About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot

About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

02 Aug 2021 at 01:33
Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 02 Aug 2021 at 01:33 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-07-31

Corrie L, Gulati M, Vishwas S, et al (2021)

Combination therapy of curcumin and fecal microbiota transplant: Potential treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Medical hypotheses, 154:110644 pii:S0306-9877(21)00163-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a combination of various symptoms like anovulation, hirsutism, chronic amenorrhea, infertility, obesity and polycystic ovaries. It affects over 7 million women worldwide. The current strategy to treat this disorder is based on the use of drugs that provide symptomatic relief. Most of these, however, exhibit numerous side effects and are not able to ameliorate all the signs and symptoms of PCOS. As dysbiosis is considered as one of the prime underlying causes of PCOS, restoration of eubiosis was considered as a plausible way to treat it. Bacteriotherpeutics like probiotics, synbiotics and even fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) have shown considerable effectiveness in PCOS. Of these baceteriotherapeutic options, FMT is considered to be the most holistic as it encompasses the bacteriome, virome, fungome, archaeome and even parasitome while both probiotics as well as synbiotics mainly comprise bacteria. Repeated FMT, however, is not a pragmatic option because of its inconvenience, lack of standardization, involved risk and scepticism amongst patients and physicians. If the eubiosis ushered by FMT is sustained for a long time, the repeated administrations of FMT can be avoided and maintenance therapy with any agent that can maintain the eubiotic condition can be adopted. Role of curcumin on gut microbiota is widely known. It is largely attributed to the ability of certain microbes to consume polyphenols as substrates and its positive effect on bacterial consumption of nutrients such as sugars. Based on various mechanisms and studies, a new hypothesis is being proposed wherein FMT and curcumin combination is predicted to be an effective and sustained treatment of PCOS with much lower rates of remission.

RevDate: 2021-07-31

Ji Y, Tao T, Zhang J, et al (2021)

Comparison of effects on colitis-associated tumorigenesis and gut microbiota in mice between Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology pii:S0944-7113(21)00196-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota plays an indispensable role in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). As traditional medicinal fungi, previous studies have shown that Ophiocordyceps sinensis could better maintain intestinal health via promoting the growth of probiotics in vitro compared with Cordyceps militaris. However, the detailed pharmacological activities and clinical efficacy of O. sinensis and C. militaris are still elusive.

PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the different actions of O. sinensis and C. militaris on colitis-associated tumorigenesis in Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-treated mice and explore the potential gut microbiota-dependent mechanisms.

METHODS: C57BL/6 mice (Male, 4 weeks old) were used to construct the AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice model. The mice were administered with 0.6 mg/g/d O. sinensis or C. militaris for 12 weeks. It's worth noting that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and antibiotic treatment were used to investigated the complex interactions between the medicinal fungi, gut microbiota and colonic tumorigenesis.

RESULTS: O. sinensis treatment significantly increased the body weight and survival rate, reduced the number of colon tumors, improved the damage of colon epithelial tissue, restored the crypt structure and alleviate the colonic inflammation in AOM/DSS-treated mice. RT-qPCR results indicated that O. sinensis partly regulated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling via alleviating the overexpression of β-catenin, TCF4 and c-Myc genes in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Compared with C. militaris, O. sinensis showed better anti-tumor activity. Gut microbiota analysis revealed that O. sinensis reversed the decline of gut microbiota diversity and the structural disorder induced by AOM/DSS. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that O. sinensis promoted the growth of Parabacteroides goldsteinii and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2, which were positively correlated with the anti-tumor activity and the production of SCFAs. FMT combined with antibiotic treatment showed that horizontal fecal transfer derived from O. sinensis-treated mice improved the intestinal inflammation and alleviated the colitis-associated tumorigenesis, which was consistent with the direct ingestion of O. sinensis.

CONCLUSION: O. sinensis could better attenuate colitis-associated tumorigenesis compared with C. militaris. These effects might be at least partially due to the increased abundance of probiotics, especially P. goldsteinii and B. pseudolongum PV8-2.

RevDate: 2021-07-30

Sehgal K, S Khanna (2021)

Gut Microbiota: A Target for Intervention in Obesity.

Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: : Obesity is a major public health concern with an increasing prevalence. Recent studies suggest an influence of gastrointestinal microbiota on obesity. Consequently, microbiota restoration therapies are being considered as potential management. We present data on microbiome markers and the future of microbiota therapeutics for obesity.

AREAS COVERED: : We summarize the pathogenesis of obesity, relationship between gut microbiota and obesity, use of microbiota-based therapies. Data were gathered by a literature search of articles in PubMed from the date of inception till August 2020. Keywords used were "gut microbiota", "gut microbiome," "microbiota," "microbiome," "obesity," and "obesity and fecal microbiota transplantation" as MeSH terms.

EXPERT OPINION: : The direct relationship of gut microbiota in causing obesity still needs exploration. Because of the scarcity of human studies, the utility of microbiota-based therapies as treatment remains uncertain and the use of microbiome restoration for obesity should be restricted to research settings. To evaluate the efficacy of microbiota restoration, studies using these therapies as an adjunct along with diet and lifestyle should be conducted. Once relationships between bacterial strains and the human metabolic profile are determined, these strains could be cultured for transfer to obese patients. Such advancement could help in tailoring personalized therapies for obese persons.

RevDate: 2021-07-30

Nishikawa H, Fukunishi S, Asai A, et al (2021)

Dysbiosis and liver diseases (Review).

International journal of molecular medicine, 48(3):.

Dysbiosis, a qualitative and quantitative aberrancy of gut microbiota, has attracted marked attention. At present, advances in molecular biological techniques have made it possible to analyze gut microbiota at the DNA and RNA levels without culturing, and methods such as 16S ribosomal RNA targeting analysis and metagenomic analysis using next‑generation sequencers have been developed. The relationship between gut microbiota and various diseases has been extensively examined. Gut microbiota are essential for the immune system, energy intake and fat storage, and humans use them to build complex immune regulatory mechanisms and to obtain energy from food. The liver is the first organ to be nourished by the portal blood flow of intestinal origin, and liver diseases can be strongly influenced by various factors of intestinal origin, such as intestinal bacteria, bacterial components, and intestinal bacterial metabolites. Rigorous research has revealed that the composition of the gut microbiota is altered and the diversity of bacteria is reduced in liver diseases. Significance of various factors transported to the liver by portal vein blood flow from the intestine has been extensively investigated. Gut microbiota in liver disease can be associated with disease progression regardless of disease etiology and even with carcinogenesis. The relationship between gut microbiota and liver diseases (hepatitis virus‑related diseases, autoimmune liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease, non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease, non‑alcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma) and the treatments of dysbiosis (antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation) in liver disease are outlined based on the current evidence.

RevDate: 2021-07-30

Gheorghe CE, Ritz NL, Martin JA, et al (2021)

Investigating causality with fecal microbiota transplantation in rodents: applications, recommendations and pitfalls.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1941711.

In recent years, studies investigating the role of the gut microbiota in health and diseases have increased enormously - making it essential to deepen and question the research methodology employed. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in rodent studies (either from human or animal donors) allows us to better understand the causal role of the intestinal microbiota across multiple fields. However, this technique lacks standardization and requires careful experimental design in order to obtain optimal results. By comparing several studies in which rodents are the final recipients of FMT, we summarize the common practices employed. In this review, we document the limitations of this method and highlight different parameters to be considered while designing FMT Studies. Standardizing this method is challenging, as it differs according to the research topic, but avoiding common pitfalls is feasible. Several methodological questions remain unanswered to this day and we offer a discussion on issues to be explored in future studies.

RevDate: 2021-07-30
CmpDate: 2021-07-30

de Groot P, Nikolic T, Pellegrini S, et al (2021)

Faecal microbiota transplantation halts progression of human new-onset type 1 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial.

Gut, 70(1):92-105.

OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterised by islet autoimmunity and beta cell destruction. A gut microbiota-immunological interplay is involved in the pathophysiology of T1D. We studied microbiota-mediated effects on disease progression in patients with type 1 diabetes using faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

DESIGN: Patients with recent-onset (<6 weeks) T1D (18-30 years of age) were randomised into two groups to receive three autologous or allogenic (healthy donor) FMTs over a period of 4 months. Our primary endpoint was preservation of stimulated C peptide release assessed by mixed-meal tests during 12 months. Secondary outcome parameters were changes in glycaemic control, fasting plasma metabolites, T cell autoimmunity, small intestinal gene expression profile and intestinal microbiota composition.

RESULTS: Stimulated C peptide levels were significantly preserved in the autologous FMT group (n=10 subjects) compared with healthy donor FMT group (n=10 subjects) at 12 months. Small intestinal Prevotella was inversely related to residual beta cell function (r=-0.55, p=0.02), whereas plasma metabolites 1-arachidonoyl-GPC and 1-myristoyl-2-arachidonoyl-GPC levels linearly correlated with residual beta cell preservation (rho=0.56, p=0.01 and rho=0.46, p=0.042, respectively). Finally, baseline CD4 +CXCR3+T cell counts, levels of small intestinal Desulfovibrio piger and CCL22 and CCL5 gene expression in duodenal biopsies predicted preserved beta cell function following FMT irrespective of donor characteristics.

CONCLUSION: FMT halts decline in endogenous insulin production in recently diagnosed patients with T1D in 12 months after disease onset. Several microbiota-derived plasma metabolites and bacterial strains were linked to preserved residual beta cell function. This study provides insight into the role of the intestinal gut microbiome in T1D.


RevDate: 2021-07-30
CmpDate: 2021-07-30

Zhang P, Feng Y, Li L, et al (2021)

Improvement in sperm quality and spermatogenesis following faecal microbiota transplantation from alginate oligosaccharide dosed mice.

Gut, 70(1):222-225.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Mengoni F, Salari V, Kosenkova I, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota modulates seizure susceptibility.

Epilepsia [Epub ahead of print].

A bulk of data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a role in a broad range of diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system. Recently, significant differences in the intestinal microbiota of patients with epilepsy, compared to healthy volunteers, have been reported in an observational study. However, an active role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, through the so-called "gut-brain axis," has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the direct impact of microbiota transplanted from epileptic animals to healthy recipient animals, to clarify whether the microbiota from animals with epilepsy can affect the excitability of the recipients' brain by lowering seizure thresholds. Our results provide the first evidence that mice who received microbiota from epileptic animals are more prone to develop status epilepticus, compared to recipients of "healthy" microbiota, after a subclinical dose of pilocarpine, indicating a higher susceptibility to seizures. The lower thresholds for seizure activity found in this study support the hypothesis that the microbiota, through the gut-brain axis, is able to affect neuronal excitability in the brain.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Yang F, Chen H, Gao Y, et al (2020)

Gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids and hypertension: Mechanism and treatment.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 130:110503.

Hypertension (HTN) is an growing emerging health issue around across the world. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the role of dysbacteriosis in HTN and its underlying mechanism. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are novel metabolites of intestinal flora, exert substantial regulatory effects on HTN, providing an exciting avenue for novel therapies for this disease. They function primarily by activating transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors and inhibiting histone acetylation. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the complex interaction between SCFAs and gut microbiota composition to lower blood pressure by regulating the brain-gut and kidney-gut axes, and the role of high-salt diet, immune system, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mechanism in the development of HTN. Furthermore, we also discuss the various treatment strategies for HTN, including diet, antibiotics, probiotics, fecal microflora transplantation, and traditional Chinese medicine. In conclusion, manipulation of SCFAs opens new avenues to improve treatment of HTN.

RevDate: 2021-07-28

Li Y, Dong J, Xiao H, et al (2021)

Caloric restriction alleviates radiation injuries in a sex-dependent fashion.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 35(8):e21787.

Safe and effective regimens are still needed given the risk of radiation toxicity from iatrogenic irradiation. The gut microbiota plays an important role in radiation damage. Diet has emerged as a key determinant of the intestinal microbiome signature and function. In this report, we investigated whether a 30% caloric restriction (CR) diet may ameliorate radiation enteritis and hematopoietic toxicity. Experimental mice were either fed ad libitum (AL) or subjected to CR preconditioning for 10 days and then exposed to total body irradiation (TBI) or total abdominal irradiation (TAI). Gross examinations showed that short-term CR pretreatment restored hematogenic organs and improved the intestinal architecture in both male and female mice. Intriguingly, CR preconditioning mitigated radiation-induced systemic and enteric inflammation in female mice, while gut barrier function improved in irradiated males. 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing showed that the frequency of pro-inflammatory microbes, including Helicobacter and Desulfovibrionaceae, was reduced in female mice after 10 days of CR preconditioning, while an enrichment of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibaculum, Clostridiales, and Lactobacillus, was observed in males. Using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or antibiotic administration to alter the gut microbiota counteracted the short-term CR-elicited radiation tolerance of both male and female mice, further indicating that the radioprotection of a 30% CR diet depends on altering the gut microbiota. Together, our findings provide new insights into CR in clinical applications and indicate that a short-term CR diet prior to radiation modulates sex-specific gut microbiota configurations, protecting male and female mice against the side effects caused by radiation challenge.

RevDate: 2021-07-28

El-Sayed A, Aleya L, M Kamel (2021)

Microbiota and epigenetics: promising therapeutic approaches?.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The direct/indirect responsibility of the gut microbiome in disease induction in and outside the digestive tract is well studied. These results are usually from the overpopulation of certain species on the cost of others, interaction with beneficial microflora, interference with normal epigenetic control mechanisms, or suppression of the immune system. Consequently, it is theoretically possible to cure such disorders by rebalancing the microbiome inside our bodies. This can be achieved by changing the lifestyle pattern and diet or by supplementation with beneficial bacteria or their metabolites. Various approaches have been explored to manipulate the normal microbial inhabitants, including nutraceutical, supplementations with prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics, or through microbiome transplantation (fecal, skin, or vaginal microbiome transplantation). In the present review, the interaction between the microbiome and epigenetics and their role in disease induction is discussed. Possible future therapeutic approaches via the reestablishment of equilibrium in our internal micro-ecosystem are also highlighted.

RevDate: 2021-07-28
CmpDate: 2021-07-28

Guilfoyle J, Considine J, SL Bouchoucha (2021)

Faecal microbiota transplantation and the patient experience: A systematic review.

Journal of clinical nursing, 30(9-10):1236-1252.

AIM: To review and synthesise the literature examining the patients' experience of faecal microbiota transplantation.

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation is a common treatment for many conditions, including Clostridium Difficile infections. Patients' experience of treatments is an important influence on clinical decision-making and treatment adherence.

DESIGN: The PRISMA guidelines guided this systematic review. The review was registered with PROSPERO [CRD42020140446].

METHOD: A search of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline and Embase was conducted for studies published in English and French up to June 2020. Risk of bias was examined using Critical Appraisal Skills Program tools, and quality appraisal was performed independently by three reviewers. Primary outcome of interest was the patient experience of faecal microbiota transplantation. Data were synthesised using a narrative approach.

RESULTS: The search identified 3316 citations, and 12 studies were included. Methodological quality of studies was moderate to low quality. Few studies have accurately explored the patients' experience of faecal microbiota transplantation: most focus on clinical outcomes or hypothetical scenarios regarding the patients' perspectives of faecal microbiota transplantation. Only one study was identified where the sole focus was the patients' experience of faecal microbiota transplantation. Patient's experience of faecal microbiota transplantation was diverse and complex with physiological and psychological components dependent on the patient's medical condition, the administration method and the efficacy.

CONCLUSION: Patients did not find faecal microbiota transplantation unappealing; however, patients equally reported the procedural experience was unpleasant. Limited results and low quality evidence suggest that further evaluation of the patient experience of faecal microbiota transplantation would be beneficial.

