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21 May 2022 at 01:42
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Bibliography on: Diverticular Disease


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Diverticular Disease

Diverticular disease is the general name for a common condition that involves small bulges or sacs called diverticula that form from the wall of the large intestine (colon). Although these sacs can form throughout the colon, they are most commonly found in the sigmoid colon, the portion of the large intestine closest to the rectum. Diverticulosis refers to the presence of diverticula without associated complications or problems. The condition can lead to more serious issues including diverticulitis, perforation (the formation of holes), stricture (a narrowing of the colon that does not easily let stool pass), fistulas (abnormal connection or tunneling between body parts), and bleeding. Diverticulitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the colon thought to be caused by perforation of one of the sacs. Several secondary complications can result from a diverticulitis attack, and when this occurs, it is called complicated diverticulitis.

Created with PubMed® Query: "Diverticular disease"[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-05-19

Hutchings A, O'Neill S, Lugo-Palacios D, et al (2022)

Effectiveness of emergency surgery for five common acute conditions: an instrumental variable analysis of a national routine database.

Anaesthesia [Epub ahead of print].

The effectiveness of emergency surgery vs. non-emergency surgery strategies for emergency admissions with acute appendicitis, gallstone disease, diverticular disease, abdominal wall hernia or intestinal obstruction is unknown. Data on emergency admissions for adult patients from 2010 to 2019 at 175 acute National Health Service hospitals in England were extracted from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. Cohort sizes were: 268,144 (appendicitis); 240,977 (gallstone disease); 138,869 (diverticular disease); 106,432 (hernia); and 133,073 (intestinal obstruction). The primary outcome was number of days alive and out of hospital at 90 days. The effectiveness of emergency surgery vs. non-emergency surgery strategies was estimated using an instrumental variable design and is reported for the cohort and pre-specified sub-groups (age, sex, number of comorbidities and frailty level). Average days alive and out of hospital at 90 days for all five cohorts were similar, with the following mean differences (95%CI) for emergency surgery minus non-emergency surgery after adjusting for confounding: -0.73 days (-2.10-0.64) for appendicitis; 0.60 (-0.10-1.30) for gallstone disease; -2.66 (-15.7-10.4) for diverticular disease; -0.07 (-2.40-2.25) for hernia; and 3.32 (-3.13-9.76) for intestinal obstruction. For patients with 'severe frailty', mean differences (95%CI) in days alive and out of hospital for emergency surgery were lower than for non-emergency surgery strategies: -21.0 (-27.4 to -14.6) for appendicitis; -5.72 (-11.3 to -0.2) for gallstone disease, -38.9 (-63.3 to -14.6) for diverticular disease; -19.5 (-26.6 to -12.3) for hernia; and - 34.5 (-46.7 to -22.4) for intestinal obstruction. For patients without frailty, the mean differences (95%CI) in days alive and out of hospital were: -0.18 (-1.56-1.20) for appendicitis; 0.93 (0.48-1.39) for gallstone disease; 5.35 (-2.56-13.28) for diverticular disease; 2.26 (0.37-4.15) for hernia; and 18.2 (14.8-22.47) for intestinal obstruction. Emergency surgery and non-emergency surgery strategies led to similar average days alive and out of hospital at 90 days for five acute conditions. The comparative effectiveness of emergency surgery and non-emergency surgery strategies for these conditions may be modified by patient factors.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Perez Hernandez C, Younes I, Elkattawy S, et al (2022)

A Rare Presentation of Recurrent Diverticulitis in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis.

European journal of case reports in internal medicine, 9(4):003271 pii:3271-1-28159-1-10-20220401.

Diverticulitis and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two separate colonic pathologies with different underlying mechanisms. Diverticulosis involves herniation of mucosal and submucosal tissue through muscular tissue in response to increased intraluminal pressure. In contrast, it is believed that the muscular tone in patients with UC is reduced due to chronic inflammatory changes. Thus, it has been reported that there may be an inverse relationship between the presence of diverticulosis in patients with UC, in that UC may possibly be protective against developing diverticular disease. Consequently, the co-presence of both pathologies is uncommon. Here we present a case in which a woman with a history of UC and recurrent diverticulitis after elective partial colectomy was admitted for recurrent acute diverticulitis. It is quite challenging to diagnose diverticulitis in ulcerative colitis patients given the usually similar presentation with abdominal pain, diarrhoea and hematochezia. A level of high suspicion is required for diagnosis.

LEARNING POINTS: Colonic diverticulitis is not commonly associated with ulcerative colitis.The diagnosis of colonic diverticulitis in the setting of ulcerative colitis is challenging and requires a high level of suspicion.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Cao Z, Xu C, Zhang P, et al (2022)

Associations of sedentary time and physical activity with adverse health conditions: Outcome-wide analyses using isotemporal substitution model.

EClinicalMedicine, 48:101424 pii:S2589-5370(22)00154-7.

Background: As one of the most common lifestyles today, sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for many health conditions. To inform potential behavioural guideline development, we aimed to estimate the theoretical effects of replacing sedentary behaviour with different intensity of physical activity on risks of 45 common non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

Methods: A total of 360,047 participants (aged 37-73 years) in the UK Biobank free of the 45 common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were included. Information on sedentary time (sum of television watching, computer using and driving behaviour) and physical activity (measured by International Physical Activity Questionnaire questionnaire) were collected by self-reported at baseline. Participants were followed up for 45 NCDs diagnosis according to the ICD-10 code using linkage to national health records until 2020. Isotemporal substitution models were used to investigate substituting sedentary time with light physical activity (LPA), moderate physical activity (MPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) after adjusting for potential confounders.

Finding: Participants who reported > 6 h/day compared with ≤ 2 h/day sedentary time had higher risks of 12 (26.7%) of 45 NCDs, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, thyroid disorder, depression, migraine, gout, rheumatoid arthritis and diverticular disease. Theoretically, replacing sedentary time with equivalent LPA, MPA and VPA was associated with risk reductions in 4, 6 and 10 types of NCDs, respectively. Among long sedentary time (> 6 h/day), replacing 1 h/day sedentary time with equivalent VPA showed stronger associations with 5 NCDs (diabetes, depression, chronic liver disease, diverticular disease and sleep disorder), with a larger risk reduction of 11%-31%.

Interpretation: Sedentary time is associated with multiple adverse health conditions, replacing sedentary time with any equivalent amounts of VPA than LPA and MPA could be associated with risk reductions of more types of NCDs.

Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.

RevDate: 2022-05-06

Lee C, Mabeza RM, Verma A, et al (2022)

Association of frailty with outcomes after elective colon resection for diverticular disease.

Surgery pii:S0039-6060(22)00173-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Frailty has been associated with greater postoperative morbidity and mortality but its impact has not been investigated in patients with diverticulitis undergoing elective colon resection. Therefore, the present study examined the association of frailty with perioperative outcomes following elective colectomy for diverticular disease.

METHODS: The 2017-2019 American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data registry was queried to identify patients (aged ≥18 years) undergoing elective colon resection for diverticular disease. The 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI-5) was used to stratify patients into non-frail (mFI 0), prefrail (mFI 1), and frail (mFI ≥2) cohorts. Major adverse events, surgical site infection, and postoperative ileus as well as prolonged length of stay, nonhome discharge, and unplanned readmission were evaluated using multivariable logistic models.

RESULTS: Of the 20,966 patients, 10.0% were frail. Compared to others, frail patients were generally older (non-frail: 55 years, [46-63], prefrail: 62, [54-70], frail: 64, [57-71]) and more commonly female (non-frail: 53.1%, prefrail: 58.6, frail: 64.4, P < .001). Frail patients more frequently underwent open colectomy and stoma creation compared with others. Frailty was associated with greater adjusted odds of major adverse event (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.48), surgical site infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.54), and postoperative ileus (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.27-1.98). Similarly, frailty portended greater odds of prolonged length of stay, nonhome discharge, and unplanned readmission.

CONCLUSION: Frailty as defined by the mFI-5 was associated with greater morbidity and hospital resource use. Deployment of frailty instruments may augment traditional risk calculators and improve patient selection for elective colectomy.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Rov A, Ben-Ari A, Barlev E, et al (2022)

Right-sided diverticulitis in a Western population.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: While left-sided colonic diverticular disease is common in Western Caucasian populations, right-sided colonic disease (RCD) is rare. The present study aimed to determine the rate of RCD and to identify the symptoms, clinical features, treatment, and outcomes in a single medical center in Israel.

METHODS: Data for this descriptive retrospective analysis were collected from the electronic medical records of all patients diagnosed with colonic diverticulitis from January 2014 to June 2019.

RESULTS: During the study period, 1000 patients with diverticulitis were admitted to our institution, of which 99 had RCD (10%). Mean age was 50.2 years. The main presenting symptom was acute onset of right-sided abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made almost exclusively by computed tomography scan and the cecum was the most frequent site. The clinical course was benign, without major complications for most patients (90.1%). Nine patients presented with abscess (n = 1), covered perforation (n = 7), or partial obstruction (n = 1). All patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics with a median length of hospital stay of 3 days and a median 9 days of antibiotic treatment. Only 1 patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy due to suspected intestinal perforation. Three patients experienced disease recurrence after a median follow-up of 48 months. Upon recovery, half of the patients underwent colonoscopy; no further pathology was found in any.

CONCLUSION: Unlike sigmoid colon diverticulitis, the incidence of RCD in Western populations is low. The clinical course is benign, with conservative treatment without the need for surgery. The complication and recurrence rates are low.

RevDate: 2022-05-03

Melazzini F, Calabretta F, Lenti MV, et al (2022)

Venous thromboembolism in chronic gastrointestinal disorders.

Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Chronic gastrointestinal disorders (including autoimmune gastritis, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and diverticular disease) are highly prevalent disorders, that may be associated with unpredictable, life-threatening complications, such as thromboembolic events. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several conditions, including cancer, major trauma, surgery, prolonged immobilization, are well-established risk factors for VTE. Over the past decade, chronic inflammation has also been identified as an independent risk factor for VTE due to the prothrombotic effects of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress on the coagulation cascade. Other several mechanisms were shown to be associated with a higher incidence of VTE in patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

AREAS COVERED: We critically discuss the latest insights into the mechanisms responsible for thromboembolic manifestations in chronic gastrointestinal disorders, also focusing on the recognition of risk factors and treatment.

EXPERT OPINION: The occurrence of thrombotic complications is underestimated in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Identifying potential risk factors and concomitant predisposing conditions and to prevent VTE and guide treatment require a multidisciplinary approach, and this is critically important for clinicians, in order to provide the best care for such patients.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Qafiti FN, Marsh AM, Yi S, et al (2022)

Nationwide Analysis of Hospital admissions Prior to Hartmann's Procedure for Acute Diverticulitis.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Diverticular disease is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases that require hospital admission. This study aims to identify trends in prior hospital admissions for patients that ultimately require a Hartmann's procedure for complicated diverticulitis.

METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all patients aged 18 years or older admitted with an ICD-9 code for colonic diverticulitis and end colostomy creation. Patients with prior hospital admissions were identified. The primary outcome was mortality after Hartmann's procedure. Secondary outcomes were prior hospital admission and previous percutaneous drain placement. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to control for confounding factors for each outcome and results were weighted for national estimates.

RESULTS: There were 90,162 patients admitted with complicated diverticulitis requiring end colostomy creation. Prior hospital admissions were found in 28.1% (n = 25,307) and 14.4% (n = 12,947) had a previous percutaneous drain placed during a prior admission. The overall mortality rate was 5.9% (n = 5314) after Hartman's procedure. The mortality rate for patients with prior hospital admissions was 8.7% (P < .001), and the mortality rate for patients with previous percutaneous drain placement was 4.3% (P < .001). After controlling for confounding factors including comorbidities, patients with prior admission had an increased risk of mortality (OR 1.48 [1.40-1.58], P < .001) and patients with previous percutaneous drain placement had a decreased risk of mortality (OR .66 [.60-.72], P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations for complications of diverticulitis are a costly burden to our healthcare system. By identifying those patients at high risk for readmission and emergency surgery, perioperative outcomes may be improved.

RevDate: 2022-04-28

Abramov R, Neymark M, Dronov M, et al (2022)

Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticular Disease-Current Perspective.

Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-04-25

Ergenç M, TK Uprak (2022)

Appendiceal Diverticulitis Presenting as Acute Appendicitis and Diagnosed After Appendectomy.

Cureus, 14(3):e23050.

Introduction Diverticular disease of the appendix (DDA) is a rare appendiceal pathology. It is usually present similar to acute appendicitis. Because of its rarity, the DDA is poorly comprehended. This study evaluates the incidence, clinical and pathological characteristics of appendiceal diverticulitis diagnosed after appendectomy. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent appendectomy between January 2016 and January 2022 at the Istanbul Sultanbeyli State Hospital General Surgery Clinic. The following parameters were analyzed: age and gender, preoperative diagnosis, laboratory results, radiological imaging findings, surgical technique, histopathological examination of specimens, and complications. Results A total of 1586 patients were analyzed. In the pathology, diverticular disease of the appendix was detected in 10 patients (0.63%). The DDA patients' mean age was 34.4 years, and the male to female ratio was 4:1. We detected low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasia in one of our patients. Conclusion Appendiceal diverticulitis is rare and usually presents as acute appendicitis. Most DDAs are detected incidentally during the postoperative period and are associated with an increased risk of appendiceal neoplasm. Appendectomy specimens should be carefully examined histopathologically to detect diverticular disease of the appendix.

RevDate: 2022-04-17

Bubán T, Sipeki N, Várvölgyi C, et al (2022)

A vastagbél-diverticulosis veszélyei és kezelése.

Orvosi hetilap, 163(16):614-623.

Összefoglaló. A vastagbél-diverticulosis előfordulási gyakorisága világszerte növekszik, aminek hátterében elsősorban diétás és életmódbeli változások állnak. Az esetek jelentős hányadában a vastagbél-diverticulosis semmiféle panaszt nem okoz, véletlenül fedezik fel, így kezelést sem igényel. Tünetek az esetek mintegy 25%-ában jelentkeznek: ez az ún. diverticularis betegség, melynek különböző súlyosságú és lefolyású formái ismertek. A 2000-es évek elejétől a diverticulosis kialakulásában szerepet játszó patofiziológiai folyamatok - úgymint a genetikai háttér, az alacsony fokú krónikus gyulladás és a béldysbiosis jelenléte - jobb megértése elősegítette a megelőzés, a diagnosztika és a kezelés eszközeinek fejlődését. Főbb megállapítások: A tüneteket okozó szövődménymentes diverticulosis elkülönítése az irritábilisbél-szindrómától egyértelműen kihívást jelent. Az akut diverticulitis előfordulási gyakorisága alacsonyabb, mint korábban feltételezték. A képalkotóknak, különösen a hasi komputertomográfiának a szerepe előtérbe került a gyors és megfelelő diagnózis felállításában és a betegség súlyosságának meghatározásában. A magas rosttartalmú étrend az egészséges táplálkozás fontos része, ugyanakkor nincs bizonyíték arra, hogy gyorsítaná az akut diverticulitis során a felgyógyulást, vagy megelőzné annak kiújulását. Újabban vitatják azt a hagyományos álláspontot, miszerint a szövődménymentes akut diverticulitist mindenképpen antibiotikummal kell kezelni, és kórházi felvételt igényel. Akut diverticulitis esetén nem ajánlott kolonoszkópia végzése a perforációveszély miatt. Elektív kolonoszkópia 6 héttel később javasolt, colorectalis carcinoma kizárására, amennyiben 3 éven belül nem került rá sor. Bizonyos esetekben a rutinkolonoszkópia azonban el is hagyható. A szövődményes akut diverticulitis kezelése során nem mindig szükséges sürgős sebészeti beavatkozás. A műtétre szoruló, hemodinamikailag stabil, immunkompetens betegekben diverticulumperforáció és diffúz peritonitis esetén pedig a reszekció és a primer anasztomóziskészítés egyre inkább teret nyer a Hartmann-műtéttel szemben. A szerzők a jelen összefoglalóval a diverticulosis korszerű, egyénre szabott ellátását kívánják elősegíteni a mindennapi klinikai gyakorlatban. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(16): 614-623. Summary. The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis is growing worldwide due to dietary and lifestyle changes. Colonic diverticulosis does not cause any complaints in a significant proportion of individuals; therefore, it is usually diagnosed by accident and does not require any treatment. Diverticular disease, which constitutes about 25% of the cases, is associated with presenting symptoms, and has various forms based on the course and severity of the disease. From the early 2000s, the better understanding of the pathophysiologic pathways which play a role in the development of the diverticular disease (genetic background, low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis) promoted prevention, diagnostics and finding treatment options. The main conclusions: It is a challenge to distinguish uncomplicated but symptomatic diverticular disease from irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of acute diverticulitis is lower than it was previously assumed. The role of diagnostic imaging, mainly abdominal computer tomography, has become more important to aid the rapid and correct diagnosis of acute diverticulitis and to determine its severity. Although a high-fiber diet may be recommended for general health purposes, there is little evidence that it benefits recovery during acute diverticulitis episodes or prevents recurrent episodes. Traditional antibiotic therapy as the mainstay of treatment of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis such as routine hospital admission has been challenged recently. In an acute episode of diverticulitis, performing colonoscopy should be avoided as it is associated with an increased risk of colonic perforation. If there was no screening colonoscopy within 3 years, it is strongly recommended at least 6 weeks after the acute episode to exclude colorectal carcinoma. Routine colonoscopy may be omitted in certain cases. Complicated acute diverticulitis should not necessarily be treated by emergency surgery. In the case of hemodynamically stable and immunocompetent patients, resection with primary anastomosis may be preferred over a Hartmann's procedure for the treatment of perforated diverticulitis and diffuse peritonitis. With this review, the authors intend to facilitate providing up-to-date and customized treatment of diverticular disease in the daily practice. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(16): 614-623.

