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21 May 2022 at 01:40
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Bibliography on: CRISPR-Cas


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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of "spacer DNA" from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g a virus or plasmid). The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, and food crops. The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015.

Created with PubMed® Query: "CRISPR.CAS" OR "crispr/cas" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-05-20

Nath A, Bhattacharjee R, Nandi A, et al (2022)

Phage delivered CRISPR-Cas system to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens in gut microbiome.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 151:113122 pii:S0753-3322(22)00511-X [Epub ahead of print].

The Host-microbiome interactions that exist inside the gut microbiota operate in a synergistic and abnormal manner. Additionally, the normal homeostasis and functioning of gut microbiota are frequently disrupted by the intervention of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) pathogens. CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR-associated protein with clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) recognized as a prokaryotic immune system has emerged as an effective genome-editing tool to edit and delete specific microbial genes for the expulsion of bacteria through bactericidal action. In this review, we demonstrate many functioning CRISPR-Cas systems against the anti-microbial resistance of multiple pathogens, which infiltrate the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, we discuss the advancement in the development of a phage-delivered CRISPR-Cas system for killing a gut MDR pathogen. We also discuss a combinatorial approach to use bacteriophage as a delivery system for the CRISPR-Cas gene for targeting a pathogenic community in the gut microbiome to resensitize the drug sensitivity. Finally, we discuss engineered phage as a plausible potential option for the CRISPR-Cas system for pathogenic killing and improvement of the efficacy of the system.

RevDate: 2022-05-20

Chen H, Neubauer M, JP Wang (2022)

Enhancing HR Frequency for Precise Genome Editing in Plants.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:883421.

Gene-editing tools, such as Zinc-fingers, TALENs, and CRISPR-Cas, have fostered a new frontier in the genetic improvement of plants across the tree of life. In eukaryotes, genome editing occurs primarily through two DNA repair pathways: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ is the primary mechanism in higher plants, but it is unpredictable and often results in undesired mutations, frameshift insertions, and deletions. Homology-directed repair (HDR), which proceeds through HR, is typically the preferred editing method by genetic engineers. HR-mediated gene editing can enable error-free editing by incorporating a sequence provided by a donor template. However, the low frequency of native HR in plants is a barrier to attaining efficient plant genome engineering. This review summarizes various strategies implemented to increase the frequency of HDR in plant cells. Such strategies include methods for targeting double-strand DNA breaks, optimizing donor sequences, altering plant DNA repair machinery, and environmental factors shown to influence HR frequency in plants. Through the use and further refinement of these methods, HR-based gene editing may one day be commonplace in plants, as it is in other systems.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Philippe C, Morency C, Plante PL, et al (2022)

A truncated anti-CRISPR protein prevents spacer acquisition but not interference.

Nature communications, 13(1):2802.

CRISPR-Cas systems in prokaryotic cells provide an adaptive immunity against invading nucleic acids. For example, phage infection leads to addition of new immunity (spacer acquisition) and DNA cleavage (interference) in the bacterial model species Streptococcus thermophilus, which primarily relies on Cas9-containing CRISPR-Cas systems. Phages can counteract this defense system through mutations in the targeted protospacers or by encoding anti-CRISPR proteins (ACRs) that block Cas9 interference activity. Here, we show that S. thermophilus can block ACR-containing phages when the CRISPR immunity specifically targets the acr gene. This in turn selects for phage mutants carrying a deletion within the acr gene. Remarkably, a truncated acrIIA allele, found in a wild-type virulent streptococcal phage, does not block the interference activity of Cas9 but still prevents the acquisition of new immunities, thereby providing an example of an ACR specifically inhibiting spacer acquisition.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Osteikoetxea X, Silva A, Lázaro-Ibáñez E, et al (2022)

Engineered Cas9 extracellular vesicles as a novel gene editing tool.

Journal of extracellular vesicles, 11(5):e12225.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have shown promise as biological delivery vehicles, but therapeutic applications require efficient cargo loading. Here, we developed new methods for CRISPR/Cas9 loading into EVs through reversible heterodimerization of Cas9-fusions with EV sorting partners. Cas9-loaded EVs were collected from engineered Expi293F cells using standard methodology, characterized using nanoparticle tracking analysis, western blotting, and transmission electron microscopy and analysed for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated functional gene editing in a Cre-reporter cellular assay. Light-induced dimerization using Cryptochrome 2 combined with CD9 or a Myristoylation-Palmitoylation-Palmitoylation lipid modification resulted in efficient loading with approximately 25 Cas9 molecules per EV and high functional delivery with 51% gene editing of the Cre reporter cassette in HEK293 and 25% in HepG2 cells, respectively. This approach was also effective for targeting knock-down of the therapeutically relevant PCSK9 gene with 6% indel efficiency in HEK293. Cas9 transfer was detergent-sensitive and associated with the EV fractions after size exclusion chromatography, indicative of EV-mediated transfer. Considering the advantages of EVs over other delivery vectors we envision that this study will prove useful for a range of therapeutic applications, including CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Fan N, Bian X, Li M, et al (2022)

Hierarchical self-uncloaking CRISPR-Cas13a-customized RNA nanococoons for spatial-controlled genome editing and precise cancer therapy.

Science advances, 8(20):eabn7382.

CRISPR-Cas13a holds enormous potential for developing precise RNA editing. However, spatial manipulation of CRISPR-Cas13a activity remains a daunting challenge for elaborately regulating localized RNase function. Here, we designed hierarchical self-uncloaking CRISPR-Cas13a-customized RNA nanococoons (RNCOs-D), featuring tumor-specific recognition and spatial-controlled activation of Cas13a, for precise cancer synergistic therapy. RNCOs-D consists of programmable RNA nanosponges (RNSs) capable of targeted delivery and caging chemotherapeutic drug, and nanocapsules (NCs) anchored on RNSs for cloaking Cas13a/crRNA ribonucleoprotein (Cas13a RNP) activity. The acidic endo/lysosomal microenvironment stimulates the outer decomposition of NCs with concomitant Cas13a RNP activity revitalization, while the inner disassembly through trans-cleavage of RNSs initiated by cis-recognition and cleavage of EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) mRNA. RNCOs-D demonstrates the effective EGFRvIII mRNA silencing for synergistic therapy of glioblastoma cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The engineering of RNSs, together with efficient Cas13a activity regulation, holds immense prospect for multimodal and synergistic cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Wen Z, Qian F, Zhang J, et al (2022)

Genome Editing of Corynebacterium glutamicum Using CRISPR-Cpf1 System.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:189-206.

Corynebacterium glutamicum, as an important microbial chassis, has great potential in industrial application. However, complicated genetic modification is severely slowed by lack of efficient genome editing tools. The Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) CRISPR-Cas9 system has been verified as a very powerful tool for mediating genome alteration in many microorganisms but cannot work well in C. glutamicum. We recently developed two Francisella novicida (Fn) CRISPR-Cpf1 assisted systems for genome editing via homologous recombination in C. glutamicum. Here, we describe the protocols and demonstrated that N iterative rounds of genome editing can be achieved in 3 N + 4 or 3 N + 2 days, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Hong W, Zhang J, Cui G, et al (2022)

Highly Efficient Genome Editing in Clostridium difficile Using the CRISPR-Cpf1 System.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:175-187.

Clostridium difficile is often the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea, leading to thousands of deaths annually worldwide. The availability of an efficient genome editing tool for C. difficile is essential to understanding its pathogenic mechanism and physiological behavior. Here, we describe a streamlined CRISPR-Cpf1-based protocol to achieve precise genome editing in C. difficile with high efficiencies. Our work highlighted the first application of CRISPR-Cpf1 for genome editing in C. difficile, which are both crucial for understanding pathogenic mechanism of C. difficile and developing strategies to fight against C. difficile infection (CDI). In addition, for the DNA cloning, we developed a one-step-assembly protocol along with a Python-based algorithm for automatic primer design, shortening the time for plasmid construction to half that of conventional procedures. Approaches we developed herein are easily and broadly applicable to other microorganisms. Our results provide valuable guidance for establishing CRISPR-Cpf1 as a versatile genome engineering tool in prokaryotic cells.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Wozniak KJ, LA Simmons (2022)

Genome Editing Methods for Bacillus subtilis.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:159-174.

Bacillus subtilis is a widely studied Gram-positive bacterium that serves as an important model for understanding processes critical for several areas of biology including biotechnology and human health. B. subtilis has several advantages as a model organism: it is easily grown under laboratory conditions, it has a rapid doubling time, it is relatively inexpensive to maintain, and it is nonpathogenic. Over the last 50 years, advancements in genetic engineering have continued to make B. subtilis a genetic workhorse in scientific discovery. In this chapter, we describe methods for traditional gene disruptions, use of gene deletion libraries from the Bacillus Genetic Stock Center, allelic exchange, CRISPRi, and CRISPR/Cas9. Additionally, we provide general materials and equipment needed, strengths and limitations, time considerations, and troubleshooting notes to perform each method. Use of the methods outlined in this chapter will allow researchers to create gene insertions, deletions, substitutions, and RNA interference strains through a variety of methods custom to each application.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Penewit K, SJ Salipante (2022)

Recombineering in Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:135-157.

Recombineering has proven to be an extraordinarily powerful and versatile approach for the modification of bacterial genomes, but has historically not been possible in the important opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. After evaluating the activity of various recombinases in S. aureus, we developed methods for recombineering in that organism using synthetic, single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. This approach can be coupled to CRISPR/Cas9-mediated lethal counterselection in order to improve the efficiency with which recombinant S. aureus are recovered, which is especially useful in instances where mutants lack a selectable phenotype. These methods provide a rapid, scalable, precise, and inexpensive means to engineer point mutations, variable-length deletions, and short insertions into the S. aureus genome.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Ellington AJ, CR Reisch (2022)

Generating Single Nucleotide Point Mutations in E. coli with the No-SCAR System.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:119-133.

Genetic manipulation of microbial genomes is highly relevant for studying biological systems and the development of biotechnologies. In E. coli, λ-Red recombineering is one of the most widely used gene-editing methods, enabling site-specific insertions, deletions, and point mutations of any genomic locus. The no-SCAR system combines λ-Red recombineering with CRISPR/Cas9 for programmable selection of recombinant cells. Recombineering results in the transient production of heteroduplex DNA, as only one strand of DNA is initially altered, leaving the mismatched bases susceptible to repair by the host methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) system and reduces the efficiency of generating single nucleotide point mutations. Here we describe a method, where expression of cas9 and the MMR-inhibiting mutLE32K variant are independently controlled by anhydrotetracycline- and cumate-inducible promoters from the pCas9CyMutL plasmid. Thus, MMR is selectively inhibited until recombinant cells have undergone replication and the desired mutation is permanently incorporated. By transiently inhibiting MMR, the accumulation of off-target mutations typically associated with MMR-deficient cell types is minimized. Methods for designing the editing template and sgRNA, cloning of the sgRNA, induction of λ-Red and MutLE32K, the transformation of editing oligo, and induction of Cas9 for mutant selection are detailed within.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Wang Z, Wang Y, Q Ji (2022)

Genome Editing in Klebsiella pneumoniae Using CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:105-117.

CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been widely adopted for genetic manipulation in diverse biological systems owing to the ease of use and high efficiency. We have recently developed a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing system (pCasKP-pSGKP) by coupling a CRISPR/Cas9 system with the lambda Red recombination system as well as a cytidine deaminase-mediated base editing system (pBECKP) in Klebsiella pneumoniae, enabling rapid, scarless, and efficient genetic manipulation in diverse K. pneumoniae strains. In this chapter, we introduce the detailed procedures of using these two tools for genome editing in K. pneumoniae.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Hobbs SJ, Wein T, Lu A, et al (2022)

Phage anti-CBASS and anti-Pycsar nucleases subvert bacterial immunity.

Nature, 605(7910):522-526.

The cyclic oligonucleotide-based antiphage signalling system (CBASS) and the pyrimidine cyclase system for antiphage resistance (Pycsar) are antiphage defence systems in diverse bacteria that use cyclic nucleotide signals to induce cell death and prevent viral propagation1,2. Phages use several strategies to defeat host CRISPR and restriction-modification systems3-10, but no mechanisms are known to evade CBASS and Pycsar immunity. Here we show that phages encode anti-CBASS (Acb) and anti-Pycsar (Apyc) proteins that counteract defence by specifically degrading cyclic nucleotide signals that activate host immunity. Using a biochemical screen of 57 phages in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, we discover Acb1 from phage T4 and Apyc1 from phage SBSphiJ as founding members of distinct families of immune evasion proteins. Crystal structures of Acb1 in complex with 3'3'-cyclic GMP-AMP define a mechanism of metal-independent hydrolysis 3' of adenosine bases, enabling broad recognition and degradation of cyclic dinucleotide and trinucleotide CBASS signals. Structures of Apyc1 reveal a metal-dependent cyclic NMP phosphodiesterase that uses relaxed specificity to target Pycsar cyclic pyrimidine mononucleotide signals. We show that Acb1 and Apyc1 block downstream effector activation and protect from CBASS and Pycsar defence in vivo. Active Acb1 and Apyc1 enzymes are conserved in phylogenetically diverse phages, demonstrating that cleavage of host cyclic nucleotide signals is a key strategy of immune evasion in phage biology.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Kumar G, Jagadeeshwari U, Sreya P, et al (2022)

A genomic overview including polyphasic taxonomy of Thalassoroseus pseudoceratinae gen. nov., sp. nov. isolated from a marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [Epub ahead of print].

A pink-coloured, salt- and alkali-tolerant planctomycetal strain (JC658T) with oval to pear-shaped, motile, aerobic, Gram-negative stained cells was isolated from a marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. Strain JC658T shares the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Maioricimonas rarisocia Mal4T (< 89.2%) in the family Planctomycetaceae. The genomic analysis of the new strain indicates its biotechnological potential for the production of various industrially important enzymes, notably sulfatases and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), and also potential antimicrobial compounds. Several genes encoding restriction-modification (RM) and CRISPR-CAS systems are also present. NaCl is obligate for growth, of which strain JC658T can tolerate a concentration up to 6% (w/v). Optimum pH and temperature for growth are 8.0 (range 7.0-9.0) and 25 ºC (range 10-40 °C), respectively. The major respiratory quinone of strain JC658T is MK6. Major fatty acids are C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c, C18:0 and C16:0. Major polar lipids are phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl-dimethylethanolamine and phosphatidyl-monomethylethanolamine. The genomic size of strain JC658T is 7.36 Mb with a DNA G + C content of 54.6 mol%. Based on phylogenetic, genomic (ANI, AAI, POCP, dDDH), chemotaxonomic, physiological and biochemical characteristics, we conclude that strain JC658T belongs to a novel genus and constitutes a novel species within the family Planctomycetaceae, for which we propose the name Thalassoroseus pseudoceratinae gen. nov., sp. nov. The novel species is represented by the type strain JC658T (= KCTC 72881 T = NBRC 114371 T).

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Van Vu T, Das S, Hensel G, et al (2022)

Genome editing and beyond: what does it mean for the future of plant breeding?.

Planta, 255(6):130.

MAIN CONCLUSION: Genome editing offers revolutionized solutions for plant breeding to sustain food production to feed the world by 2050. Therefore, genome-edited products are increasingly recognized via more relaxed legislation and community adoption. The world population and food production are disproportionally growing in a manner that would have never matched each other under the current agricultural practices. The emerging crisis is more evident with the subtle changes in climate and the running-off of natural genetic resources that could be easily used in breeding in conventional ways. Under these circumstances, affordable CRISPR-Cas-based gene-editing technologies have brought hope and charged the old plant breeding machine with the most energetic and powerful fuel to address the challenges involved in feeding the world. What makes CRISPR-Cas the most powerful gene-editing technology? What are the differences between it and the other genetic engineering/breeding techniques? Would its products be labeled as "conventional" or "GMO"? There are so many questions to be answered, or that cannot be answered within the limitations of our current understanding. Therefore, we would like to discuss and answer some of the mentioned questions regarding recent progress in technology development. We hope this review will offer another view on the role of CRISPR-Cas technology in future of plant breeding for food production and beyond.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Yin T, Luo J, Huang D, et al (2022)

Current Progress of Mitochondrial Genome Editing by CRISPR.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:883459 pii:883459.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Perdigoto CN (2022)

TALEDs complete the toolkit for editing human mitochondrial DNA.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 29(5):415.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Wu X, Wang S, Li C, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Knockout of the Dicer and Ago2 Genes in BHK-21 Cell Promoted Seneca Virus A Replication and Enhanced Autophagy.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:865744.

RNA interference (RNAi) is a major form of antiviral defense in host cells, and Ago2 and Dicer are the major proteins of RNAi. The Senecavirus A (SVA) is a reemerging virus, resulting in vesicular lesions in sows and a sharp decline in neonatal piglet production. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to knock out Ago2 and Dicer genes in BHK-21 cell lines used for SVA vaccine production. Cell clones with homozygous frameshift mutations of Ago2 and Dicer genes were successfully identified. The two knockout cell lines were named BHK-DicerΔ- and BHK-Ago2Δ-. Results showed that the two genes' knockout cell lines were capable of stable passage and the cell growth rate did not change significantly. The replication rate and virus titers of SVA were significantly increased in knockout cell lines, indicating that RNAi could inhibit SVA replication. In addition, compared with normal cells, autophagy was significantly enhanced after SVA-infected knockout cell lines, while there was no significant difference in autophagy between the knockout and normal cell lines without SVA. The results confirmed that SVA could enhance the autophagy in knockout cells and promote viral replication. The two knockout cell lines can obtain viruses with high viral titers and have good application prospects in the production of SVA vaccine. At the same time, the RNAi knockout cell lines provide convenience for further studies on RNAi and SVA resistance to RNAi, and it lays a foundation for further study of SVA infection characteristics and screening of new therapeutic drugs and drug targets.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Feng X, Tang M, Dede M, et al (2022)

Genome-wide CRISPR screens using isogenic cells reveal vulnerabilities conferred by loss of tumor suppressors.

Science advances, 8(19):eabm6638.

Exploiting cancer vulnerabilities is critical for the discovery of anticancer drugs. However, tumor suppressors cannot be directly targeted because of their loss of function. To uncover specific vulnerabilities for cells with deficiency in any given tumor suppressor(s), we performed genome-scale CRISPR loss-of-function screens using a panel of isogenic knockout cells we generated for 12 common tumor suppressors. Here, we provide a comprehensive and comparative dataset for genetic interactions between the whole-genome protein-coding genes and a panel of tumor suppressor genes, which allows us to uncover known and new high-confidence synthetic lethal interactions. Mining this dataset, we uncover essential paralog gene pairs, which could be a common mechanism for interpreting synthetic lethality. Moreover, we propose that some tumor suppressors could be targeted to suppress proliferation of cells with deficiency in other tumor suppressors. This dataset provides valuable information that can be further exploited for targeted cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Eisenstein M (2022)

Base editing marches on the clinic.

Nature biotechnology, 40(5):623-625.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Park H, Osman EA, Cromwell CR, et al (2022)

CRISPR-Click Enables Dual-Gene Editing with Modular Synthetic sgRNAs.

Bioconjugate chemistry, 33(5):858-868.

Gene-editing systems such as CRISPR-Cas9 readily enable individual gene phenotypes to be studied through loss of function. However, in certain instances, gene compensation can obfuscate the results of these studies, necessitating the editing of multiple genes to properly identify biological pathways and protein function. Performing multiple genetic modifications in cells remains difficult due to the requirement for multiple rounds of gene editing. While fluorescently labeled guide RNAs (gRNAs) are routinely used in laboratories for targeting CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt individual loci, technical limitations in single gRNA (sgRNA) synthesis hinder the expansion of this approach to multicolor cell sorting. Here, we describe a modular strategy for synthesizing sgRNAs where each target sequence is conjugated to a unique fluorescent label, which enables fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate cells that incorporate the desired combination of gene-editing constructs. We demonstrate that three short strands of RNA functionalized with strategically placed 5'-azide and 3'-alkyne terminal deoxyribonucleotides can be assembled in a one-step, template-assisted, copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition to generate fully functional, fluorophore-modified sgRNAs. Using these synthetic sgRNAs in combination with FACS, we achieved selective cleavage of two targeted genes, either separately as a single-color experiment or in combination as a dual-color experiment. These data indicate that our strategy for generating double-clicked sgRNA allows for Cas9 activity in cells. By minimizing the size of each RNA fragment to 41 nucleotides or less, this strategy is well suited for custom, scalable synthesis of sgRNAs.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Avci-Adali M, H A Santos (2022)

Current trends in delivery of non-viral nucleic acid-based therapeutics for improved efficacy.

Advanced drug delivery reviews, 185:114297.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Anonymous (2022)

Forum: CRISPR screening roundtable with Stegmaier and Doench.

Nature biotechnology, 40(5):655.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Wasala NB, Million ED, Watkins TB, et al (2022)

The gRNA Vector Level Determines the Outcome of Systemic AAV CRISPR Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Human gene therapy, 33(9-10):518-528.

Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) editing holds promise to restore missing dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Intramuscular coinjection of CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) and guide RNA (gRNA) vectors resulted in robust dystrophin restoration in short-term studies in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Intriguingly, this strategy failed to yield efficient dystrophin rescue in muscle in a long-term (18-month) systemic injection study. In-depth analyses revealed a selective loss of the gRNA vector after long-term systemic, but not short-term local injection. To determine whether preferential gRNA vector depletion is due to the mode of delivery (local vs. systemic) or the duration of the study (short term vs. long term), we conducted a short-term systemic injection study. The gRNA (4e12 vg/mouse in the 1:1 group or 1.2e13 vg/mouse in the 3:1 group) and Cas9 (4e12 vg/mouse) vectors were coinjected intravenously into 4-week-old mdx mice. The ratio of the gRNA to Cas9 vector genome copy dropped from 1:1 and 3:1 at injection to 0.4:1 and 1:1 at harvest 3 months later, suggesting that the route of administration, rather than the experimental duration, determines preferential gRNA vector loss. Consistent with our long-term systemic injection study, the vector ratio did not influence Cas9 expression. However, the 3:1 group showed significantly higher dystrophin expression and genome editing, better myofiber size distribution, and a more pronounced improvement in muscle function and electrocardiography. Our data suggest that the gRNA vector dose determines the outcome of systemic AAV CRISPR therapy for DMD.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Zhang C, Ren H, Liu G, et al (2022)

Effective Genome Editing Using CRISPR-Cas9 Nanoflowers.

Advanced healthcare materials, 11(10):e2102365.

CRISPR-Cas9 as a powerful gene-editing tool has tremendous potential for the treatment of genetic diseases. Herein, a new mesoporous nanoflower (NF)-like delivery nanoplatform termed Cas9-NF is reported by crosslinking Cas9 and polymeric micelles that enables efficient intracellular delivery and controlled release of Cas9 in response to reductive microenvironment in tumor cells. The flower morphology is flexibly tunable by the protein concentration and different types of crosslinkers. Cas9 protein, embedded between polymeric micelles and protected by Cas9-NF, remains stable even under extreme pH conditions. Responsive cleavage of crosslinkers in tumor cells, leads to the traceless release of Cas9 for efficient gene knockout in nucleus. This crosslinked nanoparticle exhibits excellent capability of downregulating oncogene expression and inhibiting tumor growth in a murine tumor model. Taken together, these findings pave a new pathway toward the application of the protein-micelle crosslinked nanoflower for protein delivery, which warrants further investigations for gene regulation and cancer treatment.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Anzalone AV, Gao XD, Podracky CJ, et al (2022)

Programmable deletion, replacement, integration and inversion of large DNA sequences with twin prime editing.

Nature biotechnology, 40(5):731-740.

The targeted deletion, replacement, integration or inversion of genomic sequences could be used to study or treat human genetic diseases, but existing methods typically require double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) that lead to undesired consequences, including uncontrolled indel mixtures and chromosomal abnormalities. Here we describe twin prime editing (twinPE), a DSB-independent method that uses a prime editor protein and two prime editing guide RNAs (pegRNAs) for the programmable replacement or excision of DNA sequences at endogenous human genomic sites. The two pegRNAs template the synthesis of complementary DNA flaps on opposing strands of genomic DNA, which replace the endogenous DNA sequence between the prime-editor-induced nick sites. When combined with a site-specific serine recombinase, twinPE enabled targeted integration of gene-sized DNA plasmids (>5,000 bp) and targeted sequence inversions of 40 kb in human cells. TwinPE expands the capabilities of precision gene editing and might synergize with other tools for the correction or complementation of large or complex human pathogenic alleles.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Zocca VFB, Corrêa GG, Lins MRDCR, et al (2022)

The CRISPR toolbox for the gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

Critical reviews in biotechnology, 42(6):813-826.

CRISPR has revolutionized the way we engineer genomes. Its simplicity and modularity have enabled the development of a great number of tools to edit genomes and to control gene expression. This powerful technology was first adapted to Bacillus subtilis in 2016 and has been intensely upgraded since then. Many tools have been successfully developed to build a CRISPR toolbox for this Gram-positive model and important industrial chassis. The toolbox includes tools, such as double-strand and single-strand cutting CRISPR for point mutation, gene insertion, and gene deletion up to 38 kb. Moreover, catalytic dead Cas proteins have been used for base editing, as well as for the control of gene expression (CRISPRi and CRISPRa). Many of these tools have been used for multiplex CRISPR with the most successful one targeting up to six loci simultaneously for point mutation. However, tools for efficient multiplex CRISPR for other functionalities are still missing in the toolbox. CRISPR engineering has already resulted in efficient protein and metabolite-producing strains, demonstrating its great potential. In this review, we cover all the important additions made to the B. subtilis CRISPR toolbox since 2016, and strain developments fomented by the technology.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Gao C, Wu P, Yu L, et al (2022)

The application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in cervical carcinogenesis.

Cancer gene therapy, 29(5):466-474.

Integration of high-risk HPV genomes into cellular chromatin has been confirmed to promote cervical carcinogenesis, with HPV16 being the most prevalent high-risk type. Herein, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in cervical carcinogenesis, especially for cervical precancerous lesions. In cervical cancer/pre-cancer cell lines, we transfected the HPV16 E7 targeted CRISPR/Cas9, TALEN, ZFN plasmids, respectively. Compared to previous established ZFN and TALEN systems, CRISPR/Cas9 has shown comparable efficiency and specificity in inhibiting cell growth and colony formation and inducing apoptosis in cervical cancer/pre-cancer cell lines, which seemed to be more pronounced in the S12 cell line derived from the low-grade cervical lesion. Furthermore, in xenograft formation assays, CRISPR/Cas9 inhibited tumor formation of the S12 cell line in vivo and affected the corresponding protein expression. In the K14-HPV16 transgenic mice model of HPV-driven spontaneous cervical carcinogenesis, cervical application of CRISPR/Cas9 treatment caused mutations of the E7 gene and restored the expression of RB, E2F1, and CDK2, thereby reversing the cervical carcinogenesis phenotype. In this study, we have demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting HPV16 E7 could effectively revert the HPV-related cervical carcinogenesis in vitro, as well as in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice, which has shown great potential in clinical treatment for cervical precancerous lesions.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Marayati R, Stafman LL, Williams AP, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of PIM3 suppresses tumorigenesis and cancer cell stemness in human hepatoblastoma cells.

Cancer gene therapy, 29(5):558-572.

Hepatoblastoma remains one of the most difficult childhood tumors to treat and is alarmingly understudied. We previously demonstrated that Proviral Insertion site in Maloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases, specifically PIM3, are overexpressed in human hepatoblastoma cells and function to promote tumorigenesis. We aimed to use CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing with dual gRNAs to introduce large inactivating deletions in the PIM3 gene and achieve stable PIM3 knockout in the human hepatoblastoma cell line, HuH6. PIM3 knockout of hepatoblastoma cells led to significantly decreased proliferation, viability, and motility, inhibited cell-cycle progression, decreased tumor growth in a xenograft murine model, and increased animal survival. Analysis of RNA sequencing data revealed that PIM3 knockout downregulated expression of pro-migratory and pro-invasive genes and upregulated expression of genes involved in apoptosis and differentiation. Furthermore, PIM3 knockout decreased hepatoblastoma cancer cell stemness as evidenced by decreased tumorsphere formation, decreased mRNA abundance of stemness markers, and decreased cell surface expression of CD133, a marker of hepatoblastoma stem cell-like cancer cells. Reintroduction of PIM3 into PIM3 knockout cells rescued the malignant phenotype. Successful CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of PIM3 kinase in human hepatoblastoma cells confirmed the role of PIM3 in promoting hepatoblastoma tumorigenesis and cancer cell stemness.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Lee HJ, Kim HJ, Park YJ, et al (2022)

Efficient Single-Nucleotide Microbial Genome Editing Achieved Using CRISPR/Cpf1 with Maximally 3'-End-Truncated crRNAs.

ACS synthetic biology [Epub ahead of print].

Mismatch tolerance, a cause of the off-target effect, impedes accurate genome editing with the CRISPR/Cas system. Herein, we observed that oligonucleotide-directed single-base substitutions could be rarely introduced in the microbial genome using CRISPR/Cpf1-mediated negative selection. Because crRNAs have the ability to recognize and discriminate among specific target DNA sequences, we systematically compared the effects of modified crRNAs with 3'-end nucleotide truncations and a single mismatch on the genomic cleavage activity of FnCpf1 inEscherichia coli. Five nucleotides could be maximally truncated at the crRNA 3'-end for the efficient cleavage of the DNA targets of galK and xylB in the cells. However, target cleavage in the genome was inefficient when a single mismatch was simultaneously introduced in the maximally 3'-end-truncated crRNA. Based on these results, we assumed that the maximally truncated crRNA-Cpf1 complex can distinguish between single-base-edited and unedited targets in vivo. Compared to other crRNAs with shorter truncations, maximally 3'-end-truncated crRNAs showed highly efficient single-base substitutions (>80%) in the DNA targets of galK and xylB. Furthermore, the editing efficiency for the 24 bases in both galK and xylB showed success rates of 79 and 50%, respectively. We successfully introduced single-nucleotide indels in galK and xylB with editing efficiencies of 79 and 62%, respectively. Collectively, the maximally truncated crRNA-Cpf1 complex could perform efficient base and nucleotide editing regardless of the target base location or mutation type; this system is a simple and efficient tool for microbial genome editing, including indel correction, at the single-nucleotide resolution.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Vento JM, CL Beisel (2022)

Genome Editing with Cas9 in Lactobacilli.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:245-261.

The bacterial genus Lactobacillus comprises a vast range of strains with varying metabolic and probiotic traits, with genome editing representing an essential tool to probe genotype-phenotype relationships and enhance their beneficial properties. Currently, one of the most effective means of genome editing in bacteria couples low-efficiency recombineering with high-efficiency counterselection by nucleases from CRISPR-Cas systems. In lactobacilli, several CRISPR-based genome editing methods exist that have shown varying success in different strains. Here, we detail a fast and simple approach using two shuttle vectors encoding a recombineering template as well as the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9, a trans-activating RNA, and a CRISPR array. We provide a step-by-step procedure for cloning the shuttle vectors, sequentially transforming the vectors into lactobacilli, screening for the desired edit, and finally clearing the shuttle vectors from the mutant strain. As CRISPR-based genome editing in bacteria can fail for various reasons, we also lay out instructions for probing mechanisms of escape. Finally, we include practical notes along the way to facilitate each stage of genome editing, and we illustrate the technique using a representative edit in a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum. Overall, this method should serve as a complete guide to performing genome editing in lactobacilli.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Xu T, Tao X, Kempher ML, et al (2022)

Cas9 Nickase-Based Genome Editing in Clostridium cellulolyticum.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:227-243.

Clostridium cellulolyticum is a model mesophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, with the potential to produce biofuels from lignocellulose. However, the natural cellulose utilization efficiency is quite low and, therefore, metabolically engineered strains with increased efficiency can decrease both the overall cost and time required for biofuel production. Traditional genetic tools are inefficient, expensive, and time-consuming, but recent developments in the use of CRISPR-Cas genetic editing systems have greatly expanded our ability to reprogram cells. Here we describe an established protocol enabling one-step versatile genome editing in C. cellulolyticum. It integrates Cas9 nickase (Cas9n) which introduces a single nick that triggers repair via homologous recombination (SNHR) to edit genomic loci with high efficiency and accuracy. This one-step editing is achieved by transforming an all-in-one vector to coexpress Cas9n and a single guide RNA (gRNA) and carries a user-defined homologous donor template to promote SNHR at a desired target site. Additionally, this system has high specificity and allows for various types of genomic editing, including markerless insertions, deletions, substitutions, and even multiplex editing.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Tan LL, Heng E, Zulkarnain N, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Genome Editing of Streptomyces.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2479:207-225.

Streptomyces are an important source and reservoir of natural products with diverse applications in medicine, agriculture, and food. Engineered Streptomyces strains have also proven to be functional chassis for the discovery and production of bioactive compounds and enzymes. However, genetic engineering of Streptomyces is often laborious and time-consuming. Here we describe protocols for CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing of Streptomyces. Starting from the design and assembly of all-in-one CRISPR/Cas constructs for efficient double-strand break-mediated genome editing, we also present protocols for intergeneric conjugation, CRISPR/Cas plasmid curing, and validation of edited strains.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Luo G, Najafi J, Correia PMP, et al (2022)

Accelerated Domestication of New Crops: Yield is Key.

Plant & cell physiology pii:6588025 [Epub ahead of print].

Sustainable agriculture in the future will depend on crops that are tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses, require minimal input of water and nutrients, and can be cultivated with a minimal carbon footprint. Wild plants that fulfil these requirements abound in nature but are typically low yielding. Thus, replacing current high-yielding crops with less productive but resilient species will require the intractable trade-off of increasing land area under cultivation to produce the same yield. Cultivating more land reduces natural resources, reduces biodiversity, and increases our carbon footprint. Sustainable intensification can be achieved by increasing yield in underutilized or wild plant species that are already resilient but achieving this goal by conventional breeding programs may be a long-term prospect. De novo domestication of orphan or crop wild relatives using mutagenesis is an alternative and fast approach to achieve resilient crops with high yield. With new precise molecular techniques it should be possible to reach economically sustainable yields in a much shorter period of time than ever before in the history of agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Sansbury BM, Hewes AM, Tharp OM, et al (2022)

Homology directed correction, a new pathway model for point mutation repair catalyzed by CRISPR-Cas.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8132.

Gene correction is often referred to as the gold standard for precise gene editing and while CRISPR-Cas systems continue to expand the toolbox for clinically relevant genetic repair, mechanistic hurdles still hinder widespread implementation. One of the most prominent challenges to precise CRISPR-directed point mutation repair centers on the prevalence of on-site mutagenesis, wherein insertions and deletions appear at the targeted site following correction. Here, we introduce a pathway model for Homology Directed Correction, specifically point mutation repair, which enables a foundational analysis of genetic tools and factors influencing precise gene editing. To do this, we modified an in vitro gene editing system which utilizes a cell-free extract, CRISPR-Cas RNP and donor DNA template to catalyze point mutation repair. We successfully direct correction of four unique point mutations which include two unique nucleotide mutations at two separate targeted sites and visualize the repair profiles resulting from these reactions. This extension of the cell-free gene editing system to model point mutation repair may provide insight for understanding the factors influencing precise point mutation correction.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Zhang L, Zhao X, Hu X, et al (2022)

Probing low abundant DNA methylation by CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted cascade exponential amplification.

The Analyst [Epub ahead of print].

Aberrant DNA methylation plays a pivotal role in tumor development and metastasis, and is regarded as a valuable non-invasive cancer biomarker. However, the sensitive and accurate quantification of DNA methylation from clinical samples remains a challenge. Herein, we propose an easy-to-operate Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system Assisted Methylation (CAM) approach for the sensitive detection of DNA methylation through the integration of rolling circle amplification and CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted cascade amplification. Briefly, bisulfite was employed to prepare the clinical samples so that the methylated DNA sequences trigger the subsequent triple signal amplifications, whilst the normal counterparts do not. The triple signal amplification procedure consists of methylated DNA sequence-based rolling circle amplification for a preliminary signal enhancement, a nicking enzyme-initiated target cleavage for a secondary amplification, and CRISPR-Cas12a enzyme-mediated trans-cleavage for a tertiary signal enhancement. This proposed approach reveals high sensitivity, which can even distinguish as low as 0.01% methylation levels from mixtures, paving the way towards the acceleration of methylation-based cancer diagnostics and management.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Panda G, A Ray (2022)

Decrypting the mechanistic basis of CRISPR/Cas9 protein.

Progress in biophysics and molecular biology pii:S0079-6107(22)00046-3 [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR/Cas system, a newly but extensively investigated genome-editing method, harbors practical solutions for various genetic problems. It relies on short guide RNAs (gRNAs) to recruit the Cas9 protein, a DNA cleaving enzyme, to its genomic target DNAs. The Cas9 enzyme exhibits some unique properties, like the ability to differentiate self vs. non-self - DNA strands using the base-pairing potential of crRNA, i.e., only CRISPR DNA is entirely complementary to the CRISPR repeat sequences at the crRNA whereas the presence of mismatches in the upstream region of the spacer permit CRISPR interference which is inhibited in case of CRISPR-DNA, allosteric regulation in its domains, and domain reorientation on sgRNA binding. Several groups have contributed their efforts in understanding the functioning of the CRISPR/Cas system, but even then, there is a lot more to explore in this area. The structural and sequence-based understanding of the whole CRISPR-associated bacterial ortholog family landscape is still ambiguous. A better understanding of the underlying energetics of the CRISPR/Cas9 system should reveal critical parameters to design better CRISPR/Cas9s.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Shankar C, Vasudevan K, Jacob JJ, et al (2022)

Hybrid Plasmids Encoding Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Traits Among Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae ST2096 in India.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:875116.

Background: Hypervirulent variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (HvKp) were typically associated with a broadly antimicrobial susceptible clone of sequence type (ST) 23 at the time of its emergence. Concerningly, HvKp is now also emerging within multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones, including ST11, ST15, and ST147. MDR-HvKp either carry both the virulence and resistance plasmids or carry a large hybrid plasmid coding for both virulence and resistance determinants. Here, we aimed to genetically characterize a collection of MDR-HvKp ST2096 isolates haboring hybrid plasmids carrying both antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence genes.

Methods: Nine K. pneumoniae ST2096 isolated over 1 year from the blood sample of hospitalized patients in southern India that were MDR and suspected to be HvKp were selected. All nine isolates were subjected to short-read whole-genome sequencing; a subset (n = 4) was additionally subjected to long-read sequencing to obtain complete genomes for characterization. Mucoviscosity assay was also performed for phenotypic assessment.

Results: Among the nine isolates, seven were carbapenem-resistant, two of which carried bla NDM-5 on an IncFII plasmid and five carried bla OXA-232 on a ColKP3 plasmid. The organisms were confirmed as HvKp, with characteristic virulence genes (rmpA2, iutA, and iucABCD) carried on a large (~320 kbp) IncFIB-IncHI1B co-integrate. This hybrid plasmid also carried the aadA2, armA, bla OXA-1, msrE, mphE, sul1, and dfrA14 AMR genes in addition to the heavy-metal resistance genes. The hybrid plasmid showed about 60% similarity to the IncHI1B virulence plasmid of K. pneumoniae SGH10 and ~70% sequence identity with the first identified IncHI1B pNDM-MAR plasmid. Notably, the hybrid plasmid carried its type IV-A3 CRISPR-Cas system which harbored spacer regions against traL of IncF plasmids, thereby preventing their acquisition.

Conclusion: The convergence of virulence and AMR is clinically concerning in K. pneumoniae. Our data highlight the role of hybrid plasmids carrying both AMR and virulence genes in K. pneumoniae ST2096, suggesting that MDR-HvKp is not confined to selected clones; we highlight the continued emergence of such genotypes across the species. The convergence is occurring globally amidst several clones and is of great concern to public health.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Kath J, Du W, Pruene A, et al (2022)

Pharmacological interventions enhance virus-free generation of TRAC-replaced CAR T cells.

Molecular therapy. Methods & clinical development, 25:311-330 pii:S2329-0501(22)00051-1.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) redirected T cells are potent therapeutic options against hematological malignancies. The current dominant manufacturing approach for CAR T cells depends on retroviral transduction. With the advent of gene editing, insertion of a CD19-CAR into the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha constant (TRAC) locus using adeno-associated viruses for gene transfer was demonstrated, and these CD19-CAR T cells showed improved functionality over their retrovirally transduced counterparts. However, clinical-grade production of viruses is complex and associated with extensive costs. Here, we optimized a virus-free genome-editing method for efficient CAR insertion into the TRAC locus of primary human T cells via nuclease-assisted homology-directed repair (HDR) using CRISPR-Cas and double-stranded template DNA (dsDNA). We evaluated DNA-sensor inhibition and HDR enhancement as two pharmacological interventions to improve cell viability and relative CAR knockin rates, respectively. While the toxicity of transfected dsDNA was not fully prevented, the combination of both interventions significantly increased CAR knockin rates and CAR T cell yield. Resulting TRAC-replaced CD19-CAR T cells showed antigen-specific cytotoxicity and cytokine production in vitro and slowed leukemia progression in a xenograft mouse model. Amplicon sequencing did not reveal significant indel formation at potential off-target sites with or without exposure to DNA-repair-modulating small molecules. With TRAC-integrated CAR+ T cell frequencies exceeding 50%, this study opens new perspectives to exploit pharmacological interventions to improve non-viral gene editing in T cells.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Abdullah M, Okemo P, Furtado A, et al (2022)

Potential of Genome Editing to Capture Diversity From Australian Wild Rice Relatives.

Frontiers in genome editing, 4:875243 pii:875243.

Rice, a staple food worldwide and a model crop, could benefit from the introduction of novel genetics from wild relatives. Wild rice in the AA genome group closely related to domesticated rice is found across the tropical world. Due to their locality outside the range of domesticated rice, Australian wild rice populations are a potential source of unique traits for rice breeding. These rice species provide a diverse gene pool for improvement that could be utilized for desirable traits such as stress resistance, disease tolerance, and nutritional qualities. However, they remain poorly characterized. The CRISPR/Cas system has revolutionized gene editing and has improved our understanding of gene functions. Coupled with the increasing availability of genomic information on the species, genes in Australian wild rice could be modified through genome editing technologies to produce new domesticates. Alternatively, beneficial alleles from these rice species could be incorporated into cultivated rice to improve critical traits. Here, we summarize the beneficial traits in Australian wild rice, the available genomic information and the potential of gene editing to discover and understand the functions of novel alleles. Moreover, we discuss the potential domestication of these wild rice species for health and economic benefits to rice production globally.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Nieland L, van Solinge TS, Cheah PS, et al (2022)

CRISPR-Cas knockout of miR21 reduces glioma growth.

Molecular therapy oncolytics, 25:121-136 pii:S2372-7705(22)00053-5.

Non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), support the progression of glioma. miR-21 is a small, non-coding transcript involved in regulating gene expression in multiple cellular pathways, including the regulation of proliferation. High expression of miR-21 has been shown to be a major driver of glioma growth. Manipulating the expression of miRNAs is a novel strategy in the development of therapeutics in cancer. In this study we aimed to target miR-21. Using CRISPR genome-editing technology, we disrupted the miR-21 coding sequences in glioma cells. Depletion of this miRNA resulted in the upregulation of many downstream miR-21 target mRNAs involved in proliferation. Phenotypically, CRISPR-edited glioma cells showed reduced migration, invasion, and proliferation in vitro. In immunocompetent mouse models, miR-21 knockout tumors showed reduced growth resulting in an increased overall survival. In summary, we show that by knocking out a key miRNA in glioma, these cells have decreased proliferation capacity both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, we identified miR-21 as a potential target for CRISPR-based therapeutics in glioma.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Christian A (2022)

Addressing Conflicts of Interest and Conflicts of Commitment in Public Advocacy and Policy Making on CRISPR/Cas-Based Human Genome Editing.

Frontiers in research metrics and analytics, 7:775336.

Leading experts on CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing-such as 2020 Nobel laureates Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier-are not only renowned specialists in their fields, but also public advocates for upcoming regulatory frameworks on CRISPR/Cas. These frameworks will affect large portions of biomedical research on human genome editing. In advocating for particular ways of handling the risks and prospects of this technology, high-profile scientists not only serve as scientific experts, but also as moral advisers. The majority of them currently intend to bring about a "responsible pathway" toward human genome interventions in clinical therapy. Engaging in advocacy for such a pathway, they issue moral judgments on the risks and benefits of this new technology. They declare that there actually is a responsible pathway, they draft resolutions on temporary moratoria, they make judgments on which groups and individuals are credible and should participate in public and semi-public debates, so they also set the standards for deciding who counts as well-informed, as well as the standards of evidence for adopting or rejecting research policies. This degree of influence on public debates and policy making is, at the very least, noteworthy. This contribution sounds a note of caution with regard to the endeavor of a responsible pathway to human genome editing and in particular scrutinizes the legitimacy of expert-driven research policies given commercial conflicts of interest and conflicts of commitment among first-rank scholars.

RevDate: 2022-05-15

Islam MM, D Koirala (2022)

Toward a next-generation diagnostic tool: A review on emerging isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious viruses.

Analytica chimica acta, 1209:339338.

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect human health across the globe rapid, simple, point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of infectious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 remains challenging. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis has risen to meet these demands and despite its high-throughput and accuracy, it has failed to gain traction in the rapid, low-cost, point-of-test settings. In contrast, different emerging isothermal amplification-based detection methods show promise in the rapid point-of-test market. In this comprehensive study of the literature, several promising isothermal amplification methods for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 are critically reviewed that can also be applied to other infectious viruses detection. Starting with a brief discussion on the SARS-CoV-2 structure, its genomic features, and the epidemiology of the current pandemic, this review focuses on different emerging isothermal methods and their advancement. The potential of isothermal amplification combined with the revolutionary CRISPR/Cas system for a more powerful detection tool is also critically reviewed. Additionally, the commercial success of several isothermal methods in the pandemic are highlighted. Different variants of SARS-CoV-2 and their implication on isothermal amplifications are also discussed. Furthermore, three most crucial aspects in achieving a simple, fast, and multiplexable platform are addressed.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-18

Cai P, Han M, Zhang R, et al (2022)

SynBioStrainFinder: A microbial strain database of manually curated CRISPR/Cas genetic manipulation system information for biomanufacturing.

Microbial cell factories, 21(1):87.

BACKGROUND: Microbial strain information databases provide valuable data for microbial basic research and applications. However, they rarely contain information on the genetic operating system of microbial strains.

RESULTS: We established a comprehensive microbial strain database, SynBioStrainFinder, by integrating CRISPR/Cas gene-editing system information with cultivation methods, genome sequence data, and compound-related information. It is presented through three modules, Strain2Gms/PredStrain2Gms, Strain2BasicInfo, and Strain2Compd, which combine to form a rapid strain information query system conveniently curated, integrated, and accessible on a single platform. To date, 1426 CRISPR/Cas gene-editing records of 157 microbial strains have been manually extracted from the literature in the Strain2Gms module. For strains without established CRISPR/Cas systems, the PredStrain2Gms module recommends the system of the most closely related strain as a reference to facilitate the construction of a new CRISPR/Cas gene-editing system. The database contains 139,499 records of strain cultivation and genome sequences, and 773,298 records of strain-related compounds. To facilitate simple and intuitive data application, all microbial strains are also labeled with stars based on the order and availability of strain information. SynBioStrainFinder provides a user-friendly interface for querying, browsing, and visualizing detailed information on microbial strains, and it is publicly available at http://design.rxnfinder.org/biosynstrain/ .

CONCLUSION: SynBioStrainFinder is the first microbial strain database with manually curated information on the strain CRISPR/Cas system as well as other microbial strain information. It also provides reference information for the construction of new CRISPR/Cas systems. SynBioStrainFinder will serve as a useful resource to extend microbial strain research and application for biomanufacturing.

RevDate: 2022-05-14

Chaudhary M, Mukherjee TK, Singh R, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas technology for improving nutritional values in the agricultural sector: an update.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) system was initially identified in bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism to confer immunity against phages. Later on, it was developed as a gene editing tool for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including plant cells.

METHODS AND RESULTS: CRISPR/Cas9 approach has wider applications in reverse genetics as well as in crop improvement. Various characters involved in enhancing economic value and crop sustainability against biotic/abiotic stresses can be targeted through this tool. Currently, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing mechanism has been applied on around 20 crop species for improvement in several traits including yield enhancement and resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the last five years, maximum genome editing research has been validated in rice, wheat, maize and soybean. Genes targeted in these plants has been involved in causing male sterility, conferring resistance against pathogens or having certain nutritional value.

CONCLUSIONS: Current review summarizes various applications of CRISPR/Cas system and its future prospects in plant biotechnology targeting crop improvement with higher yield, disease tolerance and enhanced nutritional value.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Quéré M, Alberto JM, Broly F, et al (2022)

ALDH1L2 Knockout in U251 Glioblastoma Cells Reduces Tumor Sphere Formation by Increasing Oxidative Stress and Suppressing Methionine Dependency.

Nutrients, 14(9):.

Previously, the in vitro growth of cancer stem cells in the form of tumor spheres from five different brain cancer cell lines was found to be methionine-dependent. As this earlier work indicated that ALDH1L2, a folate-dependent mitochondria aldehyde dehydrogenase gene, is upregulated in glioblastoma stem cells, we invalidated this gene using CRISPR-cas 9 technique in this present work. We reported here that this invalidation was effective in U251 glioblastoma cells, and no cas9 off target site could be detected by genome sequencing of the two independent knockout targeting either exon I or exon III. The knockout of ALDH1L2 gene in U251 cells rendered the growth of the cancer stem cells of U251 methionine independent. In addition, a much higher ROS (reactive oxygen radicals) level can be detected in the knockout cells compared to the wild type cells. Our evidence here linked the excessive ROS level of the knockout cells to reduced total cellular NADPH. Our evidence suggested also that the cause of the slower growth of the knockout turmor sphere may be related to its partial differentiation.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Gómez-García F, Martínez-Pulleiro R, Carrera N, et al (2022)

Genetic Kidney Diseases (GKDs) Modeling Using Genome Editing Technologies.

Cells, 11(9):.

Genetic kidney diseases (GKDs) are a group of rare diseases, affecting approximately about 60 to 80 per 100,000 individuals, for which there is currently no treatment that can cure them (in many cases). GKDs usually leads to early-onset chronic kidney disease, which results in patients having to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant. Here, we briefly describe genetic causes and phenotypic effects of six GKDs representative of different ranges of prevalence and renal involvement (ciliopathy, glomerulopathy, and tubulopathy). One of the shared characteristics of GKDs is that most of them are monogenic. This characteristic makes it possible to use site-specific nuclease systems to edit the genes that cause GKDs and generate in vitro and in vivo models that reflect the genetic abnormalities of GKDs. We describe and compare these site-specific nuclease systems (zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effect nucleases (TALENs) and regularly clustered short palindromic repeat-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas9)) and review how these systems have allowed the generation of cellular and animal GKDs models and how they have contributed to shed light on many still unknown fields in GKDs. We also indicate the main obstacles limiting the application of these systems in a more efficient way. The information provided here will be useful to gain an accurate understanding of the technological advances in the field of genome editing for GKDs, as well as to serve as a guide for the selection of both the genome editing tool and the gene delivery method most suitable for the successful development of GKDs models.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Feser CJ, Lees CJ, Lammers DT, et al (2022)

Engineering CRISPR/Cas9 for Multiplexed Recombinant Coagulation Factor Production.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Current hemostatic agents are obtained from pooled plasma from multiple donors requiring costly pathogen screening and processing. Recombinant DNA-based production represents an engineering solution that could improve supply, uniformity, and safety. Current approaches are typically for single gene candidate peptides and often employ non-human cells. We devised an approach where multiple gene products could be produced from a single population of cells. We identified gene specific Synergistic Activation Mediators (SAM) from the CRISPR/Cas9 system for targeted overexpression of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X, and fibrinogen. The components of the CRISPR-SAM system were expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells (HEK293), and single (singleplex) or multi-gene (multiplex) upregulation was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and protein expression by ELISA analysis. Factor II, VII, IX, and X singleplex and multiplex activation resulted in 120-4700-fold and 60-680-fold increases in gene expression, respectively. Fibrinogen sub-unit gene activation resulted in a 1700-92,000-fold increases and 80-5500-fold increases in singleplex or multiplex approaches, respectively. ELISA analysis showed a concomitant upregulation of candidate gene products. Our findings demonstrate the capability of CRISPR/Cas9 SAMs for single or multi-agent production in human cells and represent an engineering advance that augments current recombinant peptide production techniques.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Shin NR, Shin YH, Kim HS, et al (2022)

Function Analysis of the PR55/B Gene Related to Self-Incompatibility in Chinese Cabbage Using CRISPR/Cas9.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Chinese cabbage, a major crop in Korea, shows self-incompatibility (SI). SI is controlled by the type 2A serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP2As). The PP2A gene is controlled by regulatory subunits that comprise a 36 kDa catalyst C subunit, a 65 kDa regulatory A subunit, and a variety of regulatory B subunits (50-70 kDa). Among them, the PP2A 55 kDa B regulatory subunit (PR55/B) gene located in the A05 chromosome has 13 exons spanning 2.9 kb, and two homologous genes, Bra018924 and Bra014296, were found to be present on the A06 and A08 chromosome, respectively. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of the PR55/B gene using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated system 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-mediated gene mutagenesis. CRISPR/Cas9 technology can be used to easily introduce mutations in the target gene. Tentative gene-edited lines were generated by the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer and were selected by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis. Furthermore, pods were confirmed to be formed in flower pollination (FP) as well as bud pollination (BP) in some gene-edited lines. Seed fertility of gene-edited lines indicated that the PR55/B gene plays a key role in SI. Finally, self-compatible T-DNA-free T2 gene-edited plants and edited sequences of target genes were secured. The self-compatible Chinese cabbage developed in this study is expected to contribute to Chinese cabbage breeding.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Fischer B, Schmidt V, Ly TD, et al (2022)

First Characterization of Human Dermal Fibroblasts Showing a Decreased Xylosyltransferase-I Expression Induced by the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

BACKGROUND: Xylosyltransferases-I and II (XT-I and XT-II) catalyze the initial and rate limiting step of the proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis and therefore have an import impact on the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The reason for the occurrence of two XT-isoforms in all higher organisms remains unknown and targeted genome-editing strategies could shed light on this issue.

METHODS: XT-I deficient neonatal normal human dermal fibroblasts were generated by using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) 9 system. We analyzed if a reduced XT-I activity leads to abnormalities regarding ECM-composition, myofibroblast differentiation, cellular senescence and skeletal and cartilage tissue homeostasis.

RESULTS: We successfully introduced compound heterozygous deletions within exon 9 of the XYLT1 gene. Beside XYLT1, we detected altered gene-expression levels of further, inter alia ECM-related, genes. Our data further reveal a dramatically reduced XT-I protein activity. Abnormal myofibroblast-differentiation was demonstrated by elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin expression on both, mRNA- and protein level. In addition, wound-healing capability was slightly delayed. Furthermore, we observed an increased cellular-senescence of knockout cells and an altered expression of target genes knowing to be involved in skeletonization.

CONCLUSION: Our data show the tremendous relevance of the XT-I isoform concerning myofibroblast-differentiation and ECM-homeostasis as well as the pathophysiology of skeletal disorders.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Yao M, Ren T, Pan Y, et al (2022)

A New Generation of Lineage Tracing Dynamically Records Cell Fate Choices.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Reconstructing the development of lineage relationships and cell fate mapping has been a fundamental problem in biology. Using advanced molecular biology and single-cell RNA sequencing, we have profiled transcriptomes at the single-cell level and mapped cell fates during development. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 barcode editing for large-scale lineage tracing has been used to reconstruct the pseudotime trajectory of cells and improve lineage tracing accuracy. This review presents the progress of the latest CbLT (CRISPR-based Lineage Tracing) and discusses the current limitations and potential technical pitfalls in their application and other emerging concepts.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Moniruzzaman M, Zhong Y, Huang Z, et al (2022)

Having a Same Type IIS Enzyme's Restriction Site on Guide RNA Sequence Does Not Affect Golden Gate (GG) Cloning and Subsequent CRISPR/Cas Mutagenesis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Golden gate/modular cloning facilitates faster and more efficient cloning by utilizing the unique features of the type IIS restriction enzymes. However, it is known that targeted insertion of DNA fragment(s) must not include internal type IIS restriction recognition sites. In the case of cloning CRISPR constructs by using golden gate (GG) cloning, this narrows down the scope of guide RNA (gRNA) picks because the selection of a good gRNA for successful genome editing requires some obligation of fulfillment, and it is unwanted if a good gRNA candidate cannot be picked only because it has an internal type IIS restriction recognition site. In this article, we have shown that the presence of a type IIS restriction recognition site in a gRNA does not affect cloning and subsequent genome editing. After each step of GG reactions, correct insertions of gRNAs were verified by colony color and restriction digestion and were further confirmed by sequencing. Finally, the final vector containing a Cas12a nuclease and four gRNAs was used for Agrobacterium-mediated citrus cell transformation. Sequencing of PCR amplicons flanking gRNA-2 showed a substitution (C to T) mutation in transgenic plants. The knowledge derived from this study could widen the scope of GG cloning, particularly of gRNAs selection for GG-mediated cloning into CRISPR vectors.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Tian J, Xing B, Li M, et al (2022)

Efficient Large-Scale and Scarless Genome Engineering Enables the Construction and Screening of Bacillus subtilis Biofuel Overproducers.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Bacillus subtilis is a versatile microbial cell factory that can produce valuable proteins and value-added chemicals. Long fragment editing techniques are of great importance for accelerating bacterial genome engineering to obtain desirable and genetically stable host strains. Herein, we develop an efficient CRISPR-Cas9 method for large-scale and scarless genome engineering in the Bacillus subtilis genome, which can delete up to 134.3 kb DNA fragments, 3.5 times as long as the previous report, with a positivity rate of 100%. The effects of using a heterologous NHEJ system, linear donor DNA, and various donor DNA length on the engineering efficiencies were also investigated. The CRISPR-Cas9 method was then utilized for Bacillus subtilis genome simplification and construction of a series of individual and cumulative deletion mutants, which are further screened for overproducer of isobutanol, a new generation biofuel. These results suggest that the method is a powerful genome engineering tool for constructing and screening engineered host strains with enhanced capabilities, highlighting the potential for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Toinga-Villafuerte S, Vales MI, Awika JM, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Mutagenesis of the Granule-Bound Starch Synthase Gene in the Potato Variety Yukon Gold to Obtain Amylose-Free Starch in Tubers.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most important food crop after rice and wheat. Its tubers are a rich source of dietary carbohydrates in the form of starch, which has many industrial applications. Starch is composed of two polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin, and their ratios determine different properties and functionalities. Potato varieties with higher amylopectin have many food processing and industrial applications. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, we delivered Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) reagents to potato (variety Yukon Gold) cells to disrupt the granule-bound starch synthase (gbssI) gene with the aim of eliminating the amylose component of starch. Lugol-Iodine staining of the tubers showed a reduction or complete elimination of amylose in some of the edited events. These results were further confirmed by the perchloric acid and enzymatic methods. One event (T2-7) showed mutations in all four gbss alleles and total elimination of amylose from the tubers. Viscosity profiles of the tuber starch from six different knockout events were determined using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA), and the values reflected the amylopectin/amylose ratio. Follow-up studies will focus on eliminating the CRISPR components from the events and on evaluating the potential of clones with various amylose/amylopectin ratios for food processing and other industrial applications.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Wang YY, Hsu SH, Tsai HY, et al (2022)

Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated ARC-Knockout HEK293 Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Arc/Arg3.1 (activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (ARC)) is a critical regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity and is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The functions and mechanisms of human ARC action are poorly understood and worthy of further investigation. To investigate the function of the ARC gene in vitro, we generated an ARC-knockout (KO) HEK293 cell line via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing and conducted RNA sequencing and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis to identify the differentially expressed genes and proteins in isogenic ARC-KO HEK293 cells. Furthermore, we used bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays to detect interactions between the ARC protein and differentially expressed proteins. Genetic deletion of ARC disturbed multiple genes involved in the extracellular matrix and synaptic membrane. Seven proteins (HSPA1A, ENO1, VCP, HMGCS1, ALDH1B1, FSCN1, and HINT2) were found to be differentially expressed between ARC-KO cells and ARC wild-type cells. BRET assay results showed that ARC interacted with PSD95 and HSPA1A. Overall, we found that ARC regulates the differential expression of genes involved in the extracellular matrix, synaptic membrane, and heat shock protein family. The transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of ARC-KO HEK293 cells presented here provide new evidence for the mechanisms underlying the effects of ARC and molecular pathways involved in schizophrenia pathophysiology.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Wang JY, Pausch P, JA Doudna (2022)

Structural biology of CRISPR-Cas immunity and genome editing enzymes.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas systems provide resistance against foreign mobile genetic elements and have a wide range of genome editing and biotechnological applications. In this Review, we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular structures and mechanisms of enzymes comprising bacterial RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas immune systems and deployed for wide-ranging genome editing applications. We explore the adaptive and interference aspects of CRISPR-Cas function as well as open questions about the molecular mechanisms responsible for genome targeting. These structural insights reflect close evolutionary links between CRISPR-Cas systems and mobile genetic elements, including the origins and evolution of CRISPR-Cas systems from DNA transposons, retrotransposons and toxin-antitoxin modules. We discuss how the evolution and structural diversity of CRISPR-Cas systems explain their functional complexity and utility as genome editing tools.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Worthington AK, EC Forsberg (2022)

A CRISPR View of Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Moving Innovative Bioengineering into the Clinic.

American journal of hematology [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR/Cas genome engineering has emerged as a powerful tool to modify precise genomic sequences with unparalleled accuracy and efficiency. Major advances in CRISPR technologies over the last five years have fueled the development of novel techniques in hematopoiesis research to interrogate the complexities of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) biology. In particular, high throughput CRISPR based screens using various "flavors" of Cas coupled with sequencing and/or functional outputs are becoming increasingly efficient and accessible. In this review, we discuss recent achievements in CRISPR-mediated genomic engineering and how these new tools have advanced the understanding of HSC heterogeneity and function throughout life. Additionally, we highlight how these techniques can be used to answer previously inaccessible questions and the challenges to implement them. Finally, we focus on their translational potential to both model and treat hematological diseases in the clinic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Mandal S, Ghorai M, Anand U, et al (2022)

Cytokinins: A Genetic Target for Increasing Yield Potential in the CRISPR Era.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:883930.

Over the last decade, remarkable progress has been made in our understanding the phytohormones, cytokinin's (CKs) biosynthesis, perception, and signalling pathways. Additionally, it became apparent that interfering with any of these steps has a significant effect on all stages of plant growth and development. As a result of their complex regulatory and cross-talk interactions with other hormones and signalling networks, they influence and control a wide range of biological activities, from cellular to organismal levels. In agriculture, CKs are extensively used for yield improvement and management because of their wide-ranging effects on plant growth, development and physiology. One of the primary targets in this regard is cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKO/CKX), which is encoded by CKX gene, which catalyses the irreversible degradation of cytokinin. The previous studies on various agronomically important crops indicated that plant breeders have targeted CKX directly. In recent years, prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been increasingly used in editing the CKO/CKX gene and phenomenal results have been achieved. This review provides an updated information on the applications of CRISPR-based gene-editing tools in manipulating cytokinin metabolism at the genetic level for yield improvement. Furthermore, we summarized the current developments of RNP-mediated DNA/transgene-free genomic editing of plants which would broaden the application of this technology. The current review will advance our understanding of cytokinins and their role in sustainably increase crop production through CRISPR/Cas genome editing tool.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Rahman F, Mishra A, Gupta A, et al (2022)

Spatiotemporal Regulation of CRISPR/Cas9 Enables Efficient, Precise, and Heritable Edits in Plant Genomes.

Frontiers in genome editing, 4:870108.

CRISPR/Cas-mediated editing has revolutionized crop engineering. Due to the broad scope and potential of this technology, many studies have been carried out in the past decade towards optimizing genome editing constructs. Clearly, the choice of the promoter used to drive gRNA and Cas9 expression is critical to achieving high editing efficiency, precision, and heritability. While some important considerations for choosing a promoter include the number and nature of targets, host organism, mode of transformation and goal of the experiment, spatiotemporal regulation of Cas9 expression using tissue-specific or inducible promoters enables higher heritability and efficiency of targeted mutagenesis with reduced off-target effects. In this review, we discuss specific studies that highlight the prospects and trade-offs associated with the choice of promoters on genome editing and emphasize the need for inductive exploration and discovery to further advance this area of research in crop plants.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Ye J, Xi H, Chen Y, et al (2022)

Can SpRY recognize any PAM in human cells?.

Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B, 23(5):382-391.

The application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) can be limited due to a lack of compatible protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences in the DNA regions of interest. Recently, SpRY, a variant of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9), was reported, which nearly completely fulfils the PAM requirement. Meanwhile, PAMs for SpRY have not been well addressed. In our previous study, we developed the PAM Definition by Observable Sequence Excision (PAM-DOSE) and green fluorescent protein (GFP)‍-reporter systems to study PAMs in human cells. Herein, we endeavored to identify the PAMs of SpRY with these two methods. The results indicated that 5'-NRN-3', 5'-NTA-3', and 5'-NCK-3' could be considered as canonical PAMs. 5'-NCA-3' and 5'-NTK-3' may serve as non-priority PAMs. At the same time, PAM of 5'-NYC-3' is not recommended for human cells. These findings provide further insights into the application of SpRY for human genome editing.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Vicencio J, Sánchez-Bolaños C, Moreno-Sánchez I, et al (2022)

Genome editing in animals with minimal PAM CRISPR-Cas9 enzymes.

Nature communications, 13(1):2601.

The requirement for Cas nucleases to recognize a specific PAM is a major restriction for genome editing. SpCas9 variants SpG and SpRY, recognizing NGN and NRN PAMs, respectively, have contributed to increase the number of editable genomic sites in cell cultures and plants. However, their use has not been demonstrated in animals. Here we study the nuclease activity of SpG and SpRY by targeting 40 sites in zebrafish and C. elegans. Delivered as mRNA-gRNA or ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, SpG and SpRY were able to induce mutations in vivo, albeit at a lower rate than SpCas9 in equivalent formulations. This lower activity was overcome by optimizing mRNA-gRNA or RNP concentration, leading to mutagenesis at regions inaccessible to SpCas9. We also found that the CRISPRscan algorithm could help to predict SpG and SpRY targets with high activity in vivo. Finally, we applied SpG and SpRY to generate knock-ins by homology-directed repair. Altogether, our results expand the CRISPR-Cas targeting genomic landscape in animals.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Zhang D, Wang G, Yu X, et al (2022)

Enhancing CRISPR/Cas gene editing through modulating cellular mechanical properties for cancer therapy.

Nature nanotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Genome editing holds great potential for cancer treatment due to the ability to precisely inactivate or repair cancer-related genes. However, delivery of CRISPR/Cas to solid tumours for efficient cancer therapy remains challenging. Here we targeted tumour tissue mechanics via a multiplexed dendrimer lipid nanoparticle (LNP) approach involving co-delivery of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) siRNA, Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA (siFAK + CRISPR-LNPs) to enable tumour delivery and enhance gene-editing efficacy. We show that gene editing was enhanced >10-fold in tumour spheroids due to increased cellular uptake and tumour penetration of nanoparticles mediated by FAK-knockdown. siFAK + CRISPR-PD-L1-LNPs reduced extracellular matrix stiffness and efficiently disrupted PD-L1 expression by CRISPR/Cas gene editing, which significantly inhibited tumour growth and metastasis in four mouse models of cancer. Overall, we provide evidence that modulating the stiffness of tumour tissue can enhance gene editing in tumours, which offers a new strategy for synergistic LNPs and other nanoparticle systems to treat cancer using gene editing.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Li Y, Mensah EO, Fordjour E, et al (2022)

Recent advances in high-throughput metabolic engineering: Generation of oligonucleotide-mediated genetic libraries.

Biotechnology advances pii:S0734-9750(22)00066-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The preparation of genetic libraries is an essential step to evolve microorganisms and study genotype-phenotype relationships by high-throughput screening/selection. As the large-scale synthesis of oligonucleotides becomes easy, cheap, and high-throughput, numerous novel strategies have been developed in recent years to construct high-quality oligo-mediated libraries, leveraging state-of-art molecular biology tools for genome editing and gene regulation. This review presents an overview of recent advances in creating and characterizing in vitro and in vivo genetic libraries, based on CRISPR/Cas, regulatory RNAs, and recombineering, primarily for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These libraries' applications in high-throughput metabolic engineering, strain evolution and protein engineering are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Mesa V, Monot M, Ferraris L, et al (2022)

Core-, pan- and accessory genome analyses of Clostridium neonatale: insights into genetic diversity.

Microbial genomics, 8(5):.

Clostridium neonatale is a potential opportunistic pathogen recovered from faecal samples in cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal disease affecting preterm neonates. Although the C. neonatale species description and name validation were published in 2018, comparative genomics are lacking. In the present study, we provide the closed genome assembly of the C. neonatale ATCC BAA-265T (=250.09) reference strain with a manually curated functional annotation of the coding sequences. Pan-, core- and accessory genome analyses were performed using the complete 250.09 genome (4.7 Mb), three new assemblies (4.6-5.6 Mb), and five publicly available draft genome assemblies (4.6-4.7 Mb). The C. neonatale pan-genome contains 6840 genes, while the core-genome has 3387 genes. Pan-genome analysis revealed an 'open' state and genomic diversity. The strain-specific gene families ranged from five to 742 genes. Multiple mobile genetic elements were predicted, including a total of 201 genomic islands, 13 insertion sequence families, one CRISPR-Cas type I-B system and 15 predicted intact prophage signatures. Primary virulence classes including offensive, defensive, regulation of virulence-associated genes and non-specific virulence factors were identified. The presence of a tet(W/N/W) gene encoding a tetracycline resistance ribosomal protection protein and a 23S rRNA methyltransferase ermQ gene were identified in two different strains. Together, our results revealed a genetic diversity and plasticity of C. neonatale genomes and provide a comprehensive view of this species genomic features, paving the way for the characterization of its biological capabilities.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Bernas G, Ouellet M, Barrios A, et al (2022)

Introduction of loxP sites by electroporation in the mouse genome; a simple approach for conditional allele generation in complex targeting loci.

BMC biotechnology, 22(1):14.

BACKGROUND: The discovery of the CRISPR-Cas9 system and its applicability in mammalian embryos has revolutionized the way we generate genetically engineered animal models. To date, models harbouring conditional alleles (i.e. two loxP sites flanking an exon or a critical DNA sequence of interest) are amongst the most widely requested project type that are challenging to generate as they require simultaneous cleavage of the genome using two guides in order to properly integrate the repair template. An approach, using embryo sequential electroporation has been reported in the literature to successfully introduce loxP sites on the same allele. Here, we describe a modification of this sequential electroporation procedure that demonstrated the production of conditional allele mouse models for eight different genes via one of two possible strategies: either by consecutive sequential electroporation (strategy A) or non-consecutive sequential electroporation (strategy B). This latest strategy originated from using the by-product produced when using consecutive sequential electroporation (i.e. mice with a single targeted loxP site) to complete the project.

RESULTS: By using strategy A, we demonstrated successful generation of conditional allele models for three different genes (Icam1, Lox, and Sar1b), with targeting efficiencies varying between 5 and 13%. By using strategy B, we generated five conditional allele models (Loxl1, Pard6a, Pard6g, Clcf1, and Mapkapk5), with targeting efficiencies varying between 3 and 25%.

CONCLUSION: Our modified electroporation-based approach, involving one of the two alternative strategies, allowed the production of conditional allele models for eight different genes via two different possible paths. This reproducible method will serve as another reliable approach in addition to other well-established methodologies in the literature for conditional allele mouse model generation.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Kanduri V, LaVigne D, J Larsen (2021)

Current Advances Toward the Encapsulation of Cas9.

ACS macro letters, 10(12):1576-1589.

Genetic diseases present formidable hurdles in maintaining a good quality of life for those suffering from these ailments. Often, patients look to inadequate treatments to manage symptoms, which can result in harmful effects on the body. Through genetic engineering, scientists utilize the clustered regularly short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated protein, known as Cas9, to treat the root of the problem. The Cas9 protein is often codelivered with guide RNAs or in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) to ensure targeted delivery of the genetic tool as well as to limit off-target effects. This paper provides an overview of the current advances made toward the encapsulation and delivery of Cas9 to desired locations in the body through encapsulating nanoparticles. Several factors must be considered when employing the Cas9 system to allow gene editing to occur. Material selection is crucial to protect the payload of the delivery vector. Current literature indicates that lipid- and polymer-based nanoparticles show the most potential as delivery vessels for Cas9. Lipid nanoparticles greatly outpace polymer-based nanoparticles in the clinic, despite the benefits that polymers may introduce. When developing translatable systems, there are factors that have not yet been considered that are relevant to Cas9 delivery that are highlighted in this Viewpoint. The proper functioning of Cas9 is dependent on maintaining a proper internal environment; however, there are gaps in the literature regarding these optimal conditions. Interactions between charges of the Cas9 protein, codelivered molecules, and delivery vehicles could impact the effectiveness of the gene editing taking place. While the internal charges of nanoparticles and their effects on Cas9 are presently undetermined, nanoparticles currently offer the ideal delivery method for the Cas9 protein due to their adequate size, modifiable external charge, and ability to be modified. Overall, a cationic lipid-/polymer-based nanoparticle system was found to have the most prospects in Cas9 delivery thus far. By understanding the successes of other systems, translatable, polymer-based delivery vehicles may be developed.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Sturme MHJ, van der Berg JP, Bouwman LMS, et al (2022)

Occurrence and Nature of Off-Target Modifications by CRISPR-Cas Genome Editing in Plants.

ACS agricultural science & technology, 2(2):192-201.

CRISPR-Cas-based genome editing allows for precise and targeted genetic modification of plants. Nevertheless, unintended off-target edits can arise that might confer risks when present in gene-edited food crops. Through an extensive literature review we gathered information on CRISPR-Cas off-target edits in plants. Most observed off-target changes were small insertions or deletions (1-22 bp) or nucleotide substitutions, and large deletions (>100 bp) were rare. One study detected the insertion of vector-derived DNA sequences, which is important considering the risk assessment of gene-edited plants. Off-target sites had few mismatches (1-3 nt) with the target sequence and were mainly located in protein-coding regions, often in target gene homologues. Off-targets edits were predominantly detected via biased analysis of predicted off-target sites instead of unbiased genome-wide analysis. CRISPR-Cas-edited plants showed lower off-target mutation frequencies than conventionally bred plants. This Review can aid discussions on the relevance of evaluating off-target modifications for risk assessment of CRISPR-Cas-edited plants.

RevDate: 2022-05-17
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Chan YT, Lu Y, Wu J, et al (2022)

CRISPR-Cas9 library screening approach for anti-cancer drug discovery: overview and perspectives.

Theranostics, 12(7):3329-3344.

CRISPR-Cas9 is a Nobel Prize-winning robust gene-editing tool developed in the last decade. This technique enables a stable genetic engineering method with high precision on the genomes of all organisms. The latest advances in the technology include a genome library screening approach, which can detect survival-essential and drug resistance genes via gain or loss of function. The versatile machinery allows genomic screening for gene activation or inhibition, and targets non-coding sequences, such as promoters, miRNAs, and lncRNAs. In this review, we introduce the emerging high-throughput CRISPR-Cas9 library genome screening technology and its working principles to detect survival and drug resistance genes through positive and negative selection. The technology is compared with other existing approaches while focusing on the advantages of its variable applications in anti-cancer drug discovery, including functions and target identification, non-coding RNA information, actions of small molecules, and drug target discoveries. The combination of the CRISPR-Cas9 system with multi-omic platforms represents a dynamic field expected to advance anti-cancer drug discovery and precision medicine in the clinic.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Liu W, An C, Shu X, et al (2022)

Correction to "A Dual-Plasmid CRISPR/Cas System for Mycotoxin Elimination in Polykaryotic Industrial Fungi".

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Li Y, Zhang L, Yang H, et al (2022)

Development of a gRNA Expression and Processing Platform for Efficient CRISPR-Cas9-Based Gene Editing and Gene Silencing in Candida tropicalis.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Candida tropicalis, a nonmodel diploid microbe, has been applied in industry as a chassis cell. Metabolic engineering of C. tropicalis is challenging due to a lack of gene editing and regulation tools. Here, we report a tRNA:guide RNA (gRNA) platform for boosting gene editing and silencing efficiency in C. tropicalis. As the endogenous tRNA-processing system enables autocleavage for producing a large number of mature gRNAs, a tRNAGly sequence from the genome of C. tropicalis ATCC 20336 was selected for constructing the tRNA:gRNA platform. In the CRISPR-Cas9 system, the tRNA:gRNA platform proved to be efficient in single-gene and multi-gene editing. Furthermore, based on the tRNA:gRNA platform, a CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system was developed to construct an efficient dCas9-mediated gene expression regulation system for C. tropicalis. The CRISPRi system was employed to regulate the expression of the exogenous gene GFP3 (green fluorescent protein) and the endogenous gene ADE2 (phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase). Different regions of GFP3 and ADE2 were targeted with the gRNAs processed by the tRNAGly, and the transcription levels of GFP3 and ADE2 were successfully downregulated to 23.9% ± 4.1% and 38.0% ± 7.4%, respectively. The effects of the target regions on gene regulation were also investigated. Additionally, the regulation system was applied to silence ERG9 (squalene synthase) to enhance β-carotene biosynthesis in a metabolically modified C. tropicalis strain. The results suggest that the endogenous tRNAGly and the CRISPRi system have great potential for metabolic engineering of C. tropicalis. IMPORTANCE In the nonmodel yeast Candida tropicalis, a lack of available RNA polymerase type III (Pol III) promoters hindered the development of guide RNA (gRNA) expression platforms for the establishment of CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing and silencing strategies. Here, a tRNA:gRNA platform was constructed. We show that this platform allows efficient and precise expression and processing of different gRNAs from a single polycistronic gene capable of mediating multi-gene editing in combination with CRISPR-Cas9. Furthermore, in combination with dCas9, the tRNA:gRNA platform was efficiently used for silencing of exogenous and endogenous genes, representing the first CRISPR interference tool (CRISPRi) in C. tropicalis. Importantly, the established CRISPRi-tRNA:gRNA tool was also used for metabolic engineering by regulating β-carotene biosynthesis in C. tropicalis. The results suggest that the tRNA:gRNA platform and the CRISPRi system will further advance the application of the CRISPR-Cas-based editing and CRISPRi systems for metabolic engineering in C. tropicalis.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Bellingrath JS, McClements ME, Shanks M, et al (2022)

Envisioning the development of a CRISPR-Cas mediated base editing strategy for a patient with a novel pathogenic CRB1 single nucleotide variant.

Ophthalmic genetics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) associated with mutations in the Crumbs homolog 1 (CRB1) gene is associated with a severe, early-onset retinal degeneration for which no therapy currently exists. Base editing, with its capability to precisely catalyse permanent nucleobase conversion in a programmable manner, represents a novel therapeutic approach to targeting this autosomal recessive IRD, for which a gene supplementation is challenging due to the need to target three different retinal CRB1 isoforms.

PURPOSE: To report and classify a novel CRB1 variant and envision a possible therapeutic approach in form of base editing.

METHODS: Case report.

RESULTS: A 16-year-old male patient with a clinical diagnosis of early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and characteristic clinical findings of retinal thickening and coarse lamination was seen at the Oxford Eye Hospital. He was found to be compound heterozygous for two CRB1 variants: a novel pathogenic nonsense variant in exon 9, c.2885T>A (p.Leu962Ter), and a likely pathogenic missense change in exon 6, c.2056C>T (p.Arg686Cys). While a base editing strategy for c.2885T>A would encompass a CRISPR-pass mediated "read-through" of the premature stop codon, the resulting missense changes were predicted to be "possibly damaging" in in-silico analysis. On the other hand, the transversion missense change, c.2056C>T, is amenable to transition editing with an adenine base editor (ABE) fused to a SaCas9-KKH with a negligible chance of bystander edits due to an absence of additional Adenines (As) in the editing window.

CONCLUSIONS: This case report records a novel pathogenic nonsense variant in CRB1 and gives an example of thinking about a base editing strategy for a patient compound heterozygous for CRB1 variants.

RevDate: 2022-05-14
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

Dong C, Fu S, Karvas RM, et al (2022)

A genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen identifies essential and growth-restricting genes in human trophoblast stem cells.

Nature communications, 13(1):2548.

The recent derivation of human trophoblast stem cells (hTSCs) provides a scalable in vitro model system of human placental development, but the molecular regulators of hTSC identity have not been systematically explored thus far. Here, we utilize a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen to comprehensively identify essential and growth-restricting genes in hTSCs. By cross-referencing our data to those from similar genetic screens performed in other cell types, as well as gene expression data from early human embryos, we define hTSC-specific and -enriched regulators. These include both well-established and previously uncharacterized trophoblast regulators, such as ARID3A, GATA2, and TEAD1 (essential), and GCM1, PTPN14, and TET2 (growth-restricting). Integrated analysis of chromatin accessibility, gene expression, and genome-wide location data reveals that the transcription factor TEAD1 regulates the expression of many trophoblast regulators in hTSCs. In the absence of TEAD1, hTSCs fail to complete faithful differentiation into extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells and instead show a bias towards syncytiotrophoblast (STB) differentiation, thus indicating that this transcription factor safeguards the bipotent lineage potential of hTSCs. Overall, our study provides a valuable resource for dissecting the molecular regulation of human placental development and diseases.

RevDate: 2022-05-12
CmpDate: 2022-05-12

Gotoh Y, Atsuta Y, Taniguchi T, et al (2022)

Helicobacter cinaedi is a human-adapted lineage in the Helicobacter cinaedi/canicola/'magdeburgensis' complex.

Microbial genomics, 8(5):.

Helicobacter cinaedi is an enterohepatic Helicobacter that causes bacteremia and other diseases in humans. While H. cinaedi-like strains are isolated from animals, including dog isolates belonging to a recently proposed H. canicola, little is known about the genetic differences between H. cinaedi and these animal isolates. Here, we sequenced 43 H. cinaedi- or H. canicola-like strains isolated from humans, hamsters, rats and dogs and collected 81 genome sequences of H. cinaedi, H. canicola and other enterohepatic Helicobacter strains from public databases. Genomic comparison of these strains identified four distinct clades (clades I-IV) in H. cinaedi/canicola/'magderbugensis' (HCCM) complex. Among these, clade I corresponds to H. cinaedi sensu stricto and represents a human-adapted lineage in the complex. We identified several genomic features unique to clade I. They include the accumulation of antimicrobial resistance-related mutations that reflects the human association of clade I and the larger genome size and the presence of a CRISPR-Cas system and multiple toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification systems, both of which indicate the contribution of horizontal gene transfer to the evolution of clade I. In addition, nearly all clade I strains but only a few strains belonging to one minor clade contained a highly variable genomic region encoding a type VI secretion system (T6SS), which could play important roles in gut colonization by killing competitors or inhibiting their growth. We also developed a method to systematically search for H. cinaedi sequences in large metagenome data sets based on the results of genome comparison. Using this method, we successfully identified multiple HCCM complex-containing human faecal metagenome samples and obtained the sequence information covering almost the entire genome of each strain. Importantly, all were clade I strains, supporting our conclusion that H. cinaedi sensu stricto is a human-adapted lineage in the HCCM complex.

RevDate: 2022-05-14
CmpDate: 2022-05-11

Bishop AL, López Del Amo V, Okamoto EM, et al (2022)

Double-tap gene drive uses iterative genome targeting to help overcome resistance alleles.

Nature communications, 13(1):2595.

Homing CRISPR gene drives could aid in curbing the spread of vector-borne diseases and controlling crop pest and invasive species populations due to an inheritance rate that surpasses Mendelian laws. However, this technology suffers from resistance alleles formed when the drive-induced DNA break is repaired by error-prone pathways, which creates mutations that disrupt the gRNA recognition sequence and prevent further gene-drive propagation. Here, we attempt to counteract this by encoding additional gRNAs that target the most commonly generated resistance alleles into the gene drive, allowing a second opportunity at gene-drive conversion. Our presented "double-tap" strategy improved drive efficiency by recycling resistance alleles. The double-tap drive also efficiently spreads in caged populations, outperforming the control drive. Overall, this double-tap strategy can be readily implemented in any CRISPR-based gene drive to improve performance, and similar approaches could benefit other systems suffering from low HDR frequencies, such as mammalian cells or mouse germline transformations.

RevDate: 2022-05-14
CmpDate: 2022-05-11

Bodai Z, Bishop AL, Gantz VM, et al (2022)

Targeting double-strand break indel byproducts with secondary guide RNAs improves Cas9 HDR-mediated genome editing efficiencies.

Nature communications, 13(1):2351.

Programmable double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) can be harnessed for precision genome editing through manipulation of the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway. However, end-joining repair pathways often outcompete HDR and introduce insertions and deletions of bases (indels) at the DSB site, decreasing precision outcomes. It has been shown that indel sequences for a given DSB site are reproducible and can even be predicted. Here, we report a general strategy (the "double tap" method) to improve HDR-mediated precision genome editing efficiencies that takes advantage of the reproducible nature of indel sequences. The method simply involves the use of multiple gRNAs: a primary gRNA that targets the wild-type genomic sequence, and one or more secondary gRNAs that target the most common indel sequence(s), which in effect provides a "second chance" at HDR-mediated editing. This proof-of-principle study presents the double tap method as a simple yet effective option for enhancing precision editing in mammalian cells.

RevDate: 2022-05-11
CmpDate: 2022-05-11

Chambers C, Quan L, Yi G, et al (2022)

CRISPR Gene Editing Tool for MicroRNA Cluster Network Analysis.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important cellular regulators (tumor suppressors, pro-oncogenic factors) of cancer and metastasis. Most published studies focus on a single miRNA when characterizing the role of small RNAs in cancer. However, ~30% of human miRNA genes are organized in clustered units that are often co-expressed, indicating a complex and coordinated system of noncoding RNA regulation. A clearer understating of how clustered miRNA networks function cooperatively to regulate tumor growth, cancer aggressiveness, and drug resistance is required before translating noncoding small RNAs to the clinic. The use of a high-throughput clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated gene editing procedure has been employed to study the oncogenic role of a genomic cluster of seven miRNA genes located within a locus spanning ~35,000 bp in length in the context of prostate cancer. For this approach, human cancer cell lines were infected with a lentivirus vector for doxycycline (DOX)-inducible Cas9 nuclease grown in DOX-containing medium for 48 h. The cells were subsequently co-transfected with synthetic trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA) complexed with genomic site-specific CRISPR RNA (crRNA) oligonucleotides to allow the rapid generation of cancer cell lines carrying the entire miRNA cluster deletion and individual or combination miRNA gene cluster deletions within a single experiment. The advantages of this high-throughput gene editing system are the ability to avoid time-consuming DNA vector subcloning, the flexibility in transfecting cells with unique guide RNA combinations in a 24-well format, and the lower-cost PCR genotyping using crude cell lysates. Studies using this streamlined approach promise to uncover functional redundancies and synergistic/antagonistic interactions between miRNA cluster members, which will aid in characterizing the complex small noncoding RNA networks involved in human disease and better inform future therapeutic design.

RevDate: 2022-05-10

Raza SHA, Hassanin AA, Pant SD, et al (2022)

Potentials, prospects and applications of genome editing technologies in livestock production.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 29(4):1928-1935.

In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in genome editing applications using new programmable DNA nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 system (CRISPR/Cas9). These genome editing tools are capable of nicking DNA precisely by targeting specific sequences, and enable the addition, removal or substitution of nucleotides via double-stranded breakage at specific genomic loci. CRISPR/Cas system, one of the most recent genome editing tools, affords the ability to efficiently generate multiple genomic nicks in single experiment. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas systems are relatively easy and cost effective when compared to other genome editing technologies. This is in part because CRISPR/Cas systems rely on RNA-DNA binding, unlike other genome editing tools that rely on protein-DNA interactions, which affords CRISPR/Cas systems higher flexibility and more fidelity. Genome editing tools have significantly contributed to different aspects of livestock production such as disease resistance, improved performance, alterations of milk composition, animal welfare and biomedicine. However, despite these contributions and future potential, genome editing technologies also have inherent risks, and therefore, ethics and social acceptance are crucial factors associated with implementation of these technologies. This review emphasizes the impact of genome editing technologies in development of livestock breeding and production in numerous species such as cattle, pigs, sheep and goats. This review also discusses the mechanisms behind genome editing technologies, their potential applications, risks and associated ethics that should be considered in the context of livestock.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Cassidy AM, Kuliyev E, Thomas DB, et al (2022)

Dissecting protein function in vivo: Engineering allelic series in mice using CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

Methods in enzymology, 667:775-812.

Allelic series are extremely valuable genetic tools to study gene function and identify essential structural features of gene products. In mice, allelic series have been engineered using conventional gene targeting in embryonic stem cells or chemical mutagenesis. While these approaches have provided valuable information about the function of genes, they remain cumbersome. Modern approaches such as CRISPR-Cas9 technologies now allow for the precise and cost-effective generation of mouse models with specific mutations, facilitating the development of allelic series. Here, we describe procedures for the generation of three types of mutations used to dissect protein function in vivo using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. This step-by-step protocol describes the generation of missense mutations, large in-frame deletions, and insertions of genetic material using SCY1-like 1 (Scyl1) as a model gene.

RevDate: 2022-05-11
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Jacobsen AV, JM Murphy (2022)

CRISPR deletions in cell lines for reconstitution studies of pseudokinase function.

Methods in enzymology, 667:229-273.

The non-catalytic cousins of protein kinases, the pseudokinases, have grown to prominence as indispensable signaling entities over the past decade, despite their lack of catalytic activity. Because their importance has only been fully embraced recently, many of the 10% of the human kinome categorized as pseudokinases are yet to be attributed biological functions. The advent of CRISPR-Cas9 editing to genetically delete pseudokinases in a cell line of interest has proven invaluable to dissecting many functions and remains the method of choice for gene knockout. Here, using the terminal effector pseudokinase in the necroptosis cell death pathway, MLKL, as an exemplar, we describe a method for genetic knockout of pseudokinases in cultured cells. This method does not retain the CRISPR guide sequence in the edited cells, which eliminates possible interference in subsequent reconstitution studies where mutant forms of the pseudokinase can be reintroduced into cells exogenously for detailed mechanistic characterization.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Zhou S, Kalds P, Luo Q, et al (2022)

Optimized Cas9:sgRNA delivery efficiently generates biallelic MSTN knockout sheep without affecting meat quality.

BMC genomics, 23(1):348.

BACKGROUND: CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-editing systems have been used to efficiently engineer livestock species with precise genetic alterations intended for biomedical and agricultural applications. Previously, we have successfully generated gene-edited sheep and goats via one-cell-stage embryonic microinjection of a Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) mixture. However, most gene-edited animals produced using this approach were heterozygotes. Additionally, non-homozygous gene-editing outcomes may not fully generate the desired phenotype in an efficient manner.

RESULTS: We report the optimization of a Cas9 mRNA-sgRNA delivery system to efficiently generate homozygous myostatin (MSTN) knockout sheep for improved growth and meat production. Firstly, an sgRNA selection software (sgRNAcas9) was used to preliminarily screen for highly efficient sgRNAs. Ten sgRNAs targeting the MSTN gene were selected and validated in vitro using sheep fibroblast cells. Four out of ten sgRNAs (two in exon 1 and two in exon 2) showed a targeting efficiency > 50%. To determine the optimal CRISPR/Cas9 microinjection concentration, four levels of Cas9 mRNA and three levels of sgRNAs in mixtures were injected into sheep embryos. Microinjection of 100 ng/μL Cas9 mRNA and 200 ng/μL sgRNAs resulted in the most improved targeting efficiency. Additionally, using both the highly efficient sgRNAs and the optimal microinjection concentration, MSTN-knockout sheep were generated with approximately 50% targeting efficiency, reaching a homozygous knockout efficiency of 25%. Growth rate and meat quality of MSTN-edited lambs were also investigated. MSTN-knockout lambs exhibited increased body weight and average daily gain. Moreover, pH, drip loss, intramuscular fat, crude protein, and shear force of gluteal muscles of MSTN-knockout lambs did not show changes compared to the wild-type lambs.

CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of in vitro evaluation for the optimization of sgRNAs and microinjection dosage of gene editing reagents. This approach enabled efficient engineering of homozygous knockout sheep. Additionally, this study confirms that MSTN-knockout lambs does not negatively impact meat quality, thus supporting the adoption of gene editing as tool to improve productivity of farm animals.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Després PC, Dubé AK, Yachie N, et al (2022)

High-Throughput Gene Mutagenesis Screening Using Base Editing.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2477:331-348.

Base editing is a CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering tool that allows programmable mutagenesis without the creation of double-stranded breaks. Here, we describe the design and execution of large-scale base editing screens using the Target-AID base editor in yeast. Using this approach, thousands of sites can be mutated simultaneously. The effects of these mutations on fitness can be measured using a pooled growth competition assay followed by DNA sequencing of gRNAs as barcodes.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Dubé AK, Dandage R, Dibyachintan S, et al (2022)

Deep Mutational Scanning of Protein-Protein Interactions Between Partners Expressed from Their Endogenous Loci In Vivo.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2477:237-259.

Deep mutational scanning (DMS) generates mutants of a protein of interest in a comprehensive manner. CRISPR-Cas9 technology enables large-scale genome editing with high efficiency. Using both DMS and CRISPR-Cas9 therefore allows us to investigate the effects of thousands of mutations inserted directly in the genome. Combined with protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA), which enables the quantitative measurement of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in vivo, these methods allow for the systematic assessment of the effects of mutations on PPIs in living cells. Here, we describe a method leveraging DMS, CRISPR-Cas9, and PCA to study the effect of point mutations on PPIs mediated by protein domains in yeast.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Chhun A, F Alberti (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9-Based Methods for Inactivating Actinobacterial Biosynthetic Genes and Elucidating Function.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2489:201-222.

The CRISPR/Cas9 technology allows fast and marker-less genome engineering that can be employed to study secondary metabolism in actinobacteria. Here, we report a standard experimental protocol for the deletion of a biosynthetic gene in a Streptomyces species, using the vector pCRISPomyces-2 developed by Huimin Zhao and collaborators. We also describe how carrying out metabolite analysis can reveal the putative biosynthetic function of the inactivated gene.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Massicard JM, Su L, Jacob C, et al (2022)

Engineering Modular Polyketide Biosynthesis in Streptomyces Using CRISPR/Cas: A Practical Guide.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2489:173-200.

The CRISPR/Cas system, which has been widely applied to organisms ranging from microbes to animals, is currently being adapted for use in Streptomyces bacteria. In this case, it is notably applied to rationally modify the biosynthetic pathways giving rise to the polyketide natural products, which are heavily exploited in the medical and agricultural arenas. Our aim here is to provide the potential user with a practical guide to exploit this approach for manipulating polyketide biosynthesis, by treating key experimental aspects including vector choice, design of the basic engineering components, and trouble-shooting.

RevDate: 2022-05-10
CmpDate: 2022-05-10

Matozel EK, Parziale S, AC Price (2022)

A programmable DNA roadblock system using dCas9 and multivalent target sites.

PloS one, 17(5):e0268099.

A protein roadblock forms when a protein binds DNA and hinders translocation of other DNA binding proteins. These roadblocks can have significant effects on gene expression and regulation as well as DNA binding. Experimental methods for studying the effects of such roadblocks often target endogenous sites or introduce non-variable specific sites into DNAs to create binding sites for artificially introduced protein roadblocks. In this work, we describe a method to create programmable roadblocks using dCas9, a cleavage deficient mutant of the CRISPR effector nuclease Cas9. The programmability allows us to custom design target sites in a synthetic gene intended for in vitro studies. These target sites can be coded with multivalency-in our case, internal restriction sites which can be used in validation studies to verify complete binding of the roadblock. We provide full protocols and sequences and demonstrate how to use the internal restriction sites to verify complete binding of the roadblock. We also provide example results of the effect of DNA roadblocks on the translocation of the restriction endonuclease NdeI, which searches for its cognate site using one dimensional diffusion along DNA.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Shor O, Rabinowitz R, Offen D, et al (2022)

Computational normal mode analysis accurately replicates the activity and specificity profiles of CRISPR-Cas9 and high-fidelity variants.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 20:2013-2019.

The CRISPR-Cas system has transformed the field of gene-editing and created opportunities for novel genome engineering therapeutics. The field has significantly progressed, and recently, CRISPR-Cas9 was utilized in clinical trials to target disease-causing mutations. Existing tools aim to predict the on-target efficacy and potential genome-wide off-targets by scoring a particular gRNA according to an array of gRNA design principles or machine learning algorithms based on empirical results of large numbers of gRNAs. However, such tools are unable to predict the editing outcome by variant Cas enzymes and can only assess potential off-targets related to reference genomes. Here, we employ normal mode analysis (NMA) to investigate the structure of the Cas9 protein complexed with its gRNA and target DNA and explore the function of the protein. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of NMA to predict the activity and specificity of SpyCas9 in the presence of mismatches by comparison to empirical data. Furthermore, despite the absence of their exact structures, this method accurately predicts the enzymatic activity of known high-fidelity engineered Cas9 variants.

RevDate: 2022-05-09
CmpDate: 2022-05-09

Li R, Klingbeil O, Monducci D, et al (2022)

Comparative optimization of combinatorial CRISPR screens.

Nature communications, 13(1):2469.

Combinatorial CRISPR technologies have emerged as a transformative approach to systematically probe genetic interactions and dependencies of redundant gene pairs. However, the performance of different functional genomic tools for multiplexing sgRNAs vary widely. Here, we generate and benchmark ten distinct pooled combinatorial CRISPR libraries targeting paralog pairs to optimize digenic knockout screens. Libraries composed of dual Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (spCas9), orthogonal spCas9 and Staphylococcus aureus (saCas9), and enhanced Cas12a from Acidaminococcus were evaluated. We demonstrate a combination of alternative tracrRNA sequences from spCas9 consistently show superior effect size and positional balance between the sgRNAs as a robust combinatorial approach to profile genetic interactions of multiple genes.

RevDate: 2022-05-09
CmpDate: 2022-05-09

Taylor JH, Walton JC, McCann KE, et al (2022)

CRISPR-Cas9 editing of the arginine-vasopressin V1a receptor produces paradoxical changes in social behavior in Syrian hamsters.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(19):e2121037119.

SignificanceArginine-vasopressin (AVP) acting on V1a receptors (Avpr1as) represents a key signaling mechanism in a brain circuit that increases the expression of social communication and aggression. We produced Syrian hamsters that completely lack Avpr1as (Avpr1a knockout [KO] hamsters) using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to more fully examine the role of Avpr1a in the expression of social behaviors. We confirmed the absence of Avpr1as in these hamsters by demonstrating 1) a complete lack of Avpr1a-specific receptor binding throughout the brain, 2) a behavioral insensitivity to centrally administered AVP, and 3) an absence of the well-known blood-pressure response produced by activating Avpr1as. Unexpectedly, however, Avpr1a KO hamsters displayed more social communication behavior and aggression toward same-sex conspecifics than did their wild-type (WT) littermates.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Wang DX, Wang YX, Wang J, et al (2022)

MnO2 nanosheets as a carrier and accelerator for improved live-cell biosensing application of CRISPR/Cas12a.

Chemical science, 13(15):4364-4371.

Besides gene-editing, the CRISPR/Cas12a system has also been widely used in in vitro biosensing, but its applications in live-cell biosensing are rare. One reason is lacking appropriate carriers to synchronously deliver all components of the CRISPR/Cas12a system into living cells. Herein, we demonstrate that MnO2 nanosheets are an excellent carrier of CRISPR/Cas12a due to the two important roles played by them. Through a simple mixing operation, all components of the CRISPR/Cas12a system can be loaded on MnO2 nanosheets and thus synchronously delivered into cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH)-induced decomposition of MnO2 nanosheets not only results in the rapid release of the CRISPR/Cas12a system in cells but also provides Mn2+ as an accelerator to promote CRISPR/Cas12a-based biosensing of intracellular targets. Due to the merits of highly efficient delivery, rapid intracellular release, and the accelerated signal output reaction, MnO2 nanosheets work better than commercial liposome carriers in live-cell biosensing analysis of survivin messenger RNA (mRNA), producing much brighter fluorescence images in a shorter time. The use of MnO2 nanosheets might provide a good carrier for different CRISPR/Cas systems and achieve the rapid and sensitive live-cell biosensing analysis of different intracellular targets, thus paving a promising way to promote the applications of CRISPR/Cas systems in living cells.

RevDate: 2022-05-07

Ebrahimi S, Khanbabaei H, Abbasi S, et al (2022)

CRISPR-Cas System: A Promising Diagnostic Tool for Covid-19.

Avicenna journal of medical biotechnology, 14(1):3-9.

More than a year has passed since the beginning of the 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) pandemic which has created massive problems globally affecting all aspects of people's life. Due to the emergence of new strains of the SARS-CoV-2, pandemic risk still remains, despite the start of vaccination. Therefore, rapid diagnostic tests are essential to control infection, improve clinical care and stop the spread of the disease. Recently CRISPR-based diagnostic tools have facilitated rapid diagnostic. Here, we review the diagnostic applications of CRISPR-Cas system in COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-05-08
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Shojaei Baghini S, Gardanova ZR, Abadi SAH, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9 application in cancer therapy: a pioneering genome editing tool.

Cellular & molecular biology letters, 27(1):35.

The progress of genetic engineering in the 1970s brought about a paradigm shift in genome editing technology. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a flexible means to target and modify particular DNA sequences in the genome. Several applications of CRISPR/Cas9 are presently being studied in cancer biology and oncology to provide vigorous site-specific gene editing to enhance its biological and clinical uses. CRISPR's flexibility and ease of use have enabled the prompt achievement of almost any preferred alteration with greater efficiency and lower cost than preceding modalities. Also, CRISPR/Cas9 technology has recently been applied to improve the safety and efficacy of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies and defeat tumor cell resistance to conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The current review summarizes the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in cancer therapy. We also discuss the present obstacles and contemplate future possibilities in this context.

RevDate: 2022-05-08
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Trung NT, Son LHP, Hien TX, et al (2022)

CRISPR-Cas12a combination to alleviate the false-positive in loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based diagnosis of Neisseria meningitidis.

BMC infectious diseases, 22(1):429.

BACKGROUND: Loop isothermal amplification (LAMP) has recently been proposed as a point-of-care diagnostic tool to detect acute infectious pathogens; however, this technique embeds risk of generating false-positive results. Whereas, with abilities to accurately recognize specific sequence, the CRISPR/Cas12a can forms complexes with cognate RNA sensors and cleave pathogen's DNA targets complimerntary to its cognate RNA, afterward acquiring the collateral activity to unbiasedly cut nearby off-target fragments. Therefore, if relevant fluorescent-quencher-nucleic probes are present in the reaction, the non-specific cleavage of probes releases fluorescences and establish diagnostic read-outs.

METHODS: The MetA gene of N. meningitidis was selected as target to optimize the LAMP reaction, whereas pseudo-dilution series of N. meningitidis gemonics DNA was used to establish the detection limit of LAMP/Cas12a combination assay. The diagnostic performance of established LAMP/Cas12a combination assay was validated in comparation with standard real-time PCR on 51 CSF samples (14 N. meningitidis confirmed patients and 37 control subjects).

RESULTS: In relevant biochemical conditions, CRISPR-Cas12a and LAMP can work synchronously to accurately identify genetics materials of Nesseria menitigistis at the level 40 copies/reaction less than 2 h.

CONCLUSIONS: In properly optimized conditions, the CRISPR-Cas12a system helps to alleviate false positive result hence enhancing the specificity of the LAMP assays.

RevDate: 2022-05-08
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Mac Kain A, Maarifi G, Aicher SM, et al (2022)

Identification of DAXX as a restriction factor of SARS-CoV-2 through a CRISPR/Cas9 screen.

Nature communications, 13(1):2442.

Interferon restricts SARS-CoV-2 replication in cell culture, but only a handful of Interferon Stimulated Genes with antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 have been identified. Here, we describe a functional CRISPR/Cas9 screen aiming at identifying SARS-CoV-2 restriction factors. We identify DAXX, a scaffold protein residing in PML nuclear bodies known to limit the replication of DNA viruses and retroviruses, as a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV replication in human cells. Basal expression of DAXX is sufficient to limit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, and DAXX over-expression further restricts infection. DAXX restricts an early, post-entry step of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. DAXX-mediated restriction of SARS-CoV-2 is independent of the SUMOylation pathway but dependent on its D/E domain, also necessary for its protein-folding activity. SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers the re-localization of DAXX to cytoplasmic sites and promotes its degradation. Mechanistically, this process is mediated by the viral papain-like protease (PLpro) and the proteasome. Together, these results demonstrate that DAXX restricts SARS-CoV-2, which in turn has evolved a mechanism to counteract its action.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Desjardins J, Cowan M, Y Yamanaka (2022)

Designing Genetically Engineered Mouse Models (GEMMs) Using CRISPR Mediated Genome Editing.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2429:515-531.

Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are very powerful tools to study lineage hierarchy and cellular dynamics of stem cells in vivo. Stem cell behavior in various contexts such as development, normal homeostasis and diseases have been investigated using GEMMs. The strategies to generate GEMMs have drastically changed in the last decade with the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for manipulation of the mammalian genome. The advantages of the CRISPR/Cas9 are its simplicity and efficiency. The bioinformatics tools available now allow us to quickly identify appropriate guide RNAs and design experimental conditions to generate the targeted mutation. In addition, the genome can be manipulated directly in the zygote which reduces the time to modify target genes compared to other technologies such as Embryonic Stem (ES) cells. Equally important is that we can manipulate the genome of any mouse background with the CRISPR/Cas9 system which omits time-consuming backcrossing processes, accelerates research and increases flexibility. Here, we will summarize basic allelic types and our standard strategies of how to generate them.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Ford MJ, Y Yamanaka (2022)

Reprogramming Mouse Oviduct Epithelial Cells Using In Vivo Electroporation and CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genetic Manipulation.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2429:367-377.

Advances in gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 have made precise in vivo gene editing possible, opening up avenues of research into somatic cell reprograming to study adult stem cells, homeostasis, and malignant transformation. Here we describe a method for CRISPR/Cas9 mediated in vivo gene editing, in combination with Cre-based lineage tracing via electroporation in the mouse oviduct. This method facilitates the delivery of multiple plasmids into oviduct epithelial cells, sufficient for studying homeostasis and generation of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) models.

RevDate: 2022-05-09
CmpDate: 2022-05-09

Devaraju N, Rajendiran V, Ravi NS, et al (2022)

Genome Engineering of Hematopoietic Stem Cells Using CRISPR/Cas9 System.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2429:307-331.

Ex vivo genetic manipulation of autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is a viable strategy for the treatment of hematologic and primary immune disorders. Targeted genome editing of HSPCs using the CRISPR-Cas9 system provides an effective platform to edit the desired genomic locus for therapeutic purposes with minimal off-target effects. In this chapter, we describe the detailed methodology for the CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene knockout, deletion, addition, and correction in human HSPCs by viral and nonviral approaches. We also present a comprehensive protocol for the analysis of genome modified HSPCs toward the erythroid and megakaryocyte lineage in vitro and the long-term multilineage reconstitution capacity in the recently developed NBSGW mouse model that supports human erythropoiesis.

RevDate: 2022-05-06
CmpDate: 2022-05-06

Park SH, Lee CM, G Bao (2022)

Identification and Validation of CRISPR/Cas9 Off-Target Activity in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2429:281-306.

Targeted genome editing in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) using CRISPR/Cas9 can potentially provide a permanent cure for hematologic diseases. However, the utility of CRISPR/Cas9 systems for therapeutic genome editing can be compromised by their off-target effects. In this chapter, we outline the procedures for CRISPR/Cas9 off-target identification and validation in HSPCs. This method is broadly applicable to diverse CRISPR/Cas9 systems and cell types. Using this protocol, researchers can perform computational prediction and experimental identification of potential off-target sites followed by off-target activity quantification by next-generation sequencing.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Kever L, Hardy A, Luthe T, et al (2022)

Aminoglycoside Antibiotics Inhibit Phage Infection by Blocking an Early Step of the Infection Cycle.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

In response to viral predation, bacteria have evolved a wide range of defense mechanisms, which rely mostly on proteins acting at the cellular level. Here, we show that aminoglycosides, a well-known class of antibiotics produced by Streptomyces, are potent inhibitors of phage infection in widely divergent bacterial hosts. We demonstrate that aminoglycosides block an early step of the viral life cycle, prior to genome replication. Phage inhibition was also achieved using supernatants from natural aminoglycoside producers, indicating a broad physiological significance of the antiviral properties of aminoglycosides. Strikingly, we show that acetylation of the aminoglycoside antibiotic apramycin abolishes its antibacterial effect but retains its antiviral properties. Altogether, our study expands the knowledge of aminoglycoside functions, suggesting that aminoglycosides not only are used by their producers as toxic molecules against their bacterial competitors but also could provide protection against the threat of phage predation at the community level. IMPORTANCE Predation by phages is a major driver of bacterial evolution. As a result, elucidating antiphage strategies is crucial from both fundamental and therapeutic standpoints. While protein-mediated defense mechanisms, like restriction-modification systems or CRISPR/Cas, have been extensively studied, much less is known about the potential antiphage activity of small molecules. Focusing on the model bacteria Escherichia coli and Streptomyces venezuelae, our findings revealed significant antiphage properties of aminoglycosides, a major class of translation-targeting antibiotics produced by Streptomyces. Further, we demonstrate that supernatants from natural aminoglycoside producers protect bacteria from phage propagation, highlighting the physiological relevance of this inhibition. Suppression of phage infection by aminoglycosides did not result from the indirect inhibition of bacterial translation, suggesting a direct interaction between aminoglycosides and phage components. This work highlights the molecular versatility of aminoglycosides, which have evolved to efficiently block protein synthesis in bacterial competitors and provide protection against phages.

RevDate: 2022-05-13
CmpDate: 2022-05-05

Kalafati E, Papanikolaou E, Marinos E, et al (2022)

Mimiviruses: Giant viruses with novel and intriguing features (Review).

Molecular medicine reports, 25(6):.

The Mimivirus is a giant virus that infects amoebae and was long considered to be a bacterium due to its size. The viral particles are composed of a protein capsid of ~500 nm in diameter, which is enclosed in a polysaccharide layer in which ~120‑140 nm long fibers are embedded, resulting in an overall diameter of 700 nm. The virus has a genome size of 1.2 Mb DNA, and surprisingly, replicates only in the cytoplasm of the infected cells without entering the nucleus, which is a unique characteristic among DNA viruses. Their existence is undeniable; however, as with any novel discovery, there is still uncertainty concerning their pathogenicity mechanisms in humans and the nature of the Mimivirus virophage resistance element system (MIMIVIRE), a term given to describe the immune network of the Mimivirus, which closely resembles the CRISPR‑Cas system. The scope of the present review is to discuss the recent developments derived from structural and functional studies performed on the distinctive characteristics of the Mimivirus, and from studies concerning their putative clinical relevance in humans.

RevDate: 2022-05-08
CmpDate: 2022-05-05

Warmt C, Yaslanmaz C, J Henkel (2022)

Investigation and validation of labelling loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) products with different nucleotide modifications for various downstream analysis.

Scientific reports, 12(1):7137.

Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is one of the best known and most popular isothermal amplification methods. It's simplicity and speed make the method particularly suitable for point-of-care diagnostics. Nevertheless, false positive results remain a major drawback. Many (downstream) applications are known for the detection of LAMP amplicons like colorimetric assays, in-situ LAMP or CRISPR-Cas systems. Often, modifications of the LAMP products are necessary for different detection applications such as lateral flow assays. This is usually achieved with pre-modified primer. The aim of this study is to evaluate amplicon labelling with different modified nucleotides such as Cy5-dUTP, biotin-dUTP and aminoallyl-dUTP as an alternative to pre-labelled primers. To realise this, the effects on amplification and labelling efficiency were studied as a function of molecule size and nucleotide amount as well as target concentration. This research shows that diverse labelling of LAMP amplicons can be achieved using different, modified nucleotides during LAMP and that these samples can be analysed by a wide range of downstream applications such as fluorescence spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, microarrays and lateral flow systems. Furthermore, microarray-based detection and the ability to identify and distinguish false positives were demonstrated as proof of concept.

RevDate: 2022-05-08
CmpDate: 2022-05-05

Sommerkamp P, Sommerkamp AC, Zeisberger P, et al (2022)

CRISPR-Cas9 mediated generation of a conditional poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (Pabpn1) mouse model reveals an essential role for hematopoietic stem cells.

Scientific reports, 12(1):7181.

Poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) is known for its role in poly(A) tail addition and regulation of poly(A) tail length. In addition, it has been shown to be involved in alternative polyadenylation (APA). APA is a process regulating differential selection of polyadenylation sites, thereby influencing protein isoform expression and 3'-UTR make-up. In this study, we generated an inducible Pabpn1flox/flox mouse model using crRNA-tracrRNA:Cas9 complexes targeting upstream and downstream genomic regions, respectively, in combination with a long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) template. We performed extensive in vitro testing of various guide RNAs (gRNAs) to optimize recombination efficiency for in vivo application. Pabpn1flox/flox mice were generated and crossed to MxCre mice for validation experiments, allowing the induction of Cre expression in the bone marrow (BM) by poly(I:C) (pIC) injections. Validation experiments revealed successful deletion of Pabpn1 and absence of PABPN1 protein. Functionally, knockout (KO) of Pabpn1 led to a rapid and robust depletion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) as well as myeloid cells, suggesting an essential role of Pabpn1 in the hematopoietic lineage. Overall, the mouse model allows an inducible in-depth in vivo analysis of the role of PABPN1 and APA regulation in different tissues and disease settings.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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By delivering the Cas9 nuclease, complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be precisely cut at any desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. That is, the CRISPR-Cas system provides a tool for the cut-and-paste editing of genomes. Welcome to the brave new world of genome editing. R. Robbins

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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