Identifying the patients' experience of faecal microbiota transplantation may inform recommendations regarding alternate treatment therapies and enable opportunities to provide quality care for patients that require faecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2021-07-29
CmpDate: 2021-07-29

Waszkiewicz N (2021)

Large Projects Investigating the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Fecal Transplant Studies Are Needed for Treating Mental Illnesses.

Neuropsychobiology, 80(3):276-278.

RevDate: 2021-07-28
CmpDate: 2021-07-28

Jørgensen SMD, Rubak TMM, Damsgaard EM, et al (2020)

Faecal microbiota transplantation as a home therapy to frail older people.

Age and ageing, 49(6):1093-1096.

BACKGROUND: Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of antibiotics-associated diarrhoea. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective for recurrent CDI and may be provided as a home treatment to frail, older people.

METHODS: We present four consecutive patients with recurrent CDI, treated at home using nasojejunal tube-delivered or encapsulated donor faeces. The primary outcome was combined clinical resolution and a negative CD toxin test 8 weeks post-treatment.

RESULTS: All four patients had severe CDI and all improved clinically following one FMT. Sustained resolution following one FMT was observed in one patient. Two patients had recurrence and received a second FMT using capsules; both achieved resolution. One patient who had recurrence declined from further FMT due to fear of relapse and was established on long-term vancomycin. No adverse events related to FMT were observed.

CONCLUSION: Frail older people may benefit from FMT. Home treatment is a viable option and may be considered both for clinical cure and for palliation.

RevDate: 2021-07-28

Trikha SRJ, Lee DM, Ecton KE, et al (2021)

Transplantation of an obesity-associated human gut microbiota to mice induces vascular dysfunction and glucose intolerance.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1940791.

Recent preclinical data suggest that alterations in the gut microbiota may be an important factor linking obesity to vascular dysfunction, an early sign of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to begin translation of these preclinical data by examining whether vascular phenotypes in humans are transmissible through the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that germ-free mice colonized with gut microbiota from obese individuals would display diminished vascular function compared to germ-free mice receiving microbiota from lean individuals.We transplanted fecal material from obese and lean age-and sex-matched participants with disparate vascular function to germ-free mice. Using Principle Component Analysis, the microbiota of colonized mice separated by donor group along the first principle component, accounting for between 70-93% of the total variability in the dataset. The microbiota of mice receiving transplants from lean individuals was also characterized by increased alpha diversity, as well as increased relative abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria, including Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides ovatis. Endothelium-dependent dilation, aortic pulse wave velocity and glucose tolerance were significantly altered in mice receiving microbiota from the obese donor relative to those receiving microbiota from the lean donor or those remaining germ-free.These data indicate that the obesity-associated human gut microbiota is sufficient to alter the vascular phenotype in germ-free mice in the absence of differences in body weight or dietary manipulation, and provide justification for future clinical trials to test the efficacy of microbiota-targeted therapies in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Jo HG, GS Seo (2021)

[Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Prospect of Microbe-based Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease].

The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi, 78(1):31-36.

The use of 5-ASA, immunomodulators, biologics, and small molecule drugs are the main treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is also drawing attention as a treatment to improve intestinal dysbiosis by transplantaing normal human stool into patients with IBD. FMT demonstrates relatively good effects in inducing clinical remission in IBD, but unlike Clostridium difficile infection, multiple FMT can enhance the clinical effect. There are no reports of the long-term effectiveness and safety of FMT conducted in IBD yet, therefore, well-designed, prospective studies will be needed. Gut microbiota can affect inflammatory response, intestinal barrier function, and host metabolism, so microbe-based therapies are likely to be a new treatment option for IBD. The deeper the understanding of microbe products or effectors, the more likely it is to provide personalized therapy in IBD.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Huang YW, Pan P, Echeveste CE, et al (2020)

Transplanting fecal material from wild-type mice fed black raspberries alters the immune system of recipient mice.

Food frontiers, 1(3):253-259.

By constantly stimulating intestinal immunity, gut microbes play important regulatory roles, and their possible involvement in human physical and mental disorders beyond intestinal diseases suggests the importance of maintaining homeostasis in the gut microbiota. Both transplantation of fecal microbiota and dietary interventions have been shown to restore microbial homeostasis in recipients. In the current study with wild-type mice, we combined these two approaches to determine if transplanting fecal material from mice fed black raspberries (BRB, 5%) altered recipients' immune system. The donors received a control or 5% BRB diet, and fecal transplantation was performed every other day 15 times into recipients fed control diet. Afterward, we used flow cytometry to analyze populations of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells among bone marrow cells, splenocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from the recipients. We found that BRB-fecal material that contained both fecal microbiota and their metabolites increased NK cell populations among bone marrow cells, splenocytes, and PBMCs, and raised levels of CD8+ T cells in splenocytes. Our findings suggest that fecal transplantation can modulate the immune system and might therefore be valuable for managing a range of physical and mental disorders.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Malczewski AB, Ketheesan N, Coward JIG, et al (2021)

Enhancing Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Solid Tissue Cancers: The Role of Diet, the Microbiome & Microbiome-Derived Metabolites.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:624434.

Host immunity plays a central role in the regulation of anti-tumour responses during checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT). The mechanisms involved in long lasting remission remain unclear. Animal studies have revealed that the microbiome influences the host immune response. This is supported by human studies linking a higher microbial richness and diversity with enhanced responses to CIT. This review focuses on the role of diet, the microbiome and the microbiome-derived metabolome in enhancing responses to current CIT in solid tissue cancers. The Western diet has been associated with dysbiosis, inflammation and numerous metabolic disorders. There is preliminary evidence that lifestyle factors including a high fibre diet are associated with improved responses to CIT via a potential effect on the microbiota. The mechanisms through which the microbiota may regulate long-term immunotherapy responses have yet to be determined, although bacterial-metabolites including short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are recognized to have an impact on T cell differentiation, and may affect T effector/regulatory T cell balance. SCFAs were also shown to enhance the memory potential of activated CD8 T cells. Many therapeutic approaches including dietary manipulation and fecal transplantation are currently being explored in order to enhance immunotherapy responses. The microbiome-derived metabolome may be one means through which bacterial metabolic products can be monitored from the start of treatment and could be used to identify patients at risk of poor immunotherapy responses. The current review will discuss recent advances and bring together literature from related fields in nutrition, oncology and immunology to discuss possible means of modulating immunity to improve responses to current CIT.

RevDate: 2021-07-26

Singh P, A Lembo (2021)

Emerging Role of the Gut Microbiome in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Gastroenterology clinics of North America, 50(3):523-545.

Advances in bioinformatics have facilitated investigation of the role of gut microbiota in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This article describes the evidence from epidemiologic and clinical observational studies highlighting the link between IBS and gut microbiome by investigating postinfection IBS, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and microbial dysbiosis. It highlights the effects of gut microbiota on mechanisms implicated in the pathophysiology of IBS, including gut-brain axis, visceral hypersensitivity, motility, epithelial barrier, and immune activation. In addition, it summarizes the current evidence on microbiome-guided therapies in IBS, including probiotics, antibiotics, diet, and fecal microbiota transplant.

RevDate: 2021-07-26

Xie Y, Song L, Yang J, et al (2021)

Small intestinal flora graft alters fecal flora, stool, cytokines and mood status in healthy mice.

Life science alliance, 4(9): pii:4/9/e202101039.

Fecal microbiota transplantation is widely used. Large intestinal microbiota (LIM) is more similar to fecal microbiota than small intestinal microbiota (SIM). The SIM communities are very different from those of LIM. Therefore, SIM transplantation (SIMT) and LIM transplantation (LIMT) might exert different influences. Here, healthy adult male C57Bl/6 mice received intragastric SIMT, LIMT, or sterile PBS administration. Microbiota graft samples were collected from small/large intestine of healthy mice of the same age, sex, and strain background. Compared with PBS treatment, SIMT increased pellet number, stool wet weight, and stool water percentage; induced a fecal microbiota profile shift toward the microbial composition of the SIM graft; induced a systemic anti-inflammatory cytokines profile; and ameliorated depressive-like behaviors in recipients. LIMT, however, induced merely a slight alteration in fecal microbial composition and no significant influence on the other aspects. In sum, SIMT, rather than LIMT, affected defecation features, fecal microbial composition, cytokines profile, and depressive-like behaviors in healthy mice. This study reveals the different effects of SIMT and LIMT, providing an interesting clue for further researches involving gut microbial composition change.

RevDate: 2021-07-26

Lin X, Liu Y, Ma L, et al (2021)

Constipation induced gut microbiota dysbiosis exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

Journal of translational medicine, 19(1):317.

BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common gastrointestinal dysfunction which has a potential impact on people's immune state and their quality of life. Here we investigated the effects of constipation on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS).

METHODS: Constipation was induced by loperamide in female C57BL/6 mice. The alternations of gut microbiota, permeability of intestinal barrier and blood-brain barrier, and histopathology of colon were assessed after constipation induction. EAE was induced in the constipation mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed from constipation mice into microbiota-depleted mice. Clinical scores, histopathology of inflammation and demyelination, Treg/Th17 and Treg17/Teff17 imbalance both in the peripheral lymphatic organs and central nervous system, cytokines include TGF-β, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23 in serum were assessed in different groups.

RESULTS: Compared with the vehicle group, the constipation mice showed gut microbiota dysbiosis, colon inflammation and injury, and increased permeability of intestinal barrier and blood-brain barrier. We found that the clinical and pathological scores of the constipation EAE mice were severer than that of the EAE mice. Compared with the EAE mice, the constipation EAE mice showed reduced percentage of Treg and Treg17 cells, increased percentage of Th17 and Teff17 cells, and decreased ratio of Treg/Th17 and Treg17/Teff17 in the spleen, inguinal lymph nodes, brain, and spinal cord. Moreover, the serum levels of TGF-β, IL-10, and IL-21 were decreased while the GM-CSF, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-23 were increased in the constipation EAE mice. In addition, these pathological processes could be transferred via their gut microbiota.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results verified that constipation induced gut microbiota dysbiosis exacerbated EAE via aggravating Treg/Th17 and Treg17/Teff17 imbalance and cytokines disturbance in C57BL/6 mice.

RevDate: 2021-07-27
CmpDate: 2021-07-27

Wang X, Tang Q, Hou H, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota in NSAID Enteropathy: New Insights From Inside.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:679396.

As a class of the commonly used drugs in clinical practice, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause a series of adverse events including gastrointestinal injuries. Besides upper gastrointestinal injuries, NSAID enteropathy also attracts attention with the introduction of capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy. However, the pathogenesis of NSAID enteropathy remains to be entirely clarified. Growing evidence from basic and clinical studies presents that gut microbiota is a critical factor in NSAID enteropathy progress. We have reviewed the recent data about the interplay between gut microbiota dysbiosis and NSAID enteropathy. The chronic medication of NSAIDs could change the composition of the intestinal bacteria and aggravate bile acids cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, NSAIDs impair the intestinal barrier by inhibiting cyclooxygenase and destroying mitochondria. Subsequently, intestinal bacteria translocate into the mucosa, and then lipopolysaccharide released from gut microbiota combines to Toll-like receptor 4 and induce excessive production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intestinal injuries present in the condition of intestinal inflammation and oxidative stress. In this paper, we also have reviewed the possible strategies of regulating gut microbiota for the management of NSAID enteropathy, including antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, mucosal protective agents, and fecal microbiota transplant, and we emphasized the adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors on NSAID enteropathy. Therefore, this review will provide new insights into a better understanding of gut microbiota in NSAID enteropathy.

RevDate: 2021-07-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-26

Wang H, Ren S, Lv H, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota from mice with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury affects the brain in healthy mice.

Aging, 13(7):10058-10074.

Gut microorganisms can profoundly influence brain function in the host and their behavior. Since altered brain functional connectivity (FC) has been implicated in various cerebrovascular disorders, including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, we hypothesized that gut microbiota in mice with cerebral I/R injury would affect brain FC when transplanted into germ-free mice. Metagenomic analysis of germ-free male C57BL/6J mice colonized with microbiota from mice with and without cerebral I/R injury showed a clear distinction in microbiota composition between mice colonized with control and I/R microbiota. The I/R microbiota-colonized mice showed decreased FC in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus, and exhibited increased anxiety as well as diminished spatial learning and memory and short-term object recognition memory. I/R microbiota-colonized mice also had significantly reduced dendritic spine density and synaptic protein levels and exhibited increased hippocampal inflammation. These results indicate that gut microbiota components from mice with cerebral I/R injury can alter animal behavior, brain functional connectivity, hippocampal neuronal plasticity, and neuroinflammation. Moreover, they increase our understanding of the mechanisms through which the gut microbiome contributes to the pathobiology of cerebrovascular diseases.

RevDate: 2021-07-23
CmpDate: 2021-07-23

Lee SD (2020)

Health Maintenance in Ulcerative Colitis.

Gastroenterology clinics of North America, 49(4):xv-xvi.

RevDate: 2021-07-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-26

Terveer EM, Vendrik KE, Ooijevaar RE, et al (2020)

Faecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridioides difficile infection: Four years' experience of the Netherlands Donor Feces Bank.

United European gastroenterology journal, 8(10):1236-1247.

BACKGROUND: The Netherlands Donor Feces Bank provides standardized ready-to-use donor faecal suspensions for faecal microbiota transplantation treatment of patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was evaluation of safety, feasibility and outcome of faecal microbiota transplantation facilitated by a national stool bank.

METHODS: The methods used included: observational cohort study of donors and recipients of faecal suspensions; assessment of donor screening and patient selection performed by an expert panel of medical microbiologists, gastroenterologists and infectious disease specialists; and patient outcome evaluated at different timepoints after faecal microbiota transplantation.

RESULTS: Of 871 volunteers who registered as a potential faeces donor, 16 (2%) became active donors. Nine donors stopped or were excluded after a mean donation period of 5.7 months. In 2016-2019, 47 (27%) of 176 requests for faecal microbiota transplantations were deemed not indicated by the expert panel. In total, 129 patients with recurrent C. difficile infection were treated with 143 faecal suspensions in 40 different hospitals. The cure rate at two months after a single infusion was 89% (107/120). Of 84 patients, long-term follow-up (median 42 weeks) was available and sustained cure was achieved in 61 (73%). Early C. difficile infection relapses (within two months after faecal microbiota transplantation) and late recurrences (after more than two months) occurred more frequently in patients who received non-C. difficile antibiotics within three weeks after faecal microbiota transplantation and in moderately to severely immunocompromised patients. Of 21 patients with C. difficile infection after faecal microbiota transplantation, 14 were cured with anti-C. difficile antibiotics and seven with a second transplantation. No faecal microbiota transplantation-related serious adverse events were observed, but gastro-intestinal complaints (nausea, abdominal pain or diarrhoea) persisted in 32% of the treated patients at long-term follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Faecal suspensions provided by a centralized stool bank, supported by a multidisciplinary expert team, resulted in effective, appropriate and safe application of faecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent C. difficile infection.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prospective cohort study.

RevDate: 2021-07-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-26

Halverson T, K Alagiakrishnan (2020)

Gut microbes in neurocognitive and mental health disorders.

Annals of medicine, 52(8):423-443.

INTRODUCTION: As individuals age, the prevalence of neurocognitive and mental health disorders increases. Current biomedical treatments do not completely address the management of these conditions. Despite new pharmacological therapy the challenges of managing these diseases remain.There is increasing evidence that the Gut Microbiome (GM) and microbial dysbiosis contribute to some of the more prevalent mental health and neurocognitive disorders, such as depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BP), and dementia as well as the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Methodology: Scoping review about the effect of gut microbiota on neurocognitive and mental health disorders.

RESULTS: This scoping review found there is an evolving evidence of the involvement of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of neurocognitive and mental health disorders. This manuscript also discusses how the psychotropics used to treat these conditions may have an antimicrobial effect on GM, and the potential for new strategies of management with probiotics and faecal transplantation.

CONCLUSIONS: This understanding can open up the need for a gut related approach in these disorders as well as unlock the door for the role of gut related microbiota management. KEY MESSAGES Challenges of managing mental health conditions remain in spite of new pharmacological therapy. Gut dysbiosis is seen in various mental health conditions. Various psychotropic medications can have an influence on the gut microbiota by their antimicrobial effect.

RevDate: 2021-07-22

Park SH, Lee JH, Shin J, et al (2021)

Cognitive function improvement after fecal microbiota transplantation in in Alzheimer's dementia patient: a case report.

Current medical research and opinion [Epub ahead of print].

After fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to treat Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), cognitive improvement is noticeable, suggesting an essential association between the gut microbiome and neural function. Although it is known that the gut microbiome is linked with cognitive function, whether FMT may lead to cognitive improvement in patients with neurodegenerative disorders remains to be elucidated. We present the case of a 90-year-old woman with Alzheimer's dementia and severe CDI who underwent FMT. Cognitive function testing (Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Clinical Dementia Rating assessment) was performed one month before FMT and one week and one month after FMT. We collected the patients' fecal samples before FMT and 3 weeks after FMT to compare the microbiota composition. The 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analyzed using the QIIME2 platform (version 2020.2) and Phyloseq R package. The linear discriminant analysis effect size was performed to determine the taxonomic difference between pre- and post-FMT. Functional biomarker analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis H test was performed between the pre- and post-FMT. The cognitive function tests after FMT showed an improvement compared to the tests before the procedure. FMT changed the microbiota composition in recipient feces. We found that the genera were reported to be associated with cognitive function. In addition, short-chain fatty acids was found to be significantly different between before and after FMT. This finding suggests the presence of an association between the gut microbiome and cognitive function. Further, it emphasizes the need for clinical awareness regarding the effect of FMT on the brain-gut-microbiome axis and its potential as a therapy for patients with dementia.

RevDate: 2021-07-22
CmpDate: 2021-07-22

Ianiro G, Gasbarrini A, G Cammarota (2021)

Autologous faecal microbiota transplantation for type 1 diabetes: a potential mindshift in therapeutic microbiome manipulation?.

Gut, 70(1):2-3.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

de Belvis AG, Fratini A, Angioletti C, et al (2021)

How to define a quadruple aim framework to assess value in critical pathway of the patients with Clostridioides difficile infection.

European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, 25(13):4597-4610.

OBJECTIVE: The study aims to define the set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) required to assess the Value delivered by managing patients with Clostridioides difficile infection through a Critical Pathway. We used the quadruple aim Value-Based approach, and we validated the set of KPIs with the Delphi method.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study focuses on patients on board a Critical Pathway on Clostridioides difficile Infection and targeted towards a Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT). FMT has been used to successfully treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. A two-round e-Delphi survey collecting data was conducted in 2019-2020 to validate the Value-Based evaluation tool. The Value-Based criteria taken into account are Clinical Outcomes, Experience of Care, Per-capita cost, Physician's burnout.

RESULTS: The two rounds led to the validation of 50 items, and four primary clinical outcomes (Mortality rate, length of stay, readmission and complications related to the illness).

CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation tool included is validated in its totality and can provide a comprehensive overview of the Value created by the Critical pathway for patients with Clostridioides difficile. We can extend the approach illustrated in this study can also to evaluate other Critical pathways.

RevDate: 2021-07-21
CmpDate: 2021-07-21

Han C, Jiang YH, Li W, et al (2021)

Astragalus membranaceus and Salvia miltiorrhiza ameliorates cyclosporin A-induced chronic nephrotoxicity through the "gut-kidney axis".

Journal of ethnopharmacology, 269:113768.

The combination of Astragalus membranaceus and Salvia miltiorrhiza (AS) is an effective prescription that is widely used to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) clinically in traditional Chinese medicine. Our previous studies have shown that AS can alleviate early CKD through the "gut-kidney axis", but the regulatory role of AS in the "gut-kidney axis" in the middle and late stages of CKD caused by cyclosporin A-induced chronic nephrotoxicity (CICN) has remained unclear.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the protective effect of AS by regulating the intestinal flora to further control the miRNA-mRNA interaction profiles in CICN.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two mice were divided into four groups: Normal (N) (olive oil), Model (M) (CsA, 30 mg kg-1 d-1), AS (CsA + AS, 30 + 8.4 g kg-1 d-1) and FMT-AS (CsA + Faeces of AS group, 30 mg + 10 mL kg-1 d-1). The mice were treated for 6 weeks. Changes in renal function related metabolites were detected, pathological changes in the colon and kidney were observed, and 16S rDNA sequencing was performed on mouse faeces. In addition, miRNA and mRNA sequencing were performed on the kidney to construct differential expression (DE) profiles of the other 3 groups compared with group M. The target mRNAs among the DE miRNAs were then predicted, and an integrated analysis was performed with the DE mRNAs to annotate gene function by KEGG. DE miRNAs and DE mRNAs related to CICN in the overlapping top 20 KEGG pathways were screened and verified.

RESULTS: Eight metabolites that could worsen renal function were increased in group M, accompanied by thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, vacuolar degeneration of renal tubules, and proliferation of collagen fibres, while AS and FMT-AS intervention amended these changes to varying degrees. Simultaneously, intestinal permeability increased, the abundance and diversity of the flora decreased, and the ratio of Firmicum to Bacteroides (F/B) increased in group M. The AS and FMT-AS treatments reversed the flora disorder and increased probiotics producing butyric acid and lactic acid, especially Akkermansia and Lactobacillus, which might regulate the 12 overlapping top 20 KEGG pathways, such as Butanoate metabolism, Tryptophan metabolism and several RF-related pathways, leading to the remission of renal metabolism. Finally, 15 DE miRNAs and 45 DE mRNAs were screened as the therapeutic targets, and the results coincided with the sequencing results.

CONCLUSION: AS could alleviate renal fibrosis and metabolism caused by CICN through the "gut-kidney axis". Probiotics such as Akkermansia and Lactobacillus were the primary driving factors, and the miRNA-mRNA interaction profiles, especially Butanoate metabolism and Tryptophan metabolism, may be an important subsequent response and regulatory mechanism.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Malard F, Lavelle A, Battipaglia G, et al (2021)

Impact of gut fungal and bacterial communities on the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Mucosal immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) were previously shown to display a bacterial gut dysbiosis; however, limited data are available regarding the role of fungal microbiota in these patients. We evaluated the bacterial and fungal composition of the fecal microbiota at day 0 of alloHCT. Higher bacterial diversity was associated with an improved overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). While fungal diversity had no impact on patient outcomes, we observed that high versus low relative abundance of Candida albicans in alloHCT patients at day 0 was associated with a significantly lower OS, DFS and graft-versus-host-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) (p = 0.0008, p = 0.0064 and p = 0.026, respectively). While these results are limited by low patient numbers and low fungal read counts in some samples, they suggest a potentially important role for C albicans in alloHCT.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Chu ND, Crothers JW, Nguyen LTT, et al (2021)

Dynamic Colonization of Microbes and Their Functions after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

For fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to be successful in immune diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, it is assumed that therapeutic microbes and their beneficial functions and immune interactions must colonize a recipient patient and persist in sufficient quantity and for a sufficient period of time to produce a clinical benefit. Few studies, however, have comprehensively profiled the colonization and persistence of transferred microbes along with the transfer of their microbial functions and interactions with the host immune system. Using 16S, metagenomic, and immunoglobulin A (IgA) sequencing, we analyzed hundreds of longitudinal microbiome samples from a randomized controlled trial of 12 patients with ulcerative colitis who received fecal transplant or placebo for 12 weeks. We uncovered diverse competitive dynamics among donor and patient strains, showing that persistence of transferred microbes is far from static. Indeed, one patient experienced a dramatic loss of donor bacteria 10 weeks into the trial, coinciding with a bloom of pathogenic bacteria and worsening symptoms. We evaluated the transfer of microbial functions, including desired ones, such as butyrate production, and unintended ones, such as antibiotic resistance. By profiling bacteria coated with IgA, we identified bacteria associated with inflammation and found that microbial interactions with the host immune system can be transferred across people, which could play a role in gut microbiome therapeutics for immune-related diseases. Our findings shed light on the colonization dynamics of gut microbes and their functions in the context of FMT to treat a complex disease-information that may provide a foundation for developing more-targeted therapeutics. IMPORTANCE Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)-transferring fecal microbes from a healthy donor to a sick patient-has shown promise for gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Unlike pharmaceuticals, however, fecal transplants are complex mixtures of living organisms, which must then interact with the microbes and immune system of the recipient. We sought to understand these interactions by tracking the microbes of 12 inflammatory bowel disease patients who received fecal transplants for 12 weeks. We uncovered a range of dynamics. For example, one patient experienced successful transfer of donor bacteria, only to lose them after 10 weeks. We similarly evaluated transfer of microbial functions, including how they interacted with the recipient's immune system. Our findings shed light on the colonization dynamics of gut microbes, as well as their functions in the context of FMT-information that may provide a critical foundation for the development of more-targeted therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-07-20
CmpDate: 2021-07-20

Chatterjee S, Bose D, R Seth (2021)

Host gut microbiome and potential therapeutics in Gulf War Illness: A short review.

Life sciences, 280:119717.

AIMS: Since our troops had returned from the first Persian Gulf War in 1990-91, the veterans have reported chronic multisymptomatic illness widely referred to as Gulf War Illness (GWI). We aim to review the current directions of GWI pathology research in the context of chronic multisymptomatic illness and its possible gut microbiome targeted therapies. The veterans of Gulf War show symptoms of chronic fatigue, cognitive deficits, and a subsection report of gastrointestinal complications.

METHOD: Efforts of finding a suitable treatment regimen and clinical management remain a challenge. More recently, we have shown that the pathology is connected to alterations in the gut microbiome, and efforts of finding a suitable regimen for gut-directed therapeutics are underway. We discuss the various clinical interventions and summarize the possible effectiveness of gut-directed therapies such as the use of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), phenolic compounds, and their metabolites, use of probiotics, and fecal microbiota transfer.

SIGNIFICANCE: The short review will be helpful to GWI researchers to expand their studies to the gut and find an effective treatment strategy for chronic multisymptomatic illness.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Yu C, Zhu X, Zheng C, et al (2021)

Methyl Diet Enhanced Sepsis-Induced Mortality Through Altering Gut Microbiota.

Journal of inflammation research, 14:3107-3121 pii:305202.

Introduction: Mortality of sepsis is caused by an inappropriately amplified systemic inflammatory response and bacteremia. Methyl diet has been shown to associate with greater inflammation response in different diseases. This study aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with methyl donors affects the inflammation response and mortality in sepsis and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a high-methyl diet (HMD) or a regulator diet (RD) till the experiment time. Mice septic model was induced by Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or E.coli. Inflammatory cytokine was analyzed by ELISA and qRT-PCR. Immune cell infiltration was evaluated by H&E and IHC. The composition of gut microbiota was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The effect of gut microbiota on sepsis was further verified by fecal microbiome transplantation.

Results: Our results showed that the diet riches in methyl donors exacerbated mortality, organ injury, and circulating levels of inflammatory mediators in CLP-induced septic mice model, compared to the control diet group. However, no significant differences have been observed in the inflammatory responses in the LPS-induced septic model and macrophages activation between the two groups of mice. There was a higher bacterial burden in CLP-induced HMD mice suggested that methyl diet might modulate gut microbiota. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing results showed that the composition of gut microbiota was altered. The high methyl donor diet reduced the abundance of Akkermansia and Lachnospiraceae, which were associated with protective effects in sepsis, in the gut. Moreover, fecal microbiome transplantation experiment showed that the transfer of feces, which obtained from high methyl diet mice, aggravated the mortality and inflammation responses in recipient mice.

Discussion: Methyl diet enhanced CLP-induced septic mortality and inflammatory responses through altering the composition of gut microbiota. This result indicated that diet-based gut microbiota may be a new therapeutic strategy for sepsis patients.

RevDate: 2021-07-18

Feuerstadt P, Aroniadis OC, Svedlund FL, et al (2021)

Heterogeneity of Randomized Controlled Trials of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Digestive diseases and sciences [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of FMT for reduction in CDI recurrences (rCDI), but this treatment and its reporting in the literature has significant heterogeneity. Recent publications (e.g., Ramai et al. in Dig Dis Sci 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06185-7) present the clinical outcomes for different FMT methodologies. However, to understand, compare, and contextualize outcomes, this heterogeneity in methods and reporting must be understood.

METHODS: We performed a literature review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of FMT for rCDI to evaluate heterogeneity among trials. A methodical search between January 2010 and May 2019 of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane was conducted for studies investigating FMT in adults with rCDI. RCTs were evaluated for a variety of methodological and reporting criteria.

RESULTS: Eight RCTs were identified, wherein 14 different FMT preparations were considered (each with distinct protocols for processing, storage, administration, and dosing). Sample sizes were generally small, with only two studies performing FMT in more than 100 patients. Three studies used non-FMT controls (vancomycin), while the remaining compared FMT with differing routes of administration or formulations. Across the identified studies, there was no standardized manner for reporting the timing of the FMT procedure. All studies tracked adverse events; however, follow-up periods were limited.

CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variability exists among RCTs, with marked differences in study design, control groups, and outcome assessment. Lack of a standard-of-care control in many trials may impact reproducibility of FMT trial outcomes in patients with rCDI. Widespread use of FMT for rCDI is still investigational; therefore, these foundational studies provide opportunities to optimize future trials.

RevDate: 2021-07-19
CmpDate: 2021-07-19

Huang W, D Kong (2021)

The intestinal microbiota as a therapeutic target in the treatment of NAFLD and ALD.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 135:111235.

INTRODUCTION: Liver diseases are currently common disorders worldwide. Especially, the proportion of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is growing globally. An increasing number of studies have revealed a close relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the development of NAFLD and ALD. A better understanding of the role of intestinal microbiota and the intestine-liver axis thus might lead to the development novel therapies for the treatment of these diseases.

RevDate: 2021-07-19
CmpDate: 2021-07-19

Reuter B, JS Bajaj (2020)

Microbiome: Emerging Concepts in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease.

Clinics in liver disease, 24(3):493-520.

The gut microbiome is an exciting new area of research in chronic liver disease. It has shown promise in expanding our understanding of these complicated disease processes and has opened up new treatment modalities. The aim of this review is to increase understanding of the microbiome and explain the collection and analysis process in the context of liver disease. It also looks at our current understanding of the role of the microbiome in the wide spectrum of chronic liver diseases and how it is being used in current therapies and treatments.

RevDate: 2021-07-19
CmpDate: 2021-07-19

Alimirah M, Sadiq O, SC Gordon (2020)

Novel Therapies in Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Clinics in liver disease, 24(2):303-315.