RevDate: 2022-04-12

Bretto E, D'Amico F, Fiore W, et al (2022)

Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I 1572: A Promising Candidate for Management of Colonic Diverticular Disease.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(7): pii:jcm11071916.

Diverticular disease (DD) is a common gastrointestinal condition. Patients with DD experience a huge variety of chronic nonspecific symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits. They are also at risk of complications such as acute diverticulitis, abscess formation, hemorrhage, and perforation. Intestinal dysbiosis and chronic inflammation have recently been recognized as potential key factors contributing to disease progression. Probiotics, due to their ability to modify colonic microbiota balance and to their immunomodulatory effects, could present a promising treatment option for patients with DD. Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I 1572 (LCDG) is a probiotic strain with the capacity to rebalance gut microbiota and to decrease intestinal inflammation. This review summarizes the available clinical data on the use of LCDG in subjects with colonic DD.

RevDate: 2022-04-11

Nwankwo EC, Khneizer G, Sayuk G, et al (2022)

Segmental Colitis Associated With Diverticulosis Masquerading as Polyploid-Appearing Mucosa in the Rectosigmoid Area on Endoscopy and as Focal Thickening on Imaging.

Cureus, 14(3):e22930.

Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis (SCAD) is an inflammatory disease affecting segments of the large bowel with diverticular disease. SCAD presents several challenges in diagnoses and treatment because it often mimics a range of disorders including inflammatory bowel disease and malignancy. Here, we present the case of a 72-year-old man with lower abdominal pain and bloody stools whose initial abdominal workup showed nonspecific large bowel thickening and concerns for malignancy. Ultimately, the patient was diagnosed with mild SCAD and treated conservatively with a resolution of symptoms. He had no symptoms at the three-month and 1-year follow-ups. This case highlights the importance of including SCAD in the initial differential diagnosis to allow accurate identification and treatment.

RevDate: 2022-04-07

Chung D (2022)

Jejunal diverticulosis - A case series and literature review.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 75:103477 pii:S2049-0801(22)00237-0.

Introduction: Scant literature is available regarding in vivo jejunal diverticulosis, in part due to its typically asymptomatic course. This is made more difficult by the difficulty in establishing its diagnosis. This case series examines a number of patients presenting to our hospital with jejunal diverticular disease, and their varying clinical courses.

Methods: A number of cases that had presented to our hospital with jejunal diverticulosis were reviewed retrospectively in keeping with PROCESS guidelines. Their presentations, investigations, and management rationale are discussed in brief.

Discussion: The presentation of jejunal diverticulosis is varies significantly along a spectrum, with a number of symptoms similar to other common intra-abdominal pathologies. The imaging modalities of choice are a barium small bowel series, CT scans, and enteroclysis, varying in sensitivity and complexity. Decision making with regards to operative vs. non-operative management is typically in line with that of colonic diverticulosis, though no strict guidelines have been established.

Conclusion: Jejunal diverticulosis is an uncommon, with scarce data available on the appropriate investigation and management pathways. Its presentation is difficult to differentiate from other intra-abdominal pathology, and its investigations either poorly sensitive or costly and technically challenging. The general consensus on its management is similar to that of colonic diverticula, though more research needs is warranted.

RevDate: 2022-04-04

Hamedani H, Nelson B, Pagur P, et al (2022)

Spontaneous resolution of symptomatic secondary small bowel volvulus during pre-operative single contrast upper gastrointestinal study.

Radiology case reports, 17(5):1810-1816 pii:S1930-0433(22)00167-4.

Small bowel volvulus is a rare occurrence in adults as it most commonly occurs within the first year of life as a complication of malrotation, an embryologic anomaly. When occurring in any age group, restriction of blood flow can lead to ischemia and eventual infarction of bowel making any suspected volvulus a surgical emergency. We present a case of a middle-aged patient with acute small bowel obstruction with small bowel volvulus. Following oral administration of water-soluble contrast as part of a single contrast upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI) study and changes in positioning, the patient experienced spontaneous resolution of the small bowel volvulus.

RevDate: 2022-03-25

Yoon P, Rajasekar G, Nuño M, et al (2022)

Severe Obesity Contributes to Worse Outcomes After Elective Colectomy for Chronic Diverticular Disease.

Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Both obesity and chronic diverticular disease (DD) are on the rise. Understanding surgical outcomes for patients with obesity undergoing colectomy for DD is imperative to improve care and minimize complications. Our objective was to investigate the impact of obesity on outcomes after elective colectomy specifically for chronic DD.

METHODS: Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database from 2012 to 2018, patients who underwent elective colectomy for chronic DD were grouped into four body mass index categories. Baseline characteristics, surgical approach and procedure, and 30-day morbidity and mortality were assessed.

RESULTS: Of 24,559 patients, 21.7% were of normal weight, 35.8% were overweight, 35.9% were obese, and 6.6% were severely obese. Patients with severe obesity were younger, more functionally dependent, and had more comorbidities (all P [Formula: see text] 0.0001). Patients with severe obesity were more likely to have unplanned conversion to open surgery from laparoscopic and robotic approaches (AOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.24-3.70). Obesity class did not significantly affect the type of surgical procedure patients underwent (Hartmann's, colectomy with anastomosis and diversion, or colectomy with primary anastomosis). There were increased odds of any perioperative complications (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.71) and non-home discharge (AOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.59-3.57) in patients with severe obesity compared to normal weight patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is associated with poorer outcomes in patients undergoing elective colectomy for chronic DD. Futures studies to examine the impact of preemptive weight loss to improve outcomes after elective colectomy for chronic sequelae of DD are needed.

RevDate: 2022-03-22

Gonai T, Toya Y, Kawasaki K, et al (2022)

Risk factors of re-bleeding within a year in colonic diverticular bleeding patients.

DEN open, 2(1):e22.

Background/Aims: Although colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) is common, few reports have described the effects of antithrombotic agents (ATs) on CDB. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors of re-bleeding within a year in CDB patients.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the risk of re-bleeding in CDB patients. Among 324 patients who were hospitalized for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding at our institution during the period from 2015 to 2019, we used 76 patients who were diagnosed as CDB. Risk factors for re-bleeding were determined by Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: Of 76 patients analyzed, 32 were taking ATs, nine of whom were taking multiple agents. Twenty-six patients re-bled within a year. Compared with the patients without re-bleeding, patients with re-bleeding within a year had been treated by antithrombotic therapy more frequently (62% vs. 32%, p = 0.013). Cox proportional hazard model revealed that treatment with ATs (hazard ratio 3.89, 95% confidence interval 1.53-10.74, p = 0.004) was an independent risk factor for re-bleeding within a year.

Conclusion: ATs were found to be an independent risk factor related to re-bleeding within a year in patients with CDB.

RevDate: 2022-03-09

Brandimarte G, Frajese GV, Bargiggia S, et al (2022)

Performance of a multi-compounds nutraceutical formulation in patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.

Minerva gastroenterology pii:S2724-5985.22.03132-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a recognized clinical condition characterized by abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits, attributed to diverticula but without macroscopic signs of diverticulitis. There is no consensus about the management of these patients. Enteroflegin®, an association of natural active ingredients, could be effective in the treatment of those patients.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate the performances of Enteroflegin® in patients with SUDD. Patients were treated with Enteroflegin® 2 cp/day for 10 days per month for 6 months. Primary endpoint was the clinical remission rate, defined as the absence of any symptoms; secondary endpoints were the impact of the treatment on reduction of symptoms, on fecal calprotectin (FC) expression, and the prevention of acute diverticulitis.

RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty patients were retrospectively enrolled (183 males, median age 64 yrs, IQR 54-70). Enteroflegin® was effective in inducing remission in 9.34% and 17.64% of patients at 3 and 6 months respectively (p<0.001). Reduction of symptoms occurred in 92.3% and in 85.3% of patients at 3 and 6 months respectively (p<0.001), and symptoms' recurrence or worsening was recorded in only 1.71% of patients during the follow-up. FC expression dropped from 181,3 μg/g at baseline to 100,2 μg/g (p<0.001) and to 67,9 μg/g (p<0.001) at 3 and 6 months of follow-up respectively. No adverse event was recorded during the follow-up. Finally, acute diverticulitis occurred in just 2% of patients during the follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Enteroflegin® seems to be an effective nutraceutical compound in obtaining remission and symptom relief in SUDD patients. Further randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm these preliminary data.

RevDate: 2022-03-05

Sninsky JA, Galanko J, Sandler RS, et al (2022)

Diverticulosis Is Associated With Internal Hemorrhoids on Colonoscopy: Possible Clues to Etiology.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(22)00146-X [Epub ahead of print].

Hemorrhoids are a common but poorly understood gastrointestinal condition.1 Bowel habits and fiber consumption are frequently cited as risk factors for hemorrhoids, but research has been inconclusive.2 Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested an association between diverticular disease and hemorrhoids.3 We sought to investigate the association between colonic diverticulosis and internal hemorrhoids to validate the prediction from the GWAS.

RevDate: 2022-03-02

Pallotta L, Vona R, Maselli MA, et al (2022)

Oxidative imbalance and muscular alterations in diverticular disease.

Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver pii:S1590-8658(22)00171-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: It is still a matter of debate if neuromuscular alterations reflect a primary event in diverticular disease (DD).

AIMS: This study aimed to assess colonic wall layers from both stenotic and non-stenotic complicated DD, bio-phenotypic alterations, inflammatory and oxidative status.

METHODS: A systematic analysis of colonic specimens obtained from stenotic and non-stenotic DD specimens was conducted and compared with controls. Biological activity and qPCR analysis were performed on longitudinal and circular muscles. Western blot analysis was performed throughout colonic wall layers to quantify oxidative and inflammatory markers.

RESULTS: A homogenous increase in oxidative stress was observed through all the layers, which were more sharpened in the longitudinal muscle for a loss in antioxidant defenses. In both stenotic and non-stenotic colon, the longitudinal muscle presented an impaired relaxation and a cellular phenotypic switch driven by transforming growth factor-β with an increase in mRNA expression of collagen Iα and a decrease in myosin heavy chain. The circular muscle, as the mucosa, was less affected by molecular alterations. No peculiar increase in inflammatory markers was observed.

CONCLUSION: A longitudinal colonic myopathy is present in DD, independently from the disease stage associated with an oxidative imbalance that could suggest new therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2022-02-25

Cirocchi R, Mari G, Amato B, et al (2022)

The Dilemma of the Level of the Inferior Mesenteric Artery Ligation in the Treatment of Diverticular Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(4): pii:jcm11040917.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although sigmoidectomy is a well-standardized procedure for diverticular disease, there are still unclear areas related to the varying morphology and vascular supply of the sigmoid colon. The level of vascular ligation could affect the functional outcomes of patients operated on for diverticular disease. The aim of this review is to primarily evaluate sexual, urinary and defecatory function outcomes, as well as postoperative results, in patients who underwent surgery for diverticular disease, with or without inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) preservation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE/PubMed, WOS and Scopus databases were interrogated. Comparative studies including patients who underwent sigmoidectomy for diverticular diseases were considered. Bowel function, genitourinary function, anastomotic leak, operation time, conversion to open surgery, anastomotic bleeding, bowel obstruction were the main items of interest.

RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in the review, three randomized and nine comparative studies. Bowel and genitourinary function are not differently affected by the level of vascular ligation. The site of ligation of IMA did not influence the rate of functional complications, anastomotic leak and bleeding. Of note, the preservation of IMA is associated with a higher conversion rate and longer operative time.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heterogeneity of patient groups, and although the findings should be interpreted with caution, functional and clinical outcomes after sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease do not seem to be affected by the level of vascular ligation as long as the IMA is ligated far from its origin.

RevDate: 2022-02-23

Fu Z, Kmeid M, Arker SH, et al (2022)

Diversion colitis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is distinct from that in non-IBD: Reappraisal of diversion colitis.

Human pathology pii:S0046-8177(22)00042-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The significant histologic overlap between diversion colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poses a diagnostic challenge. We aimed to identify histologic features that are characteristic of diverted colon segments among patients with IBD and compare them with histologic features identified in IBD colectomies. Archived slides from resected diverted colon segments from patients with (n = 79) and without (n = 80) IBD and the corresponding prior colectomies (n = 52) of the IBD patients were reviewed. Clinical and endoscopic data were collected, and a series of histologic features were evaluated and graded. Compared to the non-IBD group, IBD patients were more likely to be symptomatic and present with abnormal endoscopic findings (P < .05). The severity of inflammatory activity, crypt architectural distortion, mucosal atrophy, transmural inflammation, intramucosal lymphoid aggregates (IMLAs), and transmural lymphoid aggregates (TMLAs) were significantly greater in diverted segments in IBD cases than controls (P < .001). The severity of inflammatory activity, IMLAs, TMLAs, and transmural inflammation and the presence of ulcer(s) in the diverted colon segments of IBD patients were associated with the histologic features reflective of IBD activity such as inflammatory activity, transmural inflammation and ulcer(s) in the preceding colectomies (P < .05). Diversion colitis developing in the setting of IBD is endoscopically and histologically distinct from that observed among individuals without IBD. Inflammatory activity, presence of ulcer(s), IMLAs, TMLAs, and transmural inflammation in diverted colon segments of IBD patients may, in part, reflect the severity of underlying IBD rather than pure diversion colitis.

RevDate: 2022-02-23

Vaghiri S, Jagalla DM, Prassas D, et al (2022)

Early elective versus elective sigmoid resection in diverticular disease: not only timing matters-a single institutional retrospective review of 133 patients.

Langenbeck's archives of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The optimal timing of elective surgery in patients with the colonic diverticular disease remains controversial. We aimed to analyze the timing of sigmoidectomy in patients with diverticular disease and its influence on postoperative course with respect to the classification of diverticular disease (CDD).

METHODS: Patients who underwent elective laparoscopic sigmoidectomy were retrospectively enrolled and subdivided into two groups based on the time interval between the last attack and surgery: group A, early elective (≤ 6 weeks), and group B, elective (> 6 weeks). Multivariate regression models were used to identify factors which predict conversion to laparotomy, postoperative course, and length of hospital stay.

RESULTS: A total of 133 patients (group A (n = 88), group B (n = 45)) were included. Basic demographic data did not differ between groups except for a higher rate of diabetes in group B (p = 0.009). The conversion rate was significantly higher in group A in comparison to group B (group A vs. group B: n = 23 (26.1%) vs. n = 3 (6.7%), p = 0.007). Logistic regression analysis revealed the timing of surgery and CDD stage as significant predictors for intraoperative conversion. Moreover, the postoperative course was influenced by high age as well as intraoperative conversion and length of hospital stay by conversion, preoperative CRP levels, and elective surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: Both, timing of surgery and the disease stage, influence the conversion rates in laparoscopic sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease. Accordingly, patients with complicated acute or chronic sigmoid diverticulitis should be operated in the inflammation-free interval.

RevDate: 2022-02-22

Wittström F, Skajaa N, Bonnesen K, et al (2022)

Type 2 diabetes and risk of diverticular disease: a Danish cohort study.

BMJ open, 12(2):e059852 pii:bmjopen-2021-059852.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between type 2 diabetes and risk of diverticular disease. Unlike previous studies, which have found conflicting results, we aimed to distinguish between diabetes types and adjust for modifiable risk factors.

DESIGN: Observational cohort study.

SETTING: Population-based Danish medical databases, covering the period 2005-2018.

PARTICIPANTS: Respondents of the 2010 or the 2013 Danish National Health Survey, of which there were 15 047 patients with type 2 diabetes and 210 606 patients without diabetes.

Hazard ratios (HRs) for incident hospital diagnosis of diverticular disease adjusted for survey year, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity intensity, smoking behaviour, diet and education based on Cox regression analysis. As latency may affect the association between type 2 diabetes and diverticular disease, patients with type 2 diabetes were stratified into those with <2.5, 2.5-4.9 and ≥5 years duration of diabetes prior to cohort entry.

RESULTS: For patients with and without diabetes the incidence rates of diverticular disease were 0.76 and 0.54 events per 1000 person years, corresponding to a crude HR of 1.08 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.16) and an adjusted HR of 0.88 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.96). The HR was lower among patients with ≥5 years duration of diabetes (adjusted HR: 0.76, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.87) than among those with 2.5-4.9 years or <2.5 years duration.

CONCLUSION: We found that patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher incidence rate of diverticular disease compared with patients without diabetes. However, after adjustment for modifiable risk factors, driven by BMI, type 2 diabetes appeared to be associated with a slightly lower risk of diverticular disease. Lack of adjustment for BMI may partially explain the conflicting findings of previous studies.

RevDate: 2022-02-09

Gonai T, Toya Y, Kudara N, et al (2022)

Risk factors for short-term re-bleeding in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding: a multicenter retrospective study.

Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Few studies have evaluated risk factors for short-term re-bleeding in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB). We aimed to reveal risk factors for re-bleeding within a month in patients with CDB.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical course of patients with CDB diagnosed at 10 institutions between 2015 and 2019. Risk factors for re-bleeding within a month were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: Among 370 patients, 173 (47%) patients had been under the use of antithrombotic agents (ATs) and 34 (9%) experienced re-bleeding within a month. Multivariate analysis revealed that the use of ATs was an independent risk factor for re-bleeding within a month (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.10-5.50, p = .028). Furthermore, use of multiple ATs and continuation of ATs were found to be independent risk factors for re-bleeding within a month (HR 3.88, 95% CI 1.49-10.00, p = .007 and HR 3.30, 95% CI 1.23-8.63, p = .019, respectively). Two of 370 patients, who discontinued ATs, developed thromboembolic event.

CONCLUSIONS: Use of ATs was an independent risk factor for short-term re-bleeding within a month in patients with CDB. This was especially the case for the use of multiple ATs and continuation of ATs. However, discontinuation of ATs may increase the thromboembolic events those patients.

RevDate: 2022-02-08

Shaw RD, Eid MA, Ramkumar N, et al (2022)

Minimally Invasive Surgery Approach is Not Associated With Differences in Long-Term Bowel Function Patient-Reported Outcomes After Elective Sigmoid Colectomy.

The Journal of surgical research, 274:85-93 pii:S0022-4804(22)00006-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Postoperative bowel function is a common concern for patients undergoing a sigmoidectomy. We have previously demonstrated that patients with symptomatic bowel function preoperatively have substantial improvement at long-term follow-up. However, the effect of the operative approach on patient-reported bowel function is largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the differences in long-term patient-reported bowel function after robotic or laparoscopic sigmoid colectomies for benign and malignant disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected institutional database from July 2015 to July 2020. Patients included underwent a sigmoid colectomy for benign or malignant disease and completed the Colorectal Functional Outcome (COREFO) questionnaire at preoperative presentation, postoperatively, and long-term follow-up. Differences between preoperative and postoperative scores, as well as differences between the robotic and laparoscopic cohorts, were compared using paired t-tests.

RESULTS: A total of 169 patients met inclusion criteria with a median age of 61 y, and 55% of the patients underwent robotic sigmoid colectomy, with the most common diagnosis being diverticular disease (62%). There was no significant difference between the presentation, short-term, or long-term follow-up total COREFO scores or subdomains based on the surgical technique. Patients that present asymptomatic remain asymptomatic, while those that are symptomatic demonstrate improvements for both the robotic and laparoscopic groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Patient-reported long-term global bowel function does not appear to differ between patients who underwent elective robotic or laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy for benign or malignant disease. Patients that present asymptomatic remain asymptomatic, while those that are symptomatic demonstrate improvements, regardless of surgical technique.

RevDate: 2022-02-04

Li F, Lu Y, Hou F, et al (2021)

Significance of the Entire Appendiceal Evaluation in the Diagnosis of Serrated Lesions, Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm, and Appendiceal Diverticulosis Disease.

Frontiers in oncology, 11:812794.

Objective: This study was conducted in order to investigate the significance of the entire appendiceal evaluation in the pathological diagnosis of appendiceal serrated lesions, low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN), and appendiceal diverticulosis disease (ADD).

Methods: A total of 702 appendectomy specimens diagnosed from 2017 to 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. The specimens were divided into two groups according to the different sampling procedures. In group 1, the vast majority of 337 specimens were partially submitted by routine sampling within 18 months from October 2017 to March 2019. In group 2, 365 of specimens were entirely submitted and examined within 18 months from April 2019 to October 2020. The incidence and pathological features of serrated lesions, LAMN, and ADD in the two groups were compared and analyzed. The clinicopathological characteristics between different entities were also studied.

Results: Forty appendiceal serrated lesions, 8 LAMNs, and 21 diverticula were accidentally detected in 702 appendectomy specimens. As compared with group 1, the incidence of appendiceal serrated lesions in group 2 was significantly increased (9.3% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.01), especially for the serrated lesions without dysplasia (7.4% vs. 1.2%, P < 0.01). The entire sampling revealed that loss of lamina propria and replacement with dysplastic mucinous epithelium were statistically significantly associated with LAMN rather than serrated lesions and ADD (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Mural mucin deposition and fibrosis were useful features to distinguish LAMN from simple serrated lesions (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), but mucin deposition was useless for the distinction between LAMN and ADD (P > 0.05) or serrated lesions combined with ADD.

Conclusion: Our study highlights the importance and necessity of careful gross assessment and histologic examination of the entire appendectomy specimen, since the association with unexpected appendiceal lesions is significant and cannot be ignored. The entirely submitted appendix is more sensitive for the detection of appendiceal serrated lesions. In addition, thorough examination and evaluation are essential to distinguish the key pathological features between appendiceal serrated lesions, LAMN, and ADD.

RevDate: 2022-01-31

Kruis W, L Leifeld (2022)

[Diverticula of the colon: Review of related entities].

Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 147(3):119-131.

Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease, and Diverticulitis, comprising different entities, pose increasing burdens for health care systems. The introduction of new scientific knowledge into daily clinical work is challenging for attending physicians. This review is related to case presentations and currently debated questions are discussed such as definitions: Which entities are meant by the term "Diverticular Disease", is "uncomplicated symptomatic Diverticular Disease"(SUDD) reality? To classify diverticula related diseases targeted diagnosis including imaging is necessary. The question is ultrasound or computed tomography, or the combination and in which order?Lastly, open questions of treatment have to be addressed: Outpatient care or hospitalisation, always antibiotics or only in defined situations, relapse prevention, indications to operate upon?The present review comes along with revised German guidelines, which will be published later this year on S3-level.

RevDate: 2022-01-30

Longo S, Altobelli E, Castellini C, et al (2022)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetylsalicylic acid increase the risk of complications of diverticular disease: a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetylsalicylic acid in the occurrence of diverticular bleeding (DB), complicated diverticulitis (CD), and acute diverticulitis (AD) is not yet defined.

AIM: Update a systematic review and meta-analyses of case-control and cohort studies to evaluate the association between NSAIDs or acetylsalicylic acid with DB, CD, or AD.

METHODS: The study included were identified through MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Sizes were pooled across studies to obtain the overall effect size. A random-effects model was used to account for different sources of variation among studies. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as a measure of effect size.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid use were associated with an increased risk of DB (OR: 6.90, 95% CI 3.86 to 12.35, P ˂ 0.00001, and OR 2.84, 95% CI 2.19 to 3.67, P < 0.00001, respectively). NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid use were also associated with increased risk of CD occurrence (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.73 to 5.68, P = 0.0002, and OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.17, P = 0.04, respectively). The only study found about AD occurrence showed that NSAIDs use was not associated with AD and acetylsalicylic acid use had a low risk of AD.

CONCLUSION: NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid significantly increase the risk of DB and CD. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of NSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid in AD. However, increasing evidence suggests caution in the use of such medications in patients with colonic diverticula.

RevDate: 2022-01-25

Matli VVK, Thoguluva Chandrasekar V, Campbell JL, et al (2022)

Jejunal Diverticulitis: A Rare Diverticular Disease of the Bowel.

Cureus, 14(1):e21386.

Diverticulosis is an out-pocketing of the bowel wall that can affect the small bowel through the large bowel. Small bowel diverticulosis is rare and not as common as colonic diverticulosis, which is an important diagnosis for hospitalizations. Moreover, jejunal diverticulosis is rare among cases of small bowel diverticulosis. Jejunal diverticulitis is one of the complications of jejunal diverticulosis that can be conservatively managed with antibiotics instead of surgery. We report a case of a 41-year-old African American man who presented with vague epigastric pain and was diagnosed with adhesive jejunal diverticulitis upon contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen. The patient did not develop any life-threatening complications such as perforation or peritonitis, and recovered after conservative management with antibiotics. Adhesive jejunal diverticulitis with fat stranding was the distinctive finding in our patient, as he might have had multiple asymptomatic episodes. Initial diagnostic modalities include radiography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Enteroclysis is the most reliable and accurate diagnostic modality, but is not available in all urgent settings. Recently, endoscopy has replaced radiological studies. Conservative management is adequate for uncomplicated cases of jejunal diverticulitis. However, surgical intervention is required in most cases of complicated jejunal diverticulosis, or mortality rates will be high.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Fleites O, Pelenyi SS, Lee CK, et al (2021)

Persistent Small Bowel Obstruction due to Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report.

Cureus, 13(12):e20233.

Small bowel obstruction (SBO), of both partial and complete types, is a condition predominantly caused by intra-abdominal adhesions and hernias. However, a known but very uncommon cause of SBO is malignancies, which are more complicated than those caused by adhesions and hernias, and associated with poorer prognoses; of these, small bowel adenocarcinoma is an even rarer etiology of SBO. The majority of SBO cases that are treated have resolution of symptoms and do not have recurrence/persistence of the condition; however, reports suggest that approximately one-fifth of SBO cases that are treated will result in recurrence/persistence of SBO requiring repeat admission. Here we report the case of an 89-year-old female with a past medical history of right lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, inferior vena cava filter placement, iron deficiency anemia, diverticular disease, internal hemorrhoids, sick sinus syndrome, emphysema, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism, who presented with diarrhea and intermittent dark stool. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) while in the emergency department initially showed possible ischemic bowel and SBO. After an exploratory laparotomy with small bowel resection and adhesiolysis, pathological analysis of a resected specimen showed infiltrating small bowel adenocarcinoma. Persistence of symptoms necessitated subsequent abdominal imaging, which demonstrated persistent SBO, which was treated with a second exploratory laparotomy with small bowel resection and end ileostomy.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Eguia E, Classen T, Choudhry M, et al (2021)


International journal of healthcare management, 14(4):1518-1524.

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion on rates of hospitalization and surgery for diverticulitis.

STUDY SETTINGS: Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases from 2010 to 2014.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study analyzing adult patients undergoing surgery for diverticulitis in the expansion and nonexpansion states, pre (2010-2013) and post (2014) Medicaid expansion.

FINDINGS: There were a total of 159,419 patients in our cohort analysis. 75,575 (49%) in expansion states and 81,844 (51%) in non-expansion states. In multivariable Poisson regression, the rate of surgical procedures for diverticular disease increased among Medicaid patients (IRR 1.80; p<.01) whereas surgery rates in self-pay patients decreased (IRR 0.67; p<.01) in expansion states compared to non-expansion states.

CONCLUSIONS: In states that expanded Medicaid coverage under the Affordable Care Act, the rate of surgery for diverticular disease in Medicaid patients increased. Therefore, legislation that increases healthcare access may increase the utilization of surgical care for diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2022-01-08

Dolejs SC, Nicolas M, Maun DC, et al (2021)

Localizing ureteral catheters for left-sided colectomy and proctectomy: Do the risks justify the benefits?.

American journal of surgery pii:S0002-9610(21)00761-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The role of ureteral catheters in left-sided colectomies and proctectomies remains debated. Given the rarity of ureteral injury, prior retrospective studies were underpowered to detect potentially small, but meaningful differences. This study seeks to determine the role and morbidity of ureteral catheters in left-sided colectomy and proctectomy using a large, national database.

METHODS: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project from 2012 to 2018 was queried. Left-sided colectomies or proctectomies were included. Propensity score matching and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed.

RESULTS: 8419 patients with ureteral catherization and 128,021 patients without catheterization were included. After matching, there was not a significant difference in ureteral injury between the groups (0.7% with vs 0.9% without, p = 0.07). Ureteral catheters were associated with increased overall morbidity and longer operative time. Increasing body mass index, operations for diverticular disease, conversion to open, T4 disease and increasing operative complexity were associated with ureteral injury (p < 0.01 for all).

CONCLUSIONS: Ureteral catheterization was not associated with decreased rates of ureteral injury when including all left-sided colectomies. High-risk patients for ureteral injury include those with obesity, diverticular disease, and conversion to open. Selective ureteral catheterization may be warranted in these settings.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Bertucci Zoccali M, H Vila-Reyes (2022)

Laparoscopic Sigmoid Colectomy for Diverticular Disease: Clinical Scenarios and Technical Options.

Diseases of the colon and rectum, 65(2):e78-e79.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Segna D, Jaklin PJ, Schnüriger B, et al (2021)

Health-related quality of life and functional disorders after diverticular surgery.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 14:17562848211066437 pii:10.1177_17562848211066437.

Diverticulosis and diverticulitis are leading indications for colorectal surgery in Western countries. Abdominal pain, functional disorders, and low health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can limit the outcome of abdominal surgery even in the absence of complications. Therefore, we aimed to review current evidence on postoperative long-term outcomes including HRQoL, functional disorders, abdominal pain, and patients' satisfaction after diverticular surgery for diverticulosis/diverticulitis. We performed a PubMed database search (inception: 17 December 2020). Identified publications were screened and outcome parameters extracted. In summary, HRQoL increased after diverticular surgery in 9 out of 10 longitudinal cohort studies. Similarly, patients' satisfaction with treatment and their choice to undergo surgery was commonly reported as high or very good, as reported in eight studies. In a randomized control trial and retrospective cohort, elective diverticular surgery was superior to conservative treatment regarding HRQoL. In cross-sectional analyses, chronic abdominal pain and functional disorders including defaecation disorders or diarrhoea/obstipation were found in a relevant fraction of patients. Incontinence ranged from 5% to 25% with insufficient data for comparison before and after surgery. However, functional disorders did not result in decreased HRQoL in most studies, and no increase in functional disorders was observed after elective diverticular surgery in longitudinal analyses. We conclude that HRQoL among operated patients with diverticular disease improved in most studies after surgery. Functional disorders and postoperative abdominal pain can be present after elective diverticular surgery; however, no increase in functional disorders was observed in longitudinal studies. Functional disorders after diverticular surgery need to be carefully discussed with the patient before surgery and a careful clinical assessment before surgery including incontinence scoring should be considered.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Chang WH, Mueller SH, Chung SC, et al (2022)

Increased burden of cardiovascular disease in people with liver disease: unequal geographical variations, risk factors and excess years of life lost.

Journal of translational medicine, 20(1):2.

BACKGROUND: People with liver disease are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), however, there has yet been an investigation of incidence burden, risk, and premature mortality across a wide range of liver conditions and cardiovascular outcomes.

METHODS: We employed population-wide electronic health records (EHRs; from 1998 to 2020) consisting of almost 4 million adults to assess regional variations in disease burden of five liver conditions, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), autoimmune liver disease, chronic hepatitis B infection (HBV), chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) and NAFLD, in England. We analysed regional differences in incidence rates for 17 manifestations of CVD in people with or without liver disease. The associations between biomarkers and comorbidities and risk of CVD in patients with liver disease were estimated using Cox models. For each liver condition, we estimated excess years of life lost (YLL) attributable to CVD (i.e., difference in YLL between people with or without CVD).

RESULTS: The age-standardised incidence rate for any liver disease was 114.5 per 100,000 person years. The highest incidence was observed in NAFLD (85.5), followed by ALD (24.7), HCV (6.0), HBV (4.1) and autoimmune liver disease (3.7). Regionally, the North West and North East regions consistently exhibited high incidence burden. Age-specific incidence rate analyses revealed that the peak incidence for liver disease of non-viral aetiology is reached in individuals aged 50-59 years. Patients with liver disease had a two-fold higher incidence burden of CVD (2634.6 per 100,000 persons) compared to individuals without liver disease (1339.7 per 100,000 persons). When comparing across liver diseases, atrial fibrillation was the most common initial CVD presentation while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was the least common. We noted strong positive associations between body mass index and current smoking and risk of CVD. Patients who also had diabetes, hypertension, proteinuric kidney disease, chronic kidney disease, diverticular disease and gastro-oesophageal reflex disorders had a higher risk of CVD, as do patients with low albumin, raised C-reactive protein and raised International Normalized Ratio levels. All types of CVD were associated with shorter life expectancies. When evaluating excess YLLs by age of CVD onset and by liver disease type, differences in YLLs, when comparing across CVD types, were more pronounced at younger ages.

CONCLUSIONS: We developed a public online app (https://lailab.shinyapps.io/cvd_in_liver_disease/) to showcase results interactively. We provide a blueprint that revealed previously underappreciated clinical factors related to the risk of CVD, which differed in the magnitude of effects across liver diseases. We found significant geographical variations in the burden of liver disease and CVD, highlighting the need to devise local solutions. Targeted policies and regional initiatives addressing underserved communities might help improve equity of access to CVD screening and treatment.

RevDate: 2021-12-29

Akram WM, Vohra N, Irish W, et al (2021)

Racial Disparity in the Surgical Management of Diverticular Disease.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Although minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has clearly been associated with improved colorectal surgery outcomes, not all populations benefit from this approach. Using a national database, we analyzed both, the trend in the utilization of MIS for diverticulitis and differences in utilization by race.

METHODS: Colon-targeted participant user files (PUFs) from 2012 to 18 were linked to respective PUFs in National Surgical Quality Improvement Project. Patients undergoing colectomy for acute diverticulitis or chronic diverticular disease were included. Surgical approach was stratified by race and year. To adjust for confounding and estimate the association of covariates with approach, data were fit using multivariable binary logistic regression main effects model. Using a joint effects model, we evaluated whether the odds of a particular approach over time was differentially affected by race.

RESULTS: Of the 46 713 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 83% were white, with 7% black and 10% other. Over the study period, there was a decrease in the rate of open colectomy of about 5% P < .001, and increase in the rate of utilization of laparoscopic and robotic approaches (RC) P < .0001. After adjusting for confounders, black race was associated with open surgery P < .0001.

CONCLUSION: There is disparity in the utilization of MIS for diverticulitis. Further research into the reasons for this disparity is critical to ensure known benefits of MIC are realized across all races.

RevDate: 2021-12-25

Lee CK, Wisnik CA, Abdel-Khalek A, et al (2021)

Peanut-Related Perforated Diverticulitis Before the Age of 60.

Cureus, 13(11):e19767.

We present a case in which a 55-year-old male with a past medical history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) presented with sharp, worsening right-sided abdominal pain radiating across the entire abdomen after eating peanuts. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed evidence of acute sigmoid diverticulitis complicated by a walled-off perforation. The patient's past medical history suggested previous recurrent episodes of diverticulitis. Our patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, sigmoid colon resection with low anterior anastomosis and proctocolectomy, and loop ileostomy. During treatment, the sigmoid colon was found to be very indurated and abnormally going all the way down to the peritoneal reflection. Appropriate identification of the patient's condition and timely intervention resulted in a successful outcome.

RevDate: 2021-12-22

Mari A, Sbeit W, Haddad H, et al (2021)

The impact of overweight on diverticular disease: a cross-sectional multicentre study.

Polish archives of internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis and diverticulitis has significantly increased in recent years. Obesity is a well-known risk factor for diverticulitis, but thus far less is known about the association between diverticulitis and overweight.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between overweight and diverticulitis and to study the potential relationship between body mass index (BMI) and disease severity.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter study. Patients who had been diagnosed with diverticulosis, which had been confirmed by colonoscopy, were included. The diagnosis of diverticulitis was confirmed by use of computed tomography. Weight status was defined as normal in cases of BMI = 18.5-24.9kg/m2, overweight when BMI was 25-29.9kg/m2 and obese with BMI ≥30kg/m2.

RESULTS: 592 patients were included. Among them, 157 patients (26.5%) were of normal BMI, 191 (32.3%) were overweight and 244 (41.2%) were obese. Patients with BMIs above the normal range had a higher odds of diverticulitis as compared with those with normal BMI (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 2.00-4.73, P <0.001). Obesity was associated with a higher odds of diverticulitis as compared with patients who had normal BMI (OR: 4.50, 95% CI 2.84-7.12, P <0.001). Patients with overweight BMI had a higher odds of diverticulitis than was found in the normal BMI group (OR: 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.00, P = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Overweight was associated with an increased risk of diverticulitis among patients with diverticulosis. Since overweight is a modifiable factor, this observation has preventive importance.

RevDate: 2021-12-16

Zhang X, Li X, He Y, et al (2021)

Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of colorectal cancer risk SNP effects on health outcomes in UK Biobank.

British journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Associations between colorectal cancer (CRC) and other health outcomes have been reported, but these may be subject to biases, or due to limitations of observational studies.

METHODS: We set out to determine whether genetic predisposition to CRC is also associated with the risk of other phenotypes. Under the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) and tree-structured phenotypic model (TreeWAS), we studied 334,385 unrelated White British individuals (excluding CRC patients) from the UK Biobank cohort. We generated a polygenic risk score (PRS) from CRC genome-wide association studies as a measure of CRC risk. We performed sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the results and searched the Danish Disease Trajectory Browser (DTB) to replicate the observed associations.

RESULTS: Eight PheWAS phenotypes and 21 TreeWAS nodes were associated with CRC genetic predisposition by PheWAS and TreeWAS, respectively. The PheWAS detected associations were from neoplasms and digestive system disease group (e.g. benign neoplasm of colon, anal and rectal polyp and diverticular disease). The results from the TreeWAS corroborated the results from the PheWAS. These results were replicated in the observational data within the DTB.

CONCLUSIONS: We show that benign colorectal neoplasms share genetic aetiology with CRC using PheWAS and TreeWAS methods. Additionally, CRC genetic predisposition is associated with diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-12-14

Cerruti T, Maillard MH, O Hugli (2021)

Acute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in an Emergency Department and Performance of the SHA2PE Score: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(23):.

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) is a frequent cause of emergency department (ED) consultation, leading to investigations but rarely to urgent therapeutic interventions. The SHA2PE score aims to predict the risk of hospital-based intervention, but has never been externally validated. The aim of our single-center retrospective study was to describe patients consulting our ED for LGIB and to test the validity of the SHA2PE score. We included 251 adult patients who consulted in 2017 for hematochezia of <24 h duration; 53% were male, and the median age was 54 years. The most frequent cause of LGIB was unknown (38%), followed by diverticular disease and hemorrhoids (14%); 20% had an intervention. Compared with the no-intervention group, the intervention group was 26.5 years older, had more frequent bleeding in the ED (47% vs. 8%) and more frequent hypotension (8.2% vs. 1.1%), more often received antiplatelet drugs (43% vs. 18%) and anticoagulation therapy (28% vs. 9.5%), more often had a hemoglobin level of <10.5 g/dl (49% vs. 6.2%) on admission, and had greater in-hospital mortality (8.2% vs. 0.5%) (all p < 0.05). The interventions included transfusion (65%), endoscopic hemostasis (47%), embolization (8.2%), and surgery (4%). The SHA2PE score predicted an intervention with sensitivity of 71% (95% confidence interval: 66-83%), specificity of 81% (74-86%), and positive and negative predictive values of 53% (40-65%) and 90% (84-95%), respectively. SHA2PE performance was inferior to that in the original study, with a 1 in 10 chance of erroneously discharging a patient for outpatient intervention. Larger prospective validation studies are needed before the SHA2PE score can be recommended to guide LGIB patient management in the ED.

RevDate: 2021-12-08

Wexner SD (2021)

Scoring systems for diverticular disease.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2021-326009 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-12-08

Abd El Aziz MA, Grass F, Calini G, et al (2021)

Oral Antibiotics Bowel Preparation Without Mechanical Preparation For Minimally Invasive Colorectal Surgeries: Current Practice And Future Prospects.

Diseases of the colon and rectum pii:00003453-900000000-99246 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of preoperative oral antibiotics alone compared to mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics in minimally invasive surgery is still a matter of ongoing debate.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the trend of surgical site infection rates in parallel to the utilization of bowel preparation modality over time for minimally invasive surgery colorectal surgeries in the United States.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis.

SETTINGS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database.

PATIENTS: Adult patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery and reported bowel preparation modality.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The trends and compare surgical site infection rates for mutually exclusive groups according to the underlying disease (colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and diverticular disease) who underwent bowel preparation using oral antibiotics or combined mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics. Patients who had rectal surgery were analyzed separately.

RESULTS: A total of 30,939 patients were included. Of them, 12,417 (40%) had rectal resections. Over the seven-year study period, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics utilization has increased from 29.3% in 2012 to 64.0% in 2018; p<0.0001 at the expense of no preparation and mechanical bowel preparation alone. Similarly, oral antibiotics utilization has increased from 2.3% in 2012 to 5.5% in 2018; p<0.0001. For colon cancer patients, patients who had oral antibiotics alone had higher superficial surgical site infection rates compared to patients who had combined mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics (1.9% vs. 1.1%; p=0.043). Superficial, deep and organ space surgical site infection rates were similar for all other comparative colon surgery groups (cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and diverticular disease). Patients with rectal cancer who had oral antibiotics had higher rates of deep surgical site infection (0.9% vs. 0.1%; p=0.004). However, superficial, deep and organ space surgical site infection rates were similar for all other comparative rectal surgery groups.

LIMITATIONS: Retrospective nature of the analysis.

CONCLUSION: This study revealed widespread adoption of mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics and increased adoption of oral antibiotics over the study period. Surgical site infection rates appear to be similar from a clinical relevance standpoint among most comparative groups, questioning systematic preoperative addition of mechanical bowel preparation to oral antibiotics alone in all patients for minimally invasive colorectal surgery. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B828 .

RevDate: 2021-12-01

Palacios Huatuco RM, Pantoja Pachajoa DA, Liaño JE, et al (2021)

Right-Sided Acute Diverticulitis in the West: Experience at an University Hospital in Argentina.

Annals of coloproctology pii:ac.2021.00402.0057 [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose: In the West, diverticular disease is located mainly in the left colon. However, it can also present in the right colon, with an incidence of 1%-2% in Caucasians. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience in right-sided acute diverticulitis (RD).

Methods: In this retrospective study, 410 patients with acute diverticulitis treated from 2013 to 2020 were included in a university hospital in Córdoba, Argentina. Colonic diverticulitis was stratified into 2 groups; RD and left-sided acute diverticulitis. Demographic and clinical variables, laboratory and imaging findings, type of treatment, follow-up, and recurrence were analyzed.

Results: Sixteen patients (3.9%) with RD were identified; 62.5% were male and the mean age was 40.7±11.7 years. A total of 81.3% were Caucasian and 18.7% Native American. Significant differences were found between both groups of diverticulitis; patients with RD were younger (P=0.001), with lower BMI (P=0.01), comorbidity rate (P=0.01), Charlson comorbidity index (P=0.02), hospital stay (P=0.01), severity according to the Hinchey classification (P=0.001) and had a lower recurrence rate (P=0.001). There were no significant differences in sex (P=0.95), duration of pain until admission (P=0.05), laboratory findings (P=0.23) and treatment (P=0.34).

Conclusion: Conservative treatment predominated in RD, with a lower rate of complications and recurrences, providing data that support conservative therapy as initial treatment in RD in our environment.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Anjum R, Kumar N, Singla T, et al (2021)

A Case of Isolated Jejunal Diverticulum Presented as Free Perforation: A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen.

Cureus, 13(10):e18809.

Jejunal diverticulum is a very rare disease. Diagnosis of this condition is a challenge owing to non-specific complaints of the patient. Fifteen percent cases of jejunal diverticula present with acute abdomen. Approximately 77% of small bowel diverticular disease occur with multiple diverticula. Here we describe a case of complicated isolated jejunal diverticula presenting with perforation, which was successfully treated with resection of the involved segment with anastomosis.

RevDate: 2021-12-24
CmpDate: 2021-12-24

Hutchings A, Moler Zapata S, O'Neill S, et al (2021)

Variation in the rates of emergency surgery amongst emergency admissions to hospital for common acute conditions.

BJS open, 5(6):.

BACKGROUND: This paper assesses variation in rates of emergency surgery (ES) amongst emergency admissions to hospital in patients with acute appendicitis, cholelithiasis, diverticular disease, abdominal wall hernia, and intestinal obstruction.

METHODS: Records of emergency admissions between 1 April 2010 and 31 December 2019 for the five conditions were extracted from Hospital Episode Statistics for 136 acute National Health Service (NHS) trusts in England. Patients who had ES were identified using Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) procedure codes, selected by consensus of a clinical panel. The differences in ES rates according to patient characteristics, and unexplained variations across NHS trusts were estimated by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for year of emergency admission, age, sex, ethnicity, diagnostic subcategories, index of multiple deprivation, number of co-morbidities, and frailty.

RESULTS: The cohort sizes ranged from 107 325 (hernia) to 268 253 (appendicitis) patients, and the proportion of patients who received ES from 11.0 per cent (diverticular disease) to 92.3 per cent (appendicitis). Older patients were generally less likely to receive ES, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ES for those aged 75-79 versus those aged 45-49 years: 0.34 (appendicitis), 0.49 (cholelithiasis), 0.87 (hernia), and 0.91 (intestinal obstruction). Patients with diverticular disease aged 75-79 were more likely to receive ES than those aged 45-49 (OR 1.40). Variation in ES rates across NHS trusts remained after case mix adjustment and was greatest for cholelithiasis (trust median 18 per cent, 10th to 90th centile 7-35 per cent).

CONCLUSION: For patients presenting as emergency hospital admissions with common acute conditions, variation in ES rates between NHS trusts remained after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. Age was strongly associated with the likelihood of ES receipt for some procedures.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Kühn F, Beger N, Solyanik O, et al (2021)

[Diverticular disease: Indications for surgery].

MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 163(20):44-47.

RevDate: 2021-11-18

DeLong CG, Scow JS, Morrell DJ, et al (2021)

Endoscopic management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas with over-the-scope clips: A single-institution case series.

Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Conventional surgical management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas can be morbid and is contraindicated in many patients. Our aim in this work is to evaluate our experience in the management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas with endoscopic over-the-scope (OTS) clips.

METHOD: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent attempted endoscopic OTS clip management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas between 2013 and 2020 was performed. Preoperative risk factors, operative details and postoperative outcomes are reported.

RESULTS: Ten patients were identified. Fistula types were: colovesical (five), rectovesical (two), colovaginal (two) and rectovaginal (one). The aetiology of the fistula was diverticular disease in seven (70%) cases and surgical complication of pelvic surgery in three (30%). The mean defect age was 157 ± 98 days, the mean defect diameter was 4.5 mm (range 2-10 mm) and the mean fistula length was 15 mm (range 2-25 mm). In nine (90%) cases, fistula identification and cannulation were performed through the nonenteric lumen of the fistula. Initial management with an OTS clip was technically successful in eight (80%) patients. Of the eight patients who underwent OTS clip placement, long-term success (mean follow-up 218 days, range 25-673 days) was achieved after initial intervention in four (50%) patients. One patient underwent serial OTS clip procedures and achieved long-term success after four interventions; three patients have not undergone a repeat procedure after initial failure.

CONCLUSION: Endoscopic management of colovesical and colovaginal fistulas with OTS clips offers a promising therapeutic option for patients with contraindications to conventional surgical management. Immediate technical success and long-term success rates are similar to other gastrointestinal tract applications of OTS clips.

RevDate: 2021-11-23
CmpDate: 2021-11-23

Fassari A, Santoro E, Paolantonio P, et al (2021)

Trans-vaginal repair of recurrent rectovaginal fistula with interposition of BIO-A Tissue Reinforcement.

Updates in surgery, 73(6):2381-2384.

Rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) represent the majority of all symptomatic leakages after anterior and low anterior resection in women. Conservative management is useful in paucisymptomatic patients with small fistulas but is usually unsuccessful in all other cases. The surgical strategies are various and heavily dependent on the type and extent of anatomic involvement. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with a multi-recurrent rectovaginal fistula that occurred since a laparoscopic sigmoidectomy was performed for a complicated diverticular disease in May 2015. An attempt to close the fistula was undertaken three times. In July 2019, a transvaginal repair was performed with interposition in the rectovaginal septum of GORE® BIO-A® Tissue Reinforcement. The postoperative course was uneventful. There was no recurrence and functional outcome was good at 24-months follow-up. Rectovaginal fistula can be successfully treated using the interposition of a GORE® BIO-A® Tissue Reinforcement with significant economic savings and good functional outcomes even through a transvaginal approach. It represents a therapeutic option for an otherwise difficult-to-treat complex fistula.

RevDate: 2021-11-12

Matkovic Z, M Zildzic (2021)

Colonoscopic Evaluation of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding (LGIB): Practical Approach.

Medical archives (Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), 75(4):274-279.

Background: Haematochesia (Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding (LGIB) is the most common reason for endoscopic examination. Generaly it is caused by hemorrhoids and diverticular disease, but other anorectal conditions can also lead to LGIB. Recurrent bleeding may result in secondary iron deficiency anemia. Colonoscopy is the primary diagnostic option for establishing a diagnosis of colonic bleeding.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze symptoms and endoscopic finding (specialy hemorrhoids) who may be sources of LGIB.Second goal of this study is to estimate time from onset of symptoms to performance of a colonoscopy.

Methods: A retrospective study included 603 adult patients who underwent colonoscopy in General Hospital "Sv. Apostol Luka", Doboj, Bosnia and Herzegovina, between 1.1.2020 and 31.12.2020.

Results: Average age of the examined population was 62±13,3years. According to the gender they were mostly men. To be exact,by percentage it was 53.7% of men and 46,3% of women, or by number: 324 men and 279 women. The most common indications for colonoscopy were LGIB (48,8%), abdominal pain and irregular stool. Most frequent endoscopic findings were hemorrhoids 42%. Normal findings had almost one third of all examinated patients. Combined findings-presence of more clinical entities in one patient were presented in 95 cases. In the group with hemorrhoids were almost two thirds of males, but there was no gender difference noted in between group with LGIB and without LGIB. More than half patients were older than 61 years. Anemia was presented in almost 20% of cases. Significantly it is higher frequency of abdominal pain, irregular stool and weight loss observed on the group without LGIB. Also, significantly more frequently patients with LGIB underwent colonoscopy in 0-30 days when compared with patients without LGIB (p=0,016).

Conclusion: In patients with haematochezia, taking a careful medical history is mandatory. Hemorrhoids, diverticular disease and colorectal cancers are the most common causes of bleeding. Patients with LGIB and abdominal pain were previously examined with colonoscopy. Completely colonoscopy is advocated to detect probable proximal lesions.

RevDate: 2021-11-11

Schmidt E, Corbitt M, Kulendran K, et al (2021)

Fistulating diverticular disease masquerading as a peri-anal abscess: a laparoscopic approach to management.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2021(11):rjab483.

We present a rare case of complicated sigmoid diverticulitis presenting as a peri-anal abscess from an extra-sphincteric fistulous tract. This presentation of a colocutaneous peri-anal abscess is extremely rare, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. Most are managed with an open sigmoid colectomy, however, this case was successfully managed laparoscopically. It highlights the need to consider extra-levator causes of peri-anal abscess, such as pelvic sepsis causing fistulating disease, and to consider early magnetic resonance imaging if there is clinical suspicion of underlying pathology. It also demonstrates that a safe and potentially less morbid outcome is possible via laparoscopic approach when compared to traditional open surgical approach.

RevDate: 2021-11-10

Nugroho AN, Dina Soraya AA, Prawirohardjo AN, et al (2021)

Management of colocutaneus fistula with laparoscopic surgery: Case report.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 70:102883.

Background: Colocutaneous fistulas can occur as the result of complications from diverticular colon surgery. Enterocutaneous fistula is a type of fistula that accounts for about 88.2% of all fistulas. In this report, we describe a case reports of the management of colocutaneous fistula with laparoscopic surgery.

Case presentation: In this case reports, both patients complained of increased amount of abdominal discharge after surgery. In Case 1, a 43-year-old female patient complained of a lump in her lower abdomen which had been there for three months. After removal of the lump, there was blood in the drainage tube. After three months, her surgeon advised to close the stoma. In Case 2, a 47-year-old male patient lived with colocutaneous fistula for a year. He had been involved in a traffic accident and underwent laparotomy sigmoidostomy. Both patients experienced pain, and there also were feces and bad odor coming out from the surgical incision. Then, both patients underwent colonoscopy, which revealed coloncutaneous fistulas. Laparoscopic surgery was conducted and there was adhesion between the sigmoid colon and ileum in the ventral abdomen wall. After the laparoscopic procedure, the patients were discharged 3 days later without any complaints.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic colectomy has recently replaced open resection as standard surgery. This procedure is safe, feasible, and effective for diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-11-05

Bujold-Pitre K, O Mailloux (2021)

Diverticulitis of the appendix-case report and literature review.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2021(10):rjab488.

Appendiceal diverticulitis is a rare diagnostic most often mistaken for an acute appendicitis. A 72-year-old man presented with a transfixing abdominal pain for 48 hours. Appendicitis was diagnosed on computed tomography scan, but a neoplasm could not be excluded. A laparoscopic hemicolectomy was performed after a surgical consensus considering the neoplastic appearance of the lesion and anatomical feature. Histopathology finally revealed an appendiceal diverticulitis. Appendiceal diverticulum is a rare condition. Most will lead to an appendiceal diverticulitis, which present similarly to an appendicitis. Perforation rate and mortality rate are much higher in appendiceal diverticulitis than in appendicitis. Furthermore, appendiceal diverticular disease is strongly associated with neoplasms, especially mucinous neoplasms and thus pseudomyxoma peritonei. Considering the high complication rate and malignant association, an appendicectomy in case of an appendiceal diverticulitis or of an incidental finding of appendiceal diverticulosis should be recommended to the patient.

RevDate: 2021-11-03

Hajirawala LN, Moreci R, Leonardi C, et al (2021)

Laparoscopic Colectomy for Acute Diverticulitis in the Urgent Setting is Associated with Similar Outcomes to Open.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The role of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for the surgical treatment of diverticular disease is evolving. The aim of this study is to compare the outcomes of MIS colectomy to those of open surgery for patients with acute diverticulitis requiring urgent surgery.

METHODS: The American college of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database was queried for all patients undergoing an urgent colectomy for acute diverticulitis between 2013 and 2018. The patients were then divided into 2 groups: MIS and open. Baseline characteristics and short-term outcomes were compared using univariable and multivariable regression analyses.

RESULTS/OUTCOMES: 3487 patients were included in the analysis. Of these, 1272 (36.5%) underwent MIS colectomy and 2215 (63.5%) underwent open colectomy. Patients undergoing MIS colectomy were younger (58.7 vs 61.9 years) and less likely to be American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification (ASA) III (52.5 vs 57.9%) or IV (6.3 vs 10.5%). After adjusting for baseline differences, the odds of mortality for MIS and open groups were similar. While there was no difference in short-term complications between groups, the odds of developing an ileus were lower following MIS colectomy (OR .61, 95% CI: .49, .76). Both total length of stay (LOS) (12.3 vs 13.9 days) and post-operative LOS (7.6 days vs 9.5 days) were shorter for MIS colectomy. Minimally invasive surgery colectomy added an additional 40 minutes of operative time (202.2 vs 160.1 min).

CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: Minimally invasive surgery colectomy appears to be safe for patients requiring urgent surgical management for acute diverticulitis. Decreased incidence of ileus and shorter LOS may justify any additional operative time for MIS colectomy in suitable candidates.

RevDate: 2021-11-02

Böhm SK (2021)

Excessive Body Weight and Diverticular Disease.

Visceral medicine, 37(5):372-382.

Background: The worldwide proportion of overweight adults almost doubled from 22% in 1975 to 39% in 2016. Comparably, for the USA and Germany in 2016, the proportion was 68 and 56.8%, respectively. In Olmsted County, Minnesota, the prevalence of diverticulitis also doubled between 1980 and 2007, from 19 to 40%. Obesity substantially increases the risk of multiple gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and non-GI diseases. In a narrative review, we examined the evidence on whether obesity also increases the risk for the development of diverticulosis or diverticular disease and its outcome.

Summary: Evidence suggests that being overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) or obese (≥30 kg/m2), especially viscerally obese, is a risk factor for diverticulosis, diverticular disease and diverticulitis, diverticular bleeding, more severe or complicated disease, recurrent disease, and for worse outcomes after surgery.

Key Messages: There is a well-founded association between overweight and diverticular disease as well as diverticulosis. It is not clear whether overweight per se or confounders linked with it are responsible for the association. However, means to fight the overweight and obesity epidemic might also help to reduce the prevalence of morbidity and mortality from diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-10-29
CmpDate: 2021-10-29

Lemes VB, Galdino GG, Romão P, et al (2021)


Arquivos de gastroenterologia, 58(3):394-398.

BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is an acute inflammatory process that affects individuals with diverticular disease. Given the sharp increase in the diagnostic rate of such a pathological process, there was also an increased interest in elucidating the possible causes related to the development of this clinical condition. Among the main factors investigated, diet excels, the object of study of this integrative literature review.

METHODS: After searching the virtual health library and PubMed databases, five prospective cohort studies were selected that best answered the guiding question: "Is there a relationship between diet and the incidence of diverticulitis?".

RESULTS: It was observed that the high intake of red meat and the low intake of dietary fiber were the most strongly associated dietary factors with the incidence of this inflammatory process.

CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is evident that choosing healthy eating habits can considerably reduce the incidence of diverticulitis and, consequently, potentially more serious complications directly related to it.

RevDate: 2021-12-09

Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Di Mario F, et al (2021)

Prognostic performance of the 'DICA' endoscopic classification and the 'CODA' score in predicting clinical outcomes of diverticular disease: an international, multicentre, prospective cohort study.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2021-325574 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of the Diverticular Inflammation and Complication Assessment (DICA) classification and to develop and validate a combined endoscopic-clinical score predicting clinical outcomes of diverticulosis, named Combined Overview on Diverticular Assessment (CODA).

DESIGN: A multicentre, prospective, international cohort study.

SETTING: 43 gastroenterology and endoscopy centres located in Europe and South America.

PARTICIPANTS: 2215 patients (2198 completing the study) at the first diagnosis of diverticulosis/diverticular disease were enrolled. Patients were scored according to DICA classifications.

INTERVENTIONS: A 3-year follow-up was performed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To predict the acute diverticulitis and the surgery according to DICA classification. Survival methods for censored observation were used to develop and validate a novel combined endoscopic-clinical score for predicting diverticulitis and surgery (CODA score).

RESULTS: The 3-year cumulative probability of diverticulitis and surgery was of 3.3% (95% CI 2.5% to 4.5%) in DICA 1, 11.6% (95% CI 9.2% to 14.5%) in DICA 2 and 22.0% (95% CI 17.2% to 28.0%) in DICA 3 (p<0.001), and 0.15% (95% CI 0.04% to 0.59%) in DICA 1, 3.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 4.7%) in DICA 2 and 11.0% (95% CI 7.5% to 16.0%) in DICA 3 (p<0.001), respectively. The 3-year cumulative probability of diverticulitis and surgery was ≤4%, and ≤0.7% in CODA A; <10% and <2.5% in CODA B; >10% and >2.5% in CODA C, respectively. The CODA score showed optimal discrimination capacity in predicting the risk of surgery in the development (c-statistic: 0.829; 95% CI 0.811 to 0.846) and validation cohort (c-statistic: 0.943; 95% CI 0.905 to 0.981).

CONCLUSIONS: DICA classification has a significant role in predicting the risk of diverticulitis and surgery in patients with diverticulosis, which is significantly enhanced by the CODA score.


RevDate: 2021-10-24

Giuliani G, Guerra F, Coletta D, et al (2021)

Correction to: Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic technique for the treatment of left‑sided colonic diverticular disease: a systematic review with meta‑analysis.

RevDate: 2021-10-26
CmpDate: 2021-10-26

Cirocchi R, Nascimbeni R, Burini G, et al (2021)

The Management of Acute Colonic Diverticulitis in the COVID-19 Era: A Scoping Review.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 57(10):.

Background and Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health systems worldwide made major changes to their organization, delaying diagnosis and treatment across a broad spectrum of pathologies. Concerning surgery, there was an evident reduction in all elective and emergency activities, particularly for benign pathologies such as acute diverticulitis, for which we have identified a reduction in emergency room presentation with mild forms and an increase with more severe forms. The aim of our review was to discover new data on emergency presentation for patients with acute diverticulitis during the Covid-19 pandemic and their current management, and to define a better methodology for surgical decision-making. Method: We conducted a scoping review on 25 trials, analyzing five points: reduced hospital access for patients with diverticulitis, the preferred treatment for non-complicated diverticulitis, the role of CT scanning in primary evaluation and percutaneous drainage as a treatment, and changes in surgical decision-making and preferred treatment strategies for complicated diverticulitis. Results: We found a decrease in emergency access for patients with diverticular disease, with an increased incidence of complicated diverticulitis. The preferred treatment was conservative for non-complicated forms and in patients with COVID-related pneumonia, percutaneous drainage for abscess, or with surgery delayed or reserved for diffuse peritonitis or sepsis. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic we observed an increased number of complicated forms of diverticulitis, while the total number decreased, possibly due to delay in hospital or ambulatory presentation because of the fear of contracting COVID-19. We observed a greater tendency to treat these more severe forms by conservative means or drainage. When surgery was necessary, there was a preference for an open approach or a delayed operation.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Persaud S, Singh B, Brea F, et al (2021)

Recurrent, Complicated Diverticulitis With Atypical Features.

Cureus, 13(9):e17983.

Diverticular disease is a common condition responsible for significant costs to the healthcare system in the Western world. It ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to complicated diverticulitis. Here, we present a unique case of recurrent, complicated diverticulitis in a 62-year-old Caucasian male. Within a span of one year, he was hospitalized six times with diverticulitis before undergoing elective sigmoid colon resection. Imaging showed diverticulitis of distal descending and proximal sigmoid colon with sealed perforation, recurrent abscesses, and formation of colocutaneous fistulas. During each hospitalization, the patient was advised to follow up with general surgery and/or outpatient gastroenterology but chose not to do so. Eventually, he required an elective sigmoid colectomy with a takedown of the colocutaneous fistulas. In this case report, we discuss the atypical features and criteria for prophylactic colon resection in diverticulitis to highlight the importance of outpatient follow-up with general surgery and gastroenterology.

RevDate: 2021-10-15

Kent KG (2021)

Prevalence of gastrointestinal disease in US Military Veterans under outpatient care at the Veterans Health Administration.

SAGE open medicine, 9:20503121211049112.

Objectives: There are currently no reliable estimates of the prevalence of gastrointestinal disease in the US Military Veterans. Hence, the study aims to determine its prevalence in military Veterans in the United States.

Methods: This study utilized a retrospective, correlational design using a patient record database from the Department of Veteran's Affairs. The participants in the study were Veterans diagnosed with gastrointestinal disease. Specific gastrointestinal diseases include more than 500,000 ambulatory care visits annually in the United States, which included peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, diverticular disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional dyspepsia, as well as the symptoms of constipation and nausea/vomiting. This study revealed the exact prevalence of gastrointestinal disease diagnosed in Veterans served in outpatient settings by the Veterans Health Administration and broke down this prevalence over time and by the Veteran period of service.

Results: Findings revealed that gastrointestinal disease prevalence among Veterans varied according to their period of service.

Conclusions: Findings may help improve screening for Veterans with this increased risk factor. However, further research should be performed to verify the prevalence of gastrointestinal disease in Veterans as compared to the general American population.

RevDate: 2021-10-15
CmpDate: 2021-10-15

Aouad S, Ricou C, Mouraux S, et al (2021)

[Management of simple acute diverticulitis : Towards a "less is more" approach].

Revue medicale suisse, 17(754):1740-1744.

Acute diverticulitis is the most common complication of diverticular disease, increasing in industrialized countries and in young people under 45 years of age. The modified Hinchey classification remains the most widely used and includes simple diverticulitis, i.e. localized inflammation without sepsis, and complicated diverticulitis from pericolic abscess to stercoral peritonitis. Recent studies recommend conservative management of uncomplicated forms. This article summarizes the management of simple acute left-sided diverticulitis based on the new recommendations and focusing on antibiotic treatment, outpatient or inpatient management and indications for colonoscopy.

RevDate: 2021-10-11

Lurz M, Gazis A, Hanschke S, et al (2021)

Value of high-field magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis and classification of acute colonic diverticulitis.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Due to limited and outdated literature, the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostic work-up of acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is still under debate. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of modern high-field MRI and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in the diagnosis and classification of ACD.

METHODS: In our prospective study 24 emergency patients with the clinical diagnosis of ACD received MDCT and high-field MRI. Imaging features of ACD were assessed and categorized according to the classification of diverticular disease (CDD) by three independent readers. Results were matched with the final clinical report.

RESULTS: MRI with a specialized examination protocol clearly depicted all relevant findings of ACD. Statistical analysis resulted in an almost perfect strength of agreement between CT and MRI across all readers for the final CDD category (κ = 0.94) and the stage-related image features (κ = 0.98). Moderate agreement was seen for the detection of micro-abscesses (κ = 0.78), with a slight advantage for MRI.

CONCLUSION: Modern high-field MRI is fully comparable to MDCT in the assessment of ACD and has the potential to serve as a first-line imaging tool.

RevDate: 2021-10-08

Tomer N, Chakravarty D, Ratnani P, et al (2021)

Impact of diverticular disease on prostate cancer risk among hypertensive men.

Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a heterogenous disease with multiple etiological factors playing a role in its development. Recently, chronic and systemic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease were identified as key risk factors influencing its development. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between diverticular disease (DD) (local and acute inflammation) and PCa.

METHODS: Hypertensive patients with DD and hypertensive controls were identified between 1995 and 2010 from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database. Cohorts were queried for PCa incidence through 2015. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used for determining independent predictors of PCa diagnosis.

RESULTS: A total of 51,353 patients with DD and 111,541 controls were identified. In all, 6.26% of DD developed PCa, and 3.71% of controls developed PCa (p < 0.01). DD was a significant risk factor for PCa (OR: 1.27 CI: 1.19-1.34, p < 0.01). On subgroup analysis, the patients diagnosed with DD <50 years old had an OR of 3.39 for PCa (CI: 2.52-4.56, p < 0.01), age 50-59 had an OR of 2.12 (CI: 1.86-2.15, p < 0.01), and age 60-69 had an OR of 1.20 (CI: 1.10-1.31, p < 0.01). Finally, age and race stratification showed that white patients <50 had an OR of 2.56 (CI: 1.75-3.76, p < 0.01), while black patients <50 had an OR of 3.98 (CI: 2.61-6.07, p < 0.01). The trend in differing odds between these populations was the same for age groups 50-59 and 60-69.

CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that DD is associated with diagnosis of PCa in hypertensive men. Importantly, the earlier the diagnosis of DD, the higher the odds for development of PCa, particularly in black men.

RevDate: 2021-12-07

Eckmann JD, A Shaukat (2022)

Updates in the understanding and management of diverticular disease.

Current opinion in gastroenterology, 38(1):48-54.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diverticulosis leads to significant morbidity and mortality and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. In this paper, we review the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of diverticular disorders, followed by a discussion of recent updates and changes in the clinical approach to diverticular disease.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature suggests that antibiotics are likely not necessary for low-risk patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, and not all patients with recurrent diverticulitis require colectomy. Dietary restrictions do not prevent recurrent diverticulitis. Visceral hypersensitivity is increasingly being recognized as a cause of persistent abdominal pain after acute diverticulitis and should be considered along with chronic smoldering diverticulitis, segmental colitis associated with diverticula, and symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.

SUMMARY: Clinicians should be aware that traditionally held assumptions regarding the prevention and management of diverticular disorders have recently been called into question and should adjust their clinical practice accordingly.

RevDate: 2021-10-08

Kirita K, Kodaka Y, Shibata Y, et al (2021)

Impact of clinical characteristics of colonic diverticular bleeding in extremely elderly patients treated with direct oral anti-coagulant drugs: a retrospective multi-center study.

Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition, 69(2):222-228.

Since there were no available data about colonic diverticular bleeding in extremely elderly patients (>80 years old) treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), we tried to determine clinical characteristics in those with colonic diverticular bleeding taking DOACs and to compare clinical outcomes of those in DOAC-treated to those in warfarin-treated . We enrolled DOAC-treated (n = 20) and warfarin-treated (n = 23) extremely elderly patients with diverticular bleeding diagnosed by colonoscopy. We performed a retrospective review of patients' medical charts and endoscopic findings. We classified colonic diverticular bleeding based on endoscopic features due to modified previous study following three groups, type A (active bleeding), type B (non-active bleeding) and type C (bleeding suspected). Clinical outcomes such as number of recurrent bleeding, thrombotic events and mortality were estimated. There were no differences in endoscopical features and clinical characteristics between patients treated with DOAC and warfarin therapy. However, the number of recurrent bleeding, frequency of required blood transfusions and units of blood transfusion in warfarin-treated patients were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to those in DOAC-treated groups. In addition, mortality and thrombotic events did not differ between DOAC- and warfarin-treated patients. Clinical outcomes suggest that DOACs can be recommended for extremely elderly patients with colonic diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-06

Huizinga JD, Hussain A, JH Chen (2021)

Interstitial cells of Cajal and human colon motility in health and disease.

American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology, 321(5):G552-G575.

Our understanding of human colonic motility, and autonomic reflexes that generate motor patterns, has increased markedly through high-resolution manometry. Details of the motor patterns are emerging related to frequency and propagation characteristics that allow linkage to interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) networks. In studies on colonic motor dysfunction requiring surgery, ICC are almost always abnormal or significantly reduced. However, there are still gaps in our knowledge about the role of ICC in the control of colonic motility and there is little understanding of a mechanistic link between ICC abnormalities and colonic motor dysfunction. This review will outline the various ICC networks in the human colon and their proven and likely associations with the enteric and extrinsic autonomic nervous systems. Based on our extensive knowledge of the role of ICC in the control of gastrointestinal motility of animal models and the human stomach and small intestine, we propose how ICC networks are underlying the motor patterns of the human colon. The role of ICC will be reviewed in the autonomic neural reflexes that evoke essential motor patterns for transit and defecation. Mechanisms underlying ICC injury, maintenance, and repair will be discussed. Hypotheses are formulated as to how ICC dysfunction can lead to motor abnormalities in slow transit constipation, chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction, Hirschsprung's disease, fecal incontinence, diverticular disease, and inflammatory conditions. Recent studies on ICC repair after injury hold promise for future therapies.

RevDate: 2021-10-24

Giuliani G, Guerra F, Coletta D, et al (2021)

Robotic versus conventional laparoscopic technique for the treatment of left-sided colonic diverticular disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

International journal of colorectal disease [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Minimally invasive surgery has been universally accepted as a valid option for the treatment of diverticular disease, provided specific expertise is available. Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the application of robotic approaches for diverticular disease. We aimed at evaluating whether robotic colectomy may offer some advantages over the laparoscopic approach for surgical treatment of diverticular disease by meta-analyzing the available data from the medical literature.

METHODS: The PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Web Of Sciences electronic databases were searched for literature up to December 2020. Inclusion criteria considered all comparative studies evaluating robotic versus laparoscopic colectomy for diverticulitis eligible. The conversion rate to the open approach was evaluated as the primary outcome.

RESULTS: The data of 4177 patients from nine studies were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics. Patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy compared to those who underwent surgery with a robotic approach had a significantly higher risk of conversion into an open procedure (12.5% vs. 7.4%, p < 0.00001) and abbreviated hospital stay (p < 0.0001) at the price of a longer operating time (p < 0.00001).

CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional laparoscopic surgery, the robotic approach offers significant advantages in terms of conversion rate and shortened hospital stay for the treatment of diverticular disease. However, because of the lack of available evidence, it is impossible to draw definitive conclusions.

RevDate: 2021-10-02

Sijberden J, Snijders H, S van Aalten (2021)

Laparoscopic Lavage in Complicated Diverticulitis with Colonic Perforation, Always Be Closing?.

Case reports in gastroenterology, 15(2):765-771.

Laparoscopic lavage is seen as an acceptable alternative to colonic resection in selected patients with acute diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis. There is no consensus on what surgical technique should be used when performing this procedure. This case series describes the disease course of 3 patients with acute diverticulitis with purulent peritonitis treated with laparoscopic lavage and direct suturing of a colonic perforation. All patients (38- and 71-year-old males and a 44-year-old female) were seen in the emergency department due to acute lower abdominal pain. Clinical examination and laboratory and imaging studies were suggestive of perforated diverticular disease. Laparoscopic lavage with placement of drain(s) and direct suturing of a colonic perforation was performed. Postoperative treatment with intravenous antibiotics was continued for a variable term. Postoperative courses were uneventful. Patients were discharged on postoperative days 5, 5, and 7. At almost 1-year follow-up, all patients are in good clinical condition and have not had a recurrent episode of diverticulitis. Therefore, this case series shows promising results of laparoscopic lavage with direct suturing of colonic perforation in patients with diverticulitis with perforation and purulent peritonitis.

RevDate: 2021-10-22

Donatelli G, Cereatti F, Fazi M, et al (2021)

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of intra-abdominal diverticular abscess. A case series.

Journal of minimal access surgery, 17(4):513-518.

Aim: Diverticular disease is widespread worldwide. Mainstay approach is non-operative treatment with bowel rest and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. However, extra-colic abscess larger than 4 cm may require percutaneous trans-abdominal drainage. We report a single centre case series of patients underwent to trans-luminal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pelvic abscess in diverticular disease with temporary placement of lumen apposing metal stent (LAMS).

Methods: All patients referred to our tertiary centre from January 2019 to July 2020 were enrolled in a prospective data base that was retrospectively analysed. Procedural steps were as follows: pre-operative computed tomography scan, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, EUS-guided deployment of LAMS for 15 days, LAMS removal and deployment of pigtail stent in case of pseudo-cavity persistence.

Results: Ten patients (6F) with an average of 59.6 years were enrolled with deployment of 10 LAMS. One patient was excluded after EUS evaluation and 1 patient had 2 LAMS for 2 separate abscesses. Technical and clinical success was achieved in 88.8% (8/9).

Conclusions: Management of diverticulitis has shifted from primary surgical intervention towards a non-operative approach of bowel rest and broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics in conjunction with interventional procedures to drain abscesses whenever necessary. EUS-guided drainage with LAMS for the management of diverticular abscesses seems an efficient treatment modality for encapsulated abscesses more than 4 cm in size and close to colonic wall. In expert centres, it may avoid radiologic intervention and/or surgery in a relevant percentage of cases.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Cirocchi R, Sapienza P, Anania G, et al (2021)

State-of-the-art surgery for sigmoid diverticulitis.

Langenbeck's archives of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In the last two decades, there has been a Copernican revolution in the decision-making for the treatment of Diverticular Disease.

PURPOSE: This article provides a report on the state-of-the-art of surgery for sigmoid diverticulitis.

CONCLUSION: Acute diverticulitis is the most common reason for colonic resection after cancer; in the last decade, the indication for surgical resection has become more and more infrequent also in emergency. Currently, emergency surgery is seldom indicated, mostly for severe abdominal infective complications. Nowadays, uncomplicated diverticulitis is the most frequent presentation of diverticular disease and it is usually approached with a conservative medical treatment. Non-Operative Management may be considered also for complicated diverticulitis with abdominal abscess. At present, there is consensus among experts that the hemodynamic response to the initial fluid resuscitation should guide the emergency surgical approach to patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. In hemodynamically stable patients, a laparoscopic approach is the first choice, and surgeons with advanced laparoscopic skills report advantages in terms of lower postoperative complication rates. At the moment, the so-called Hartmann's procedure is only indicated in severe generalized peritonitis with metabolic derangement or in severely ill patients. Some authors suggested laparoscopic peritoneal lavage as a bridge to surgery or also as a definitive treatment without colonic resection in selected patients. In case of hemodynamic instability not responding to fluid resuscitation, an initial damage control surgery seems to be more attractive than a Hartmann's procedure, and it is associated with a high rate of primary anastomosis.

RevDate: 2021-10-28
CmpDate: 2021-10-28

Krishnamurthy K, Febres-Aldana CA, Melnick S, et al (2021)

Morphological and immunophenotypical analysis of the spindle cell component in adenomyomatous hyperplasia of the gallbladder.

Pathologica, 113(4):272-279.

Background: Adenomyomatous hyperplasia (AMH) of the gallbladder, reported in 1-8.7% of cholecystectomies, consists of cystically dilated sinuses/glands with a surrounding spindle cell proliferation which is thought to be composed of smooth muscle cells. Myofibroblasts are contractile cells that secrete a variety of biochemical modulators causing a "field-effect". Myofibroblasts can be immunohistochemically distinguished from smooth muscle cells by their desmin negativity.

Methods: Eighteen cases of AMH and five cases each of chronic follicular cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, gallbladder carcinoma and 10 colonic diverticular disease were stained with actin and desmin. The percentage of myofibroblasts was estimated by the difference between actin and desmin staining in the same field. Statistical anlysis was performed using SPSS 22.0.

Results: The percentage of actin staining was significantly higher in AMH and gallbladder carcinoma compared to chronic follicular and chronic cholecystitis (p = 0.04). The percentage of desmin staining did not show any significant difference between the four groups. The estimated myofibroblastic population was significantly higher in AMH when compared to chronic follicular and chronic cholecystitis (p = 0.005).

Conclusion: The spindle cell proliferation around cystically dilated glands in AMH is composed predominantly of myofibroblasts and of smooth muscle cells as previously described. This finding suggest a derangement in epithelial-stromal interactions as the underlying pathophysiology in AMH.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Origi M, Achilli P, Calini G, et al (2021)

The Diverticular Disease Registry (DDR Trial) by the Advanced International Mini-Invasive Surgery Academy Clinical Research Network: Protocol for a Multicenter, Prospective Observational Study.

International journal of surgery protocols, 25(1):194-200.

Diverticular disease is an increasingly common issue, with a variety of clinical presentations and treatment options. However, very few prospective cohort studies explore outcomes between the different presentations and treatments. The Diverticular Disease Registry (DDR Trial) is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study on behalf of the Advanced International Mini-Invasive Surgery (AIMS) academy clinical research network. The DDR Trial aims to investigate the short-term postoperative and long-term quality of life outcomes in patients undergoing surgery or medical treatments for diverticular disease. DDR Trial is open to participation by all tertiary-care hospitals. DDR Trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04907383). Data collection will be recorded on Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) starting on June 1st, 2021 and will end after 5 years of recruitment. All adult patients with imaging-proven colonic diverticular disease (i.e., symptomatic colonic diverticulosis including diverticular bleeding, diverticulitis, and Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease) will be included. The primary outcome of DDR Trial is quality of life assessment at 12-month according to the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). The secondary outcome is 30-day postoperative outcomes according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. DDR Trial will significantly advance in identifying the optimal care for patients with diverticular disease by exploring outcomes of different presentations and treatments.

Highlights: Diverticular disease (i.e., diverticulitis, bleeding) has different treatments.This is a clinical protocol for the Diverticular Disease Registry (DDR Trial).DDR Trial is a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study open to participation.DDR Trial will study short-term postoperative and long-term quality of life outcomes.Medical treatments, interventional radiology and surgery will be explored.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Ghuman A, Ganga R, Parisi Severino N, et al (2021)

Clinical Factors Contributing to Anastomotic Leak After Mid-to-High Colorectal Anastomosis.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Low colorectal anastomoses carry a high anastomotic leak (AL) rate (up to 20%) and thus are commonly diverted. Much less is known about mid-to-high colorectal anastomosis, which carries a leak rate of 2-4%. The objective of this study was to determine our AL rate after mid-to-high colorectal anastomosis and associated risk factors.

METHODS: A single center retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing left colonic resections with mid-to-high colorectal anastomosis (≥7 cm from the anal verge) from January 2008 to October 2017 was utilized. Main outcome, AL, defined as clinical suspicion supported by radiological or intraoperative findings, was calculated and risk factors assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: 977 patients were included; 487 (49.9%) were male, with a mean age of 59.8 (+/-12.1) years. Mean BMI was 27.5 (+/-5.5) kg/m2. Diverticular disease (67.5%), malignancy (17.4%), and inflammatory bowel disease (2.2%) were the main indications for resection. Mean length of stay was 6.7 (+/-4.5) days. 455 (46.8%) colonic resections were performed by laparoscopy, 283 (29.1%) by hand assisted surgery, 219 (22.5%) by laparotomy, and 16 (1.6%) by robotics. Majority of patients had complete donuts (99.6%) and a negative air leak test (97.7%). 149 patients (15.3%) underwent construction of a diverting stoma. The overall AL rate was 2.1% (n = 20). Increased BMI (>30 kg/m2), P = .02, was an independent risk factor for AL and a trend observed for positive air leak tests (P = .05), with other factors failing to achieve statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mid-to-high colorectal anastomosis have a 2% AL risk. Increased BMI was a risk factor for AL.

RevDate: 2021-11-18
CmpDate: 2021-11-18

Gonullu E, Yigit M, Mantoglu B, et al (2021)

Management of solitary cecum diverticulitis - Single-Center Experience.

Polski przeglad chirurgiczny, 93(4):15-20.

Objective: Cecal diverticulitis may be encountered as a real etiological factor in 1/300 appendectomies. Differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and cecal diverticulitis is crucial because of the different treatment methods. Our aim is to reveal the importance of distinguishing acute appendicitis from cecal diverticulitis.

Methods: The data of patients who were admitted to the hospital between 2015 and 2019 with the complaint of abdominal pain and then finally diagnosed with colon diverticular disease, colon diverticulitis, or acute appendicitis, analyzed retrospectively.

Results: A total of 19 cecum diverticulitis patients were detected during surgery for acute appendicitis or during clinical and radiological evaluation. 1247 appendectomies were evaluated; the final diagnosis was observed as cecal diverticulitis in 5 patients (0,4%). One hundred nineteen patients diagnosed with colonic diverticulitis at admission were evaluated, while 105 (88,2%) of them had left-sided diverticulitis, 14 (11,7%) of them had solitary cecal diverticulitis. All of the solitary cecal diverticulitis patients were treated conservatively, except one patient who has Hinchey 3 diverticulitis.

Conclusion: Differential diagnosis of cecum diverticulitis with acute appendicitis is important because cecum diverticulitis can be managed as conservatively in most cases. In order to prevent unnecessary surgical interventions, this importance has increased, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic period.

RevDate: 2021-10-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Sawada H, Toyota K, Ikeda M, et al (2021)

Anal Atresia in a Patient Who Had Undergone Hartmann Procedure.

The American journal of case reports, 22:e932764.

BACKGROUND Hartmann procedure can be necessary for the treatment of rectal cancer and colonic perforation. The distal diverted intestinal tract is usually disregarded, while the proximal colon is diverted with a stoma. Most of the reported complications related to a diverted intestinal tract following Hartmann procedure include inflammation and intestinal tumors; however, there are only a few reports about postoperative anal complications. Herein, we report a rare case of anal atresia following Hartmann procedure. Anal atresia is generally considered as a congenital malformation; therefore, this was an extremely rare case, as there are no previous reports about anal atresia following Hartmann procedure. CASE REPORT An 84-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a persistent feeling of incomplete evacuation. She had undergone Hartmann procedure for diverticular disease of the sigmoid colon, with perforation, 5 years ago and had no major complications after the surgery. She had no history of anal disorders such as hemorrhoids or anal fissures. On examination, her anus was found to be closed by a thin skin, and computed tomography revealed stool retention in the diverted rectum. The anus was surgically opened to remove the stool, after which the feeling of incomplete evacuation resolved with no subsequent recurrence. CONCLUSIONS This is the first report of anal atresia in a patient following Hartmann procedure. The surgical intervention was effective in resolving the blockage and relieving the patient's feeling of incomplete evacuation.

RevDate: 2021-09-11

Ali F, E Raskin (2021)

Robotic Surgery for Complicated Diverticular Disease.

Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 34(5):297-301.

Diverticular disease is common, and increasing in prevalence worldwide. The treatment for acute and chronic diverticular disease has a huge clinical and economic burden. Surgery is standard for complicated diverticulitis, and there are several benefits to using robotic surgery in these cases. Complicated diverticular disease can result in fistula, fibrosis, and deranged anatomy, which present technical challenges to the surgeon. Understanding and anticipating these anatomical challenges is key to successful surgery. While fears of conversion in complicated cases may stop surgeons from using traditional laparoscopic surgery, robotic surgery is especially promising for enhancing dexterity, visualization, and facilitating completely minimally invasive surgery in these complicated cases. In this chapter, we review end-to-end technical strategies of robotic colorectal surgery for complicated diverticular disease, including cases with colovesicular, colovaginal, and colocutaneous fistulae.

RevDate: 2021-11-16
CmpDate: 2021-11-16

van Rossen TM, Ooijevaar RE, Kuyvenhoven JP, et al (2021)

Microbiota composition and mucosal immunity in patients with asymptomatic diverticulosis and controls.

PloS one, 16(9):e0256657.

INTRODUCTION: The etiology of diverticulosis is still poorly understood. However, in patients with diverticulitis, markers of mucosal inflammation and microbiota alterations have been found. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential differences of the gut microbiota composition and mucosal immunity between patients with asymptomatic diverticulosis and controls.

METHODS: We performed a prospective study on patients who underwent routine colonoscopy for causes not related to diverticular disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Participants were grouped based on the presence or absence of diverticula. Mucosal biopsies were obtained from the sigmoid and transverse colon. Microbiota composition was analyzed with IS-pro, a 16S-23S based bacterial profiling technique. To predict if patients belonged to the asymptomatic diverticulosis or control group a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) regression model was used. Inflammation was assessed by neutrophil and lymphocyte counts within the taken biopsies.

RESULTS: Forty-three patients were enrolled. Intestinal microbiota profiles were highly similar within individuals for all phyla. Between individuals, microbiota profiles differed substantially but regardless of the presence (n = 19) of absence (n = 24) of diverticula. Microbiota diversity in both sigmoid and transverse colon was similar in all participants. We were not able to differentiate between diverticulosis patients and controls with a PLS-DA model. Mucosal lymphocyte counts were comparable among both groups; no neutrophils were detected in any of the studied biopsies.

CONCLUSIONS: Microbiota composition and inflammatory markers were comparable among asymptomatic diverticulosis patients and controls. This suggests that the gut microbiota and mucosal inflammation do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of diverticula formation.

RevDate: 2021-08-28

Gallo G, Ortenzi M, Grossi U, et al (2021)

What paradigm shifts occurred in the management of acute diverticulitis during the COVID-19 pandemic? A scoping review.

World journal of clinical cases, 9(23):6759-6767.

BACKGROUND: Acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) is common in Western countries, with its prevalence increasing throughout the world. As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), elective surgery and in-patients' visits have been cancelled or postponed worldwide.

AIM: To systematically explore the impact of the pandemic in the management of ACD.

METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, MedxRiv, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to 22 December 2020. Studies which reported on the management of patients with ACD during the COVID-19 pandemic were eligible. For cross sectional studies, outcomes of interest included the number of hospital admission for ACD, as well as key features of disease severity (complicated or not) across two time periods (pre- and during lockdown).

RESULTS: A total of 69 papers were inspected, and 21 were eligible for inclusion. Ten papers were cross sectional studies from seven world countries; six were case reports; three were qualitative studies, and two review articles. A 56% overall decrease in admissions for ACD was observed during lockdown, peaking 67% in the largest series. A 4%-8% decrease in the rate of uncomplicated diverticulitis was also noted during the lockdown phase. An initial non-operative management was recommended for complicated diverticulitis, and encouraged to an out-of-hospital regimen. Despite initial concerns on the use of laparoscopy for Hinchey 3 and 4 patients to avoid aerosolized contamination, societal bodies have progressively mitigated their initial recommendations as actual risks are yet to be ascertained.

CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer patients presented and were diagnosed with ACD. Such decline may have likely affected the spectrum of uncomplicated disease. Established outpatient management and follow up for selected cases may unburden healthcare resources in time of crisis.

RevDate: 2021-08-28

Thomsen L, Troelsen FS, Nagy D, et al (2021)

Venous Thromboembolism and Risk of Cancer in Patients with Diverticular Disease: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study.

Clinical epidemiology, 13:735-744.

Purpose: Venous thromboembolism may be a harbinger of cancer. Patients with diverticular disease are suggested to have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism compared with the general population, but it remains unclear whether venous thromboembolism is also a marker of occult cancer in these patients. We investigated the risk of cancer after venous thromboembolism among patients with diverticular disease.

Patients and Methods: We used Danish health registries to conduct a nationwide, population-based cohort study during 1996-2017. We identified all venous thromboembolism patients with a diagnosis of diverticular disease and calculated absolute risks of cancer and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by comparing observed and expected cancer incidence based on national cancer incidence in the Danish population.

Results: We followed 3406 patients with venous thromboembolism and diverticular disease for a median of 3.0 years (interquartile range: 1.0-6.0). During the first year of follow-up, we observed 212 cancer cases. The corresponding one-year risk of cancer was 6.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5-7.1) with a SIR of 2.9 (95% CI: 2.5-3.3). The SIRs were particularly elevated for cancers of the stomach, pancreas, ovary, and kidney. During the second and subsequent years of follow-up, 337 cancers were diagnosed with a SIR of 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0-1.3).

Conclusion: Venous thromboembolism is a harbinger of occult cancer in patients with diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-12-23

Ingraham A, Schumacher J, Fernandes-Taylor S, et al (2022)

General surgeon involvement in the care of patients designated with an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-endorsed ICD-10-CM emergency general surgery diagnosis code in Wisconsin.

The journal of trauma and acute care surgery, 92(1):117-125.

BACKGROUND: The current national burden of emergency general surgery (EGS) illnesses and the extent of surgeon involvement in the care of these patients remain largely unknown. To inform needs assessments, research, and education, we sought to: (1) translate previously developed International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes representing EGS conditions to ICD 10th Revision, CM (ICD-10-CM) codes and (2) determine the national burden of and assess surgeon involvement across EGS conditions.

METHODS: We converted ICD-9-CM codes to candidate ICD-10-CM codes using General Equivalence Mappings then iteratively refined the code list. We used National Inpatient Sample 2016 to 2017 data to develop a national estimate of the burden of EGS disease. To evaluate surgeon involvement, using Wisconsin Hospital Association discharge data (January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018), we selected adult urgent/emergent encounters with an EGS condition as the principal diagnosis. Surgeon involvement was defined as a surgeon being either the attending provider or procedural physician.

RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty-five ICD-9-CM codes mapped to 1,696 ICD-10-CM codes. The final list contained 985 ICD-10-CM codes. Nationally, there were 2,977,843 adult patient encounters with an ICD-10-CM EGS diagnosis. Of 94,903 EGS patients in the Wisconsin Hospital Association data set, most encounters were inpatient as compared with observation (75,878 [80.0%] vs. 19,025 [20.0%]). There were 57,780 patients (60.9%) that underwent any procedure. Among all Wisconsin EGS patients, most had no surgeon involvement (64.9% [n = 61,616]). Of the seven most common EGS diagnoses, surgeon involvement was highest for appendicitis (96.0%) and biliary tract disease (77.1%). For the other five most common conditions (skin/soft tissue infections, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction/ileus, pancreatitis, diverticular disease), surgeons were involved in roughly 20% of patient care episodes.

CONCLUSION: Surgeon involvement for EGS conditions ranges from highly likely (appendicitis) to relatively unlikely (skin/soft tissue infections). The wide range in surgeon involvement underscores the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration in the care of EGS patients.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/epidemiological, Level III.

RevDate: 2021-08-31
CmpDate: 2021-08-31

Piccioni A, Franza L, Vaccaro V, et al (2021)

Microbiota and Probiotics: The Role of Limosilactobacillus Reuteri in Diverticulitis.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 57(8):.

The microbiota is the set of commensal microorganisms, residing in the organism, helping proper functioning of organs and systems. The role that the microbiota plays in maintaining the health of vertebrates is widely accepted, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, where it is fundamental for immunity, development, and conversion of nutrients. Dysbiosis is an alteration of the microbiota which refers to a disturbed balance, which can cause a number of pathologies. Probiotics have proven to be effective in modulating the microbiota of the gastrointestinal system and, therefore, in promoting the health of the individual. In particular, Lactobacilli are a group of Gram-positive bacteria, which are able to produce lactic acid through glucose metabolism. They are present in different microenvironments, ranging from the vagina, to the mouth, to different tracts of the small intestine. In the present review, we will discuss the use of Limosilactobacillus in human health in general and more specifically in diverticulitis. In particular we analyze the role of Limosilactobacillus reuteri and its anti-inflammatory action. For this review, articles were identified using the electronic PubMed database through a comprehensive search, conducted by combining key terms such as "diverticulitis", "Limosilactobacillus reuteri", "human health and disease", "probiotics". We selected all the articles published in the last 10 years and screened 1017 papers. Articles referenced in the screened papers were evaluated if considered interesting for our topic. Probiotics have proven to be effective in modulating the microbiota of the gastrointestinal system and, therefore, in promoting the health of the individual. The importance of probiotics in treating diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis can be further understood if taking into consideration some pathophysiological aspects, associated to the microbiota. L. reuteri plays an important role in human health and disease. The effectiveness of L. reuteri in stimulating a correct bowl motility partly explains its effectiveness in treating diverticulitis. The most important action of L. reuteri is probably its immunomodulating activity. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) are reduced after supplementation with different strands of Lactobacilli, while T-regulatory cells increase in number and activity. Anyway, new mechanisms of action of probiotics come to light from the many investigations currently taking place in numerous centres around the world and to improve how exactly probiotic administration could make the difference in the management of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Lee ZW, Albright EA, Brown BP, et al (2021)

Congenital cecal diverticulitis in a pediatric patient.

Journal of pediatric surgery case reports, 72:.

Diverticulitis in the pediatric population is a very rare cause of abdominal pain. When present in the cecum or ascending colon, it is often incorrectly diagnosed preoperatively as acute appendicitis. This is especially true in Western countries where right-sided diverticulitis is less common. Here we detail a case of a pediatric patient with complicated congenital cecal diverticulitis and review the literature on pertinent management. An extensive work up with imaging and endoscopy was completed and definitive surgical treatment with diverticulectomy an appendectomy was performed. As the incidence of diverticular disease in younger individuals increases, right sided diverticulitis is worthy of consideration on the differential diagnosis.

RevDate: 2021-08-18

Ben Ismail I, Ben Chaabene H, Rebii S, et al (2021)

Perforated Jejunal Diverticulitis: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain.

Clinical case reports, 9(8):e04594.

It is imperative for surgeons to have a heightened awareness of complications of jejunal diverticular disease so that they can act quickly and contribute to a successful clinical outcome for their patients.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Chung D (2021)

Jejunal diverticulitis secondary to a gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report.

International journal of surgery case reports, 85:106291 pii:S2210-2612(21)00793-8 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The common manifestations of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are well established. However, jejunal diverticulosis is an uncommon phenomenon to be associated with this lesion, with its rarity compounded by the relative difficulty associated with its diagnosis. Limited literature is available on this topic. This article examines one such case of jejunal diverticulitis as a result of a GIST, and the intervention of said disease.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 69 year old lady presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and low grade fevers, on a background of ulcerative colitis. She was peritonitic, raising concerns of an acute abdomen. Her imaging identified an intra-abdominal contained perforation, prompting a transfer to theatres overnight for a laparotomy, which identified a jejunal diverticulum, which resembled a contained perforation. This was resected, and sent for histopathological analysis, identifying the lesion as a GIST.

DISCUSSION: Unlike other forms of jejunal diverticular disease, those arising from GISTs tend to present perforated, necessitating resection. This disease displays a tendency towards formation on the anti-mesenteric border of the small bowel. Additionally, this particular form of GIST shows macroscopic and histopathological uniformity across reported cases to date despite significant geographical disparity.

CONCLUSION: A scant number of case reports worldwide have identified jejunal diverticulitis from GISTs. We suggest diverticula be excised if perforation is suspected, while incidental findings of such be left untouched. However, overall management should be undertaken at the discretion of the operating surgeon.

RevDate: 2021-08-14

Chia ML, Chan SWY, VG Shelat (2021)

Diverticular Disease of the Appendix Is Associated with Complicated Appendicitis.

GE Portuguese journal of gastroenterology, 28(4):236-242.

Introduction: Diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix (DDA) has an incidence of 0.004 to 2.1% in appendicectomy specimens. DDA is variably associated with perforation and malignancy. We report a single-center experience of DDA. The primary aim is to validate the association of DDA with complicated appendicitis or malignancy, and the secondary aim is to validate systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) scores.

Methods: The histopathology reports of 2,305 appendicectomy specimens from January 2011 to December 2015 were reviewed. Acute appendicitis was found in 2,164 (93.9%) specimens. Histology of the remaining 141 (6.1%) patients revealed: normal appendix (n = 110), DDA (n = 22), endometriosis of appendix (n = 6), and an absent appendix (n = 3). Patient demographics, clinical profile, operative data, and perioperative outcomes of DDA patients are studied. Modified Alvarado score, Andersson score, SIRS criteria, and qSOFA scores were retrospectively calculated.

Results: The incidence of DDA was 0.95%. Ten patients (45.5%) had diverticulitis. The mean age of DDA patients was 39.5 years (range 23-87), with male preponderance (n = 12, 54.5%). The median Modified Alvarado score was 8 (range 4-9), and the median Andersson score was 5 (range 2-8). Fourteen patients (63.6%) had SIRS, and none had a high qSOFA score. Eight patients (36.4%) had complicated appendicitis (perforation [n = 2] or abscess [n = 6]). Eleven (50%) patients underwent laparoscopic appendicectomy. There were three 30-day readmissions and no mortality.

Conclusion: DDA is a distinct clinical pathology associated with complicated appendicitis.

RevDate: 2021-08-10
CmpDate: 2021-08-10

Isohata N, Nagata K, Utano K, et al (2021)

Recent trends in the prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula in Japan evaluated using computed tomography colonography.

World journal of gastroenterology, 27(27):4441-4452.

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography colonography (CTC) may be superior to colonoscopy and barium enema for detecting diverticula. However, few studies have used CTC to diagnose diverticula.

AIM: To evaluate the current prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula in Japan using CTC.

METHODS: This study was conducted as part of the Japanese National Computed Tomographic Colonography Trial, which included 1181 participants from 14 hospitals in Japan. We analyzed the prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula and their relationships with age and sex. The relationship between the diverticula and the length of the large intestine was also analyzed.

RESULTS: Diverticulosis was present in 48.1% of the participants. The prevalence of diverticulosis was higher in the older participants (P < 0.001 for trend). The diverticula seen in younger participants were predominantly located in the right-sided colon. Older participants had a higher frequency of bilateral type (located in the right- and left-sided colon) diverticulosis (P < 0.001 for trend). The length of the large intestine with multiple diverticula in the sigmoid colon was significantly shorter in those without diverticula (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis in Japan is higher than that previously reported. The prevalence was higher, and the distribution tended to be bilateral in older participants.

RevDate: 2021-08-07

Rim D, Kaye A, Ranpura A, et al (2021)

Cannabis Use Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Intestinal Obstruction in Patients Hospitalized With Diverticulitis.

Cureus, 13(7):e16768.

Objectives Diverticulitis is a common cause of hospitalization. The use of substances such as tobacco and alcohol can predispose patients to diverticulitis, and smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diverticulitis complications. Cannabis availability is growing in the United States, but there is a lack of data on the effects of cannabis use on the outcomes of diverticulitis. Thus, we investigated the effects of cannabis use on diverticulitis outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using 2014 data from the National Inpatient Sample. Patient demographics and outcomes of diverticulitis were compared between the groups with and without a history of cannabis use. The outcomes of interest were inpatient mortality, length of stay, total hospital charge, intestinal obstruction, shock/hypotension, colectomy, intestinal abscess, intestinal fistula, and intestinal perforation. Results Among 48,214 patients with diverticulitis, 447 patients had a history of cannabis use. Patients with a history of cannabis use were younger, more likely to be male, less likely to be White, had a lower Charlson Comorbidity Index, and had shorter hospital stays. There were no significant differences in inpatient mortality and total hospital charge. After adjusting for age, sex, race, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index, cannabis use was an independent risk factor for intestinal obstruction in patients hospitalized with diverticulitis. There were no statistically significant differences in other outcomes. Conclusions This study indicates that patients hospitalized with diverticulitis with a history of cannabis use are more likely to have an intestinal obstruction. Inhibition of gastrointestinal motility by cannabis in the setting of diverticular inflammation may explain this finding.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

De Vincentis A, Santonico M, Del Chierico F, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota and Related Electronic Multisensorial System Changes in Subjects With Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease Undergoing Rifaximin Therapy.

Frontiers in medicine, 8:655474.

Background: Intestinal dysbiosis might play a pathogenetic role in subjects with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD), but the effect of rifaximin therapy has been scantly explored with regard to gut microbiota variations in patients with SUDD. Aims: To verify to which extent rifaximin treatment affects the gut microbiota and whether an electronic multisensorial assessment of stools and breath has the potential for detecting these changes. Methods: Breath and stool samples were collected from consecutive patients with SUDD before and after a 7 days' therapy with rifaximin. Stool microbiota was assessed, and the electronic multisensorial assessment was carried out by means of the BIONOTE electronic (e-)tongue in stools and (e-)nose in breath. Results: Forty-three subjects (female 60%, median age 66 years) were included, and 20 (47%) reported clinical improvement after rifaximin therapy. Alpha and beta diversity of stool microbiota did not significantly change after treatment, while a significant variation of selected taxa was shown (i.e., Citrobacter, Coprococcus, Anaerotruncus, Blautia, Eggerthella lenta, Dehalobacterium, SMB53, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae). Overall, the electronic multisensorial system suboptimally mirrored microbiota changes, but it was able to efficiently predict patients' clinical improvement after rifaximin with accuracies ranging from 0.81 to 0.98. Conclusions: In patients with SUDD, rifaximin administration is associated with significant variation of selected taxa. While inaccurate in predicting gut microbiota change, an electronic multisensorial system, made up of e-tongue and e-nose, was able to predict clinical improvement, thus potentially qualifying as an easy and cheap tool to forecast subjects taking most likely benefit from rifaximin therapy.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Napolitano MA, Holleran TJ, Sparks AD, et al (2021)

Outcome and Timing of Ostomy Reversal Surgery for Diverticular Disease in Veterans Administration Hospitals.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Veterans undergoing elective surgery for diverticular disease have an ostomy creation rate of 18%. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes and timing of ostomy reversal surgery, perioperative complications, and differences between colostomy and ileostomy reversal outcomes.

METHODS: A retrospective review of the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Project (VASQIP) database was performed. Patients undergoing elective colectomy for diverticular disease between 2004 and 2018 were identified. Demographics, comorbidities, ostomy type, time to reversal, and postoperative complications were analyzed.

RESULTS: 4,198 patients underwent elective colectomy for diverticular disease, with 751 patients (17.9%) receiving an ostomy. Of patients who received an ostomy, 407 had ostomy reversal surgery within the Veterans Health Administration system (54.2%), with 243 colostomies, 149 ileostomies, and 15 unspecified. Median time to ostomy reversal was 5.0 months (interquartile range 3.2, 7.8). Complication rate after reversal was 23.1%; surgical site infection was most common (9.1%). Patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists classification >3 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = .40[.22-.72]), increasing age (aOR = .98[.97-.99]), laparoscopic index procedure (aOR = .42[.27-.63]), and hypertension (aOR = .63[.46-.87]) were less likely to have their ostomy reversed. There were no differences in postoperative complication rates after ostomy vs ileostomy reversals. Reversals after 4.6 months were associated with 3.4-times higher odds of complications.

CONCLUSION: Ostomy creation and reversal rates are similar between the veteran and non-veteran populations in the United States. Delays in reversal surgery were associated with worse postoperative outcomes, which underscore the importance of close follow-up for patients with an ostomy after elective colectomy for diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Feakins R, Torres J, Borralho-Nunes P, et al (2021)

ECCO Topical Review on Clinicopathological Spectrum & Differential Diagnosis of IBD.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:6338614 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Many diseases can imitate inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] clinically and pathologically. This review outlines the differential diagnosis of IBD and discusses morphological pointers and ancillary techniques that assist with the distinction between IBD and its mimics.

METHODS: European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation [ECCO] Topical Reviews are the result of an expert consensus. For this review, ECCO announced an open call to its members and formed three working groups [WGs] to study clinical aspects, pathological considerations, and the value of ancillary techniques. All WGs performed a systematic literature search.

RESULTS: Each WG produced a draft text and drew up provisional Current Practice Position [CPP] statements that highlighted the most important conclusions. Discussions and a preliminary voting round took place, with subsequent revision of CPP statements and text and a further meeting to agree on final statements.

CONCLUSION: Clinicians and pathologists encounter a wide variety of mimics of IBD, including infection, drug-induced disease, vascular disorders, diverticular disease, diversion proctocolitis, radiation damage, and immune disorders. Reliable distinction requires a multidisciplinary approach.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Vayzband V, Ashraf H, P Esparragoza (2021)

Surgically Managed Perforated Jejunal Diverticulitis.

Cureus, 13(6):e15930.

A 71-year-old male with a past medical history significant for chronic constipation presented to the emergency department for acute onset of severe abdominal pain. On presentation, the patient appeared to be in distress, exemplifying signs of peritonitis despite vital signs being grossly benign. CT scan established the diagnosis of a perforated jejunal diverticulitis. Initially, the patient was managed conservatively with IV fluids, antibiotics, and pain control medications. Diagnostic imaging in tandem with the patient's failure to improve incited surgical intervention with a jejunal resection and establishment of a primary anastomosis. This case illustrates additional differential diagnoses necessary for consideration in an elderly patient presenting with an acute abdomen.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Krischak MK, Ord JR, Connor AA, et al (2021)

Spontaneous Ureterocolic Fistula between Nonfunctioning Kidney Transplant Ureter and Colon in Setting of Diverticulitis.

Case reports in transplantation, 2021:5572067.

Ureterocolic fistula is a rare condition that most commonly occurs in the setting of diverticular disease. The development of a ureterocolic fistula following kidney transplantation is even rarer, with no prior cases in the literature to our knowledge. We describe the case of a patient with three prior failed kidney transplants who developed a fistula between the sigmoid colon and nonfunctioning renal transplant ureter in the setting of diverticulitis.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Gallo G, Picciariello A, Di Tanna GL, et al (2021)

E-consensus on telemedicine in colorectal surgery: a RAND/UCLA-modified study.

Updates in surgery [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is revolutionizing healthcare delivery. The aim of the study was to reach consensus among experts on the possible applications of telemedicine in colorectal surgery. A group of 48 clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) was developed by a clinical guidance group based on coalescence of evidence and expert opinion. The Telemedicine in Colorectal Surgery Italian Working Group included 54 colorectal surgeons affiliated to the Italian Society of Colo-Rectal Surgery (SICCR) who were involved in the evaluation of the appropriateness of each CPR, based on published RAND/UCLA methodology, in two rounds. Stakeholders' median age was 44.5 (IQR 36-60) years, and 44 (81%) were males. Agreement was obtained on the applicability of telemonitoring and telemedicine for multidisciplinary pre-operative evaluation. The panel voted against the use of telemedicine for a first consultation. 15/48 statements deemed uncertain on round 1 and were re-elaborated and assessed by 51/54 (94%) panelists on round 2. Consensus was achieved in all but one statement concerning the cost of a teleconsultation. There was strong agreement on the usefulness of teleconsultation during follow-up of patients with diverticular disease after an in-person visit. This e-consensus provides the boundaries of telemedicine in colorectal surgery in Italy. Standardization of infrastructures and costs remains to be better elucidated.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Valletta R, Faccioli N, Bonatti M, et al (2021)

Role of CT colonography in differentiating sigmoid cancer from chronic diverticular disease.

Japanese journal of radiology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of computed tomography colonography (CTC) in differentiating chronic diverticular disease from colorectal cancer (CRC), using morphological and textural parameters.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 95 consecutive patients with histologically proven chronic diverticular disease (n = 53) or CRC (n = 42) who underwent CTC. One radiologist, unaware of histological findings, evaluated CTC studies for the presence of potential discriminators including: maximum thickness, involved segment length, shouldering phenomenon, growth pattern, diverticula, fascia thickening, fat tissue edema, loco-regional lymph nodes, mucosal pattern. Another radiologist performed volumetric texture analysis on the involved segment.

RESULTS: Several qualitative imaging parameters resulted to significantly correlated with colorectal cancer, including absence of diverticula in the affected segment, straightened growth pattern and shouldering phenomenon. A maximum wall thickness/involved segment length ratio < 0.1 had 98% specificity and 47% sensitivity in identifying diverticular disease. Regarding first-order texture analysis parameters, kurtosis resulted to be significantly different between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Absence of diverticula, straightened growth pattern and shouldering phenomenon are significantly associated with CRC (71-91% sensitivity; 82-91%).

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Pierre K, Gomez NF, Bing S, et al (2021)

Benign Multicystic Peritoneal Mesothelioma Presenting as a Colonic Mass.

Cureus, 13(6):e15540.

Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM) is a rare neoplasm of the abdominal mesothelium (i.e., peritoneum, mesentery, and omentum). We present the case of a 74-year-old male who presented with a right paracolic gutter fluid collection and cystic mass. The patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy with resection of the mass. The final pathology revealed BMPM. The pathogenesis may have been related to longstanding diverticular disease, which could prove to be an underrecognized risk factor for the development of BMPM. Therefore, this case suggests a broadened differential diagnosis to include BMPM in specific cases of pre-operatively diagnosed colonic masses. The patient is disease-free 11 months post-operatively.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Askani E, Rospleszcz S, Rothenbacher T, et al (2021)

Dietary habits and the presence and degree of asymptomatic diverticular disease by magnetic resonance imaging in a Western population: a population-based cohort study.

Nutrition & metabolism, 18(1):73.

BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide burden of diverticular disease, the connections between diverticular disease and dietary habits remain poorly understood, particularly in an asymptomatic representative sample. We investigated the association between asymptomatic diverticular disease as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dietary habits in a Western study cohort.

METHODS: Participants from a cross-sectional sample of a population-based cohort study underwent whole-body 3T-MRI including an isotropic VIBE-Dixon sequence. The presence and extent of diverticular disease was assessed in blinded fashion. Habitual dietary intake was recorded using a blended approach, applying 24-h food lists and a food-frequency questionnaire. Traditional cardiometabolic risk factors were obtained by interviews and medical examination. Univariate and multivariate associations were calculated.

RESULTS: A total of 308 subjects were included in this analysis (56% male, 56.4 ± 9.1 years). 39.9% had any form of diverticular disease and 15.3% had advanced asymptomatic diverticular disease. After adjustment for age, sex and total energy intake a higher intake of fiber and vegetables was associated with a lower odds for asymptomatic diverticular disease (fiber: OR 0.68 95% CI [0.48, 0.95]; vegetables: OR 0.72 95% CI [0.53, 0.97]) and an increased intake of meat was associated with an approximately two-fold higher odds for advanced asymptomatic diverticular disease (OR 1.84 95% CI [1.13, 2.99]). However, after additional adjustment for body-mass-index (BMI), alcohol consumption, smoking behavior and physical activity only a high fiber and vegetables intake remained significantly associated with lower odds of asymptomatic diverticular disease.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that a high-fiber diet and increased intake of vegetables is associated with lower odds of having asymptomatic diverticular disease, independent of age, sex, total energy intake, BMI and other life-style factors.

RevDate: 2021-12-15

Kline BP, Yochum GS, Brinton DL, et al (2021)

COLQ and ARHGAP15 are Associated with Diverticular Disease and are Expressed in the Colon.

The Journal of surgical research, 267:397-403.

BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease is a common but poorly understood disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with diverticular disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genotypes of three SNPs (rs4662344 in ARHGAP15, rs7609897 in COLQ, and rs67153654 in FAM155A) were identified by Taqman assay in 204 patients with diverticular disease. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the medical record to study association with genotype. To evaluate gene expression in colon tissue, qPCR was performed on 24 patients with diverticulitis, and COLQ was localized using immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS: The ARHGAP15 and COLQ SNPs were significantly associated with both diverticular disease and specifically diverticulitis, while the FAM155A was not associated with either. No association was found with clinical disease characteristics. Heterozygous genotypes at the ARHGAP15 SNP was associated with lower ARHGAP15 expression in colon tissues. COLQ protein localized to the myenteric plexus in the colon.

CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed association of the ARHGAP15 and COLQ SNPs with diverticular disease in our patients but could not confirm FAM155A SNP association. Neither of these SNPs appeared to associate with more severe disease, but genotype at the ARHGAP15 SNP did impact expression of ARHGAP15 in the colon. Additionally, this study is the first to localize COLQ in the colon. Its presence in the myenteric nervous system suggests COLQ SNP variants may contribute to diverticular disease by altering motility.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Germer CT (2021)

[Diverticular disease].

Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen, 92(8):681-682.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Yuan S, SC Larsson (2021)

Genetically Predicted Adiposity, Diabetes, and Lifestyle Factors in Relation to Diverticular Disease.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(21)00641-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adiposity, type 2 diabetes, alcohol and coffee consumption, and smoking have been examined in relation to diverticular disease in observational studies. We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to assess the causality of these associations.

METHODS: Independent genetic instruments associated with the studied exposures at genome-wide significance were obtained from published genome-wide association studies. Summary-level data for the exposure-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms with diverticular disease were available in the FinnGen consortium (10,978 cases and 149,001 noncases) and the UK Biobank study (12,662 cases and 348,532 noncases).

RESULTS: Higher genetically predicted body mass index and genetic liability to type 2 diabetes and smoking initiation were associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease in meta-analyses of results from the two studies. The combined odds ratio of diverticular disease was 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-1.33; P < .001) for a 1-standard deviation (~4.8 kg/m2) increase in body mass index, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.07; P = .007) for a 1-unit increase in log-transformed odds ratio of type 2 diabetes, and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12-1.30; P < .001) for a 1-standard deviation increase in prevalence of smoking initiation. Coffee consumption was not associated with diverticular disease, whereas the association for alcohol consumption largely differed between the 2 studies.

CONCLUSIONS: This study strengthens the causal associations of higher body mass index, type 2 diabetes, and smoking with an increased risk of diverticular disease. Coffee consumption is not associated with diverticular disease. Whether alcohol consumption affects the risk of diverticular disease needs further investigation.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Aiyegbeni B, Jonnalagadda S, Creedon L, et al (2021)

Rare Cause of Left Upper Abdominal Pain.

Prague medical report, 122(2):106-111.

Inflamed diverticular disease of the small bowel is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. Despite its low prevalence rate (0.3-2%), it is associated with a high mortality rate between 20-25% (Fisher and Fortin, 1977; Ferreira-Aparicio et al., 2012). This is due to complications including perforation, bleeding, and obstruction. This case report presents the diagnosis and management of Mr. X, a 70-year-old male with jejunal diverticulitis and a duodenal diverticulum. Mr. X has a background of type 2 diabetes mellitus and sigmoid diverticulosis, he presented with a three-day history of left upper quadrant pain radiating to the left iliac fossa. He was haemodynamically stable despite his elevated inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein 161 mg/l and neutrophils 13.3×109/l) and computerised tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis showing jejunal diverticulitis and a duodenal diverticulum. Mr. X was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics and analgesia and a follow up CT scan showed that the jejunal diverticulitis had resolved. Previous operative management of the discussed pathology has been reported, the current report is novel as the diagnosis was made early and the case managed conservatively.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This book (written by experts in the field and scheduled for release in 2022) provides up-to-date information on all aspects of colonic diverticular disease, particularly common in Western countries. The first parts of the book will deal with the disease epidemiology and etiopathogenesis, focusing on the roles of inflammation and dysbiosis as part of the pathophysiology of diverticular disease. The clinical spectrum, the diagnostic approach and differential diagnosis, medical and surgical treatments are described in the following sections. The book is intended as a unique and valuable resource for all clinicians, residents, and physicians involved in the management of this disease. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )