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04 Dec 2023 at 01:42
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Bibliography on: Diverticular Disease


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 04 Dec 2023 at 01:42 Created: 

Diverticular Disease

Diverticular disease is the general name for a common condition that involves small bulges or sacs called diverticula that form from the wall of the large intestine (colon). Although these sacs can form throughout the colon, they are most commonly found in the sigmoid colon, the portion of the large intestine closest to the rectum. Diverticulosis refers to the presence of diverticula without associated complications or problems. The condition can lead to more serious issues including diverticulitis, perforation (the formation of holes), stricture (a narrowing of the colon that does not easily let stool pass), fistulas (abnormal connection or tunneling between body parts), and bleeding. Diverticulitis refers to an inflammatory condition of the colon thought to be caused by perforation of one of the sacs. Several secondary complications can result from a diverticulitis attack, and when this occurs, it is called complicated diverticulitis.

Created with PubMed® Query: "Diverticular disease"[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-12-01

Gil C, Beyer-Bergeot L, Sabbagh C, et al (2023)

Impact of the first wave of COVID-19 epidemy on the surgical management of sigmoid diverticular disease in France: National French retrospective study.

International journal of colorectal disease, 38(1):276.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the surgical management of sigmoid diverticular disease (SDD) before, during, and after the first containment rules (CR) for the first wave of COVID-19.

METHODS: From the French Surgical Association multicenter series, this study included all patients operated on between January 2018 and September 2021. Three groups were compared: A (before CR period: 01/01/18-03/16/20), B (CR period: 03/17/20-05/03/20), and C (post CR period: 05/04/20-09/30/21).

RESULTS: A total of 1965 patients (A n = 1517, B n = 52, C n = 396) were included. The A group had significantly more previous SDD compared to the two other groups (p = 0.007), especially complicated (p = 0.0004). The rate of peritonitis was significantly higher in the B (46.1%) and C (38.4%) groups compared to the A group (31.7%) (p = 0.034 and p = 0.014). As regards surgical treatment, Hartmann's procedure was more often performed in the B group (44.2%, vs A 25.5% and C 26.8%, p = 0.01). Mortality at 90 days was significantly higher in the B group (9.6%, vs A 4% and C 6.3%, p = 0.034). This difference was also significant between the A and B groups (p = 0.048), as well as between the A and C groups (p = 0.05). There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of postoperative morbidity.

CONCLUSION: This study shows that the management of SDD was impacted by COVID-19 at CR, but also after and until September 2021, both on the initial clinical presentation and on postoperative mortality.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Jono T, Kasai Y, Kessoku T, et al (2023)

The Prevalence and Characteristics of Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease Among Asian Patients With Unexplained Abdominal Symptoms.

Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility pii:jnm22162 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The precise incidence of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) and its effects on the quality of life (QOL) remain unclear, particularly in Asian patients with right-sided SUDD. We assess the prevalence of SUDD and its impact on QOL in a real-world population.

METHODS: Five institutional cohorts of patients who received outpatient treatment for unexplained abdominal symptoms from January 15, 2020 to March 31, 2022, were included. All patients underwent colonoscopy. SUDD was defined as the presence of recurrent abdominal symptoms, particularly pain in the lower right or left quadrant lasting > 24 hours in patients with diverticulosis at the site of pain. The 36-item short-form health survey was used to assess QOL.

RESULTS: Diverticula were identified in 108 of 361 patients. Among these 108 patients, 31% had SUDD, which was right-sided in 39% of cases. Of the 50 patients with right-sided diverticula, 36% had SUDD, as did 15 of 35 patients with left-sided diverticula (43%). Among the 33 patients with SUDD, diverticula were right-sided, left-sided, and bilateral in 39%, 45%, and 15% of patients, respectively. Diarrhea was more frequent in the SUDD group than in the non-SUDD group. Patients with SUDD had significantly lower physical, mental, and role/social component scores than those without SUDD.

CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize that patients with SUDD account for as high as 31% of outpatients with unexplained abdominal symptoms; these patients have diarrhea and a low QOL. The presence of right-sided SUDD was characteristic of Asian patients.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

McClintock S, Stupart D, Hoh SM, et al (2023)

Oral versus intravenous antibiotics in the treatment of uncomplicated colonic diverticulitis: results of a randomized non-inferiority control trial.

ANZ journal of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Colonic diverticular disease is common and its incidence increases with age, with uncomplicated diverticulitis being the most common acute presentation (1). This typically results in inpatient admission, placing a significant burden on healthcare services (2). We aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of using intravenous or oral antibiotics in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis on 30-day unplanned admissions, c-reactive protein (CRP), White Cell Count (WCC), pain resolution, cessation of pain medication, return to normal nutrition, and return to normal bowel function.

METHODS: This single centre, 2-arm, parallel, 1:1, unblinded non-inferiority randomized controlled trial compared the safety and efficacy of oral antibiotics versus intravenous antibiotics in the outpatient treatment of uncomplicated colonic diverticulitis. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18 years of age with CT proven acute uncomplicated colonic diverticulitis (Modified Hinchey Classification Stage 0-1a). Patients were randomly allocated receive either intravenous or oral antibiotics, both groups being treated in the outpatient setting with a Hospital in the Home (HITH) service. The primary outcome was the 30-day unplanned admission rate, secondary outcomes were biochemical markers, time to pain resolution, time to cessation of pain medication, time to return to normal function and time to return to normal bowel function.

RESULTS: In total 118 patients who presented with uncomplicated colonic diverticulitis were recruited into the trial. Fifty-eight participants were treated with IV antibiotics, and 60 were given oral antibiotics. We found there was no significant difference between groups with regards to 30-day unplanned admissions or inflammatory markers. There was also no significant difference with regards to time to pain resolution, cessation of pain medication use, return to normal nutrition, or return to normal bowel function.

CONCLUSION: Outpatient management of uncomplicated diverticulitis with oral antibiotics proved equally as safe and efficacious as intravenous antibiotic treatment in this randomized non-inferiority control trial.

RevDate: 2023-11-08

Clark M, Nann S, Kong J, et al (2023)

Effectiveness of NOTES versus traditional techniques on surgical outcomes in adults with diverticulitis: a systematic review protocol.

JBI evidence synthesis pii:02174543-990000000-00236 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This review will evaluate the effectiveness of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES)/hybrid NOTES versus traditional surgical techniques in the management of diverticular disease.

INTRODUCTION: Diverticular disease can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life, especially the changes affecting bowel function. Recurrent/severe symptoms may require surgery. Resections are invasive and can have significant operative complications. There has been a shift from an open resection to a more minimally invasive technique such as laparoscopy. Furthermore, the use of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic resection, using a transanal/transvaginal approach, has begun to be used in colorectal resections.

INCLUSION CRITERIA: Eligible studies will include patients who underwent surgical resection for diverticular disease or diverticulitis. The review will consider studies that evaluate NOTES in the management of diverticular disease or diverticulitis. This will include hybrid procedures involving both NOTES and natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE), with the aid of laparoscopy/endoscopy/robotic equipment. Studies on participants under 18 years of age and presenting with non-diverticular pathologies will be excluded.

METHODS: This review will follow the JBI methodology for systematic reviews of effectiveness and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 statement. Databases to be searched will include PubMed, MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ANZCTR, with no language limitations. The reference lists of included studies will be screened for additional studies. This review will preferentially consider experimental and quasi-experimental study designs. Two reviewers will conduct critical appraisal and data extraction. Studies will, where possible, be pooled in statistical meta-analyses.

PROSPERO CRD42023420771.

RevDate: 2023-11-08

Mahmood MW, Schmidt PT, Olén O, et al (2023)

Identification of diverticular disease in Swedish healthcare registers: a validation study.

Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The Swedish National Patient Register (SNPR) is frequently used in studies of colonic diverticular disease (DD). Despite this, the validity of the coding for this specific disease in the register has not been studied.

METHODS: From SNPR, 650 admissions were randomly identified encoded with ICD 10, K572-K579. From the years 2002 and 2010, 323 and 327 patients respectively were included in the validation study. Patients were excluded prior to, or up to 2 years after a diagnosis with IBD, Celiac disease, IBS, all forms of colorectal cancer (primary and secondary), and anal cancer. Medical records were collected and data on clinical findings with assessments, X-ray examinations, endoscopies and laboratory results were reviewed. The basis of coding was compared with internationally accepted definitions for colonic diverticular disease. Positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated.

RESULTS: The overall PPV for all diagnoses and both years was 95% (95% CI: 93-96). The PPV for the year 2010 was slightly higher 98% (95% CI: 95-99) than in the year 2002, 91% (95% CI: (87-94) which may be due to the increasing use of computed tomography (CT).

CONCLUSION: The validity of DD in SNPR is high, making the SNPR a good source for population-based studies on DD.

RevDate: 2023-11-06

Gonai T, Toya Y, Kudara N, et al (2024)

Is bowel preparation necessary for early colonoscopy in patients with suspected colonic diverticular bleeding?: A multicenter retrospective study with propensity score matching analysis.

DEN open, 4(1):e311.

OBJECTIVES: There are few reports on bowel preparation for early colonoscopy in patients with suspected colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB). We aim to clarify in a retrospective, multicenter study.

METHODS: In a multicenter retrospective cohort study at 10 institutions, we analyzed clinical features of patients diagnosed with CDB, who underwent early colonoscopy within 24 h. We compared patients who were prepared with polyethylene glycol lavage (PEL) and those without PEL. We evaluated the effects of PEL for early colonoscopy in patients with suspected CDB.

RESULTS: A total of 129 (53%) underwent under preparation with PEL and 113 patients without PEL. The PEL group was younger, had fewer comorbidities, and had better performance status. After adjusting for these variables with propensity score matching, the PEL group had a significantly shorter hospital stay (7.9 ± 4.7 vs. 10.1 ± 5.2 days; p = 0.001), and a higher cecal intubation rate (91.1% vs. 50.0%; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in adverse event rates, identification of stigmata of recent hemorrhage, or frequency in endoscopic hemostatic treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: PEL may be preferred for early colonoscopy in patients suspected of having CDB.

RevDate: 2023-11-02

Yuan S, Dan L, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

Gastrointestinal Diseases, Genetic Risk, and Incident Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study in 352,463 Middle-Aged Adults.

American journal of preventive medicine pii:S0749-3797(23)00433-6 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Although digestive system disease affects gut microbiota and their metabolites associated with dementia risk, the association between digestive system diseases and incident dementia has not yet been established.

METHODS: This cohort analysis included 458,181 participants free of baseline dementia in the UK Biobank (2006-2021). The associations of fourteen digestive system diseases with dementia incidence were examined in 2022 using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Analyses were performed to differentiate the associations for early- (< 65 years) and late-onset (≥ 65 years) dementia. Interaction and stratification analyses were performed for polygenic risk score (RPS), and apolipoprotein E (APOE).

RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.4 years, 6415 incident dementia cases were diagnosed. Eleven digestive system diseases showed significant associations with an increased risk of dementia after controlling for covariates and multiple testing. Compared to individuals without digestive system diseases, the hazard ratios of dementia increased from 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.23) for patients with intestinal diverticular disease to 2.31 (95% confidence interval 1.98-2.70) for patients with cirrhosis. The associations were different between certain digestive system diseases and dementia by onset age. The associations appeared to be stronger for cirrhosis (Q = 0.001), irritable bowel syndrome (Q < 0.001), gastritis and duodenitis (Q =0.002), gastroesophageal reflux disease (Q < 0.001), ulcerative colitis (Q=0.047), gallbladder disease (Q=0.012) and peptic ulcer (Q = 0.030) with early-onset dementia. There were no interactions for PRS or APOE (P >0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an increased need for dementia prevention among patients with digestive system diseases.

RevDate: 2023-10-30

Mansour MR, Kessler SA, Khreisat A, et al (2023)

Asymptomatic colo-ovarian fistula amidst acute psychosis: a case report.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2023(10):rjad525.

This paper presents a rare case of an asymptomatic colo-ovarian fistula in a 45-year-old female with acute psychosis and a history of bipolar disorder, seizure disorder and substance misuse. The intricate diagnostic challenges arising from the patient's complex medical history underscore the significance of a multidisciplinary approach. The absence of typical gastrointestinal symptoms and the presence of a tubo-ovarian abscess complicated the diagnosis of acute on chronic sigmoid diverticulitis and colo-ovarian fistula. Surgical intervention, including sigmoid resection, anastomosis and left salpingo-oophorectomy, led to successful resolution. This case highlights the need for further understanding of colo-ovarian fistula pathophysiology, improved diagnostic strategies, and the nuanced interplay between medical and psychiatric conditions in complex clinical scenarios.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Santacroce G, Lenti MV, Abruzzese GM, et al (2023)

Diagnostic delay in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease: an Italian tertiary referral centre study.

Internal and emergency medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The magnitude of the diagnostic delay of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is unknown; we aimed to evaluate SUDD diagnostic delay and its risk factors. SUDD patients diagnosed at a tertiary referral centre were retrospectively enrolled (2010-2022). Demographic and clinical data were retrieved. Overall, patient-, and physician-dependant diagnostic delays were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were fitted to identify risk factors for diagnostic delay. Overall, 70 SUDD patients (median age 65 years, IQR 52-74; F:M ratio = 1.6:1) were assessed. The median overall diagnostic delay was 7 months (IQR 2-24), patient-dependant delay was 3 months (IQR 0-15), and physician-dependant delay was 1 month (IQR 0-6). Further, 25% of patients were misdiagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). At multivariate analysis, previous misdiagnosis was a significant risk factor for overall and physician-dependant diagnostic delay (OR 9.99, p = 0.01, and OR 6.46, p = 0.02, respectively). Also, a high educational level (> 13 years) was associated with a greater overall diagnostic delay (OR 8.74 p = 0.02), while previous abdominal surgery was significantly associated to reduced physician-dependant diagnostic delay (OR 0.19 p = 0.04). To conclude, SUDD may be diagnosed late, IBS being the most frequent misdiagnosis. Timely diagnosis is crucial to tackle the burden of SUDD on patients and healthcare.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

McKechnie T, Yang S, Wu K, et al (2023)

Fragility of Statistically Significant Outcomes in Colonic Diverticular Disease Randomized Trials: A Systematic Review.

Diseases of the colon and rectum pii:00003453-990000000-00475 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The p value has been criticized for an oversimplified determination of whether a treatment effect exists. One alternative is the fragility index. It is a representation of the minimum number of non-events that would need to be converted to events to increase the p value above 0.05.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the fragility index of randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of interventions for patients with diverticular disease since 2010 to assess the robustness of current evidence.

DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL were searched from inception to August 2022.

STUDY SELECTION: Articles were eligible for inclusion if they were randomized trials conducted between 2010 and 2022 with parallel, superiority designs evaluating interventions in patients with diverticular disease. Only randomized trials with dichotomous primary outcomes with an associated p-value of less than 0.05 were considered for inclusion.

INTERVENTIONS: Any surgical or medical intervention for patients with diverticular disease.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The fragility index was determined by adding events and subtracting non-events from the groups with the smaller number of events. Events were added until the p-value exceeded 0.05. The smallest number of events required was considered the fragility index.

RESULTS: After screening 1,271 citations, 15 randomized trials met inclusion criteria. Nine of the studies evaluated surgical interventions and six evaluated medical interventions. The mean number of patients randomized and lost to follow-up per RCT was 92 (SD 35.3) and 9 (SD 11.4), respectively. The median fragility index was 1 (range: 0-5). The fragility indices for the included studies did not correlate significantly with any study characteristics.

LIMITATIONS: Small sample, heterogeneity, and lack of inclusion of studies with continuous outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: The randomized trials evaluating surgical and medical interventions for diverticular disease are not robust. Changing a single outcome event in most studies was sufficient to make a statistically significant study finding non-significant.

RevDate: 2023-10-19

Altman-Merino A, Bonnet K, Schlundt D, et al (2023)

Complex Patient Perspectives on Evolving Diverticulitis Treatment Patient Perspectives on Diverticulitis.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences.

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that antibiotics may not be necessary to treat acute uncomplicated diverticulitis, they remain the mainstay of treatment in the United States. A randomized controlled trial evaluating antibiotic effectiveness could accelerate implementation of an antibiotic-free treatment strategy, but patients may be unwilling to participate.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess patients' attitudes regarding participation in a randomized trial of antibiotics versus placebo for acute diverticulitis, including willingness to participate.

DESIGN: This is a mixed-methods study with qualitative and descriptive methods.

SETTINGS: Interviews were conducted in a quaternary care emergency department and surveys were administered virtually through a web-based portal.

PATIENTS: Patients with either current or previous acute uncomplicated diverticulitis participated.

INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent semi-structured interviews or completed a web-based survey. Main Outcome measures: Rates of willingness to participate in a randomized controlled trial was measured. Salient factors related to healthcare decision-making were also identified and analyzed.

RESULTS: Thirteen patients completed an interview. Reasons to participate included a desire to help others or contribute to scientific knowledge. Doubts about the efficacy of observation as a treatment method were the main barrier to participation. In a survey of 218 subjects, 62% of respondents reported willingness to participate in a randomized clinical trial. "What my doctor thinks," followed by "What I've experienced in the past" were the most important decision-making factors.

LIMITATIONS: There is possible selection bias inherent to using a study to evaluate willingness to participate in a study. Also, the population sampled was disproportionately White compared to the population affected by diverticulitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis maintain complex and varying perceptions of the use of antibiotics. Most surveyed patients would be willing to participate in a trial of antibiotics versus placebo. Our findings support a trial's feasibility and facilitate an informed approach to recruitment and consent.

RevDate: 2023-10-16

Schaeffer HD, Smelser DT, Rao HS, et al (2023)

Development of a Polygenic Risk Score to Predict Diverticulitis.

Diseases of the colon and rectum pii:00003453-990000000-00457 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Despite its prevalence and associated morbidity, we remain limited in our ability to predict the course of a patient with diverticular disease. While several clinical and genetic risk factors have been identified, we do not know how these factors relate to one another.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if a polygenic risk score could improve risk prediction for diverticulitis and recurrent diverticulitis compared to a model using only clinical factors.

DESIGN: An observational study.

SETTING: Study examines the predictive ability of a polygenic risk score for diverticulitis developed using prior genome wide association studies and validated using the MyCode biobank.

PATIENTS: Patients of European ancestry in the Geisinger Health System who were enrolled in the MyCode Community Health biobanking program.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The ability of a polygenic risk score to predict diverticulosis, diverticulitis, and recurrent diverticulitis.

RESULTS: A total of 60,861 patients were included, of which 9,912 (16.3%) had diverticulosis or diverticulitis (5,015 with diverticulosis and 4,897 with diverticulitis). When divided into deciles, our polygenic risk score stratified patients by risk of both diverticulosis and diverticulitis with a 2-fold difference in disease risk between the highest and lowest deciles for diverticulitis and a 4.8-fold difference for recurrent complicated diverticulitis. When compared to clinical factors alone, our polygenic risk score was able to improve risk prediction of recurrent diverticulitis.

LIMITATIONS: Our population is largely located in a single geographic region and were classified by disease status using international classification of diseases codes.

CONCLUSIONS: This predictive model stratifies patients based on genetic risk for diverticular disease. The increased frequency of recurrent disease in our high-risk patients suggests that a polygenic risk score, in addition to other factors, may help to guide the discussion regarding surgical intervention.

RevDate: 2023-10-09

Juzenas S, Ellinghaus D, Sanna S, et al (2023)

Mendelian randomisation shows diverticular disease and irritable bowel syndrome increase the risk of haemorrhoidal disease.

RevDate: 2023-10-09

Barnard P, K Wilson (2023)

Complicated jejunal diverticulitis with small bowel obstruction due to enterolith: A case report.

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Small bowel diverticular disease (DD) is encountered and managed much less frequently than colonic DD, leading to a significantly less developed body of evidence for managing small bowel diverticulum and its associated complications.

CASE PRESENTATION: This case report discusses a rare occurrence of simultaneous perforated jejunal diverticulitis and mechanical small bowel obstruction (SBO) due to a migrating diverticular enterolith. The patient's condition was ultimately managed operatively through laparoscopically assisted small bowel resection.

CLINICAL DISCUSSION: A review of the literature reveals only eight reported cases of jejunal diverticulitis with simultaneous enterolith obstruction. All cases were managed operatively, with approaches including small bowel resection encompassing both pathologies, milking the enterolith back to the diverticulitis site and resecting en bloc to avoid extensive resection, or enterotomy and enterolith retrieval.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of small bowel diverticular disease is increasing, and as a result, clinicians may encounter more complications associated with this condition in the future. This case highlights the importance of considering alternate complications of small bowel DD.

RevDate: 2023-10-02

Panin SI, Nechay TV, Sazhin AV, et al (2023)

Should we encourage the use of robotic technologies in complicated diverticulitis? Results of systematic review and meta-analysis.

Frontiers in robotics and AI, 10:1208611.

Introduction: Complicated diverticulitis is a common abdominal emergency that often requires a surgical intervention. The systematic review and meta-analysis below compare the benefits and harms of robotic vs. laparoscopic surgery in patients with complicated colonic diverticular disease. Methods: The following databases were searched before 1 March 2023: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The internal validity of the selected non-randomized studies was assessed using the ROBINS-I tool. The meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis were performed using RevMan 5.4 (Cochrane Collaboration, London, United Kingdom) and Copenhagen Trial Unit Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) software (Copenhagen Trial Unit, Center for Clinical Intervention Research, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark), respectively. Results: We found no relevant randomized controlled trials in the searched databases. Therefore, we analyzed 5 non-randomized studies with satisfactory internal validity and similar designs comprising a total of 442 patients (184 (41.6%) robotic and 258 (58.4%) laparoscopic interventions). The analysis revealed that robotic surgery for complicated diverticulitis (CD) took longer than laparoscopy (MD = 42 min; 95% CI: [-16, 101]). No statistically significant differences were detected between the groups regarding intraoperative blood loss (MD = -9 mL; 95% CI: [-26, 8]) and the rate of conversion to open surgery (2.17% or 4/184 for robotic surgery vs. 6.59% or 17/258 for laparoscopy; RR = 0.63; 95% CI: [0.10, 4.00]). The type of surgery did not affect the length of in-hospital stay (MD = 0.18; 95% CI: [-0.60, 0.97]) or the rate of postoperative complications (14.1% or 26/184 for robotic surgery vs. 19.8% or 51/258 for laparoscopy; RR = 0.81; 95% CI: [0.52, 1.26]). No deaths were reported in either group. Discussion: The meta-analysis suggests that robotic surgery is an appropriate option for managing complicated diverticulitis. It is associated with a trend toward a lower rate of conversion to open surgery and fewer postoperative complications; however, this trend does not reach the level of statistical significance. Since no high quality RCTs were available, this meta-analysis isnot able to provide reliable conclusion, but only a remarkable lack of proper evidence supporting robotic technology. The need for further evidence-based trials is important.

RevDate: 2023-09-29

Liu JK, CY Ko (2023)

Familial-Environmental Effects Shifting our Understanding of Diverticular Disease.

Journal of the American College of Surgeons pii:00019464-990000000-00734 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sbarigia C, Ritieni C, Annibale B, et al (2023)

Common Diagnostic Challenges and Pitfalls in Segmental Colitis Associated with Diverticulosis (SCAD).

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(18): pii:jcm12186084.

Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis (SCAD) is characterized by inflammation involving the sigmoid inter-diverticular mucosa, sparing the proximal colon and rectum. Due to the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations and endoscopic and histological findings, SCAD diagnosis might be challenging in clinical practice. This narrative review aimed to report the SCAD diagnostic criteria adopted in different studies, highlighting the current challenges and main pitfalls in its diagnosis. We analysed fourteen studies, mainly prospective observational studies. Haematochezia and rectal bleeding were the main complaints leading to diagnosis, followed by diarrhoea. An accurate endoscopic description was performed in 86% of studies, while a standardised biopsy sampling protocol (sigma, proximal colon and rectum) was scarcely adopted, being complete only in 28.5% of studies. The evaluation of concomitant drugs potentially inducing colitis was carried out in only 57% of studies. Great heterogeneity in sigmoid endoscopic (edema, erythema, erosions, ulcers, mucosal friability) and histological findings (chronic and/or acute inflammatory infiltrate) was observed. We showed that SCAD diagnosis is often based on not fully adequate macroscopic colonic description and scant biopsy protocol sampling. An accurate clinical and endoscopic evaluation, with an adequate sampling biopsy protocol, with attention to differential diagnosis, seemed to be crucial for a prompt SCAD diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Musleh A, Abbadi K, Asbah M, et al (2023)

Rare clinical entity of diffuse mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas: A case report and review of the literature.

INTRODUCTION: Mucinous cystic neoplasm is a rare premalignant tumor of the pancreas typically affects middle aged women. Mostly it affects the body and the tail of the pancreas and in very rare cases it may affect the head.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old female patient, previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and with an unremarkable medical and surgical history except for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and multiple admissions due to colonic diverticular disease, which ultimately required a left hemicolectomy. Recently, the patient has been experiencing a gradual onset of symptoms, including persistent right upper quadrant and epigastric pain. This pain has been progressively worsening, characterized by a constricting sensation, radiating to the back. Additionally, the patient has reported a feverish sensation, yellowish discoloration of the skin over the past two months, itching, nausea, and a notable loss of appetite. Within the last two months, there has also been a significant weight loss of 10 kg. A thorough evaluation led to a diagnosis of diffuse mucinous cystic neoplasm, which involves the entire pancreas.

DISCUSSION: Due to its categorization as a premalignant abnormality, swift surgical action is imperative following diagnosis to minimize the possibility of evolving into a malignant state. This strategy is vital to secure the best possible results for the patient and to lower the likelihood of progression to more advanced malignant stages.

CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is one of the few reported cases of diffuse histology-proven MCN of the pancreas.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Jones DH, Spielmann SM, Falconi S, et al (2023)

Colo-Fallopian Fistula: A Rare Complication of Sigmoid Colon Diverticulitis.

Cureus, 15(8):e43331.

Diverticulitis is a common colorectal disease present in Western countries that develops as infected protrusions (diverticula) along weak points in the colon due to increased intraluminal pressure. Most patients with diverticular disease can be asymptomatic; however, several complications can arise from the development of diverticulitis. Here, we discuss the diagnosis and management of a patient presenting with recurrent Escherichia coli (E. coli) vaginal infections due to sigmoid colon diverticulitis resulting in a colo-fallopian fistula that was unremarkable on diagnostic imaging. The patient was managed with minimally invasive surgery. A 65-year-old female with a medical history of hyperlipidemia and recurrent diverticulitis presented with over a year history of recurrent E. coli vaginal infections. She underwent a robotic anterior resection with extracorporeal colorectal anastomosis via a Pfannenstiel incision. Less than 48 hours following the surgery, she was discharged without complications and has remained symptom-free nine months postoperatively. Significant improvement was noted following the procedure. The patient was able to advance her diet and was discharged the next day. The patient was seen postoperatively, with no evidence of any recurrent E. coli vaginal infections. The case highlights the diagnosis and management of a rare case of colo-fallopian fistula in a situation where the patient had recurrent vaginal infections. It is quite difficult to identify the fistula radiologically. This patient was managed with a minimally invasive surgical technique that proved to be safe and beneficial to the outcome of this patient.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Lee Y, Andrew L, Hill S, et al (2023)

Disparities in access to minimally invasive surgery for inflammatory bowel disease and outcomes by insurance status: analysis of the 2015 to 2019 National Inpatient Sample.

Surgical endoscopy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Despite being the preferred modality for treatment of colorectal cancer and diverticular disease, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been adopted slowly for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to its technical challenges. The present study aims to assess the disparities in use of MIS for patients with IBD.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from October 2015 to December 2019 was conducted. Patients < 65 years of age were stratified by either private insurance or Medicaid. The primary outcome was access to MIS and secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, complications, length of stay (LOS), and total admission cost. Univariate and multivariate regression was utilized to determine the association between insurance status and outcomes.

RESULTS: The NIS sample population included 7866 patients with private insurance and 1689 with Medicaid. Medicaid patients had lower odds of receiving MIS than private insurance patients (OR 0.85, 95% CI [0.74-0.97], p = 0.017), and experienced more postoperative genitourinary complications (OR 1.36, 95% CI [1.08-1.71], p = 0.009). In addition, LOS was longer by 1.76 days (p < 0.001) and the total cost was higher by $5043 USD (p < 0.001) in the Medicaid group. Independent predictors of receiving MIS were age < 40 years old, female sex, highest income quartile, diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, elective admission, and care at teaching hospitals.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Medicaid are less likely to receive MIS, have longer lengths of stay, and incur higher costs for the surgical management of their IBD. Further investigations into disparities in inflammatory bowel disease care for Medicaid patients are warranted.

RevDate: 2023-09-03

Evaristo G, Szczepanski J, Farag MS, et al (2023)

Crohn's Disease Features in Anastomotic Biopsies from Patients With and Without Crohn's Disease: Diagnostic and Prognostic Value.

Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc pii:S0893-3952(23)00230-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Endoscopic evidence of disease activity is a critical predictor of clinical relapse in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and histologic disease activity is evolving as a similarly important endpoint for patient management. However, classical morphologic features of CD may overlap with postoperative inflammatory changes, confounding the evaluation of anastomotic biopsies. There is a clear unmet need for better characterization of diagnostic and clinically significant histological features of CD in these surgically altered sites. We evaluated ileocolonic and colocolonic/rectal anastomotic biopsies performed at three academic institutions in patients with and without CD. The biopsies were blindly assessed for CD histologic features and correlated to clinical and endoscopic characteristics. In CD patients, the presence of each feature was correlated with the subsequent clinical exacerbation or relapse. We obtained anastomotic biopsies from 208 patients of which 109 were operated on for CD and 99 for another indication (neoplasia (80%), diverticular disease (11%), other (9%)). Mean time since surgery was 10 years (0-59; 14 years for CD (1-59), 6 years for non-CD (0-33)). Endoscopic inflammation was noted in 52% of cases (68% for CD, 35% for non-CD). Microscopic inflammation was present in 74% of cases (82% for CD, 67% for non-CD). Only discontinuous lymphoplasmacytosis (p<0.001) and pyloric gland metaplasia (p=0.04) occurred significantly more often in CD patients. However, none of the histologic features predicted clinical disease progression. In subset analysis, the presence of histologic features of CD in non-anastomotic biopsies obtained concurrently in CD patients was significantly associated with relapse (p=0.03). Due to extensive morphologic overlap between CD and postoperative changes and the lack of specific histologic features of relapse, biopsies from anastomotic sites are of no value in predicting clinical CD progression. Instead, CD activity in biopsies obtained away from anastomotic sites should be used for guiding endoscopic sampling and clinical management.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Gray PJ, Goldwag JL, Eid MA, et al (2021)

What Are the Long-Term Changes to Bowel Function Patient-reported Outcomes After Elective Sigmoidectomy for Diverticular Disease?: Observational Study of Patients Undergoing Elective Sigmoidectomy for Diverticular Disease.

Annals of surgery open : perspectives of surgical history, education, and clinical approaches, 2(4):e110.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term changes to bowel function after elective sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease.

BACKGROUND: For patients with diverticular disease, choosing surgery is often based on the presumption of improvement in preoperative symptoms. Our group previously reported bowel function does not change in the early perioperative period; however, studies of long-term outcomes are limited.

METHODS: This is an observational study of patients that underwent elective sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease and completed the Colorectal Functional Outcome (COREFO) questionnaire before surgery. Patients were stratified into two groups based on presence or absence of a preoperative symptomatic score (i.e., total COREFO ≥ 15). Long-term bowel function (>1 year from surgery) was assessed using the COREFO questionnaire via telephone or subsequent clinic visit. Paired t-tests compared mean preoperative scores to mean long-term scores.

RESULTS: Fifty-one patients met inclusion criteria (21 symptomatic, 30 asymptomatic). All symptomatic patients had uncomplicated disease, whereas 90% of asymptomatic patients had complicated disease. Median time from operation to questionnaire completion was 23 months (IQR = 13-34). Asymptomatic patients demonstrated impaired bowel function, predominantly driven by changes in the social impact domain. Symptomatic patients demonstrated improved bowel function, driven by changes in the incontinence, social impact, stool-related aspects, and need for medication domains.

CONCLUSIONS: In the long-term after elective sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease, patients with symptomatic bowel function preoperatively improve substantially, while those with asymptomatic preoperative scores demonstrate statistically significant impairment. Patients determined to be symptomatic with patient-reported outcomes likely benefit long-term from sigmoid resection.Mini-Abstract: In this manuscript, long-term changes to patient-reported bowel function were assessed using a validated questionnaire after sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease. We found that in patients with symptomatic preoperative bowel function, long-term bowel function improved after elective resection. Alternatively, patients with asymptomatic preoperative bowel function demonstrated long-term impairment in bowel function.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Pallotta L, Cammisotto V, Castellani V, et al (2023)

Diverticular Disease Worsening Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Gut Permeability: New Insights by Circulating Biomarkers.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(8): pii:antiox12081537.

Diverticular disease (DD) management is impaired by its pathogenesis, which is still not completely defined, with an unmet clinical need for improved therapies. Ex vivo DD human models demonstrated the presence of a transmural oxidative imbalance that supports an ischemic pathogenesis. This study aimed to assess, with the use of circulating biomarkers, insights into DD pathogenesis and possible therapeutic targets. Nox2-derived peptide, H2O2, antioxidant capacity, isoprostanes, thromboxanes, TNF-α, LPS and zonulin were evaluated by ELISA in healthy subjects (HS) and asymptomatic and symptomatic DD patients. Compared to HS, DD patients presented low antioxidant capacity and increase in sNox2-dp, H2O2 and isoprostanes paralleled to a TNFα increase, lower than that of oxidative markers. TxB2 production correlated to Nox2 and isoprostanes, suggesting platelet activation. An increase in zonulin and LPS highlighted the role of gut permeability and LPS translocation in DD pathogenesis. The increase of all the markers statistically correlated with DD severity. The present study confirmed the presence of a main oxidative imbalance in DD and provides evidence of platelet activation driven by LPS translocation. The use of circulating biomarkers could represent a new clinical tool for monitoring disease progression and validate therapeutic strategies never tested in DD as antioxidant supplementation.

RevDate: 2023-08-18

Azzopardi M, Wallace T, YS Khaled (2023)

Aortoiliac graft-enteric fistula presenting as gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A report on a complex case management.

Clinical case reports, 11(8):e7801.

KEY CLINICAL MESSAGE: Iliac artery-enteric fistula is a rare cause of lower GI bleeding and can cause life-threatening consequences. A high degree of clinical suspicion is needed in patients with previous aortic surgery to allow early multidisciplinary intervention.

ABSTRACT: This case study discusses the staged management of a 78-year-old patient presenting with life-threatening lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding secondary to an aortoiliac graft-enteric fistula (GEF) into the sigmoid colon on the background of an adenocarcinoma and diverticular disease. The patient had an aorto bi-iliac synthetic dacron graft repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) some 20 years ago. Here, we present a case of successful endovascular treatment of massive hemorrhage as a bridge to definitive second-stage dacron graft explant and autologous vein reconstruction with a simultaneous anterior resection.

RevDate: 2023-08-17

Guo X, Patel B, Han L, et al (2023)

Novel patch biomaterial treatment for colon diverticulosis in swine model.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1215362.

Current leading managements for diverticular disease cannot prevent the recurrence of diverticulitis, bleeding and/or other complications. There is an immediate need for developing new minimal invasive therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat this disease. Through a biomechanical analysis of porcine colon with diverticular lesions, we proposed a novel adhesive patch concept aiming at mechanical reconstruction of the diseased colon wall. This study aims to evaluate the surgical feasibility (safety and efficacy) of pulmonary visceral pleura (PVP) patch therapy using a pig model of diverticulosis. Six female Yucatan miniature pigs underwent collagenase injection (CI) for the development of diverticular lesions. The lesions in each animal either received patch implantation (treated group, n = 40 for 6 pigs) or left intact (untreated group, n = 44 for 6 pigs). The normal colonic wall in each animal received patch implantation at two spots to serve as control (n = 12 for 6 pigs). After 3 months of observation, the performance and safety of the patch treatment were evaluated through macroscopic and histological examination. We found that 95% of pouch-like herniation of the mucosa was prevented from the colon wall with the treatment. The pouch diameter was significantly reduced in the treated group as compared to the untreated group (p < 0.001). The patch application caused a significant increase in the levels of collagen of the colon tissue as compared to the untreated and control groups (p < 0.001). No difference was found in the lymphocyte and macrophage inflammatory infiltrate between the groups. Our results suggest that patch treatment efficiently inhibits the diverticular pouch deformation and promotes the healing of the colon wall with a normal inflammatory response, which may minimize the risk of diverticulosis reoccurrence and complications over time.

RevDate: 2023-08-11

Mirande MD, McKenna NP, Bews KA, et al (2023)

Risk factors for surgical site infections and trends in skin closure technique after diverting loop ileostomy reversal: A multi-institutional analysis.

American journal of surgery pii:S0002-9610(23)00375-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common complications following diverting loop ileostomy (DLI) closures. This study assesses SSIs after DLI closure and the temporal trends in skin closure technique.

METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for adult patients who underwent a DLI closure between 2012 and 2021 across a multistate health system. Skin closure technique was categorized as primary, primary ​+ ​drain, or purse-string closure. The primary outcome was SSI at the former DLI site.

RESULTS: A SSI was diagnosed in 5.7% of patients; 6.9% for primary closure, 5.7% for primary closure ​+ ​drain, and 2.7% for purse-string closure (p ​= ​0.25). A diagnosis of Crohn's disease, diverticular disease, and increasing operative time were significant risk factors for SSIs. There was a positive trend in the use of purse-string closure over time (p ​< ​0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a low SSI rate after DLI closure which did not vary significantly based on skin closure technique. Utilization of purse-string closure increased over time.

RevDate: 2023-07-21

Bachelani AM (2023)

My thoughts: The changing role of elective colectomy for diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2023-07-07

Cameron R, Walker MM, Jones M, et al (2023)

Increased mucosal eosinophils in colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Eosinophils contribute to tissue homeostasis, damage, and repair. The mucosa of colonic diverticula has not been evaluated for eosinophils by quantitative histology. We aimed to investigate whether mucosal eosinophils and other immune cells are increased in colonic diverticula.

METHODS: Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections from colonic surgical resections (n = 82) containing diverticula were examined. Eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, in five high power fields in the lamina propria were counted at the base, neck, and ostia of the diverticulum and counts compared to non-diverticula mucosa. The cohort was further subgrouped by elective and emergency surgical indications.

RESULTS: Following an initial review of 10 surgical resections from patients with diverticulosis, a total of 82 patients with colonic resections containing diverticula from the descending colon were evaluated (median age 71.5, 42 M/40F). Eosinophil counts for the entire cohort were increased in the base and neck (median 99 and 42, both P = <0.001) compared with the control location (median 16). Eosinophil counts remained significantly increased in the diverticula base (both P = <0.001) and neck (P = 0.01 and <0.001, respectively) in both elective and emergency cases. Lymphocytes were also significantly increased at the diverticula base compared to controls in both elective and emergency subgroups.

CONCLUSION: Eosinophils are significantly and most strikingly increased within the diverticulum in resected colonic diverticula. While these observations are novel, the role of eosinophil and chronic inflammation is as yet unclear in the pathophysiology of colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2023-06-28

Ishinoda Y, Uto A, Meshino H, et al (2023)

Bowel perforation associated with Cushing's disease: a case report with literature review.

Endocrine journal [Epub ahead of print].

Although rare, endogenous hypercortisolemia, including Cushing's disease (CD), is known to cause bowel perforation and to mask typical symptoms of bowel perforation, leading to delayed diagnosis. Additionally, elderly patients with CD are considered to be at a higher risk for bowel perforation because intestinal tissue fragility tends to increase in the elderly. Herein, we describe a rare case in which a young adult patient with CD was diagnosed with bowel perforation associated with CD following severe abdominal pain. A 24-year-old Japanese man was admitted to the hospital for the evaluation of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. He suddenly complained of severe abdominal pain on the 8th day of hospitalization. Computed tomography revealed free air around the sigmoid colon. The patient was diagnosed with bowel perforation, underwent emergency surgery, and was saved. He was subsequently diagnosed with CD, and the pituitary adenoma was resected transsphenoidally. To date, eight cases of bowel perforation due to CD had been reported, with a median age of 61 years at the time of bowel perforation. Hypokalemia was detected in half of the patients, and all had a history of diverticular disease. Nevertheless, not many patients complained of peritoneal irritation. In conclusion, this is the youngest reported case with bowel perforation due to CD and the first report of bowel perforation in a patient without a history of diverticular disease. Bowel perforation may occur in patients with CD, irrespective of age and the presence of hypokalemia, diverticular disease, or peritoneal irritation.

RevDate: 2023-07-01
CmpDate: 2023-06-29

Vaghiri S, Krieg S, Prassas D, et al (2023)

A New Nomogram-Based Prediction Model for Postoperative Outcome after Sigmoid Resection for Diverticular Disease.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 59(6):.

Background and Objectives: Sigmoid resection still bears a considerable risk of complications. The primary aim was to evaluate and incorporate influencing factors of adverse perioperative outcomes following sigmoid resection into a nomogram-based prediction model. Materials and Methods: Patients from a prospectively maintained database (2004-2022) who underwent either elective or emergency sigmoidectomy for diverticular disease were enrolled. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to identify patient-specific, disease-related, or surgical factors and preoperative laboratory results that may predict postoperative outcome. Results: Overall morbidity and mortality rates were 41.3% and 3.55%, respectively, in 282 included patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed preoperative hemoglobin levels (p = 0.042), ASA classification (p = 0.040), type of surgical access (p = 0.014), and operative time (p = 0.049) as significant predictors of an eventful postoperative course and enabled the establishment of a dynamic nomogram. Postoperative length of hospital stay was influenced by low preoperative hemoglobin (p = 0.018), ASA class 4 (p = 0.002), immunosuppression (p = 0.010), emergency intervention (p = 0.024), and operative time (p = 0.010). Conclusions: A nomogram-based scoring tool will help stratify risk and reduce preventable complications.

RevDate: 2023-07-01
CmpDate: 2023-06-29

Sabo CM, Ismaiel M, Ismaiel A, et al (2023)

Do Colonic Mucosal Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Levels Play a Role in Diverticular Disease? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(12):.

Diverticular disease (DD) is the most frequent condition in the Western world that affects the colon. Although chronic mild inflammatory processes have recently been proposed as a central factor in DD, limited information is currently available regarding the role of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to assess the mucosal TNF-α levels in DD. We conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus to identify observational studies assessing the TNF-α levels in DD. Full-text articles that satisfied our inclusion and exclusion criteria were included, and a quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The principal summary outcome was the mean difference (MD). The results were reported as MD (95% confidence interval (CI)). A total of 12 articles involving 883 subjects were included in the qualitative synthesis, out of which 6 studies were included in our quantitative synthesis. We did not observe statistical significance related to the mucosal TNF-α levels in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) vs. the controls (0.517 (95% CI -1.148-2.182)), and symptomatic vs. asymptomatic DD patients (0.657 (95% CI -0.883-2.196)). However, the TNF-α levels were found to be significantly increased in DD compared to irritable bowel disease (IBS) patients (27.368 (95% CI 23.744-30.992)), and segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis (SCAD) vs. IBS patients (25.303 (95% CI 19.823-30.784)). Between SUDD and the controls, as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic DD, there were no significant differences in the mucosal TNF-α levels. However, the TNF-α levels were considerably higher in DD and SCAD patients than IBS patients. Our findings suggest that TNF-α may play a key role in the pathogenesis of DD in specific subgroups and could potentially be a target for future therapies.

RevDate: 2023-08-11

Bhatia M, A Mattoo (2023)

Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Current Treatment Trends.

Cureus, 15(8):e43158.

Diverticular disease is a common surgical condition, especially in the Western world. Its existence is well known in Asian countries as well; however, its impact on Asian health care is not the same as that in Western countries. Diverticular disease has a variable presentation, and its implications can be challenging to manage both for the patient and the medical professionals. Diet and lifestyle are commonly associated with its etiology. In Western countries, much attention is given to diverticular disease, and with the acceptance of colonoscopy as a surveillance investigation, a greater number of people are diagnosed with diverticular disease at an early stage and overall. In acute presentations, a CT scan of the abdomen remains the investigation of choice. The most common presentation of diverticular disease is pain in the abdomen or a change in bowel habits. In most cases, diverticular disease is treated with medical intervention; however, in cases associated with severe complications or advanced stages, surgical modality remains the primary treatment.

RevDate: 2023-08-10

Lynch CA (2023)

Are Patients Requiring Hartmann's Procedure Being Adequately Optimised for Surgery: An Audit Cycle.

Cureus, 15(7):e41589.

Introduction Hartmann's procedures are common surgical operations indicated in a wide variety of presentations including colon malignancy, diverticular disease, volvulus, and colovesical and colovaginal fistulas. The procedure is a major undertaking for the patient and those presenting in the emergency setting are often clinically unwell with deranged laboratory investigations. Numerous studies have demonstrated that pre-operative anaemia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Applying the conclusions of one study recommending a minimum haemoglobin >12 g/dL level pre-operatively, this audit assessed patient optimisation prior to Hartmann's procedure. Materials and methods Patients undergoing Hartmann's procedures between May 2016 and February 2020 were identified. Data was collected retrospectively to analyse American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) grade and pre-operative haemoglobin level. Pre-operative haemoglobin and group and save blood test values were identified pre-and post-intervention. Results Pre-intervention, 15 (21%) of 70 patients had a haemoglobin level <12 g/dL and 63 patients (90%) had a group and save blood test completed on admission. Post-intervention data was collected from 45 patients, with figures improving to five (11%) and 44 (97%) patients, respectively. Conclusion Our flowchart poster distribution and addition to the surgical proforma led to increased patient optimisation prior to Hartmann's procedure.

RevDate: 2023-08-08

Tursi A, Piovani D, Brandimarte G, et al (2023)

Diverticular Inflammation and Complication Assessment classification, CODA score and fecal calprotectin in clinical assessment of patients with diverticular disease: A decision curve analysis.

United European gastroenterology journal [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Diverticular Inflammation and Complication Assessment (DICA) classification and the Combined Overview on Diverticular Assessment (CODA) were found to be effective in predicting the outcomes of Diverticular Disease (DD). We ascertain whether fecal calprotectin (FC) can further aid in improving risk stratification.

METHODS: A three-year international, multicentre, prospective cohort study was conducted involving 43 Gastroenterology and Endoscopy centres. Survival methods for censored observations were used to estimate the risk of acute diverticulitis (AD) in newly diagnosed DD patients according to basal FC, DICA, and CODA. The net benefit of management strategies based on DICA, CODA and FC in addition to CODA was assessed with decision curve analysis, which incorporates the harms and benefits of using a prognostic model for clinical decisions.

RESULTS: At the first diagnosis of diverticulosis/DD, 871 participants underwent FC measurement. FC was associated with the risk of AD at 3 years (HR per each base 10 logarithm increase: 3.29; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-5.10) and showed moderate discrimination (c-statistic: 0.685; 0.614-0.756). DICA and CODA were more accurate predictors of AD than FC. However, FC showed high discrimination capacity to predict AD at 3 months, which was not maintained at longer follow-up times. The decision curve analysis comparing the combination of FC and CODA with CODA alone did not clearly indicate a larger net benefit of one strategy over the other.

CONCLUSIONS: FC measurement could be used as a complementary tool to assess the immediate risk of AD. In all other cases, treatment strategies based on the CODA score alone should be recommended.

RevDate: 2023-08-02

Goncharov AL, Chicherina MA, Aslanyan AS, et al (2023)

[Reversal of Hartmann's procedure in patients with diverticular disease].


OBJECTIVE: To analyze intraoperative and early postoperative results of open and laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's (HR) procedure in patients with diverticular disease.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A single-center retrospective non-randomized study included 31 patients with complicated form of diverticular disease between 2018 and 2022. Patients underwent reversal of Hartmann's procedure (laparoscopic surgery - 19, laparotomy - 12).

RESULTS: Mean time of laparoscopy and open surgery was 202±36.7 and 223±41 min, respectively. There were no intraoperative complications in both groups and conversions of laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann's procedure. No preventive stoma was required. Mean postoperative hospital-stay was 7.6±3.2 and 9.5±4.6 days, respectively. Overall incidence of postoperative complications was 32.2% (n=10), i.e. 4 (21%) and 6 (50%) patients in both groups, respectively. Anastomotic leakage occurred in one patient after open surgery.

CONCLUSION: In our sample, incidence of complications was low after reversal of Hartmann's procedure in patients with complicated diverticular disease. There was 1 (3.2%) patient with anastomotic leakage, and no temporary stoma was formed. In patients who underwent laparoscopic Hartmann's procedure at the first stage and selected patients after open surgeries, laparoscopic reversal procedures were accompanied by no conversions. There were favorable results typical for minimally invasive surgery. Selection criteria for laparoscopic access are discussable. Large-scale studies including randomized trials are needed to verify selection criteria for minimally invasive reversal of Hartmann's procedure and demonstrate its advantages over open surgery.

RevDate: 2023-07-31

Gavriilidis P, A Paily (2023)

Colonic Perforation Secondary to Gallstone Impaction in the Sigmoid Colon.

Case reports in surgery, 2023:9986665.

INTRODUCTION: Gallstone sigmoid ileus is a very rare manifestation of large bowel obstruction. Mainly, three conditions predispose the manifestation of the entity; in particular, an episode of cholecystitis causing cholecysto-colonic fistula; a large gallstone; and narrowing of the sigmoid colon secondary to diverticular disease or malignancy. Case Report. An 82-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a one-week history of severe constipation, tachypnoea, tachycardia, hypotension, and high lactate. Physical examination demonstrated cyanosed upper and lower extremities and palpation of the abdomen revealed signs of peritonism, abdominal distention, and guarding. Computerized tomography scan demonstrated perforation of the hollow viscus organ secondary to impaction of the large gallstone in the sigmoid colon. Laparotomy revealed sigmoid perforation and widespread feculent peritonitis. The patient underwent Hartmann's procedure. After the intervention gave concerns regarding the patient's haemodynamic stability, he was transferred to the intensive care unit. The patient passed away on the third postoperative day due to complications secondary to haemodynamic instability.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with early diagnosed uncomplicated sigmoid gallstone ileus can be managed with endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy. In case of failure, open or laparoscopic enterolithotomy can be applied. However, when patients present with complications, surgery should not be delayed. In our case, Hartmann's procedure was an absolute indication due to sigmoid perforation and widespread feculent peritonitis.

RevDate: 2023-07-29

Aguilar-Alvarado MY, Baker B, Chiu LS, et al (2023)

Benign Colorectal Disorders.

Primary care, 50(3):461-480.

Benign conditions of the colon and rectum are a heterogeneous group of conditions that range from inflammatory to infectious to pelvic floor health conditions that affect large segments of the US population. These conditions include diverticular disease, hemorrhoids, and anorectal lesions. The initial presentation of these very common conditions often occurs in the outpatient primary care setting, and most can be managed by the primary care clinician. This article will provide an overview on the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of some of the most common benign colorectal disorders; these are broadly divided into diverticular disease, hemorrhoids, and anorectal conditions.

RevDate: 2023-07-28

Garro-Mendiola A, Guevara-Lazo D, Samanez WP, et al (2023)

Difficult diagnosis in the clinical evaluation of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the sigmoid colon: a case report.

Journal of medical case reports, 17(1):324.

BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the sigmoid colon is an exceedingly rare subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with chronic inflammatory conditions. Due to its variable clinical presentation ranging from subclinical to fully symptomatic and limited available information, it poses a diagnostic challenge. We aim to provide a review of the current literature and raise awareness about the importance of a thorough clinical analysis for an early diagnosis.

CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 59-year-old Peruvian woman with a medical history of diverticular disease and irritable bowel syndrome. The patient presented with nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal discomfort, constipation, and bloating. Diagnostic tests and biopsy revealed a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the sigmoid colon. The patient underwent surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy.

CONCLUSION: Despite the rarity of this type of cancer in the colon, the patient's clinical course highlights the importance of considering it as a potential diagnosis in patients with nonspecific symptoms and a history of gastrointestinal disorders. Surgical treatment followed by radiotherapy is the preferred management. Factors such as lack of postoperative complications and the stage of the neoplasia can augur a positive.

PROGNOSIS: A prompt diagnosis is crucial, as detecting a neoplasia in its early stages can make surgery more effective.

RevDate: 2023-07-28

Silvestri V, Pontecorvi E, Sciuto A, et al (2023)

Preservation of the inferior mesenteric artery VS ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery in left colectomy: evaluation of functional outcomes-a prospective non-randomized controlled trial.

Updates in surgery [Epub ahead of print].

Vascular approach during elective laparoscopic left colectomy impacts post-operative outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate how different approaches impact positively defecatory, urinary and sexual functions and quality of life during elective laparoscopic left colectomy. A prospective non-randomized controlled trial at two tertiary center was conducted. All patients who underwent elective laparoscopic left colonic resection from January 2019 to July 2022 were analyzed. They were divided into two groups based on Inferior Mesenteric Artery (IMA) preservation with distal ligation of sigmoid branches close to a colonic wall for complicated diverticular disease and IMA high tie ligation for oncological disease. Patients were asked to fulfil standardized, validated questionnaires to evaluate pre and post-operative defecatory, urinary and sexual functions and quality of life. Defecatory disorders were assessed by high-resolution anorectal manometry preoperatively and six months after surgery. A total of 122 patients were included in the study. The 62 patients with IMA preservation showed a lower incidence of defecatory disorders also confirmed by manometer data, minor incontinence and less lifestyle alteration than the 60 patients with IMA high tie ligation. No urinary disorders such as incomplete emptying, frequency, intermittence or urgency were highlighted after surgery in the IMA preservation group. Evidence of any sexual disorders remained controversial. The IMA-preserving vascular approach seems to be an effective strategy to prevent postoperative functional disorders. It is a safe and feasible technique especially for diverticular disease. New prospective randomized and highly probative studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness in specific clinical situations.

RevDate: 2023-07-26

Wu Y, Goleva SB, Breidenbach LB, et al (2023)

150 risk variants for diverticular disease of intestine prioritize cell types and enable polygenic prediction of disease susceptibility.

Cell genomics, 3(7):100326.

We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of diverticular disease (DivD) of intestine within 724,372 individuals and identified 150 independent genome-wide significant DNA variants. Integration of the GWAS results with human gut single-cell RNA sequencing data implicated gut myocyte, mesothelial and stromal cells, and enteric neurons and glia in DivD development. Ninety-five genes were prioritized based on multiple lines of evidence, including SLC9A3, a drug target gene of tenapanor used for the treatment of the constipation subtype of irritable bowel syndrome. A DivD polygenic score (PGS) enables effective risk prediction (area under the curve [AUC], 0.688; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.645-0.732) and the top 20% PGS was associated with ∼3.6-fold increased DivD risk relative to the remaining population. Our statistical and bioinformatic analyses suggest that the mechanism of DivD is through colon structure, gut motility, gastrointestinal mucus, and ionic homeostasis. Our analyses reinforce the link between gastrointestinal disorders and the enteric nervous system through genetics.

RevDate: 2023-07-25

Schaffler-Schaden D, Mittermair C, Bittner F, et al (2023)

Effects of sarcopenia and myosteatosis are alleviated in reduced port surgery for diverticulitis.

International journal of colorectal disease, 38(1):202.

PURPOSE: Many studies report the predictive value of sarcopenia, myosteatosis, and visceral fat for clinical outcome after surgery. Radiological analysis of body composition is a valuable tool for identifying high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Despite the high prevalence of diverticular disease, patients with benign conditions have hardly been studied in this context. This study aims to evaluate the impact of reduced port surgery on the outcome of patients with diverticulitis, adjusting for body composition.

METHODS: We assessed body composition profiles using preoperative CT slices at the level of the third lumbar vertebra in consecutive patients undergoing single-port elective surgery for diverticulitis in a single center. The effects of sarcopenia, myosteatosis, and visceral fat on mortality and complications were analyzed and adjusted for age and gender.

RESULTS: We enrolled 99 patients with diverticulitis undergoing elective single port surgery in this study. Of the patients, 71.2% had sarcopenia and 60.6% had myosteatosis. The overall complication rate was 17.2%, and the rate of anastomotic leakage was 4.0%. Thirty-day mortality was 2.0%. Loss of skeletal muscle mass, myosteatosis, and visceral fat were not associated with higher complication or mortality rates in our cohort.

CONCLUSION: Body composition profiles had no impact on the clinical course in our cohort. Minimally invasive surgery may potentially compensate for the adverse effects of sarcopenia and myosteatosis in diverticulitis.

RevDate: 2023-07-24

Stapler SJ, Colom SM, Rajkumar D, et al (2023)

Early Urinary Catheter Removal After Colectomy for Colovesical Fistula is Not Associated With Increased Postoperative Complications.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Management of the bladder defect during colectomy for colovesical fistula (CVF) and recommendations for duration of urinary catheter drainage are inconsistent. This study aimed to determine if urinary catheter drainage duration was associated with postoperative complications.

METHODS: Retrospective single institution cohort study of patients undergoing resection for diverticular CVF from 2015 through 2021. Urinary catheter drainage was defined as Early (≤7 days postoperative and then subdivided into 1-2 days, 3-5 days, 6-7 days), and Late (>7 days postoperative). Primary outcome was a composite measure of postoperative bladder leak, surgical site infection-III, sepsis, reoperation, and postoperative length-of-stay ≥7 days.

RESULTS: There were 73 patients-64 Early group and 9 Late group. Composite measure between groups (Early 25% vs Late 33.33%, P = .688) was not significantly different. The Late group had more patients with large bladder defects (33.3% vs 7.8%, P = .054), significantly more patients who underwent suture repair (55.6% vs 14.1%, P = .01), and significantly more patients that had an intraoperative pelvic drain (66.7% vs 15.6%, P = .003). After propensity score inverse weighting, the Late group had significantly more cystogram-detected postoperative bladder leaks (P = .002) and ileus (P = .042) than the Early group. There were no bladder leaks or ileus in those who had urinary catheter removal on postoperative days 1-2.

CONCLUSIONS: Early urinary catheter removal was associated with no increase in bladder leaks and fewer postoperative complications after definitive management of CVF. Further investigation is required to determine if intraoperative bladder leak testing and postoperative cystograms are useful adjuncts in decision making.

RevDate: 2023-07-15

Connelly TM, Cheong JY, Lincango EP, et al (2023)

Surgery for young onset diverticulitis: is it curative?.

International journal of colorectal disease, 38(1):195.

PURPOSE: Previously considered a disease of old age, diverticular disease is increasingly prevalent in younger populations. Guidelines on surgical resection have shifted from recommending resection for all young onset patients to an individualized approach. Therefore, we aim to determine demographics and outcomes including radiographic and surgical recurrence rates in patients < 40 years old undergoing resection for diverticular disease.

METHODS: A retrospective, single center study was performed. All patients ≤ 39 years undergoing operative intervention for left-sided diverticular disease between Jan 2010 and July 2017 were included. Recurrence was determined by individual review of imaging and operative reports.

RESULTS: Overall, 147 (n = 107/72.8% male, mean age = 34.93 ± 4.12 years) patients were included. The majority were ASA 1 or 2 (n = 41/27.9% and n = 82/55.8%). The most common surgical indication was uncomplicated diverticulitis (n = 77, 52.4%) followed by perforation (n = 26/17.7%). The majority (n = 108/73.5%) of cases were elective. Seventy-nine (57.3%) of all cases were performed laparoscopically. Primary anastomosis without diversion was the most common surgical outcome (n = 108/73.5%). Median length of stay was 5 (4, 7) days. There was no mortality. There were three (2.0%) intraoperative and 38 (25.9%) postoperative complications. The most common complication was anastomotic leak (n = 6/4.1%). The majority (n = 5) of leaks occurred after elective surgery. Two neoplastic lesions (1.3% of cohort) were found (1 adenoma with low-grade dysplasia/1 polyp cancer). Over a mean follow-up of 96 (74, 123) months, only 2 (1.3%) patients experienced a surgical or radiological recurrence.

CONCLUSION: Both neoplasia and recurrence after resection for diverticular disease in young onset patients are rare. Leaks after primary anastomosis even in the elective setting warrant careful consideration of a defunctioning ileostomy.

RevDate: 2023-07-14

Linan-Rico A, Ochoa-Cortes F, Schneider R, et al (2023)

Mini-Review: Enteric Glial Cell Reactions to Inflammation and Potential Therapeutic Implications for GI Diseases, Motility Disorders and Abdominal Pain.

Neuroscience letters pii:S0304-3940(23)00354-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Enteric glial cells are emerging as critical players in the regulation of intestinal motility, secretion, epithelial barrier function, and gut homeostasis in health and disease. Enteric glia react to intestinal inflammation by converting to a 'reactive glial phenotype' and enteric gliosis, contributing to neuroinflammation, enteric neuropathy, bowel motor dysfunction and dysmotility, diarrhea or constipation, 'leaky gut', and visceral pain. The focus of the minireview is on the impact of inflammation on enteric glia reactivity in response to diverse insults such as intestinal surgery, ischemia, infections (C. difficile infection, HIV-Tat-induced diarrhea, endotoxemia and paralytic ileus), GI diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticular disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, colorectal cancer) and functional GI disorders (postoperative ileus, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome). Significant progress has been made in recent years on molecular pathogenic mechanisms of glial reactivity and enteric gliosis, resulting in enteric neuropathy, disruption of motility, diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity and abdominal pain. There is a growing number of glial molecular targets with therapeutic implications that includes receptors for interleukin-1 (IL-1R), purines (P2X2R, A2BR), PPARα, lysophosphatidic acid (LPAR1), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4R), estrogen-β receptor (ERβ) adrenergic α-2 (α-2R) and endothelin B (ETBR), connexin-43 / Colony-stimulating factor 1 signaling (Cx43/CSF1) and the S100β/RAGE signaling pathway. These exciting new developments are the subject of the minireview. Some of the findings in pre-clinical models may be translatable to humans, raising the possibility of designing future clinical trials to test therapeutic application(s). Overall, research on enteric glia has resulted in significant advances in our understanding of GI pathophysiology.

RevDate: 2023-07-11

Polese B, Carabotti M, Rurgo S, et al (2023)

Patients with Diverticular Disease Have Different Dietary Habits Compared to Control Subjects: Results from an Observational Italian Study.

Nutrients, 15(9): pii:nu15092119.

The role of dietary habits as risk factor for the development of diverticular complications has strongly emerged in the last years. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in dietary habits between patients with diverticular disease (DD) and matched controls without diverticula. Dietary habits were obtained from standardized food frequency questionnaires collected at entry to the Diverticular Disease Registry (REMAD). We compared controls (C) (n = 119) with asymptomatic diverticulosis (D) (n = 344), symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) (n = 154) and previous diverticulitis (PD) (n = 83) patients, in terms of daily calories, macro and micronutrients and dietary vitamins. Daily kcal intake and lipids, both saturated and unsaturated, were significantly lower in patients with DD than C. Total protein consumption was lower in PD than D, with differing consumption of unprocessed red meat, white meat and eggs between groups. Consumption of fibre, both soluble and insoluble, was lower in patients with PD compared to patients with SUDD, D and C, whereas dietary vitamins A, C, D and E and Oxygen Radical Adsorbance Capacity index were lower in all DD groups compared to C. This observational study showed that DD patients have different dietary habits, mainly in terms of caloric, fat, fibre and vitamin intake, compared to control subjects.

RevDate: 2023-07-10

Le DP (2023)

Metastatic Seeding of Abdominal Wall After Drainage of Perforated Colorectal Cancer in a Presumed Complicated Diverticular Disease.

Cureus, 15(7):e41469.

A 37-year-old male presented multiple times for abdominal pain with a persistent diverticular abscess on imaging that was managed previously with antibiotics and percutaneous drainages. Due to unrelenting abdominal pain and multiple presentations of unresolved acute complicated diverticulitis, the patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A colonic mass was discovered, and the patient had a colonic resection. Pathology revealed invasive transverse colonic adenocarcinoma with perforation and involvement of the stomach. Imaging showed no distant metastatic disease and chemotherapy was started. Months after treatment, the patient developed skin lesions and a palpable mass at the previous drain site. Biopsy showed metastatic adenocarcinoma consistent with colonic origin. Colonic adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the abdominal wall after drainage of presumed diverticular abscess is rare. Clinicians should consider malignancy when a patient has a recurrent diverticular abscess that has failed medical management and multiple drainages. Clinicians should remain vigilant of the risk of seeding colonic adenocarcinoma to the abdominal wall when repeated drainage is performed.

RevDate: 2023-07-10

Dunckley MG, Ahmed K, Said A, et al (2023)

Variability in the presentation of complicated jejunal diverticulosis.

JRSM open, 14(7):20542704231183247.

Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare disease which normally presents for the first time with acute complications, often requiring surgical intervention. The diverticulae are acquired, occurring more commonly after middle age, but their aetiology is unclear. We discuss this condition in the context of four cases which presented to our hospital as emergencies over a five year period: small bowel obstruction, gastrointestinal haemorrhage, small bowel volvulus, and visceral perforation. Our aim is to encourage clinicians to include jejunal diverticular disease as a differential diagnosis in patients with abdominal symptoms.

RevDate: 2023-07-05

Stovall SL, Kaplan JA, Law JK, et al (2023)

Diverticulitis is a population health problem: Lessons and gaps in strategies to implement and improve contemporary care.

World journal of gastrointestinal surgery, 15(6):1007-1019.

The disease burden of diverticulitis is high across inpatient and outpatient settings, and the prevalence of diverticulitis has increased. Historically, patients with acute diverticulitis were admitted routinely for intravenous antibiotics and many had urgent surgery with colostomy or elective surgery after only a few episodes. Several recent studies have challenged the standards of how acute and recurrent diverticulitis are managed, and many clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have pivoted to recommend outpatient management and individualized decisions about surgery. Yet the rates of diverticulitis hospitalizations and operations are increasing in the United States, suggesting there is a disconnect from or delay in adoption of CPGs across the spectrum of diverticular disease. In this review, we propose approaching diverticulitis care from a population level to understand the gaps between contemporary studies and real-world practice and suggest strategies to implement and improve future care.

RevDate: 2023-06-29

Pellegrin A, Sabbagh C, Berdah S, et al (2023)

Quality of life after sigmoid diverticulitis: A review.

Journal of visceral surgery pii:S1878-7886(23)00114-5 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Diverticular disease, including diverticulitis, begins when the patient becomes symptomatic. Sigmoid diverticulitis corresponds to inflammation/infection of a diverticulum of the sigmoid colon. Among diverticulosis patients, 4.3% develop diverticulitis, a frequent pathology that can entail major functional disorders. Following sigmoid diverticulitis, few studies have assessed functional disorders and quality of life, a multidimensional concept comprising physical, psychological and mental dimensions, as well as social relations.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to report current published data on the quality of life of patients having had sigmoid diverticulitis.

RESULTS: Following uncomplicated sigmoid diverticulitis, long-term quality of life does not substantially differ between patients having undergone antibiotic therapy and those having only received symptomatic treatment. As for patients having experienced recurrent events, their quality of life seems improved by elective surgery. Following Hinchey I/II sigmoid diverticulitis, elective surgery seems to improve quality of life, notwithstanding a 10% risk of postoperative complications. Following sigmoid diverticulitis, while emergency surgery seems not to have greater impact on quality of life than elective surgery, the surgical technique employed in an emergency setting seems to have an impact, particularly with regard to the physical and mental components of quality of life.

CONCLUSION: Assessment of quality of life is of fundamental importance in diverticular disease and should orient operative indications, particularly in an elective context.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Yang W, Yuan T, Cai Z, et al (2023)

Laparoscopic versus ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative pain management in minimally invasive colorectal surgery: a meta-analysis protocol.

Frontiers in oncology, 13:1080327.

INTRODUCTION: Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) is now commonly administered for postoperative pain control and reduced opioid consumption in patients undergoing major colorectal surgeries, such as colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, and inflammatory bowel disease resection. However, there remain several controversies about the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic TAPB compared to ultrasound-guided TAPB. Therefore, the aim of this study is to integrate both direct and indirect comparisons to identify a more effective and safer TAPB approach.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic electronic literature surveillance will be performed in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for eligible studies through July 31, 2023. The Cochrane Risk of Bias version 2 (RoB 2) and Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tools will be applied to scrutinize the methodological quality of the selected studies. The primary outcomes will include (1) opioid consumption at 24 hours postoperatively and (2) pain scores at 24 hours postoperatively both at rest and at coughing and movement according to the numerical rating scale (NRS). Additionally, the probability of TAPB-related adverse events, overall postoperative 30-day complications, postoperative 30-day ileus, postoperative 30-day surgical site infection, postoperative 7-day nausea and vomiting, and length of stay will be analyzed as secondary outcome measures. The findings will be assessed for robustness through subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses. Data analyses will be performed using RevMan 5.4.1 and Stata 17.0. P value of less than 0.05 will be defined as statistically significant. The certainty of evidence will be examined via the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group approach.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Owing to the nature of the secondary analysis of existing data, no ethical approval will be required. Our meta-analysis will summarize all the available evidence for the effectiveness and safety of TAPB approaches for minimally invasive colorectal surgery. High-quality peer-reviewed publications and presentations at international conferences will facilitate disseminating the results of this study, which are expected to inform future clinical trials and help anesthesiologists and surgeons determine the optimal tailored clinical practice for perioperative pain management.

https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=281720, identifier (CRD42021281720).

RevDate: 2023-06-23
CmpDate: 2023-06-06

Venezia L, Buonocore MR, Barbuscio I, et al (2023)

Choosing Wisely in Gastroenterology: five new recommendations from the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO).

European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, 35(7):728-733.

BACKGROUND: 'Choosing Wisely' is an international campaign against inappropriateness in medical practices that aims to promote a rational and evidence-based use of resources. The Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO) joined the Campaign in 2017 releasing five recommendations.

AIMS: To identify five new recommendations for a correct, evidence-based approach to the management of gastrointestinal diseases.

METHODS: All AIGO members were asked to identify practices or interventions that, even though diffuse in clinical practice, do not provide benefit for patients. The proposed items were then revised, divided by topic and ranked. After a systematic review of the literature for each item, five new recommendations were identified.

RESULTS: The five recommendations are: do not request surveillance investigations for patients with pancreatic cysts who are poor surgical candidates, irrespective of cysts nature and characteristics; do not request esophagogastroduodenoscopy in patients with recent onset of upper gastrointestinal symptoms younger than 50 years, without alarm features; do not request surveillance colonoscopy for asymptomatic colonic diverticular disease without changes in symptoms; do not perform food intolerance tests except for those scientifically validated; do not prescribe proton pump inhibitors to patients with liver cirrhosis, outside of established indications.

CONCLUSION: The Choosing Wisely recommendations will reduce unnecessary testing and treatments, increasing patient safety and overall healthcare quality.

RevDate: 2023-06-11
CmpDate: 2023-06-05

Narayanaswamy S, Goradia R, Bhujbal S, et al (2023)

Unique case of colovesical fistula in a renal allograft recipient.

BMJ case reports, 16(6):.

Colovesical fistula is commonly suspected in cases of diverticular disease, malignancy, trauma, iatrogenic injury or radiotherapy. In a case of allogenic live related transplant, this is rarely expected, especially after 20 years. The presence of gas in the bladder in the absence of history of instrumentation of urinary tract should prompt us to evaluate for colovesical fistula. Pneumaturia, faecaluria and recurrent urinary tract infection are tell-tale features of colovesical fistula, and when patients who are renal allograft recipient present with them, it should prompt a proper workup and swift surgical management, since the outcome is uniformly favourable. From our knowledge in this realm, we know that these are immunocompromised patients and have a high tendency to develop risk factors like malignancy and/or diverticular disease and eventually form colovesical fistula. An expected time period could be from 2 months to 6 years. But in our case, fistula formation occurred long after peak corticosteroid action, in the absence of conventional aetiologies.

RevDate: 2023-06-05
CmpDate: 2023-06-05

Lee Y, McKechnie T, Samarasinghe Y, et al (2023)

Primary anastomosis with diverting loop ileostomy versus Hartmann's procedure for acute complicated diverticulitis: analysis of the National Inpatient Sample 2015-2019.

International journal of colorectal disease, 38(1):156.

BACKGROUND: Up to 50% of patients with acute complicated diverticulitis require operative management on their index admission. There is ongoing debate as to whether primary anastomosis with diverting ileostomy versus a Hartmann's procedure is the optimal surgical approach for these patients. This study aims to compare postoperative complications in patients undergoing either Hartmann's procedure or primary anastomosis and diverting ileostomy for perforated diverticulitis using recent National Inpatient Sample data.

METHODS: Patients who underwent either primary anastomosis with diverting ileostomy or Hartmann's procedure for acute complicated diverticulitis from the 2015 to 2019 NIS database sample were included. Primary outcomes were postoperative in-hospital mortality and morbidity. Secondary outcomes were postoperative cause-specific complications, total admission cost, and length of stay (LOS). Univariate and multivariate regression were utilized to compare the two operative approaches.

RESULTS: Overall, 642 patients underwent primary anastomosis with diverting ileostomy and 4,482 patients underwent Hartmann's procedure. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.45-1.92, p = 0.84) or in-hospital morbidity (OR 1.10, 95%CI 0.90-1.35, p = 0.33). Adjusted analysis suggested shorter postoperative LOS for patients undergoing Hartmann's procedure (MD 0.79 days, 95%CI 0.15-1.43 days, p = 0.013) and decreased total admission cost (MD $4,893.99, 95%CI $1,425.04-$8,362.94, p = 0.006).

CONCLUSIONS: The present study supports that primary anastomosis with diverting ileostomy is safe for properly selected patients presenting with complicated diverticulitis. Primary anastomosis with diverting ileostomy is associated with greater total hospitalization costs and LOS.

RevDate: 2023-06-05
CmpDate: 2023-06-05

Waser A, Balaphas A, Uhe I, et al (2023)

Incidence of diverticulitis recurrence after sigmoid colectomy: a retrospective cohort study from a tertiary center and systematic review.

International journal of colorectal disease, 38(1):157.

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to determine the incidence of diverticulitis recurrence after sigmoid colectomy for diverticular disease.

METHODS: Consecutive patients who benefited from sigmoid colectomy for diverticular disease from January 2007 to June 2021 were identified based on operative codes. Recurrent episodes were identified based on hospitalization codes and reviewed. Survival analysis was performed and was reported using a Kaplan-Meier curve. Follow-up was censored for last hospital visit and diverticulitis recurrence. The systematic review of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, and Web of Science were searched for studies reporting on the incidence of diverticulitis after sigmoid colectomy. The review was registered into PROSPERO (CRD42021237003, 25/06/2021).

RESULTS: One thousand three-hundred and fifty-six patients benefited from sigmoid colectomy. Four hundred and three were excluded, leaving 953 patients for inclusion. The mean age at time of sigmoid colectomy was 64.0 + / - 14.7 years. Four hundred and fifty-eight patients (48.1%) were males. Six hundred and twenty-two sigmoid colectomies (65.3%) were performed in the elective setting and 331 (34.7%) as emergency surgery. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.8 + / - 4.1 years. During this period, 10 patients (1.1%) developed reccurent diverticulitis. Nine of these episodes were classified as Hinchey 1a, and one as Hinchey 1b. The incidence of diverticulitis recurrence (95% CI) was as follows: at 1 year: 0.37% (0.12-1.13%), at 5 years: 1.07% (0.50-2.28%), at 10 years: 2.14% (1.07-4.25%) and at 15 years: 2.14% (1.07-4.25%). Risk factors for recurrence could not be assessed by logistic regression due to the low number of incidental cases. The systematic review of the literature identified 15 observational studies reporting on the incidence of diverticulitis recurrence after sigmoid colectomy, which ranged from 0 to 15% for a follow-up period ranging between 2 months and over 10 years.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of diverticulitis recurrence after sigmoid colectomy is of 2.14% at 15 years, and is mostly composed of Hinchey 1a episodes. The incidences reported in the literature are heterogeneous.

RevDate: 2023-05-30

Horesh N, Emile SH, Khan SM, et al (2023)

Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials on Long-Term Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Perforated Diverticulitis.

Annals of surgery pii:00000658-990000000-00484 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Assess long-term outcomes of patients with perforated diverticulitis treated with resection or laparoscopic lavage (LL).

SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical treatment of perforated diverticulitis changed in the last few decades. LL and increasing evidence that primary anastomosis (PRA) is feasible in certain patients have broadened surgical options. However, debate for the optimal surgical strategy lingers.

METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCT) on surgical treatment of perforated diverticulitis from inception to October 2022. Long-term reports of RCT comparing surgical interventions for treatment of perforated diverticulitis were selected. Main outcomes measures were long-term ostomy, long term complications, recurrence, and re-intervention rates.

RESULTS: After screening 2431 studies, 5 long-term follow-up studies of RCT comprising 499 patients were included. Three studies, excluding patients with fecal peritonitis, compared LL and colonic resection, two compared PRA and Hartmann's procedure. LL had lower odds of long-term ostomy (OR= 0.133, 95%CI: 0.278- 0.579;P<0.001) and re-operation (OR= 0.585, 95%CI: 0.365- 0.937;P=0.02) compared to colonic resection but higher odds of diverticular disease recurrence (OR= 5.8, 95%CI: 2.33- 14.42;P<0.001). Colonic resection with PRA had lower odds of long-term ostomy (OR= 0.02, 95%CI: 0.003-0.195;P<0.001), long-term complications (OR= 0.195, 95%CI: 0.113-0.335;P<0.001), reoperation (OR= 0.2, 95%CI: 0.108- 0.384;P<0.001) and incisional hernia (OR= 0.184, 95%CI: 0.102-0.333;P<0.001). There was no significant difference in odds of mortality among the procedures.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow-up of patients who underwent emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis showed that LL had lower odds of long-term ostomy and re-operation, but more risk for disease recurrence when compared to resection in purulent peritonitis. Colonic resection with PRA had better long-term outcomes than Hartmann's procedure for fecal peritonitis.

RevDate: 2023-05-29

Solaini L, Giuliani G, Cavaliere D, et al (2023)

Robotic versus laparoscopic left colectomy: a propensity score matched analysis from a bi-centric experience.

Journal of robotic surgery [Epub ahead of print].

The advantages of using the robotic platform may not be clearly evident in left colectomies, where the surgeon operates in an "open field" and does not routinely require intraoperative suturing. Current evidences are based on limited cohorts reporting conflicting outcomes regarding robotic left colectomies (RLC). The aim of this study is to report a bi-centric experience with robotic left colectomy in order to help in defining the role of the robotic approach for these procedures. This is a bi-centric propensity score matched study including patients who underwent RLC or laparoscopic left colectomy (LLC) between January 1, 2012 and May 1, 2022. RLC patients were matched to LLC patients in a 1:1 ratio. Main outcomes were conversion to open surgery and 30-day morbidity. In total, 300 patients were included. Of 143 (47.7%) RLC patients, 119 could be matched. After matching, conversion rate (4.2 vs. 7.6%, p = 0.265), 30-day morbidity (16.1 vs. 13.7%, p = 0.736), Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ 3 complications (2.4 vs 3.2%, p = 0.572), transfusions (0.8 vs. 4.0%, p = 0.219), and 30-day mortality (0.8 vs 0.8%, p = 1.000) were comparable for RLC and LLC, respectively. Median operative time was longer for RLC (296 min 260-340 vs. 245, 195-296, p < 0.0001). Early oral feeding, time to first flatus, and hospital stay were similar between groups. RLC has safety parameters as well as conversion to open surgery comparable with standard laparoscopy. Operative time is longer with the robotic approach.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Marasco G, Buttitta F, Cremon C, et al (2023)

The role of microbiota and its modulation in colonic diverticular disease.

Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease (DD) is a common condition in Western countries. The role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of DD and its related symptoms has been frequently postulated since most complications of this disease are bacteria-driven and most therapies rely on microbiota modulation. Preliminary data showed fecal microbial imbalance in patients with DD, particularly when symptomatic, with an increase of pro-inflammatory and potentially pathogenetic bacteria. In addition, bacterial metabolic markers can mirror specific pathways of the disease and may be even used for monitoring treatment effects. All treatments currently suggested for DD can affect microbiota structure and metabolome compositions.

PURPOSE: Sparse evidence is available linking gut microbiota perturbations, diverticular disease pathophysiology, and symptom development. We aimed to summarize the available knowledge on gut microbiota evaluation in diverticular disease, with a focus on symptomatic uncomplicated DD, and the relative treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2023-05-30

Mateescu T, Miutescu B, Nicola A, et al (2023)

Health-Related Quality of Life and Stress-Related Disorders in Patients with Complicated Diverticular Disease under Conservative Management.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 11(10):.

Diverticular disease is a common gastrointestinal disorder with increasing prevalence in advanced age. This study aimed to investigate the impact of age and complexity of diverticulitis on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and stress-related disorders. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 patients, including adults (18-64 years) with complicated diverticular disease, the elderly (≥65 years) with complicated diverticular disease, and a control group with uncomplicated symptomatic diverticular disease. HRQoL and stress-related disorders were assessed using the SF-36, GIQLI, HADS, and PHQ-9 questionnaires at baseline and six months after the initial episode of diverticulitis. At diagnosis, the adult group had significantly lower mean physical and mental scores compared with the elderly and control groups (p < 0.001). At the 6-month follow-up, the mean physical score increased for all groups, but the difference between adults and the elderly remained significant (p = 0.028). The adult group had a significantly lower mean GIQLI score at diagnosis compared with the elderly and control groups (p < 0.001), although after 6 months it increased and the difference became insignificant. Anxiety scores at diagnosis were significantly higher in the adult group compared with the control group (p = 0.009). The complexity of diverticulitis and age significantly impacted HRQoL at diagnosis, with adults having lower physical and mental scores compared with elderly patients and controls. Although improvements were observed after 6 months, the difference between adults and the elderly remained significant for physical HRQoL scores. This highlights the need for tailored management strategies and psychosocial support to optimize patient outcomes across age groups and diverticulitis complexity.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Molina GA, Ojeda RH, Jimenez G, et al (2023)

Small bowel volvulus due to jejunal diverticula: a rare case of acute abdomen.

Journal of surgical case reports, 2023(5):rjad249.

Jejunal diverticula are rare, and small bowel diverticular disease resulting in volvulus can lead to severe complications; as symptoms are non-specific, many patients are misdiagnosed and treated wrongly for other conditions. When a small bowel volvulus is detected, urgent surgical treatment is needed to avoid troublesome difficulties. We present the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented to the emergency room with an acute abdomen due to small bowel obstruction. After further testing, a volvulus was detected and promptly treated. Jejunal diverticula that caused a small bowel volvulus was the final diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Drnovšek J, Čebron Ž, Grosek J, et al (2023)

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided transrectal drainage of a pelvic abscess after Hinchey II sigmoid colon diverticulitis: A case report.

World journal of clinical cases, 11(12):2848-2854.

BACKGROUND: Acute diverticulitis is one of the most prevalent complications of diverticular disease and may result in abscess formation, perforation, fistula formation, obstruction, or bleeding. Diverticular abscesses may be initially treated with antibiotics and/or percutaneous drainage and/or surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage techniques are increasingly used as a minimally invasive alternative to percutaneous or surgical approaches, as they are associated with better treatment outcomes, shorter recovery time and duration of hospitalization.

CASE SUMMARY: A 57-year-old female presented to the emergency department on account of abdominal pain and fever. Clinical examination revealed tenderness in the left lower abdominal quadrant, with elevated inflammatory markers in laboratory tests. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed an 8 cm × 8 cm × 5 cm well-encapsulated abscess of the sigmoid colon, surrounded by numerous diverticula. A diagnosis of Hinchey II diverticular abscess was made, and the patient was admitted and commenced on appropriate antibiotic treatment. A transrectal EUS showed a fluid collection in direct contact with the sigmoid colon. Transluminal drainage was performed, and a lumen-apposing metal stent was inserted into the abscess collection. A follow-up CT scan showed a regression of the collection. The patient's general condition improved, and the stent was removed during a follow-up transrectal EUS that revealed no visible collection.

CONCLUSION: We report the first successful management of a pelvic abscess in patient with Hinchey II acute diverticulitis using EUS-guided transluminal drainage in Slovenia. The technique appears effective for well-encapsulated intra-abdominal abscesses larger than 4 cm in direct contact with the intestinal wall of left colon.

RevDate: 2023-05-25
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Yapa AKDS, Humes DJ, Crooks CJ, et al (2023)

Venous thromboembolism following colectomy for diverticular disease: an English population-based cohort study.

Langenbeck's archives of surgery, 408(1):203.

AIM: This study reports venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates following colectomy for diverticular disease to explore the magnitude of postoperative VTE risk in this population and identify high risk subgroups of interest.

METHOD: English national cohort study of colectomy patients between 2000 and 2019 using linked primary (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) and secondary (Hospital Episode Statistics) care data. Stratified by admission type, absolute incidence rates (IR) per 1000 person-years and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) were calculated for 30- and 90-day post-colectomy VTE.

RESULTS: Of 24,394 patients who underwent colectomy for diverticular disease, over half (57.39%) were emergency procedures with the highest VTE rate seen in patients ≥70-years-old (IR 142.27 per 1000 person-years, 95%CI 118.32-171.08) at 30 days post colectomy. Emergency resections (IR 135.18 per 1000 person-years, 95%CI 115.72-157.91) had double the risk (aIRR 2.07, 95%CI 1.47-2.90) of developing a VTE at 30 days following colectomy compared to elective resections (IR 51.14 per 1000 person-years, 95%CI 38.30-68.27). Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was shown to be associated with a 64% reduction in VTE risk (aIRR 0.36 95%CI 0.20-0.65) compared to open colectomies at 30 days post-op. At 90 days following emergency resections, VTE risks remained raised compared to elective colectomies.

CONCLUSION: Following emergency colectomy for diverticular disease, the VTE risk is approximately double compared to elective resections at 30 days while MIS was found to be associated with a reduced risk of VTE. This suggests advancements in postoperative VTE prevention in diverticular disease patients should focus on those undergoing emergency colectomies.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Augustin G, Bruketa T, Kunjko K, et al (2023)

Colonic gallstone ileus: a systematic literature review with a diagnostic-therapeutic algorithm.

Updates in surgery [Epub ahead of print].

Rare complication of gallstone disease is gallstone ileus. The common location is the small intestine, followed by the stomach. The rarest location is colonic gallstone ileus (CGI). To summarize and define the most appropriate diagnostic methods and therapeutic options for CGI based on the paucity of published data. Literature searches of English-, German-, Spanish-, Italian-, Japanese-, Dutch- and Portuguese language articles included and Italian-language articles using PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Additional studies were identified from the references of retrieved studies. 113 cases of CGI were recorded with a male to female patient ratio of 1:2.9. The average patient age was 77.7 years (range 45-95 years). The usual location of stone impaction was the sigmoid colon (85.8%), followed by a descending colon (6.6%), transverse colon (4.7%), rectum (1.9%), and lastly, ascending colon (0.9%). Gallstones ranged from 2 to 10 cm. The duration of symptoms was variable (1 day to 2 months), with commonly reported abdominal distension, obstipation, and vomiting; 85.2% of patients had previous biliary symptoms. Diverticular disease was present in 81.8% of patients. During the last 23 years, CT scan was the most common imaging method (91.5%), confirming the ectopic gallstone in 86.7% of cases, pneumobilia in 65.3%, and cholecytocolonic fistula in 68%. The treatment option included laparotomy with cololithotomy and primary closure (24.7%), laparotomy and cololithotomy with diverting stoma (14.2%), colonic resection with anastomosis (7.9%), colonic resection with a colostomy (12.4%), laparoscopy with cololithotomy with primary closure (2.6%), laparoscopy with cololithotomy with a colostomy (0.9%), colostomy without gallstone extraction (5.3%), endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy (success rate 41.1%), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (1.8%). The cholecystectomy rate was 46.7%; during the initial procedure 25%, and as a separate procedure, 21.7%; 53.3% of patients had no cholecystectomy. The survival rate was 87%. CGI is the rarest presentation of gallstone ileus, mainly in women over 70 years of age, with gallstones over 2 cm, and predominantly in the sigmoid colon. Abdominal CT is diagnostic. Nonoperative treatment, particularly in subacute presentations, should be the first-line treatment. Laparotomy with cololithotomy or colonic resection is a standard procedure with favorable outcomes. There are no robust data on whether primary or delayed cholecystectomy is mandatory as a part of CGI management.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Kumaresan M, Arun RS, Damle A, et al (2023)

Crystal-Induced Lower GI Necrosis in a Posttransplant Recipient with Diverticular Disease.

Indian journal of nephrology, 33(1):54-56.

We report the case of a 67-year-old male kidney transplant recipient for 12 years with sodium polystyrene sulfonate crystal-induced ileocecal colitis. He had adult polycystic kidney disease with associated colonic diverticular disease. Here, we describe how a potentially fatal complication of colonic perforation was averted with appropriate investigations and management.

RevDate: 2023-06-05
CmpDate: 2023-05-19

Joo YY, Pacheco JA, Thompson WK, et al (2023)

Multi-ancestry genome- and phenome-wide association studies of diverticular disease in electronic health records with natural language processing enriched phenotyping algorithm.

PloS one, 18(5):e0283553.

OBJECTIVE: Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent conditions encountered by gastroenterologists, affecting ~50% of Americans before the age of 60. Our aim was to identify genetic risk variants and clinical phenotypes associated with DD, leveraging multiple electronic health record (EHR) data sources of 91,166 multi-ancestry participants with a Natural Language Processing (NLP) technique.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a NLP-enriched phenotyping algorithm that incorporated colonoscopy or abdominal imaging reports to identify patients with diverticulosis and diverticulitis from multicenter EHRs. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of DD in European, African and multi-ancestry participants, followed by phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) of the risk variants to identify their potential comorbid/pleiotropic effects in clinical phenotypes.

RESULTS: Our developed algorithm showed a significant improvement in patient classification performance for DD analysis (algorithm PPVs ≥ 0.94), with up to a 3.5 fold increase in terms of the number of identified patients than the traditional method. Ancestry-stratified analyses of diverticulosis and diverticulitis of the identified subjects replicated the well-established associations between ARHGAP15 loci with DD, showing overall intensified GWAS signals in diverticulitis patients compared to diverticulosis patients. Our PheWAS analyses identified significant associations between the DD GWAS variants and circulatory system, genitourinary, and neoplastic EHR phenotypes.

DISCUSSION: As the first multi-ancestry GWAS-PheWAS study, we showcased that heterogenous EHR data can be mapped through an integrative analytical pipeline and reveal significant genotype-phenotype associations with clinical interpretation.

CONCLUSION: A systematic framework to process unstructured EHR data with NLP could advance a deep and scalable phenotyping for better patient identification and facilitate etiological investigation of a disease with multilayered data.

RevDate: 2023-05-15
CmpDate: 2023-05-15

Pshenichcnaya NY, Ponezheva ZB, Marzhokhova AR, et al (2022)

[Clinical cases of complicated diverticulitis against the background of severe course COVID-19. Case report].

Terapevticheskii arkhiv, 94(11):1315-1319.

Two clinical cases of perforation of a previously undiagnosed colon diverticulum in patients with coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus treated at the Hospital №1 of Nalchik. Both patients were elderly, overweight, had a lot of chronic concomitant diseases. Patients received hormone therapy and were targeted: the first patient twice (tocilizumab on the first day of hospitalization and olokizumab on the 7th day of inpatient treatment). The second patient received levilimab on the 3rd day of his stay in the hospital. A short time after targeting, both patients developed acute diffuse abdominal pain, the patients were transferred to the surgical department and operated on. During the operation, both patients were found to have previously undiagnosed diverticular disease, complicated by diverticular perforation and peritonitis on the background of immunosuppression. Both patients died. Thus, when using targeted therapy for patients with COVID-19, it is necessary to take into account that they may have previously undiagnosed chronic diseases that can cause fatal complications against the background of immunosuppression.

RevDate: 2023-05-10

Pansuriya S, Ekkel E, Pearl L, et al (2023)

Complicated Diverticulitis and Pelvic Radiation Leading to Colonic Stricture, Colorectal Fistula, and Anal Stenosis.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of this case is to highlight a rare case of sigmoid colon-to-rectum fistula. A 66-year-old man with a history of pelvic radiation and diverticulosis presented to the emergency department with a 3-week history of abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. Computed tomography (CT) imaging was significant for a sigmoid-to-rectum fistula with sigmoid stricture. The patient underwent a laparoscopic colectomy with end colostomy. Pathology revealed perforated diverticulitis. To date, there have been no cases reported in literature describing sigmoid-to-rectum fistula. In conclusion, it is important to consider the development of complex diverticular disease in patients with history of pelvic radiation.

RevDate: 2023-05-09

Papatriantafyllou A, Dedopoulou P, Soukouli K, et al (2023)

Right-Sided Diverticulitis: A Rare Cause of Right-Sided Abdominal Pain.

Cureus, 15(4):e37123.

Acute diverticulitis is a particularly common medical entity, and its frequency increases with age. The most commonly affected part of the large intestine is the sigmoid colon, while right-sided diverticulitis is very rare. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old man who presented to the emergency department due to acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with a computed tomography scan of the abdomen with intravenous contrast with right-sided diverticulitis. The patient's treatment included hydration and intravenous antibiotics (ciprofloxacin and metronidazole). After three days of hospitalization, the patient was discharged from the hospital in stable condition and without signs of inflammation. This case report demonstrates the importance of including right-sided diverticulitis in the differential diagnosis of acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, as in most cases patients are treated conservatively without the need for surgical intervention.

RevDate: 2023-05-06

Campobasso D, Zizzo M, Biolchini F, et al (2023)

Laparoscopic management of colovesical fistula in different clinical scenarios.

Journal of minimal access surgery pii:374479 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Colovesical fistula (CVF) is a condition with various aetiologies and presentations. Surgical treatment is necessary in most cases. Due to its complexity, open approach is preferred. However, laparoscopic approach is reported in the management of CVF due to diverticular disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the management and outcome of patients with CVF of different aetiologies treated with laparoscopic approach.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study. We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing elective laparoscopic management of CVF from March 2015 to December 2019.


RESULTS: Nine patients underwent laparoscopic management of CVF. There were no intraoperative complications or conversions to open surgery. A sigmoidectomy was performed in eight cases. In one patient, a fistulectomy with sigmoid and bladder defect closure was performed. In two cases of locally advanced colorectal cancer with bladder invasion, a multi-stage procedure with temporary colostomy was chosen. In three cases, with no intraoperative leakage, we did not perform bladder suture. Four Clavien I-II complications were recorded. Two fragile patients died in the post-operative period. No patients required re-operation. At a median follow-up of 21 months (interquartile range: 6-47), none of the patients had recurrence of fistula.

CONCLUSIONS: CVF can be managed with laparoscopic approach by skilled laparoscopic surgeons in different clinical scenarios. Bladder suture is not necessary if leakage is absent. Informed counselling to the patient must be guaranteed concerning the risk of major complications and mortality in case of CVF due to malignant disease.

RevDate: 2023-05-05

Naseem Z, Kaneko Y, T Pham (2023)

Colo-rectal fistula: a rare complication of diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2023-05-08
CmpDate: 2023-05-08

Ruan X, Chen J, Sun Y, et al (2023)

Depression and 24 gastrointestinal diseases: a Mendelian randomization study.

Translational psychiatry, 13(1):146.

The causality of the association between depression and gastrointestinal diseases is undetermined. We conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to systematically explore the associations of depression with 24 gastrointestinal diseases. Independent genetic variants associated with depression at the genome-wide significance level were selected as instrumental variables. Genetic associations with 24 gastrointestinal diseases were obtained from the UK Biobank study, the FinnGen study, and large consortia. Multivariable MR analysis was conducted to explore the mediation effects of body mass index, cigarette smoking, and type 2 diabetes. After multiple-testing corrections, genetic liability to depression was associated with an increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome, non-alcohol fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, gastroesophageal reflux, chronic pancreatitis, duodenal ulcer, chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, diverticular disease, cholelithiasis, acute pancreatitis, and ulcerative colitis. For the causal effect of genetic liability to depression on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a substantial proportion was mediated by body mass index. Genetic predisposition to smoking initiation mediated half of effect of depression on acute pancreatitis. This MR study suggests that depression may play a causal role in many gastrointestinal diseases.

RevDate: 2023-05-05

Walayat S, Johannes AJ, Benson M, et al (2023)

Outcomes of colon self-expandable metal stents for malignant vs benign indications at a tertiary care center and review of literature.

World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy, 15(4):309-318.

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic placement of a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is a minimally invasive treatment for use in malignant and benign colonic obstruction. However, their widespread use is still limited with a nationwide analysis showing only 5.4% of patients with colon obstruction undergoing stent placement. This underutilization could be due to perceived increase risk of complications with stent placement.

AIM: To review long- and short-term clinical success of SEMS use for colonic obstruction at our center.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all the patients who underwent colonic SEMS placement over a eighteen year period (August 2004 through August 2022) at our academic center. Demographics including age, gender, indication (malignant and benign), technical success, clinical success, complications (perforation, stent migration), mortality, and outcomes were recorded.

RESULTS: Sixty three patients underwent colon SEMS over an 18-year period. Fifty-five cases were for malignant indications, 8 were for benign conditions. The benign strictures included diverticular disease stricturing (n = 4), fistula closure (n = 2), extrinsic fibroid compression (n = 1), and ischemic stricture (n = 1). Forty-three of the malignant cases were due to intrinsic obstruction from primary or recurrent colon cancer; 12 were from extrinsic compression. Fifty-four strictures occurred on the left side, 3 occurred on the right and the rest in transverse colon. The total malignant case (n = 55) procedural success rate was 95% vs 100% for benign cases (P = 1.0, NS). Overall complication rate was significantly higher for benign group: Four complications were observed in the malignant group (stent migration, restenosis) vs 2 of 8 (25%) for benign obstruction (1-perforation, 1-stent migration) (P = 0.02). When stratifying complications of perforation and stent migration there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.14, NS).

CONCLUSION: Colon SEMS remains a worthwhile option for colonic obstruction related to malignancy and has a high procedural and clinical success rate. Benign indications for SEMS placement appear to have similar success to malignant. While there appears to be a higher overall complication rate in benign cases, our study is limited by sample size. When evaluating for perforation alone there does not appear to be any significant difference between the two groups. SEMS placement may be a practical option for indications other that malignant obstruction. Interventional endoscopists should be aware and discuss the risk for complications in setting of benign conditions. Indications in these cases should be discussed in a multi-disciplinary fashion with colorectal surgery.

RevDate: 2023-05-31
CmpDate: 2023-05-31

Freeman HJ (2023)

Segmental Colitis Associated with Diverticulosis (SCAD).

Current gastroenterology reports, 25(6):130-133.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A distinctive, possibly "novel" form of a segmental inflammatory colonic disease process associated with diverticular disease (so-called SCAD or segmental-colitis-associated-diverticulosis) is reviewed.

RECENT FINDINGS: Although this phenotype of inflammatory colonic disease was initially recognized decades ago, mainly in the elderly, recent evidence from long term natural history studies along with meta-analyses confirms that its clinical course is usually benign and drug-responsive. Interestingly, its appearance in some treated with monoclonal agents (eg., ipilimumab associated colitis) or infected with coronavirus-19 may have critical implications for its pathogenesis. This review further explores the implications of recognition of this pattern of colonic inflammatory disease, with relevance for physicians involved in both clinical practice and clinical trials of newer therapeutic agents.

RevDate: 2023-05-02

Ojemolon PE, Shaka H, Kwei-Nsoro R, et al (2023)

Trends and Disparities in Colonic Diverticular Disease Hospitalizations in Patients With Morbid Obesity: A Decade-Long Joinpoint Analysis.

Cureus, 15(3):e36843.

Objective We aimed to describe epidemiologic trends in outcomes of colonic diverticular disease (CDD) hospitalizations in morbidly obese patients. Methods We searched the United States National Inpatient Sample databases from 2010 through 2019, obtained the incidence rate of morbid obesity (MO) among CDD hospitalizations, and used Joinpoint analysis to obtain trends in these rates adjusted for age and sex. Hospitalizations involving patients less than 18 years of age were excluded. Trends in mortality rate, mean length of hospital stay (LOS), and mean total hospital charge were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was used to obtain trends in adjusted mortality, mean LOS, and mean total hospital charge. Results We found an average annual percent change of 7.5% (CI = 5.5-9.4%, p < 0.01) in the adjusted incidence of MO among hospitalizations for CDD over the study period. We noted a 7.2% decline in mortality (p = 0.011) and a 0.1 days reduction in adjusted LOS (p < 0.001) over the study period. Hospitalizations among the middle-aged and elderly had adjusted odds ratios of 7.18 (95% CI = 2.2-23.3, p = 0.001) and 24.8 (95% CI = 7.9-77.9, p < 0.001), respectively, for mortality compared to those in young adults. The mean LOS was 0.29 days higher in females compared to males (p < 0.001). Conclusion The incidence of MO increased among CDD hospitalizations while mortality and mean LOS reduced over the study period. Outcomes were worse in older patients, with an increased mean LOS in females compared to males.

RevDate: 2023-05-11
CmpDate: 2023-05-01

Ebrahimian S, Verma A, Sakowitz S, et al (2023)

Association of hospital volume with conversion to open from minimally invasive colectomy in patients with diverticulitis: A national analysis.

PloS one, 18(4):e0284729.

BACKGROUND: Despite the known advantages of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for diverticular disease, the impact of conversions to open (CtO) colectomy remains understudied. The present study used a nationally representative database to characterize risk factors and outcomes associated with CtO in patients with diverticular disease.

METHODS: All elective adult hospitalizations entailing colectomy for diverticulitis were identified in the 2017-2019 Nationwide Readmissions Database. Annual institutional caseloads of MIS and open colectomy were independently tabulated. Restricted cubic splines were utilized to non-linearly estimate the risk-adjusted association between hospital volumes and CtO. Additional regression models were developed to evaluate the association of CtO with outcomes of interest.

RESULTS: Of an estimated 110,281 patients with diverticulitis who met study criteria, 39.3% underwent planned open colectomy, 53.3% completed MIS, and 7.4% had a CtO. Following adjustment, an inverse relationship between hospital MIS volume and risk of CtO was observed. In contrast, increasing hospital open volume was positively associated with greater risk of CtO. On multivariable analysis, CtO was associated with lower odds of mortality (AOR 0.3, p = 0.001) when compared to open approach, and similar risk of mortality when compared to completed MIS (AOR 0.7, p = 0.436).

CONCLUSION: In the present study, institutional MIS volume exhibited inverse correlation with adjusted rates of CtO, independent of open colectomy volume. CtO was associated with decreased rates of mortality compared to planned open approach but equivalence risk relative to completed MIS. Our findings highlight the importance of MIS experience and suggest that MIS may be safely pursued as the initial surgical approach among diverticulitis patients.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Di Tommaso GR, de Castro GL, Júnior ECC, et al (2023)

Large epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum in symptomatic patient managed laparoscopically: Case report and review of literature.

International journal of surgery case reports, 106:108060.

INTRODUCTION: Diverticular disease most common site in digestive tract is large intestine, but can also appears in small intestine and esophagus. Esophageal diverticula are divided according to injured portion (pharyngeal, middle or epiphrenic).

CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of large epiphrenic diverticulum in a 71-year-old woman with mild gastrointestinal symptoms managed laparoscopically with diverticulectomy and fundoplication.

DISCUSSION: Epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum is rare, originated from unknown increase of intraesophageal pressure. Diagnosis usually occurs with imaging and endoscopic investigation and surgical treatment is indicated for symptomatic patients.

CONCLUSION: High suspicion and proper analysis are fundamental for diagnosis and treatment definition, which may include outpatient follow-up or surgery.

RevDate: 2023-04-20

Ahmadi N, Ahmadi N, Ravindran P, et al (2023)

Acute diverticulitis in immunosuppressed patients: a 12-year management experience.

ANZ journal of surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease of the colon occurs commonly in developed countries. Immunosuppressed patients are thought to be more at risk of developing acute diverticulitis, worse disease, and higher complications secondary to therapy. This study aimed to assess outcomes for immunosuppressed patients with acute diverticulitis.

METHOD: A retrospective single-centre review was conducted of all patients presenting with acute diverticulitis at a major tertiary Australian hospital from 2006 to 2018.

RESULT: A total of 751 patients, comprising of 46 immunosuppressed patients, were included. Immunosuppressed patients were found to be older (62.25 versus 55.96, p = 0.016), have more comorbidities (median Charlson Index 3 versus 1, P < 0.001), and undergo more operative management (13.3% versus 5.1%, P = 0.020). Immunosuppressed patients with paracolic/pelvic abscesses (Modified Hinchey 1b/2) were more likely to undergo surgery (56% versus 24%, P = 0.046), while in patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis, there was no difference in immunosuppressed patients undergoing surgery (6.1% versus 5.1% P = 0.815). Immunosuppressed patients were more likely to have Grade III-IV Clavien-Dindo complication (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Immunosuppressed patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis can be treated safely with non-operative management. Immunosuppressed patients were more likely to have operative management for Hinchey 1b/II and more likely to have grade III/IV complications.

RevDate: 2023-06-18
CmpDate: 2023-06-16

Hill SS, JS Davids (2023)

The Benefits of Surgery for Diverticular Disease-Have We Met the Burden of Proof?.

JAMA surgery, 158(6):601-602.

RevDate: 2023-04-05

Calini G, Abd El Aziz MA, Paolini L, et al (2023)

Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease (SUDD): Practical Guidance and Challenges for Clinical Management.

Clinical and experimental gastroenterology, 16:29-43.

Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease (SUDD) is a syndrome within the diverticular disease spectrum, characterized by local abdominal pain with bowel movement changes but without systemic inflammation. This narrative review reports current knowledge, delivers practical guidance, and reveals challenges for the clinical management of SUDD. A broad and common consensus on the definition of SUDD is still needed. However, it is mainly considered a chronic condition that impairs quality of life (QoL) and is characterized by persistent left lower quadrant abdominal pain with bowel movement changes (eg, diarrhea) and low-grade inflammation (eg, elevated calprotectin) but without systemic inflammation. Age, genetic predisposition, obesity, physical inactivity, low-fiber diet, and smoking are considered risk factors. The pathogenesis of SUDD is not entirely clarified. It seems to result from an interaction between fecal microbiota alterations, neuro-immune enteric interactions, and muscular system dysfunction associated with a low-grade and local inflammatory state. At diagnosis, it is essential to assess baseline clinical and Quality of Life (QoL) scores to evaluate treatment efficacy and, ideally, to enroll patients in cohort studies, clinical trials, or registries. SUDD treatments aim to improve symptoms and QoL, prevent recurrence, and avoid disease progression and complications. An overall healthy lifestyle - physical activity and a high-fiber diet, with a focus on whole grains, fruits, and vegetables - is encouraged. Probiotics could effectively reduce symptoms in patients with SUDD, but their utility is missing adequate evidence. Using Rifaximin plus fiber and Mesalazine offers potential in controlling symptoms in patients with SUDD and might prevent acute diverticulitis. Surgery could be considered in patients with medical treatment failure and persistently impaired QoL. Still, studies with well-defined diagnostic criteria for SUDD that evaluate the safety, QoL, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of these interventions using standard scores and comparable outcomes are needed.

RevDate: 2023-04-10
CmpDate: 2023-04-04

Dumitrascu DL, Bakulin I, Berzigotti A, et al (2023)

Update on the Role of Rifaximin in Digestive Diseases.

Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD, 32(1):92-109.

Various environmental factors affecting the human microbiota may lead to gut microbial imbalance and to the development of pathologies. Alterations of gut microbiota have been firmly implicated in digestive diseases such as hepatic encephalopathy, irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease. However, while these three conditions may all be related to dysfunction of the gut-liver-brain axis, the precise pathophysiology appears to differ somewhat for each. Herein, current knowledge on the pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy, irritable bowel syndrome, and diverticular disease are reviewed, with a special focus on the gut microbiota modulation associated with these disorders during therapy with rifaximin. In general, the evidence for the efficacy of rifaximin in hepatic encephalopathy appears to be well consolidated, although it is less supported for irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease. We reviewed current clinical practice for the management of these clinical conditions and underlined the desirability of more real-world studies to fully understand the potential of rifaximin in these clinical situations and obtain even more precise indications for the use of the drug.

RevDate: 2023-03-31

Kaye AJ, Patel SJ, Meyers SR, et al (2023)

Outcomes of Patients Hospitalized for Acute Diverticulitis With Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Cureus, 15(2):e35461.

Introduction Diverticular disease and anxiety disorders are common in the general population. Prior research on diverticular disease showed that these patients have an increased frequency of anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on the outcomes of adult patients admitted with acute diverticulitis. Methods Using the National Inpatient Sample database from the year 2014 and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) codes, acute diverticulitis patients were selected. The outcomes of diverticulitis patients with and without GAD were explored. The outcomes of interest included inpatient mortality, hypotension/shock, acute respiratory failure, acute hepatic failure, sepsis, intestinal abscess, intestinal obstruction, myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, and colectomy. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine if GAD is an independent predictor for the outcomes. Results Among 77,520 diverticulitis patients in the study, 8,484 had comorbid GAD. GAD was identified as a risk factor for intestinal obstruction (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05-1.43, p<0.05), and intestinal abscess (aOR 1.19, 95% CI: 1.10-1.29, p<0.05). GAD was found to be a protective factor for hypotension/shock (aOR 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76-0.91, p<0.05) and acute respiratory failure (aOR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.93, p<0.05). The aORs of sepsis, inpatient mortality, myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, and colectomy were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with acute diverticulitis who are also diagnosed with GAD are at increased risk for intestinal obstruction and intestinal abscess, which may be due to the influence GAD has on the gut microbiota as well as the impact of GAD pharmacotherapy on gut motility. There was also a decreased risk for acute respiratory failure and hypotension/shock appreciated in the GAD cohort which may be attributable to the elevated healthcare resource utilization seen generally in GAD patients, which may allow for presentation to the emergency department, hospitalization, and treatment earlier in the diverticulitis disease course.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Alexandersson BT, Hugerth LW, Hedin C, et al (2023)

Diverticulosis is not associated with altered gut microbiota nor is it predictive of future diverticulitis: a population-based colonoscopy study.

Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The etiopathogenesis of diverticular disease is unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota between participants with and without diverticulosis and participants who later developed diverticulitis versus those that did not from a population-based study.

METHODS: The PopCol study, conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, invited a random sample of 3556 adults to participate, of which 745 underwent colonoscopy. Overall, 130 participants (17.5%) had diverticulosis. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted on available sigmoid biopsy samples from 529 and fecal samples from 251 individuals. We identified individuals who subsequently developed acute diverticulitis up to 13 years after sample collection. In a case-control design matching for gender, age (+/-5 years), smoking and antibiotic exposure, we compared taxonomic composition, richness and diversity of the microbiota between participants with or without diverticulosis, and between participants who later developed acute diverticulitis versus those who did not.

RESULTS: No differences in microbiota richness or diversity were observed between participants with or without diverticulosis, nor for those who developed diverticulitis compared with those who did not. No bacterial taxa were significantly different between participants with diverticulosis compared with those without diverticulosis. Individuals who later developed acute diverticulitis (2.8%) had a higher abundance of genus Comamonas than those who did not (p = .027).

CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based cohort study the only significant difference was that those who later develop diverticulitis had more abundance of genus Comamonas. The significance of Comamonas is unclear, suggesting a limited role for the gut microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of diverticular disease.

RevDate: 2023-03-31

Piccin A, Gulotta M, di Bella S, et al (2023)

Diverticular Disease and Rifaximin: An Evidence-Based Review.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3):.

There have been considerable advances in the treatment of diverticular disease in recent years. Antibiotics are frequently used to treat symptoms and prevent complications. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable antibiotic, is a common therapeutic choice for symptomatic diverticular disease in various countries, including Italy. Because of its low systemic absorption and high concentration in stools, it is an excellent medicine for targeting the gastrointestinal tract, where it has a beneficial effect in addition to its antibacterial properties. Current evidence shows that cyclical rifaximin usage in conjunction with a high-fiber diet is safe and effective for treating symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, while the cost-effectiveness of long-term treatment is unknown. The use of rifaximin to prevent recurrent diverticulitis is promising, but further studies are needed to confirm its therapeutic benefit. Unfortunately, there is no available evidence on the efficacy of rifaximin treatment for acute uncomplicated diverticulitis.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-27

Ivashkin V, Shifrin O, Maslennikov R, et al (2023)

Eubiotic effect of rifaximin is associated with decreasing abdominal pain in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease: results from an observational cohort study.

BMC gastroenterology, 23(1):82.

BACKGROUND: Rifaximin effectively treats symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) and has shown eubiotic potential (i.e., an increase in resident microbial elements with potential beneficial effects) in other diseases. This study investigated changes in the fecal microbiome of patients with SUDD after repeated monthly treatment with rifaximin and the association of these changes with the severity of abdominal pain.

METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective, observational, uncontrolled cohort study. Patients received rifaximin 400 mg twice a day for 7 days per month for 6 months. Abdominal pain (assessed on a 4-point scale from 0 [no pain] to 3 [severe pain]) and fecal microbiome (assessed using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing) were assessed at inclusion (baseline) and 3 and 6 months. The Spearman's rank test analyzed the relationship between changes in the gut microbiome and the severity of abdominal pain. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: Of the 23 patients enrolled, 12 patients completed the study and were included in the analysis. Baseline abdominal pain levels decreased significantly after 3 (p = 0.036) and 6 (p = 0.008) months of treatment with rifaximin. The abundance of Akkermansia in the fecal microbiome was significantly higher at 3 (p = 0.017) and 6 (p = 0.015) months versus baseline. The abundance of Ruminococcaceae (p = 0.034), Veillonellaceae (p = 0.028), and Dialister (p = 0.036) were significantly increased at 6 months versus baseline, whereas Anaerostipes (p = 0.049) was significantly decreased. The severity of abdominal pain was negatively correlated with the abundance of Akkermansia (r=-0.482; p = 0.003) and Ruminococcaceae (r=-0.371; p = 0.026) but not with Veillonellaceae, Dialister, or Anaerostipes. After 3 months of rifaximin, abdominal pain was significantly less in patients with Akkermansia in their fecal microbiome than in patients without Akkermansia (p = 0.022).

CONCLUSION: The eubiotic effect of rifaximin was associated with decreased abdominal pain in patients with SUDD.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Lee GC, Kanters AE, Gunter RL, et al (2023)

Operative management of anastomotic leak after sigmoid colectomy for left-sided diverticular disease: Ileostomy creation may be as safe as colostomy creation.

Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: The management of anastomotic leak after sigmoid colectomy for diverticular disease has not been well defined. Specifically, there is a lack of literature on optimal types of reoperations for leaks. The aim of this study was to describe and compare reoperative approaches and their postoperative outcomes.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using the NSQIP Colectomy Module (2012-2019) and single-institution chart review. Patients with diverticular disease who underwent elective sigmoid colectomy were included. Primary outcomes were anastomotic leak requiring reoperation and management of anastomotic leak.

RESULTS: Of 37,471 patients who underwent sigmoid colectomy for diverticular disease, 1003 (2.7%) suffered an anastomotic leak, of whom 583 underwent reoperation. Of the 572 patients who were not initially diverted and underwent reoperation for leak, 302 (52.8%) were managed with stoma creation - 200 (35.0%) with colostomy and 102 (17.8%) with ileostomy. The remaining 47.2% underwent colectomy with reanastomosis, suturing of large bowel, and drainage. There were no differences in length of stay, readmission, or mortality between patients who underwent ileostomy or colostomy at reoperation (p > 0.05). Single-institution analysis demonstrated that 100% of patients with ileostomies underwent subsequent ileostomy closure, compared to 60% of patients with colostomies.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients who suffer anastomotic leaks after sigmoid colectomy for diverticular disease and undergo reoperations, ileostomy at the time of reoperation appears to be safe, with comparable results to colostomy. Ileostomies were more frequently closed than colostomies. When faced with a colorectal anastomotic leak, ileostomy creation may be considered.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Constantin A, Constantinoiu S, Achim F, et al (2023)

Esophageal diverticula: from diagnosis to therapeutic management-narrative review.

Journal of thoracic disease, 15(2):759-779.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Esophageal diverticulum (ED) is a relatively rare condition, characterized by high etio- and pathophysiological versatility, with an uncommon clinical impact, consequently requiring a complete and complex diagnostic evaluation, so that the therapeutic decision is "appropriate" to a specific case. The aim of the paper is, therefore, a reassessment of the diagnostic possibilities underlying the establishment of the therapeutic protocol and the available therapeutic resources, making a review of the literature, and a non-statistical retrospective analysis of cases hospitalized and operated in a tertiary center.

METHODS: Thus, classical investigations (upper digestive endoscopy, barium swallow) need to be correlated with complex, manometric, and imaging evaluations with direct implications in therapeutic management. Moreover, in the absence of a precise etiology, the operative indication needs to be established sparingly, with the imposition of the identification and interception of the pathophysiological mechanisms through the therapeutic gesture.

KEY CONTENT AND FINDINGS: The identification of the pathophysiological mechanisms is mandatory for the management of diverticular disease, the result obtained-restoring swallowing and comfort/good quality of life in the postoperative period-is directly related to the chosen therapeutic procedure. In addition, management appears to be a difficult goal in the context of the low incidence of ED but also of the results that emphasize important differences in the reports in the medical literature. Although ED is a benign condition, surgical techniques are demanding, impacted by significant morbidity and mortality. The causes of these results are multiple: possible localizations anywhere in the esophagus, diverticulum size/volume from a few millimeters to an impressive one, over 10-12 cm, metabolic impact in direct relation to the alteration swallowing, numerous diverticular complications but, perhaps most importantly, alteration of the quality of the diverticular wall by inflammatory phenomena, with an impact on the quality of the suture.

CONCLUSIONS: The accumulation of cases in a tertiary profile center, with volume/hospital, respectively volume/surgeon + gastroenterologist could be a solution in improving the results. One consequence would be the identification of alternative solutions to open surgical techniques, a series of minimally invasive or endoscopic variants can refine these results.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Nardone OM, Marasco G, Lopetuso LR, et al (2023)

Insights into Mesalazine Use in Clinical Practice of Young Gastroenterologists.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(5):.

BACKGROUND: Mesalazine is among the medications most prescribed by gastroenterologists, with variable and controversial use in different settings. We aimed to explore the use of mesalazine in the clinical practice of young gastroenterologists.

METHODS: A web-based electronic survey was distributed to all participants of the National Meeting of the Italian Young Gastroenterologist and Endoscopist Association.

RESULTS: A total of 101 participants took part in the survey, with a majority (54.4%) being aged >30 years, 63.4% of whom were trainees in academic hospitals, and 69.3% of whom were involved in the clinical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While both non-dedicated and IBD physicians generally agreed on the appropriate dose of mesalazine for mild ulcerative colitis (UC), significant differences were observed between the two groups for moderate-severe ulcerative colitis (UC). Additionally, in IBD patients who were starting immuno-modulators and/or biologics, 80% of IBD-dedicated physicians continued to prescribe mesalazine, compared to 45.2% of non-dedicated physicians (p = 0.002). Indeed, 48.4% of non-dedicated IBD physicians did not acknowledge mesalazine for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. With regards to Crohn's disease, it is mainly used by 30.1% of IBD physicians for preventing postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. Finally, 57.4% used mesalazine for symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, and 84.2% did not recommend its use for irritable bowel syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS: This survey showed heterogeneous behaviors in the daily use of mesalazine, mainly in the management of IBD. Educational programs and novel studies are needed to clarify its use.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Maconi G, Dell'Era A, Flor N, et al (2023)


Clinical and translational gastroenterology pii:01720094-990000000-00140 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To evaluate the ability of intestinal ultrasound in discriminating symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) among patients with abdominal symptoms including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

DESIGN: This observational, prospective study included consecutive patients classified into the following categories: a) SUDD; b) IBS; c) unclassifiable abdominal symptoms; and d) controls, including asymptomatic healthy subjects and diverticulosis. The Intestinal ultrasound (IUS) evaluation of the sigmoid assessed the presence of diverticula, thickness of the muscularis propria and IUS-evoked pain, namely the intensity of pain evoked by compression with the ultrasound probe on sigmoid colon compared with an area of the left lower abdominal quadrant without underlying sigmoid colon.

RESULTS: We enrolled 40 patients with SUDD, 20 IBS, and 28 patients with unclassifiable abdominal symptoms, 10 healthy controls and 20 diverticulosis. SUDD patients displayed significantly (p<0.001) greater muscle thickness (2.25 ± 0.73 mm) compared to IBS patients (1.66±0.32 mm), patients with unclassifiable abdominal pain, and healthy subjects, but comparable to that of patients with diverticulosis (2.35 ± 0.71 mm). SUDD patients showed a greater (not significant) differential pain score than other patients. There was a significant correlation between the thickness of the muscularis propria and the differential pain score only for SUDD patients (r = 0.460; p: 0.01). Sigmoid diverticula were detected by colonoscopy in 40 patients (42.4%) and by IUS with a sensitivity of 96.0% and a specificity of 98.5%.

CONCLUSION: IUS could represent a useful diagnostic tool for SUDD, potentially useful in characterizing the disease and appropriately address the therapeutic approach.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Shaikh A, Khrais A, Le A, et al (2023)

Pre-existing Opioid Use Worsens Outcomes in Patients With Diverticulitis.

Cureus, 15(2):e34624.

Background and objective Diverticulitis occurs in 10-25% of patients with diverticulosis. Although opioids can decrease bowel motility, there is scarce data on the effect of chronic opioid use on the outcomes of diverticulitis. In this study, we aimed to explore the outcomes of diverticulitis in patients with pre-existing opioid use. Methods Data between 2008 and 2014 from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was extracted using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to generate odds ratios (OR). Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI) scores predicting mortality and readmission were calculated based on weighted scores from 29 different comorbidities. Scores were compared between the two groups using univariate analysis. Inclusion criteria included patients with a primary diagnosis of diverticulitis. Exclusion criteria included patients less than 18 years of age, and a diagnosis of opioid use disorder in remission. Studied outcomes included inpatient mortality, complications (including perforation, bleeding, sepsis event, ileus, abscess, obstruction, and fistula), length of hospital stay, and total costs. Results A total of 151,708 patients with diverticulitis and no active opioid use and 2,980 patients with diverticulitis and active opioid use were hospitalized in the United States from 2008 to 2014. Opioid users had a higher OR for bleeding, sepsis, obstruction, and fistula formation. Opioid users had a lower risk of developing abscesses. They had longer lengths of stay, higher total hospital charges, and higher Elixhauser readmission scores. Conclusion Hospitalized diverticulitis patients with comorbid opioid use are at an elevated risk of in-hospital mortality and sepsis. This could be attributed to complications from injection drug use predisposing opioid users to these risk factors. Outpatient providers caring for patients with diverticulosis should consider screening their patients for opioid use and try offering them medication-assisted treatment to reduce their risk of poor outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-05-31
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Boot M, Chew K, Archer J, et al (2023)

Iatrogenic duodenal diverticulum perforation: a systematic review.

ANZ journal of surgery, 93(5):1322-1328.

BACKGROUND: Duodenal diverticulum occurs in approximately 20% of the population and can lead to life-threatening complications such as perforation. Most perforations are secondary to diverticulitis, with iatrogenic causes being exceptionally rare. This systematic review explores the aetiology, prevention and outcomes of iatrogenic perforation of duodenal diverticulum.

METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Four databases were searched, including Pubmed, Medline, Scopus and Embase. The primary data extracted were clinical findings, type of procedure, prevention and management of perforation and outcomes.

RESULTS: Forty-six studies were identified, of which 14 articles met inclusion criteria and comprised 19 cases of iatrogenic duodenal diverticulum perforation. Four cases identified duodenal diverticulum pre-intervention, nine were identified peri-intervention, and the remainder were identified post-intervention. Perforation secondary to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (n = 8) was most common, followed by open and laparoscopic surgery (n = 5), gastroduodenoscopy (n = 4) and other (n = 2). Operative management with diverticulectomy was the most frequent treatment (63%). Iatrogenic perforation was associated with 50% morbidity and 10% mortality.

CONCLUSION: Iatrogenic perforation of duodenal diverticulum is exceptionally rare and associated with high morbidity and mortality. There are limited guidelines surrounding standard perioperative steps to prevent iatrogenic perforations. A review of preoperative imaging helps identify potential aberrant anatomy, such as a duodenal diverticulum, to allow for recognition and prompt management initiation in the event of perforation. Intraoperative recognition and immediate surgical repair are safe options for this complication.

RevDate: 2023-03-06
CmpDate: 2023-03-03

Xu R, Vaughan A, Fagan M, et al (2023)

Colovesical fistula in men with chronic urinary tract infection: A diagnostic challenge.

Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine, 90(3):165-171 pii:90/3/165.

Although uncommon, colovesical fistula creates significant morbidity, and many patients wait months to receive a correct diagnosis and treatment. Most cases are in older men who have diverticular disease, Crohn disease, cancer, or iatrogenic injury, and some of these associations may have occurred in the patient's distant past and may not be immediately apparent. Since the incidence of diverticulitis in elderly patients is increasing and, in a separate trend, more patients are undergoing bladder instrumentation, we need to suspect this diagnosis when evaluating any patient with urinary tract infection, especially a man with prolonged symptoms refractory to conventional treatments.

RevDate: 2023-04-13
CmpDate: 2023-04-13

Portolese AC, McMullen BN, Baker SK, et al (2023)

The Microbiome of Complicated Diverticulitis: An Imbalance of Sulfur-Metabolizing Bacteria.

Diseases of the colon and rectum, 66(5):707-715.

BACKGROUND: The progression to acute diverticulitis from the relatively benign condition of colonic diverticulosis is not well characterized. A smaller subset may even develop complicated (perforated) diverticulitis resulting in sepsis and/or death. Characterizing the differences between recurrent, uncomplicated diverticulitis, and the more virulent, complicated diverticulitis is necessary to guide clinical decision-making. Alterations to the microbiome offer a possible explanation for local inflammation and the pathophysiology of diverticular disease.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the mucosal-associated microbiome in patients with recurrent uncomplicated diverticulitis and complicated (perforated) diverticulitis.

DESIGN: Microbial DNA was extracted from full-thickness surgical specimens for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, targeting the V4 hypervariable region. Sequences were analyzed and a quantitative characterization based on taxonomic classification was performed.

SETTING: A tertiary care academic medical center.

PATIENTS: This study compared 48 patients with recurrent, uncomplicated diverticulitis and 35 patients with radiographically confirmed perforated (complicated) diverticulitis. Tissues were harvested from surgical resection specimens to include both diseased regions and nondiseased (adjacent normal) regions.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed differences in relative abundance and taxonomic classification of mucosal-associated microbes in surgical resection specimens from diverticular disease.

RESULTS: When analyzing the tissue of diverticular resection specimens, the complicated diseased segments demonstrated an increased abundance of sulfur-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria compared to nondiseased, adjacent normal regions. When comparing diseased segments, tissues of patients with complicated diverticulitis had a marked increase in sulfur-reducing microbes.

LIMITATIONS: We characterized the mucosal-associated microbiome present at the time of surgical resection, limiting conclusions on its role in pathophysiology. Furthermore, antibiotic usage and bowel preparation before surgery may result in perturbations to microbial flora.

CONCLUSIONS: The microbiome of complicated diverticulitis is marked by a localized imbalance of sulfur-metabolizing microbes. The abundance of sulfur-reducing microbes may lead to an excess of hydrogen sulfide and subsequent inflammation. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/C175 .

ANTECEDENTES: La progresión a diverticulitis aguda de la condición relativamente benigna de diverticulosis colónica no está bien caracterizada. Un subgrupo más pequeño puede incluso desarrollar diverticulitis complicada (perforada) que resulta en sepsis y/o muerte. Es necesario caracterizar las diferencias entre la diverticulitis recurrente no complicada y la diverticulitis complicada más virulenta para guiar la toma de decisiones clínicas. Las alteraciones del microbioma ofrecen una posible explicación de la inflamación local y la fisiopatología de la enfermedad diverticular.OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el microbioma asociado a la mucosa en pacientes con diverticulitis no complicada recurrente y diverticulitis complicada (perforada).DISEÑO: El ADN microbiano se extrajo de especímenes quirúrgicos de espesor completo para la secuenciación del gen 16S rRNA, dirigido a la región hipervariable V4. Se analizaron las secuencias y se realizó una caracterización cuantitativa basada en la clasificación taxonómica.AJUSTE: Un centro médico académico de atención terciaria.PACIENTES: Este estudio comparó 48 pacientes con diverticulitis recurrente no complicada y 35 pacientes con diverticulitis perforada (complicada) confirmada radiográficamente. Se recogieron tejidos de especímenes de resección quirúrgica para incluir tanto regiones enfermas como regiones no enfermas (normales adyacentes).PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE RESULTADO: Evaluamos las diferencias en la abundancia relativa y la clasificación taxonómica de los microbios asociados a la mucosa en muestras de resección quirúrgica de enfermedad diverticular.RESULTADOS: Al analizar el tejido de las muestras de resección diverticular, los segmentos enfermos complicados demostraron una mayor abundancia de bacterias reductoras de azufre y oxidantes de azufre en comparación con las regiones normales adyacentes no enfermas. Al comparar segmentos enfermos, los tejidos de pacientes complicados tenían un marcado aumento de microbios reductores de azufre.LIMITACIONES: Caracterizamos el microbioma asociado a la mucosa presente en el momento de la resección quirúrgica, lo que limita las conclusiones sobre su papel en la fisiopatología. Además, el uso de antibióticos y la preparación intestinal antes de la cirugía pueden provocar alteraciones en la flora microbiana.CONCLUSIONES: El microbioma de la diverticulitis complicada está marcado por un desequilibrio localizado de microbios metabolizadores de azufre. La abundancia de microbios reductores de azufre puede provocar un exceso de sulfuro de hidrógeno y la consiguiente inflamación. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/C175 . (Traducción-Dr. Ingrid Melo).

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Roberson JL, LM Maguire (2023)

Does Alteration of the Microbiome Cause Diverticular Disease?.

Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 36(2):146-150.

The role of the microbiome in influencing the development and course of human disease is increasingly understood and appreciated. In diverticular disease, the microbiome presents an intriguing potential link between the disease and its long-established risk factors, dietary fiber and industrialization. However, current data have yet to demonstrate a clear link between specific alterations in the microbiome and diverticular disease. The largest study of diverticulosis is negative and studies of diverticulitis are small and heterogeneous. Although multiple disease-specific hurdles exist, the early state of the current research and the many un- or underexplored clinical phenotypes present a significant opportunity for investigators to improve our knowledge of this common and incompletely understood disease.

RevDate: 2023-02-28
CmpDate: 2023-02-28

Bradshaw E (2023)

Diverticular disease, diverticulitis and the impact on continence.

British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing), 32(4):168-172.

Diverticulosis and the subsequent progression to diverticular disease and diverticulitis is becoming more prevalent in western countries. The cause for this progression is not known. Diverticulitis is a significant health burden - both financially to healthcare systems, and to the patients it affects in terms of morbidity. There is a dearth of research pertaining to diverticulitis and its impact on continence. This article examines the parallels between irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease, which have many symptom similarities, the overlap between the conditions, and the impact on continence. Current studies regarding the role of fibre in managing diverticular disease are also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Ibrahim AHM, Amer N, Alatooq HH, et al (2023)

Jejunal diverticulosis: A case report.

International journal of surgery case reports, 104:107946.

INTRODUCTION: Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity that presents a challenging diagnosis due to its vague and non-specific clinical presentations. 40 % of the patients remain asymptomatic until the development of complications.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of 84 years old female who presented to the hospital with vomiting and abdominal pain, found to have jejunal diverticulosis complicated by perforation in a CT scan. The patient underwent emergency expletory laparotomy with segmental intestinal resection and anastomosis.

DISCUSSION: The incidence of jejunal diverticulosis ranges between 3 and 5 %, with most patients discovered incidentally. Therefore, medical or surgical treatment management depends on clinical presentation and complications that necessitate surgical intervention.

CONCLUSION: Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity that commonly affects the elderly with significant morbidity and mortality; it is an important clinical entity to consider when approaching patients with acute abdomen.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Dufera RR, Tolu-Akinnawo O, BJ Maliakkal (2023)

Colovesical Fistula Complicating the First Symptomatic Episode of Acute Diverticulitis in a Young Adult.

Cureus, 15(2):e35082.

Colovesical fistula is one of the known complications of acute diverticulitis. However, it is uncommon for a patient to present with a colovesical fistula without prior episodes of diverticulitis. In this case, we report a patient with acute diverticulitis presenting with a colovesical fistula with no antecedent history of any medical condition. The patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics and subsequently had a temporary laparoscopic colostomy. Although colovesical fistula caused by diverticular disease was once considered a relative contraindication to laparoscopic resection, this method is now being increasingly employed by experienced surgeons. Compared with laparoscopic colon resection surgery for uncomplicated diverticulitis, the minimally invasive treatment of colovesical fistula requires a longer operative time and advanced surgical skills.

RevDate: 2023-04-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-27

Chen J, Yuan S, Fu T, et al (2023)

Gastrointestinal Consequences of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glycemic Homeostasis: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Diabetes care, 46(4):828-835.

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to examine the associations of type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits with gastrointestinal diseases (GDs).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Uncorrelated genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes (n = 231), fasting insulin (n = 38), fasting glucose (n = 71), and hemoglobin A1c (n = 75) at the genome-wide significance were selected as instrument variables. Genetic associations with 23 common GDs were obtained from the FinnGen and UK Biobank studies and other large consortia.

RESULTS: Genetic liability to type 2 diabetes was associated with the risk of 12 GDs. Per 1-unit increase in the log-transformed odds ratio (OR) of type 2 diabetes, the OR was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.09) for gastroesophageal reflux disease, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.07-1.17) for gastric ulcer, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.03-1.20) for acute gastritis, 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01-1.13) for chronic gastritis, 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.12) for irritable bowel syndrome, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01-1.07) for diverticular disease, 1.08 (95% CI, 1.02-1.14) for acute pancreatitis, 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.12) for cholelithiasis, 1.09 (95% CI, 1.05-1.13) for cholelithiasis with cholecystitis, 1.29 (95% CI, 1.17-1.43) for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.21) for liver cirrhosis, and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.97) for ulcerative colitis. Genetically predicted higher levels of fasting insulin and glucose were associated with six and one GDs, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Associations were found between genetic liability to type 2 diabetes and an increased risk of a broad range of GDs, highlighting the importance of GD prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes.

RevDate: 2023-02-22
CmpDate: 2023-02-22

Watts EL, Saint-Maurice PF, Doherty A, et al (2023)

Association of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity Level With Risks of Hospitalization for 25 Common Health Conditions in UK Adults.

JAMA network open, 6(2):e2256186.

IMPORTANCE: Higher physical activity levels are associated with lower risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, but associations with many common and less severe health conditions are not known. These conditions impose large health care burdens and reduce quality of life.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity and the subsequent risk of hospitalization for 25 common reasons for hospitalization and to estimate the proportion of these hospitalizations that might have been prevented if participants had higher levels of physical activity.

This prospective cohort study used data from a subset of 81 717 UK Biobank participants aged 42 to 78 years. Participants wore an accelerometer for 1 week (between June 1, 2013, and December 23, 2015) and were followed up over a median (IQR) of 6.8 (6.2-7.3) years; follow-up for the current study ended in 2021 (exact date varied by location).

EXPOSURES: Mean total and intensity-specific accelerometer-measured physical activity.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hospitalization for the most common health conditions. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for mean accelerometer-measured physical activity (per 1-SD increment) and risks of hospitalization for 25 conditions. Population-attributable risks were used to estimate the proportion of hospitalizations for each condition that might be prevented if participants increased their moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by 20 minutes per day.

RESULTS: Among 81 717 participants, the mean (SD) age at accelerometer assessment was 61.5 (7.9) years; 56.4% were female, and 97.0% self-identified as White. Higher levels of accelerometer-measured physical activity were associated with lower risks of hospitalization for 9 conditions: gallbladder disease (HR per 1 SD, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.69-0.79), urinary tract infections (HR per 1 SD, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69-0.84), diabetes (HR per 1 SD, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.74-0.84), venous thromboembolism (HR per 1 SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90), pneumonia (HR per 1 SD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.89), ischemic stroke (HR per 1 SD, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.95), iron deficiency anemia (HR per 1 SD, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98), diverticular disease (HR per 1 SD, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99), and colon polyps (HR per 1 SD, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). Positive associations were observed between overall physical activity and carpal tunnel syndrome (HR per 1 SD, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.40), osteoarthritis (HR per 1 SD, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.19), and inguinal hernia (HR per 1 SD, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.19), which were primarily induced by light physical activity. Increasing MVPA by 20 minutes per day was associated with reductions in hospitalization ranging from 3.8% (95% CI, 1.8%-5.7%) for colon polyps to 23.0% (95% CI, 17.1%-28.9%) for diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of UK Biobank participants, those with higher physical activity levels had lower risks of hospitalization across a broad range of health conditions. These findings suggest that aiming to increase MVPA by 20 minutes per day may be a useful nonpharmaceutical intervention to reduce health care burdens and improve quality of life.

RevDate: 2023-02-22
CmpDate: 2023-02-22

Varghese C, Wu Z, Bissett IP, et al (2023)

Seasonal variations in acute diverticular disease hospitalisations in New Zealand.

International journal of colorectal disease, 38(1):46.

PURPOSE: Seasonal variation of acute diverticular disease is variably reported in observational studies. This study aimed to describe seasonal variation of acute diverticular disease hospital admissions in New Zealand.

METHODS: A time series analysis of national diverticular disease hospitalisations from 2000 to 2015 was conducted among adults aged 30 years or over. Monthly counts of acute hospitalisations' primary diagnosis of diverticular disease were decomposed using Census X-11 times series methods. A combined test for the presence of identifiable seasonality was used to determine if overall seasonality was present; thereafter, annual seasonal amplitude was calculated. The mean seasonal amplitude of demographic groups was compared by analysis of variance.

RESULTS: Over the 16-year period, 35,582 hospital admissions with acute diverticular disease were included. Seasonality in monthly acute diverticular disease admissions was identified. The mean monthly seasonal component of acute diverticular disease admissions peaked in early-autumn (March) and troughed in early-spring (September). The mean annual seasonal amplitude was 23%, suggesting on average 23% higher acute diverticular disease hospitalisations during early-autumn (March) than in early-spring (September). The results were similar in sensitivity analyses that employed different definitions of diverticular disease. Seasonal variation was less pronounced in patients aged over 80 (p = 0.002). Seasonal variation was significantly greater among Māori than Europeans (p < 0.001) and in more southern regions (p < 0.001). However, seasonal variations were not significantly different by gender.

CONCLUSIONS: Acute diverticular disease admissions in New Zealand exhibit seasonal variation with a peak in Autumn (March) and a trough in Spring (September). Significant seasonal variations are associated with ethnicity, age, and region, but not with gender.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Cameron R, Duncanson K, Hoedt EC, et al (2023)

Does the microbiome play a role in the pathogenesis of colonic diverticular disease? A systematic review.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of the microbiota in diverticulosis and diverticular disease is underexplored. This systematic review aimed to assess all literature pertaining to the microbiota and metabolome associations in asymptomatic diverticulosis, symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD), and diverticulitis pathophysiology.

METHODS: Seven databases were searched for relevant studies published up to September 28, 2022. Data were screened in Covidence and extracted to Excel. Critical appraisal was undertaken using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for case/control studies.

RESULTS: Of the 413 papers screened by title and abstract, 48 full-text papers were reviewed in detail with 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Overall, alpha and beta diversity were unchanged in diverticulosis; however, significant changes in alpha diversity were evident in diverticulitis. A similar Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio compared with controls was reported across studies. The genus-level comparisons showed no relationship with diverticular disease. Butyrate-producing microbial species were decreased in abundance, suggesting a possible contribution to the pathogenesis of diverticular disease. Comamonas species was significantly increased in asymptomatic diverticulosis patients who later developed diverticulitis. Metabolome analysis reported significant differences in diverticulosis and SUDD, with upregulated uracil being the most consistent outcome in both. No significant differences were reported in the mycobiome.

CONCLUSION: Overall, there is no convincing evidence of microbial dysbiosis in colonic diverticula to suggest that the microbiota contributes to the pathogenesis of asymptomatic diverticulosis, SUDD, or diverticular disease. Future research investigating microbiota involvement in colonic diverticula should consider an investigation of mucosa-associated microbial changes within the colonic diverticulum itself.

RevDate: 2023-03-22
CmpDate: 2023-02-14

Zhang Y, Zhang H, Zhu J, et al (2023)

Association between diverticular disease and colorectal cancer: a bidirectional mendelian randomization study.

BMC cancer, 23(1):137.

BACKGROUND: Diverticular disease has been inconsistently associated with colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a bidirectional Mendelian randomization study to assess this association.

METHODS: Forty-three and seventy single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with diverticular disease and colorectal cancer at the genome-wide significance level (p < 5 × 10[- 8]) were selected as instrumental variables from large-scale genome-wide association studies of European descent, respectively. Summary-level data for colon cancer, rectum cancer, and colorectal cancer were obtained from genome-wide association analyses of the FinnGen consortium and the UK Biobank study. Summary-level data for diverticular disease was derived from a genome-wide association study conducted in the UK Biobank population. The random effect inverse-variance weighted Mendelian randomization approach was used as the primary method and MR-Egger, weighted-median, and MR-PRESSO approaches were conducted as sensitivity analyses.

RESULTS: Genetically determined diverticular disease was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (beta = 0.441, 95%CI: 0.081-0.801, P = 0.016) in the FinnGen population, but the association was not found in the UK Biobank (beta = 0.208, 95%CI: -0.291,0.532, P = 0.207). The positive association remained consistent direction in the three sensitivity analyses. In the stratified analysis in the FinnGen consortium, an association was found to exist between genetically predicted diverticular disease and colon cancer (beta = 0.489, 95%CI: 0.020-0.959, P = 0.041), rather than rectum cancer (beta = 0.328, 95%CI: -0.119-0.775, P = 0.151). Besides, we found a slight association between colorectal cancer and diverticular disease (beta = 0.007, 95%CI: 0.004-0.010, P < 0.001) when using colorectal cancer as exposome and diverticular disease as outcome. However, there is a large sample overlap in this step of analysis.

CONCLUSION: This Mendelian randomization study suggests that diverticular disease may be a possible risk factor for colorectal cancer and colon cancer rather than rectum cancer in the FinnGen population.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This book (written by experts in the field and scheduled for release in 2022) provides up-to-date information on all aspects of colonic diverticular disease, particularly common in Western countries. The first parts of the book will deal with the disease epidemiology and etiopathogenesis, focusing on the roles of inflammation and dysbiosis as part of the pathophysiology of diverticular disease. The clinical spectrum, the diagnostic approach and differential diagnosis, medical and surgical treatments are described in the following sections. The book is intended as a unique and valuable resource for all clinicians, residents, and physicians involved in the management of this disease. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )