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Bibliography on: Diverticular Disease

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2022 at 01:58 Created: 

Diverticular Disease

Diverticular disease is the general name for a common condition that involves small bulges or sacs called diverticula that form from the wall of the large intestine (colon). Although these sacs can form throughout the colon, they are most commonly found in the sigmoid colon, the portion of the large intestine closest to the rectum. Diverticulosis refers to the presence of diverticula without associated complications or problems. The condition can lead to more serious issues including diverticulitis, perforation (the formation of holes), stricture (a narrowing of the colon that does not easily let stool pass), fistulas (abnormal connection or tunneling between body parts), and bleeding. Diverticulitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the colon thought to be caused by perforation of one of the sacs. Several secondary complications can result from a diverticulitis attack, and when this occurs, it is called complicated diverticulitis.

Created with PubMed® Query: "Diverticular disease"[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-09-22

Holland C, Vabi BW, Shenoy PP, et al (2022)

Removal of Indwelling Urinary Catheter Two Days After Colovesical Fistula Repair: a Single-Arm Prospective Trial.

Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Colovesical fistulas are uncommon but associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. In cases with diverticular etiology, surgical management involves single-stage colonic resection with anastomosis and simple or no bladder repair. No single approach to postoperative bladder management has been widely accepted. Although historically a Foley catheter remained in place for about 2 weeks, elevated risk of the attendant complications has motivated exploring shorter durations. This study examined the feasibility and safety of removing the Foley catheter on postoperative day two.

METHODS: Patients with colovesical fistula due to diverticular disease undergoing colectomy with simple or no bladder repair were enrolled in this single-arm prospective trial conducted at a large community health system. The primary outcome was removal of the Foley catheter on postoperative day two after negative cystogram without re-insertion prior to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes were complications after Foley catheter removal and hospital length of stay. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated for the outcomes.

RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were enrolled. About half (54%) of procedures were open, with 33% requiring simple bladder repair. Ninety-six percent (95% confidence interval, 79-99%) of patients had their Foley catheter removed on postoperative day two after a negative cystogram. There were no complications. Mean (range) hospital length of stay was 4.3 (2-6) days.

DISCUSSION: Foley catheter removal after negative cystogram on postoperative day two appears to be feasible and safe in the setting of diverticulitis-related colovesical fistula repair. Further research on a larger number of patients should confirm these findings.

RevDate: 2022-09-14

Okusaki T, Araki Y, Narai S, et al (2022)

Pyometra and Pyogenic Spondylitis with Suspected Involvement of Diverticulitis of the Sigmoid Colon: A Case Report.

Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) [Epub ahead of print].

Pyometra is a rare disease in which pus accumulates in the uterus and is typically caused by stenosis of the cervix. Only a few case reports have indicated that diverticular disease causes pyometra. We herein report an 83-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a fever, loss of appetite, general fatigue and back pain. After some inspections, she was diagnosed with pyometra and lumbar pyogenic spondylitis secondary to diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. We performed transvaginal drainage and continued antibiotic administration for about three months. The pyometra and pyogenic spondylitis successfully resolved, and she did not experience any recurrence.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Medellin Abueta A, Senejoa NJ, Pedraza Ciro M, et al (2022)

Laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal has better clinical outcomes compared to open surgery: An international multicenter cohort study involving 502 patients.

Health science reports, 5(5):e788.

Background: Hartmann's procedure (HP) is used in surgical emergencies such as colonic perforation and colonic obstruction. "Temporary" colostomy performed during HP is not always reversed in part due to potential morbidity and mortality associated with reversal. There are several contributing factors for patients requiring a permanent colostomy following HP. Therefore, there is still some discussion about which technique to use. The aim of this study was to evaluate perioperative variables of patients undergoing Hartmann's reversal using a laparoscopic and open approach.

Methods: The multicenter retrospective cohort study was done between January 2009 and December 2019 at 14 institutions globally. Patients who underwent Hartmann's reversal laparoscopic (LS) and open (OS) approaches were evaluated and compared. Sociodemographic, preoperative, intraoperative variables, and surgical outcomes were analyzed. The main outcomes evaluated were 30-day mortality, length of stay, complications, and postoperative outcomes.

Results: Five hundred and two patients (264 in the LS and 238 in the OS group) were included. The most prevalent sex was male in 53.7%, the most common indication was complicated diverticular disease in 69.9%, and 85% were American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) II-III. Intraoperative complications were noted in 5.3% and 3.4% in the LS and OS groups, respectively. Small bowel injuries were the most common intraoperative injury in 8.3%, with a higher incidence in the OS group compared with the LS group (12.2% vs. 4.9%, p < 0.5). Inadvertent injuries were more common in the small bowel (3%) in the LS group. A total of 17.2% in the OS versus 13.3% in the LS group required intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p = 0.2). The most frequent postoperative complication was ileus (12.6% in OS vs. 9.8% in LS group, p = 0.4)). Reintervention was required mainly in the OS group (15.5% vs. 5.3% in LS group, p < 0.5); mortality rate was 1%.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal is safe and feasible, associated with superior clinical outcomes compared with open surgery.

RevDate: 2022-09-08

Hui JWQ, En JWQ, Lau J, et al (2022)

Adjunctive endoscopic clip marking enhances non-operative management of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

ANZ journal of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUNDS: Massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGB) is common especially in elderly patients. Controversy in the approach to management stems from location of bleeding and morbidity of surgery. Colonic diverticula disease (CD) is the leading cause of painless haematochezia and haemodynamic instability.

METHODS: The use of a novel technique of endoscopic pre-marking (EPM) with radiopaque metal clips to localize is described. EPM guided superselective active transarterial embolization (A-TAE) when active vascular blush was seen. When no active contrast extravasation was seen, EPM also guided prophylactic superselective transarterial embolization (P-TAE).

RESULTS: From May 2004 to December 2021, there were 36 patients with massive LGB from diverticular disease encompassing 44 separate bleeding episodes. Spontaneous haemostasis was observed in 18.2% (8/44). The overall success rate in non-operative management was 83.3% (30/36) patients. Three patients proceeded for emergency surgery. Of the 36 patients, six patients had documented EPM followed by TAE due to recurrent bleed in the same episode. A-TAE was performed in two patients. P-TAE was performed in the four patients without active contrast extravasation. Initial haemostasis was successful in five out of six patients. One patient failed embolization and proceeded to emergency surgery. Three months later, one patient encountered late rebleeding and was scheduled for elective colectomy. None of the six developed intestinal infarction from embolization. The 30-day mortality was 0%.

CONCLUSION: A consistent approach to LGB and defined protocol of endoscopic haemostasis, with routine EPM and embolization, has the potential to mitigate the morbidity and mortality in this group of vulnerable patients.

RevDate: 2022-09-06

Shimizu A, Yoshimitsu M, Yano T, et al (2022)

Single-incision laparoscopic ileocolectomy for solitary cecal colon diverticulitis with calcified fecalith: a case report.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2022(8):rjac323.

The prevalence of colonic diverticular disease has been on the increase in Japan due to an increase in westernized diet and a rapidly aging population. However, solitary cecal diverticulum is rare and considered congenital in etiology. Solitary cecal diverticulitis with calcified fecaliths is even rarer. Herein, we report a case of cecal colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified fecalith in a 38-year-old woman treated with single-incision laparoscopic surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first case of cecal colon diverticulitis caused by a calcified fecalith that was successfully treated with single-incision laparoscopic ileocolectomy.

RevDate: 2022-09-01

Giulio M, Gaia S, Andrea C, et al (2022)

Recurrent diverticulitis after elective surgery.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Elective sigmoid resection is proposed as a treatment for symptomatic diverticular disease for the possible improvement in quality of life achievable. Albeit encouraging results have been reported, recurrent diverticulitis is still a concern deeply affecting quality of life. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of recurrent diverticulitis after elective sigmoid resection and to look for possible perioperative risk factors.

METHODS: Patients who underwent elective resection for DD with at least a 3-year follow-up were included. Postoperative recurrence was defined as left-sided or lower abdominal pain, with CT scan-confirmed findings of diverticulitis.

RESULTS: Twenty of 232 (8.6%) patients developed CT-proven recurrent diverticulitis after elective surgery. All the 20 recurrent diverticulitis were uncomplicated and did not need surgery. Eighty-five percent of the recurrences occurred in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of uncomplicated DD, 70% in patients who had at least 4 episodes of diverticulitis, and 70% in patients with a history of diverticulitis extended to the descending colon. Univariate analysis showed that recurrence was associated with diverticulitis of the sigmoid and of the descending colon (p = 0.04), with a preoperative diagnosis of IBS (p = 0.04) and with a longer than 5 years diverticular disease (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis was not able to determine risks factors for recurrence.

CONCLUSION: Our study showed that patients with a preoperative diagnosis of IBS, diverticulitis involving the descending colon, and a long-lasting disease are more likely to have recurrent diverticulitis. However, these variables could not be assumed as risk factors.

RevDate: 2022-08-31

Ore AS, Allar BG, Fabrizio A, et al (2022)

Trends in the Management of Non-emergent Surgery for Diverticular Disease and the Impact of Practice Parameters.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Due to the rise in diverticular disease, the ASCRS developed practice parameters to ensure high-quality patient care. Our study aims to evaluate the impact of the 2014 practice parameters on the treatment of non-emergent left-sided diverticular disease.

METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using the ACS-National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (ACS-NSQIP). Elective sigmoid resections performed by year were evaluated and compared before and after practice parameters were published.

RESULTS: Overall, 46,950 patients met inclusion criteria. There was a significant decrease in the number of non-emergent operations when evaluating before and after guideline implementation (P < .001). There was a significant decrease in the number of patients younger than 50 years of age operated electively for diverticular disease (25.8% vs. 23.9%, P = .005). Adoption of minimally invasive surgery continued to increase significantly throughout the study period.

CONCLUSIONS: Publication of the 2014 ASCRS practice parameters is associated with a change in management of diverticular disease in the non-emergent setting.

RevDate: 2022-08-29

Zeng J, Wang X, Pan F, et al (2022)

The relationship between Parkinson's disease and gastrointestinal diseases.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 14:955919.

An increasing number of studies have provided evidence for the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) may derive from the gut. Firstly, Lewy pathology can be induced in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and be transported to the central nervous system (CNS) via the vagal nerve. Secondly, the altered composition of gut microbiota causes an imbalance between beneficial and deleterious microbial metabolites which interacts with the increased gut permeability and the gut inflammation as well as the systemic inflammation. The activated inflammatory status then affects the CNS and promotes the pathology of PD. Given the above-mentioned findings, researchers start to pay attention to the connection between PD and gastrointestinal diseases including irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), microscopic colitis (MC), gastrointestinal infections, gastrointestinal neoplasms, and colonic diverticular disease (CDD). This review focuses on the association between PD and gastrointestinal diseases as well as the pathogenesis of PD from the gut.

RevDate: 2022-08-25

Underhill J, Pinzon MCM, Ritz E, et al (2022)

Defining diverticular fistula through inpatient admissions: a population study.

Surgical endoscopy [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Diverticular fistula, a pathologic connection from the colon to the skin or another organ, is an uncommon sequela of diverticular disease. It is generally considered an indication for surgery. The current literature is limited in terms of defining the epidemiology of this disease process. This analysis defines the demographics of fistulous diverticular disease on a national level.

METHODS: A retrospective review of the 2018 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was conducted, using ICD-10 codes for diverticular disease, diverticular-associated fistulas, and associated surgeries. Demographic factors were compared between groups, and several sub-group analyses were performed.

RESULTS: A total of 7,105,498 discharges were recorded: 119,115 (1.68%) with non-fistulizing diverticular disease and 3,843 (0.05%) with diverticular fistula. Patients with diverticular fistula were more likely to be younger (64.7 v 68.2 years, p < .0001) and female (57.3% v 55.4%, p = 0.028) than patients with non-fistulizing disease. They were also more likely to undergo surgery (64.9% v 25.7%, p < .0001), to be admitted electively (44.7% v 12.0%, p < .0001), and to have a longer length of stay (LOS) (mean 8.07 v 5.20 days, p < .0001). Diverticular fistula patients that underwent surgery were more likely to be male (44.8% v 39.0%, p = 0.003), to be admitted electively (65.3% v 6.7%, p < .0001), and to have longer LOS (mean 8.74 v 6.81 days, p < .0001) than those who received medical treatment alone.

CONCLUSION: Diverticular fistula is a rare diagnosis, accounting for 0.05% of total admissions and 3.12% of admissions for diverticular disease. However, this is more common than the previously reported rate of < 0.1% of diverticular disease admissions. While surgery is generally indicated for diverticular fistula, only 64.9% of patients underwent surgical treatment. Although this study is limited by its retrospective nature and use of administrative data, our findings elucidate the prevalence and patterns of inpatient admissions for diverticular fistula in the United States.

RevDate: 2022-08-19

Guerra ME, Chiu AS, Chilakamarry S, et al (2022)

Risk Factors for the Failure of Non-operative Management Among Patients Admitted for Colonic Diverticulitis.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is one of the most diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases in the country, and its incidence has risen over time, especially among younger populations, with increasing attempts at non-operative management. We elected to look at acute diverticular disease from the lens of a failure analysis, where we could estimate the hazard of requiring operative intervention based upon several clinical factors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried between 2010 and 2015 for unplanned admissions among adults with a primary diagnosis of diverticulitis. We used a proportional hazards regression to estimate the hazard of failed non-operative management from multiple clinical covariates, measured as the number of inpatient days from admission until colonic resection. We also evaluated patients who received percutaneous drainage, to investigate whether this was associated with decreasing the failure rate of non-operative management.

RESULTS: A total of 830,993 discharges over the study period, of whom 83,628 (10.1%) underwent operative resection during the hospitalization, and 35,796 (4.3%) patients underwent percutaneous drainage. Half of all operations occurred by hospital day 1. Among patients treated with percutaneous drainage, 11% went on to require operative intervention. The presence of a peritoneal abscess (HR 3.20, P < .01) and sepsis (HR 4.16, P < .01) were the strongest predictors of failing non-operative management. Among the subset of patients with percutaneous drains, the mean time from admission to drain placement was 2.3 days.

CONCLUSION: Overall 10.1% of unplanned admissions for diverticulitis result in inpatient operative resection, most of which occurred on the day of admission. Percutaneous drainage was associated with an 11% operative rate.

RevDate: 2022-08-17

Bailey J, Dattani S, A Jennings (2022)

Diverticular Disease: Rapid Evidence Review.

American family physician, 106(2):150-156.

Diverticulitis should be suspected in patients with isolated left lower quadrant pain, abdominal distention or rigidity, fever, and leukocytosis. Initial laboratory workup includes a complete blood count, basic metabolic panel, urinalysis, and C-reactive protein measurement. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast is the preferred imaging modality, if needed to confirm diagnosis and assess for complications of diverticulitis. Treatment decisions are based on the categorization of disease as complicated vs. uncomplicated. Selected patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis may be treated without antibiotics. Complicated diverticulitis is treated in the hospital with modified diet or bowel rest, antibiotics, and pain control. Abscesses that are 3 cm or larger should be treated with percutaneous drainage. Emergent surgery is reserved for when percutaneous drainage fails or the patient's clinical condition worsens despite adequate therapy. Colonoscopy should not be performed during the flare-up, but should be considered six weeks after resolution of symptoms in patients with complicated diverticulitis who have not had a high-quality colonoscopy in the past year. Diverticulitis prevention measures include consuming a vegetarian diet or high-quality diet (high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes), limiting red meat and sweets, achieving or maintaining a body mass index of 18 to 25 kg per m2, being physically active, and avoiding tobacco and long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Partial colectomy is not routinely recommended for diverticulitis prevention and should be reserved for patients with more than three recurrences or abscess formation requiring percutaneous drainage.

RevDate: 2022-08-11

de Nanassy J, Mack D, Bettolli M, et al (2022)

Diverticular disease in a pediatric patient with Crohn's disease mimicking a perforated post-appendectomy appendiceal stump.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2022(8):rjac355 pii:rjac355.

We present the finding of a diverticulum in the colonic wall of the cecum, arising in the context of ileocecal stricture in a child with Crohn disease mimicking a post-appendectomy perforated appendiceal stump. To our knowledge, a non-Meckel diverticulum in a pediatric patient with Crohn disease has not yet been reported and we examine the mechanics behind it. According to the Laplace Law, the pressure inside a container with curved walls is inversely proportional to its radius. A diverticulum forms at the point of maximum stricture and at the locus of least resistance (weakness) in the bowel wall due to the inflammatory bowel disease. The long-time interval between diagnosis of ileocecal stricture and surgery (9 months) is important to allow the formation of this diverticulum. Continued follow-up in adulthood is warranted due to an increased risk of intestinal diverticular disease and neoplasms in patients with Crohn disease.

RevDate: 2022-08-07

Key TJ, Papier K, TYN Tong (2022)

Plant-based diets and long-term health: findings from the EPIC-Oxford study.

The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 81(2):190-198.

The concept of plant-based diets has become popular due to the purported benefits for both human health and environmental impact. Although 'plant-based' is sometimes used to indicate omnivorous diets with a relatively small component of animal foods, here we take it to mean either vegetarian (plant-based plus dairy products and/or eggs) or vegan (100% plant-based). Important characteristics of plant-based diets which would be expected to be beneficial for long-term health are low intakes of saturated fat and high intakes of dietary fibre, whereas potentially deleterious characteristics are the risk of low intakes of some micronutrients such as vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium and iodine, particularly in vegans. Vegetarians and vegans typically have lower BMI, serum LDL cholesterol and blood pressure than comparable regular meat-eaters, as well as lower bone mineral density. Vegetarians in the EPIC-Oxford study have a relatively low risk of IHD, diabetes, diverticular disease, kidney stones, cataracts and possibly some cancers, but a relatively high risk of stroke (principally haemorrhagic stroke) and bone fractures, in comparison with meat-eaters. Vegans in EPIC-Oxford have a lower risk of diabetes, diverticular disease and cataracts and a higher risk of fractures, but there are insufficient data for other conditions to draw conclusions. Overall, the health of people following plant-based diets appears to be generally good, with advantages but also some risks, and the extent to which the risks may be mitigated by optimal food choices, fortification and supplementation is not yet known.

RevDate: 2022-08-03

Darwich I, Abuassi M, Aliyev R, et al (2022)

Single-Center Results of Colorectal Procedures Performed with Fully Articulated Laparoscopic Artisential® Devices.

Surgical technology international, 41: pii:sti41/1605 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The ArtiSential® line of products from LivsMed (Seongnam, Republic of Korea) are fully articulated hand-held laparoscopic instruments, possessing end-effectors that closely imitate those of surgical robots with regard to shape and dexterity. Feasibility and safety studies describing the initial experiences with these devices in upper and lower gastrointestinal as well as thoracic surgery have been published. This report presents the outcomes of the largest cohort to date of colorectal procedures performed with Artisential® instruments in a single center.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 2020 and May 2022, prospective data were collected from patients undergoing ArtiSential®-assisted laparoscopic surgery. A retrospective data analysis was performed for all patients who underwent ArtiSential®-assisted surgery for colorectal indication. Indications for colorectal surgery included rectal and colon cancer, complicated diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, obstructed defecation syndrome, endoscopically nonresectable adenomas and chronic anastomotic fistula following a low anterior resection (LAR).

RESULTS: A total of 73 patients (49 males, 24 females) underwent Artisential®-assisted colorectal surgery. The median age of the patients was 62 years (range 34-88) and the median body mass index (BMI) was 27 kg/m2 (range 19-51). Indications for surgery were colorectal malignancy (n=55, 75%), complicated diverticular disease (n=11, 15%), obstructed defecation syndrome (n=3, 4.1%), inflammatory bowel disease (n=2, 2.7%), endoscopically nonresectable adenomas (n=1, 1.4%) and chronic anastomotic fistula following LAR (n=1, 1.4%). The median operative time was 240 minutes (range 95-458). There were no conversions to standard straight-stick laparoscopy or to laparotomy, and no intraoperative complications. All patients who were operated upon for colorectal malignancy had an adequate oncological resection (R0=100%). The median length of stay was 7 days (range 3-36). The overall complication rate was 10.9 % (Clavien-Dindo II: 1 patient, Clavien-Dindo IIIb: 7 patients). There were two readmissions, one unrelated, and no mortalities.

CONCLUSIONS: This larger series confirms the results of previous reports on the safety and feasibility of Artisential® use in complex laparoscopic colorectal surgery. To examine potential benefits in outcome, comparative studies involving Artisential®, robotic-assisted and standard laparoscopic surgery are needed.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Hutchings A, Moonesinghe R, Moler Zapata S, et al (2022)

Impact of the first wave of COVID-19 on outcomes following emergency admissions for common acute surgical conditions: analysis of a national database in England.

The British journal of surgery pii:6650378 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the impact of the first COVID-19 wave in England on outcomes for acute appendicitis, gallstone disease, intestinal obstruction, diverticular disease, and abdominal wall hernia.

METHODS: Emergency surgical admissions for patients aged 18 years and older to 124 NHS Trust hospitals between January and June in 2019 and 2020 were extracted from Hospital Episode Statistics. The risk of 90-day mortality after admission during weeks 11-19 in 2020 (national lockdown) and 2019 (pre-COVID-19) was estimated using multilevel logistic regression with case-mix adjustment. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 90 days.

RESULTS: There were 12 231 emergency admissions and 564 deaths within 90 days during weeks 11-19 in 2020, compared with 18 428 admissions and 542 deaths in the same interval in 2019. Overall, 90-day mortality was higher in 2020 versus 2019, with an adjusted OR of 1.95 (95 per cent c.i. 0.78 to 4.89) for appendicitis, 2.66 (1.81 to 3.92) for gallstone disease, 1.99 (1.44 to 2.74) for diverticular disease, 1.70 (1.13 to 2.55) for hernia, and 1.22 (1.01 to 1.47) for intestinal obstruction. After emergency surgery, 90-day mortality was higher in 2020 versus 2019 for gallstone disease (OR 3.37, 1.26 to 9.02), diverticular disease (OR 2.35, 1.16 to 4.73), and hernia (OR 2.34, 1.23 to 4.45). For intestinal obstruction, the corresponding OR was 0.91 (0.59 to 1.41). For admissions not leading to emergency surgery, mortality was higher in 2020 versus 2019 for gallstone disease (OR 2.55, 1.67 to 3.88), diverticular disease (1.90, 1.32 to 2.73), and intestinal obstruction (OR 1.30, 1.06 to 1.60).

CONCLUSION: Emergency admission was reduced during the first lockdown in England and this was associated with higher 90-day mortality.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

De Roo AC, Chen Y, Du X, et al (2022)

Polygenic Risk Prediction in Diverticulitis.

Annals of surgery pii:00000658-990000000-00180 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To derive and validate a polygenic risk score (PRS) to predict the occurrence and severity of diverticulitis and to understand the potential for incorporation of a PRS in current decision-making.

SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: PRS quantifies genetic variation into a continuous measure of risk. There is a need for improved risk stratification to guide surgical decision-making that could be fulfilled by PRS. It is unknown how surgeons might integrate PRS in decision-making.

METHODS: We derived a PRS with 44 SNPs associated with diverticular disease in the United Kingdom Biobank and validated this score in the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI). We performed a discrete choice experiment of practicing colorectal surgeons. Surgeons rated the influence of clinical factors and a hypothetical polygenic risk prediction tool.

RESULTS: Among 2,812 MGI participants with diverticular disease, 1,964 were asymptomatic, 574 had mild disease, and 274 had severe disease. PRS was associated with occurrence and severity. Patients in the highest PRS decile were more likely to have diverticulitis (OR=1.84 (95%CI 1.42-2.38)) and more likely to have severe diverticulitis (OR=1.61 (95% CI 1.04-2.51)) than the bottom 50%. Among 213 surveyed surgeons, extreme disease-specific factors had the largest utility (3 episodes in the last year, +74.4; percutaneous drain, + 69.4). Factors with strongest influence against surgery included 1 lifetime episode (-63.3), outpatient management (-54.9), and patient preference (-39.6) PRS was predicted to have high utility, (+71).

CONCLUSIONS: A PRS derived from a large national biobank was externally validated, and found to be associated with the incidence and severity of diverticulitis. Surgeons have clear guidance at clinical extremes, but demonstrate equipoise in intermediate scenarios. Surgeons are receptive to PRS, which may be most useful in marginal clinical situations. Given the current lack of accurate prognostication in recurrent diverticulitis, PRS may provide a novel approach for improving patient counseling and decision-making.

RevDate: 2022-07-22

Mitreski G, McGill J, Nikolovski Z, et al (2022)

Value of computed tomography scores in complicated acute diverticulitis.

ANZ journal of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease remains one of the most common conditions in the western world. Up to 25% of patients with diverticular disease require hospitalization, 15-30% of those of which require surgical intervention. CT scoring systems have been proposed as means to drive assessment and stratify patients necessitating hospital intervention. To assess and correlate CT scoring systems with clinical and surgical outcomes.

METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis at a single institution. Single institutional assessment with patients presenting to emergency with a CT diagnosed episode of acute diverticulitis. One hundred and eighty-nine patients were included in the study, 61% of which were male. Patient demographics, comorbidities, medications, biochemistry and inflammatory markers, type of complication following acute diverticulitis, operative/procedural intervention, hospital outcome and mortality were measured. CT scoring systems assessed included modified Hinchey, modified Neff, World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) and modified Siewert scoring systems.

RESULTS: Majority of patients had left-sided diverticulitis (91%) with localized air (88%) and pericolic abscess (49%) the most common radiological findings. 28% of patients required radiological and/or surgical management with 12% requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. There was a general trend for surgical/radiological intervention as the scores increased in severity. The four scoring systems were found to be statistically significant predictors of any intervention and of ICU admission with minimal statistical differences across the different scoring systems.

CONCLUSION: Radiological CT scores for complicated diverticulitis are at best, moderate predictors of clinical and surgical outcomes and may serve to guide management with minimal statistical differences across different scores.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Sharma O, Mallik D, Ranjan S, et al (2022)

Enterolith Causing Small Bowel Obstruction: Report of a Case and Review of Literature.

Clinical and experimental gastroenterology, 15:101-104 pii:369640.

Enterolithiasis, also known as gastro-intestinal concretions, is an uncommon medical disorder that arises from intestinal stasis. Enteroliths are commonly caused by tuberculosis-related constriction and arise from intestinal diverticula. Small bowel obstruction caused by an enterolith is extremely uncommon and might be difficult to diagnose. The mortality rate of uncomplicated enterolithiasis is relatively low, but it rises to 3% in patients who have background comorbid illness, have significant bowel obstruction, and are diagnosed late. We present a rare case of an uncomplicated partial intestinal obstruction caused by an enterolith in an elderly male patient with small bowel diverticular disease who was treated nonoperatively and did not develop further symptoms in the six-month follow-up and discuss the difficulty in diagnosis and its management.

RevDate: 2022-07-14

Barberio M, Lapergola A, Benedicenti S, et al (2022)

Intraoperative bowel perfusion quantification with hyperspectral imaging: a guidance tool for precision colorectal surgery.

Surgical endoscopy [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Poor anastomotic perfusion can cause anastomotic leaks (AL). Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), previously validated experimentally, provides accurate, real-time, contrast-free intestinal perfusion quantification. Clinical experience with HSI is limited. In this study, HSI was used to evaluate bowel perfusion intraoperatively.

METHODS: Fifty-two patients undergoing elective colorectal surgeries for neoplasia (n = 40) or diverticular disease (n = 12), were enrolled. Intestinal perfusion was assessed with HSI (TIVITA®, Diaspective Vision, Am Salzhaff, Germany). This device generates a perfusion heat map reflecting the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) amount. Prior to anastomose creation, the clinical transection line (CTL) was highlighted on the proximal bowel and imaged with HSI. Upon StO2 heat map evaluation, the hyperspectral transection line (HTL) was identified. In case of CTL/HTL discrepancy > 5 mm, the bowel was always resected at the HTL. HSI outcomes were compared to the clinical ones.

RESULTS: AL occurred in one patient who underwent neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and ultralow anterior resection for rectal cancer. HSI assessment was feasible in all patients, and StO2-values were significantly higher at proximal segments than distal ones. Twenty-six patients showed CTL/HTL discrepancy, and these patients had a lower mean StO2 (54.55 ± 21.30%) than patients without discrepancy (65.10 ± 21.30%, p = 0.000). Patients undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy showed a lower StO2 (51.41 ± 23.41%) than non-neoadjuvated patients (60.51 ± 24.98%, p = 0.010).

CONCLUSION: HSI is useful in detecting intraoperatively marginally perfused segments, for which the clinical appreciation is unreliable. Intestinal vascular supply is lower in patients undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, and this novel finding together with the clinical impact of HSI perfusion quantification deserves further investigation in larger trials.

RevDate: 2022-07-13

Peery AF, Keku TO, Galanko JA, et al (2022)

Colonic Diverticulosis Is Not Associated With Painful Abdominal Symptoms in a US Population.

Gastro hep advances, 1(4):659-665.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease is a controversial diagnosis defined as chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diverticulosis. We assessed whether individuals with diverticulosis had an increased risk of abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome, or altered bowel habits.

METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of participants who had a first-time screening colonoscopy at the University of North Carolina between 2013 and 2015. The colonoscopy included a detailed assessment for diverticulosis. Participants completed a follow-up interview between 2019 and 2020 to measure bowel habits and gastrointestinal symptoms. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: Among the 310 participants, 128 (41%) had diverticulosis at baseline. Follow-up interviews were performed a mean of 6.8 years after the baseline colonoscopy. After adjustment for confounders, there was no association between diverticulosis and abdominal pain lasting >24 hours (relative risk [RR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.05-3.45) or symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (RR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.69-2.42) at the time of follow-up. Compared to those with no diverticulosis, participants with diverticulosis were more likely to have more frequent bowel movements per day (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.05-2.44). The association was stronger in participants with >10 diverticula (RR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.19-3.48). Diverticulosis was not associated with altered stool consistency.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that diverticulosis is associated with more frequent bowel movements contrary to the widespread belief that patients with diverticulosis are constipated. Diverticulosis was not associated with abdominal pain or symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. The diagnosis of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease must be reconsidered.

RevDate: 2022-07-08

Di Fratta E, Mari G, Crippa J, et al (2022)

Distant free air is not a contraindication for definitive laparoscopic treatment of acute perforated diverticulitis: a multi-center experience.

Updates in surgery [Epub ahead of print].

The paradigm of emergency laparotomy with sigmoid resection and protective stoma has been challenged for perforated diverticular disease (PDD) with free extraluminal air. Early clinical stabilization could lead to interval laparoscopic resection without stoma within 2 weeks from perforation. Patients admitted for acute diverticulitis underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. When free air was seen, endoluminal enema was administred. All patients underwent assessement of clinical stability. In unstable patients, upfront emergency surgery was performed. Stable patients underwent a conservative management consisting in fasting, central line intravenous fluids, antibiotic therapy, pain management, O2 therapy and percutaneous radiological drainage when indicated. In successful conservative management early interval surgery was planned within 15 days. Early delayed definitive laparoscopic treatment (EDDLT) was defined as laparoscopic resection of the affected colon without ostomy. A total of 235 patients were admitted to the emergency department for PDD. Among these, 142 had pericolic free air and were excluded from the study. Ninety-three had distant free air. Thirty-seven were hemodynamically unstable and underwent upfront surgery. Fifty-six patients showed a clinical stability and started on EDDLT. EDDLT was successfully performed in 36 patients (64.3%). In 20 patients (35.7%) EDDLT was unsuccessful. At multivariate analysis, distant CT extravasation of endoluminal contrast was independently associated with unsuccessful EDDLT (OR 2.1, CI 0.94-5.32). Patients with distant extraluminal free air after PDD may be treated with early delayed surgery after intensive medical therapy. Distant spread of endoluminal contrast at CT was a risk factor for unsuccessful EDDLT often indicating fecal peritonitis.

RevDate: 2022-07-07

Reitano E, Francone E, Bona E, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota Association with Diverticular Disease Pathogenesis and Progression: A Systematic Review.

Digestive diseases and sciences [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence supports the role of the intestinal microbiome in the development of different intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most common disorders in western countries. In the last years, different articles have suggested a possible role of the intestinal microbiome in DD pathogenesis and in the development of acute diverticulitis (AD). This systematic review aimed to clarify the current knowledge on the role of the intestinal microbiome in colonic diverticulitis in different stages according to the 2009 PRISMA guidelines.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two independent reviewers searched the literature in a systematic manner through online databases, including Medline, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialized Register, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database, and Google Scholar. Patients with any stage of disease were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale for case-control and cohort studies was used for the quality assessment of the selected articles.

RESULTS: Overall, nine studies were included in the review. Only one article was focused on patients with AD, while all other articles only considered patients with DD without acute inflammation signs. Enterobacteriaceae seems to be the microbiota most associated with the disease, followed by Bifidobacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: All the included studies showed great heterogeneity in population characteristics and sampling methods. Therefore, given the high prevalence of colonic diverticulitis in the general population, further studies are needed to clarify the role of the intestinal microbiome, paving the way to new target therapies with important social implications.

RevDate: 2022-07-01

Vial I, Varghese T, A Sheikh (2022)

Concomitant brain and liver abscesses: a rare complication of acute diverticulitis.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2022(6):rjac297 pii:rjac297.

Diverticular disease is one of the most common colonic pathologies in the Western world. In the UK, ~80% of the population aged over 85 years are diagnosed with it. Most of these cases are asymptomatic. Yet, they can become problematic when the diverticula bleed, become infected (diverticulitis) or perforate. Other well-known complications of diverticular disease are acute inflammation, stenosis, fistulation and abscess formation. In this case report, we describe a delayed presentation of metastatic abscesses (liver and brain) from a prior acute diverticulitis with contained perforation and abscess formation.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Price SJ, Gibson N, Hamilton WT, et al (2022)

Diagnoses after newly recorded abdominal pain in primary care: observational cohort study.

The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners pii:BJGP.2021.0709 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Non-acute abdominal pain in primary care is diagnostically challenging.

AIM: To quantify the 1-year cumulative incidence of 35 non-malignant diagnoses and nine cancers in adults after newly recorded abdominal pain in primary care.

DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cohort study of 125 793 Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD records.

METHOD: Participants, aged ≥40 years, had newly recorded abdominal pain between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Age- and sex-stratified 1-year cumulative incidence by diagnosis is reported.

RESULTS: Most (>70%) participants had no pre-specified diagnoses after newly recorded abdominal pain. Non-malignant diagnoses were most common: upper gastrointestinal problems (gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, hiatus hernia, gastritis, oesophagitis, and gastric/duodenal ulcer) in males and urinary tract infection in females. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal problems plateaued at age ≥60 years (aged 40-59 years: males 4.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.6 to 5.1, females 4.0%, 95% CI = 3.8 to 4.2; aged 60-69 years: males 5.8%, 95% CI = 5.4 to 6.2, females 5.4%, 95% CI = 5.1 to 5.8). Urinary tract infection incidence increased with age (aged 40-59 years: females 5.1%, 95% CI = 4.8 to 5.3, males 1.1%, 95% CI = 1.0 to 1.2; aged ≥70 years: females 8.0%, 95% CI = 7.6 to 8.4, males 3.3%, 95% CI = 3.0 to 3.6%). Diverticular disease incidence rose with age, plateauing at 4.2% (95% CI = 3.9 to 4.6) in males aged ≥60 years, increasing to 6.1% (95% CI = 5.8 to 6.4) in females aged ≥70 years. Irritable bowel syndrome incidence was higher in females (aged 40-59 years: 2.9%, 95% CI = 2.7 to 3.1) than males (aged 40-59 years: 2.1%, 95% CI = 1.9 to 2.3), decreasing with age to 1.3% (95% CI = 1.2 to 1.5) in females and 0.6% (95% CI = 0.5 to 0.8) in males aged ≥70 years.

CONCLUSION: Although abdominal pain commonly remains unexplained, non-malignant diagnosis are more likely than cancer.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Salgado-Álvarez GA, Grube-Pagola P, Martínez-Mier G, et al (2022)

[Adrenal myelolipoma, review of the literature in Mexico apropos of two cases].

Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 60(2):229-235.

Background: Adrenal myelolipomas (ML) are rare benign neoplasms compound of adipose and myeloid tissue. Clinically they are usually asymptomatic, being diagnosed generally by incident. In Mexico, there are only 32 published cases of ML, these occur between 37 and 65 years, with the male-female ratio being 1:1.1, clinically they present with abdominal or lumbar pain, open surgery being the main surgical approach (89%).

Clinical case: We made a literature review of ML in Mexico and present two clinical cases: a 67-year-old man in followup for diverticular disease and a 40-year-old woman with pain in the left upper quadrant. In both cases, tumor resection was performed measuring 9.5 cm and 13.3 cm long respectively.

Conclusions: We present two new cases in our country that correspond to incidentalomas. In both cases, surgery was performed to confirm the diagnosis, as well as to prevent possible complications.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Kim YS (2022)

[Diagnosis and Treatment of Colonic Diverticular Disease].

The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi, 79(6):233-243.

Colonic diverticulosis is one of the most common conditions of the digestive system and patients generally remain asymptomatic. However, about 20% of patients develop symptomatic diverticular disease such as acute diverticulitis or diverticular hemorrhage, and these have become a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Recent understanding of the pathophysiology of diverticulosis and diverticular disease suggests the role of multiple factors including genetic and environment. Based on this understanding, a preventive strategy to reduce the risk factors of diverticulosis and diverticular disease is highly recommended. The diagnosis of the acute diverticulitis relies on imaging modalities such as an abdominal-pelvic CT scan together with symptoms and signs. Treatment of diverticular disease should be individualized and include modification of lifestyle, use of antibiotics, and surgery. Recent guidelines recommend pursuing less aggressive treatment for patients with acute diverticulitis. This review will provide an overview of both the existing and evolving understanding regarding colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease and can help clinicians in the management of their patients with diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Barbaro MR, Cremon C, Fuschi D, et al (2022)

Pathophysiology of Diverticular Disease: From Diverticula Formation to Symptom Generation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126698.

Diverticular disease is a common clinical problem, particularly in industrialized countries. In most cases, colonic diverticula remain asymptomatic throughout life and sometimes are found incidentally during colonic imaging in colorectal cancer screening programs in otherwise healthy subjects. Nonetheless, roughly 25% of patients bearing colonic diverticula develop clinical manifestations. Abdominal symptoms associated with diverticula in the absence of inflammation or complications are termed symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD). The pathophysiology of diverticular disease as well as the mechanisms involved in the shift from an asymptomatic condition to a symptomatic one is still poorly understood. It is accepted that both genetic factors and environment, as well as intestinal microenvironment alterations, have a role in diverticula development and in the different phenotypic expressions of diverticular disease. In the present review, we will summarize the up-to-date knowledge on the pathophysiology of diverticula and their different clinical setting, including diverticulosis and SUDD.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Larkins K, Mohan H, Apte SS, et al (2022)

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Robotic Resections for Diverticular Disease.

Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Resection of diverticular disease can be technically challenging. Tissue planes can be difficult to identify intraoperatively due to inflammation or fibrosis. Robotic surgery may improve identification of tissue planes and dissection which can facilitate difficult minimally invasive resections. This systematic review and meta- analysis evaluates the role of robotic surgery compared to laparoscopic surgery in diverticular resection METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The search was completed using PubMed, OVID MEDLINE and EMBASE. Four hundred and ninety articles were retrieved, and studies reporting primary outcomes for robotic diverticular resection were included in the final analysis. A meta-analysis of studies comparing robotic and laparoscopic surgery was performed on rate of conversion to open surgery and complications.

RESULTS: Fifteen articles (8 cohort studies and 7 case series) reporting 3711 robotic diverticular resections were analysed. In comparison to laparoscopic, robotic surgery for diverticular disease was associated with a reduced conversion to open and a longer operating time. Meta-analysis showed robotic resection was associated with a lower conversion rate compared to laparoscopic surgery (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.49-0.66, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in Grade III and above complications (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.49-1.13, P=0.17). Operating time was longer with a robotic approach (Hedge's G 0.43; 95% CI 0.04-0.81, P=0.03).

CONCLUSION: Robotic resection is a feasible and safe option in diverticular disease. Although associated with a longer operating time, robotic surgery may render diverticular disease resectable with a minimally invasive approach that would have otherwise necessitated a laparotomy. Randomised controlled data is required to better define the role of robotic surgery for diverticular disease resections.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Baidoo N, Crawley E, Knowles CH, et al (2022)

Total collagen content and distribution is increased in human colon during advancing age.

PloS one, 17(6):e0269689 pii:PONE-D-22-03224.

BACKGROUND: The effect of ageing on total collagen content of human colon has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine if ageing altered total collagen content and distribution in the human colon.

METHODS: Macroscopically normal ascending colon was obtained at surgery from cancer patients (n = 31) without diagnosis of diverticular disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Masson's trichrome and Picrosirius red stains were employed to identify the total collagen content and distribution within the sublayers of the colonic wall for adult (22-60 years; 6 males, 6 females) and elderly (70 - 91years; 6 males, 4 female) patients. A hydroxyproline assay evaluated the total collagen concentration for adult (30-64 years; 9 male, 6 female) and elderly (66-91 years; 8 male, 8 female) patients.

KEY RESULTS: Histological studies showed that the percentage mean intensity of total collagen staining in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa was, respectively, 14(1.9) %, 74(3.2) % and 12(1.5) % in the adult ascending colon. Compared with the adults, the total collagen fibres content was increased in the submucosa (mean intensity; 163.1 ± 11.1 vs. 124.5 ± 7.8; P < 0.05) and muscularis externa (42.5 ± 8.0 vs. 20.6 ± 2.8; P < 0.01) of the elderly patients. There was no change in collagen content of the mucosa. The total collagen concentration was increased in the elderly by 16%. Sex-related differences were not found, and data were combined for analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Greater total collagen content was found in the submucosa and muscularis externa of the elderly human male and female colon. These changes may contribute to a possible loss of function with ageing.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Ukashi O, Pflantzer B, Barash Y, et al (2022)

Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Physical Fitness Among Subjects with Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulosis.

Digestive diseases and sciences [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The association between diverticular disease and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has been demonstrated previously, mainly in symptomatic subjects.

AIMS: To evaluate 10 years cardiovascular risk, exercise performance and association to ASCVD among subjects with asymptomatic diverticulosis.

METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional cohort of self-referred participants in a medical screening program, who underwent a screening colonoscopy. Demographics, clinical and laboratory variables, ASCVD score, and metabolic equivalents (METs) during treadmill stress test were compared between subjects with and without diverticulosis as diagnosed on screening colonoscopy.

RESULTS: 4586 participants underwent screening colonoscopy; 799 (17.4%) had diverticulosis. Among 50-69 yo participants, diverticulosis subjects had a higher ASCVD score compared to non-diverticulosis subjects. Exercise performance was comparable between the groups, across all age groups. Using logistic regression analysis, advanced age group (50-59 yo Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 2.57 (1.52-4.34), p < 0.001; 60-69 yo, AOR 2.87 (2.09-3.95), p < 0.001; ≥ 70 yo AOR 4.81 (3.23-7.15), p < 0.001; compared to < 50 yo age group), smoking [AOR 1.27 (1.05-1.55), p = 0.016], HTN [AOR 1.27 (1.03-1.56), p = 0.022], obesity [AOR 1.36 (1.06-1.74), p = 0.014] and male sex [AOR 1.29 (1.02-1.64), p = 0.036] were associated with diverticular detection during screening colonoscopy. Among males, achieving METs score ≥ 10 was inversely associated with diverticular detection during screening colonoscopy [AOR 0.64 (0.43-0.95), p = 0.027].

CONCLUSIONS: Ten years probability for ASCVD estimated by the ASCVD score is higher among subjects with asymptomatic diverticulosis compared to subjects without diverticulosis. Improved exercise performance is demonstrated for the first time to correlate with decreased probability for diverticular disease in screening colonoscopy.

RevDate: 2022-06-03

Saad E, Egoryan G, Padmanabhan SV, et al (2022)

Clostridium tertium Bacteremia: A Marker of an Underlying Perforated Colonic Diverticular Disease in a Non-Neutropenic Patient With COVID-19.

Journal of medical cases, 13(5):212-218.

Clostridium tertium (C. tertium) is an aero-tolerant, gram-positive, endospore-forming, and non-exotoxin-producing bacillus that has colonized the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans. It is considered a rare pathogen of humans, possibly because of its low virulence. Most C. tertium infections in the reviewed literatures were predominately reported among neutropenic hosts with hematological malignancies. A 66-year-old female patient with a past medical history of type II diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that initially required non-invasive ventilation. The patient developed septic shock due to C. tertium bacteremia. Computed tomography of the abdomen depicted free intraperitoneal gas and sigmoid colon perforation. Exploratory laparotomy revealed perforated sigmoid diverticulitis, and Hartmann's procedure was performed. The patient received a prolonged course of susceptibility-guided antibiotics to clear C. tertium bacteremia. The authors described a rare case of C. tertium bacteremia as a marker of underlying perforated colonic diverticulitis in a non-neutropenic patient with COVID-19 that necessitated operative procedure intervention for primary source control and an extended course of targeted antibiotic therapy to treat the Clostridial infection. Our case reaffirmed the available literature that suggested the presence of C. tertium bacteremia in non-neutropenic patients raises suspicion of an associated gastrointestinal tract pathology that should warrant a diagnostic workup to identify the infection source culprit.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Moler-Zapata S, Grieve R, Lugo-Palacios D, et al (2022)

Local Instrumental Variable Methods to Address Confounding and Heterogeneity when Using Electronic Health Records: An Application to Emergency Surgery.

Medical decision making : an international journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Electronic health records (EHRs) offer opportunities for comparative effectiveness research to inform decision making. However, to provide useful evidence, these studies must address confounding and treatment effect heterogeneity according to unmeasured prognostic factors. Local instrumental variable (LIV) methods can help studies address these challenges, but have yet to be applied to EHR data. This article critically examines a LIV approach to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of emergency surgery (ES) for common acute conditions from EHRs.

METHODS: This article uses hospital episodes statistics (HES) data for emergency hospital admissions with acute appendicitis, diverticular disease, and abdominal wall hernia to 175 acute hospitals in England from 2010 to 2019. For each emergency admission, the instrumental variable for ES receipt was each hospital's ES rate in the year preceding the emergency admission. The LIV approach provided individual-level estimates of the incremental quality-adjusted life-years, costs and net monetary benefit of ES, which were aggregated to the overall population and subpopulations of interest, and contrasted with those from traditional IV and risk-adjustment approaches.

RESULTS: The study included 268,144 (appendicitis), 138,869 (diverticular disease), and 106,432 (hernia) patients. The instrument was found to be strong and to minimize covariate imbalance. For diverticular disease, the results differed by method; although the traditional approaches reported that, overall, ES was not cost-effective, the LIV approach reported that ES was cost-effective but with wide statistical uncertainty. For all 3 conditions, the LIV approach found heterogeneity in the cost-effectiveness estimates across population subgroups: in particular, ES was not cost-effective for patients with severe levels of frailty.

CONCLUSIONS: EHRs can be combined with LIV methods to provide evidence on the cost-effectiveness of routinely provided interventions, while fully recognizing heterogeneity.

HIGHLIGHTS: This article addresses the confounding and heterogeneity that arise when assessing the comparative effectiveness from electronic health records (EHR) data, by applying a local instrumental variable (LIV) approach to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of emergency surgery (ES) versus alternative strategies, for patients with common acute conditions (appendicitis, diverticular disease, and abdominal wall hernia).The instrumental variable, the hospital's tendency to operate, was found to be strongly associated with ES receipt and to minimize imbalances in baseline characteristics between the comparison groups.The LIV approach found that, for each condition, there was heterogeneity in the estimates of cost-effectiveness according to baseline characteristics.The study illustrates how an LIV approach can be applied to EHR data to provide cost-effectiveness estimates that recognize heterogeneity and can be used to inform decision making as well as to generate hypotheses for further research.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Hutchings A, O'Neill S, Lugo-Palacios D, et al (2022)

Effectiveness of emergency surgery for five common acute conditions: an instrumental variable analysis of a national routine database.

Anaesthesia [Epub ahead of print].

The effectiveness of emergency surgery vs. non-emergency surgery strategies for emergency admissions with acute appendicitis, gallstone disease, diverticular disease, abdominal wall hernia or intestinal obstruction is unknown. Data on emergency admissions for adult patients from 2010 to 2019 at 175 acute National Health Service hospitals in England were extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Cohort sizes were: 268,144 (appendicitis); 240,977 (gallstone disease); 138,869 (diverticular disease); 106,432 (hernia); and 133,073 (intestinal obstruction). The primary outcome was number of days alive and out of hospital at 90 days. The effectiveness of emergency surgery vs. non-emergency surgery strategies was estimated using an instrumental variable design and is reported for the cohort and pre-specified sub-groups (age, sex, number of comorbidities and frailty level). Average days alive and out of hospital at 90 days for all five cohorts were similar, with the following mean differences (95%CI) for emergency surgery minus non-emergency surgery after adjusting for confounding: -0.73 days (-2.10-0.64) for appendicitis; 0.60 (-0.10-1.30) for gallstone disease; -2.66 (-15.7-10.4) for diverticular disease; -0.07 (-2.40-2.25) for hernia; and 3.32 (-3.13-9.76) for intestinal obstruction. For patients with 'severe frailty', mean differences (95%CI) in days alive and out of hospital for emergency surgery were lower than for non-emergency surgery strategies: -21.0 (-27.4 to -14.6) for appendicitis; -5.72 (-11.3 to -0.2) for gallstone disease, -38.9 (-63.3 to -14.6) for diverticular disease; -19.5 (-26.6 to -12.3) for hernia; and - 34.5 (-46.7 to -22.4) for intestinal obstruction. For patients without frailty, the mean differences (95%CI) in days alive and out of hospital were: -0.18 (-1.56-1.20) for appendicitis; 0.93 (0.48-1.39) for gallstone disease; 5.35 (-2.56-13.28) for diverticular disease; 2.26 (0.37-4.15) for hernia; and 18.2 (14.8-22.47) for intestinal obstruction. Emergency surgery and non-emergency surgery strategies led to similar average days alive and out of hospital at 90 days for five acute conditions. The comparative effectiveness of emergency surgery and non-emergency surgery strategies for these conditions may be modified by patient factors.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Perez Hernandez C, Younes I, Elkattawy S, et al (2022)

A Rare Presentation of Recurrent Diverticulitis in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis.

European journal of case reports in internal medicine, 9(4):003271 pii:3271-1-28159-1-10-20220401.

Diverticulitis and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two separate colonic pathologies with different underlying mechanisms. Diverticulosis involves herniation of mucosal and submucosal tissue through muscular tissue in response to increased intraluminal pressure. In contrast, it is believed that the muscular tone in patients with UC is reduced due to chronic inflammatory changes. Thus, it has been reported that there may be an inverse relationship between the presence of diverticulosis in patients with UC, in that UC may possibly be protective against developing diverticular disease. Consequently, the co-presence of both pathologies is uncommon. Here we present a case in which a woman with a history of UC and recurrent diverticulitis after elective partial colectomy was admitted for recurrent acute diverticulitis. It is quite challenging to diagnose diverticulitis in ulcerative colitis patients given the usually similar presentation with abdominal pain, diarrhoea and hematochezia. A level of high suspicion is required for diagnosis.

LEARNING POINTS: Colonic diverticulitis is not commonly associated with ulcerative colitis.The diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis in the setting of ulcerative colitis is challenging and requires a high level of suspicion.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Cao Z, Xu C, Zhang P, et al (2022)

Associations of sedentary time and physical activity with adverse health conditions: Outcome-wide analyses using isotemporal substitution model.

EClinicalMedicine, 48:101424 pii:S2589-5370(22)00154-7.

Background: As one of the most common lifestyles today, sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for many health conditions. To inform potential behavioural guideline development, we aimed to estimate the theoretical effects of replacing sedentary behaviour with different intensity of physical activity on risks of 45 common non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

Methods: A total of 360,047 participants (aged 37-73 years) in the UK Biobank free of the 45 common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were included. Information on sedentary time (sum of television watching, computer using and driving behaviour) and physical activity (measured by International Physical Activity Questionnaire questionnaire) were collected by self-reported at baseline. Participants were followed up for 45 NCDs diagnosis according to the ICD-10 code using linkage to national health records until 2020. Isotemporal substitution models were used to investigate substituting sedentary time with light physical activity (LPA), moderate physical activity (MPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) after adjusting for potential confounders.

Finding: Participants who reported > 6 h/day compared with ≤ 2 h/day sedentary time had higher risks of 12 (26.7%) of 45 NCDs, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, thyroid disorder, depression, migraine, gout, rheumatoid arthritis and diverticular disease. Theoretically, replacing sedentary time with equivalent LPA, MPA and VPA was associated with risk reductions in 4, 6 and 10 types of NCDs, respectively. Among long sedentary time (> 6 h/day), replacing 1 h/day sedentary time with equivalent VPA showed stronger associations with 5 NCDs (diabetes, depression, chronic liver disease, diverticular disease and sleep disorder), with a larger risk reduction of 11%-31%.

Interpretation: Sedentary time is associated with multiple adverse health conditions, replacing sedentary time with any equivalent amounts of VPA than LPA and MPA could be associated with risk reductions of more types of NCDs.

Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Lee C, Mabeza RM, Verma A, et al (2022)

Association of frailty with outcomes after elective colon resection for diverticular disease.

Surgery pii:S0039-6060(22)00173-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Frailty has been associated with greater postoperative morbidity and mortality but its impact has not been investigated in patients with diverticulitis undergoing elective colon resection. Therefore, the present study examined the association of frailty with perioperative outcomes following elective colectomy for diverticular disease.

METHODS: The 2017-2019 American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data registry was queried to identify patients (aged ≥18 years) undergoing elective colon resection for diverticular disease. The 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) was used to stratify patients into non-frail (mFI 0), prefrail (mFI 1), and frail (mFI ≥2) cohorts. Major adverse events, surgical site infection, and postoperative ileus as well as prolonged length of stay, nonhome discharge, and unplanned readmission were evaluated using multivariable logistic models.

RESULTS: Of the 20,966 patients, 10.0% were frail. Compared to others, frail patients were generally older (non-frail: 55 years, [46-63], prefrail: 62, [54-70], frail: 64, [57-71]) and more commonly female (non-frail: 53.1%, prefrail: 58.6, frail: 64.4, P < .001). Frail patients more frequently underwent open colectomy and stoma creation compared with others. Frailty was associated with greater adjusted odds of major adverse event (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.48), surgical site infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.54), and postoperative ileus (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.27-1.98). Similarly, frailty portended greater odds of prolonged length of stay, nonhome discharge, and unplanned readmission.

CONCLUSION: Frailty as defined by the mFI-5 was associated with greater morbidity and hospital resource use. Deployment of frailty instruments may augment traditional risk calculators and improve patient selection for elective colectomy.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Rov A, Ben-Ari A, Barlev E, et al (2022)

Right-sided diverticulitis in a Western population.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: While left-sided colonic diverticular disease is common in Western Caucasian populations, right-sided colonic disease (RCD) is rare. The present study aimed to determine the rate of RCD and to identify the symptoms, clinical features, treatment, and outcomes in a single medical center in Israel.

METHODS: Data for this descriptive retrospective analysis were collected from the electronic medical records of all patients diagnosed with colonic diverticulitis from January 2014 to June 2019.

RESULTS: During the study period, 1000 patients with diverticulitis were admitted to our institution, of which 99 had RCD (10%). Mean age was 50.2 years. The main presenting symptom was acute onset of right-sided abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made almost exclusively by computed tomography scan and the cecum was the most frequent site. The clinical course was benign, without major complications for most patients (90.1%). Nine patients presented with abscess (n = 1), covered perforation (n = 7), or partial obstruction (n = 1). All patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics with a median length of hospital stay of 3 days and a median 9 days of antibiotic treatment. Only 1 patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy due to suspected intestinal perforation. Three patients experienced disease recurrence after a median follow-up of 48 months. Upon recovery, half of the patients underwent colonoscopy; no further pathology was found in any.

CONCLUSION: Unlike sigmoid colon diverticulitis, the incidence of RCD in Western populations is low. The clinical course is benign, with conservative treatment without the need for surgery. The complication and recurrence rates are low.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Melazzini F, Calabretta F, Lenti MV, et al (2022)

Venous thromboembolism in chronic gastrointestinal disorders.

Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Chronic gastrointestinal disorders (including autoimmune gastritis, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and diverticular disease) are highly prevalent disorders, that may be associated with unpredictable, life-threatening complications, such as thromboembolic events. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several conditions, including cancer, major trauma, surgery, prolonged immobilization, are well-established risk factors for VTE. Over the past decade, chronic inflammation has also been identified as an independent risk factor for VTE due to the prothrombotic effects of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress on the coagulation cascade. Other several mechanisms were shown to be associated with a higher incidence of VTE in patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

AREAS COVERED: We critically discuss the latest insights into the mechanisms responsible for thromboembolic manifestations in chronic gastrointestinal disorders, also focusing on the recognition of risk factors and treatment.

EXPERT OPINION: The occurrence of thrombotic complications is underestimated in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Identifying potential risk factors and concomitant predisposing conditions and to prevent VTE and guide treatment require a multidisciplinary approach, and this is critically important for clinicians, in order to provide the best care for such patients.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Qafiti FN, Marsh AM, Yi S, et al (2022)

Nationwide Analysis of Hospital admissions Prior to Hartmann's Procedure for Acute Diverticulitis.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Diverticular disease is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases that require hospital admission. This study aims to identify trends in prior hospital admissions for patients that ultimately require a Hartmann's procedure for complicated diverticulitis.

METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all patients aged 18 years or older admitted with an ICD-9 code for colonic diverticulitis and end colostomy creation. Patients with prior hospital admissions were identified. The primary outcome was mortality after Hartmann's procedure. Secondary outcomes were prior hospital admission and previous percutaneous drain placement. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to control for confounding factors for each outcome and results were weighted for national estimates.

RESULTS: There were 90,162 patients admitted with complicated diverticulitis requiring end colostomy creation. Prior hospital admissions were found in 28.1% (n = 25,307) and 14.4% (n = 12,947) had a previous percutaneous drain placed during a prior admission. The overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 5314) after Hartman's procedure. The mortality rate for patients with prior hospital admissions was 8.7% (P < .001), and the mortality rate for patients with previous percutaneous drain placement was 4.3% (P < .001). After controlling for confounding factors including comorbidities, patients with prior admission had an increased risk of mortality (OR 1.48 [1.40-1.58], P < .001) and patients with previous percutaneous drain placement had a decreased risk of mortality (OR .66 [.60-.72], P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations for complications of diverticulitis are a costly burden to our healthcare system. By identifying those patients at high risk for readmission and emergency surgery, perioperative outcomes may be improved.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Abramov R, Neymark M, Dronov M, et al (2022)

Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticular Disease-Current Perspective.

Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-04-25

Ergenç M, TK Uprak (2022)

Appendiceal Diverticulitis Presenting as Acute Appendicitis and Diagnosed After Appendectomy.

Cureus, 14(3):e23050.

Introduction Diverticular disease of the appendix (DDA) is a rare appendiceal pathology. It is usually present similar to acute appendicitis. Because of its rarity, the DDA is poorly comprehended. This study evaluates the incidence, clinical and pathological characteristics of appendiceal diverticulitis diagnosed after appendectomy. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent appendectomy between January 2016 and January 2022 at the Istanbul Sultanbeyli State Hospital General Surgery Clinic. The following parameters were analyzed: age and gender, preoperative diagnosis, laboratory results, radiological imaging findings, surgical technique, histopathological examination of specimens, and complications. Results A total of 1586 patients were analyzed. In the pathology, diverticular disease of the appendix was detected in 10 patients (0.63%). The DDA patients' mean age was 34.4 years, and the male to female ratio was 4:1. We detected low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasia in one of our patients. Conclusion Appendiceal diverticulitis is rare and usually presents as acute appendicitis. Most DDAs are detected incidentally during the postoperative period and are associated with an increased risk of appendiceal neoplasm. Appendectomy specimens should be carefully examined histopathologically to detect diverticular disease of the appendix.

RevDate: 2022-04-17

Bubán T, Sipeki N, Várvölgyi C, et al (2022)

A vastagbél-diverticulosis veszélyei és kezelése.

Orvosi hetilap, 163(16):614-623.

Összefoglaló. A vastagbél-diverticulosis előfordulási gyakorisága világszerte növekszik, aminek hátterében elsősorban diétás és életmódbeli változások állnak. Az esetek jelentős hányadában a vastagbél-diverticulosis semmiféle panaszt nem okoz, véletlenül fedezik fel, így kezelést sem igényel. Tünetek az esetek mintegy 25%-ában jelentkeznek: ez az ún. diverticularis betegség, melynek különböző súlyosságú és lefolyású formái ismertek. A 2000-es évek elejétől a diverticulosis kialakulásában szerepet játszó patofiziológiai folyamatok - úgymint a genetikai háttér, az alacsony fokú krónikus gyulladás és a béldysbiosis jelenléte - jobb megértése elősegítette a megelőzés, a diagnosztika és a kezelés eszközeinek fejlődését. Főbb megállapítások: A tüneteket okozó szövődménymentes diverticulosis elkülönítése az irritábilisbél-szindrómától egyértelműen kihívást jelent. Az akut diverticulitis előfordulási gyakorisága alacsonyabb, mint korábban feltételezték. A képalkotóknak, különösen a hasi komputertomográfiának a szerepe előtérbe került a gyors és megfelelő diagnózis felállításában és a betegség súlyosságának meghatározásában. A magas rosttartalmú étrend az egészséges táplálkozás fontos része, ugyanakkor nincs bizonyíték arra, hogy gyorsítaná az akut diverticulitis során a felgyógyulást, vagy megelőzné annak kiújulását. Újabban vitatják azt a hagyományos álláspontot, miszerint a szövődménymentes akut diverticulitist mindenképpen antibiotikummal kell kezelni, és kórházi felvételt igényel. Akut diverticulitis esetén nem ajánlott kolonoszkópia végzése a perforációveszély miatt. Elektív kolonoszkópia 6 héttel később javasolt, colorectalis carcinoma kizárására, amennyiben 3 éven belül nem került rá sor. Bizonyos esetekben a rutinkolonoszkópia azonban el is hagyható. A szövődményes akut diverticulitis kezelése során nem mindig szükséges sürgős sebészeti beavatkozás. A műtétre szoruló, hemodinamikailag stabil, immunkompetens betegekben diverticulumperforáció és diffúz peritonitis esetén pedig a reszekció és a primer anasztomóziskészítés egyre inkább teret nyer a Hartmann-műtéttel szemben. A szerzők a jelen összefoglalóval a diverticulosis korszerű, egyénre szabott ellátását kívánják elősegíteni a mindennapi klinikai gyakorlatban. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(16): 614-623. Summary. The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis is growing worldwide due to dietary and lifestyle changes. Colonic diverticulosis does not cause any complaints in a significant proportion of individuals; therefore, it is usually diagnosed by accident and does not require any treatment. Diverticular disease, which constitutes about 25% of the cases, is associated with presenting symptoms, and has various forms based on the course and severity of the disease. From the early 2000s, the better understanding of the pathophysiologic pathways which play a role in the development of the diverticular disease (genetic background, low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis) promoted prevention, diagnostics and finding treatment options. The main conclusions: It is a challenge to distinguish uncomplicated but symptomatic diverticular disease from irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of acute diverticulitis is lower than it was previously assumed. The role of diagnostic imaging, mainly abdominal computer tomography, has become more important to aid the rapid and correct diagnosis of acute diverticulitis and to determine its severity. Although a high-fiber diet may be recommended for general health purposes, there is little evidence that it benefits recovery during acute diverticulitis episodes or prevents recurrent episodes. Traditional antibiotic therapy as the mainstay of treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis such as routine hospital admission has been challenged recently. In an acute episode of diverticulitis, performing colonoscopy should be avoided as it is associated with an increased risk of colonic perforation. If there was no screening colonoscopy within 3 years, it is strongly recommended at least 6 weeks after the acute episode to exclude colorectal carcinoma. Routine colonoscopy may be omitted in certain cases. Complicated acute diverticulitis should not necessarily be treated by emergency surgery. In the case of hemodynamically stable and immunocompetent patients, resection with primary anastomosis may be preferred over a Hartmann's procedure for the treatment of perforated diverticulitis and diffuse peritonitis. With this review, the authors intend to facilitate providing up-to-date and customized treatment of diverticular disease in the daily practice. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(16): 614-623.

RevDate: 2022-04-12

Bretto E, D'Amico F, Fiore W, et al (2022)

Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I 1572: A Promising Candidate for Management of Colonic Diverticular Disease.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(7): pii:jcm11071916.

Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Patients with DD experience a huge variety of chronic nonspecific symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits. They are also at risk of complications such as acute diverticulitis, abscess formation, hemorrhage, and perforation. Intestinal dysbiosis and chronic inflammation have recently been recognized as potential key factors contributing to disease progression. Probiotics, due to their ability to modify colonic microbiota balance and to their immunomodulatory effects, could present a promising treatment option for patients with DD. Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I 1572 (LCDG) is a probiotic strain with the capacity to rebalance gut microbiota and to decrease intestinal inflammation. This review summarizes the available clinical data on the use of LCDG in subjects with colonic DD.

RevDate: 2022-04-11

Nwankwo EC, Khneizer G, Sayuk G, et al (2022)

Segmental Colitis Associated With Diverticulosis Masquerading as Polyploid-Appearing Mucosa in the Rectosigmoid Area on Endoscopy and as Focal Thickening on Imaging.

Cureus, 14(3):e22930.

Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis (SCAD) is an inflammatory disease affecting segments of the large bowel with diverticular disease. SCAD presents several challenges in diagnoses and treatment because it often mimics a range of disorders including inflammatory bowel disease and malignancy. Here, we present the case of a 72-year-old man with lower abdominal pain and bloody stools whose initial abdominal workup showed nonspecific large bowel thickening and concerns for malignancy. Ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with mild SCAD and treated conservatively with a resolution of symptoms. He had no symptoms at the three-month and 1-year follow-ups. This case highlights the importance of including SCAD in the initial differential diagnosis to allow accurate identification and treatment.

RevDate: 2022-04-07

Chung D (2022)

Jejunal diverticulosis - A case series and literature review.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 75:103477 pii:S2049-0801(22)00237-0.

Introduction: Scant literature is available regarding in vivo jejunal diverticulosis, in part due to its typically asymptomatic course. This is made more difficult by the difficulty in establishing its diagnosis. This case series examines a number of patients presenting to our hospital with jejunal diverticular disease, and their varying clinical courses.

Methods: A number of cases that had presented to our hospital with jejunal diverticulosis were reviewed retrospectively in keeping with PROCESS guidelines. Their presentations, investigations, and management rationale are discussed in brief.

Discussion: The presentation of jejunal diverticulosis is varies significantly along a spectrum, with a number of symptoms similar to other common intra-abdominal pathologies. The imaging modalities of choice are a barium small bowel series, CT scans, and enteroclysis, varying in sensitivity and complexity. Decision making with regards to operative vs. non-operative management is typically in line with that of colonic diverticulosis, though no strict guidelines have been established.

Conclusion: Jejunal diverticulosis is an uncommon, with scarce data available on the appropriate investigation and management pathways. Its presentation is difficult to differentiate from other intra-abdominal pathology, and its investigations either poorly sensitive or costly and technically challenging. The general consensus on its management is similar to that of colonic diverticula, though more research needs is warranted.

RevDate: 2022-04-04

Hamedani H, Nelson B, Pagur P, et al (2022)

Spontaneous resolution of symptomatic secondary small bowel volvulus during pre-operative single contrast upper gastrointestinal study.

Radiology case reports, 17(5):1810-1816 pii:S1930-0433(22)00167-4.

Small bowel volvulus is a rare occurrence in adults as it most commonly occurs within the first year of life as a complication of malrotation, an embryologic anomaly. When occurring in any age group, restriction of blood flow can lead to ischemia and eventual infarction of bowel making any suspected volvulus a surgical emergency. We present a case of a middle-aged patient with acute small bowel obstruction with small bowel volvulus. Following oral administration of water-soluble contrast as part of a single contrast upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) study and changes in positioning, the patient experienced spontaneous resolution of the small bowel volvulus.

RevDate: 2022-03-25

Yoon P, Rajasekar G, Nuño M, et al (2022)

Severe Obesity Contributes to Worse Outcomes After Elective Colectomy for Chronic Diverticular Disease.

Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Both obesity and chronic diverticular disease (DD) are on the rise. Understanding surgical outcomes for patients with obesity undergoing colectomy for DD is imperative to improve care and minimize complications. Our objective was to investigate the impact of obesity on outcomes after elective colectomy specifically for chronic DD.

METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2012 to 2018, patients who underwent elective colectomy for chronic DD were grouped into four body mass index categories. Baseline characteristics, surgical approach and procedure, and 30-day morbidity and mortality were assessed.

RESULTS: Of 24,559 patients, 21.7% were of normal weight, 35.8% were overweight, 35.9% were obese, and 6.6% were severely obese. Patients with severe obesity were younger, more functionally dependent, and had more comorbidities (all P [Formula: see text] 0.0001). Patients with severe obesity were more likely to have unplanned conversion to open surgery from laparoscopic and robotic approaches (AOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.24-3.70). Obesity class did not significantly affect the type of surgical procedure patients underwent (Hartmann's, colectomy with anastomosis and diversion, or colectomy with primary anastomosis). There were increased odds of any perioperative complications (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.71) and non-home discharge (AOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.59-3.57) in patients with severe obesity compared to normal weight patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with poorer outcomes in patients undergoing elective colectomy for chronic DD. Futures studies to examine the impact of preemptive weight loss to improve outcomes after elective colectomy for chronic sequelae of DD are needed.

RevDate: 2022-03-22

Gonai T, Toya Y, Kawasaki K, et al (2022)

Risk factors of re-bleeding within a year in colonic diverticular bleeding patients.

DEN open, 2(1):e22.

Background/Aims: Although colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) is common, few reports have described the effects of antithrombotic agents (ATs) on CDB. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors of re-bleeding within a year in CDB patients.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the risk of re-bleeding in CDB patients. Among 324 patients who were hospitalized for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding at our institution during the period from 2015 to 2019, we used 76 patients who were diagnosed as CDB. Risk factors for re-bleeding were determined by Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: Of 76 patients analyzed, 32 were taking ATs, nine of whom were taking multiple agents. Twenty-six patients re-bled within a year. Compared with the patients without re-bleeding, patients with re-bleeding within a year had been treated by antithrombotic therapy more frequently (62% vs. 32%, p = 0.013). Cox proportional hazard model revealed that treatment with ATs (hazard ratio 3.89, 95% confidence interval 1.53-10.74, p = 0.004) was an independent risk factor for re-bleeding within a year.

Conclusion: ATs were found to be an independent risk factor related to re-bleeding within a year in patients with CDB.

RevDate: 2022-03-09

Brandimarte G, Frajese GV, Bargiggia S, et al (2022)

Performance of a multi-compounds nutraceutical formulation in patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.

Minerva gastroenterology pii:S2724-5985.22.03132-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a recognized clinical condition characterized by abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits, attributed to diverticula but without macroscopic signs of diverticulitis. There is no consensus about the management of these patients. Enteroflegin®, an association of natural active ingredients, could be effective in the treatment of those patients.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate the performances of Enteroflegin® in patients with SUDD. Patients were treated with Enteroflegin® 2 cp/day for 10 days per month for 6 months. Primary endpoint was the clinical remission rate, defined as the absence of any symptoms; secondary endpoints were the impact of the treatment on reduction of symptoms, on fecal calprotectin (FC) expression, and the prevention of acute diverticulitis.

RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty patients were retrospectively enrolled (183 males, median age 64 yrs, IQR 54-70). Enteroflegin® was effective in inducing remission in 9.34% and 17.64% of patients at 3 and 6 months respectively (p<0.001). Reduction of symptoms occurred in 92.3% and in 85.3% of patients at 3 and 6 months respectively (p<0.001), and symptoms' recurrence or worsening was recorded in only 1.71% of patients during the follow-up. FC expression dropped from 181,3 μg/g at baseline to 100,2 μg/g (p<0.001) and to 67,9 μg/g (p<0.001) at 3 and 6 months of follow-up respectively. No adverse event was recorded during the follow-up. Finally, acute diverticulitis occurred in just 2% of patients during the follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Enteroflegin® seems to be an effective nutraceutical compound in obtaining remission and symptom relief in SUDD patients. Further randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm these preliminary data.

RevDate: 2022-03-05

Sninsky JA, Galanko J, Sandler RS, et al (2022)

Diverticulosis Is Associated With Internal Hemorrhoids on Colonoscopy: Possible Clues to Etiology.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(22)00146-X [Epub ahead of print].

Hemorrhoids are a common but poorly understood gastrointestinal condition.1 Bowel habits and fiber consumption are frequently cited as risk factors for hemorrhoids, but research has been inconclusive.2 Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested an association between diverticular disease and hemorrhoids.3 We sought to investigate the association between colonic diverticulosis and internal hemorrhoids to validate the prediction from the GWAS.

RevDate: 2022-03-02

Pallotta L, Vona R, Maselli MA, et al (2022)

Oxidative imbalance and muscular alterations in diverticular disease.

Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver pii:S1590-8658(22)00171-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: It is still a matter of debate if neuromuscular alterations reflect a primary event in diverticular disease (DD).

AIMS: This study aimed to assess colonic wall layers from both stenotic and non-stenotic complicated DD, bio-phenotypic alterations, inflammatory and oxidative status.

METHODS: A systematic analysis of colonic specimens obtained from stenotic and non-stenotic DD specimens was conducted and compared with controls. Biological activity and qPCR analysis were performed on longitudinal and circular muscles. Western blot analysis was performed throughout colonic wall layers to quantify oxidative and inflammatory markers.

RESULTS: A homogenous increase in oxidative stress was observed through all the layers, which were more sharpened in the longitudinal muscle for a loss in antioxidant defenses. In both stenotic and non-stenotic colon, the longitudinal muscle presented an impaired relaxation and a cellular phenotypic switch driven by transforming growth factor-β with an increase in mRNA expression of collagen Iα and a decrease in myosin heavy chain. The circular muscle, as the mucosa, was less affected by molecular alterations. No peculiar increase in inflammatory markers was observed.

CONCLUSION: A longitudinal colonic myopathy is present in DD, independently from the disease stage associated with an oxidative imbalance that could suggest new therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2022-02-25

Cirocchi R, Mari G, Amato B, et al (2022)

The Dilemma of the Level of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery Ligation in the Treatment of Diverticular Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(4): pii:jcm11040917.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although sigmoidectomy is a well-standardized procedure for diverticular disease, there are still unclear areas related to the varying morphology and vascular supply of the sigmoid colon. The level of vascular ligation could affect the functional outcomes of patients operated on for diverticular disease. The aim of this review is to primarily evaluate sexual, urinary and defecatory function outcomes, as well as postoperative results, in patients who underwent surgery for diverticular disease, with or without inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) preservation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE/PubMed, WOS and Scopus databases were interrogated. Comparative studies including patients who underwent sigmoidectomy for diverticular diseases were considered. Bowel function, genitourinary function, anastomotic leak, operation time, conversion to open surgery, anastomotic bleeding, bowel obstruction were the main items of interest.

RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in the review, three randomized and nine comparative studies. Bowel and genitourinary function are not differently affected by the level of vascular ligation. The site of ligation of IMA did not influence the rate of functional complications, anastomotic leak and bleeding. Of note, the preservation of IMA is associated with a higher conversion rate and longer operative time.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heterogeneity of patient groups, and although the findings should be interpreted with caution, functional and clinical outcomes after sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease do not seem to be affected by the level of vascular ligation as long as the IMA is ligated far from its origin.

RevDate: 2022-02-23

Fu Z, Kmeid M, Arker SH, et al (2022)

Diversion colitis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is distinct from that in non-IBD: Reappraisal of diversion colitis.

Human pathology pii:S0046-8177(22)00042-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The significant histologic overlap between diversion colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses a diagnostic challenge. We aimed to identify histologic features that are characteristic of diverted colon segments among patients with IBD and compare them with histologic features identified in IBD colectomies. Archived slides from resected diverted colon segments from patients with (n = 79) and without (n = 80) IBD and the corresponding prior colectomies (n = 52) of the IBD patients were reviewed. Clinical and endoscopic data were collected, and a series of histologic features were evaluated and graded. Compared to the non-IBD group, IBD patients were more likely to be symptomatic and present with abnormal endoscopic findings (P < .05). The severity of inflammatory activity, crypt architectural distortion, mucosal atrophy, transmural inflammation, intramucosal lymphoid aggregates (IMLAs), and transmural lymphoid aggregates (TMLAs) were significantly greater in diverted segments in IBD cases than controls (P < .001). The severity of inflammatory activity, IMLAs, TMLAs, and transmural inflammation and the presence of ulcer(s) in the diverted colon segments of IBD patients were associated with the histologic features reflective of IBD activity such as inflammatory activity, transmural inflammation and ulcer(s) in the preceding colectomies (P < .05). Diversion colitis developing in the setting of IBD is endoscopically and histologically distinct from that observed among individuals without IBD. Inflammatory activity, presence of ulcer(s), IMLAs, TMLAs, and transmural inflammation in diverted colon segments of IBD patients may, in part, reflect the severity of underlying IBD rather than pure diversion colitis.

RevDate: 2022-02-23

Vaghiri S, Jagalla DM, Prassas D, et al (2022)

Early elective versus elective sigmoid resection in diverticular disease: not only timing matters-a single institutional retrospective review of 133 patients.

Langenbeck's archives of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The optimal timing of elective surgery in patients with the colonic diverticular disease remains controversial. We aimed to analyze the timing of sigmoidectomy in patients with diverticular disease and its influence on postoperative course with respect to the classification of diverticular disease (CDD).

METHODS: Patients who underwent elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy were retrospectively enrolled and subdivided into two groups based on the time interval between the last attack and surgery: group A, early elective (≤ 6 weeks), and group B, elective (> 6 weeks). Multivariate regression models were used to identify factors which predict conversion to laparotomy, postoperative course, and length of hospital stay.

RESULTS: A total of 133 patients (group A (n = 88), group B (n = 45)) were included. Basic demographic data did not differ between groups except for a higher rate of diabetes in group B (p = 0.009). The conversion rate was significantly higher in group A in comparison to group B (group A vs. group B: n = 23 (26.1%) vs. n = 3 (6.7%), p = 0.007). Logistic regression analysis revealed the timing of surgery and CDD stage as significant predictors for intraoperative conversion. Moreover, the postoperative course was influenced by high age as well as intraoperative conversion and length of hospital stay by conversion, preoperative CRP levels, and elective surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: Both, timing of surgery and the disease stage, influence the conversion rates in laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease. Accordingly, patients with complicated acute or chronic sigmoid diverticulitis should be operated in the inflammation-free interval.

RevDate: 2022-02-22

Wittström F, Skajaa N, Bonnesen K, et al (2022)

Type 2 diabetes and risk of diverticular disease: a Danish cohort study.

BMJ open, 12(2):e059852 pii:bmjopen-2021-059852.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between type 2 diabetes and risk of diverticular disease. Unlike previous studies, which have found conflicting results, we aimed to distinguish between diabetes types and adjust for modifiable risk factors.

DESIGN: Observational cohort study.

SETTING: Population-based Danish medical databases, covering the period 2005-2018.

PARTICIPANTS: Respondents of the 2010 or the 2013 Danish National Health Survey, of which there were 15 047 patients with type 2 diabetes and 210 606 patients without diabetes.

Hazard ratios (HRs) for incident hospital diagnosis of diverticular disease adjusted for survey year, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity intensity, smoking behaviour, diet and education based on Cox regression analysis. As latency may affect the association between type 2 diabetes and diverticular disease, patients with type 2 diabetes were stratified into those with <2.5, 2.5-4.9 and ≥5 years duration of diabetes prior to cohort entry.

RESULTS: For patients with and without diabetes the incidence rates of diverticular disease were 0.76 and 0.54 events per 1000 person years, corresponding to a crude HR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.16) and an adjusted HR of 0.88 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.96). The HR was lower among patients with ≥5 years duration of diabetes (adjusted HR: 0.76, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.87) than among those with 2.5-4.9 years or <2.5 years duration.

CONCLUSION: We found that patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher incidence rate of diverticular disease compared with patients without diabetes. However, after adjustment for modifiable risk factors, driven by BMI, type 2 diabetes appeared to be associated with a slightly lower risk of diverticular disease. Lack of adjustment for BMI may partially explain the conflicting findings of previous studies.

RevDate: 2022-02-09

Gonai T, Toya Y, Kudara N, et al (2022)

Risk factors for short-term re-bleeding in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding: a multicenter retrospective study.

Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Few studies have evaluated risk factors for short-term re-bleeding in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB). We aimed to reveal risk factors for re-bleeding within a month in patients with CDB.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical course of patients with CDB diagnosed at 10 institutions between 2015 and 2019. Risk factors for re-bleeding within a month were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: Among 370 patients, 173 (47%) patients had been under the use of antithrombotic agents (ATs) and 34 (9%) experienced re-bleeding within a month. Multivariate analysis revealed that the use of ATs was an independent risk factor for re-bleeding within a month (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.10-5.50, p = .028). Furthermore, use of multiple ATs and continuation of ATs were found to be independent risk factors for re-bleeding within a month (HR 3.88, 95% CI 1.49-10.00, p = .007 and HR 3.30, 95% CI 1.23-8.63, p = .019, respectively). Two of 370 patients, who discontinued ATs, developed thromboembolic event.

CONCLUSIONS: Use of ATs was an independent risk factor for short-term re-bleeding within a month in patients with CDB. This was especially the case for the use of multiple ATs and continuation of ATs. However, discontinuation of ATs may increase the thromboembolic events those patients.

RevDate: 2022-02-08

Shaw RD, Eid MA, Ramkumar N, et al (2022)

Minimally Invasive Surgery Approach is Not Associated With Differences in Long-Term Bowel Function Patient-Reported Outcomes After Elective Sigmoid Colectomy.

The Journal of surgical research, 274:85-93 pii:S0022-4804(22)00006-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Postoperative bowel function is a common concern for patients undergoing a sigmoidectomy. We have previously demonstrated that patients with symptomatic bowel function preoperatively have substantial improvement at long-term follow-up. However, the effect of the operative approach on patient-reported bowel function is largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the differences in long-term patient-reported bowel function after robotic or laparoscopic sigmoid colectomies for benign and malignant disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected institutional database from July 2015 to July 2020. Patients included underwent a sigmoid colectomy for benign or malignant disease and completed the Colorectal Functional Outcome (COREFO) questionnaire at preoperative presentation, postoperatively, and long-term follow-up. Differences between preoperative and postoperative scores, as well as differences between the robotic and laparoscopic cohorts, were compared using paired t-tests.

RESULTS: A total of 169 patients met inclusion criteria with a median age of 61 y, and 55% of the patients underwent robotic sigmoid colectomy, with the most common diagnosis being diverticular disease (62%). There was no significant difference between the presentation, short-term, or long-term follow-up total COREFO scores or subdomains based on the surgical technique. Patients that present asymptomatic remain asymptomatic, while those that are symptomatic demonstrate improvements for both the robotic and laparoscopic groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported long-term global bowel function does not appear to differ between patients who underwent elective robotic or laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy for benign or malignant disease. Patients that present asymptomatic remain asymptomatic, while those that are symptomatic demonstrate improvements, regardless of surgical technique.

RevDate: 2022-02-04

Li F, Lu Y, Hou F, et al (2021)

Significance of the Entire Appendiceal Evaluation in the Diagnosis of Serrated Lesions, Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm, and Appendiceal Diverticulosis Disease.

Frontiers in oncology, 11:812794.

Objective: This study was conducted in order to investigate the significance of the entire appendiceal evaluation in the pathological diagnosis of appendiceal serrated lesions, low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN), and appendiceal diverticulosis disease (ADD).

Methods: A total of 702 appendectomy specimens diagnosed from 2017 to 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. The specimens were divided into two groups according to the different sampling procedures. In group 1, the vast majority of 337 specimens were partially submitted by routine sampling within 18 months from October 2017 to March 2019. In group 2, 365 of specimens were entirely submitted and examined within 18 months from April 2019 to October 2020. The incidence and pathological features of serrated lesions, LAMN, and ADD in the two groups were compared and analyzed. The clinicopathological characteristics between different entities were also studied.

Results: Forty appendiceal serrated lesions, 8 LAMNs, and 21 diverticula were accidentally detected in 702 appendectomy specimens. As compared with group 1, the incidence of appendiceal serrated lesions in group 2 was significantly increased (9.3% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.01), especially for the serrated lesions without dysplasia (7.4% vs. 1.2%, P < 0.01). The entire sampling revealed that loss of lamina propria and replacement with dysplastic mucinous epithelium were statistically significantly associated with LAMN rather than serrated lesions and ADD (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Mural mucin deposition and fibrosis were useful features to distinguish LAMN from simple serrated lesions (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), but mucin deposition was useless for the distinction between LAMN and ADD (P > 0.05) or serrated lesions combined with ADD.

Conclusion: Our study highlights the importance and necessity of careful gross assessment and histologic examination of the entire appendectomy specimen, since the association with unexpected appendiceal lesions is significant and cannot be ignored. The entirely submitted appendix is more sensitive for the detection of appendiceal serrated lesions. In addition, thorough examination and evaluation are essential to distinguish the key pathological features between appendiceal serrated lesions, LAMN, and ADD.

RevDate: 2022-01-31

Kruis W, L Leifeld (2022)

[Diverticula of the colon: Review of related entities].

Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 147(3):119-131.

Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease, and Diverticulitis, comprising different entities, pose increasing burdens for health care systems. The introduction of new scientific knowledge into daily clinical work is challenging for attending physicians. This review is related to case presentations and currently debated questions are discussed such as definitions: Which entities are meant by the term "Diverticular Disease", is "uncomplicated symptomatic Diverticular Disease"(SUDD) reality? To classify diverticula related diseases targeted diagnosis including imaging is necessary. The question is ultrasound or computed tomography, or the combination and in which order?Lastly, open questions of treatment have to be addressed: Outpatient care or hospitalisation, always antibiotics or only in defined situations, relapse prevention, indications to operate upon?The present review comes along with revised German guidelines, which will be published later this year on S3-level.

RevDate: 2022-01-30

Longo S, Altobelli E, Castellini C, et al (2022)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetylsalicylic acid increase the risk of complications of diverticular disease: a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetylsalicylic acid in the occurrence of diverticular bleeding (DB), complicated diverticulitis (CD), and acute diverticulitis (AD) is not yet defined.

AIM: Update a systematic review and meta-analyses of case-control and cohort studies to evaluate the association between NSAIDs or acetylsalicylic acid with DB, CD, or AD.

METHODS: The study included were identified through MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Sizes were pooled across studies to obtain the overall effect size. A random-effects model was used to account for different sources of variation among studies. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as a measure of effect size.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid use were associated with an increased risk of DB (OR: 6.90, 95% CI 3.86 to 12.35, P ˂ 0.00001, and OR 2.84, 95% CI 2.19 to 3.67, P < 0.00001, respectively). NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid use were also associated with increased risk of CD occurrence (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.73 to 5.68, P = 0.0002, and OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.17, P = 0.04, respectively). The only study found about AD occurrence showed that NSAIDs use was not associated with AD and acetylsalicylic acid use had a low risk of AD.

CONCLUSION: NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid significantly increase the risk of DB and CD. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid in AD. However, increasing evidence suggests caution in the use of such medications in patients with colonic diverticula.

RevDate: 2022-01-25

Matli VVK, Thoguluva Chandrasekar V, Campbell JL, et al (2022)

Jejunal Diverticulitis: A Rare Diverticular Disease of the Bowel.

Cureus, 14(1):e21386.

Diverticulosis is an out-pocketing of the bowel wall that can affect the small bowel through the large bowel. Small bowel diverticulosis is rare and not as common as colonic diverticulosis, which is an important diagnosis for hospitalizations. Moreover, jejunal diverticulosis is rare among cases of small bowel diverticulosis. Jejunal diverticulitis is one of the complications of jejunal diverticulosis that can be conservatively managed with antibiotics instead of surgery. We report a case of a 41-year-old African American man who presented with vague epigastric pain and was diagnosed with adhesive jejunal diverticulitis upon contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen. The patient did not develop any life-threatening complications such as perforation or peritonitis, and recovered after conservative management with antibiotics. Adhesive jejunal diverticulitis with fat stranding was the distinctive finding in our patient, as he might have had multiple asymptomatic episodes. Initial diagnostic modalities include radiography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Enteroclysis is the most reliable and accurate diagnostic modality, but is not available in all urgent settings. Recently, endoscopy has replaced radiological studies. Conservative management is adequate for uncomplicated cases of jejunal diverticulitis. However, surgical intervention is required in most cases of complicated jejunal diverticulosis, or mortality rates will be high.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Fleites O, Pelenyi SS, Lee CK, et al (2021)

Persistent Small Bowel Obstruction due to Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report.

Cureus, 13(12):e20233.

Small bowel obstruction (SBO), of both partial and complete types, is a condition predominantly caused by intra-abdominal adhesions and hernias. However, a known but very uncommon cause of SBO is malignancies, which are more complicated than those caused by adhesions and hernias, and associated with poorer prognoses; of these, small bowel adenocarcinoma is an even rarer etiology of SBO. The majority of SBO cases that are treated have resolution of symptoms and do not have recurrence/persistence of the condition; however, reports suggest that approximately one-fifth of SBO cases that are treated will result in recurrence/persistence of SBO requiring repeat admission. Here we report the case of an 89-year-old female with a past medical history of right lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, inferior vena cava filter placement, iron deficiency anemia, diverticular disease, internal hemorrhoids, sick sinus syndrome, emphysema, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism, who presented with diarrhea and intermittent dark stool. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) while in the emergency department initially showed possible ischemic bowel and SBO. After an exploratory laparotomy with small bowel resection and adhesiolysis, pathological analysis of a resected specimen showed infiltrating small bowel adenocarcinoma. Persistence of symptoms necessitated subsequent abdominal imaging, which demonstrated persistent SBO, which was treated with a second exploratory laparotomy with small bowel resection and end ileostomy.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Eguia E, Classen T, Choudhry M, et al (2021)

ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE INSURANCE INCREASES THE RATES OF SURGERY FOR DIVERTICULITIS.

International journal of healthcare management, 14(4):1518-1524.

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on rates of hospitalization and surgery for diverticulitis.

STUDY SETTINGS: Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases from 2010 to 2014.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study analyzing adult patients undergoing surgery for diverticulitis in the expansion and nonexpansion states, pre (2010-2013) and post (2014) Medicaid expansion.

FINDINGS: There were a total of 159,419 patients in our cohort analysis. 75,575 (49%) in expansion states and 81,844 (51%) in non-expansion states. In multivariable Poisson regression, the rate of surgical procedures for diverticular disease increased among Medicaid patients (IRR 1.80; p<.01) whereas surgery rates in self-pay patients decreased (IRR 0.67; p<.01) in expansion states compared to non-expansion states.

CONCLUSIONS: In states that expanded Medicaid coverage under the Affordable Care Act, the rate of surgery for diverticular disease in Medicaid patients increased. Therefore, legislation that increases healthcare access may increase the utilization of surgical care for diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2022-01-08

Dolejs SC, Nicolas M, Maun DC, et al (2021)

Localizing ureteral catheters for left-sided colectomy and proctectomy: Do the risks justify the benefits?.

American journal of surgery pii:S0002-9610(21)00761-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The role of ureteral catheters in left-sided colectomies and proctectomies remains debated. Given the rarity of ureteral injury, prior retrospective studies were underpowered to detect potentially small, but meaningful differences. This study seeks to determine the role and morbidity of ureteral catheters in left-sided colectomy and proctectomy using a large, national database.

METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project from 2012 to 2018 was queried. Left-sided colectomies or proctectomies were included. Propensity score matching and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed.

RESULTS: 8419 patients with ureteral catherization and 128,021 patients without catheterization were included. After matching, there was not a significant difference in ureteral injury between the groups (0.7% with vs 0.9% without, p = 0.07). Ureteral catheters were associated with increased overall morbidity and longer operative time. Increasing body mass index, operations for diverticular disease, conversion to open, T4 disease and increasing operative complexity were associated with ureteral injury (p < 0.01 for all).

CONCLUSIONS: Ureteral catheterization was not associated with decreased rates of ureteral injury when including all left-sided colectomies. High-risk patients for ureteral injury include those with obesity, diverticular disease, and conversion to open. Selective ureteral catheterization may be warranted in these settings.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Bertucci Zoccali M, H Vila-Reyes (2022)

Laparoscopic Sigmoid Colectomy for Diverticular Disease: Clinical Scenarios and Technical Options.

Diseases of the colon and rectum, 65(2):e78-e79.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Segna D, Jaklin PJ, Schnüriger B, et al (2021)

Health-related quality of life and functional disorders after diverticular surgery.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 14:17562848211066437 pii:10.1177_17562848211066437.

Diverticulosis and diverticulitis are leading indications for colorectal surgery in Western countries. Abdominal pain, functional disorders, and low health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can limit the outcome of abdominal surgery even in the absence of complications. Therefore, we aimed to review current evidence on postoperative long-term outcomes including HRQoL, functional disorders, abdominal pain, and patients' satisfaction after diverticular surgery for diverticulosis/diverticulitis. We performed a PubMed database search (inception: 17 December 2020). Identified publications were screened and outcome parameters extracted. In summary, HRQoL increased after diverticular surgery in 9 out of 10 longitudinal cohort studies. Similarly, patients' satisfaction with treatment and their choice to undergo surgery was commonly reported as high or very good, as reported in eight studies. In a randomized control trial and retrospective cohort, elective diverticular surgery was superior to conservative treatment regarding HRQoL. In cross-sectional analyses, chronic abdominal pain and functional disorders including defaecation disorders or diarrhoea/obstipation were found in a relevant fraction of patients. Incontinence ranged from 5% to 25% with insufficient data for comparison before and after surgery. However, functional disorders did not result in decreased HRQoL in most studies, and no increase in functional disorders was observed after elective diverticular surgery in longitudinal analyses. We conclude that HRQoL among operated patients with diverticular disease improved in most studies after surgery. Functional disorders and postoperative abdominal pain can be present after elective diverticular surgery; however, no increase in functional disorders was observed in longitudinal studies. Functional disorders after diverticular surgery need to be carefully discussed with the patient before surgery and a careful clinical assessment before surgery including incontinence scoring should be considered.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Chang WH, Mueller SH, Chung SC, et al (2022)

Increased burden of cardiovascular disease in people with liver disease: unequal geographical variations, risk factors and excess years of life lost.

Journal of translational medicine, 20(1):2.

BACKGROUND: People with liver disease are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), however, there has yet been an investigation of incidence burden, risk, and premature mortality across a wide range of liver conditions and cardiovascular outcomes.

METHODS: We employed population-wide electronic health records (EHRs; from 1998 to 2020) consisting of almost 4 million adults to assess regional variations in disease burden of five liver conditions, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), autoimmune liver disease, chronic hepatitis B infection (HBV), chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) and NAFLD, in England. We analysed regional differences in incidence rates for 17 manifestations of CVD in people with or without liver disease. The associations between biomarkers and comorbidities and risk of CVD in patients with liver disease were estimated using Cox models. For each liver condition, we estimated excess years of life lost (YLL) attributable to CVD (i.e., difference in YLL between people with or without CVD).

RESULTS: The age-standardised incidence rate for any liver disease was 114.5 per 100,000 person years. The highest incidence was observed in NAFLD (85.5), followed by ALD (24.7), HCV (6.0), HBV (4.1) and autoimmune liver disease (3.7). Regionally, the North West and North East regions consistently exhibited high incidence burden. Age-specific incidence rate analyses revealed that the peak incidence for liver disease of non-viral aetiology is reached in individuals aged 50-59 years. Patients with liver disease had a two-fold higher incidence burden of CVD (2634.6 per 100,000 persons) compared to individuals without liver disease (1339.7 per 100,000 persons). When comparing across liver diseases, atrial fibrillation was the most common initial CVD presentation while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was the least common. We noted strong positive associations between body mass index and current smoking and risk of CVD. Patients who also had diabetes, hypertension, proteinuric kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, diverticular disease and gastro-oesophageal reflex disorders had a higher risk of CVD, as do patients with low albumin, raised C-reactive protein and raised International Normalized Ratio levels. All types of CVD were associated with shorter life expectancies. When evaluating excess YLLs by age of CVD onset and by liver disease type, differences in YLLs, when comparing across CVD types, were more pronounced at younger ages.

CONCLUSIONS: We developed a public online app (https://lailab.shinyapps.io/cvd_in_liver_disease/) to showcase results interactively. We provide a blueprint that revealed previously underappreciated clinical factors related to the risk of CVD, which differed in the magnitude of effects across liver diseases. We found significant geographical variations in the burden of liver disease and CVD, highlighting the need to devise local solutions. Targeted policies and regional initiatives addressing underserved communities might help improve equity of access to CVD screening and treatment.

RevDate: 2021-12-29

Akram WM, Vohra N, Irish W, et al (2021)

Racial Disparity in the Surgical Management of Diverticular Disease.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Although minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has clearly been associated with improved colorectal surgery outcomes, not all populations benefit from this approach. Using a national database, we analyzed both, the trend in the utilization of MIS for diverticulitis and differences in utilization by race.

METHODS: Colon-targeted participant user files (PUFs) from 2012 to 18 were linked to respective PUFs in National Surgical Quality Improvement Project. Patients undergoing colectomy for acute diverticulitis or chronic diverticular disease were included. Surgical approach was stratified by race and year. To adjust for confounding and estimate the association of covariates with approach, data were fit using multivariable binary logistic regression main effects model. Using a joint effects model, we evaluated whether the odds of a particular approach over time was differentially affected by race.

RESULTS: Of the 46 713 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 83% were white, with 7% black and 10% other. Over the study period, there was a decrease in the rate of open colectomy of about 5% P < .001, and increase in the rate of utilization of laparoscopic and robotic approaches (RC) P < .0001. After adjusting for confounders, black race was associated with open surgery P < .0001.

CONCLUSION: There is disparity in the utilization of MIS for diverticulitis. Further research into the reasons for this disparity is critical to ensure known benefits of MIC are realized across all races.

RevDate: 2021-12-25

Lee CK, Wisnik CA, Abdel-Khalek A, et al (2021)

Peanut-Related Perforated Diverticulitis Before the Age of 60.

Cureus, 13(11):e19767.

We present a case in which a 55-year-old male with a past medical history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) presented with sharp, worsening right-sided abdominal pain radiating across the entire abdomen after eating peanuts. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed evidence of acute sigmoid diverticulitis complicated by a walled-off perforation. The patient's past medical history suggested previous recurrent episodes of diverticulitis. Our patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, sigmoid colon resection with low anterior anastomosis and proctocolectomy, and loop ileostomy. During treatment, the sigmoid colon was found to be very indurated and abnormally going all the way down to the peritoneal reflection. Appropriate identification of the patient's condition and timely intervention resulted in a successful outcome.

RevDate: 2021-12-22

Mari A, Sbeit W, Haddad H, et al (2021)

The impact of overweight on diverticular disease: a cross-sectional multicentre study.

Polish archives of internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis and diverticulitis has significantly increased in recent years. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for diverticulitis, but thus far less is known about the association between diverticulitis and overweight.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between overweight and diverticulitis and to study the potential relationship between body mass index (BMI) and disease severity.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study. Patients who had been diagnosed with diverticulosis, which had been confirmed by colonoscopy, were included. The diagnosis of diverticulitis was confirmed by use of computed tomography. Weight status was defined as normal in cases of BMI = 18.5-24.9kg/m2, overweight when BMI was 25-29.9kg/m2 and obese with BMI ≥30kg/m2.

RESULTS: 592 patients were included. Among them, 157 patients (26.5%) were of normal BMI, 191 (32.3%) were overweight and 244 (41.2%) were obese. Patients with BMIs above the normal range had a higher odds of diverticulitis as compared with those with normal BMI (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 2.00-4.73, P <0.001). Obesity was associated with a higher odds of diverticulitis as compared with patients who had normal BMI (OR: 4.50, 95% CI 2.84-7.12, P <0.001). Patients with overweight BMI had a higher odds of diverticulitis than was found in the normal BMI group (OR: 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.00, P = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Overweight was associated with an increased risk of diverticulitis among patients with diverticulosis. Since overweight is a modifiable factor, this observation has preventive importance.

RevDate: 2021-12-16

Zhang X, Li X, He Y, et al (2021)

Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of colorectal cancer risk SNP effects on health outcomes in UK Biobank.

British journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Associations between colorectal cancer (CRC) and other health outcomes have been reported, but these may be subject to biases, or due to limitations of observational studies.

METHODS: We set out to determine whether genetic predisposition to CRC is also associated with the risk of other phenotypes. Under the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) and tree-structured phenotypic model (TreeWAS), we studied 334,385 unrelated White British individuals (excluding CRC patients) from the UK Biobank cohort. We generated a polygenic risk score (PRS) from CRC genome-wide association studies as a measure of CRC risk. We performed sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the results and searched the Danish Disease Trajectory Browser (DTB) to replicate the observed associations.

RESULTS: Eight PheWAS phenotypes and 21 TreeWAS nodes were associated with CRC genetic predisposition by PheWAS and TreeWAS, respectively. The PheWAS detected associations were from neoplasms and digestive system disease group (e.g. benign neoplasm of colon, anal and rectal polyp and diverticular disease). The results from the TreeWAS corroborated the results from the PheWAS. These results were replicated in the observational data within the DTB.

CONCLUSIONS: We show that benign colorectal neoplasms share genetic aetiology with CRC using PheWAS and TreeWAS methods. Additionally, CRC genetic predisposition is associated with diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-12-14

Cerruti T, Maillard MH, O Hugli (2021)

Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in an Emergency Department and Performance of the SHA2PE Score: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(23):.

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a frequent cause of emergency department (ED) consultation, leading to investigations but rarely to urgent therapeutic interventions. The SHA2PE score aims to predict the risk of hospital-based intervention, but has never been externally validated. The aim of our single-center retrospective study was to describe patients consulting our ED for LGIB and to test the validity of the SHA2PE score. We included 251 adult patients who consulted in 2017 for hematochezia of <24 h duration; 53% were male, and the median age was 54 years. The most frequent cause of LGIB was unknown (38%), followed by diverticular disease and hemorrhoids (14%); 20% had an intervention. Compared with the no-intervention group, the intervention group was 26.5 years older, had more frequent bleeding in the ED (47% vs. 8%) and more frequent hypotension (8.2% vs. 1.1%), more often received antiplatelet drugs (43% vs. 18%) and anticoagulation therapy (28% vs. 9.5%), more often had a hemoglobin level of <10.5 g/dl (49% vs. 6.2%) on admission, and had greater in-hospital mortality (8.2% vs. 0.5%) (all p < 0.05). The interventions included transfusion (65%), endoscopic hemostasis (47%), embolization (8.2%), and surgery (4%). The SHA2PE score predicted an intervention with sensitivity of 71% (95% confidence interval: 66-83%), specificity of 81% (74-86%), and positive and negative predictive values of 53% (40-65%) and 90% (84-95%), respectively. SHA2PE performance was inferior to that in the original study, with a 1 in 10 chance of erroneously discharging a patient for outpatient intervention. Larger prospective validation studies are needed before the SHA2PE score can be recommended to guide LGIB patient management in the ED.

RevDate: 2021-12-08

Wexner SD (2021)

Scoring systems for diverticular disease.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2021-326009 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-12-08

Abd El Aziz MA, Grass F, Calini G, et al (2021)

Oral Antibiotics Bowel Preparation Without Mechanical Preparation For Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgeries: Current Practice And Future Prospects.

Diseases of the colon and rectum pii:00003453-900000000-99246 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of preoperative oral antibiotics alone compared to mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics in minimally invasive surgery is still a matter of ongoing debate.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the trend of surgical site infection rates in parallel to the utilization of bowel preparation modality over time for minimally invasive surgery colorectal surgeries in the United States.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis.

SETTINGS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database.

PATIENTS: Adult patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery and reported bowel preparation modality.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The trends and compare surgical site infection rates for mutually exclusive groups according to the underlying disease (colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and diverticular disease) who underwent bowel preparation using oral antibiotics or combined mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics. Patients who had rectal surgery were analyzed separately.

RESULTS: A total of 30,939 patients were included. Of them, 12,417 (40%) had rectal resections. Over the seven-year study period, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics utilization has increased from 29.3% in 2012 to 64.0% in 2018; p<0.0001 at the expense of no preparation and mechanical bowel preparation alone. Similarly, oral antibiotics utilization has increased from 2.3% in 2012 to 5.5% in 2018; p<0.0001. For colon cancer patients, patients who had oral antibiotics alone had higher superficial surgical site infection rates compared to patients who had combined mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics (1.9% vs. 1.1%; p=0.043). Superficial, deep and organ space surgical site infection rates were similar for all other comparative colon surgery groups (cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and diverticular disease). Patients with rectal cancer who had oral antibiotics had higher rates of deep surgical site infection (0.9% vs. 0.1%; p=0.004). However, superficial, deep and organ space surgical site infection rates were similar for all other comparative rectal surgery groups.

LIMITATIONS: Retrospective nature of the analysis.

CONCLUSION: This study revealed widespread adoption of mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics and increased adoption of oral antibiotics over the study period. Surgical site infection rates appear to be similar from a clinical relevance standpoint among most comparative groups, questioning systematic preoperative addition of mechanical bowel preparation to oral antibiotics alone in all patients for minimally invasive colorectal surgery. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B828 .

RevDate: 2021-12-01

Palacios Huatuco RM, Pantoja Pachajoa DA, Liaño JE, et al (2021)

Right-Sided Acute Diverticulitis in the West: Experience at an University Hospital in Argentina.

Annals of coloproctology pii:ac.2021.00402.0057 [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose: In the West, diverticular disease is located mainly in the left colon. However, it can also present in the right colon, with an incidence of 1%-2% in Caucasians. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience in right-sided acute diverticulitis (RD).

Methods: In this retrospective study, 410 patients with acute diverticulitis treated from 2013 to 2020 were included in a university hospital in Córdoba, Argentina. Colonic diverticulitis was stratified into 2 groups; RD and left-sided acute diverticulitis. Demographic and clinical variables, laboratory and imaging findings, type of treatment, follow-up, and recurrence were analyzed.

Results: Sixteen patients (3.9%) with RD were identified; 62.5% were male and the mean age was 40.7±11.7 years. A total of 81.3% were Caucasian and 18.7% Native American. Significant differences were found between both groups of diverticulitis; patients with RD were younger (P=0.001), with lower BMI (P=0.01), comorbidity rate (P=0.01), Charlson comorbidity index (P=0.02), hospital stay (P=0.01), severity according to the Hinchey classification (P=0.001) and had a lower recurrence rate (P=0.001). There were no significant differences in sex (P=0.95), duration of pain until admission (P=0.05), laboratory findings (P=0.23) and treatment (P=0.34).

Conclusion: Conservative treatment predominated in RD, with a lower rate of complications and recurrences, providing data that support conservative therapy as initial treatment in RD in our environment.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Anjum R, Kumar N, Singla T, et al (2021)

A Case of Isolated Jejunal Diverticulum Presented as Free Perforation: A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen.

Cureus, 13(10):e18809.

Jejunal diverticulum is a very rare disease. Diagnosis of this condition is a challenge owing to non-specific complaints of the patient. Fifteen percent cases of jejunal diverticula present with acute abdomen. Approximately 77% of small bowel diverticular disease occur with multiple diverticula. Here we describe a case of complicated isolated jejunal diverticula presenting with perforation, which was successfully treated with resection of the involved segment with anastomosis.

RevDate: 2021-12-24
CmpDate: 2021-12-24

Hutchings A, Moler Zapata S, O'Neill S, et al (2021)

Variation in the rates of emergency surgery amongst emergency admissions to hospital for common acute conditions.

BJS open, 5(6):.

BACKGROUND: This paper assesses variation in rates of emergency surgery (ES) amongst emergency admissions to hospital in patients with acute appendicitis, cholelithiasis, diverticular disease, abdominal wall hernia, and intestinal obstruction.

METHODS: Records of emergency admissions between 1 April 2010 and 31 December 2019 for the five conditions were extracted from Hospital Episode Statistics for 136 acute National Health Service (NHS) trusts in England. Patients who had ES were identified using Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) procedure codes, selected by consensus of a clinical panel. The differences in ES rates according to patient characteristics, and unexplained variations across NHS trusts were estimated by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for year of emergency admission, age, sex, ethnicity, diagnostic subcategories, index of multiple deprivation, number of co-morbidities, and frailty.

RESULTS: The cohort sizes ranged from 107 325 (hernia) to 268 253 (appendicitis) patients, and the proportion of patients who received ES from 11.0 per cent (diverticular disease) to 92.3 per cent (appendicitis). Older patients were generally less likely to receive ES, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ES for those aged 75-79 versus those aged 45-49 years: 0.34 (appendicitis), 0.49 (cholelithiasis), 0.87 (hernia), and 0.91 (intestinal obstruction). Patients with diverticular disease aged 75-79 were more likely to receive ES than those aged 45-49 (OR 1.40). Variation in ES rates across NHS trusts remained after case mix adjustment and was greatest for cholelithiasis (trust median 18 per cent, 10th to 90th centile 7-35 per cent).

CONCLUSION: For patients presenting as emergency hospital admissions with common acute conditions, variation in ES rates between NHS trusts remained after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. Age was strongly associated with the likelihood of ES receipt for some procedures.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Kühn F, Beger N, Solyanik O, et al (2021)

[Diverticular disease: Indications for surgery].

MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 163(20):44-47.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

DeLong CG, Scow JS, Morrell DJ, et al (2021)

Endoscopic management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas with over-the-scope clips: A single-institution case series.

Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Conventional surgical management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas can be morbid and is contraindicated in many patients. Our aim in this work is to evaluate our experience in the management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas with endoscopic over-the-scope (OTS) clips.

METHOD: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent attempted endoscopic OTS clip management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas between 2013 and 2020 was performed. Preoperative risk factors, operative details and postoperative outcomes are reported.

RESULTS: Ten patients were identified. Fistula types were: colovesical (five), rectovesical (two), colovaginal (two) and rectovaginal (one). The aetiology of the fistula was diverticular disease in seven (70%) cases and surgical complication of pelvic surgery in three (30%). The mean defect age was 157 ± 98 days, the mean defect diameter was 4.5 mm (range 2-10 mm) and the mean fistula length was 15 mm (range 2-25 mm). In nine (90%) cases, fistula identification and cannulation were performed through the nonenteric lumen of the fistula. Initial management with an OTS clip was technically successful in eight (80%) patients. Of the eight patients who underwent OTS clip placement, long-term success (mean follow-up 218 days, range 25-673 days) was achieved after initial intervention in four (50%) patients. One patient underwent serial OTS clip procedures and achieved long-term success after four interventions; three patients have not undergone a repeat procedure after initial failure.

CONCLUSION: Endoscopic management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas with OTS clips offers a promising therapeutic option for patients with contraindications to conventional surgical management. Immediate technical success and long-term success rates are similar to other gastrointestinal tract applications of OTS clips.

RevDate: 2021-11-23
CmpDate: 2021-11-23

Fassari A, Santoro E, Paolantonio P, et al (2021)

Trans-vaginal repair of recurrent rectovaginal fistula with interposition of BIO-A Tissue Reinforcement.

Updates in surgery, 73(6):2381-2384.

Rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) represent the majority of all symptomatic leakages after anterior and low anterior resection in women. Conservative management is useful in paucisymptomatic patients with small fistulas but is usually unsuccessful in all other cases. The surgical strategies are various and heavily dependent on the type and extent of anatomic involvement. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with a multi-recurrent rectovaginal fistula that occurred since a laparoscopic sigmoidectomy was performed for a complicated diverticular disease in May 2015. An attempt to close the fistula was undertaken three times. In July 2019, a transvaginal repair was performed with interposition in the rectovaginal septum of GORE® BIO-A® Tissue Reinforcement. The postoperative course was uneventful. There was no recurrence and functional outcome was good at 24-months follow-up. Rectovaginal fistula can be successfully treated using the interposition of a GORE® BIO-A® Tissue Reinforcement with significant economic savings and good functional outcomes even through a transvaginal approach. It represents a therapeutic option for an otherwise difficult-to-treat complex fistula.

RevDate: 2021-11-12

Matkovic Z, M Zildzic (2021)

Colonoscopic Evaluation of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding (LGIB): Practical Approach.

Medical archives (Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), 75(4):274-279.

Background: Haematochesia (Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding (LGIB) is the most common reason for endoscopic examination. Generaly it is caused by hemorrhoids and diverticular disease, but other anorectal conditions can also lead to LGIB. Recurrent bleeding may result in secondary iron deficiency anemia. Colonoscopy is the primary diagnostic option for establishing a diagnosis of colonic bleeding.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze symptoms and endoscopic finding (specialy hemorrhoids) who may be sources of LGIB.Second goal of this study is to estimate time from onset of symptoms to performance of a colonoscopy.

Methods: A retrospective study included 603 adult patients who underwent colonoscopy in General Hospital "Sv. Apostol Luka", Doboj, Bosnia and Herzegovina, between 1.1.2020 and 31.12.2020.

Results: Average age of the examined population was 62±13,3years. According to the gender they were mostly men. To be exact,by percentage it was 53.7% of men and 46,3% of women, or by number: 324 men and 279 women. The most common indications for colonoscopy were LGIB (48,8%), abdominal pain and irregular stool. Most frequent endoscopic findings were hemorrhoids 42%. Normal findings had almost one third of all examinated patients. Combined findings-presence of more clinical entities in one patient were presented in 95 cases. In the group with hemorrhoids were almost two thirds of males, but there was no gender difference noted in between group with LGIB and without LGIB. More than half patients were older than 61 years. Anemia was presented in almost 20% of cases. Significantly it is higher frequency of abdominal pain, irregular stool and weight loss observed on the group without LGIB. Also, significantly more frequently patients with LGIB underwent colonoscopy in 0-30 days when compared with patients without LGIB (p=0,016).

Conclusion: In patients with haematochezia, taking a careful medical history is mandatory. Hemorrhoids, diverticular disease and colorectal cancers are the most common causes of bleeding. Patients with LGIB and abdominal pain were previously examined with colonoscopy. Completely colonoscopy is advocated to detect probable proximal lesions.

RevDate: 2021-11-11

Schmidt E, Corbitt M, Kulendran K, et al (2021)

Fistulating diverticular disease masquerading as a peri-anal abscess: a laparoscopic approach to management.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2021(11):rjab483.

We present a rare case of complicated sigmoid diverticulitis presenting as a peri-anal abscess from an extra-sphincteric fistulous tract. This presentation of a colocutaneous peri-anal abscess is extremely rare, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. Most are managed with an open sigmoid colectomy, however, this case was successfully managed laparoscopically. It highlights the need to consider extra-levator causes of peri-anal abscess, such as pelvic sepsis causing fistulating disease, and to consider early magnetic resonance imaging if there is clinical suspicion of underlying pathology. It also demonstrates that a safe and potentially less morbid outcome is possible via laparoscopic approach when compared to traditional open surgical approach.

RevDate: 2021-11-10

Nugroho AN, Dina Soraya AA, Prawirohardjo AN, et al (2021)

Management of colocutaneus fistula with laparoscopic surgery: Case report.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 70:102883.

Background: Colocutaneous fistulas can occur as the result of complications from diverticular colon surgery. Enterocutaneous fistula is a type of fistula that accounts for about 88.2% of all fistulas. In this report, we describe a case reports of the management of colocutaneous fistula with laparoscopic surgery.

Case presentation: In this case reports, both patients complained of increased amount of abdominal discharge after surgery. In Case 1, a 43-year-old female patient complained of a lump in her lower abdomen which had been there for three months. After removal of the lump, there was blood in the drainage tube. After three months, her surgeon advised to close the stoma. In Case 2, a 47-year-old male patient lived with colocutaneous fistula for a year. He had been involved in a traffic accident and underwent laparotomy sigmoidostomy. Both patients experienced pain, and there also were feces and bad odor coming out from the surgical incision. Then, both patients underwent colonoscopy, which revealed coloncutaneous fistulas. Laparoscopic surgery was conducted and there was adhesion between the sigmoid colon and ileum in the ventral abdomen wall. After the laparoscopic procedure, the patients were discharged 3 days later without any complaints.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic colectomy has recently replaced open resection as standard surgery. This procedure is safe, feasible, and effective for diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-11-05

Bujold-Pitre K, O Mailloux (2021)

Diverticulitis of the appendix-case report and literature review.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2021(10):rjab488.

Appendiceal diverticulitis is a rare diagnostic most often mistaken for an acute appendicitis. A 72-year-old man presented with a transfixing abdominal pain for 48 hours. Appendicitis was diagnosed on computed tomography scan, but a neoplasm could not be excluded. A laparoscopic hemicolectomy was performed after a surgical consensus considering the neoplastic appearance of the lesion and anatomical feature. Histopathology finally revealed an appendiceal diverticulitis. Appendiceal diverticulum is a rare condition. Most will lead to an appendiceal diverticulitis, which present similarly to an appendicitis. Perforation rate and mortality rate are much higher in appendiceal diverticulitis than in appendicitis. Furthermore, appendiceal diverticular disease is strongly associated with neoplasms, especially mucinous neoplasms and thus pseudomyxoma peritonei. Considering the high complication rate and malignant association, an appendicectomy in case of an appendiceal diverticulitis or of an incidental finding of appendiceal diverticulosis should be recommended to the patient.

RevDate: 2021-11-03

Hajirawala LN, Moreci R, Leonardi C, et al (2021)

Laparoscopic Colectomy for Acute Diverticulitis in the Urgent Setting is Associated with Similar Outcomes to Open.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The role of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for the surgical treatment of diverticular disease is evolving. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of MIS colectomy to those of open surgery for patients with acute diverticulitis requiring urgent surgery.

METHODS: The American college of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried for all patients undergoing an urgent colectomy for acute diverticulitis between 2013 and 2018. The patients were then divided into 2 groups: MIS and open. Baseline characteristics and short-term outcomes were compared using univariable and multivariable regression analyses.

RESULTS/OUTCOMES: 3487 patients were included in the analysis. Of these, 1272 (36.5%) underwent MIS colectomy and 2215 (63.5%) underwent open colectomy. Patients undergoing MIS colectomy were younger (58.7 vs 61.9 years) and less likely to be American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification (ASA) III (52.5 vs 57.9%) or IV (6.3 vs 10.5%). After adjusting for baseline differences, the odds of mortality for MIS and open groups were similar. While there was no difference in short-term complications between groups, the odds of developing an ileus were lower following MIS colectomy (OR .61, 95% CI: .49, .76). Both total length of stay (LOS) (12.3 vs 13.9 days) and post-operative LOS (7.6 days vs 9.5 days) were shorter for MIS colectomy. Minimally invasive surgery colectomy added an additional 40 minutes of operative time (202.2 vs 160.1 min).

CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: Minimally invasive surgery colectomy appears to be safe for patients requiring urgent surgical management for acute diverticulitis. Decreased incidence of ileus and shorter LOS may justify any additional operative time for MIS colectomy in suitable candidates.

RevDate: 2021-11-02

Böhm SK (2021)

Excessive Body Weight and Diverticular Disease.

Visceral medicine, 37(5):372-382.

Background: The worldwide proportion of overweight adults almost doubled from 22% in 1975 to 39% in 2016. Comparably, for the USA and Germany in 2016, the proportion was 68 and 56.8%, respectively. In Olmsted County, Minnesota, the prevalence of diverticulitis also doubled between 1980 and 2007, from 19 to 40%. Obesity substantially increases the risk of multiple gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and non-GI diseases. In a narrative review, we examined the evidence on whether obesity also increases the risk for the development of diverticulosis or diverticular disease and its outcome.

Summary: Evidence suggests that being overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) or obese (≥30 kg/m2), especially viscerally obese, is a risk factor for diverticulosis, diverticular disease and diverticulitis, diverticular bleeding, more severe or complicated disease, recurrent disease, and for worse outcomes after surgery.

Key Messages: There is a well-founded association between overweight and diverticular disease as well as diverticulosis. It is not clear whether overweight per se or confounders linked with it are responsible for the association. However, means to fight the overweight and obesity epidemic might also help to reduce the prevalence of morbidity and mortality from diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-29
CmpDate: 2021-10-29

Lemes VB, Galdino GG, Romão P, et al (2021)

THE RELATION BETWEEN THE DIET AND THE DIVERTICULITIS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW.

Arquivos de gastroenterologia, 58(3):394-398.

BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is an acute inflammatory process that affects individuals with diverticular disease. Given the sharp increase in the diagnostic rate of such a pathological process, there was also an increased interest in elucidating the possible causes related to the development of this clinical condition. Among the main factors investigated, diet excels, the object of study of this integrative literature review.

METHODS: After searching the virtual health library and PubMed databases, five prospective cohort studies were selected that best answered the guiding question: "Is there a relationship between diet and the incidence of diverticulitis?".

RESULTS: It was observed that the high intake of red meat and the low intake of dietary fiber were the most strongly associated dietary factors with the incidence of this inflammatory process.

CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is evident that choosing healthy eating habits can considerably reduce the incidence of diverticulitis and, consequently, potentially more serious complications directly related to it.

RevDate: 2021-12-09

Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Di Mario F, et al (2021)

Prognostic performance of the 'DICA' endoscopic classification and the 'CODA' score in predicting clinical outcomes of diverticular disease: an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2021-325574 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of the Diverticular Inflammation and Complication Assessment (DICA) classification and to develop and validate a combined endoscopic-clinical score predicting clinical outcomes of diverticulosis, named Combined Overview on Diverticular Assessment (CODA).

DESIGN: A multicentre, prospective, international cohort study.

SETTING: 43 gastroenterology and endoscopy centres located in Europe and South America.

PARTICIPANTS: 2215 patients (2198 completing the study) at the first diagnosis of diverticulosis/diverticular disease were enrolled. Patients were scored according to DICA classifications.

INTERVENTIONS: A 3-year follow-up was performed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To predict the acute diverticulitis and the surgery according to DICA classification. Survival methods for censored observation were used to develop and validate a novel combined endoscopic-clinical score for predicting diverticulitis and surgery (CODA score).

RESULTS: The 3-year cumulative probability of diverticulitis and surgery was of 3.3% (95% CI 2.5% to 4.5%) in DICA 1, 11.6% (95% CI 9.2% to 14.5%) in DICA 2 and 22.0% (95% CI 17.2% to 28.0%) in DICA 3 (p<0.001), and 0.15% (95% CI 0.04% to 0.59%) in DICA 1, 3.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 4.7%) in DICA 2 and 11.0% (95% CI 7.5% to 16.0%) in DICA 3 (p<0.001), respectively. The 3-year cumulative probability of diverticulitis and surgery was ≤4%, and ≤0.7% in CODA A; <10% and <2.5% in CODA B; >10% and >2.5% in CODA C, respectively. The CODA score showed optimal discrimination capacity in predicting the risk of surgery in the development (c-statistic: 0.829; 95% CI 0.811 to 0.846) and validation cohort (c-statistic: 0.943; 95% CI 0.905 to 0.981).

CONCLUSIONS: DICA classification has a significant role in predicting the risk of diverticulitis and surgery in patients with diverticulosis, which is significantly enhanced by the CODA score.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02758860.

RevDate: 2021-10-24

Giuliani G, Guerra F, Coletta D, et al (2021)

Correction to: Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic technique for the treatment of left‑sided colonic diverticular disease: a systematic review with meta‑analysis.

RevDate: 2021-10-26
CmpDate: 2021-10-26

Cirocchi R, Nascimbeni R, Burini G, et al (2021)

The Management of Acute Colonic Diverticulitis in the COVID-19 Era: A Scoping Review.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 57(10):.

Background and Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health systems worldwide made major changes to their organization, delaying diagnosis and treatment across a broad spectrum of pathologies. Concerning surgery, there was an evident reduction in all elective and emergency activities, particularly for benign pathologies such as acute diverticulitis, for which we have identified a reduction in emergency room presentation with mild forms and an increase with more severe forms. The aim of our review was to discover new data on emergency presentation for patients with acute diverticulitis during the Covid-19 pandemic and their current management, and to define a better methodology for surgical decision-making. Method: We conducted a scoping review on 25 trials, analyzing five points: reduced hospital access for patients with diverticulitis, the preferred treatment for non-complicated diverticulitis, the role of CT scanning in primary evaluation and percutaneous drainage as a treatment, and changes in surgical decision-making and preferred treatment strategies for complicated diverticulitis. Results: We found a decrease in emergency access for patients with diverticular disease, with an increased incidence of complicated diverticulitis. The preferred treatment was conservative for non-complicated forms and in patients with COVID-related pneumonia, percutaneous drainage for abscess, or with surgery delayed or reserved for diffuse peritonitis or sepsis. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic we observed an increased number of complicated forms of diverticulitis, while the total number decreased, possibly due to delay in hospital or ambulatory presentation because of the fear of contracting COVID-19. We observed a greater tendency to treat these more severe forms by conservative means or drainage. When surgery was necessary, there was a preference for an open approach or a delayed operation.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Persaud S, Singh B, Brea F, et al (2021)

Recurrent, Complicated Diverticulitis With Atypical Features.

Cureus, 13(9):e17983.

Diverticular disease is a common condition responsible for significant costs to the healthcare system in the Western world. It ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to complicated diverticulitis. Here, we present a unique case of recurrent, complicated diverticulitis in a 62-year-old Caucasian male. Within a span of one year, he was hospitalized six times with diverticulitis before undergoing elective sigmoid colon resection. Imaging showed diverticulitis of distal descending and proximal sigmoid colon with sealed perforation, recurrent abscesses, and formation of colocutaneous fistulas. During each hospitalization, the patient was advised to follow up with general surgery and/or outpatient gastroenterology but chose not to do so. Eventually, he required an elective sigmoid colectomy with a takedown of the colocutaneous fistulas. In this case report, we discuss the atypical features and criteria for prophylactic colon resection in diverticulitis to highlight the importance of outpatient follow-up with general surgery and gastroenterology.

RevDate: 2021-10-15

Kent KG (2021)

Prevalence of gastrointestinal disease in US Military Veterans under outpatient care at the Veterans Health Administration.

SAGE open medicine, 9:20503121211049112.

Objectives: There are currently no reliable estimates of the prevalence of gastrointestinal disease in the US Military Veterans. Hence, the study aims to determine its prevalence in military Veterans in the United States.

Methods: This study utilized a retrospective, correlational design using a patient record database from the Department of Veteran's Affairs. The participants in the study were Veterans diagnosed with gastrointestinal disease. Specific gastrointestinal diseases include more than 500,000 ambulatory care visits annually in the United States, which included peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, diverticular disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional dyspepsia, as well as the symptoms of constipation and nausea/vomiting. This study revealed the exact prevalence of gastrointestinal disease diagnosed in Veterans served in outpatient settings by the Veterans Health Administration and broke down this prevalence over time and by the Veteran period of service.

Results: Findings revealed that gastrointestinal disease prevalence among Veterans varied according to their period of service.

Conclusions: Findings may help improve screening for Veterans with this increased risk factor. However, further research should be performed to verify the prevalence of gastrointestinal disease in Veterans as compared to the general American population.

RevDate: 2021-10-15
CmpDate: 2021-10-15

Aouad S, Ricou C, Mouraux S, et al (2021)

[Management of simple acute diverticulitis : Towards a "less is more" approach].

Revue medicale suisse, 17(754):1740-1744.

Acute diverticulitis is the most common complication of diverticular disease, increasing in industrialized countries and in young people under 45 years of age. The modified Hinchey classification remains the most widely used and includes simple diverticulitis, i.e. localized inflammation without sepsis, and complicated diverticulitis from pericolic abscess to stercoral peritonitis. Recent studies recommend conservative management of uncomplicated forms. This article summarizes the management of simple acute left-sided diverticulitis based on the new recommendations and focusing on antibiotic treatment, outpatient or inpatient management and indications for colonoscopy.

RevDate: 2021-10-11

Lurz M, Gazis A, Hanschke S, et al (2021)

Value of high-field magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis and classification of acute colonic diverticulitis.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Due to limited and outdated literature, the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostic work-up of acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is still under debate. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of modern high-field MRI and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and classification of ACD.

METHODS: In our prospective study 24 emergency patients with the clinical diagnosis of ACD received MDCT and high-field MRI. Imaging features of ACD were assessed and categorized according to the classification of diverticular disease (CDD) by three independent readers. Results were matched with the final clinical report.

RESULTS: MRI with a specialized examination protocol clearly depicted all relevant findings of ACD. Statistical analysis resulted in an almost perfect strength of agreement between CT and MRI across all readers for the final CDD category (κ = 0.94) and the stage-related image features (κ = 0.98). Moderate agreement was seen for the detection of micro-abscesses (κ = 0.78), with a slight advantage for MRI.

CONCLUSION: Modern high-field MRI is fully comparable to MDCT in the assessment of ACD and has the potential to serve as a first-line imaging tool.

RevDate: 2021-10-08

Tomer N, Chakravarty D, Ratnani P, et al (2021)

Impact of diverticular disease on prostate cancer risk among hypertensive men.

Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a heterogenous disease with multiple etiological factors playing a role in its development. Recently, chronic and systemic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease were identified as key risk factors influencing its development. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between diverticular disease (DD) (local and acute inflammation) and PCa.

METHODS: Hypertensive patients with DD and hypertensive controls were identified between 1995 and 2010 from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. Cohorts were queried for PCa incidence through 2015. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used for determining independent predictors of PCa diagnosis.

RESULTS: A total of 51,353 patients with DD and 111,541 controls were identified. In all, 6.26% of DD developed PCa, and 3.71% of controls developed PCa (p < 0.01). DD was a significant risk factor for PCa (OR: 1.27 CI: 1.19-1.34, p < 0.01). On subgroup analysis, the patients diagnosed with DD <50 years old had an OR of 3.39 for PCa (CI: 2.52-4.56, p < 0.01), age 50-59 had an OR of 2.12 (CI: 1.86-2.15, p < 0.01), and age 60-69 had an OR of 1.20 (CI: 1.10-1.31, p < 0.01). Finally, age and race stratification showed that white patients <50 had an OR of 2.56 (CI: 1.75-3.76, p < 0.01), while black patients <50 had an OR of 3.98 (CI: 2.61-6.07, p < 0.01). The trend in differing odds between these populations was the same for age groups 50-59 and 60-69.

CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that DD is associated with diagnosis of PCa in hypertensive men. Importantly, the earlier the diagnosis of DD, the higher the odds for development of PCa, particularly in black men.

RevDate: 2021-12-07

Eckmann JD, A Shaukat (2022)

Updates in the understanding and management of diverticular disease.

Current opinion in gastroenterology, 38(1):48-54.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diverticulosis leads to significant morbidity and mortality and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. In this paper, we review the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of diverticular disorders, followed by a discussion of recent updates and changes in the clinical approach to diverticular disease.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature suggests that antibiotics are likely not necessary for low-risk patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, and not all patients with recurrent diverticulitis require colectomy. Dietary restrictions do not prevent recurrent diverticulitis. Visceral hypersensitivity is increasingly being recognized as a cause of persistent abdominal pain after acute diverticulitis and should be considered along with chronic smoldering diverticulitis, segmental colitis associated with diverticula, and symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.

SUMMARY: Clinicians should be aware that traditionally held assumptions regarding the prevention and management of diverticular disorders have recently been called into question and should adjust their clinical practice accordingly.

RevDate: 2021-10-08

Kirita K, Kodaka Y, Shibata Y, et al (2021)

Impact of clinical characteristics of colonic diverticular bleeding in extremely elderly patients treated with direct oral anti-coagulant drugs: a retrospective multi-center study.

Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition, 69(2):222-228.

Since there were no available data about colonic diverticular bleeding in extremely elderly patients (>80 years old) treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), we tried to determine clinical characteristics in those with colonic diverticular bleeding taking DOACs and to compare clinical outcomes of those in DOAC-treated to those in warfarin-treated . We enrolled DOAC-treated (n = 20) and warfarin-treated (n = 23) extremely elderly patients with diverticular bleeding diagnosed by colonoscopy. We performed a retrospective review of patients' medical charts and endoscopic findings. We classified colonic diverticular bleeding based on endoscopic features due to modified previous study following three groups, type A (active bleeding), type B (non-active bleeding) and type C (bleeding suspected). Clinical outcomes such as number of recurrent bleeding, thrombotic events and mortality were estimated. There were no differences in endoscopical features and clinical characteristics between patients treated with DOAC and warfarin therapy. However, the number of recurrent bleeding, frequency of required blood transfusions and units of blood transfusion in warfarin-treated patients were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to those in DOAC-treated groups. In addition, mortality and thrombotic events did not differ between DOAC- and warfarin-treated patients. Clinical outcomes suggest that DOACs can be recommended for extremely elderly patients with colonic diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-06

Huizinga JD, Hussain A, JH Chen (2021)

Interstitial cells of Cajal and human colon motility in health and disease.

American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology, 321(5):G552-G575.

Our understanding of human colonic motility, and autonomic reflexes that generate motor patterns, has increased markedly through high-resolution manometry. Details of the motor patterns are emerging related to frequency and propagation characteristics that allow linkage to interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) networks. In studies on colonic motor dysfunction requiring surgery, ICC are almost always abnormal or significantly reduced. However, there are still gaps in our knowledge about the role of ICC in the control of colonic motility and there is little understanding of a mechanistic link between ICC abnormalities and colonic motor dysfunction. This review will outline the various ICC networks in the human colon and their proven and likely associations with the enteric and extrinsic autonomic nervous systems. Based on our extensive knowledge of the role of ICC in the control of gastrointestinal motility of animal models and the human stomach and small intestine, we propose how ICC networks are underlying the motor patterns of the human colon. The role of ICC will be reviewed in the autonomic neural reflexes that evoke essential motor patterns for transit and defecation. Mechanisms underlying ICC injury, maintenance, and repair will be discussed. Hypotheses are formulated as to how ICC dysfunction can lead to motor abnormalities in slow transit constipation, chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction, Hirschsprung's disease, fecal incontinence, diverticular disease, and inflammatory conditions. Recent studies on ICC repair after injury hold promise for future therapies.

RevDate: 2021-10-24

Giuliani G, Guerra F, Coletta D, et al (2021)

Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic technique for the treatment of left-sided colonic diverticular disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Minimally invasive surgery has been universally accepted as a valid option for the treatment of diverticular disease, provided specific expertise is available. Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the application of robotic approaches for diverticular disease. We aimed at evaluating whether robotic colectomy may offer some advantages over the laparoscopic approach for surgical treatment of diverticular disease by meta-analyzing the available data from the medical literature.

METHODS: The PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Web Of Sciences electronic databases were searched for literature up to December 2020. Inclusion criteria considered all comparative studies evaluating robotic versus laparoscopic colectomy for diverticulitis eligible. The conversion rate to the open approach was evaluated as the primary outcome.

RESULTS: The data of 4177 patients from nine studies were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics. Patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy compared to those who underwent surgery with a robotic approach had a significantly higher risk of conversion into an open procedure (12.5% vs. 7.4%, p < 0.00001) and abbreviated hospital stay (p < 0.0001) at the price of a longer operating time (p < 0.00001).

CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery, the robotic approach offers significant advantages in terms of conversion rate and shortened hospital stay for the treatment of diverticular disease. However, because of the lack of available evidence, it is impossible to draw definitive conclusions.

RevDate: 2021-10-02

Sijberden J, Snijders H, S van Aalten (2021)

Laparoscopic Lavage in Complicated Diverticulitis with Colonic Perforation, Always Be Closing?.

Case reports in gastroenterology, 15(2):765-771.

Laparoscopic lavage is seen as an acceptable alternative to colonic resection in selected patients with acute diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis. There is no consensus on what surgical technique should be used when performing this procedure. This case series describes the disease course of 3 patients with acute diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis treated with laparoscopic lavage and direct suturing of a colonic perforation. All patients (38- and 71-year-old males and a 44-year-old female) were seen in the emergency department due to acute lower abdominal pain. Clinical examination and laboratory and imaging studies were suggestive of perforated diverticular disease. Laparoscopic lavage with placement of drain(s) and direct suturing of a colonic perforation was performed. Postoperative treatment with intravenous antibiotics was continued for a variable term. Postoperative courses were uneventful. Patients were discharged on postoperative days 5, 5, and 7. At almost 1-year follow-up, all patients are in good clinical condition and have not had a recurrent episode of diverticulitis. Therefore, this case series shows promising results of laparoscopic lavage with direct suturing of colonic perforation in patients with diverticulitis with perforation and purulent peritonitis.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This book (written by experts in the field and scheduled for release in 2022) provides up-to-date information on all aspects of colonic diverticular disease, particularly common in Western countries. The first parts of the book will deal with the disease epidemiology and etiopathogenesis, focusing on the roles of inflammation and dysbiosis as part of the pathophysiology of diverticular disease. The clinical spectrum, the diagnostic approach and differential diagnosis, medical and surgical treatments are described in the following sections. The book is intended as a unique and valuable resource for all clinicians, residents, and physicians involved in the management of this disease. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

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