Despite widespread use of lactulose and rifaximin for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, this complication of advanced liver disease remains a major burden on the health care system in the United States and continues to predispose to high morbidity and mortality. Several agents have surfaced over recent years with promise to treat hepatic encephalopathy and mitigate the cognitive impairment associated with this disease process. The purpose of this article is to highlight the leading emerging therapies in hepatic encephalopathy as well as their therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Dong S, Zhu M, Wang K, et al (2021)

Dihydromyricetin improves DSS-induced colitis in mice via modulation of fecal-bacteria-related bile acid metabolism.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(21)00351-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies show that the nutraceutical supplement dihydromyricetin (DHM) can alleviate IBD in murine models by downregulating the inflammatory pathways. However, the molecular mechanistic link between the therapeutic efficiency of DHM, gut microbiota, and the metabolism of microbial BAs remains elusive. In this study, we explored the improvement of DHM on the dysregulated gut microbiota of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. We found that DHM could markedly improve colitis symptoms, gut barrier disruption, and colonic inflammation in DSS-treated mice. In addition, bacterial 16S rDNA sequencing assay demonstrated that DHM could alleviate gut dysbiosis in mice with colitis. Furthermore, antibiotic-mediated depletion of the gut microflora and fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) demonstrated that the therapeutic efficiency of DHM was closely associated with gut microbiota. BA-targeted metabolomics analysis revealed that DHM restored the metabolism of microbial BAs in the gastrointestinal tract during the development of colitis. DHM significantly enriched the proportion of the beneficial Lactobacillus and Akkermansia genera, which were correlated with increased gastrointestinal levels of unconjugated BAs involving chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid, enabling the BAs to activate specific receptors, such as FXR and TGR5, and maintaining intestinal integrity. Taken together, DHM could alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice by restoring the dysregulated gut microbiota and BA metabolism, leading to improvements in intestinal barrier function and colonic inflammation. Increased microbiota-BAs-FXR/TGR5 signaling may be the potential targets of DHM in colitis. Therefore, our findings provide novel insights into the development of novel DHM-derived drugs for the management of IBD.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Cappetto CM (2021)

Correction NoticeErratum to: Successful use of early, repeat fecal microbiota transplantation for initial treatment of severe, refractory Clostridioides difficile colitis.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Wang R, Chen T, Wang Q, et al (2021)

Total Flavone of Abelmoschus manihot Ameliorates Stress-Induced Microbial Alterations Drive Intestinal Barrier Injury in DSS Colitis.

Drug design, development and therapy, 15:2999-3016 pii:313150.

Purpose: Total flavone of Abelmoschus manihot (TFA), the effective constituents extracted from Flos Abelmoschus Manihot, has been reported to inhibit inflammation. However, the effect of TFA on ulcerative colitis (UC) progression in patients with depression is unknown. The purpose of our research was to explore the anti-UC effects of TFA in the context of depression in mice with UC by regulating the gut microbiota to drive the intestinal barrier.

Methods: In this study, chronic stress (CS) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) were used to induce depression and UC, respectively, in C57BL/6J mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to evaluate how treating mice modeling UC and depression with TFA effected their gut microbiota.

Results: Our results showed that TFA effectively improved UC aggravated by CS. In addition, TFA treatment improved the depression-like phenotype, the disturbed gut microbiota, and the intestinal barrier function in CS mice. It is worth noting that FMT from the CS mice to the receptor group further aggravated the damage of the intestinal barrier and the disturbance of the gut microbiota in the recipient DSS mice, thus further aggravating UC, however, treatment of the intervention of TFA in the CS fecal microbiota transplant with TFA also played its therapeutic outcome.

Conclusion: Taken together, our results show that CS disrupts the gut microbiota, triggers intestinal barrier injury and aggravates DSS colitis, while TFA is a promising drug for the treatment of UC in patients with depression.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Jacob JS, Ahmed A, G Cholankeril (2021)

The impact of alteration in gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Current opinion in infectious diseases pii:00001432-900000000-99019 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We have increasing evidence that alterations of the intestinal microbiome have a strong influence on human health. Previous work has demonstrated the association between changes in the microbiome and metabolic risk factors. One related area of interest is the relationship between dysbiosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as the global prevalence of NAFLD, and its resultant complications, increases.

RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we summarize the hypothesized pathophysiology of dysbiosis-mediated progression of NAFLD, including promotion of an inflammatory intestinal environment, increased intestinal permeability, endogenous ethanol production, short-chain fatty acid production, secondary bile acid metabolism, and choline depletion. We also review potential therapeutic interventions of the microbiome to slow or prevent NAFLD progression, including antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplant, and farnesoid × receptor agonism.

SUMMARY: Much of the evidence supporting dysbiosis-mediated NAFLD progression has been gathered in high-quality animal trials. There remains a need for additional observational and randomized controlled trials in humans to establish causality between the suspected factors and pathogenesis of NAFLD.

RevDate: 2021-07-16
CmpDate: 2021-07-16

Xi M, Tang H, Zhang Y, et al (2021)

Microbiome-metabolomic analyses of the impacts of dietary stachyose on fecal microbiota and metabolites in infants intestinal microbiota-associated mice.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture, 101(8):3336-3347.

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota and metabolites play an important role in human health and immunity. However, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of stachyose on the human intestinal microbiota and metabolism. Therefore, in this study, the feces of infants were transplanted into germ-free mice, and the effect of long-term stachyose intake on intestinal metabolism was examined by comparing the results of microbiome and metabolome analyses. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to study the effects of stachyose intake on the metabolites and metabolic pathways of the transplanted human intestinal microbiota.

RESULTS: We observed that stachyose significantly altered the composition of the intestinal microbiota and metabolites, up-regulated production of the metabolite taurocholic acid, down-regulated amino acid metabolism, and significantly regulated the metabolism of taurine and hydroxytaurine, pantothenate and coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis, and other signaling pathways.

CONCLUSION: These findings may provide a basis for elucidating the mechanism by which stachyose promotes host health. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Yang J, Chen W, Sun Y, et al (2021)

Effects of cadmium on organ function, gut microbiota and its metabolomics profile in adolescent rats.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 222:112501 pii:S0147-6513(21)00613-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Cadmium (Cd) exposure in adult animals can result in multi-organ damages and gut microbiota disturbance. However, Cd's consequences on health and gut microbiota during adolescence are obscure. In the present study, three-week-old SD rats were exposed to Cd at doses of 0, 0.25, 1, and 4 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks, and the changes of liver, kidney, and ovary function, as well as gut microbiota and its metabolomics profile, were analyzed. After transplantation of fecal bacteria from the 4 mg/kg Cd-treated group into age-matched rats (4 mg/kg-Cd recipients), the organ function and inflammatory reaction were evaluated. The results indicated that Cd perturbed gut microbiota composition, significantly decreased the abundance of Prevotella and Lachnoclostridium but increased Escherichia coli_Shigella. The fecal metabolome profile was altered and was closely correlated with some specific genera. These changes were accompanied by the inflammatory response, dyslipidemia, kidney dysfunction, and abnormal estrogen level. In 4 mg/kg-Cd recipients, the serum triglyceride (TG), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inflammatory cytokines were increased with the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α genes up-regulated in liver and kidney. Overall, this study demonstrated that Cd exposure during adolescence could cause disturbance of gut microbiota, dysfunction of liver, kidney, and ovary, which may be correlated with the activation of Cd-induced inflammatory response.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Shin JH, Hays RA, CA Warren (2021)

Hospitalized Older Patients with Clostridioides difficile Infection Refractory to Conventional Antibiotic Therapy Benefit from Fecal Microbiota Transplant.

Advances in geriatric medicine and research, 3(2):.

Background: Options for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) refractory to conventional therapy are limited. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is considered safe and effective treatment for recurrent CDI and could be a treatment option for refractory CDI. We investigated the efficacy and safety of FMT in hospitalized patients who were not responding to standard treatments for CDI.

Methods: Electronic medical records of patients who received FMT inpatient for refractory CDI were reviewed as part of quality improvement efforts to evaluate safety and efficacy of FMT in inpatient setting.

Results: Between July 2014 and December 2019, 9 patients (age 60-96) received FMT for CDI as inpatient for refractory or fulminant CDI. Most (7 of 9) of these patients had pseudomembranous colitis and underwent multiple FMTs (mean 2.15, range 1 to 3). Five patients had complete resolution and one patient had diarrhea that was C. difficile-negative. There was one recurrent CDI and two deaths, one of which may have been related to FMT or CDI. Compared to recurrent CDI at diagnosis, patients with refractory CDI had higher WBC and neutrophil counts, which decreased after FMT. The overall cure rate of FMT in refractory cases was 66.7%.

Conclusions: This study shows moderate efficacy of FMT for treatment of refractory CDI although multiple FMT treatment may need to be administered in the presence of pseudomembranous colitis. Inpatient FMT may be an alternative strategy for managing refractory CDI in this population of patients who may not have any effective medical treatment available.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Song W, Sun LY, Zhu ZJ, et al (2021)

Characteristics of Gut Microbiota in Children With Biliary Atresia After Liver Transplantation.

Frontiers in physiology, 12:704313.

Background and Aims: Biliary atresia (BA) is an idiopathic neonatal cholestasis and is the most common indication in pediatric liver transplantation (LT). Previous studies have suggested that the gut microbiota (GM) in BA is disordered. However, the effect of LT on gut dysbiosis in patients with BA has not yet been elucidated.

Methods: Patients with BA (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 10) were recruited. In the early life of children with BA, Kasai surgery is a typical procedure for restoring bile flow. According to whether BA patients had previously undergone Kasai surgery, we divided the post-LT patients into the with-Kasai group (n = 8) and non-Kasai group (n = 8). Fecal samples were collected in both the BA and the control group; among BA patients, samples were obtained again 6 months after LT. A total of 40 fecal samples were collected, of which 16 were pre-LT, 14 were post-LT (8 were with-Kasai, 6 were non-Kasai), and 10 were from the control group. Metagenomic sequencing was performed to evaluate the GM.

Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test showed a statistically significant difference in the number of genes between the pre-LT and the control group, the pre-LT and the post-LT group (P < 0.05), but no statistical difference between the post-LT and the control group. Principal coordinate analysis also showed that the microbiome structure was similar between the post-LT and control group (P > 0.05). Analysis of the GM composition showed a significant decrease in Serratia, Enterobacter, Morganella, Skunalikevirus, and Phifllikevirus while short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria such as Roseburia, Blautia, Clostridium, Akkermansia, and Ruminococcus were increased after LT (linear discriminant analysis > 2, P < 0.05). However, they still did not reach the normal control level. Concerning functional profiles, lipopolysaccharide metabolism, multidrug resistance, polyamine biosynthesis, GABA biosynthesis, and EHEC/EPEC pathogenicity signature were more enriched in the post-LT group compared with the control group. Prior Kasai surgery had a specific influence on the postoperative GM.

Conclusion: LT partly improved the GM in patients with BA, which provided new insight into understanding the role of LT in BA.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Cooke NCA, Bala A, Allard JP, et al (2021)

The safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in a population with bipolar disorder during depressive episodes: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Pilot and feasibility studies, 7(1):142.

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, debilitating illness with significant medical morbidity, often secondary to current treatments, and a high recurrence rate. This burden of disease reflects limitations in the tolerability and efficacy of current treatments. There is a compelling body of evidence linking the gut microbiota to mental illness, and while microbial manipulation via probiotic use has been studied as a therapeutic in BD, targeted trials of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have not been conducted in this population.

METHODS AND DESIGN: We describe a pilot randomized controlled trial of FMT in participants with BD depression to assess the feasibility, efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this intervention. Individuals between 18 and 65 years of age will be enrolled in the study if they meet diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode of at least moderate severity in the context of a BD diagnosis and have not responded to treatment for BD. Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive either screened and processed donor stool (allogenic FMT) or their own stool (autologous FMT) via colonoscopy and monitored for 24 weeks post intervention. Depressive and manic symptoms, treatment acceptability, and gastrointestinal and other side effects are assessed at baseline (prior to randomization) and weekly. Stool samples to assess microbiome composition are obtained at baseline and 3 and 6 months.

DISCUSSION: Currently, FMT represents a novel therapeutic option for treating BD depression. This protocol allows for the assessment of the feasibility, efficacy, acceptability, and safety of an intervention aimed at changing the microbiome in those with BD. Results from this pilot study will guide the development of larger trials of FMT for BD depression and may give more insight into how the gut microbiome are altered in those with BD depression.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Gov NCT03279224.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Baunwall SMD, Dahlerup JF, Engberg JH, et al (2021)

Danish national guideline for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection and use of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: This Danish national guideline describes the treatment of adult patients with Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile (CD) infection and the use of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). It suggests minimum standard for implementing an FMT service.Method: Four scientific societies appointed members for a working group which conducted a systematic literature review and agreed on the text and recommendations. All clinical recommendations were evalluated for evidence level and grade of recommendation.Results: In CD infection, the use of marketed and experimental antibiotics as well as microbiota-based therapies including FMT are described. An algorithm for evaluating treatment effect is suggested. The organisation of FMT, donor recruitment and screening, laboratory preparation, clinical application and follow-up are described.Conclusion: Updated evidence for the treatment of CD infection and the use of FMT is provided.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Gu X, Lu Q, Zhang C, et al (2021)

Clinical Application and Progress of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Liver Diseases: A Review.

Seminars in liver disease [Epub ahead of print].

The human gut harbors a dense and highly diverse microbiota of approximately 1,000 bacterial species. The interaction between the host and gut bacteria strongly influences human health. Numerous evidence suggest that intestinal flora imbalance is closely associated with the development and treatment of liver diseases, including acute liver injury and chronic liver diseases (cirrhosis, autoimmune liver disease, and fatty liver). Therefore, regulating the gut microbiota is expected to be a new method for the adjuvant treatment of liver diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is defined as the transplantation of gut microbiota from healthy donors to sick patients via the upper or lower gastrointestinal route to restore the normal intestinal balance. In this study, we briefly review the current research on the gut microbiota and its link to liver diseases and then summarize the evidence to elucidate the clinical application and development of FMT in liver disease treatment.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Zhou H, Sun J, Yu B, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota absence and transplantation affect growth and intestinal functions: An investigation in a germ-free pig model.

Animal nutrition (Zhongguo xu mu shou yi xue hui), 7(2):295-304.

This study was conducted to investigate host-microbiota interactions and explore the effects of maternal gut microbiota transplantation on the growth and intestinal functions of newborns in a germ-free (GF) pig model. Twelve hysterectomy-derived GF Bama piglets were reared in 6 sterile isolators. Among them, 6 were considered as the GF group, and the other 6 were orally inoculated with healthy sow fecal suspension as fecal microbiota transplanted (FMT) group. Another 6 piglets from natural birth were regarded as the conventional (CV) group. The GF and FMT groups were hand-fed with Co60-γ-irradiated sterile milk powder, while the CV group was reared by lactating Bama sows. All groups were fed for 21 days. Then, all piglets and then were switched to sterile feed for another 21 days. Results showed that the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in the GF group decreased (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the serum urea nitrogen concentration and digesta pH values in the GF group increased compared with those in the FMT and CV groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the CV group, the GF group demonstrated upregulation in the mRNA expression levels of intestinal barrier function-related genes in the small intestine (P < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA abundances of intestinal development and absorption-related genes in the small intestine and colon were higher in the GF group than in the CV and FMT groups (P < 0.05). The FMT group exhibited greater growth performance, lipase activity, and nutrient digestibility (P < 0.05), higher mRNA expression levels of intestinal development and barrier-related genes in the small intestine (P < 0.05), and lower mRNA abundances of pro-inflammatory factor in the colon and jejunum (P < 0.05) than the CV group. In conclusion, the absence of gut microbes impaired the growth and nutrient digestibility, and healthy sow gut microbiota transplantation increased the growth and nutrient digestibility and improved the intestinal development and barrier function of newborn piglets, indicating the importance of intestinal microbes for intestinal development and functions.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Peng J, Tang Y, Y Huang (2021)

Gut health: The results of microbial and mucosal immune interactions in pigs.

Animal nutrition (Zhongguo xu mu shou yi xue hui), 7(2):282-294.

There are a large number of microorganisms in the porcine intestinal tract. These microorganisms and their metabolites contribute to intestinal mucosal immunity, which is of great importance to the health of the host. The host immune system can regulate the distribution and composition of intestinal microorganisms and regulate the homeostasis of intestinal flora by secreting a variety of immune effector factors, such as mucin, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), regenerating islet-derived III (RegIII)γ, and defensin. Conversely, intestinal microorganisms can also promote the differentiation of immune cells including regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 cells through their specific components or metabolites. Studies have shown that imbalances in the intestinal flora can lead to bacterial translocation and compromised intestinal barrier function, affecting the health of the body. This review focuses on the composition of the pig intestinal flora and the characteristics of intestinal mucosal immunity, discusses the interaction mechanism between the flora and intestinal mucosal immunity, as well as the regulation through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), dietary nutritional composition, probiotics and prebiotics of pig intestinal microecology. Finally, this review provides insights into the relationship between intestinal microorganisms and the mucosal immune system.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Gao T, Wang Z, Cao J, et al (2021)

Melatonin Ameliorates Corticosterone-Mediated Oxidative Stress-Induced Colitis in Sleep-Deprived Mice Involving Gut Microbiota.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2021:9981480.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a result of a complex interplay, making development of a specific treatment a challenging task. Corticosterone was considered a risk factor of stress relative enteritis. Our previous studies found that melatonin exerts an improvement effect in sleep deprivation (SD)- induced corticosterone overproduction and colitis. A present study further explored the mechanism whereby melatonin prevented corticosterone-mediated SD-induced colitis.

Methods: A 72-hour SD mouse model with or without melatonin supplementation and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to investigate the core role of corticosterone in melatonin-mediated gut microbiota improving SD-induced colitis. Further, corticosterone-treated mice were assessed to the effect of melatonin on corticosterone-mediated gut microbiota dysbiosis-induced colitis. Meanwhile, an in vitro test studied modulatory mechanism of metabolite melatonin.

Results: SD caused an excessive corticosterone, gut microbiota disorder and colitis phenotype. Similarly, corticosterone-supplemented mice also exhibited gut microbiota dysbiosis and colitis, and the FMT from SD-mice to normal mice could restore the SD-like colitis, but no change in the corticosterone level, which suggested that corticosterone-mediated intestinal microbiota imbalance plays a central role in SD-induced colitis. Further, we demonstrated melatonin-mediated MT2 weakened GR feedback, suppressed oxidative stress, restored the intestinal microbiota and its metabolites homeostasis, and inactivated the STAT3/AP-1/NF-κB pathway-induced inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro.

Conclusions: We revealed that excessive corticosterone is a core risk factor for SD-induced colitis and provided a better understanding of the effects of melatonin, expected to be a personalized targeted therapy drug, on corticosterone-mediated gut microbiota inducing colitis.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Ianiro G, Gasbarrini A, G Cammarota (2021)

Evaluating donor microbiome before fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Verma S, Dutta SK, Firnberg E, et al (2021)

Identification and engraftment of new bacterial strains by shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection before and after fecal microbiota transplantation and in healthy human subjects.

PloS one, 16(7):e0251590 pii:PONE-D-20-33289.

BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridioides diffícile infection (RCDI) is associated with major bacterial dysbiosis and colitis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective therapeutic modality for RCDI. While several studies have identified bacterial species associated with resolution of symptoms in patients, characterization of the fecal microbiome at the bacterial strain level in RCDI patients before and after FMT and healthy donors, has been lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of bacterial strains from healthy donors to engraft in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with RCDI following FMT.

METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 22 patients with RCDI before and after FMT and their corresponding healthy donors. Total DNA was extracted from each sample and analyzed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The Cosmos-ID analysis platform was used for taxonomic assignment of sequences and calculation of the relative abundance (RA) of bacterial species and strains. From these data, the total number of bacterial strains (BSI), Shannon diversity index, dysbiosis index (DI), and bacterial engraftment factor, were calculated for each strain.

FINDINGS: A marked reduction (p<0·0001) in the RA of total and specific bacterial strains, especially from phylum Firmicutes, was observed in RCDI patients prior to FMT. This change was associated with an increase in the DI (p<0·0001) and in pathobiont bacterial strains from phylum Proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Klebsiella pneumoniae UCI 34. BSI was significantly lower in this group of patients as compared to healthy donors and correlated with the Shannon Index. (p<0·0001). Identification and engraftment of bacterial strains from healthy donors revealed a greater diversity and higher relative abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacterial strains, including Lachnospiraceae bacterium 5_1_63FAA_u_t, Dorea formicigenerans ATCC 27755, Anaerostipes hadrusand others, in RCDI patients after FMT.

INTERPRETATION: These observations identify a group of SCFA-producing bacterial strains from healthy donors that engraft well in patients with RCDI following FMT and are associated with complete resolution of clinical symptoms and bacterial dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Tokuhara D (2021)

Role of the Gut Microbiota in Regulating Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:700058.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. Although obesity is the leading cause of NAFLD, the etiologies of NAFLD are multifactorial (e.g., high-fat diet, a lack of exercise, gender, maternal obesity, the antibiotic use), and each of these factors leads to dysbiosis of the gut microbiota community. The gut microbiota is a key player in the development and regulation of the gut mucosal immune system as well as the regulation of both NAFLD and obesity. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota promotes the development of NAFLD via alteration of gut-liver homeostasis, including disruption of the gut barrier, portal transport of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) to the liver, altered bile acid profiles, and decreased concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. In terms of prevention and treatment, conventional approaches (e.g., dietary and exercise interventions) against obesity and NAFLD have been confirmed to recover the dysbiosis and dysbiosis-mediated altered metabolism. In addition, increased understanding of the importance of gut microbiota-mediated homeostasis in the prevention of NAFLD suggests the potential effectiveness of gut microbiota-targeted preventive and therapeutic strategies (e.g., probiotics and fecal transplantation) against NAFLD in children and adolescents. This review comprehensively summarizes our current knowledge of the gut microbiota, focusing on its interaction with NAFLD and its potential therapeutic role in obese children and adolescents with this disorder.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Matsukawa H, Iida N, Kitamura K, et al (2021)

Dysbiotic gut microbiota in pancreatic cancer patients form correlation networks with the oral microbiota and prognostic factors.

American journal of cancer research, 11(6):3163-3175.

Microbiota in the gut and oral cavities of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients differ from those of healthy persons, and bacteria in PC tissues are associated with patients' prognoses. However, the species-level relationship between a dysbiotic gut, oral and cancerous microbiota, and prognostic factors remains unknown. Whole-genome sequencing was performed with fecal DNA from 24 PC patients and 18 healthy persons (HD). Microbial taxonomies, metabolic pathways, and viral presence were determined. DNA was sequenced from saliva and PC tissues, and the association between the gut, oral, and cancer microbiota and prognostic factors in PC patients was analyzed. The PC microbiota were altered from those of the healthy microbiota in terms of microbial taxonomy, pathways and viral presence. Twenty-six species differed significantly between the PC and HD microbiota. Six fecal microbes, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, were associated with an increased hazard of death. In the co-occurrence network, microbes that were abundant in PC patients were plotted close together and formed clusters with prognosis-associated microbes, including K. pneumoniae. Multiple salivary microbes were present in the co-occurrence network. Microbacterium and Stenotrophomonas were detected in the PC tissues and formed a network with the fecal and salivary microbes. The dysbiotic gut microbiota in the PC patients formed a complex network with the oral and cancerous microbiota, and gut microbes abundant in the PC patients were closely linked with poor prognostic factors in the network.

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Deng L, Shi Y, Liu P, et al (2021)

GeGen QinLian decoction alleviate influenza virus infectious pneumonia through intestinal flora.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 141:111896 pii:S0753-3322(21)00678-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Influenza in humans is often accompanied by gastroenteritis-like symptoms. GeGen QinLian decoction (GQD), a Chinese herb formula, has been widely used to treat infectious diarrhea for centuries and has the effect of restoring intestinal flora. Studies have also reported that GQD were used to treat patients with influenza. However, whether regulating the intestinal flora is one of the ways GQD treats influenza has not been confirmed. In present research, we conducted a systemic pharmacological study, and the results showed that GQD may acts through multiple targets and pathways. In influenza-infected mice, GQD treatment reduced mortality and lung inflammation. Most importantly, the mortality and lung inflammation were also reduced in influenza-infected mice that have undergone fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from GQD (FMT-GQD) treated mice. GQD treatment or FMT-GQD treatment restores the intestinal flora, resulting in an increase in Akkermansia_muciniphila, Desulfovibrio_C21_c20 and Lactobacillus_salivarius, and a decrease in Escherichia_coli. FMT-GQD treatment inhibited the NOD/RIP2/NF-κB signaling pathway in the intestine and affected the expression of downstream related inflammatory cytokines in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and serum. In addition, FMT-GQD treatment showed systemic protection by restraining the inflammatory differentiation of CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, our study shows that GQD can affect systemic immunity, at least in part, through the intestinal flora, thereby protect the mice against influenza virus infectious pneumonia.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Hourigan SK, Nicholson MR, Kahn SA, et al (2021)

Updates and Challenges in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridioides difficile Infection in Children.

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition pii:00005176-900000000-95616 [Epub ahead of print].

ABSTRACT: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently the most effective, but loosely regulated therapy, for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) in pediatrics. Over the last two years, there have been mounting challenges in the ability to provide FMT to pediatric patients. Firstly, an FDA safety alert in 2019 reported transmission of a multi-drug resistant organism from FMT donor to recipient resulting in the death of one patient. Secondly, the COVID-19 pandemic induced further safety and regulatory challenges. Biotherapeutics are promising and more readily regulated treatment options for rCDI, which may replace FMT in the near future for adults upon regulatory agency approvals. Such approvals, however, are expected to be significantly delayed for children, raising concerns for limited access to effective treatment for children with rCDI. In this commentary, we discuss the recent challenges and future directions of FMT and microbial therapeutics in children with rCDI.

RevDate: 2021-07-13
CmpDate: 2021-07-12

Bermudez-Martin P, Becker JAJ, Caramello N, et al (2021)

The microbial metabolite p-Cresol induces autistic-like behaviors in mice by remodeling the gut microbiota.

Microbiome, 9(1):157.

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, changes in microbiota composition as well as in the fecal, serum, and urine levels of microbial metabolites. Yet a causal relationship between dysregulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and ASD remains to be demonstrated. Here, we hypothesized that the microbial metabolite p-Cresol, which is more abundant in ASD patients compared to neurotypical individuals, could induce ASD-like behavior in mice.

RESULTS: Mice exposed to p-Cresol for 4 weeks in drinking water presented social behavior deficits, stereotypies, and perseverative behaviors, but no changes in anxiety, locomotion, or cognition. Abnormal social behavior induced by p-Cresol was associated with decreased activity of central dopamine neurons involved in the social reward circuit. Further, p-Cresol induced changes in microbiota composition and social behavior deficits could be transferred from p-Cresol-treated mice to control mice by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We also showed that mice transplanted with the microbiota of p-Cresol-treated mice exhibited increased fecal p-Cresol excretion, compared to mice transplanted with the microbiota of control mice. In addition, we identified possible p-Cresol bacterial producers. Lastly, the microbiota of control mice rescued social interactions, dopamine neurons excitability, and fecal p-Cresol levels when transplanted to p-Cresol-treated mice.

CONCLUSIONS: The microbial metabolite p-Cresol induces selectively ASD core behavioral symptoms in mice. Social behavior deficits induced by p-Cresol are dependant on changes in microbiota composition. Our study paves the way for therapeutic interventions targeting the microbiota and p-Cresol production to treat patients with ASD. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-07-13
CmpDate: 2021-07-12

Crothers JW, Chu ND, Nguyen LTT, et al (2021)

Daily, oral FMT for long-term maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis: results of a single-center, prospective, randomized pilot study.

BMC gastroenterology, 21(1):281.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising new strategy in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, but long-term delivery systems are lacking. This randomized study was designed as a safety and feasibility study of long-term FMT in subjects with mild to moderate UC using frozen, encapsulated oral FMT (cFMT).

METHODS: Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive FMT induction by colonoscopy, followed by 12 weeks of daily oral administration of frozen encapsulated cFMT or sham therpay. Subjects were followed for 36 weeks and longitudenal clinical assessments included multiple subjective and objective markers of disease severity. Ribosomal 16S bacterial sequencing was used to assess donor-induced changes in the gut microbiota. Changes in T regulatory (Treg) and mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cell populations were evaluated by flow cytometry as an exploratory endpoint.

RESULTS: Twelve subjects with active UC were randomized: 6 subjects completed the full 12-week course of FMT plus cFMT, and 6 subjects received sham treatment by colonic installation and longitudinal oral placebo capules. Chronic administration of cFMT was found to be safe and well-tolerated but home storage concerns exist. Protocol adherence was high, and none of the study subjects experienced FMT-associated treatment emergent adverse events. Two subjects that received cFMT achieved clinical remission versus none in the placebo group (95% CI = 0.38-infinity, p = 0.45). cFMT was associated with sustained donor-induced shifts in fecal microbial composition. Changes in MAIT cell cytokine production were observed in cFMT recipients and correlated with treatment response.

CONCLUSION: These pilot data suggest that daily encapsulated cFMT may extend the durability of index FMT-induced changes in gut bacterial community structure and that an association between MAIT cell cytokine production and clinical response to FMT may exist in UC populations. Oral frozen encapsulated cFMT is a promising FMT delivery system and may be preferred for longterm treatment strategies in UC and other chronic diseases but further evaluations will have to address home storage concerns. Larger trials should be done to explore the benefits of cFMT and to determine its long-term impacts on the colonic microbiome.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02390726). Registered 17 March 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02390726?term=NCT02390726&draw=2&rank=1 .

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Segal A, Zlotnik Y, Moyal-Atias K, et al (2021)

Fecal microbiota transplant as a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease - A case series.

Clinical neurology and neurosurgery, 207:106791 pii:S0303-8467(21)00320-6 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is safe and possibly efficacious in treating constipation, motor, and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients.

METHODS: Patients with PD, constipation and an indication for screening colonoscopy were treated with FMT. The study was conducted from December 2017 to November 2019, and clinical outcomes assessing motor, non-motor and constipation symptoms were compared at baseline (week 0) and at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after the FMT.

RESULTS: Six patients (3 men, age range 47-73, median age 52) were treated with FMT. Four weeks following the FMT, motor, non-motor and constipation scores were improved in 5 of 6 patients. At week 24, compared to before the FMT, the changes in motor scores ranged from - 13-7 points, in non-motor scores from - 2 to - 45 points, and in constipation scores from - 12-1 point. One patient had a serious adverse event requiring admission for observation only, and no adverse events were observed in all other patients.

CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 6 PD patients, a treatment with donor FMT infused via colonoscopy, was safe and resulted in improvement of PD motor and non-motor symptoms, including constipation, at 6 months. Further research is needed to assess longer-term maintenance of efficacy and safety, including in large scale randomized controlled trials.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT03876327.

RevDate: 2021-07-08

El-Salhy M, Hausken T, JG Hatlebakk (2021)

Current status of fecal microbiota transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome.

Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal functional disorder. Although IBS is a benign condition, it reduces the quality of life considerably. While there is currently no effective treatment for this disorder, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) seems to be promising.

PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to analysis possible factors affecting the success or failure of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of FMT for IBS and highlighting the gaps in our knowledge that need to be filled and of sketching a possible model for successful FMT in IBS patients.

METHODS: A systematic search was conducted of literature published in English from January 2015 to December 2020 using the keywords: fecal microbiota transplantation, randomized trials, and IBS.

KEY RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of FMT for IBS were found in the literature. Four of the seven RCTs found various positive effects, while the other three did not find any effect.

CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: The efficacy of FMT for IBS appears to be donor-dependent. The effective (super) donor would need to have a favorable microbiota signature, and 11 clinical criteria that are known to be associated with a favorable microbiota have been suggested for selecting FMT donors for IBS. Comparing the microbiota of the effective donors with those of healthy subjects would reveal the favorable microbiota signature required for a super-donor. However, the studies reviewed were not designed to compare efficacy of different donor types. The dose of the fecal transplant is also an important factor influencing the outcome of FMT for IBS. However, further studies designed to test the effect of fecal transplant dose are needed to answer this question. Administering the fecal transplant to either the small or large intestine seems to be effective, but the optimal route of administration remains to be determined. Moreover, whether single or repeated FMT is more effective is also still unclear. A 1-year follow-up of IBS patients who received FMT showed that adverse events of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation were both mild and self-limiting.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Li Y, K Honda (2021)

Towards the development of defined microbial therapeutics.

International immunology pii:6317381 [Epub ahead of print].

The collection of microorganisms living in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, termed the gut microbiota, has been shown to have profound impacts on host health and increasingly is regarded as a viable therapeutic target. Clinical studies of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have demonstrated potential efficacy of microbiota-based therapies for diseases including Clostridioides difficile infections, inflammatory bowel disease, graft-versus-host disease and cancer. However, the lack of understanding of the active ingredients and potential risks of such therapies pose challenges for clinical application. Meanwhile, efforts are being made to identify effector microbes directly associated with a given phenotype, to establish causality and to devise well-characterized microbial therapeutics for clinical use. Strategies based on defined microbial components will likely enhance the potential of microbiota-targeted therapies.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Kociolek LK, Crews JD, HT Schwenk (2021)

Recent advances in Clostridioides difficile infection epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment in children.

Current opinion in infectious diseases pii:00001432-900000000-99034 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classified Clostridioides difficile as an 'urgent' public health threat that requires 'urgent and aggressive action'. This call to action has led to new discoveries that have advanced C. difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, albeit predominantly in adults. In 2017, the Infectious Diseases Society of America and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America published clinical practice guidelines for both adults and children. At that time, recommendations in children were generally limited to relatively low-quality evidence.

RECENT FINDINGS: Since publication of this guidance, there have been many advancements in the understanding of CDI in children. These include better understanding of healthcare settings as uncommon sources of C. difficile acquisition in children; risk factors for recurrent and community-associated CDI; performance of diagnostic tests in children and strategies for optimizing their use; and a more rigorous evidence base for CDI treatment in children, including the first-ever randomized controlled trial of CDI treatment in children and the largest study of fecal microbiota transplantation in children.

SUMMARY: This review highlights the most recent salient advancements in paediatric CDI knowledge and practice that supplement published clinical guidance provided prior to these advancements.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Matsui M, Fukunishi S, Nakano T, et al (2021)

Ileal Bile Acid Transporter Inhibitor Improves Hepatic Steatosis by Ameliorating Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in NAFLD Model Mice.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by excessive fat deposition in the liver unrelated to alcohol consumption, is highly prevalent worldwide. However, effective therapeutic agents approved for NAFLD treatment are lacking. An ileal bile acid transporter inhibitor (IBATi), which represents a new mode of treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation, leads to increased delivery of bile acids to the colon. We investigated the effect of IBATi against NAFLD through modification of the gut microbiota in mice. IBATi treatment significantly suppressed body weight gain, liver dysfunction, and serum low-density lipoprotein levels and significantly decreased NAFLD activity scores in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. Treatment with IBATi ameliorated the decreased hepatic cholesterol 7-a-monooxygenase (Cyp7a1) and increased ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15) mRNA expression in HFD mice. Further, IBATi treatment changed the α-diversity in the gut microbiota reduced by HFD, which was analyzed in feces using 16S rRNA sequencing. To establish the mechanism underlying improvement in NAFLD induced by IBATi, we recolonized antibiotic solution-treated mice by fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) using stool from HFD or HFD plus IBATi mice. This is the first report that fecally transplanted gut microbiota from HFD plus IBATi mice prevented hepatic steatosis caused by HFD. In conclusion, IBATi improved hepatic steatosis by ameliorating gut microbiota dysbiosis in NAFLD model mice, suggesting a potential therapeutic agent for NAFLD treatment. IMPORTANCE NAFLD is an increasingly recognized condition that may progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and community surveys have assessed that the prevalence is 14 to 32% worldwide. The first line of treatment for NAFLD is lifestyle modification to achieve weight reduction, particularly through diet and exercise. However, weight reduction is difficult to achieve and maintain, and pharmacological agents approved for the treatment of NAFLD are lacking. This study investigated the influence of the gut microbiota and the effect of an IBATi on NAFLD using a murine model. Treatment with IBATi significantly improved NAFLD in HFD mice. Further, fecal microbiome transplantation using stool from HFD plus IBATi mice prevented hepatic steatosis caused by HFD. Our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because the study findings suggest a potential treatment strategy for NAFLD patients by ameliorating gut microbiota dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Tan R, Dong H, Chen Z, et al (2021)

Intestinal Microbiota Mediates High-Fructose and High-Fat Diets to Induce Chronic Intestinal Inflammation.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:654074.

An unhealthy diet has been linked to increased incidence of chronic diseases. To investigate the relationship between diet and intestinal inflammation, mice in two experimental groups were fed on a high-fat diet or high-fructose diet, respectively. The result showed that the defecation volume of the experimental groups was significantly reduced compared with that of the control group, and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6) and IgG in serum were increased significantly. In addition, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in intestinal tissue, indicating that a high-fructose or high-fat diet can lead to constipation and inflammation. Further analysis showed that the microbial composition of the experimental groups changed significantly, including a decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and increased levels of Bacteroides, Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, and Ruminococcus, which might be associated with inflammation. The results of pro-inflammatory metabolites analysis showed that the levels of arachidonic acid, stearic acid, and indoxylsulfuric acid were significantly increased in the experimental groups, which were related significantly to Bacteroides, Enterococcus, and Akkermansia. Meanwhile, the content of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was significantly decreased, which might cause constipation by reducing intestinal peristalsis. Moreover, transplantation of fecal bacteria from inflammatory mice caused constipation and inflammation in normal mice, which could be relieved by feeding a normal diet. The results of the present study indicated that changes in intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites may underlie chronic intestinal inflammation and constipation caused by high-fructose and high-fat diets.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Liu Y, Yang C, Zhang Z, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Accelerates Prostate Cancer Progression Through Increased LPCAT1 Expression and Enhanced DNA Repair Pathways.

Frontiers in oncology, 11:679712.

Gut microbiota dysbiosis is related to cancer development and progression. Our previous study showed that Ruminococcus was more abundant in CRPC (Castration-resistant prostate cancer) than HSPC (Hormone-sensitive prostate cancer) individuals. Here, we determined the potential mechanism of microbiota dysbiosis in prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Metagenomics was used to verify the gut microbial discrepancies between CRPC and HSPC individuals. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed by transferring the fecal suspension of CRPC or HSPC individuals to TRAMP mice. Afterwards, the mice's prostate histopathology and gut microbiota composition were determined. Since Ruminococcus was demonstrated to correlate with phospholipid metabolism, we used lipidomics to examine the mice's fecal lipid profiles. The expression of LPCAT1 the key enzyme for phospholipid remodeling in mice prostate was also examined. Meanwhile, both microbial functions prediction and LPCAT1 GSEA analysis (Gene Set Enrichment Analysis) indicated DNA repair pathways, we further determined the expressions of RAD51 and DNA-PKcs in mice prostate. The results showed that gut Ruminococcus was significantly more abundant in CRPC individuals. FMT using CRPC feces accelerated mice's PCa progression and increased their gut Ruminococcus abundance. Majority of fecal lipids including lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine were upregulated in CRPC FMT treated mice, accompanied with enhanced expressions of LPCAT1, RAD51, and DNA-PKcs in mice prostate. We reported an abundant colonization of Ruminococcus in the gut of CRPC individuals and mice receiving their fecal suspensions, and revealed the promotive capability of Ruminococcus in PCa progression via upregulating LPCAT1 and DNA repair protein expressions. The bacterium and its downstream pathways may become the targets of therapies for PCa in the future.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Zhao Y, Li X, Zhou Y, et al (2021)

Safety and Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Grade IV Steroid Refractory GI-GvHD Patients: Interim Results From FMT2017002 Trial.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:678476.

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major cause of post-allo-HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) morbidity and mortality. Patients with steroid-refractory GI-GvHD have a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. FMT2017002 trial (#NCT03148743) was a non-randomized, open-label, phase I/II clinical study of FMT for treating patients with grade IV steroid-refractory GI-GvHD. A total of 55 patients with steroid-refractory GI-GvHD were enrolled in this study. Forty-one patients with grade IV steroid-refractory GI-GvHD were included in the final statistical analysis. Of them, 23 patients and 18 patients were assigned to the FMT group and the control group, respectively. On days 14 and 21 after FMT, clinical remission was significantly greater in the FMT group than in the control group. Within a follow-up period of 90 days, the FMT group showed a better overall survival (OS). At the end of the study, the median survival time was >539 days in the FMT group and 107 days in the control group (HR=3.51; 95% CI, 1.21-10.17; p=0.021). Both the event-free survival time (EFS) (HR=2.3, 95% CI, 0.99-5.4; p=0.08) and OS (HR=4.4, 95% CI, 1.5-13.04; p=0.008) were higher in the FMT group during the follow-up period. Overall, the mortality rate was lower in the FMT group (HR=3.97; 95% CI, 1.34-11.75; p=0.013). No differences in the occurrence of any other side effects were observed. Our data suggest that the diversity of the intestinal microbiota could be affected by allo-HSCT. Although its effectiveness and safety need further evaluation, FMT may serve as a therapeutic option for grade IV steroid-refractory GI-GvHD.

Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT03148743].

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Gallop A, Weagley J, Paracha SU, et al (2021)

The Role of The Gut Microbiome in Parkinson's Disease.

Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology, 34(4):253-262.

The gut microbiota is known to play a role in various disease states through inflammatory, immune and endocrinologic response. Parkinson's Disease is of particular interest as gastrointestinal involvement is one of the earlier features seen in this disease. This paper examines the relationship between gut microbiota and Parkinson's Disease, which has a growing body of literature. Inflammation caused by gut dysbiosis is thought to increase a-synuclein aggregation and worsen motor and neurologic symptoms of Parkinson's disease. We discuss potential treatment and supplementation to modify the microbiota. Some of these treatments require further research before recommendations can be made, such as cord blood transplant, antibiotic use, immunomodulation and fecal microbiota transplant. Other interventions, such as increasing dietary fiber, polyphenol and fermented food intake, can be made with few risks and may have some benefit for symptom relief and speed of disease progression.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Gupta M, Krishan P, Kaur A, et al (2021)

Mechanistic and physiological approaches of fecal microbiota transplantation in the management of NAFLD.

Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.], 70(7):765-776.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifaceted disease allied with various metabolic disorders, obesity and dysbiosis. Gut microbiota plays an influential role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and other metabolic disorders. However, recent scientific upsurge emphasizes on the utility of beneficial gut microbiota and bacteriotherapy in the management of NAFLD. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the contemporary therapeutic approach with state-of-the-art methods for the treatment of NAFLD. Other potential therapies include probiotics and prebiotics supplements which are based on alteration of gut microbes to treat NAFLD. In this review, our major focus is on the pathological association of gut microbiota with progression of NAFLD, historical aspects and recent advances in FMT with possible intervention to combat NAFLD and its associated metabolic dysfunctions.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Gopalakrishnan V, Dozier EA, Glover MS, et al (2021)

Engraftment of Bacteria after Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Is Dependent on Both Frequency of Dosing and Duration of Preparative Antibiotic Regimen.

Microorganisms, 9(7): pii:microorganisms9071399.

The gut microbiota has emerged as a key mediator of human physiology, and germ-free mice have been essential in demonstrating a role for the microbiome in disease. Preclinical models using conventional mice offer the advantage of working with a mature immune system. However, optimal protocols for fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) engraftment in conventional mice are yet to be established. Conventional BALB/c mice were randomized to receive 3-day (3d) or 3-week (3w) antibiotic (ABX) regimen in their drinking water followed by 1 or 5-daily FMTs from a human donor. Fecal samples were collected longitudinally and characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. Semi-targeted metabolomic profiling of fecal samples was also done with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Lastly, we sought to confirm our findings in BKS mice. Recovery of baseline diversity scores were greatest in the 3d groups, driven by re-emergence of mouse commensal microbiota, whereas the most resemblance to donor microbiota was seen in the 3w + 5-FMT group. Amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) that were linked to the input material (human ASVs) engrafted to a significantly greater extent when compared to mouse ASVs in the 3-week groups but not the 3-day groups. Lastly, comparison of metabolomic profiles revealed distinct functional profiles by ABX regimen. These results indicate successful model optimization and emphasize the importance of ABX duration and frequency of FMT dosing; the most stable and reliable colonization by donor ASVs was seen in the 3wk + 5-FMT group.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Paratore M, Santopaolo F, Cammarota G, et al (2021)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with HBV Infection or Other Chronic Liver Diseases: Update on Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(12):.

Liver disease and gut dysbiosis are strictly associated, and the pathophysiology of this bidirectional relationship has recently been the subject of several investigations. Growing evidence highlights the link between gut microbiota composition, impairment of the gut-liver axis, and the development or progression of liver disease. Therefore, the modulation of gut microbiota to maintain homeostasis of the gut-liver axis could represent a potential instrument to halt liver damage, modify the course of liver disease, and improve clinical outcomes. Among all the methods available to achieve this purpose, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is one of the most promising, being able to directly reshape the recipient's gut microbial communities. In this review, we report the main characteristics of gut dysbiosis and its pathogenetic consequences in cirrhotic patients, discussing the emerging data on the application of FMT for liver disease in different clinical settings.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Fianchi F, Liguori A, Gasbarrini A, et al (2021)

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) as Model of Gut-Liver Axis Interaction: From Pathophysiology to Potential Target of Treatment for Personalized Therapy.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(12):.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver disease worldwide, affecting both adults and children and will result, in the near future, as the leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Indeed, its prevalence is rapidly increasing, and NAFLD is becoming a major public health concern. For this reason, great efforts are needed to identify its pathogenetic factors and new therapeutic approaches. In the past decade, enormous advances understanding the gut-liver axis-the complex network of cross-talking between the gut, microbiome and liver through the portal circulation-have elucidated its role as one of the main actors in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Indeed, evidence shows that gut microbiota is involved in the development and progression of liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis seen in the context of NAFLD, as well as in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. As a result, gut microbiota is currently emerging as a non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of disease and for the assessment of its severity. Additionally, to its enormous diagnostic potential, gut microbiota is currently studied as a therapeutic target in NAFLD: several different approaches targeting the gut homeostasis such as antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, adsorbents, bariatric surgery and fecal microbiota transplantation are emerging as promising therapeutic options.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Vacca M, Celano G, Lenucci MS, et al (2021)

In Vitro Selection of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Antioxidants to Develop an Innovative Synbiotic (NatuREN G) and Testing Its Effect in Reducing Uremic Toxins in Fecal Batches from CKD Patients.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

We aimed to develop an innovative synbiotic formulation for use in reducing dysbiosis, uremic toxins (e.g., p-cresol and indoxyl sulfate), and, consequently, the pathognomonic features of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Twenty-five probiotic strains, belonging to lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium, were tested for their ability to grow in co-culture with different vegetable (pomegranate, tomato, and grapes) sources of antioxidants and prebiotics (inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and β-glucans). Probiotics were selected based on the acidification rates and viable cell counts. Inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides reported the best prebiotic activity, while a pomegranate seed extract was initially chosen as antioxidant source. The investigation was also conducted in fecal batches from healthy and CKD subjects, on which metabolomic analyses (profiling volatile organic compounds and total free amino acids) were conducted. Two out of twenty-five probiotics were finally selected. After the stability tests, the selective innovative synbiotic formulation (named NatuREN G) comprised Bifidobacterium animalis BLC1, Lacticaseibacillus casei LC4P1, fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, quercetin, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins. Finally, NatuREN G was evaluated on fecal batches collected from CKD in which modified the viable cell densities of some cultivable bacterial patterns, increased the concentration of acetic acid and decane, while reduced the concentration of nonanoic acid, dimethyl trisulfide, and indoxyl sulfate.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Pavel FM, Vesa CM, Gheorghe G, et al (2021)

Highlighting the Relevance of Gut Microbiota Manipulation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6):.

Two different conditions are included in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), being distinguished by chronic recurrence of gut inflammation in persons that are genetically predisposed and subjected to environmental causative factors. The normal structure of the gut microbiome and its alterations in IBD were defined in several microbial studies. An important factor in the prolonged inflammatory process in IBD is the impaired microbiome or "dysbiosis". Thus, gut microbiome management is likely to be an objective in IBD treatment. In this review, we analyzed the existing data regarding the pathophysiological/therapeutic implications of intestinal microflora in the development and evolution of IBD. Furthermore, the main effects generated by the administration of probiotics, prebiotics, fecal transplantation, and phytochemicals supplementation were analyzed regarding their potential roles in improving the clinical and biochemical status of patients suffering from Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and are depicted in the sections/subsections of the present paper. Data from the literature give evidence in support of probiotic and prebiotic therapy, showing effects such as improving remission rate, improving macroscopic and microscopic aspects of IBD, reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokines and interleukins, and improving the disease activity index. Therefore, the additional benefits of these therapies should not be ignored as adjuvants to medical therapy.

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Özdirik B, Müller T, Wree A, et al (2021)

The Role of Microbiota in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Related Biliary Malignancies.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(13):.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an immune-related cholangiopathy characterized by biliary inflammation, cholestasis, and multifocal bile duct strictures. It is associated with high rates of progression to end-stage liver disease as well as a significant risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), gallbladder cancer, and colorectal carcinoma. Currently, no effective medical treatment with an impact on the overall survival is available, and liver transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Emerging evidence indicates that gut microbiota is associated with disease pathogenesis. Several studies analyzing fecal and mucosal samples demonstrate a distinct gut microbiome in individuals with PSC compared to healthy controls and individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) without PSC. Experimental mouse and observational human data suggest that a diverse set of microbial functions may be relevant, including microbial metabolites and bacterial processing of pharmacological agents, bile acids, or dietary compounds, altogether driving the intrahepatic inflammation. Despite critical progress in this field over the past years, further functional characterization of the role of the microbiota in PSC and related malignancies is needed. In this review, we discuss the available data on the role of the gut microbiome and elucidate important insights into underlying pathogenic mechanisms and possible microbe-altering interventions.

RevDate: 2021-07-11
CmpDate: 2021-07-08

Kao TW, CC Huang (2021)

Recent Progress in Metabolic Syndrome Research and Therapeutics.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(13):.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a well-defined yet difficult-to-manage disease entity. Both the precipitous rise in its incidence due to contemporary lifestyles and the growing heterogeneity among affected populations present unprecedented challenges. Moreover, the predisposed risk for developing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in populations with MetS, and the viral impacts on host metabolic parameters, underscores the need to investigate this mechanism thoroughly. Recent investigations of metabolomics and proteomics have revealed not only differentially expressed substances in MetS, but also the consequences of diet consumption and physical activity on energy metabolism. These variations in metabolites, as well as protein products, also influence a wide spectrum of host characteristics, from cellular behavior to phenotype. Research on the dysregulation of gut microbiota and the resultant inflammatory status has also contributed to our understanding of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. As for state-of-the-art therapies, advancing depictions of the bio-molecular landscape of MetS have emerged and now play a key role in individualized precision medicine. Fecal microbiota transplantation, aiming to restore the host's homeostasis, and targeting of the bile acid signaling pathway are two approaches to combatting MetS. Comprehensive molecular inquiries about MetS by omics measures are mandatory to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic modalities.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Villoslada-Blanco P, Pérez-Matute P, JA Oteo (2021)

Lights and Shadows of Microbiota Modulation and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV Patients.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(13): pii:ijerph18136837.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with premature aging and the development of aging-related comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Gut microbiota (GM) disturbance is involved in these comorbidities and there is currently interest in strategies focused on modulating GM composition and/or functionality. Scientific evidence based on well-designed clinical trials is needed to support the use of prebiotics, probiotics, symbiotics, and fecal transplantation (FT) to modify the GM and reduce the incidence of CVD in HIV-infected patients. We reviewed the data obtained from three clinical trials focused on prebiotics, 25 trials using probiotics, six using symbiotics, and four using FT. None of the trials investigated whether these compounds could reduce CVD in HIV patients. The huge variability observed in the type of compound as well as the dose and duration of administration makes it difficult to adopt general recommendations and raise serious questions about their application in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Akutko K, A Stawarski (2021)

Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(11):.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract with periods of remission and relapses. The etiopathogenesis of IBD is multifactorial and has not been fully understood. Hence, only symptomatic treatment of these diseases is possible. The current pharmacological treatment has variable efficacy and is associated with the risk of significant side effects. Therefore, there is a constant need to search for new types of therapies with a high safety profile. Considering that the qualitative and quantitative profile of the gastrointestinal microbiome is often different in patients with IBD than in healthy individuals, there is a need for looking for therapies aimed at restoring intestinal microbiome homeostasis. Thus, the use of strictly defined probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics may become an alternative form of IBD therapy. There is evidence that treatment with certain probiotic strains, e.g., VSL#3 and Escherischia coli Nissle 1917, is an effective form of therapy to induce remission in patients with mild to moderate UC. So far, the effectiveness of the use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in inducing or maintaining remission in patients with CD has not been confirmed. There are also reports of possible beneficial effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on the course of IBD, especially UC. Further, well-planned studies on a large group of patients are needed to determine the role of specific probiotic strains, prebiotics, synbiotics and FMT in the treatment of IBD in adults and in children.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Ghezzi L, Cantoni C, Pinget GV, et al (2021)

Targeting the gut to treat multiple sclerosis.

The Journal of clinical investigation, 131(13):.

The gut-brain axis (GBA) refers to the complex interactions between the gut microbiota and the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems, together linking brain and gut functions. Perturbations of the GBA have been reported in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), suggesting a possible role in disease pathogenesis and making it a potential therapeutic target. While research in the area is still in its infancy, a number of studies revealed that pwMS are more likely to exhibit altered microbiota, altered levels of short chain fatty acids and secondary bile products, and increased intestinal permeability. However, specific microbes and metabolites identified across studies and cohorts vary greatly. Small clinical and preclinical trials in pwMS and mouse models, in which microbial composition was manipulated through the use of antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and probiotic supplements, have provided promising outcomes in preventing CNS inflammation. However, results are not always consistent, and large-scale randomized controlled trials are lacking. Herein, we give an overview of how the GBA could contribute to MS pathogenesis, examine the different approaches tested to modulate the GBA, and discuss how they may impact neuroinflammation and demyelination in the CNS.

RevDate: 2021-07-01

Long D, D Merlin (2021)

Micro- and nanotechnological delivery platforms for treatment of dysbiosis-related inflammatory bowel disease.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Wang X, Liang Z, Wang S, et al (2021)

Role of Gut Microbiota in Multiple Sclerosis and Potential Therapeutic Implications.

Current neuropharmacology pii:CN-EPUB-116395 [Epub ahead of print].

The role of gut microbiota in health and diseases has been receiving increased attention recently. Emerging evidence from previous studies on the gut-microbiota-brain axis highlighted the importance of gut microbiota in neurological disorders. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) resulting from T-cell-driven, myelin-directed autoimmunity. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota in MS patients has been reported in published research studies, indicating that gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. Gut microbiota has also been reported to influence the initiation of disease and severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which is the animal model of MS. However, the underlying mechanisms of gut microbiota involvement in the pathogenesis of MS remain unclear. Therefore, in this review, we summerized the potential mechanisms for gut microbiota involvement in the pathogenesis of MS, including increasing the permeability of the intestinal barrier, initiating an autoimmune response, disrupting the blood-brain barrier integrity, and contributing to chronic inflammation. The possibility for gut microbiota as a target for MS therapy has also been discussed. This review provides new insight into understanding the role of gut microbiota in neurological and inflammatory diseases.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Bibbò S, Ianiro G, Giambò F, et al (2021)

Role of gut microbiome on immunotherapy efficacy in melanoma.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota is considered a key component in many aspects of cancer pathophysiology and response to therapy. In particular, in recent years intriguing evidences has been emerging regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in the response to immunotherapy and in promoting the development of adverse events, such as colitis. For this reason, studies are being carried out both on pre-clinical models and on humans to study how to predict the response to immunotherapy through the study of the microbiota or how to improve its clinical response through modulation. Promising data have recently been reported through modulation by probiotics or prebiotics, and in particular by fecal microbiota transplantation. The aim of this review is to analyze the evidence regarding the role of the microbiota in immunotherapy with a particular focus on melanoma.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Liu M, Song S, Chen Q, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota mediates cognitive impairment in young mice after multiple neonatal exposures to sevoflurane.

Aging, 13(12):16733-16748.

Multiple exposures to anesthesia may increase the risk of cognitive impairment in young children. However, the mechanisms underlying this neurodevelopmental disorder remain elusive. In this study, we investigated alteration of the gut microbiota after multiple neonatal exposures to the anesthetic sevoflurane and the potential role of microbiota alteration on cognitive impairment using a young mice model. Multiple neonatal sevoflurane exposures resulted in obvious cognitive impairment symptoms and altered gut microbiota composition. Fecal transplantation experiments confirmed that alteration of the microbiota was responsible for the cognitive disorders in young mice. Microbiota profiling analysis identified microbial taxa that showed consistent differential abundance before and after fecal microbiota transplantation. Several of the differentially abundant taxa are associated with memory and/or health of the host, such as species of Streptococcus, Lachnospiraceae, and Pseudoflavonifractor. The results reveal that abnormal composition of the gut microbiota is a risk factor for cognitive impairment in young mice after multiple neonatal exposures to sevoflurane and provide insight into a potential therapeutic strategy for sevoflurane-related neurotoxicity.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Yu Y, Cao Y, Huang W, et al (2021)

β-Sitosterol Ameliorates Endometrium Receptivity in PCOS-Like Mice: The Mediation of Gut Microbiota.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:667130.

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrine diseases in women of childbearing age, has been found to be accompanied by changes in the gut microbiota. The Bu Shen Yang Xue formula (BSYXF) is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of PCOS. This study aimed to investigate whether the protective effects of β-sitosterol, the main active ingredient of BSYXF, on PCOS was mediated by regulating gut microbiota. Methods: The presence of β-sitosterol in BSYXF was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCOS-like mouse model was induced by dehydroepiandrosterone. The fecal supernatant of β-sitosterol-treated mice was prepared for fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Body weight and wet weight of the uterus and ovary of the mice were recorded for organ index calculation. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was used to assess the endometrial morphology and microenvironment changes. Expression of endometrial receptivity markers cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Integrin ανβ3, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and homeobox A10 (HOXA10) in the endometrium were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to detect the expression of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in the serum. The diversity of gut microbiota was examined by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Results: With the treatment of β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-FMT, the uterine index of PCOS-like mice increased, the ovarian index decreased, levels of COX-2, LH and T decreased, and levels of Integrin ανβ3, LIF, HOXA10, FSH, and P increased. Under β-sitosterol treatment, the structure of the gut microbiota in PCOS-like mice was also changed. Conclusion: β-sitosterol regulates the endometrial receptivity of PCOS and harmonizes the sex hormone balance, which may be related to the changes in the structure and composition of gut microbiota, thus affecting the pathological process of PCOS.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Vedala K, Sobash P, Shah P, et al (2021)

Does Fecal Microbiota Transplant Have a Role in Treating Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection in Rural Hospitals?.

Frontiers in public health, 9:670941.

Clostridioides difficile infection possesses a significant economical burden, specifically in the inpatient and rural settings. Fecal Microbiota Transplant has been used for treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile but its utility is limited by current guidelines and resources. We conducted a retrospective chart review to evaluate the financial benefit of using Fecal Microbiota Transplant after first recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection. We found that while its use was restricted, on average Fecal Microbiota Transplant can save $11,603.49 per patient. In conclusion, our study shows that using Fecal Microbiota Transplant could prove to be economically beneficial in treating recurrent CDI in rural hospitals.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Ma X, Zhang Y, Xu T, et al (2021)

Early-Life Intervention Using Exogenous Fecal Microbiota Alleviates Gut Injury and Reduce Inflammation Caused by Weaning Stress in Piglets.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:671683.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could shape the structure of intestinal microbiota in animals. This study was conducted to explore the changes that happen in the structure and function of microbiota caused by weaning stress, and whether early-life FMT could alleviate weaning stress through modifying intestinal microbiota in weaned piglets. Diarrheal (D) and healthy (H) weaned piglets were observed, and in the same farm, a total of nine litters newborn piglets were randomly allocated to three groups: sucking normally (S), weaned at 21 d (W), and early-life FMT + weaned at 21 d (FW). The results demonstrated that differences of fecal microbiota existed in group D and H. Early-life FMT significantly decreased diarrhea incidence of weaned piglets. Intestinal morphology and integrity were improved in the FW group. Both ZO-1 and occludin (tight junction proteins) of jejunum were greatly enhanced, while the zonulin expression was significantly down-regulated through early-life FMT. The expression of IL-6 and TNF-α (intestinal mucosal inflammatory cytokines) were down-regulated, while IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokines) was up-regulated by early-life FMT. In addition, early-life FMT increased the variety of the intestinal microbial population and the relative amounts of some beneficial bacteria such as Spirochaetes, Akkermansia, and Alistipes. Functional alteration of the intestinal microbiota revealed that lipid biosynthesis and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis were enriched in the FW group. These findings suggested that alteration of the microbiota network caused by weaning stress induced diarrhea, and early-life FMT alleviated weaning stress in piglets, which was characterized by decreased diarrhea incidence, improved intestinal morphology, reduced intestinal inflammation, and modified intestinal bacterial composition and function.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Koopen AM, Almeida EL, Attaye I, et al (2021)

Effect of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Combined With Mediterranean Diet on Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects With Metabolic Syndrome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:662159.

Background: Recent studies demonstrate that a Mediterranean diet has beneficial metabolic effects in metabolic syndrome subjects. Since we have shown that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from lean donors exerts beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, in the present trial, we investigated the potential synergistic effects on insulin sensitivity of combining a Mediterranean diet with donor FMT in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

Design: Twenty-four male subjects with metabolic syndrome were put on a Mediterranean diet and after a 2-week run-in phase, the subjects were randomized to either lean donor (n = 12) or autologous (n = 12) FMT. Changes in the gut microbiota composition and bacterial strain engraftment after the 2-week dietary regimens and 6 weeks post-FMT were the primary endpoints. The secondary objectives were changes in glucose fluxes (both hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity), postprandial plasma incretin (GLP-1) levels, subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation, and plasma metabolites.

Results: Consumption of the Mediterranean diet resulted in a reduction in body weight, HOMA-IR, and lipid levels. However, no large synergistic effects of combining the diet with lean donor FMT were seen on the gut microbiota diversity after 6 weeks. Although we did observe changes in specific bacterial species and plasma metabolites, no significant beneficial effects on glucose fluxes, postprandial incretins, or subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation were detected.

Conclusions: In this small pilot randomized controlled trial, no synergistic beneficial metabolic effects of combining a Mediterranean diet with lean donor FMT on glucose metabolism were achieved. However, we observed engraftment of specific bacterial species. Future trials are warranted to test the combination of other microbial interventions and diets in metabolic syndrome.

RevDate: 2021-06-28

Feng J, Tang YN, Zhou LX, et al (2021)

Standardized Nursing Procedures for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation via Upper Endoscopy.

Gastroenterology nursing : the official journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates pii:00001610-900000000-99891 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation is an emerging treatment option that lacks a standardized nursing procedure. In our department, fecal microbiota transplantation has been undertaken to treat chronic hepatitis B and inflammatory bowel diseases since 2015. The fecal microbiota transplantation process involves various nursing measures that are critical for the successful completion of the procedures. In our center, a set of standardized nursing procedures has been established and has proved effective and operable. Standardized nursing procedures enhance the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation and alleviate the risk of treatment-related complications.

RevDate: 2021-06-27

Khanna S (2021)

My Treatment Approach to Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Mayo Clinic proceedings pii:S0025-6196(21)00263-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides difficile infection is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitals with an increasing incidence in the community. Clinical presentation of C difficile infection ranges from diarrhea manageable in the outpatient setting to fulminant infection requiring intensive care admission. There have been significant advances in the management of primary and recurrent C difficile infection including diagnostics, newer antibiotics, antibody treatments, and microbiome restoration therapies. Because of the risk of clinical false-positive results with the polymerase chain reaction test, a two-step assay combining an enzyme immune assay for glutamate dehydrogenase and the C difficile toxin is being used. Cost permitting, I treat a first episode of C difficile infection preferably with fidaxomicin over vancomycin but not metronidazole. The most common complication after C difficile infection is recurrence. I manage a first recurrence with a vancomycin taper and pulse or fidaxomicin and recommend a single dose of intravenous bezlotoxumab (a monoclonal antibody against the toxin B) to reduce recurrence rates for those patients at high risk. Patients with multiply recurrent C difficile infection are managed with a course of antibiotics such as vancomycin or fidaxomicin followed by microbiota restoration. The success of fecal microbiota transplantation is greater than 85%, compared with the 40% to 50% success rate of antibiotics in this situation. Fecal microbiota transplantation is heterogeneous and has rare but serious risks such as transmission of infections. Standardized microbiota restoration therapies are in clinical development and have completed phase III clinical trials. This review answers common clinical questions in the management of C difficile infection.

RevDate: 2021-06-26

Saha S, Pardi DS, S Khanna (2021)

Reply to Ianiro et al: Gastrointestinal symptoms after fecal microbiota transplantation for C difficile: Associations, causations, speculations and implications.

RevDate: 2021-06-26

Tan Q, Orsso CE, Deehan EC, et al (2021)

Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.

Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research [Epub ahead of print].

The emerging role of a microbiota-gut-brain axis in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that modulating gut microbial composition may offer a tractable approach to addressing the lifelong challenges of ASD. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview and critically evaluate the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of probiotic, prebiotic, synbiotic, and fecal microbiota transplantation therapies for core and co-occurring behavioral symptoms in individuals with ASD. Comprehensive searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were performed from inception to March 5, 2020, and two update searches were completed on October 25, 2020, and April 22, 2021, respectively. A total of 4306 publications were identified, of which 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers using a preconstructed form. Results of probiotic studies do not confirm the supposed beneficial effect of probiotics on ASD, whereas prebiotics and synbiotic combinations appear to be efficacious in selective behavioral symptoms. Evidence of the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in ASD is still scarce but supports further research. Overall, the current evidence base to suggest beneficial effects of these modalities in ASD is limited and inconclusive. More clinical trials are currently looking at the use of microbial-based therapies in ASD. With a robust double-blind randomized controlled protocol to investigate the efficacy, these trials should provide significant and definitive results. LAY SUMMARY: There is a link between altered gut bacteria and autism spectrum disorder. Some people believe that modulating bacterial composition in the gut may help reduce autism symptoms, but evidence from human studies suggesting beneficial effects of probiotic, prebiotic, and combination thereof as well as fecal transplants in autism spectrum disorder is limited and inconclusive. Current data should not encourage use of these modalities. Further clinical studies are needed.

RevDate: 2021-07-01
CmpDate: 2021-06-30

Zheng H, Xu P, Jiang Q, et al (2021)

Depletion of acetate-producing bacteria from the gut microbiota facilitates cognitive impairment through the gut-brain neural mechanism in diabetic mice.

Microbiome, 9(1):145.

BACKGROUND: Modification of the gut microbiota has been reported to reduce the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). We hypothesized that the gut microbiota shifts might also have an effect on cognitive functions in T1D. Herein we used a non-absorbable antibiotic vancomycin to modify the gut microbiota in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T1D mice and studied the impact of microbial changes on cognitive performances in T1D mice and its potential gut-brain neural mechanism.

RESULTS: We found that vancomycin exposure disrupted the gut microbiome, altered host metabolic phenotypes, and facilitated cognitive impairment in T1D mice. Long-term acetate deficiency due to depletion of acetate-producing bacteria resulted in the reduction of synaptophysin (SYP) in the hippocampus as well as learning and memory impairments. Exogenous acetate supplement or fecal microbiota transplant recovered hippocampal SYP level in vancomycin-treated T1D mice, and this effect was attenuated by vagal inhibition or vagotomy.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the protective role of microbiota metabolite acetate in cognitive functions and suggest long-term acetate deficiency as a risk factor of cognitive decline. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-06-29
CmpDate: 2021-06-29

Špeciánová Š (2021)

Legal aspects of intestinal microbiome application.

Vnitrni lekarstvi, 67(E-3):41-46.

Application of intestinal microbiome (Fecal Microbiota Transplantation) is currently discussed treatment procedure which is the subject of professional interest not only when it comes to its medical aspects, but also its legal regulation. The aim of this article is to introduce a legal perspective on this subject matter and outline possible newly regulated areas. The subject matter is linked not only with the legislation contained in the Czech Civil Code in the section devoted to products having its origin in the human body, but also with other laws in the area of medical law. The position of regulatory authorities in the EU is also mentioned. It is apparent that EUs regulatory authorities leave this area for the legislation of individual EU member States.

RevDate: 2021-07-08

Dharmaratne P, Rahman N, Leung A, et al (2021)

Is there a role of faecal microbiota transplantation in reducing antibiotic resistance burden in gut? A systematic review and Meta-analysis.

Annals of medicine, 53(1):662-681.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of current systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide insight into the therapeutic efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the decolonization of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria from the gut.

METHODS: The protocol for this Systematic Review was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020203634). Four databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and WEB of SCIENCE) were consulted up until September 2020. A total of fourteen studies [in vivo (n = 2), case reports (n = 7), case series without control arm (n = 3), randomized clinical trials (RCT, n = 2)], were reviewed. Data were synthesized narratively for the case reports, along with a proportion meta-analysis for the case series studies (n = 102 subjects) without a control arm followed by another meta-analysis for case series studies with a defined control arm (n = 111 subjects) for their primary outcomes.

RESULTS: Overall, seven non-duplicate case reports (n = 9 participants) were narratively reviewed and found to have broad AMR remission events at the 1-month time point. Proportion meta-analysis of case series studies showed an overall 0.58 (95% CI: 0.42-0.74) AMR remission. Additionally, a significant difference in AMR remission was observed in FMT vs treatment naïve (RR = 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.99) and moderate heterogeneity (I2=65%). A subgroup analysis of RCTs (n = 2) revealed FMT with further benefits of AMR remission with low statistical heterogeneity (RR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.18-0.79; I2 =23%).

CONCLUSION: More rigorous RCTs with larger sample size and standardized protocols on FMTs for gut decolonization of AMR organisms are warranted.KEY MESSAGEExisting studies in this subject are limited and of low quality with moderate heterogeneity, and do not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn.More rigorous RCTs with larger sample size and standardized protocols on FMTs for gut decolonization of AMR organisms are warranted.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Fehily SR, Basnayake C, Wright EK, et al (2021)

Fecal microbiota transplantation therapy in Crohn's disease: Systematic review.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal microbiota is the key antigenic drive in the inflammatory bowel diseases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in ulcerative colitis have established fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as an effective therapy. We have conducted a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of FMT in Crohn's disease.

METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed through to August 2020 (MEDLINE; Embase). Studies were included if they reported FMT administration in patients with Crohn's disease, and reported on clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: Fifteen studies published between 2014 and 2020, comprising 13 cohort studies and two RCTs, were included in the analysis. The majority of trials evaluated FMT for induction of remission, with follow-up duration varying from 4 to 52 weeks. One RCT in 21 patients, of single-dose FMT versus placebo, following steroid-induced remission, showed a higher rate of steroid-free clinical remission in the FMT group compared to the control group: 87.5% vs 44.4% at week 10 (P = 0.23). Another RCT, two-dose FMT in 31 patients, showed an overall clinical remission rate of 36% at week 8, however, with no difference in clinical or endoscopic endpoints between FMT administered by gastroscopy and colonoscopy. Considering all studies, the clinical response rates in early follow up were higher following multiple FMT than with single FMT. FMT dose did not appear to influence clinical outcomes, nor did whether FMT was fresh or frozen. FMT delivered via upper gastrointestinal route demonstrated higher early efficacy rates of 75 to 100% compared with lower delivery route rates of 30% to 58%, but on follow up beyond 8 weeks, this difference was not maintained. Whether pre-FMT antibiotic administration was beneficial was not able to be determined due to the limited number of patients receiving antibiotics and varying antibiotic regimens. No serious adverse events were reported.

CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary studies suggest that FMT may be an effective therapy in Crohn's disease. However large controlled trials are needed. No serious safety concerns have been identified.

RevDate: 2021-06-26

Xu X, Wang K, Cao X, et al (2021)

Gut Microbial Metabolite Short-Chain Fatt Acids Partially Reverse Surgery and Anesthesia-Induced Behavior Deficits in C57BL/6J Mice.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 15:664641.

Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that damages of gut microbiota are strongly associated with central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND). The present study investigated the role of gut microbial metabolite short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in surgery-induced cognitive deficits and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus. Adult male C57BL/6J mice received either SCFA mixture or saline orally for 4 weeks, and then partial hepatectomy was performed. The fecal supernatant of surgical mice was transplanted to normal mice for 3 weeks. The Morris water maze (MWM) and open-field tests were used to evaluate behavioral performance on postoperative or post-transplantation days 3 and 7. In the MWM test, pretreatment with exogenous SCFAs partially reversed surgery-induced impairments in crossing times and the time spent in the target quadrant on postoperative day 3 (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). In the open-field test, compared with the surgical mice, exogenous SCFA administration prior to surgery partially improved the locomotor activity (p < 0.05) and anxiety-like behavior (p < 0.05) on postoperative day 3. Surgical trauma and anesthesia enhanced ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) expression (p < 0.001), increased the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β (p < 0.001) and IL-6 (p < 0.001), and inhibited SCFA production (p < 0.001) on postoperative day 3. The expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was also decreased (p < 0.001). Overall, surgical trauma and anesthesia exacerbated cognitive impairment, enhanced neuroinflammatory responses, and inhibited SCFA production. Pretreatment with SCFAs attenuated these effects partially by reversing microglial overactivation, inhibiting neuroinflammatory responses, and enhancing BDNF expression.

RevDate: 2021-06-28
CmpDate: 2021-06-28

El-Salhy M, Patcharatrakul T, S Gonlachanvit (2021)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome: An intervention for the 21st century.

World journal of gastroenterology, 27(22):2921-2943.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects about 12% of the global population. Although IBS does not develop into a serious disease or increase mortality, it results in a considerable reduction in the quality of life. The etiology of IBS is not known, but the intestinal microbiota appears to play a pivotal role in its pathophysiology. There is no effective treatment for IBS, and so the applied treatments clinically focus on symptom relief. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), an old Chinese treatment, has been applied to IBS patients in seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Positive effects on IBS symptoms in various degrees were obtained in four of these RCTs, while there was no effect in the remaining three. Across the seven RCTs there were marked differences in the selection processes for the donor and treated patients, the transplant dose, the route of administration, and the methods used to measure how the patients responded to FMT. The present frontier discusses these differences and proposes: (1) criteria for selecting an effective donor (superdonor); (2) selection criteria for patients that are suitable for FMT; (3) the optimal FMT dose; and (4) the route of transplant administration. FMT appears to be safe, with only mild, self-limiting side effects of abdominal pain, cramping, tenderness, diarrhea, and constipation. Although it is early to speculate about the mechanisms underlying the effects of FMT, the available data suggest that changes in the intestinal bacteria accompanied by changes in fermentation patterns and fermentation products (specifically short-chain fatty acids) play an important role in improving the IBS symptoms seen after FMT. FMT appears to be a promising treatment for IBS, but further studies are needed before it can be applied in everyday clinical practice.

RevDate: 2021-07-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-28

Hoffmann-Vold AM, Fretheim HH, Sarna VK, et al (2021)

Safety and efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation by Anaerobic Cultivated Human Intestinal Microbiome (ACHIM) in patients with systemic sclerosis: study protocol for the randomised controlled phase II ReSScue trial.

BMJ open, 11(6):e048541.

INTRODUCTION: In the multisystem inflammatory disorder systemic sclerosis (SSc), gastrointestinal tract (GIT) affliction is highly prevalent. There are no known disease modifying therapies and the negative impact is substantial. Aiming for a new therapeutic principle, and inspired by recent work showing associations between gut microbiota changes and GIT symptoms in SSc, we performed a pilot study on faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with the single-donor bacterial culture 'Anaerobic Cultivated Human Intestinal Microbiome (ACHIM)'. Motivated by positive pilot study signals, we designed the ReSScue trial as a phase II multicentre, placebo-controlled, randomised 20-week trial to evaluate safety and efficacy on lower GIT symptoms of FMT by ACHIM in SSc.

METHODS AND ANALYSES: We aim to include 70 SSc participants with moderate to severe lower GIT symptoms, defined by the validated patient-reported University of California Los Angeles Scleroderma Clinical Trial Consortium GIT 2.0 2.0 questionnaire. The trial includes three parts. In part A1 (induction phase) lasting from week 0 to week 12, participants will be randomised 1:1 to repeat infusions of 30 mL ACHIM or placebo at week 0 and 2 by gastroduodenoscopy. In part A2, which is an 8-week subsequent maintenance phase, all study participants will receive 30 mL ACHIM at week 12 and followed until week 20 on continued blind. In part B, which will last until the last participant completes part A2, the participants will be followed through a maximum 16-week extended monitoring period, for longer-term data on safety and intervention effects. Primary endpoint is change from baseline to week 12 in UCLA GIT subscale scores of diarrhoea or bloating, depending on the worst symptom at baseline evaluated separately for each patient. Secondary endpoints are safety measures and changes in UCLA GIT scores (total, diarrhoea and bloating).

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol was approved by the Northern Norwegian Committee for Medical Ethics. Study findings will be published.



RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Nishida A, Nishino K, Sakai K, et al (2021)

Can control of gut microbiota be a future therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease?.

World journal of gastroenterology, 27(23):3317-3326.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract encompassing two main clinical entities, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Accumulated evidence indicates that an aberrant immune activation caused by the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environmental impact on the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. Rapid advances in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled a number of studies to identify the alteration of the gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, in IBD. Moreover, the alteration in the metabolites derived from the gut microbiota in IBD has also been described in many studies. Therefore, microbiota-based interventions such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have attracted attention as a novel therapeutic option in IBD. However, in clinical trials, the efficacy of FMT for IBD remains controversial. Additional basic and clinical studies are required to validate whether FMT can assume a complementary role in the treatment of IBD. The present review provides a synopsis on dysbiosis in IBD and on the association between the gut microbiota and the pathogenesis of IBD. In addition, we summarize the use of probiotics in IBD and the results of current clinical trials of FMT for IBD.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

963 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226


E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )