Bacterodetes. Transplantation of the fecal microbiota from BaSC06-treated animals promoted M2 macrophage polarization in the cecum and significantly relieved inflammation caused by ST. In conclusion, BaSC06 polarized macrophages to the M1 type directly resulting in excellent bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the microbiota modified by BaSC06 can induce M2 polarization which ameliorates the inflammation caused by ST.

RevDate: 2019-11-21
CmpDate: 2019-11-21

Schulte LA, Schäfer A, Steding K, et al (2019)

[Acceptance of fecal microbiota transfer among patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in a highly specialized outpatient department: a questionnaire-based survey].

Zeitschrift fur Gastroenterologie, 57(11):1291-1297.

Recently, research in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has become increasingly focused on fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) due to increasing evidence of its possible benefits. Still, there are doubts about this method, because there is contradicting evidence regarding its effectiveness and the possible side effects are not well known. Furthermore, the majority of patients are not open to this procedure. We performed a questionnaire-based survey amongst 302 patients with an inflammatory bowel disease that received treatment in our specialized outpatient clinic to determine the factors relevant for acceptance or rejection of fecal microbiota transfer as a possible treatment for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Our data supports the hypothesis that a lack of information about FMT is a key factor for hypothetical acceptance of this method (68 % of pre-informed participants vs. 30 % of not pre-informed participants would accept FMT as treatment, p < 0.001), and, therefore, it highlights patient education as a possible intervention to improve acceptance. The main concern regarding FMT was possible transmission of infections (ranked first by 98 participants). The most accepted method to perform FMT was application via oral capsule (44 % of participants).

RevDate: 2019-11-21

Krajicek E, Bohm M, Sagi S, et al (2019)

Fulminant Clostridium difficile Infection Cured by Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient With Critical Neutropenia.

ACG case reports journal, 6(8):e00198.

Clostridium difficile infection is the most prevalent health care-associated infection. Treatment relies on antimicrobial therapy with mounting evidence supporting fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in refractory cases. Cohort studies have documented the safety of FMT in immunocompromised patients. However, the safety of FMT in patients with critically low (<500/μL) absolute neutrophil count is unknown. Currently, in severely immunocompromised bone marrow or solid organ transplant recipients, FMT is delayed until normalization of absolute neutrophil count. We present a patient with absolute neutropenia in whom sequential FMTs were safely and successfully administered, resulting in cure of fulminant C. difficile infection.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Terveer EM, van Gool T, Ooijevaar RE, et al (2019)

Human transmission of Blastocystis by Fecal Microbiota Transplantation without development of gastrointestinal symptoms in recipients.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America pii:5625875 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI) are treated with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) provided by healthy donors. Blastocystis colonization of donors is considered an exclusion criterion, whereas its pathogenicity is still under debate.

METHODS: The introduction of molecular screening for Blastocystis sp. at our stool bank identified two donors with prior negative microscopy but positive PCR. Potential transmission of Blastocystis sp. to patients was assessed on 16 fecal patient samples, pre- and post-FMT, by PCR and subtype (ST) analysis. In addition, clinical outcome for treatment of rCDI (n=31), as well as development of gastrointestinal symptoms was assessed.

RESULTS: One donor carried Blastocystis ST1, the other contained ST3. All patients tested Blastocystis negative prior to FMT. With a median of 20.5 days after FMT, 8 of 16 (50%) patients developed intestinal colonization with Blastocystis, with identical ST-sequences as their respective donors. Blastocystis containing fecal suspensions were used to treat 31 rCDI patients, with a FMT success rate of 84%. This success rate was not statistically different from patients transferred with Blastocystis sp. negative donor feces (93%, 76/82). Patients transferred with Blastocystis sp. positive donor feces did not report any significant difference in bowel complaints in the first week, after 3 weeks and the months following FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the first transmission of Blastocystis ST1 and ST3 from donor to patients by FMT. This did not result in gastrointestinal symptomatology or have any significant effect on rCDI treatment outcome.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Fukui H (2019)

Role of Gut Dysbiosis in Liver Diseases: What Have We Learned So Far?.

Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 7(4): pii:diseases7040058.

Accumulating evidence supports that gut dysbiosis may relate to various liver diseases. Alcoholics with high intestinal permeability had a decrease in the abundance of Ruminnococcus. Intestinal dysmotility, increased gastric pH, and altered immune responses in addition to environmental and genetic factors are likely to cause alcohol-associated gut microbial changes. Alcohol-induced dysbiosis may be associated with gut barrier dysfunction, as microbiota and their products modulate barrier function by affecting epithelial pro-inflammatory responses and mucosal repair functions. High levels of plasma endotoxin are detected in alcoholics, in moderate fatty liver to advanced cirrhosis. Decreased abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an anti-inflammatory commensal, stimulating IL-10 secretion and inhibiting IL-12 and interferon-γ expression. Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia were reported to be increased in NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) patients. Increased abundance of fecal Escherichia to elevated blood alcohol levels in these patients and gut microbiota enriched in alcohol-producing bacteria produce more alcohol (alcohol hypothesis). Some undetermined pathological sequences related to gut dysbiosis may facilitate energy-producing and proinflammatory conditions for the progression of NAFLD. A shortage of autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria and an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria are common findings in cirrhotic patients. The ratio of the amounts of beneficial autochthonous taxa (Lachnospiraceae + Ruminococaceae + Veillonellaceae + Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XIV) to those of potentially pathogenic taxa (Enterobacteriaceae + Bacteroidaceae) was low in those with early death and organ failure. Cirrhotic patients with decreased microbial diversity before liver transplantation were more likely to develop post-transplant infections and cognitive impairment related to residual dysbiosis. Patients with PSC had marked reduction of bacterial diversity. Enterococcus and Lactobacillus were increased in PSC patients (without liver cirrhosis.) Treatment-naive PBC patients were associated with altered composition and function of gut microbiota, as well as a lower level of diversity. As serum anti-gp210 antibody has been considered as an index of disease progression, relatively lower species richness and lower abundance of Faecalibacterium spp. in gp210-positive patients are interesting. The dysbiosis-induced altered bacterial metabolites such as a hepatocarcinogenesis promotor DCA, together with a leaky gut and bacterial translocation. Gut protective Akkermansia and butyrate-producing genera were decreased, while genera producing-lipopolysaccharide were increased in early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.

RevDate: 2019-11-17

Severyn CJ, Brewster R, TM Andermann (2019)

Microbiota modification in hematology: still at the bench or ready for the bedside?.

Blood advances, 3(21):3461-3472.

Growing evidence suggests that human microbiota likely influence diverse processes including hematopoiesis, chemotherapy metabolism, and efficacy, as well as overall survival in patients with hematologic malignancies and other cancers. Both host genetic susceptibility and host-microbiota interactions may impact cancer risk and response to treatment; however, microbiota have the potential to be uniquely modifiable and accessible targets for treatment. Here, we focus on strategies to modify microbiota composition and function in patients with cancer. First, we evaluate the use of fecal microbiota transplant to restore microbial equilibrium following perturbation by antibiotics and chemotherapy, and as a treatment of complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), such as graft-versus-host disease and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. We then address the potential use of both probiotics and dietary prebiotic compounds in targeted modulation of the microbiota intended to improve outcomes in hematologic diseases. With each type of therapy, we highlight the role that abnormal, or dysbiotic, microbiota play in disease, treatment efficacy, and toxicity and evaluate their potential promise as emerging strategies for microbiota manipulation in patients with hematologic malignancies and in those undergoing HSCT.

RevDate: 2019-11-10

Hadjivasilis A, Tsioutis C, Michalinos A, et al (2019)

New insights into irritable bowel syndrome: from pathophysiology to treatment.

Annals of gastroenterology, 32(6):554-564.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common reason to visit a gastroenterologist. IBS was believed to be a functional disease, but many possible pathophysiologic mechanisms can now explain the symptoms. IBS patients are classified into subtypes according to their predominant bowel habit, based on the Rome IV criteria. These include diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant IBS, as well as the mixed type, a combination of the two. Usually, IBS treatment is based on the predominant symptoms, with many options for each subtype. A new promising treatment option, fecal microbiota transplantation, seems to have beneficial effects on IBS. However, treating the pathophysiological causative agent responsible for the symptoms is an emerging approach. Therefore, before the appropriate therapeutic option is chosen for treating IBS, a clinical evaluation of its pathophysiology should be performed.

RevDate: 2019-11-08

Alhifany AA, Almutairi AR, Almangour TA, et al (2019)

Comparing the efficacy and safety of faecal microbiota transplantation with bezlotoxumab in reducing the risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

BMJ open, 9(11):e031145 pii:bmjopen-2019-031145.

OBJECTIVES: The risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDIs) is high when treated with standard antibiotics therapy (SAT) alone. It is suggested that the addition of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or bezlotoxumab after SAT reduces the risk of RCDI. In the absence of head-to-head randomised controlled trials (RCTs), this review attempts to compare the efficacy and safety of bezlotoxumab with FMT in reducing the risk of RCDI in hospitalised patients.

DESIGN: A systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis.

DATA SOURCE: A comprehensive search from inception to 30 February 2019 was conducted in four databases (Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov).

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: RCTs reporting the resolution of diarrhoea associated with RCDI without relapse for at least 60 days after the end of treatments as the primary outcome.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We extracted author, year of publication, study design and binomial data that represented the resolution of diarrhoea or adverse events of monoclonal antibodies and FMT infusion. Random-effects models were used for resolution rate of RCDI and adverse events. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the quality of included RCTs.

RESULTS: Out of 1003 articles identified, seven RCTs involving 3043 patients contributed to the review. No difference was reported between single or multiple infusions of FMT and bezlotoxumab in resolving RCDI, (OR 1.53, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.39 to 5.16) and (OR 2.86, 95% CrI 1.29 to 6.57), respectively. Patients treated with SAT alone or bezlotoxumab with SAT showed significantly lower rates of diarrhoea than FMT (OR 0, 95% CrI 0 to 0.09) and (OR 0, 95% CrI 0 to 0.19), respectively. There was no difference in terms of other adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first network meta-analysis that has compared the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved monoclonal antibody bezlotoxumab with FMT for resolving RCDI. The quality of the included RCTs was variable. The findings of this study suggested no difference between single or multiple infusions of FMT and bezlotoxumab. However, FMT was associated with a higher rate of non-serious diarrhoea as opposed to SAT used alone or in combination with bezlotoxumab.

RevDate: 2019-11-08

Kang XX, Yan J, Huang F, et al (2019)

On the mechanism of antibiotic resistance and fecal microbiota transplantation.

Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE, 16(6):7057-7084.

Antibiotic resistance is a growing threat to human health and is caused by mainly the overuse of antibiotics in clinical medicine. Clinically, drug resistance emerges after a series of antibiotic treatments, implying that each treatment changes the intestinal flora composition and the accumulations of these changes induce the resistance. But mathematically, this cumulative effect cannot be achieved by a general population model, because the system will return to its pre-treatment state (an isolated steady state) after each cure. Based on the fact that sensitive bacteria and resistant bacteria are similar in most respects except their reactions to antibiotics, we developed a mathematical model with a specific phase-space structure: instead of isolated points, the steady states of this system compose one-dimensional manifolds (line segments). This structure explains the fundamental mechanism of antibiotic resistance: after antibiotic treatment, the system cannot return to the pretreatment healthy steady state but rather slightly moves along the manifold to a different steady state. Each use of antibiotics can change the ratio of resistant to susceptible pathogens in the host. The change the ratio can persist and accumulate, and finally promotes the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We also assessed key factors (such as pathogen composition, the amount and composition of beneficial bacteria, medication duration and bactericidal rates of drugs) influencing the development of drug resistance. In addition, we clarified how fecal microbiota transplantation affects the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. The effect is essentially a transfer towards the healthy state in the phase space. Finally, based on the mechanisms revealed by the mathematical models, we suggested some strategies to delay or prevent the emergence of drug resistance. These findings not only provide a solid theoretical basis for the treatment of antimicrobial resistance, but also inspire clues to the phenomenon of drug resistance.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Kumar V, M Fischer (2019)

Expert opinion on fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection and beyond.

Expert opinion on biological therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Introduction: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure involving transfer of stool from a healthy donor into the intestinal tract of a diseased recipient to restore intestinal microbial composition and functionality. FMT's tremendous success in recurrent and refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) catalyzed gut microbiota research and opened the door to microbiome-based therapy for various gastrointestinal and other disorders.Areas covered: We used PubMed search engine to identify significant publications in the field of CDI and FMT. Here we present an overview of the current literature on FMT's use for recurrent, non-severe, severe, and fulminant CDI and on promising future application.Expert opinion: FMT as the best tool for treatment of antibiotic-refractory CDI has gained immense popularity over the last decade. The future of gut microbiota-based therapy should include oral formulations that contain well-described ingredients in effective doses, clear mechanism of action, and excellent safety profile.

RevDate: 2019-11-29

Wu M, Li P, An Y, et al (2019)

Phloretin ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice by regulating the gut microbiota.

Pharmacological research, 150:104489.

Phloretin, extracted from the pericarp and velamen of apples or pears, is a dihydrochalcone flavonoid with anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. It has been reported that phloretin has anti-inflammatory effects in ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. However, the role of the gut microbiota in the phloretin anti-UC process remains unclear. In this study, we observed that the anti-UC effect of phloretin was affected by co-housing, probably because of the transmissible nature of the gut micobiota. Through fecal micobiota transplantation (FMT), the effects of the gut microbiota on the anti-UC of phloretin were further confirmed. UC was induced in mice by administrating 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Phloretin (60 mg/kg) was administered by gavage every day during the experiment. Fecal microbes (109 CFU/mL) from phloretin-treated UC mice were administered by gavage to non-phloretin-treated UC mice for 7 days. The results showed that FMT, like phloretin, ameliorated UC by improving disease symptoms and colon inflammation, balancing inflammatory cytokines, maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, restoring systemic immune function, inhibiting NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorating the oxidant stress. Both FMT and phloretin treatment increased the levels of Bacteroidetes, Alistipes and Lactobacillus and decreased those of Firmicutes, Oscillibacter and Ruminiclostridium_6. Correlation analysis between gut microbes and micro-environmental factors revealed that Alistipes abundance was negatively correlated with DAI, pathological score, and TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels, and Alistipes was more abundant in phloretin or FMT treated UC mice. Oscillibacter abundance was significantly positively correlated with IL-6 and IL-1β levels and pathological score, and Oscillibacter was increased in UC mice. Furthermore, network analysis of the dominant genera revealed that Alistipes abundance was negatively related to Oscillibacter abundance. In conclusion, this study suggests that the anti-UC effects of phloretin are achieved through regulation of the gut microbiota and phloretin has the potential to be developed as a promising agent for the treatment of UC.

RevDate: 2019-11-05

Singh H, Ross L, Smith H, et al (2019)

Oral fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile in pediatric autoimmune enteropathy.

European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 31(12):1602-1603.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Ianiro G, Murri R, Sciumè GD, et al (2019)

Incidence of Bloodstream Infections, Length of Hospital Stay, and Survival in Patients With Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection Treated With Fecal Microbiota Transplantation or Antibiotics: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Annals of internal medicine pii:2754174 [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a risk factor for bloodstream infection (BSI). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is more effective than antibiotics in treating recurrent CDI, but its efficacy in preventing CDI-related BSI is uncertain.

Objective: To assess incidence of primary BSI in patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT versus antibiotics.

Design: Prospective cohort study. Patients treated with FMT and those treated with antibiotics were matched on propensity score.

Setting: Single academic medical center.

Patients: 290 inpatients with recurrent CDI (57 patients per treatment in matched cohort).

Intervention: FMT or antibiotics.

Measurements: The primary outcome was primary BSI within 90 days. Secondary outcomes were length of hospitalization and overall survival (OS) at 90 days.

Results: Of the 290 patients, 109 were treated with FMT and 181 received antibiotics. Five patients in the FMT group and 40 in the antibiotic group developed BSI. Because of differences in the patients treated with FMT versus antibiotics in many baseline characteristics, including number of recurrences and CDI severity, comparative analyses were limited to the matched cohort. Risk for BSI was 23 percentage points (95% CI, 10 to 35 percentage points) lower in the FMT group; the FMT group also had 14 fewer days of hospitalization (CI, 9 to 20 fewer days) and a 32-percentage point increase in OS (CI, 16 to 47 percentage points) compared with the antibiotic group.

Limitation: Nonrandomized study with potential for unmeasured or residual confounding; limited generalizability of the propensity score-matched cohort.

Conclusion: In a propensity score-matched cohort, patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT were less likely to develop primary BSI.

Primary Funding Source: None.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Rosa CP, Pereira JA, Cristina de Melo Santos N, et al (2019)

Vancomycin-induced gut dysbiosis during Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection in a mice model.

Journal of leukocyte biology [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens causing respiratory infections in hospitals. Vancomycin, the antimicrobial agent usually used to treat bacterial nosocomial infections, is associated with gut dysbiosis. As a lung-gut immunologic axis has been described, this study aimed to evaluate both the immunologic and histopathologic effects on the lungs and the large intestine resulting from vancomycin-induced gut dysbiosis in the P. aeruginosa pneumonia murine model. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated that vancomycin-induced gut dysbiosis resulted in higher Proteobacteria and lower Bacteroidetes populations in feces. Given that gut dysbiosis could augment the proinflammatory status of the intestines leading to a variety of acute inflammatory diseases, bone marrow-derived macrophages were stimulated with cecal content from dysbiotic mice showing a higher expression of proinflammatory cytokines and lower expression of IL-10. Dysbiotic mice showed higher levels of viable bacteria in the lungs and spleen when acutely infected with P. aeruginosa, with more lung and cecal damage and increased IL-10 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage. The susceptible and tissue damage phenotype was reversed when dysbiotic mice received fecal microbiota transplantation. In spite of higher recruitment of CD11b+ cells in the lungs, there was no higher CD80+ expression, DC+ cell amounts or proinflammatory cytokine expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the bacterial community found in vancomycin-induced dysbiosis dysregulates the gut inflammatory status, influencing the lung-gut immunologic axis to favor increased opportunistic infections, for example, by P. aeruginosa.

RevDate: 2019-11-11
CmpDate: 2019-11-11

Kuhnen A (2019)

Genetic and Environmental Considerations for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

The Surgical clinics of North America, 99(6):1197-1207.

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract driven by an exaggerated immune response to luminal microbiota in susceptible individuals. It presents with a heterogenous pattern of clinical disease severity, location, and behavior. Understanding the interaction between the host genome, gut microbiome, and further environmental exposures in the development of IBD is in the early stages, and factors that trigger onset of disease in susceptible individuals remain unknown. This article addresses the genetic, microbial, and environmental influences on development of inflammatory bowel disease and the ability to manipulate these factors through surgery and medical therapy.

RevDate: 2019-11-21

Adams JB, Borody TJ, Kang DW, et al (2019)

Microbiota transplant therapy and autism: lessons for the clinic.

Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology, 13(11):1033-1037.

Introduction: The purpose of this review is to discuss Microbiota Transplant Therapy (MTT), a type of intensive intestinal microbiota transplantation (IMT), for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and chronic gastrointestinal disorders (constipation and/or diarrhea).Areas covered: This paper briefly reviews IMT, gastrointestinal symptoms and gastrointestinal bacteria in children with ASD, and results and lessons learned from intensive MTT for autism.Expert opinion: An open-label study and a two-year follow-up suggest that MTT is relatively safe and effective in significantly reducing gastrointestinal disorders and autism symptoms, changing the gut microbiome structure, and increasing gut microbial diversity. Further research with larger, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies is warranted.

RevDate: 2019-11-27
CmpDate: 2019-11-27

DeFilipp Z, Bloom PP, Torres Soto M, et al (2019)

Drug-Resistant E. coli Bacteremia Transmitted by Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

The New England journal of medicine, 381(21):2043-2050.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging therapy for recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection and is being actively investigated for other conditions. We describe two patients in whom extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli bacteremia occurred after they had undergone FMT in two independent clinical trials; both cases were linked to the same stool donor by means of genomic sequencing. One of the patients died. Enhanced donor screening to limit the transmission of microorganisms that could lead to adverse infectious events and continued vigilance to define the benefits and risks of FMT across different patient populations are warranted.

RevDate: 2019-11-22
CmpDate: 2019-11-22

Blaser MJ (2019)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Dysbiosis - Predictable Risks.

The New England journal of medicine, 381(21):2064-2066.

RevDate: 2019-11-27
CmpDate: 2019-11-27

Kassam Z, Dubois N, Ramakrishna B, et al (2019)

Donor Screening for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

The New England journal of medicine, 381(21):2070-2072.

RevDate: 2019-11-30

Rokkas T, Gisbert JP, Gasbarrini A, et al (2019)

A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials exploring the role of fecal microbiota transplantation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

United European gastroenterology journal, 7(8):1051-1063.

Background: Recurrence remains a challenge in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), and in this field fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has attracted significant interest. Network meta-analysis (NWM) has been established as an evidence-synthesis tool that incorporates direct and indirect evidence in a collection of randomized controlled trials. So far no NWM exists concerning therapeutic interventions for recurrent CDI (rCDI).

Objective: In this NWM we assessed the comparative effectiveness of various therapies for rCDI to examine the efficacy rank order and determine the optimum therapeutic approach.

Methods: A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy rank order of rCDI interventions.

Results: Six eligible RCTs were entered into an NWM. They included 348 rCDI patients, in whom seven therapeutic interventions were used, i.e. donor fecal microbiota transplantation (DFMT), vancomycin, fidaxomicin, vancomycin + DFMT, vancomycin + bowel lavage, autologous FMT and placebo. DFMT showed the highest efficacy in comparison with vancomycin [odds ratio (95% credible interval), 20.02 (7.05-70.03)] and fidaxomicin (22.01 (4.38-109.63)).

Conclusion: This NWM showed that DFMT is the optimum therapeutic approach for rCDI, as it was the most efficacious among various therapeutic interventions, particularly in comparison with commonly used antibiotics such as vancomycin or fidaxomicin.

RevDate: 2019-11-30

Myneedu K, Deoker A, Schmulson MJ, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

United European gastroenterology journal, 7(8):1033-1041.

Background: Modulating gut microbiota is a potential treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This meta-analysis explored whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is successful in treating IBS.

Methods: A systematic review was performed to find trials on FMT in IBS. Ratios and relative ratios (RR) of improvement for single-arm trials (SATs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were calculated, respectively. Changes in IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) and IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) instrument compared to baseline in FMT versus placebo groups were pooled.

Results: In SATs, 59.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1-69.3) of IBS patients showed significant improvement. In RCTs, there were no differences between FMT and control in improvement (RR=0.93 (95% CI 0.50-1.75)) or changes in the IBS-SSS and IBS-QOL.

Conclusions: FMT was not effective in IBS. Variations in FMT methods and patient factors may contribute to the heterogeneous results of the trials.

RevDate: 2019-11-01

Hocquart M, Pham T, Kuete E, et al (2019)

Successful Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in a Patient Suffering From Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections.

Open forum infectious diseases, 6(10):ofz398.

Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting 9%-23% of the population across the world. The relative efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on IBS symptoms was demonstrated in a double-blind, randomized study.

Methods: We describe the case of a 73-year-old woman suffering from IBS (abdominal pain, bloating, and abundant and disabling diarrhea, with 10-15 stools a day) and repetitive urinary tract infection (UTI; 5 episodes in 6 months, including 3 the last 2 months) for several years, generating an impaired quality of life. She received an FMT with 400 mL of fecal infusion from a healthy donor via a nasogastric tube after bowel lavage. Her digestive microbiota was analyzed using culturomic and metagenomic targeting 16S rRNA sequencing methods.

Results: Eight months after transplantation, we observed a significant reduction in frequency and improvement in stool consistency (3-4 molded stools a day against 10-15 before the transplant) and no recurrence of urinary infection (as previously reported). Using culturomics, we found 12 bacteria present in the fecal infusion and post-transplant stool; these were absent pretransplant. Three of them (Intestinimonas massiliensis, Oscillibacter massiliensis, and Provencibacter massiliensis) were previously discovered and cultivated in our laboratory using culturomics. Using metagenomics, we also observed 12 bacteria, different from those observed during culture, that could have been transferred to the patient by FMT.

Conclusions: In this case report, IBS symptoms and UTI frequency decreased after FMT UTI. Further studies involving more patients would be relevant to confirm this work and develop bacteriotherapy.

RevDate: 2019-10-31

Woodworth MH, Hayden MK, Young VB, et al (2019)

Corrigendum: The Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Reducing Intestinal Colonization With Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms: The Current Landscape and Future Directions.

Open forum infectious diseases, 6(10):ofz391 pii:ofz391.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofz288.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofz288.].

RevDate: 2019-11-01

Hourigan SK, Ahn M, Gibson KM, et al (2019)

Fecal Transplant in Children With Clostridioides difficile Gives Sustained Reduction in Antimicrobial Resistance and Potential Pathogen Burden.

Open forum infectious diseases, 6(10):ofz379.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) treats Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Little is known regarding the changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes and potential pathogen burden that occur in pediatric recipients of FMT. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in AMR genes, potential pathogens, species, and functional pathways with FMT in children.

Methods: Nine children with recurrent CDI underwent FMT. Stool was collected from donor and recipient pre-FMT and longitudinally post-FMT for up to 24 weeks. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed. Reads were analyzed using PathoScope 2.0.

Results: All children had resolution of CDI. AMR genes decreased post-FMT (P < .001), with a sustained decrease in multidrug resistance genes (P < .001). Tetracycline resistance genes increased post-FMT (P < .001). Very low levels of potential pathogens were identified in donors and recipients, with an overall decrease post-FMT (P < .001). Prevotella sp. 109 expanded in all recipients post-FMT, and no recipients had any clinical infection. Alpha diversity was lower in recipients vs donors pre-FMT (P < .001), with an increase post-FMT (P ≤ .002) that was sustained. Beta diversity differed significantly in pre- vs post-FMT recipient samples (P < .001). Bacterial species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bacteroides ovatus showed higher abundance in donors than recipients (P = .008 and P = .040, respectively), with expansion post-FMT. Biosynthetic pathways predominated in the donor and increased in the recipient post-FMT.

Conclusions: FMT for CDI in children decreases AMR genes and potential pathogens and changes microbiota composition and function. However, acquisition of certain AMR genes post-FMT combined with low levels of potential pathogens found in donors suggests that further study is warranted regarding screening donors using metagenomics sequencing before FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-29
CmpDate: 2019-10-29

Li S, Xu N, Hua R, et al (2019)

[Fecal microbiota transplantation regulates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in cerebral cortex of septic rats through intestinal microbiota].

Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue, 31(9):1102-1107.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation on septic gut flora and the cortex cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in rats.

METHODS: Sixty clean grade male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal saline (NS) control group, sepsis model group and fecal microbiota transplantation group by random number table, with 20 rats in each group. The rat model of sepsis was reproduced by injection of 10 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via tail vein, the rats in the NS control group was given the same amount of NS. The rats in the fecal microbiota transplantation group received nasogastric infusion of feces from healthy donor on the 1st day, 2 mL each time, for 3 times a day, the other two groups were given equal dose of NS by gavage. Fecal samples were collected on the 7th day after modeling, the levels of intestinal microbiota composition was determined using the 16SrDNA gene sequencing technology. The brain function was evaluated by electroencephalogram (EEG), and the proportion of each waveform in EEG was calculated. After sacrifice of rats, the brain tissues were harvested, the levels of protein expression of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined by Western Blot, and positive cells of Iba-1 in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry method. The levels of interleukins (IL-6 and IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: Seven days after the reproduction of the model, all rats in the NS control group survived, while 10 rats and 8 rats died in the sepsis model group and fecal microbiota transplantation group, respectively, with mortality rates of 50% and 40% respectively. Finally, there were 20 rats in the NS control group, 10 in the sepsis model group and 12 in the fecal microbiota transplantation group. Compared with the NS control group, the diversity and composition of intestinal flora were changed, the incidence of abnormal EEG increased significantly, the expression of α7nAchR in the cortex decreased significantly, and the levels of Iba-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly increased in the model group, suggested that the intestinal flora was dysbiosis, and severe inflammatory reaction occurred in the cerebral cortex, and brain function was impaired. Compared with the model group, the diversity of intestinal flora in the fecal microbiota transplantation group was significantly increased (species index: 510.24±58.76 vs. 282.50±47.42, Chao1 index: 852.75±25.24 vs. 705.50±46.50, both P < 0.05), the dysbiosis of intestinal flora at phylum, family, genus level induced by LPS were also significantly reversed, and with the improvement of intestinal flora, the incidence of abnormal EEG waveforms was lower in the fecal microbiota transplantation group compared with that in the model group [25.0% (3/12) vs. 80.0% (8/10), P < 0.05], and the expression of α7nAChR protein in the cerebral cortex was significantly increased (α7nAChR/β-actin: 1.56±0.05 vs. 0.82±0.07, P < 0.05), immunohistochemistry analysis showed that Iba-1 positive expression of microglia decreased significantly, and cerebral cortex TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β levels were significantly decreased [TNF-α (ng/L): 6.28±0.61 vs. 12.02±0.54, IL-6 (ng/L): 28.26±3.15 vs. 60.58±4.62, IL-1β (ng/L): 33.63±3.48 vs. 72.56±2.25, all P < 0.05].

CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that fecal microbiota transplantation has remarkably modulated the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota and activated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and ameliorate the brain dysfunction in septic rats.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Aira A, Fehér C, Rubio E, et al (2019)

The Intestinal Microbiota as a Reservoir and a Therapeutic Target to Fight Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

Infectious diseases and therapy, 8(4):469-482.

The appearance and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly in specific closed environments such as intensive care units of acute care hospitals, have become a major health concern. The intestinal microbiota has various functions including host protection from overgrowth or colonization by unwanted bacteria. The exposure to antibiotics significantly reduces the bacterial density of intestinal microbiota leaving an ecologic void that can be occupied by potentially pathogenic and/or resistant bacteria frequently present in hospital settings. Consequently, the intestinal microbiota of inpatients acts as a major reservoir and plays a critical role in perpetuating the spread of resistant bacteria. There are novel innovative methods to protect the host microbiota during antibiotic treatment, but they do not offer a solution for already established colonization by resistant microorganisms. Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is a promising intervention to achieve this goal; however, controlled trials report lower success rates than initial retrospective studies, especially in case of gram negatives. The aim of the present article is to highlight the importance of the intestinal microbiota in the global spread of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms and to review the recent advances to protect the human microbiota from the action of antibiotics as well as a critical discussion about the evidence of decolonization of MDR microorganisms by FMT.

RevDate: 2019-11-11

Cammarota G, Gallo A, S Bibbò (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplant for C. difficile infection: Just say yes.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(19)30181-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The burden of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea is a worrying clinical issue worldwide, mainly as regarding the high incidence of recurrences after standard antibiotic therapy and the risk for more severe clinical manifestations. For this reason, new and more effective therapies are needed for the treatment of recurrent episodes. Fecal microbiota transplantation seems to be a valid tool considering the mechanism of action and the growing number of studies that demonstrate its clinical efficacy.

RevDate: 2019-10-25

Dai M, Liu Y, Chen W, et al (2019)

Rescue fecal microbiota transplantation for antibiotic-associated diarrhea in critically ill patients.

Critical care (London, England), 23(1):324.

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a risk factor for exacerbating the outcome of critically ill patients. Dysbiosis induced by the exposure to antibiotics reveals the potential therapeutic role of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in these patients. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the safety and potential benefit of rescue FMT for AAD in critically ill patients.

METHODS: A series of critically ill patients with AAD received rescue FMT from Chinese fmtBank, from September 2015 to February 2019. Adverse events (AEs) and rescue FMT success which focused on the improvement of abdominal symptoms and post-ICU survival rate during a minimum of 12 weeks follow-up were assessed.

RESULTS: Twenty critically ill patients with AAD underwent rescue FMT, and 18 of them were included for analysis. The mean of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores at intensive care unit (ICU) admission was 21.7 ± 8.3 (range 11-37). Thirteen patients received FMT through nasojejunal tube, four through gastroscopy, and one through enema. Patients were treated with four (4.2 ± 2.1, range 2-9) types of antibiotics before and during the onset of AAD. 38.9% (7/18) of patients had FMT-related AEs during follow-up, including increased diarrhea frequency, abdominal pain, increased serum amylase, and fever. Eight deaths unrelated to FMT occurred during follow-up. One hundred percent (2/2) of abdominal pain, 86.7% (13/15) of diarrhea, 69.2% (9/13) of abdominal distention, and 50% (1/2) of hematochezia were improved after FMT. 44.4% (8/18) of patients recovered from abdominal symptoms without recurrence and survived for a minimum of 12 weeks after being discharged from ICU.

CONCLUSION: In this case series studying the use of FMT in critically ill patients with AAD, good clinical outcomes without infectious complications were observed. These findings could potentially encourage researchers to set up new clinical trials that will provide more insight into the potential benefit and safety of the procedure in the ICU.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, Number NCT03895593 . Registered 29 March 2019 (retrospectively registered).

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Gori S, Inno A, Belluomini L, et al (2019)

Gut microbiota and cancer: How gut microbiota modulates activity, efficacy and toxicity of antitumoral therapy.

Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 143:139-147.

Gut microbiota is involved in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Also, it modulates the activity, efficacy and toxicity of several chemotherapy agents, such as gemcitabine, cyclophosphamide, irinotecan, cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil, and target therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. More recently, accumulating data suggest that the composition of gut microbiota may also affect efficacy and toxicity of cancer immunotherapy. Therefore, the manipulation of gut microbiota through antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics or fecal transplantation has been investigating with the aim to improve efficacy and mitigate toxicity of anticancer drugs.

RevDate: 2019-10-25

Houben T, Penders J, Oligschlaeger Y, et al (2019)

Hematopoietic Npc1 mutation shifts gut microbiota composition in Ldlr-/- mice on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet.

Scientific reports, 9(1):14956.

While the link between diet-induced changes in gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been established, the contribution of host genetics is rather unexplored. As several findings suggested a role for the lysosomal lipid transporter Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) in macrophages during MetS, we here explored whether a hematopoietic Npc1 mutation, induced via bone marrow transplantation, influences gut microbiota composition in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 12 weeks. Ldlr-/- mice fed a HFC diet mimic a human plasma lipoprotein profile and show features of MetS, providing a model to explore the role of host genetics on gut microbiota under MetS conditions. Fecal samples were used to profile the microbial composition by 16 s ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The hematopoietic Npc1 mutation shifted the gut microbiota composition and increased microbial richness and diversity. Variations in plasma lipid levels correlated with microbial diversity and richness as well as with several bacterial genera. This study suggests that host genetic influences on lipid metabolism affect the gut microbiome under MetS conditions. Future research investigating the role of host genetics on gut microbiota might therefore lead to identification of diagnostic and therapeutic targets for MetS.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Xie WR, Yang XY, Xia HH, et al (2019)

Hair regrowth following fecal microbiota transplantation in an elderly patient with alopecia areata: A case report and review of the literature.

World journal of clinical cases, 7(19):3074-3081.

BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata is a hair loss disease associated with genetics, autoimmunity, and other factors. There is an intriguing link between alopecia areata and gut dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been recommended to treat Clostridium difficile (previously known as Clostridioides difficile) infection, and has also shown potentials in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and non-alcohol fatty liver disease.

CASE SUMMARY: An 86-year-old man, with a history of sigmoid colon carcinoma, suffered from recurrent abdominal pain and distension, and diarrhea for six months, with inappetence. At admission, he was also diagnosed with depression. Upon physical examination, the patient presented with a 1.5 cm × 2.0 cm alopecia areata on his right occiput. Due to the negative results of laboratory testing, capsule endoscopy, and colonoscopy, the patient was diagnosed with noninfectious diarrhea, depressive disorder, and patchy alopecia areata. Considering that noninfectious diarrhea in the elderly patient was mainly caused by gut dysbiosis, he was given six rounds of FMT. His diarrhea improved remarkably one month after FMT, with improved appetite and disappearance of abdominal pain, distension, and depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, he reported new hair growth on the affected region of his scalp, with some of his white hair gradually turning to black, without taking any other therapies for alopecia areata before and after FMT.

CONCLUSION: FMT might act as a potential therapy for patients who suffer from alopecia areata. Large and well-designed studies are required to confirm the role of FMT in alopecia areata.

RevDate: 2019-11-26

Barathikannan K, Chelliah R, Rubab M, et al (2019)

Gut Microbiome Modulation Based on Probiotic Application for Anti-Obesity: A Review on Efficacy and Validation.

Microorganisms, 7(10):.

The growing prevalence of obesity has become an important problem worldwide as obesity has several health risks. Notably, factors such as excessive food consumption, a sedentary way of life, high sugar consumption, a fat-rich diet, and a certain genetic profile may lead to obesity. The present review brings together recent advances regarding the significance of interventions involving intestinal gut bacteria and host metabolic phenotypes. We assess important biological molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of gut microbiota on hosts including bile salt metabolism, short-chain fatty acids, and metabolic endotoxemia. Some previous studies have shown a link between microbiota and obesity, and associated disease reports have been documented. Thus, this review focuses on obesity and gut microbiota interactions and further develops the mechanism of the gut microbiome approach related to human obesity. Specifically, we highlight several alternative diet treatments including dietary changes and supplementation with probiotics. The future direction or comparative significance of fecal transplantation, synbiotics, and metabolomics as an approach to the modulation of intestinal microbes is also discussed.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Albillos A, Gottardi A, M Rescigno (2019)

The gut-liver axis in liver disease: pathophysiological basis for therapy.

Journal of hepatology pii:S0168-8278(19)30604-X [Epub ahead of print].

The gut-liver axis refers to the bidirectional relationship between the gut and its microbiota, and the liver, resulting from the integration of signals generated by dietary, genetic and environmental factors. This reciprocal interaction is established through the vascular route of the portal vein that carries gut-derived products directly to the liver, and the liver feed-back route of bile and antibody secretion to the intestine. The intestinal mucosal and vascular barrier is the functional and anatomical structure that serves as a playground for the interactions between the gut and the liver, limiting the systemic dissemination of microbes and toxins while allowing nutrients to access the circulation and to reach the liver. The control of microbial communities is critical to maintain homeostasis of the gut-liver axis, and as part of the two-way communication the liver shapes intestinal microbial communities. Alcohol disrupts the gut-liver axis at multiple interconnected levels, including the gut microbiome, mucus, epithelial barrier and antimicrobial peptides production, which increases the microbial exposure and the pro-inflammatory environment of the liver. Growing evidences indicate the pathogenetic role of microbe-derived metabolites, such as trimethylamine, secondary bile acids, SCFA and ethanol, in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cirrhosis by itself is associated to profound alterations in gut microbiota and damage at the different levels of defense of the intestinal barrier, including the epithelial, the vascular and the immune barriers. The relevance of the severe disturbance of the intestinal barrier in cirrhosis has been linked to translocation of live bacteria, bacterial infections and disease progression. The identification of the elements of the gut-liver axis primarily damaged in each chronic liver disease offers possibilities to intervention. Beyond antibiotics, upcoming therapies centered in the gut include new generations of probiotics, bacterial metabolites (postbiotics), fecal microbial transplantation, and carbon nanoparticles. FXR-agonists target both the gut and the liver and are currently being tested in different liver diseases. Finally, synthetic biotic medicines, phages that target specific bacteria or therapies that create physical barriers between the gut and the liver offer new approaches of treatment.

RevDate: 2019-10-17

Zou M, Jie Z, Cui B, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation results in bacterial strain displacement in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

FEBS open bio [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which is thought to have the potential to correct dysbiosis of gut microbiota, has been used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for almost a decade. Here, we report an interventional prospective cohort study performed to elucidate the extent of and processes underlying microbiota engraftment in IBD patients after FMT treatment. The cohort included two categories of patients: (1) patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD)(Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≥ 7, n = 11) and (2) patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (Montreal classification S2 and S3, n = 4). All patients were treated with a single FMT (via mid-gut, from healthy donors) and follow-up visits were performed at baseline, 3 days, one week, and one month after FMT (missing time points included). At each follow-up time point, fecal samples and clinical metadata were collected. For comparative analysis, 10 fecal samples from 10 healthy donors were included to represent the diversity level of normal gut microbiota. Additionally, the metagenomic data of 25 fecal samples from 5 individuals with metabolic syndrome who underwent autologous FMT treatment were downloaded from a previous published paper to represent fluctuations in microbiota induced during FMT. All fecal samples underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that 3 days after FMT, 11 out of 15 recipients were in remission (3 out of 4 UC recipients; 8 out of 11 CD recipients). Generally, bacterial colonization was observed to be lower in CD recipients than in UC recipients at both species and strain levels. Furthermore, across species, different strains displayed disease-specific displacement advantages under two-disease status. Finally, most post-FMT species (> 80%) could be properly predicted (AUC > 85%) using a random forest classification model, with the gut microbiota composition and clinical parameters of pre-FMT recipients acting as factors that contribute to prediction accuracy.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Mandrioli J, Amedei A, Cammarota G, et al (2019)

FETR-ALS Study Protocol: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Frontiers in neurology, 10:1021.

Background and Rationale: Among the key players in the pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), microglia and T regulatory lymphocytes (Treg) are candidate cells for modifying the course of the disease. The gut microbiota (GM) acts by shaping immune tolerance and regulating the Treg number and suppressive function, besides circulating neuropeptides, and other immune cells that play in concert through the gut-brain axis. Previous mouse models have shown an altered enteric flora in early stage ALS, pointing to a possible GM role in ALS pathogenesis. Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT) is a well-known therapeutic intervention used to re-establish the proper microenvironment and to modulate enteric and systemic immunity. Methods: We are going to perform a multicenter randomized double-blind clinical trial employing FMT as a therapeutic intervention for ALS patients (NCT0376632). Forty-two ALS patients, at an early stage, will be enrolled with a 2:1 allocation ratio (28 FMT-treated patients vs. 14 controls). Study duration will be 12 months per patient. Three endoscopic procedures for intestinal biopsies in FMT and control groups are predicted at baseline, month 6 and month 12; at baseline and at month 6 fresh feces from healthy donors will be infused at patients in the intervention arm. The primary outcome is a significant change in Treg number between FMT-treated patients and control arm from baseline to month 6. Secondary outcomes include specific biological aims, involving in-depth analysis of immune cells and inflammatory status changes, central and peripheral biomarkers of ALS, besides comprehensive analysis of the gut, saliva and fecal microbiota. Other secondary aims include validated clinical outcomes of ALS (survival, forced vital capacity, and modifications in ALSFRS-R), besides safety and quality of life. Expected Results: We await FMT to increase Treg number and suppressive functionality, switching the immune system surrounding motorneurons to an anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective status. Extensive analysis on immune cell populations, cytokines levels, and microbiota (gut, fecal and saliva) will shed light on early processes possibly leading the degenerative ALS course. Conclusions: This is the first trial with FMT as a potential intervention to modify immunological response to ALS and disease progression at an early stage.

RevDate: 2019-11-01

Spinner JA, Bocchini CE, Luna RA, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in a toddler after heart transplant was a safe and effective treatment for recurrent Clostridiodes difficile infection: A case report.

Pediatric recipients of SOT have a significantly increased risk of Clostridiodes (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI), which is associated with adverse outcomes after SOT. Alterations to the intestinal microbiota community structure increase the risk of CDI. FMT is a safe and effective treatment for recurrent CDI in immunocompetent children and adults. While there are increasing data that FMT in immunosuppressed patients is safe and effective without increased risk of infection, data regarding safety and efficacy of FMT in children after SOT are limited. To our knowledge, we report the youngest immunocompromised patient to undergo FMT and the third overall case of FMT in a child after HTx. Our patient presented with five episodes of rCDI in 6 months, and 16S rRNA genetic analysis revealed significant loss of overall microbiota community structure and diversity prior to FMT compared with a donor and a healthy, age-matched control. After FMT, marked and prolonged (at least 16 months) shifts in the recipient microbiota community structure and diversity were evident, approaching that of donor and healthy, age-matched control. FMT was well tolerated, restored microbial diversity without any graft or transplant complications, and prevented further rCDI episodes after more than 4 years of follow-up.

RevDate: 2019-11-16

Sharma A, Das P, Buschmann M, et al (2019)

The Future of Microbiome-Based Therapeutics in Clinical Applications.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiome, a collection of microorganisms, their genomes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, is akin to a human organ, and knowledge is emerging on its role in human health and diseases. The influence of the microbiome in drug response has only been investigated in detail for the last 10 years. The human microbiome is a complex and highly dynamic system, which varies dramatically between individuals, yet there exists a common core microbiome that is heritable and can be transmitted to progeny. Here, we review the role of the human microbiome, which is now widely accepted as a major factor that drives the interpersonal variation in therapeutic response. We describe examples in which the microbiome modifies drug action. Despite its complexity, the microbiome can be readily altered, with the potential to increase the benefits and reduce the toxicity and side effects associated with pharmaceutical drugs. The potential of new microbiome-based strategies, such as fecal microbiota transplant, probiotics, and phage therapy, as promising medical therapeutics are outlined. We also suggest a combination reductionist and system-level approaches that could be applied to further investigate the role of microbiota in drug metabolism modulation of drug response. Finally, we emphasize the importance of combining microbiome and pharmacology studies as a novel means to treat disease and reduce side effects.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Heimesaat MM, Mrazek K, S Bereswill (2019)

Murine Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Alleviates Intestinal and Systemic Immune Responses in Campylobacter jejuni Infected Mice Harboring a Human Gut Microbiota.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:2272.

Human campylobacteriosis constitutes a zoonotic food-borne disease and a progressively rising health burden of significant socioeconomic impact. We have recently shown that conventional mice are protected from Campylobacter jejuni infection, which was not the case for human microbiota associated (hma) mice indicating that the host-specific gut microbiota composition primarily determines susceptibility to or resistance against C. jejuni infection. In our present preclinical intervention study we addressed whether gut microbiota changes in stably C. jejuni infected hma mice following murine fecal microbiota transplantation (mFMT) could alleviate pathogen-induced immune responses. To accomplish this, secondary abiotic C57BL/6 mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, perorally reassociated with a complex human gut microbiota and challenged with C. jejuni by gavage. Seven days later C. jejuni infected hma mice were subjected to peroral mFMT on 3 consecutive days. Within a week post-mFMT fecal pathogenic burdens had decreased by two orders of magnitude, whereas distinct changes in the gut microbiota composition with elevated numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria could be assessed. In addition, mFMT resulted in less C. jejuni induced apoptotic responses in colonic epithelia, reduced numbers of macrophages and monocytes as well as of T lymphocytes in the large intestinal mucosa and lamina propria and in less distinct intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion as compared to mock challenge. Strikingly, inflammation dampening effects of mFMT were not restricted to the intestinal tract, but could also be observed systemically as indicated by elevated serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-6 in C. jejuni infected hma mice of the mock, but not the mFMT cohort. In conclusion, our preclinical mFMT intervention study provides evidence that changes in the gut microbiota composition which might be achieved by pre- or probiotic formulations may effectively lower intestinal C. jejuni loads, dampen both, pathogen-induced intestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae and may represent a useful tool to treat continuous shedding of C. jejuni by asymptomatic carriers which is critical in the context of food production, hospitalization and immunosuppression.

RevDate: 2019-10-15

Ersöz Alan B, F Gülerman (2019)

[The Role of Gut Microbiota in Autism Spectrum Disorder].

Turk psikiyatri dergisi = Turkish journal of psychiatry, 30(3):210-219.

Human microbiota are colonies of microorganisms located in different parts of the human body with diverse functions. Healthy gut microbiota comprises differing ratios of microoganisms wholly contributing to metabolic and other molecular reactions in a healthy, functioning body. After the demonstration of the bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and gut microbiota through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous mechanisms, investigations have been started on the microbiota-gut-brain axis in psychiatric disorders. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a neurodevelopmental disorder of early childhood, is one of these disorders. Most of such studies were cross-sectional and mainly investigated the bacterial species. Changes in gut microbiota composition and the leaky gut syndrome are some of the hypotheses proposed to explain the core symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of ASD. Probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, diet have been proposed as treatment options. However, the role of microbiota in diagnosis, followup, and treatment is not yet clear. The bidirectional interaction between central nervous system and intestinal microbiota makes it difficult to establish the cause-effect relationship. The current data on microbiota may be useful to plan patient-specific treatment in autistic children with GI symptoms. This article aims to review the results of the studies on microbiota in animal models and children and discuss the emerging clinical relationship of ASD and gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-12-02

Abu-Sbeih H, Ali FS, Y Wang (2020)

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors induced diarrhea and colitis: a review of incidence, pathogenesis and management.

Current opinion in gastroenterology, 36(1):25-32.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diarrhea and colitis are among the most commonly encountered immune-mediated adverse events among patients receiving antiprogrammed cell death protein/ligand-1 (PD-1/L1) as well as anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) antibodies. With growing indications and widespread use of immune checkpoint inhibitors, it is imperative to summarize the current body of evidence concerning the incidence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnostic challenges, and treatment options currently available for the management of immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis. Additionally, with emerging evidence analyzing the resumption of immune checkpoint inhibitors, it is pivotal to summarize our current understanding and future challenges.

RECENT FINDINGS: Immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis can potentially be a viable surrogate marker for improved survival as it is validated further in large-scale studies. Early endoscopic evaluation can aid in the identification of patients at risk of developing steroid refractory immune-mediated colitis, and hence can be chosen to receive early add-on therapy with infliximab, vedolizumab or fecal microbiota transplantation, an emerging treatment option for immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis. Resuming immune checkpoint inhibitors carries a manageable risk of recurrent diarrhea and colitis, with most cases being mild and effectively managed with immunosuppressive therapy.

SUMMARY: As our understanding of immune-mediated diarrhea and colitis grows, it is likely that this clinicopathologic entity will represent more than just an adverse event. With a growing number of treatment options, the management algorithms for immune-mediated diarrhea/colitis are likely to evolve in the future.

RevDate: 2019-11-27

Bruno G, Gagliardi A, Oliva A, et al (2019)

Fecal Microbial Transplantation impact on gut microbiota composition and metabolome, microbial translocation and T-lymphocyte immune activation in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection patients.

The new microbiologica, 42(4):221-224.

This short communication reports the preliminary results of Fecal Microbial Transplantation (FMT) impact on microbiota, microbial translocation (MT), and immune activation in four recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (R-CDI) patients. After FMT a restore of gut microbiota composition with a significant increase of fecal acetyl-putrescine and spermidine and fecal acetate and butyrate, a decrease of immune activation of T cells CD4+ and CD8+levels, and of LPS binding protein (LBP) level, were observed. Preliminary results indicate that FMT seems to be helpful not only as a CDI radical cure, with an impact on fecal microbiota and metabolome profiles, but also on MT and immune activation.

RevDate: 2019-10-14

Lin TC, Hung YP, Ko WC, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection in Taiwan: Establishment and implementation.

Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi pii:S1684-1182(19)30142-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a major public health issue, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become one of the standard therapies for recurrent or refractory CDI. When compared to medical therapies, such as metronidazole or vancomycin, FMT has a high rate of treatment response with acceptable safety and efficiency. Following promulgation of the amendments in September 2018 in Taiwan, FMT has been indicated for recurrent or refractory CDI. The Taiwan Microbiota Consortium contributed to the Taiwan FMT Expert Consensus, which established basic norms and stipulated essential principles, including the indications for transplantation, eligible locations and personnel, donor screening policies, fecal sample handling, and post-FMT follow-up. However, establishing an eligible FMT team in a qualified hospital remains a clinical challenge, and the requirement for facilities and well-screened donors impedes the implementation of FMT. In this review, we aim to provide domestic FMT teams with explicit instructions to facilitate realization and increase the practice of FMT. Based on the Taiwan FMT Expert Consensus and current regulations, we performed a literature review and integrated the experiences of Taiwanese multidisciplinary experts into this article. The content intends to offer clinicians up-to-date evidence and highlight the essential points of FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-13

Chu H, Duan Y, Lang S, et al (2019)

The Candida albicans exotoxin Candidalysin promotes alcohol-associated liver disease.

Journal of hepatology pii:S0168-8278(19)30599-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol-associated liver disease is a leading indication for liver transplantation and leading cause of mortality. Alterations of the gut microbiota contribute to pathogenesis of alcohol-associated liver disease. Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease have increased proportions of Candida spp. in the fecal mycobiome. However, little is known about the effect of intestinal Candida on alcohol-associated liver disease. Here we evaluated the contributions of Candida albicans and its exotoxin Candidalysin on alcoholic liver disease.

METHODS: C. albicans and ECE1 were analyzed in fecal samples from controls, patients with alcohol use disorder and alcoholic hepatitis. Mice colonized with different and genetically manipulated C. albicans strains were subjected to the chronic-plus-binge ethanol diet model. Primary hepatocytes were isolated and incubated with Candidalysin.

RESULTS: The percentages of subjects carrying ECE1 are 0%, 4.76% and 30.77% in non-alcoholic controls, alcohol use disorder patients and alcoholic hepatitis patients, respectively. Candidalysin exacerbates ethanol-induced liver disease and is associated with increased mortality in mice. Candidalysin enhances ethanol-induced liver disease independent of the β-glucan receptor CLEC7A on bone-marrow derived cells, and Candidalysin does not alter gut barrier function. Candidalysin can damage primary hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and is associated with liver disease severity and mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Candidalysin is associated with progression of ethanol-induced liver disease in preclinical models and worse clinical outcomes in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

LAY SUMMARY: Candidalysin is a peptide toxin secreted by the commensal gut fungus Candida albicans. Candidalysin enhances alcohol-associated liver disease independent of the β-glucan receptor CLEC7A on bone-marrow derived cells in mice without affecting intestinal permeability. Candidalysin is cytotoxic to primary hepatocytes, indicating a direct role of Candidalysin on ethanol-induced liver disease. Candidalysin might be an effective target for therapy in patients with alcohol-associated liver disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Madar PC, Petre O, Baban A, et al (2019)

Medical students' perception on fecal microbiota transplantation.

BMC medical education, 19(1):368.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has become an emergent method in the therapy of several intestinal diseases, mainly in Clostridium difficile recurrence. The training of FMT in medical schools is at its beginning and in countries where FMT is only occasionally carried out, it is important to know the perception of medical students on FMT.

METHODS: We undertook a survey of 3rd year medical students not exposed to official academic information on FMT in order to find out their knowledge, beliefs and attitude toward FMT. A number of 80 students were asked to fill a dedicated online questionnaire.

RESULTS: 52 out of 80 third year medical students anonymously filled the questionnaire (65% response rate). 34% of respondents reported to have at least a medium level of knowledge regarding FMT. The top indication for FMT identified by 76.9% was C. difficile infection; however, 60% believed FMT to be a promising therapy for a high number of conditions and while almost all respondents (98.1%) would recommend it, 88.4% would explore other options first. Colonoscopy was considered the optimal method of delivery by 42.3%. Only 39% of participants believed that patients would accept FMT, however 71% considered that a more socially acceptable name for the procedure and anonymous donors would increase acceptance rate. The risk of transmitting a disease undetected by donor stool screening procedures to the recipient was the most worrying side effect considered by 75% of respondents. 54% believed that more research is required for FMT to enter clinical practice and 55.7% of respondents would enroll patients in controlled clinical trials.

CONCLUSIONS: Medical students not exposed to educational information on FMT seem to be somewhat well informed about this method and would recommend it to their patients. Students, however, need to know more on the indications of FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Duvallet C, Zellmer C, Panchal P, et al (2019)

Framework for rational donor selection in fecal microbiota transplant clinical trials.

PloS one, 14(10):e0222881.

Early clinical successes are driving enthusiasm for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), the transfer of healthy gut bacteria through whole stool, as emerging research is linking the microbiome to many different diseases. However, preliminary trials have yielded mixed results and suggest that heterogeneity in donor stool may play a role in patient response. Thus, clinical trials may fail because an ineffective donor was chosen rather than because FMT is not appropriate for the indication. Here, we describe a conceptual framework to guide rational donor selection to increase the likelihood that FMT clinical trials will succeed. We argue that the mechanism by which the microbiome is hypothesized to be associated with a given indication should inform how healthy donors are selected for FMT trials, categorizing these mechanisms into four disease models and presenting associated donor selection strategies. We next walk through examples based on previously published FMT trials and ongoing investigations to illustrate how donor selection might occur in practice. Finally, we show that typical FMT trials are not powered to discover individual taxa mediating patient responses, suggesting that clinicians should develop targeted hypotheses for retrospective analyses and design their clinical trials accordingly. Moving forward, developing and applying novel clinical trial design methodologies like rational donor selection will be necessary to ensure that FMT successfully translates into clinical impact.

RevDate: 2019-12-02

Shah H, P Zezos (2020)

Pouchitis: diagnosis and management.

Current opinion in gastroenterology, 36(1):41-47.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pouchitis is the most common complication in patients who undergo ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), occurring more frequently in patients with ulcerative colitis. Pouchitis - the inflammation of the pouch - can be due to idiopathic or secondary causes. Chronic antibiotic-dependent pouchitis (CADP) and chronic antibiotic-resistant pouchitis (CARP) are the most difficult forms of chronic idiopathic pouchitis to treat. Crohn's disease of the pouch may develop de novo in ulcerative colitis patients following colectomy with IPAA. It carries a high risk for pouch failure, and its diagnosis and management are challenging. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the present trends in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pouchitis and Crohn's disease of the pouch.

RECENT FINDINGS: The use of the newer biologic agents, vedolizumab and ustekinumab, has shown promising results in patients with CADP, CARP, and Crohn's disease of the pouch. Fecal microbiota transplantation has also been reported to have encouraging preliminary results in small studies and case series for the treatment of chronic pouchitis.

SUMMARY: Promising new treatments are emerging for difficult-to-treat forms of pouchitis. Larger prospective and head-to-head comparative studies among the various treatments are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these agents across the pouchitis subgroups, and to identify predictors of response.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Mashaqi S, D Gozal (2019)

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Systemic Hypertension: Gut Dysbiosis as the Mediator?.

Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 15(10):1517-1527.

INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and systemic hypertension (SH) are common and interrelated diseases. It is estimated that approximately 75% of treatment-resistant hypertension cases have an underlying OSA. Exploration of the gut microbiome is a new advance in medicine that has been linked to many comorbid illnesses, including SH and OSA. Here, we will review the literature in SH and gut dysbiosis, OSA and gut dysbiosis, and whether gut dysbiosis is common in both conditions.

METHODS: We reviewed the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, including PubMed and PubMed Central. We identified a total of 230 articles. The literature search was conducted using the phrase "obstructive sleep apnea and gut dysbiosis." Only original research articles were included. This yielded a total of 12 articles.

RESULTS: Most of the research conducted in this field was on animal models, and almost all trials confirmed that intermittent hypoxia models resulted in gut dysbiosis. Gut dysbiosis, however, can cause a state of low-grade inflammation through damage to the gut wall barrier resulting in "leaky gut." Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of the pathophysiology of OSA-induced SH.

CONCLUSIONS: Gut dysbiosis seems to be an important factor in the pathophysiology of OSA-induced hypertension. Reversing gut dysbiosis at an early stage through prebiotics and probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation combined with positive airway pressure therapy may open new horizons of treatment to prevent SH. More studies are needed in humans to elicit the effect of positive airway pressure therapy on gut dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Li L, Li X, Zhong W, et al (2019)

Gut microbiota from colorectal cancer patients enhances the progression of intestinal adenoma in Apcmin/+ mice.

EBioMedicine, 48:301-315.

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence points to a close relationship between gut dysbiosis and colorectal cancer (CRC). As >90% of CRC develop from adenoma, we aimed to investigate the crucial role of imbalanced gut microbiota on the progression of intestinal adenoma.

METHODS: The Apcmin/+ mice gavage with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), feces from healthy controls or CRC patients after antibiotic cocktails. The intestinal tissues were isolated for histopathology, western blotting, and RNA-seq. The microbiota of feces and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analysed by 16S rDNA Amplicon Sequencing and gas chromatography.

FINDINGS: The Apcmin/+mice gavaged by feces from CRC patients had more intestinal tumours compared with those fed with feces from healthy controls or PBS. Administration of feces from CRC patients increased tumour proliferation and decreased apoptosis in tumour cells, accompanied by impairment of gut barrier function and up-regulation the pro-inflammatory cytokines profile. The up-regulated the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 further indicating the activation of Wnt signalling pathway. The abundance of pathogenic bacteria was increased after FMT, while producing SCFAs bacteria and SCFAs production were decreased.

INTERPRETATION: Gut microbiota of CRC patients disrupted intestinal barrier, induced low-grade inflammation and dysbiosis. The altered gut microbiota enhanced the progression of intestinal adenomas in Apcmin/+mice, suggesting that a new strategy to target gut microbiota against CRC could be noted. FUND: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Tianjin Research Programme of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology of China, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

RevDate: 2019-10-09

Benno P, Norin E, Midtvedt T, et al (2019)

Therapeutic potential of an anaerobic cultured human intestinal microbiota, ACHIM, for treatment of IBS.

Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology, 40-41:101607.

By administering an anaerobic cultivated human intestinal microbiota (ACHIM) via upper gastrointestinal route using endoscopy we aimed to rectify intestinal dysbiosis and simultaneously achieve a treatment response in IBS patients. The study population fulfilled the Rome III IBS criteria and comprised 50 patients. During 10 days, patients recorded the irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS) along with the Bristol stool scale and number of stools/day. The enrolled patients were categorized as follows: 37 with diarrhea, 5 with constipation and 8 with mixed symptoms. The treatment response showed reduction in a majority of patients, 32 of which with 50-point reduction of IBS-SSS and 21 with a 100-point IBS-SSS reduction. The percentage improvement was 36 (23-49) and 28 (18-38) for women and men respectively. Short-chain fatty acids were not changed. We consider fecal microbiota transplantation in the form of ACHIM as an option for the future therapeutic armamentarium in IBS. REGISTERED TRIAL: www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02857257.

RevDate: 2019-11-05
CmpDate: 2019-11-05

Yin G, Li JF, Sun YF, et al (2019)

[Fecal microbiota transplantation as a novel therapy for severe psoriasis].

Zhonghua nei ke za zhi, 58(10):782-785.

To explore the therapeutic effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for severe psoriasis. A patient, male, 36 years old, diagnosed as severe plaque psoriasis for 10 years and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for 15 years, was administrated twice FMT via both upper endoscopy and colonoscopy with a 5-week interval. The following items were used to evaluate responses: body surface area (BSA), psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), dermatology life quality index (DLQI), histological examination, intestinal symptoms, adverse reactions and serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. After second FMT treatment for 5 weeks, aforementioned items were improved greatly compared with those before treatment. Moreover, IBS was completely relieved and no adverse reactions were observed during the treatment and follow-up. In conclusion, FMT could be a novel therapy for psoriasis. Further clinical trials are needed to provide solid evidences.

RevDate: 2019-11-25

Aggeletopoulou I, Konstantakis C, Assimakopoulos SF, et al (2019)

The role of the gut microbiota in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Microbial pathogenesis, 137:103774.

The human intestinal microbiota coevolves with its host through a symbiotic relationship and exerts great influence on substantial functions including aspects of physiology, metabolism, nutrition and regulation of immune responses leading to physiological homeostasis. Over the last years, several studies have been conducted toward the assessment of the host-gut microbiota interaction, aiming to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of several diseases. A defect on the microbiota-host crosstalk and the concomitant dysregulation of immune responses combined with genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To this end, novel therapeutic options based on the gut microbiota modulation have been an area of extensive research interest. In this review we present the recent findings on the association of dysbiosis with IBD pathogenesis, we focus on the role of gut microbiota on the treatment of IBD and discuss the novel and currently available therapeutic strategies in manipulating the composition and function of gut microbiota in IBD patients. Applicable and emerging microbiota treatment modalities, such as the use of antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, synbiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) constitute promising therapeutic options. However, the therapeutic potential of the aforementioned approaches is a topic of investigation and further studies are needed to elucidate their position in the present treatment algorithms of IBD.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Song M, Chan AT, J Sun (2019)

Influence of the Gut Microbiome, Diet, and Environment on Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(19)41369-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Researchers have discovered associations between elements of the intestinal microbiome (including specific microbes, signaling pathways, and microbiota-related metabolites) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear whether changes in the intestinal microbiome contribute to development of sporadic CRC or result from it. Changes in the intestinal microbiome can mediate or modify the effects of environmental factors on risk of CRC. Factors that affect risk of CRC also affect the intestinal microbiome, including overweight and obesity; physical activity; and dietary intake of fiber, whole grains, and red and processed meat. These factors alter microbiome structure and function, along with the metabolic and immune pathways that mediate CRC development. We review epidemiologic and laboratory evidence for the influence of the microbiome, diet, and environmental factors on CRC incidence and outcomes. Based on these data, features of the intestinal microbiome might be used for CRC screening and modified for chemoprevention and treatment. Integrated prospective studies are urgently needed to investigate these strategies.

RevDate: 2019-10-04

Dougé A, Bay JO, Ravinet A, et al (2019)

[Intestinal microbiota and allogeneic stem cell transplantation].

Bulletin du cancer pii:S0007-4551(19)30330-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Allogeneic hematopoïetic stem cell transplantation is one of the most efficient curative treatment for acute leukemia. But it is also a heavy process with an important risk of complications, particularly infection and graft versus host disease. Increasing data in literature show that an alteration of the intestinal microbiota of allogeneic stem cell recipients is associated with these complications. Indeed, treatments used during conditioning regimen lead to an impaired microbiota, which cannot fulfill its protective functions anymore. To limit this microbiota impairment, we could restore a healthy microbiota by a fecal microbiota transplantation, which has already shown its efficiency in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. The aim of this review is to describe the intestinal microbiota, the link between microbiota and complications of allogeneic stem cells transplantation, and the recent published data on fecal microbiota transplantation in this field.

RevDate: 2019-11-01

Drewes JL, Corona A, Sanchez U, et al (2019)

Transmission and clearance of potential procarcinogenic bacteria during fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent Clostridioides difficile.

JCI insight, 4(19):.

BACKGROUNDFecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) in adults and children, but donor stool samples are currently screened for only a limited number of potential pathogens. We sought to determine whether putative procarcinogenic bacteria (enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Escherichia coli harboring the colibactin toxin) could be durably transmitted from donors to patients during FMT.METHODSStool samples were collected from 11 pediatric rCDI patients and their respective FMT donors prior to FMT as well as from the patients at 2-10 weeks, 10-20 weeks, and 6 months after FMT. Bacterial virulence factors in stool DNA extracts and stool cultures were measured by quantitative PCR: Bacteroides fragilis toxin (bft), Fusobacterium adhesin A (fadA), and Escherichia coli colibactin (clbB).RESULTSFour of 11 patients demonstrated sustained acquisition of a procarcinogenic bacteria. Whole genome sequencing was performed on colony isolates from one of these donor/recipient pairs and demonstrated that clbB+ E. coli strains present in the recipient after FMT were identical to a strain present in the donor, confirming strain transmission. Conversely, 2 patients exhibited clearance of procarcinogenic bacteria following FMT from a negative donor.CONCLUSIONBoth durable transmission and clearance of procarcinogenic bacteria occurred following FMT, suggesting that additional studies on appropriate screening measures for FMT donors and the long-term consequences and/or benefits of FMT are warranted.FUNDINGCrohn's & Colitis Foundation, the Bloomberg~Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Genton L, Mareschal J, Charretier Y, et al (2019)

Targeting the Gut Microbiota to Treat Cachexia.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:305.

Cachexia occurs in many chronic diseases and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is treated by nutritional support but often with limited effectiveness, leading to the search of other therapeutic strategies. The modulation of gut microbiota, whether through pro-, pre-, syn- or antibiotics or fecal transplantation, is attracting ever-growing interest in the field of obesity, but could also be an interesting and innovative alternative for treating cachexia. This article reviews the evidence linking the features of malnutrition, as defined by the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition [low body mass index (BMI), unintentional body weight loss, low muscle mass, low appetite, and systemic inflammation] and the gut microbiota in human adults with cachexia-associated diseases, and shows the limitations of the present research in that field with suggestions for future directions.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Zhou H, Tai J, Xu H, et al (2019)

Xanthoceraside Could Ameliorate Alzheimer's Disease Symptoms of Rats by Affecting the Gut Microbiota Composition and Modulating the Endogenous Metabolite Levels.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 10:1035.

Xanthoceraside (XAN) is a natural-derived compound with anti-Alzheimer activity from the husks of Xanthoceras sorbifolia. Although its therapeutic effect had been confirmed in previous studies, the mechanism was still unclear due to its poor solubility and low permeability. In this study, the pharmacological effect of XAN on Alzheimer's disease (AD) was confirmed by behavior experiments and H&E staining observation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment also replicated the therapeutic effects, which indicates the potential targets of XAN on gut microbiota. The sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in fecal samples demonstrated that XAN reversed gut microbiota dysbiosis in AD animals. XAN could change the relative abundances of several phyla and genus of bacterial, particularly the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. Among them, Clostridium IV, Desulfovibrio, Corynebacterium, and Enterorhabdus had been reported to be involved in the pathologic developments of AD and other central nervous system disease. In metabolomics study, a series of host endogenous metabolites were detected, including amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine, which were all closely associated with the development of AD. Combined with the Spearman's correlation analysis, it was confirmed that the increases of five bacterial strains and decreases of six bacterial strains were closely correlated with the increases of nine host metabolites and the decreases of another five host metabolites. Therefore, XAN can modulate the structure of gut microbiota in AD rats; the changes of gut microbiota were significantly correlated with endogenous metabolites, and symptom of AD was ultimately alleviated. Our findings suggest that XAN may be a potential therapeutic drug for AD, and the gut microbiota may be potential targeting territory of XAN via microbiome-gut-brain pathway.

RevDate: 2019-11-20

Liu Y, Chen K, Li F, et al (2019)

Probiotic LGG prevents liver fibrosis through inhibiting hepatic bile acid synthesis and enhancing bile acid excretion in mice.

Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) [Epub ahead of print].

Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by gut dysbiosis and excessive toxic hepatic bile acids (BAs). Modification of gut microbiota and repression of BA synthesis are potential strategies for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects and to understand the mechanisms of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), on hepatic bile acid synthesis, liver injury and fibrosis in bile-duct ligation (BDL) and Mdr2-/- mice. Global and intestinal specific FXR inhibitors were used to dissect the role of FXR. LGG treatment significantly attenuated liver inflammation, injury and fibrosis with a significant reduction of hepatic BAs in BDL mice. Hepatic concentration of T-βMCA, an FXR antagonist, was markedly increased in BDL mice and reduced in LGG-treated mice, while chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an FXR agonist, was decreased in BDL mice and normalized in LGG-treated mice. LGG treatment significantly increased the expression of serum and ileum FGF15 and subsequently reduced hepatic CYP7A1 and BA synthesis in BDL and Mdr2-/- mice. At the molecular level, these changes were reversed by global and intestinal specific FXR inhibitors in BDL mice. In addition, LGG treatment altered gut microbiota, which was associated with increased BA de-conjugation and increased fecal and urine BA excretion both in BDL and Mdr2-/- mice. In vitro studies showed that LGG suppressed the inhibitory effect of T-βMCA on FXR and FGF19 expression in Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: LGG supplementation decreases hepatic BA by increasing intestinal FXR/FGF15 signaling pathway-mediated suppression of BA de novo synthesis and enhances BA excretion, which prevents excessive BA-induced liver injury and fibrosis in mice.

RevDate: 2019-11-05

Elangovan A, Allegretti JR, M Fischer (2019)

Microbiota modulation-based therapy for luminal GI disorders: current applications of probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation.

Expert opinion on biological therapy, 19(12):1343-1355.

Introduction: Alteration in the intestinal microbiota also termed as intestinal dysbiosis has been demonstrated in numerous gastrointestinal disorders linked to aberrant immune processes, acquisition of pathogenic organisms and often administration of antibiotics. Restoration of microbiota through probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained tremendous popularity among researchers in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.Areas covered: In this review, studies testing the safety and efficacy of probiotics and FMT for the treatment of various infectious and inflammatory luminal gastrointestinal diseases are reviewed. Randomized control studies are given priority while important uncontrolled studies are also highlighted.Expert opinion: Probiotics have demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Their utility in the primary and secondary prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection is debatable. The future of medicine should bring forth a personalized approach to probiotic use. FMT has revolutionized the treatment of recurrent CDI as well as severe and fulminant CDI. At the same time, it has galvanized gut microbiota research in the last decade. While FMT in ulcerative colitis appears promising, further studies on the durability and long-term safety are needed before it can be recommended in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2019-10-01

Ma J, Li J, Qian M, et al (2019)

The comprehensive pathophysiological changes in a novel rat model of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology [Epub ahead of print].

So far, a comprehensive animal model that can mimic both the central and peripheral pathophysiological changes of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is lacking. Here, we developed a novel IBS rat model combining trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) (designated as TC-IBS) and compared it with the TNBS-induced and CUMS-induced models. TC-IBS showed a pronounced depression phenotype with increased corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR)1 and CRHR2 expression at the frontal cortex and increased serum ACTH concentration. Visceral hypersensitivity (VH), as evidenced by colorectal distention (CRD) test, was highest in TC-IBS, accompanied by increased serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level and colonic 5-HT receptor 3A (5-HT3AR)/5-HT receptor 2B expression, impaired tight junction protein expression including occludin, zonula occludens-1, and phosphorylated myosin light chain. Palonosetron, a second generation of 5-HT3AR antagonist, alleviated VH significantly in TC-IBS. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that TNBS plus CUMS induced a significant disturbance of the gut microbiota. Cytokine profile analysis of TC-IBS model indicated an innate immune activation both in serum and colonic mucosa. Further, fecal microbiota transplantation improved VH and some pathophysiological changes in TC-IBS. In summary, we established a postinflammatory IBS model covering multifactorial pathophysiological changes, which may help to develop therapies that target specific IBS subtype.-Ma, J., Li, J., Qian, M., He, N., Cao, Y., Liu, Y., Wu, K., He, S. The comprehensive pathophysiological changes in a novel rat model of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity.

RevDate: 2019-11-29
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

Cammarota G, Ianiro G, Kelly CR, et al (2019)

International consensus conference on stool banking for faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice.

Gut, 68(12):2111-2121.

Although faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has a well-established role in the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), its widespread dissemination is limited by several obstacles, including lack of dedicated centres, difficulties with donor recruitment and complexities related to regulation and safety monitoring. Given the considerable burden of CDI on global healthcare systems, FMT should be widely available to most centres.Stool banks may guarantee reliable, timely and equitable access to FMT for patients and a traceable workflow that ensures safety and quality of procedures. In this consensus project, FMT experts from Europe, North America and Australia gathered and released statements on the following issues related to the stool banking: general principles, objectives and organisation of the stool bank; selection and screening of donors; collection, preparation and storage of faeces; services and clients; registries, monitoring of outcomes and ethical issues; and the evolving role of FMT in clinical practice,Consensus on each statement was achieved through a Delphi process and then in a plenary face-to-face meeting. For each key issue, the best available evidence was assessed, with the aim of providing guidance for the development of stool banks in order to promote accessibility to FMT in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2019-10-25

Gong Y, Dong R, Gao X, et al (2019)

Neohesperidin prevents colorectal tumorigenesis by altering the gut microbiota.

Pharmacological research, 148:104460.

Neohesperidin (NHP), derived from citrus fruits, has attracted considerable interest due to its preventative and therapeutic effects on numerous diseases. However, little progress has been made in determining the exact function of NHP on tumorigenesis. In the current study, we found that NHP inhibited colorectal tumorigenesis in the APC min/+ transgenic mouse model, as well as induced apoptosis and blocked angiogenesis in vivo. Our in-cell study suggested that this tumorigenic preventative effect of NHP is not due to the direct impact on tumor cells. Intriguingly, by utilizing 16 s rRNA gene-based microbiota sequencing, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was decreased, while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were increased in the presence of NHP. Additionally, the fecal microbiota transplantation experiment further revealed that feeding with fecal of NHP-treated mice induced considerable inhibition of tumorigenesis, which indicates that the alteration of gut microbiota is responsible for NHP-mediated prevention of colorectal tumorigenesis. Thus, our study not only suggests the efficacy of NHP as a potent natural product for preventing colorectal cancer but also proposes a compelling model to connect the gut microbiota to the preventative effect of NHP on tumorigenesis.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Smith AD, Foss ED, Zhang I, et al (2019)

Microbiota of MR1 deficient mice confer resistance against Clostridium difficile infection.

PloS one, 14(9):e0223025.

Clostridium difficile (Cd) infection (CDI) typically occurs after antibiotic usage perturbs the gut microbiota. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in the gut and their development is dependent on Major histocompatibility complex-related protein 1 (MR1) and the host microbiome. Here we were interested in determining whether the absence of MR1 impacts resistance to CDI. To this end, wild-type (WT) and MR1-/- mice were treated with antibiotics and then infected with Cd spores. Surprisingly, MR1-/- mice exhibited resistance to Cd colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of feces revealed inherent differences in microbial composition. This colonization resistance was transferred from MR1-/- to WT mice via fecal microbiota transplantation, suggesting that MR1-dependent factors influence the microbiota, leading to CDI susceptibility.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Abu-Sbeih H, Y Wang (2019)

Management Considerations for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Enterocolitis Based on Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:5574910 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has significantly improved the outcomes of various advanced malignancies that were deemed unruly prior to its invention. Immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis are among the most frequently encountered adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Given the increasing use of these therapies in the treatment of an ever-growing number of malignancies, providing appropriate treatment for such adverse effects has become crucial.

METHODS: In this review, we summarize the current body of evidence concerning the management of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis. Additionally, management of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis is likened to that of inflammatory bowel disease, given the resemblance between both entities in pathogenesis and clinical features. Reviewing the literature raised several points regarding this devastating toxicity that still need further investigation by future efforts.

RESULTS: Endoscopic and histologic evaluation is pivotal in the assessment of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis and provides vital information regarding the severity of the disease to guide treatment. Corticosteroids are the main therapy for immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis, with infliximab and vedolizumab as second-line agents. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation has emerged as a treatment option for immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis that is refractory to corticosteroids. Restarting immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy after resolution of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis carries a risk of recurrence that is mostly controllable with current immune-suppressive treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Lastly, we propose a management algorithm for immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis. Prospective research, preferably as collaborative efforts from oncology and gastroenterology specialists, is needed to refine the management of immune-mediated diarrhea and enterocolitis.

RevDate: 2019-09-29

Hu Y, Xiao HY, He C, et al (2019)

Fecal microbiota transplantation as an effective initial therapy for pancreatitis complicated with severe Clostridium difficile infection: A case report.

World journal of clinical cases, 7(17):2597-2604.

BACKGROUND: Moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP) is a critical form of acute pancreatitis that is related with high morbidity and mortality. Severe Clostridium difficile infection (sCDI) is a serious and rare nosocomial diarrheal complication, especially in MSAP patients. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment for refractory and recurrent CDI (rCDI). However, knowledge regarding the initial use of FMT in patients suffering from sCDI is limited.

CASE SUMMARY: Here, we report an MSAP patient complicated with sCDI who was treated by FMT as a first-line therapy. The patient was a 51-year-old man who suffered from diarrhea in his course of acute pancreatitis. An enzyme immunoassay was performed to detect toxins, and the result was positive for toxin-producing C. difficile and toxin B and negative for C. difficile ribotype 027. The colonoscopy revealed pseudomembranous colitis. Due to these findings, sCDI was our primary consideration. Because the patient provided informed consent for FMT treatment, we initially treated the patient by FMT rather than metronidazole. Diarrhea resolved within 5 d after FMT. The patient remained asymptomatic, and the follow-up colonoscopy performed 40 d after discharge showed a complete recovery. Our case is the first reported in China.

CONCLUSION: This case explores the possibilities of initially using FMT to treat severe CDI. Moreover, FMT may become a critical component of the treatment for severe CDI in MSAP patients.

RevDate: 2019-09-29

Zheng P, Li Y, Wu J, et al (2019)

Perturbed Microbial Ecology in Myasthenia Gravis: Evidence from the Gut Microbiome and Fecal Metabolome.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany), 6(18):1901441 pii:ADVS1275.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a devastating acquired autoimmune disease. Emerging evidence indicates that the gut microbiome plays a key role in maintaining immune system homeostasis. This work reports that MG is characterized by decreased α-phylogenetic diversity, and significantly disturbed gut microbiome and fecal metabolome. The altered gut microbial composition is associated with fecal metabolome changes, with 38.75% of altered bacterial operational taxonomic units showing significant correlations with a range of metabolite biomarkers. Some microbes are particularly linked with MG severity. Moreover, a combination of microbial makers and their correlated metabolites enable discriminating MG from healthy controls (HCs) with 100% accuracy. To investigate whether disturbed gut mcirobiome might contribute to the onset of MG, germ-free (GF) mice are initially colonized with MG microbiota (MMb) or healthy microbiota (HMb), and then immunized in a classic mouse model of MG. The MMb mice demonstrate substantially impaired locomotion ability compared with the HMb mice. This effect could be reversed by cocolonizing GF mice with both MMb and HMb. The MMb mice also exhibit similar disturbances of fecal metabolic pathways as found in MG. Together these data demonstrate disturbances in microbiome composition and activity that are likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of MG.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Son DH, Park WJ, YJ Lee (2019)

Recent Advances in Anti-Aging Medicine.

Korean journal of family medicine, 40(5):289-296.

A rapidly aging population in Korea has led to increased attention in the field of anti-aging medicine. The purpose of anti-aging medicine is to slow, stop, or reverse the aging process and its associated effects, such as disability and frailty. Anti-aging medicine is emerging as a growing industry, but many supplements or protocols are available that do not have scientific evidence to support their claims. In this review, the mechanisms of action and the clinical implications of anti-aging interventions were examined and explained. Calorie restriction mimetics define compounds that imitate the outcome of calorie restriction, including an activator of AMP protein kinase (metformin), inhibitor of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis (pegvisomant), inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (rapamycin), and activator of the sirtuin pathway (resveratrol). Hormonal replacement has also been widely used in the elderly population to improve their quality of life. Manipulating healthy gut microbiota through prebiotic/probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation has significant potential in anti-aging medicine. Vitamin D is expected to be a primary anti-aging medicine in the near future due to its numerous positive effects in the elderly population.

RevDate: 2019-11-26

Zhang Z, Mocanu V, Cai C, et al (2019)

Impact of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome-A Systematic Review.

Nutrients, 11(10):.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a gut microbial-modulation strategy that has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of human diseases, including obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study appraises current literature and provides an overview of the effectiveness and limitations of FMT as a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Five electronic databases and two gray literature sources were searched up to 10 December 2018. All interventional and observational studies that contained information on the relevant population (adult patients with obesity and MS), intervention (receiving allogeneic FMT) and outcomes (metabolic parameters) were eligible. From 1096 unique citations, three randomized placebo-controlled studies (76 patients with obesity and MS, body mass index = 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose = 5.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L) were included for review. Studies reported mixed results with regards to improvement in metabolic parameters. Two studies reported improved peripheral insulin sensitivity (rate of glucose disappearance, RD) at 6 weeks in patients receiving donor FMT versus patients receiving the placebo control. In addition, one study observed lower HbA1c levels in FMT patients at 6 weeks. No differences in fasting plasma glucose, hepatic insulin sensitivity, body mass index (BMI), or cholesterol markers were observed between two groups across all included studies. While promising, the influence of FMT on long-term clinical endpoints needs to be further explored. Future studies are also required to better understand the mechanisms through which changes in gut microbial ecology and engraftment of microbiota affect metabolic outcomes for patients with obesity and MS. In addition, further research is needed to better define the optimal fecal microbial preparation, dosing, and method of delivery.

RevDate: 2019-09-29

DeLong K, Bensouda S, Zulfiqar F, et al (2019)

Conceptual Design of a Universal Donor Screening Approach for Vaginal Microbiota Transplant.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:306.

The success of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection has led to growing excitement about the potential of using transplanted human material as a therapy for a wide range of diseases and conditions related to microbial dysbiosis. We anticipate that the next frontier of microbiota transplantation will be vaginal microbiota transplant (VMT). The composition of the vaginal microbiota has broad impact on sexual and reproductive health. The vaginal microbiota in the "optimal" state are one of the simplest communities, dominated by one of only a few species of Lactobacillus. Diversity in the microbiota and the concomitant depletion of lactobacilli, a condition referred to as bacterial vaginosis (BV), is associated with a wide range of deleterious effects, including increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections and increased likelihood of having a preterm birth. However, we have very few treatment options available, and none of them curative or restorative, for "resetting" the vaginal microbiota to a more protective state. In order to test the hypothesis that VMT may be a more effective treatment option, we must first determine how to screen donors to find those with minimal risk of pathogen transmission and "optimal" vaginal microbiota for transplant. Here, we describe a universal donor screening approach that was implemented in a small pilot study of 20 women. We further characterized key physicochemical properties of donor cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) and the corresponding composition of the vaginal microbiota to delineate criteria for inclusion/exclusion. We anticipate that the framework described here will help accelerate clinical studies of VMT.

RevDate: 2019-09-27

Kim J, Lee H, An J, et al (2019)

Alterations in Gut Microbiota by Statin Therapy and Possible Intermediate Effects on Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1947.

Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is a contributing factor for obesity-related metabolic diseases such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Pharmacotherapy for metabolic diseases involves the modulation of gut microbiota, which is suggested to be a potential therapeutic target. In this study, the modulation of gut microbiota by statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs: atorvastatin and rosuvastatin) was investigated in an aged mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity, and the association between gut microbiota and immune responses was described. Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin significantly increased the abundance of the genera Bacteroides, Butyricimonas, and Mucispirillum. Moreover, the abundance of these genera was correlated with the inflammatory response, including levels of IL-1β and TGFβ1 in the ileum. In addition, oral fecal microbiota transplantation with fecal material collected from rosuvastatin-treated mouse groups improved hyperglycemia. From these results, the effect of statins on metabolic improvements could be explained by altered gut microbiota. Our findings suggest that the modulation of gut microbiota by statins has an important role in the therapeutic actions of these drugs.

RevDate: 2019-10-18
CmpDate: 2019-10-18

Li N, Tian HL, Chen QY, et al (2019)

[Efficacy analysis of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of 2010 patients with intestinal disorders].

Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery, 22(9):861-868.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for intestinal disorders. Methods: A retrospectively descriptive cohort study was carried out. Clinical data of 2010 patients who underwent FMT and received follow-up for more than 3 months from May 2014 to November 2018 were collected, including 1,206 cases from Tongji University Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital and 804 cases from Nanjing Eastern Military General Hospital. Of the 2,010 patients, 797 were male and 1,213 were female, with a mean age of (49.4±16.5) years old. Inclusion criteria were those with indications for FMT and voluntary treatment of FMT. Pregnant or lactating women, patients with end-stage disease, cases who were participating or participated in other clinical trials within 3 months, and patients with previous bowel history of pathogen infection, oral antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors (PPI) for the recent2 weeks, and those at immunosuppressive state were excluded. Informed consent was obtained from the enrolled patients and their families. There were 1,356 cases of constipation, 175 cases of inflammatory bowel disease, 148 cases of chronic diarrhea, 127 cases of radiation enteritis, 119 cases of irritable bowel syndrome, and 85 cases of autism (complicating with intestinal disorders). FMT donor requirements: (1) 18 to 30 years old non-relatives, non-pregnant healthy adults with healthy lifestyle and good eating habits as volunteers to participate in fecal donation; (2) no administration of antibiotics within 3 months; (3) no chronic diseases such as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, etc., no autoimmune disease, not in immunosuppressive state, no history of malignant disease; (4) negative pathogen examination of infectious diseases (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, syphilis, HIV, etc.); (5) negative fecal examination (C.difficile, dysentery bacillus, Shigella, Campylobacter, parasites, etc.). The donor requirements after enrollment: (1) physical examination was reviewed once every two months, and the result still met the above requirements; (2) 16S rRNA sequencing was performed for every fecal donation in order to ensure that the composition and diversity of the fecal flora was stable and reliable. The preparation of the stool suspension referred to the Amsterdam criteria and the preparation process was less than 1 hour. The preparation of the FMT capsule was processed by pre-freezing the stool suspension after the preparation of the above suspension, and the frozen sample was transferred into a freeze dryer for freezing. The dried and lyophilized powder was encapsulated in capsules, and the capsule shell was made of acid-resistant hypromellose capsule (No.0) and pediatric-specific capsule (No.3), sealed and packaged in a-20℃ refrigerator. Three ways of accepting FMT treatment pathways included 6-day transplantation after the placement of the nasointestinal tube, 6-day oral FMT capsule transplantation and one-time transplantation through colonoscopy. Intestinal preparation (nasointestinal tube feeding of polyethylene glycol until watery stool) was carried out before transplantation. Other treatments were stopped during treatment and follow-up, and any medication was not recommended when necessary. Results: Of the 2010 patients, 1,497 cases received nasointestinal tube transplantation (nasointestinal tube group), 452 cases oral capsule transplantation (oral capsule group) and 61 cases colonoscopy (colonoscopy group). At 3 time points of 3, 12, and 36 months after FMT, the clinical cure rates and the clinical improvement rates were 41.3% (560/1 356), 35.2% (320/909), 31.4% (69/220), and 29.0% (393/1 356), 27.8% (253/909), 29.1% (64/220), respectively in constipation patients; 33.1% (58/175), 29.9% (35/117), 24.5% (12/49), and 31.4% (55/175), 27.4% (32/117), 57.1% (28/49), respectively in inflammatory bowel disease patients; 87.8% (130/148), 81.8% (81/99), 78.3% (36/46), and 8.1% (12/148), 7.1% (7/99), 4.3% (2/46), respectively in chronic diarrhea patients; 61.4% (78/127), 56.5% (48/85), 47.6% (20/42), and 21.2% (27/127), 15.3% (13/85), 14.3% (6/42), respectively in radiation enteritis patients; 53.8% (64/119), 45.0% (36/80), 6/15, and 21.0% (25/119), 26.2% (21/80), 4/15, respectively in irritable bowel syndrome patients; 23.5% (20/85), 22.8% (13/57), 20.0%(5/25), and 55.3% (47/85), 49.1% (28/57), 40.0% (10/25), respectively in autism patients. Meanwhile the clinical cure rates and the clinical improvement rates at 3, 12, and 36 months were 47.7% (714/1 497), 42.8% (425/994), 39.1% (128/327), and 29.1% (436/1 497), 27.0% (268/994), 28.1% (92/327), respectively in the nasointestinal tube group; 38.7% (175/452), 30.2% (91/301), 33.3% (16/48), and 24.3% (110/452), 26.2% (79/301), 25.0% (12/48), respectively in the oral capsule group; 34.4% (21/61), 32.7% (17/52), 18.2% (4/22), and 21.3% (13/61), 13.5% (7/52), 45.5% (10/22), respectively in colonoscopy group. No serious adverse events occurred during treatment and follow-up period. The adverse event of nasointestinal tube group presented higher ratio of discomfort in respiratorytract accounting for 13.1% (196/1497); the oral capsule group had a higher proportion of nausea and vomiting when swallowing capsules accounting for 7.1% (32/452); the colonoscopy group was mainly diarrhea, accounting for 37.7% (23/61). The above symptoms disappeared after the nasointestinal tube was removed, or after treatment ended, or within 1 to 3 days after hospitalization. Conclusion: FMT is a safe and effective method for the treatment of intestinal dysfunction.

RevDate: 2019-09-24

Cotter JM, Nicholson MR, LK Kociolek (2019)

An Infectious Diseases Perspective on Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides difficile Infection in Children.

Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society pii:5573379 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is efficacious for treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDIs). Pediatric experience with FMT for rCDIs is increasing, particularly at large centers. While retrospective studies suggest that FMT is generally safe in the short term, particularly in immunocompetent patients and with rigorous donor screening, additional large prospective studies are needed. This particularly includes those at high risk for infectious complications, such as immunocompromised hosts. Further, long-term implications of altering the intestinal microbiome with FMT are not well understood. The role of FMT in children, particularly in high-risk patients, will require continual reexamination with future availability of pediatric safety and efficacy data. This review summarizes key points for infectious diseases physicians to consider when evaluating a child for FMT.

RevDate: 2019-10-23

Guirro M, Costa A, Gual-Grau A, et al (2019)

Effects from diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and obesity can be ameliorated by fecal microbiota transplantation: A multiomics approach.

PloS one, 14(9):e0218143.

Obesity and its comorbidities are currently considered an epidemic, and the involved pathophysiology is well studied. Hypercaloric diets are tightly related to the obesity etiology and also cause alterations in gut microbiota functionality. Diet and antibiotics are known to play crucial roles in changes in the microbiota ecosystem and the disruption of its balance; therefore, the manipulation of gut microbiota may represent an accurate strategy to understand its relationship with obesity caused by diet. Fecal microbiota transplantation, during which fecal microbiota from a healthy donor is transplanted to an obese subject, has aroused interest as an effective approach for the treatment of obesity. To determine its success, a multiomics approach was used that combined metagenomics and metaproteomics to study microbiota composition and function. To do this, a study was performed in rats that evaluated the effect of a hypercaloric diet on the gut microbiota, and this was combined with antibiotic treatment to deplete the microbiota before fecal microbiota transplantation to verify its effects on gut microbiota-host homeostasis. Our results showed that a high-fat diet induces changes in microbiota biodiversity and alters its function in the host. Moreover, we found that antibiotics depleted the microbiota enough to reduce its bacterial content. Finally, we assessed the use of fecal microbiota transplantation as a complementary obesity therapy, and we found that it reversed the effects of antibiotics and reestablished the microbiota balance, which restored normal functioning and alleviated microbiota disruption. This new approach could be implemented to support the dietary and healthy habits recommended as a first option to maintain the homeostasis of the microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-10-08

Lee JR, Huang J, Magruder M, et al (2019)

Butyrate-producing gut bacteria and viral infections in kidney transplant recipients: A pilot study.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is being associated increasingly with development of infections besides Clostridium difficile infection. A recent study found an association between butyrate-producing gut (BPG) bacteria and less frequent development of lower respiratory viral infections in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (Haak et al, Blood 131(26): 2978, 2018). In this investigation, we examine the relationship between the abundance of BPG bacteria and the development of viral infections in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients.

METHODS: We recruited 168 kidney transplant recipients who provided 510 fecal specimens in the first 3 months after transplantation and profiled the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V4-V5 hypervariable region. We classified the kidney transplant recipients into higher BPG Bacteria Group and lower BPG Bacteria Group using the same criteria of 1% relative gut abundance of BPG bacteria as the Haak et al study.

RESULTS: Administration of antibiotics against anaerobes was associated with a significant decrease in the relative gut abundance of BPG bacteria. The higher BPG Bacteria Group was associated with less development of respiratory viral infections (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.28, P = .01) but not with less development of CMV viremia (HR: 0.38, P = .13) or BK viremia (HR: 1.02, P = .98) at 2 years post transplantation.

CONCLUSION: Our pilot investigation supports future validation of the relationship between high relative gut abundance of BPG bacteria and decreased risk for development of respiratory viral infections.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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