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08 Feb 2023 at 01:43
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Bibliography on: CRISPR-Cas


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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of "spacer DNA" from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g a virus or plasmid). The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, and food crops. The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "CRISPR.CAS" OR "crispr/cas" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-02-06

Sha Y, Liu W, Tang S, et al (2023)

TENT5D disruption causes oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and male infertility.

Andrology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) is one of the most complex aggregators of male gametic problems. However, the genetic etiology of OAT is still largely unknown.

OBJECTIVES: To reveal the new genetic factors responsible for male infertility owning to OAT and reveal the outcomes of the affected patients from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two infertile men with typical OAT were recruited in 2018 and retrospected a cohort that included 47 patients with OAT from 2013 to 2021. Fifty healthy men with proven fertility served as control subjects. Whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing to identify the novel pathogenic variants. In silico analysis revealed the affecting of the variants. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe the morphological defects of the spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence was used to analyze the expression and localization of the related protein. CRISPR/Cas 9 was used to generate the mouse model. ICSI was used as a treatment for the patients and to assess the effects of the pathogenic variant on fertilization and embryo development.

RESULTS: We identified a loss-of-function mutation NM_001170574.2:c.823G>T (p.Glu275*) in X-linked TENT5D from two patients with OAT. This variant is highly deleterious and has not been found in the human population. The count of patients' spermatozoa is dramatically decreased and displays multiple morphologic abnormalities with poor motility. Tent5d knockout mice are infertile and exhibit parallel defects. ICSI could rescue the infertility of the Tent5d knockout male mice. Moreover, the proband was treated with ICSI and achieved a successful pregnancy outcome for the first time. Subsequent mutation screening identified no TENT5D mutations among 47 additional patients with OAT and fifty control subjects.

CONCLUSION: Mutation in TENT5D results in OAT and male infertility, and this terrible situation could be rescued by ICSI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Chang HY, LS Qi (2023)

Reversing the Central Dogma: RNA-guided control of DNA in epigenetics and genome editing.

Molecular cell, 83(3):442-451.

The Central Dogma of the flow of genetic information is arguably the crowning achievement of 20[th] century molecular biology. Reversing the flow of information from RNA to DNA or chromatin has come to the fore in recent years, from the convergence of fundamental discoveries and synthetic biology. Inspired by the example of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mammalian genomes that direct chromatin modifications and gene expression, synthetic biologists have repurposed prokaryotic RNA-guided genome defense systems such as CRISPR to edit eukaryotic genomes and epigenomes. Here we explore the parallels of these two fields and highlight opportunities for synergy and future breakthroughs.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Bui M, Dalla Benetta E, Dong Y, et al (2023)

CRISPR mediated transactivation in the human disease vector Aedes aegypti.

PLoS pathogens, 19(1):e1010842.

As a major insect vector of multiple arboviruses, Aedes aegypti poses a significant global health and economic burden. A number of genetic engineering tools have been exploited to understand its biology with the goal of reducing its impact. For example, current tools have focused on knocking-down RNA transcripts, inducing loss-of-function mutations, or expressing exogenous DNA. However, methods for transactivating endogenous genes have not been developed. To fill this void, here we developed a CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) system in Ae. aegypti to transactivate target gene expression. Gene expression is activated through pairing a catalytically-inactive ('dead') Cas9 (dCas9) with a highly-active tripartite activator, VP64-p65-Rta (VPR) and synthetic guide RNA (sgRNA) complementary to a user defined target-gene promoter region. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that engineered Ae. aegypti mosquitoes harboring a binary CRISPRa system can be used to effectively overexpress two developmental genes, even-skipped (eve) and hedgehog (hh), resulting in observable morphological phenotypes. We also used this system to overexpress the positive transcriptional regulator of the Toll immune pathway known as AaRel1, which resulted in a significant suppression of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) titers in the mosquito. This system provides a versatile tool for research pathways not previously possible in Ae. aegypti, such as programmed overexpression of endogenous genes, and may aid in gene characterization studies and the development of innovative vector control tools.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Lahr WS, Sipe CJ, Skeate JG, et al (2023)

CRISPR-Cas9 base editors and their current role in human therapeutics.

Cytotherapy, 25(3):270-276.

BACKGROUND: Consistent progress has been made to create more efficient and useful CRISPR-Cas9-based molecular toolsfor genomic modification.

METHODS: This review focuses on recent articles that have employed base editors (BEs) for both clinical and research purposes.

RESULTS: CRISPR-Cas9 BEs are a useful system because of their highefficiency and broad applicability to gene correction and disruption. In addition, base editing has beensuggested as a safer approach than other CRISPR-Cas9-based systems, as it limits double-strand breaksduring multiplex gene knockout and does not require a toxic DNA donor molecule for genetic correction.

CONCLUSION: As such, numerous industry and academic groups are currently developing base editing strategies withclinical applications in cancer immunotherapy and gene therapy, which this review will discuss, with a focuson current and future applications of in vivo BE delivery.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Augustin L, N Agarwal (2023)

Designing a Cas9/gRNA-assisted quantitative Real-Time PCR (CARP) assay for identification of point mutations leading to rifampicin resistance in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Gene, 857:147173.

A simple, rapid and low-cost diagnostic test, which can detect both the drug-sensitive and the drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) cases is the need of the hour. Here, we developed a Cas9/gRNA-assisted quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) (CARP) assay to detect single nucleotide mutations causing drug resistance in the TB pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Guide RNAs (gRNAs) were designed against S531 and H526 positions in the rifampicin (RIF)-resistance-determining region (RRDR) of the Mtb rpoB gene that exhibit frequent mutations in the RR clinical isolates of Mtb. Conditions were optimised for in vitro Cas9 cleavage such that single nucleotide changes at these positions can be recognised by Cas9/gRNA complex with high sensitivity and 100% specificity. Further estimation of Cas9/gRNA-based cleavage of target DNA by qRT-PCR led to rapid detection of drug-resistant sequences. The newly designed CARP assay holds a great deal of promise in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients suffering from TB, in a cost-effective manner.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Ugalde L, Fañanas S, Torres R, et al (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing. A promising strategy in hematological disorders.

Cytotherapy, 25(3):277-285.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has revolutionized the gene editing field, making it possible to interrupt, insert or replace a sequence of interest with high precision in the human genome. Its easy design and wide applicability open up a variety of therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of genetic diseases. Indeed, very promising approaches for the correction of hematological disorders have been developed in the recent years, based on the self-renewal and multipotent differentiation properties of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which make this cell subset the ideal target for gene therapy purposes. This technology has been applied in different congenital blood disorders, such as primary immunodeficiencies, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked chronic granulomatous disease or Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, such as Fanconi anemia, congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia or severe congenital neutropenia. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing has been implemented successfully as a novel therapy for cancer immunotherapy, by the development of promising strategies such as the use of oncolytic viruses or adoptive cellular therapy to the chimeric antigen receptor-T-cell therapy. Therefore, considering the variety of genes and mutations affected, we can take advantage of the different DNA repair mechanisms by CRISPR/Cas9 in different manners, from homology-directed repair to non-homologous-end-joining to the latest emerging technologies such as base and prime editing. Although the delivery systems into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are still the bottleneck of this technology, some of the advances in genome editing shown in this review have already reached a clinical stage and show very promising preliminary results.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Yang T, Curtis S, Bai A, et al (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9 targeting liposomes knocked down multidrug resistance proteins in brain endothelial cells as a model to predict potential pharmacoresistance.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 222:113103.

This investigation aimed to use CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing to knock down P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and then establish a feasible cell line to evaluate the potential pharmacoresistance of therapeutic agents mediated by efflux. A cationic liposome was prepared as a "smart bomb" by conjugating with a peptide-based targeting ligand (THRPPMWSPVWP), specifically binding to transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and then formed a nanocomplex with P-gp knockdown CRISPR/Cas9 plasmid. Higher uptakes of targeted and stable liposomes in bEND.3 cells were observed compared to non-peptide conjugated ones (p < 0.05). The P-gp transporters were successfully knocked down by the cell-nontoxic CRISPR/Cas9 targeted liposomes and P-gp associated ATP activities were higher in the transfected cells (p < 0.05). Functional studies of knocked down cells were evaluated by using prototypical P-gp substrates rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin. More accumulation of rhodamine 123 and higher cytotoxic sensitivity of doxorubicin was observed in the transfected cells as compared with those in the wild-type cells.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Okita TW, M Delseny (2023)

Genome editing in plants: New advances and applications in plant biology and agriculture.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology, 328:111577.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Alkanli SS, Alkanli N, Ay A, et al (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Therapeutic Approach in Huntington's Disease.

Molecular neurobiology, 60(3):1486-1498.

The pathogenic mechanisms of these diseases must be well understood for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Huntington's disease. Huntington's Disease (HD), a dominant and neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the CAG re-expansion that occurs in the gene encoding the polyglutamine-expanded mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) protein. Genome editing approaches include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Caspase 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems. CRISPR/Cas9 technology allows effective gene editing in different cell types and organisms. Through these systems are created isogenic control of human origin induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In human and mouse models, HD-iPSC lines can be continuously corrected using these systems. HD-iPSCs can be corrected through the CRISPR/Cas9 system and the cut-and-paste mechanism using isogenic control iPSCs. This mechanism is a piggyBac transposon-based selection system that can effectively switch between vectors and chromosomes. In studies conducted, it has been determined that in neural cells derived from HD-iPSC, there are isogenic controls as corrected lines recovered from phenotypic abnormalities and gene expression changes. It has been determined that trinucleotide repeat disorders occurring in HD can be cured by single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and normal exogenous DNA restoration, known as the single guideline RNA specific to Cas9. The purpose of this review in addition to give general information about HD, a neurodegenerative disorder is to explained the role of CRISPR/Cas9 system with iPSCs in HD treatment.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Lear SK, SL Shipman (2023)

Molecular recording: transcriptional data collection into the genome.

Current opinion in biotechnology, 79:102855.

Advances in regenerative medicine depend upon understanding the complex transcriptional choreography that guides cellular development. Transcriptional molecular recorders, tools that record different transcriptional events into the genome of cells, hold promise to elucidate both the intensity and timing of transcriptional activity at single-cell resolution without requiring destructive multitime point assays. These technologies are dependent on DNA writers, which translate transcriptional signals into stable genomic mutations that encode the duration, intensity, and order of transcriptional events. In this review, we highlight recent progress toward more informative and multiplexable transcriptional recording through the use of three different types of DNA writing - recombineering, Cas1-Cas2 acquisition, and prime editing - and the architecture of the genomic data generated.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Kim S, Jeong YK, Cho CS, et al (2023)

Enhancement of Gene Editing and Base Editing with Therapeutic Ribonucleoproteins through In Vivo Delivery Based on Absorptive Silica Nanoconstruct.

Advanced healthcare materials, 12(4):e2201825.

Key to the widespread and secure application of genome editing tools is the safe and effective delivery of multiple components of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) into single cells, which remains a biological barrier to their clinical application. To overcome this issue, a robust RNP delivery platform based on a biocompatible sponge-like silica nanoconstruct (SN) for storing and directly delivering therapeutic RNPs, including Cas9 nuclease RNP (Cas9-RNP) and base editor RNP (BE-RNP) is designed. Compared with commercialized material such as lipid-based methods, up to 50-fold gene deletion and 10-fold base substitution efficiency is obtained with a low off-target efficiency by targeting various cells and genes. In particular, gene correction is successfully induced by SN-based delivery through intravenous injection in an in vivo solid-tumor model and through subretinal injection in mouse eye. Moreover, because of its low toxicity and high biodegradability, SN has negligible effect on cellular function of organs. As the engineered SN can overcome practical challenges associated with therapeutic RNP application, it is strongly expected this platform to be a modular RNPs delivery system, facilitating in vivo gene deletion and editing.

RevDate: 2023-02-07
CmpDate: 2023-02-07

Bhoopalan SV, Yen JS, Levine RM, et al (2023)

Editing human hematopoietic stem cells: advances and challenges.

Cytotherapy, 25(3):261-269.

Genome editing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is being developed for the treatment of several inherited disorders of the hematopoietic system. The adaptation of CRISPR-Cas9-based technologies to make precise changes to the genome, and developments in altering the specificity and efficiency, and improving the delivery of nucleases to target cells have led to several breakthroughs. Many clinical trials are ongoing, and several pre-clinical models have been reported that would allow these genetic therapies to one day offer a potential cure to patients with diseases where limited options currently exist. However, there remain several challenges with respect to establishing safety, expanding accessibility and improving the manufacturing processes of these therapeutic products. This review focuses on some of the recent advances in the field of genome editing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and illustrates the ongoing challenges.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Shao F, Park JS, Zhao G, et al (2023)

Elucidating the Role of CRISPR/Cas in Single-Step Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing Assays.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Developing assays that combine CRISPR/Cas and isothermal nucleic acid amplification has become a burgeoning research area due to the novelty and simplicity of CRISPR/Cas and the potential for point-of-care uses. Most current research explores various two-step assays by appending different CRISPR/Cas effectors to the end of different isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods. However, efforts in integrating both components into more ideal single-step assays are scarce, and poor-performing single-step assays have been reported. Moreover, lack of investigations into CRISPR/Cas in single-step assays results in incomplete understanding. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a systematic investigation by developing and comparing assays that share the identical recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) but differ in CRISPR/Cas12a. We found that the addition of CRISPR/Cas12a indeed unlocks signal amplification but, at the same time, impedes RPA and that CRISPR/Cas12a concentration is a key parameter for attenuating RPA impediment and ensuring assay performance. Accordingly, we found that our protospacer adjacent motif (PAM)-free CRISPR/Cas12a-assisted RPA assay, which only moderately impeded RPA at its optimal CRISPR/Cas12a concentration, outperformed its counterparts in assay design, signal, sensitivity, and speed. We also discovered that a new commercial Cas12a effector could also drive our PAM-free CRISPR/Cas12a-assisted RPA assay and reduce its cost, though simultaneously lowering its signal. Our study and the new insights can be broadly applied to steer and facilitate further advances in CRISPR/Cas-based assays.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Sun W, Zhao X, Wang J, et al (2023)

Anti-CRISPR AcrIIC5 is a dsDNA mimic that inhibits type II-C Cas9 effectors by blocking PAM recognition.

Nucleic acids research pii:7028258 [Epub ahead of print].

Anti-CRISPR proteins are encoded by phages to inhibit the CRISPR-Cas systems of the hosts. AcrIIC5 inhibits several naturally high-fidelity type II-C Cas9 enzymes, including orthologs from Neisseria meningitidis (Nme1Cas9) and Simonsiella muelleri (SmuCas9). Here, we solve the structure of AcrIIC5 in complex with Nme1Cas9 and sgRNA. We show that AcrIIC5 adopts a novel fold to mimic the size and charge distribution of double-stranded DNA, and uses its negatively charged grooves to bind and occlude the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) binding site in the target DNA cleft of Cas9. AcrIIC5 is positioned into the crevice between the WED and PI domains of Cas9, and one end of the anti-CRISPR interacts with the phosphate lock loop and a linker between the RuvC and BH domains. We employ biochemical and mutational analyses to build a model for AcrIIC5's mechanism of action, and identify residues on both the anti-CRISPR and Cas9 that are important for their interaction and inhibition. Together, the structure and mechanism of AcrIIC5 reveal convergent evolution among disparate anti-CRISPR proteins that use a DNA-mimic strategy to inhibit diverse CRISPR-Cas surveillance complexes, and provide new insights into a tool for potent inhibition of type II-C Cas9 orthologs.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Liu Z, Gao X, Kan C, et al (2023)

CRISPR-Cas13d effectively targets SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Delta and Omicron, and inhibits viral infection.

MedComm, 4(1):e208.

The recent pandemic of variants of concern (VOC) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights the need for innovative anti-SARS-CoV-2 approaches in addition to vaccines and antiviral therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate that a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy against SARS-CoV-2 can effectively degrade viral RNA. First, we conducted a cytological infection experiment, screened CRISPR-associated RNAs (crRNAs) targeting conserved regions of viruses, and used an in vitro system to validate functional crRNAs. Reprogrammed Cas13d effectors targeting NSP13, NSP14, and nucleocapsid transcripts achieved >99% silencing efficiency in human cells which are infected with coronavirus 2, including the emerging variants in the last 2 years, B.1, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), D614G B.1.351 (Beta), and B.1.617 (Delta). Furthermore, we conducted bioinformatics data analysis. We collected the sequence information of COVID-19 and its variants from China, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these crRNA oligos could target almost 100% of the SARS-CoV family, including the emerging new variant, Omicron. The reprogrammed Cas13d exhibited high specificity, efficiency, and rapid deployment properties; therefore, it is promising for antiviral drug development. This system could possibly be used to protect against unexpected SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying multiple mutations.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Zhang Y, Zhang C, Huo W, et al (2023)

An expectation-maximization algorithm for estimating proportions of deletions among bacterial populations with application to study antibiotic resistance gene transfer in Enterococcus faecalis.

Marine life science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria limits the availability of antibiotic choices for treatment and infection control, thereby representing a major threat to human health. The de novo mutation of bacterial genomes is an essential mechanism by which bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance. Previously, deletion mutations within bacterial immune systems, ranging from dozens to thousands of base pairs (bps) in length, have been associated with the spread of antibiotic resistance. Most current methods for evaluating genomic structural variations (SVs) have concentrated on detecting them, rather than estimating the proportions of populations that carry distinct SVs. A better understanding of the distribution of mutations and subpopulations dynamics in bacterial populations is needed to appreciate antibiotic resistance evolution and movement of resistance genes through populations. Here, we propose a statistical model to estimate the proportions of genomic deletions in a mixed population based on Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithms and next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The method integrates both insert size and split-read mapping information to iteratively update estimated distributions. The proposed method was evaluated with three simulations that demonstrated the production of accurate estimations. The proposed method was then applied to investigate the horizontal transfers of antibiotic resistance genes in concert with changes in the CRISPR-Cas system of E. faecalis.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42995-022-00144-z.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Anand A, Subramanian M, D Kar (2022)

Breeding techniques to dispense higher genetic gains.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1076094.

Plant breeding techniques encompass all the processes aimed at improving the genetic characteristics of a crop. It helps in achieving desirable characteristics like resistance to diseases and pests, tolerance to environmental stresses, higher yield and improved quality of the crop. This review article aims to describe and evaluate the current plant breeding techniques and novel methods. This qualitative review employs a comparative approach in exploring the different plant breeding techniques. Conventional plant breeding techniques were compared with modern ones to understand the advancements in plant biotechnology. Backcross breeding, mass selection, and pure-line selection were all discussed in conventional plant breeding for self-pollination and recurrent selection and hybridisation were employed for cross-pollinated crops. Modern techniques comprise of CRISPR Cas-9, high-throughput phenotyping, marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Further, novel techniques were reviewed to gain more insight. An in-depth analysis of conventional and modern plant breeding has helped gain insight on the advantages and disadvantages of the two. Modern breeding techniques have an upper hand as they are more reliable and less time consuming. It is also more accurate as it is a genotype-based method. However, conventional breeding techniques are cost effective and require less expertise. Modern plant breeding has an upper hand as it uses genomics techniques. Techniques like QTL mapping, marker assisted breeding aid in selection of superior plants right at the seedling stage, which is impossible with conventional breeding. Unlike the conventional method, modern methods are capable of selecting recessive alleles by using different markers. Modern plant breeding is a science and therefore more reliable and accurate.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Jiang W, Aman R, Ali Z, et al (2023)

Bio-SCAN V2: A CRISPR/dCas9-based lateral flow assay for rapid detection of theophylline.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1118684.

Rapid, specific, and robust diagnostic strategies are needed to develop sensitive biosensors for small molecule detection, which could aid in controlling contamination and disease transmission. Recently, the target-induced collateral activity of Cas nucleases [clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nucleases] was exploited to develop high-throughput diagnostic modules for detecting nucleic acids and small molecules. Here, we have expanded the diagnostic ability of the CRISPR-Cas system by developing Bio-SCAN V2, a ligand-responsive CRISPR-Cas platform for detecting non-nucleic acid small molecule targets. The Bio-SCAN V2 consists of an engineered ligand-responsive sgRNA (ligRNA), biotinylated dead Cas9 (dCas9-biotin), 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-labeled amplicons, and lateral flow assay (LFA) strips. LigRNA interacts with dCas9-biotin only in the presence of sgRNA-specific ligand molecules to make a ribonucleoprotein (RNP). Next, the ligand-induced ribonucleoprotein is exposed to FAM-labeled amplicons for binding, and the presence of the ligand (small molecule) is detected as a visual signal [(dCas9-biotin)-ligRNA-FAM labeled DNA-AuNP complex] at the test line of the lateral flow assay strip. With the Bio-SCAN V2 platform, we are able to detect the model molecule theophylline with a limit of detection (LOD) up to 2 μM in a short time, requiring only 15 min from sample application to visual readout. Taken together, Bio-SCAN V2 assay provides a rapid, specific, and ultrasensitive detection platform for theophylline.

RevDate: 2023-02-05

Das T, Anand U, Pal T, et al (2023)

Exploring the potential of CRISPR/Cas genome editing for vegetable crop improvement: An overview of challenges and approaches.

Biotechnology and bioengineering [Epub ahead of print].

Vegetables provide many nutrients in the form of fiber, vitamins and minerals, which make them an important part of our diet. Numerous biotic and abiotic stresses can affect crop growth, quality, and yield. Traditional and modern breeding strategies to improve plant traits are slow and resource intensive. Therefore, it is necessary to find new approaches for crop improvement. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) is a genome editing tool that can be used to modify targeted genes for desirable traits with greater efficiency and accuracy. By using CRISPR/Cas9 editing to precisely mutate key genes, it is possible to rapidly generate new germplasm resources for the promotion of important agronomic traits. This is made possible by the availability of whole genome sequencing data and information on the function of genes responsible for important traits. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9 systems have revolutionized agriculture, making genome editing more versatile. Currently, genome editing of vegetable crops is limited to a few vegetable varieties (tomato, sweet potato, potato, carrot, squash, eggplant, etc.) due to lack of regeneration protocols and sufficient genome sequencing data. In this article, we summarize recent studies on the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in improving vegetable trait development and the potential for future improvement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Xing W, Li Q, Han C, et al (2023)

Customization of aptamer to develop CRISPR/Cas12a-derived ultrasensitive biosensor.

Talanta, 256:124312 pii:S0039-9140(23)00063-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The CRISPR/Cas systems have provided wide biosensing applications. Particularly, the aptamer-involved CRISPR/Cas sensor system powerfully expanded to non-nucleic-acid targets. However, tailoring the sequence of the aptamer to explore the relationship between affinity and the activation of CRISPR/Cas12a trans-cleavage activity has not been reported yet. Herein, we developed a series of new aptamers toward the spike protein 1(S1) of SARS-CoV-2. Surface plasmon resonance measurements showed that the affinity of these aptamers to S1 was at the nM level. Subsequently, a "SET" effect (Sequence Essential Trans-cleavage activity) is discovered for the activation of CRISPR/Cas12a trans-cleavage activity. That is, an aptamer, as the activator, sequence needs to be tailored to activate CRISPR/Cas12a efficiently. A balance should be reached between affinity and activation ability. On the one hand, high affinity ensures target recognition performance, and on the other hand, activation can achieve adequate amplification and output of recognition signals. The optimized sequence (with 27 nucleotides, for short 27-nt) not only recognizes the target with a high affinity and specificity but also can trigger the CRISPR/Cas12a trans-cleavage activity efficiently, showing an excellent detection performance in electrochemical biosensors. The detection limit for SARS-CoV-2 S1 can be low at 1.5 pg mL[-1]. The new CRISPR/Cas12a-derived aptasensor also displays a remarkable ability to detect Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants but is selective toward other kinds of proteins. Above all, it is robust for point-of-care testing (POCT) in complex biological fluids, such as saliva, urine, and serum, and provides a universal and scalable detecting platform. Our results provide new insights into aptamer development and a different strategy for COVID-19 antigen detection and biosensor development.

RevDate: 2023-02-06
CmpDate: 2023-02-06

Tissier RLM, Schie JJMV, Wolthuis RMF, et al (2023)

ShrinkCRISPR: a flexible method for differential fitness analysis of CRISPR-Cas9 screen data.

BMC bioinformatics, 24(1):36.

BACKGROUND: CRISPR screens provide large-scale assessment of cellular gene functions. Pooled libraries typically consist of several single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) per gene, for a large number of genes, which are transduced in such a way that every cell receives at most one sgRNA, resulting in the disruption of a single gene in that cell. This approach is often used to investigate effects on cellular fitness, by measuring sgRNA abundance at different time points. Comparing gene knockout effects between different cell populations is challenging due to variable cell-type specific parameters and between replicates variation. Failure to take those into account can lead to inflated or false discoveries.

RESULTS: We propose a new, flexible approach called ShrinkCRISPR that can take into account multiple sources of variation. Impact on cellular fitness between conditions is inferred by using a mixed-effects model, which allows to test for gene-knockout effects while taking into account sgRNA-specific variation. Estimates are obtained using an empirical Bayesian approach. ShrinkCRISPR can be applied to a variety of experimental designs, including multiple factors. In simulation studies, we compared ShrinkCRISPR results with those of drugZ and MAGeCK, common methods used to detect differential effect on cell fitness. ShrinkCRISPR yielded as many true discoveries as drugZ using a paired screen design, and outperformed both drugZ and MAGeCK for an independent screen design. Although conservative, ShrinkCRISPR was the only approach that kept false discoveries under control at the desired level, for both designs. Using data from several publicly available screens, we showed that ShrinkCRISPR can take data for several time points into account simultaneously, helping to detect early and late differential effects.

CONCLUSIONS: ShrinkCRISPR is a robust and flexible approach, able to incorporate different sources of variations and to test for differential effect on cell fitness at the gene level. These improve power to find effects on cell fitness, while keeping multiple testing under the correct control level and helping to improve reproducibility. ShrinkCrispr can be applied to different study designs and incorporate multiple time points, making it a complete and reliable tool to analyze CRISPR screen data.

RevDate: 2023-02-06
CmpDate: 2023-02-06

Du X, McManus DP, French JD, et al (2022)

CRISPR interference for sequence-specific regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor A in Schistosoma mansoni.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1105719.

Employing the flatworm parasite Schistosoma mansoni as a model, we report the first application of CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) in parasitic helminths for loss-of-function studies targeting the SmfgfrA gene which encodes the stem cell marker, fibroblast growth factor receptor A (FGFRA). SmFGFRA is essential for maintaining schistosome stem cells and critical in the schistosome-host interplay. The SmfgfrA gene was targeted in S. mansoni adult worms, eggs and schistosomula using a catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) fused to a transcriptional repressor KRAB. We showed that SmfgfrA repression resulted in considerable phenotypic differences in the modulated parasites compared with controls, including reduced levels of SmfgfrA transcription and decreased protein expression of SmFGFRA, a decline in EdU (thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, which specifically stains schistosome stem cells) signal, and an increase in cell apoptosis. Notably, reduced SmfgfrA transcription was evident in miracidia hatched from SmfgfrA-repressed eggs, and resulted in a significant change in miracidial behavior, indicative of a durable repression effect caused by CRISPRi. Intravenous injection of mice with SmfgfrA-repressed eggs resulted in granulomas that were markedly reduced in size and a decline in the level of serum IgE, emphasizing the importance of SmFGFRA in regulating the host immune response induced during schistosome infection. Our findings show the feasibility of applying CRISPRi for effective, targeted transcriptional repression in schistosomes, and provide the basis for employing CRISPRi to selectively perturb gene expression in parasitic helminths on a genome-wide scale.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Yao X, Hu X, Wang X, et al (2023)

[Application of cell-free transcription and translation system in CRISPR technologies and the associated biosensors].

Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology, 39(1):86-102.

Cell-free transcription and translation (TXTL) system is a cell extract-based system for rapid in vitro protein expression. The system bypasses routine laboratory processes such as bacterial transformation, clonal screening and cell lysis, which allows more precise and convenient control of reaction substrates, reduces the impact of bacteria on protein production, and provides a high degree of versatility and flexibility. In recent years, TXTL has been widely used as an emerging platform in clusterd regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technologies, enabling more rapid and convenient characterization of CRISPR/Cas systems, including screening highly specific gRNAs as well as anti-CRISPR proteins. Furthermore, TXTL-based CRISPR biosensors combined with biological materials and gene circuits are able to detect pathogens through validation of related antibiotics and nucleic acid-based markers, respectively. The reagents can be freeze-dried to improve portability and achieve point-of-care testing with high sensitivity. In addition, combinations of the sensor with programmable circuit elements and other technologies provide a non-biological alternative to whole-cell biosensors, which can improve biosafety and accelerate its application for approval. Here, this review discusses the TXTL-based characterization of CRISPR and their applications in biosensors, to facilitate the development of TXTL-based CRISPR/Cas systems in biosensors.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Alves CRR, Ha LL, Yaworski R, et al (2023)

Base editing as a genetic treatment for spinal muscular atrophy.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating neuromuscular disease caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene. Despite the development of various therapies, outcomes can remain suboptimal in SMA infants and the duration of such therapies are uncertain. SMN2 is a paralogous gene that mainly differs from SMN1 by a C•G-to-T•A transition in exon 7, resulting in the skipping of exon 7 in most SMN2 transcripts and production of only low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Genome editing technologies targeted to the SMN2 exon 7 mutation could offer a therapeutic strategy to restore SMN protein expression to normal levels irrespective of the patient SMN1 mutation. Here, we optimized a base editing approach to precisely edit SMN2 , reverting the exon 7 mutation via an A•T-to-G•C base edit. We tested a range of different adenosine base editors (ABEs) and Cas9 enzymes, resulting in up to 99% intended editing in SMA patient-derived fibroblasts with concomitant increases in SMN2 exon 7 transcript expression and SMN protein levels. We generated and characterized ABEs fused to high-fidelity Cas9 variants which reduced potential off-target editing. Delivery of these optimized ABEs via dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors resulted in precise SMN2 editing in vivo in an SMA mouse model. This base editing approach to correct SMN2 should provide a long-lasting genetic treatment for SMA with advantages compared to current nucleic acid, small molecule, or exogenous gene replacement therapies. More broadly, our work highlights the potential of PAMless SpRY base editors to install edits efficiently and safely.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Sun W, Huang X, X Wang (2023)

[CRISPR-based molecular diagnostics: a review].

Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology, 39(1):60-73.

Rapid and accurate detection technologies are crucial for disease prevention and control. In particular, the COVID-19 pandemic has posed a great threat to our society, highlighting the importance of rapid and highly sensitive detection techniques. In recent years, CRISPR/Cas-based gene editing technique has brought revolutionary advances in biotechnology. Due to its fast, accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective characteristics, the CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection technology is revolutionizing molecular diagnosis. CRISPR-based diagnostics has been applied in many fields, such as detection of infectious diseases, genetic diseases, cancer mutation, and food safety. This review summarized the advances in CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection systems and its applications. Perspectives on intelligent diagnostics with CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection and artificial intelligence were also provided.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Zhang Y, Zhang C, Wu Y, et al (2023)

[Principle and development of single base editing technology and its application in livestock breeding].

Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology, 39(1):19-33.

CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) is widely used in the field of livestock breeding. However, its low efficiency, untargeted cutting and low safety have greatly hampered its use for introducing single base mutations in livestock breeding. Single base editing, as a new gene editing tool, can directly replace bases without introducing double strand breaks. Single base editing shows high efficiency and strong specificity, and provides a simpler and more effective method for precise gene modification in livestock breeding. This paper introduces the principle and development of single base editing technology and its application in livestock breeding.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Ayswaria R, Vijayan J, VK Nathan (2023)

Antimicrobial peptides derived from microalgae for combating antibiotic resistance: Current status and prospects.

Cell biochemistry and function [Epub ahead of print].

Microalgae are photosynthetic cell factories that produce a spectrum of bioactive compounds extensively used for various applications. Owing to the increase in antibiotic resistance among microbial pathogens, there is a significant thrust for identifying new treatment strategies, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) generation is one such method. These AMPs have multiple roles and are active against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Such peptides synthesized in microalgae have a significant role in medical application, managing aquaculture-associated diseases, and the food industry. To increase their effectiveness and novel peptides, genetically modified microalgae are used as cell factories. With the advancement of new technologies like the CRISPR-Cas system, new avenues are opened for developing novel AMPs using microalgae. This review gives us insight into the various AMPs produced by microalgae and multiple technologies involved in creating such therapeutically essential molecules.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Du Y, Ji S, Dong Q, et al (2023)

Amplification-free detection of HBV DNA mediated by CRISPR-Cas12a using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Analytica chimica acta, 1245:340864.

Nucleic acid markers have been widely used in the detection of various virus-related diseases, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is spreading worldwide. The trans-activated CRISPR-Cas system has shown excellent sensitivity and specificity in nucleic acid detection. However, nucleic acid testing usually requires amplification of the target nucleic acid for more accurate and specific detection; furthermore, current nucleic acid assays are time-consuming, costly, and are limited by non-specific cross-reactivity. We developed an amplification-free viral DNA biosensor-based diagnostic method that uses a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated system (CRISPR/Cas)-based approach with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This method can specifically identify the target site by changing the crRNA sequence. In addition, the incubation period and development of the disease can be determined by quantitative detection of viral DNA. This system could achieve rapid and highly sensitive detection of HBV DNA within 50 min and vast detection range from 0.1 pM to 1 nM. Therefore, a combined CRISPR/Cas12a-SERS-based assay would improve the sensitivity of detection in assays using multiple biomarkers. In conclusion, our CRISPR/Cas12a-based biosensor would enable rapid, simple, and sensitive detection of HBV nucleic acids.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Hwang S, Shah M, Garcia B, et al (2023)

Anti-CRISPR protein AcrIIC5 inhibits CRISPR-Cas9 by occupying the target DNA binding pocket.

Journal of molecular biology pii:S0022-2836(23)00047-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Anti-CRISPR proteins inhibit CRISPR-Cas immune systems through diverse mechanisms. Previously, the anti-CRISPR protein AcrIIC5Smu was shown to potently inhibit a type II-C Cas9 from Neisseria meningitidis (Nme1Cas9). In this work, we explore the mechanism of activity of the AcrIIC5 homologue from Neisseria chenwenguii (AcrIIC5Nch) and show that it prevents Cas9 binding to target DNA. We show that AcrIIC5Nch targets the PAM-interacting domain (PID) of Nme1Cas9 for inhibition, agreeing with previous findings for AcrIIC5Smu, and newly establish that strong binding of the anti-CRISPR requires guide RNA be pre-loaded on Cas9. We determined the crystal structure of AcrIIC5Nch using X-ray crystallography and identified amino acid residues that are critical for its function. Using a protein docking algorithm we show that AcrIIC5Nch likely occupies the Cas9 DNA binding pocket, thereby inhibiting target DNA binding through a mechanism similar to that previously described for AcrIIA2 and AcrIIA4.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Aslan A, SA Yuka (2023)

Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Approaches in Genetic Diseases.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology [Epub ahead of print].

Stem cells, which can self-renew and differentiate into different cell types, have become the keystone of regenerative medicine due to these properties. With the achievement of superior clinical results in the therapeutic approaches of different diseases, the applications of these cells in the treatment of genetic diseases have also come to the fore. Foremost, conventional approaches of stem cells to genetic diseases are the first approaches in this manner, and they have brought safety issues due to immune reactions caused by allogeneic transplantation. To eliminate these safety issues and phenotypic abnormalities caused by genetic defects, firstly, basic genetic engineering practices such as vectors or RNA modulators were combined with stem cell-based therapeutic approaches. However, due to challenges such as immune reactions and inability to target cells effectively in these applications, advanced molecular methods have been adopted in ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas genome editing nucleases, which allow modular designs in stem cell-based genetic diseases' therapeutic approaches. Current studies in genetic diseases are in the direction of creating permanent treatment regimens by genomic manipulation of stem cells with differentiation potential through genome editing tools. In this chapter, the stem cell-based therapeutic approaches of various vital genetic diseases were addressed wide range from conventional applications to genome editing tools.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Luo X, Yang Z, Zeng J, et al (2023)

Mutation of FLNA attenuating the migration of abdominal muscles contributed to Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS) in a family with recurrent miscarriage.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Filamin A, encoded by the X-linked gene FLNA, links the cell membrane with the cytoskeleton and acts as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Mutations in FLNA cause a large spectrum of congenital malformations during embryonic development, including Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). However, reports of MNS, especially in males, are rare, and the pathogenesis molecular mechanisms are not well understood.

METHODS: We found a family with two consecutive miscarriages of similar fetuses with multiple malformations. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and tissues, and whole exome sequencing was performed for genetic analysis. Then, we created a C57BL/6 mouse with a point mutation by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering. The migration of primary abdominal muscle cell was detected by wound healing assay.

RESULTS: The first fetus showed congenital hygroma colli and omphalocele identified by ultrasound at 12 wks; the second fetus showed hygroma colli and thoraco abdominoschisis at 12 wks, with a new hemizygous mutation c.4420G>A in exon 26 of the FLNA gene, which is predicted to cause an amino acid substitution (p.Asp1474Asn). The mother and grandmother were both present in the c.4420G>A heterozygous state, and the mother's healthy brother had wild-type FLNA. These FLNA-mutated mice exhibited a broader central gap between the rectus abdominis than the wild type (WT), similar to the midline structure dysplasia of the abdominal wall in the two fetuses. Wound healing assays showed the attenuated migration capacity of abdominal muscle cells in mice with mutated FLNA. Finally, we summarized the cases of MNS with FLNA mutation from the accessible published literature thus far.

CONCLUSION: Our research revealed a mutation site of the FLNA for MNS and explored the mechanism of midline structure dysplasia in the abdominal wall of male patients, which could provide more evidence for the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling of families with these disorders.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Al-Khayri JM, Banadka A, Rashmi R, et al (2022)

Cadmium toxicity in medicinal plants: An overview of the tolerance strategies, biotechnological and omics approaches to alleviate metal stress.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1047410.

Medicinal plants, an important source of herbal medicine, are gaining more demand with the growing human needs in recent times. However, these medicinal plants have been recognized as one of the possible sources of heavy metal toxicity in humans as these medicinal plants are exposed to cadmium-rich soil and water because of extensive industrial and agricultural operations. Cadmium (Cd) is an extremely hazardous metal that has a deleterious impact on plant development and productivity. These plants uptake Cd by symplastic, apoplastic, or via specialized transporters such as HMA, MTPs, NRAMP, ZIP, and ZRT-IRT-like proteins. Cd exerts its effect by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interfere with a range of metabolic and physiological pathways. Studies have shown that it has detrimental effects on various plant growth stages like germination, vegetative and reproductive stages by analyzing the anatomical, morphological and biochemical changes (changes in photosynthetic machinery and membrane permeability). Also, plants respond to Cd toxicity by using various enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Furthermore, the ROS generated due to the heavy metal stress alters the genes that are actively involved in signal transduction. Thus, the biosynthetic pathway of the important secondary metabolite is altered thereby affecting the synthesis of secondary metabolites either by enhancing or suppressing the metabolite production. The present review discusses the abundance of Cd and its incorporation, accumulation and translocation by plants, phytotoxic implications, and morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of medicinal plants to Cd toxicity. It explains the Cd detoxification mechanisms exhibited by the medicinal plants and further discusses the omics and biotechnological strategies such as genetic engineering and gene editing CRISPR- Cas 9 approach to ameliorate the Cd stress.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Kuninobu KI, Takemura T, Takizawa Y, et al (2023)

Whole-genome analysis of a Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype classical strain isolated in 1946 in Sasebo city, Nagasaki prefecture, from a returnee from the northeast part of China.

Tropical medicine and health, 51(1):5.

BACKGROUND: Cholera is a water-borne disease caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139. Not a few studies on the whole-genome analyses of V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor have been published; however, the number of analyses for biotype classical is limited. The whole-genome analysis was made on a V. cholerae biotype classical strain, Man9, isolated in 1946 in Sasebo city, Nagasaki prefecture, from a returnee from the northeast part of China.

METHODS: PacBio RSII was used to determine the whole-genome of Man9. De novo assemblies were made with CLC Genomics Workbench 8.5.1 and Canu. 2.0 and annotated by Prokka version 1.12. Upon determining the configuration of the CTX prophage region, combined procedures of PCR, RFLP with Southern blotting, and Sanger sequencing method were used. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by RaxML and visualized by Phandango. The identification of Cas genes and spacer sequences was made by CRISPR-finder and NCBI Blast search. These data were compared with those of V. cholerae serogroup O1 biotype classical O395.

RESULTS: The Man9 carried the 2.9 Mb (Chr1) and 1.1 Mb (Chr2) chromosomes with 2683 and 1198 CDSs, respectively. The genome similarity between Man9 and O395 was 97.0% when the total genomes were compared. Man9 carried a 380-kb inversion on the Chr1, and 95-kb and 35-kb fragments were not present on the Chr1 and on the Chr2, respectively. Man9 monophyletically clustered with 23 other biotype classical strains on the core gene phylogenetic tree analyses. Man9 carries "CTX[cla]" and a stretch of "truncated CTX[cla]-CTX[cla]" on the Chr1 and the Chr2, respectively, which is the opposite arrangement of O395. Man9 carries CRISPR-Cas system subtype I-E with 33 spacers, 64% of which were identical to those of O395.

CONCLUSIONS: Man9 differs from O395 by 3% on the total genome comparison; however, genomic analysis of a strain having circulated in the interpandemic period between the 6th and the 7th cholera pandemic is valuable and contributes to understanding the evolution of pathogenic V. cholerae.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

García-Murillo L, Valencia-Lozano E, Priego-Ranero NA, et al (2023)

CRISPRa-mediated transcriptional activation of the SlPR-1 gene in edited tomato plants.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology pii:S0168-9452(23)00034-1 [Epub ahead of print].

With the continuous deterioration of arable land due to an ever-growing population, improvement of crops and crop protection have a fundamental role in maintaining and increasing crop productivity. Alternatives to the use of pesticides encompass the use of biological control agents, generation of new resistant crop cultivars, the application of plant activator agrochemicals to enhance plant defenses, and the use of gene editing techniques, like the CRISPR-Cas system. Here, we test the hypothesis that epigenome editing, via CRISPR activation (CRISPRa), activate tomato plant defense genes to confer resistance against pathogen attack. We provide evidence that edited tomato plants for the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE 1 gene (SlPR-1) show enhanced disease resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection. Resistance was assessed by evaluating disease progression and symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, and changes in SlPR-1 gene expression at different time points. We determined that CRISPRa-edited plants develop enhanced disease-resistant to the pathogen without altering their agronomic characteristics and, above all, preventing the advancement of disease symptoms, stem canker, and plant death.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2023-02-03

Feng F, Zhu Y, Ma Y, et al (2023)

A CRISPR activation screen identifies genes that enhance SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Protein & cell, 14(1):64-68.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2023-02-03

Li Y, Xu J, Guo X, et al (2023)

The collateral activity of RfxCas13d can induce lethality in a RfxCas13d knock-in mouse model.

Genome biology, 24(1):20.

BACKGROUND: The CRISPR-Cas13 system is an RNA-guided RNA-targeting system and has been widely used in transcriptome engineering with potentially important clinical applications. However, it is still controversial whether Cas13 exhibits collateral activity in mammalian cells.

RESULTS: Here, we find that knocking down gene expression using RfxCas13d in the adult brain neurons caused death of mice, which may result from the collateral activity of RfxCas13d rather than the loss of target gene function or off-target effects. Mechanistically, we show that RfxCas13d exhibits collateral activity in mammalian cells, which is positively correlated with the abundance of target RNA. The collateral activity of RfxCas13d could cleave 28s rRNA into two fragments, leading to translation attenuation and activation of the ZAKα-JNK/p38-immediate early gene pathway.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the collateral activity of RfxCas13d in mammalian cells and warn that the biosafety of the CRISPR-Cas13 system needs further evaluation before application to clinical treatments.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2023-02-03

Cheng FP, Hu XF, Pan LX, et al (2023)

Transcriptome changes of Apis mellifera female embryos with fem gene knockout by CRISPR/Cas9.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 229:260-267.

The sex of honey bees is decided by a regulatory cascade comprising of csd, fem and Amdsx. In order to further identify other genes involved in sex determination and differentiation of honey bees in the early stages of embryo development, the CRISPR/Cas9 method was used to knock out fem gene in the embryonic stage of diploid western honey bees, and RNA-seq was used to analyze gene expression changes in the embryo after fem knockout. Finally, we found that the bees had undergone gender changes due to fem knockout. A total of 155 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, with 48 up-regulated and 107 down-regulated DEGs in the mutant group compared to the control group. Of them, many genes are related to sex development or differentiation. In addition, 1502 differentially expressed alternative splicing events (DEASEs) related to 1011 genes, including the main honey bee sex-determining genes csd, tra2, fem, and Amdsx, were identified between the mutant group and control group, indicating that fem regulates alternative splicing of a large number of downstream genes. Our results provide valuable clues for further investigating the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in honey bees.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2023-02-03

Rouillon C, Schneberger N, Chi H, et al (2023)

Antiviral signalling by a cyclic nucleotide activated CRISPR protease.

Nature, 614(7946):168-174.

CRISPR defence systems such as the well-known DNA-targeting Cas9 and the RNA-targeting type III systems are widespread in prokaryotes[1,2]. The latter orchestrates a complex antiviral response that is initiated through the synthesis of cyclic oligoadenylates after recognition of foreign RNA[3-5]. Among the large set of proteins that are linked to type III systems and predicted to bind cyclic oligoadenylates[6,7], a CRISPR-associated Lon protease (CalpL) stood out to us. CalpL contains a sensor domain of the SAVED family[7] fused to a Lon protease effector domain. However, the mode of action of this effector is unknown. Here we report the structure and function of CalpL and show that this soluble protein forms a stable tripartite complex with two other proteins, CalpT and CalpS, that are encoded on the same operon. After activation by cyclic tetra-adenylate (cA4), CalpL oligomerizes and specifically cleaves the MazF homologue CalpT, which releases the extracytoplasmic function σ factor CalpS from the complex. Our data provide a direct connection between CRISPR-based detection of foreign nucleic acids and transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, the presence of a SAVED domain that binds cyclic tetra-adenylate in a CRISPR effector reveals a link to the cyclic-oligonucleotide-based antiphage signalling system.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2023-02-03

Iwagawa T, Masumoto H, Tabuchi H, et al (2023)

Evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9 exon-skipping vector for choroideremia using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived RPE.

The journal of gene medicine, 25(2):e3464.

BACKGROUND: Exon-skipping is a powerful genetic tool, especially when delivering genes using an AAV-mediated full-length gene supplementation strategy is difficult owing to large length of genes. Here, we used engineered human induced pluripotent stem cells and artificial intelligence to evaluate clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9-based exon-skipping vectors targeting genes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The model system was choroideremia; this is an X-linked inherited retinal disease caused by mutation of the CHM gene.

METHODS: We explored whether artificial intelligence detected differentiation of human OTX2, PAX6 and MITF (hOPM) cells, in which OTX2, PAX6 and MITF expression was induced by doxycycline treatment, into RPE. Plasmid encoding CHM exon-skipping modules targeting the splice donor sites of exons 6 were constructed. A clonal hOPM cell line with a frameshift mutation in exon 6 was generated and differentiated into RPE. CHM exon 6-skipping was induced, and the effects of skipping on phagocytic activity, cell death and prenylation of Rab small GTPase (RAB) were evaluated using flow cytometry, an in vitro prenylation assay and western blotting.

RESULTS: Artificial intelligence-based evaluation of RPE differentiation was successful. Retinal pigment epithelium cells with a frameshift mutation in exon 6 showed increased cell death, reduced phagocytic activity and increased cytosolic unprenylated RABs only when oxidative stress was in play. The latter two phenotypes were partially rescued by exon 6-skipping of CHM.

CONCLUSIONS: CHM exon 6-skipping contributed to RPE phagocytosis probably by increasing RAB38 prenylation under oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2023-02-03

Rozenberg I, Moses E, I Harel (2023)

CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing in Nothobranchius furzeri for Gene Knockout and Knock-In.

Cold Spring Harbor protocols, 2023(2):pdb.prot107742 pii:pdb.prot107742.

The African turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri has recently gained interest as an emerging vertebrate model system for the study of aging, owing to its naturally short life span and generation time. Here, we provide a step-by-step guide for effective genome engineering using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to generate loss-of-function (i.e., knockout) alleles and for precise editing (i.e., knock-in) of short sequences into the genome. Using this approach, a new stable line can be created within several months. The killifish's tough chorion, rapid growth, and short life span are considered in this protocol and account for the key deviations from similar protocols in other fish models.

RevDate: 2023-02-03
CmpDate: 2022-04-26

Böck D, Rothgangl T, Villiger L, et al (2022)

In vivo prime editing of a metabolic liver disease in mice.

Science translational medicine, 14(636):eabl9238.

Prime editing is a highly versatile CRISPR-based genome editing technology that works without DNA double-strand break formation. Despite rapid technological advances, in vivo application for the treatment of genetic diseases remains challenging. Here, we developed a size-reduced SpCas9 prime editor (PE) lacking the RNaseH domain (PE2[ΔRnH]) and an intein-split construct (PE2 p.1153) for adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery into the liver. Editing efficiencies reached 15% at the Dnmt1 locus and were further elevated to 58% by delivering unsplit PE2[ΔRnH] via human adenoviral vector 5 (AdV). To provide proof of concept for correcting a genetic liver disease, we used the AdV approach for repairing the disease-causing Pah[enu2] mutation in a mouse model of phenylketonuria (PKU) via prime editing. Average correction efficiencies of 11.1% (up to 17.4%) in neonates led to therapeutic reduction of blood phenylalanine, without inducing detectable off-target mutations or prolonged liver inflammation. Although the current in vivo prime editing approach for PKU has limitations for clinical application due to the requirement of high vector doses (7 × 10[14] vg/kg) and the induction of immune responses to the vector and the PE, further development of the technology may lead to curative therapies for PKU and other genetic liver diseases.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Handelmann CR, Tsompana M, Samudrala R, et al (2023)

The impact of nucleosome structure on CRISPR/Cas9 fidelity.

Nucleic acids research pii:7023903 [Epub ahead of print].

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) Cas system is a powerful tool that has the potential to become a therapeutic gene editor in the near future. Cas9 is the best studied CRISPR system and has been shown to have problems that restrict its use in therapeutic applications. Chromatin structure is a known impactor of Cas9 targeting and there is a gap in knowledge on Cas9's efficacy when targeting such locations. To quantify at a single base pair resolution how chromatin inhibits on-target gene editing relative to off-target editing of exposed mismatching targets, we developed the gene editor mismatch nucleosome inhibition assay (GEMiNI-seq). GEMiNI-seq utilizes a library of nucleosome sequences to examine all target locations throughout nucleosomes in a single assay. The results from GEMiNI-seq revealed that the location of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) sequence on the nucleosome edge drives the ability for Cas9 to access its target sequence. In addition, Cas9 had a higher affinity for exposed mismatched targets than on-target sequences within a nucleosome. Overall, our results show how chromatin structure impacts the fidelity of Cas9 to potential targets and highlight how targeting sequences with exposed PAMs could limit off-target gene editing, with such considerations improving Cas9 efficacy and resolving current limitations.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

van der Gulik PTS, Egas M, Kraaijeveld K, et al (2023)

On distinguishing between canonical tRNA genes and tRNA gene fragments in prokaryotes.

RNA biology, 20(1):48-58.

Automated genome annotation is essential for extracting biological information from sequence data. The identification and annotation of tRNA genes is frequently performed by the software package tRNAscan-SE, the output of which is listed for selected genomes in the Genomic tRNA database (GtRNAdb). Here, we highlight a pervasive error in prokaryotic tRNA gene sets on GtRNAdb: the mis-categorization of partial, non-canonical tRNA genes as standard, canonical tRNA genes. Firstly, we demonstrate the issue using the tRNA gene sets of 20 organisms from the archaeal taxon Thermococcaceae. According to GtRNAdb, these organisms collectively deviate from the expected set of tRNA genes in 15 instances, including the listing of eleven putative canonical tRNA genes. However, after detailed manual annotation, only one of these eleven remains; the others are either partial, non-canonical tRNA genes resulting from the integration of genetic elements or CRISPR-Cas activity (seven instances), or attributable to ambiguities in input sequences (three instances). Secondly, we show that similar examples of the mis-categorization of predicted tRNA sequences occur throughout the prokaryotic sections of GtRNAdb. While both canonical and non-canonical prokaryotic tRNA gene sequences identified by tRNAscan-SE are biologically interesting, the challenge of reliably distinguishing between them remains. We recommend employing a combination of (i) screening input sequences for the genetic elements typically associated with non-canonical tRNA genes, and ambiguities, (ii) activating the tRNAscan-SE automated pseudogene detection function, and (iii) scrutinizing predicted tRNA genes with low isotype scores. These measures greatly reduce manual annotation efforts, and lead to improved prokaryotic tRNA gene set predictions.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Stankov S, M Cuchel (2023)

Gene editing for dyslipidemias: New tools to "cut" lipids.

Atherosclerosis pii:S0021-9150(23)00011-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Effective lipid lowering therapies are essential for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Available treatments have evolved in both their efficacy and their frequency of administration, and currently include monoclonal antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides and siRNA approaches. However, an unmet need remains for more effective and long-lasting therapeutics. Gene editing permanently alters endogenous gene expression and has the potential to revolutionize disease treatment. Despite the existence of several gene editing approaches, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has emerged as the preferred technology because of its high efficiency and relative simplicity. This review provides a general overview of this promising technology and an update on the progress made towards the development of treatments of dyslipidemia. The recently started phase 1b gene editing clinical trial targeting PCSK9 in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease highlights how gene editing may become available to treat not only patients affected by rare disorders of lipid metabolism, but also patients that are difficult-to-treat or at high risk. Other targets like ANGPTL3, LDLR, and APOC3 are on track for further pre-clinical development. The identification of novel targets using electronic health record-linked biobanks and human sequencing studies will continue to expand the potential target pool, and clinical assessment of treated patients will provide essential efficacy and safety information on current strategies. Gene editing of genes regulating lipid metabolism holds promise as an exciting new therapeutic approach. However, since gene editing permanently alters a patient's genome, its therapeutic application in humans will require careful safety assessment and ethical considerations.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Roh YH, Lee CY, Lee S, et al (2023)

CRISPR-Enhanced Hydrogel Microparticles for Multiplexed Detection of Nucleic Acids.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR/Cas systems offer a powerful sensing mechanism to transduce sequence-specific information into amplified analytical signals. However, performing multiplexed CRISPR/Cas assays remains challenging and often requires complex approaches for multiplexed assays. Here, a hydrogel-based CRISPR/Cas12 system termed CLAMP (Cas-Loaded Annotated Micro-Particles) is described. The approach compartmentalizes the CRISPR/Cas reaction in spatially-encoded hydrogel microparticles (HMPs). Each HMP is identifiable by its face code and becomes fluorescent when target DNA is present. The assay is further streamlined by capturing HMPs inside a microfluidic device; the captured particles are then automatically recognized by a machine-learning algorithm. The CLAMP assay is fast, highly sensitive (attomolar detection limits with preamplification), and capable of multiplexing in a single-pot assay. As a proof-of-concept clinical application, CLAMP is applied to detect nucleic acid targets of human papillomavirus in cervical brushing samples.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Wysocka E, Gonicka A, S Anbalagan (2023)

CRISPR-Cas9 F0 knockout approach using predesigned in vitro transcribed guide RNAs partially recapitulates Rx3 function in eye morphogenesis.

Journal of genetics, 102:.

CRISPR-Cas9-based F0 knockout (KO) approach permits relatively simple and rapid generation of homozygous KOs and allows quick investigation of gene functions in zebrafish. However, F0 KO studies are largely performed using commercial synthetic guide RNAs (gRNAs) which are unaffordable by majority of the researchers. We tested (i) how effective is the CRISPR-Cas9-based F0 KO approach using in vitro transcribed gRNAs; (ii) how penetrant are the resulting phenotype at the later developmental stages and (iii) whether Coughlin's group pre-designed gRNAs are functional even without validating the gRNAs or testing for lack of SNP's in target loci. We targeted the rx3 gene that is required for the formation of the eye, a structure that exhibits robustness and can quickly recover from early phenotypes. Our results indicate that, in the majority of the samples, injection of Cas9 protein complex with four different in vitro transcribed gRNAs; targeting rx3 results in lack of eyes or disrupted eye development. Thus, the CRISPR-Cas9-based F0 KO approach using pre-designed, quadruple in vitro transcribed gRNAs can recapitulate the function of a gene at least until 5-dpf stage of larval zebrafish.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Ferrando J, Filluelo O, Zeigler DR, et al (2023)

Barriers to simultaneous multilocus integration in Bacillus subtilis tumble down: development of a straightforward screening method for the colorimetric detection of one-step multiple gene insertion using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.

Microbial cell factories, 22(1):21.

BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in genetic engineering tools for effectively regulating and manipulating genes, efficient simultaneous multigene insertion methods have not been established in Bacillus subtilis. To date, multilocus integration systems in B. subtilis, which is one of the main industrial enzyme producers and a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) microbial host, rely on iterative rounds of plasmid construction for sequential insertions of genes into the B. subtilis chromosome, which is tedious and time consuming.

RESULTS: In this study, we present development and proof-of-concept of a novel CRISPR-Cas9-based genome-editing strategy for the colorimetric detection of one-step multiple gene insertion in B. subtilis. First, up to three copies of the crtMN operon from Staphylococcus aureus, encoding a yellow pigment, were incorporated at three ectopic sites within the B. subtilis chromosome, rendering engineered strains able to form yellow colonies. Second, a single CRISPR-Cas9-based plasmid carrying a highly specific single guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting crtMN operon and a changeable editing template was constructed to facilitate simultaneous insertion of multiple gene-copies through homology-directed repair (HDR). Upon transformation of engineered strains with engineered plasmids, strains harboring up to three gene copies integrated into the chromosome formed white colonies because of the removal of the crtMN operon, clearly distinguishable from yellow colonies harboring undesired genetic modifications. As a result, construction of a plasmid-less, marker-free, high-expression stable producer B. subtilis strain can be completed in only seven days, demonstrating the potential that the implementation of this technology may bring for biotechnology purposes.

CONCLUSIONS: The novel technology expands the genome-editing toolset for B. subtilis and means a substantial improvement over current methodology, offering new application possibilities that we envision should significantly boost the development of B. subtilis as a chassis in the field of synthetic biology.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Singh S, Banerjee A, Vanden Broeck A, et al (2023)

Rapid clonal identification of biallelic CRISPR/Cas9 knock-ins using SNEAK PEEC.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1719.

One of the challenges faced by current CRISPR/Cas9 editing strategies is the difficulty in rapidly selecting clonal populations of biallelically edited cells. Here we present Surface engiNeered fluorEscence Assisted Kit with Protein Epitope Enhanced Capture (SNEAK PEEC), a platform that combines human genome editing with cell-surface display, which enables the direct identification of biallelically edited clones with minimal screening.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Hajirnis N, Pandey S, RK Mishra (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9 and FLP-FRT mediated regulatory dissection of the BX-C of Drosophila melanogaster.

Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology, 31(1):7.

The homeotic genes or Hox define the anterior-posterior (AP) body axis formation in bilaterians and are often present on the chromosome in an order collinear to their function across the AP axis. However, there are many cases wherein the Hox are not collinear, but their expression pattern is conserved across the AP axis. The expression pattern of Hox is attributed to the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) consisting of enhancers, initiators, or repressor elements that regulate the genes in a segment-specific manner. In the Drosophila melanogaster Hox complex, the bithorax complex (BX-C) and even the CRMs are organized in an order that is collinear to their function in the thoracic and abdominal segments. In the present study, the regulatorily inert regions were targeted using CRISPR/Cas9 to generate a series of transgenic lines with the insertion of FRT sequences. These FRT lines are repurposed to shuffle the CRMs associated with Abd-B to generate modular deletion, duplication, or inversion of multiple CRMs. The rearrangements yielded entirely novel phenotypes in the fly suggesting the requirement of such complex manipulations to address the significance of higher order arrangement of the CRMs. The functional map and the transgenic flies generated in this study are important resources to decipher the collective ability of multiple regulatory elements in the eukaryotic genome to function as complex modules.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Roy SK, Srivastava S, Hancock A, et al (2023)

Inhibition of ribosome assembly factor PNO1 by CRISPR/Cas9 technique suppresses lung adenocarcinoma and Notch pathway: Clinical application.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 27(3):365-378.

Growth is crucially controlled by the functional ribosomes available in cells. To meet the enhanced energy demand, cancer cells re-wire and increase their ribosome biogenesis. The RNA-binding protein PNO1, a ribosome assembly factor, plays an essential role in ribosome biogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine whether PNO1 can be used as a biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma and also examine the molecular mechanisms by which PNO1 knockdown by CRISPR/Cas9 inhibited growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The expression of PNO1 was significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma compared to normal lung tissues. PNO1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma patients increased with stage, nodal metastasis, and smoking. Lung adenocarcinoma tissues from males expressed higher PNO1 than those from females. Furthermore, lung adenocarcinoma tissues with mutant Tp53 expressed higher PNO1 than those with wild-type Tp53, suggesting the influence of Tp53 status on PNO1 expression. PNO1 knockdown inhibited cell viability, colony formation, and EMT, and induced apoptosis. Since dysregulated signalling through the Notch receptors promotes lung adenocarcinoma, we measured the effects of PNO1 inhibition on the Notch pathway. PNO1 knockdown inhibited Notch signalling by suppressing the expression of Notch receptors, their ligands, and downstream targets. PNO1 knockdown also suppressed CCND1, p21, PTGS-2, IL-1α, IL-8, and CXCL-8 genes. Overall, our data suggest that PNO1 can be used as a diagnostic biomarker, and also can be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Li G, Jin M, Li Z, et al (2023)

Mini-dCas13X-mediated RNA editing restores dystrophin expression in a humanized mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

The Journal of clinical investigation, 133(3): pii:162809.

Approximately 10% of monogenic diseases are caused by nonsense point mutations that generate premature termination codons (PTCs), resulting in a truncated protein and nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant mRNAs. Here, we demonstrate a mini-dCas13X-mediated RNA adenine base editing (mxABE) strategy to treat nonsense mutation-related monogenic diseases via A-to-G editing in a genetically humanized mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Initially, we identified a nonsense point mutation (c.4174C>T, p.Gln1392*) in the DMD gene of a patient and validated its pathogenicity in humanized mice. In this model, mxABE packaged in a single adeno-associated virus (AAV) reached A-to-G editing rates up to 84% in vivo, at least 20-fold greater than rates reported in previous studies using other RNA editing modalities. Furthermore, mxABE restored robust expression of dystrophin protein to over 50% of WT levels by enabling PTC read-through in multiple muscle tissues. Importantly, systemic delivery of mxABE by AAV also rescued dystrophin expression to averages of 37%, 6%, and 54% of WT levels in the diaphragm, tibialis anterior, and heart muscle, respectively, as well as rescued muscle function. Our data strongly suggest that mxABE-based strategies may be a viable new treatment modality for DMD and other monogenic diseases.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Dhuriya YK, AA Naik (2023)

CRISPR: a tool with potential for genomic reprogramming in neurological disorders.

Molecular biology reports, 50(2):1845-1856.

The intricate neural circuitry of the brain necessitates precise and synchronized transcriptional programs. Any disturbance during embryonic or adult development, whether caused by genetic or environmental factors, may result in refractory and recurrent neurological disorders. Inadequate knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying neurological disorders is the primary obstacle to the development of effective treatments, necessitating the development of alternative therapeutic approaches to identify rational molecular targets. Recently, with the evolution of CRISPR-Cas9 technology, an engineered RNA system provides precise and highly effective correction or silencing of disease-causing mutations by modulating expression and thereby avoiding the limitations of the RNA interference strategy. This article discusses the CRISPR-Cas9 technology, its mechanisms, and the limitations of the new technology. We provide a glimpse of how the far-reaching implications of CRISPR can open new avenues for the development of tools to combat neurological disorders, as well as a review of recent attempts by neuroscientists to launch therapeutic correction.

RevDate: 2023-02-02
CmpDate: 2023-02-02

Goto T, Yogo K, Hochi S, et al (2023)

Characterization of homozygous Foxn1 mutations induced in rat embryos by different delivery forms of Cas9 nuclease.

Molecular biology reports, 50(2):1231-1239.

BACKGROUND: The Cas9 nuclease is delivered in the form of either Cas9 protein or mRNA along with CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA: dual-crRNA:tracrRNA or chimeric single-guide RNA) or in a plasmid package encoding both Cas9 and the CRISPR gRNA.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We directly compared the efficiency of producing rat blastocysts with homozygous mutations of the Foxn1 locus by pronuclear injection of Cas9 in the form of protein, mRNA, or plasmid DNA. For highly efficient production of rat blastocysts with homozygous Foxn1 mutations, pronuclear injection of Cas9 protein at 60 ng/µl was likely optimal. While blastocyst harvest in the mRNA groups was higher than those in the protein and plasmid DNA groups, genotype analysis showed that 63.6%, 8.7-20.0%, and 25.0% of the analyzed blastocysts were homozygous mutants in the protein, mRNA, and plasmid DNA groups, respectively. The high efficiency of producing homozygous mutant blastocysts in the 60 ng/µl protein group may be associated with primary genome editing being initiated before the first cleavage. In most cases, homozygous mutations at the target Foxn1 locus are triggered by deletion and repair via nonhomologous end joining or microhomology-mediated end joining. Deletion downstream of the Cas9 break site was more likely than deletion in the upstream direction.

CONCLUSIONS: The Cas9 nuclease in protein form, when coinjected with the CRISPR gRNA (ribonucleoprotein) into a rat zygote pronucleus, can access the target genome site and induce double-strand breaks promptly, resulting in the efficient production of homozygous mutants.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Jeong SH, Lee HJ, SJ Lee (2023)

Recent Advances in CRISPR-Cas Technologies for Synthetic Biology.

Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea) pii:10.1007/s12275-022-00005-5 [Epub ahead of print].

With developments in synthetic biology, "engineering biology" has emerged through standardization and platformization based on hierarchical, orthogonal, and modularized biological systems. Genome engineering is necessary to manufacture and design synthetic cells with desired functions by using bioparts obtained from sequence databases. Among various tools, the CRISPR-Cas system is modularly composed of guide RNA and Cas nuclease; therefore, it is convenient for editing the genome freely. Recently, various strategies have been developed to accurately edit the genome at a single nucleotide level. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas technology has been extended to molecular diagnostics for nucleic acids and detection of pathogens, including disease-causing viruses. Moreover, CRISPR technology, which can precisely control the expression of specific genes in cells, is evolving to find the target of metabolic biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the status of various CRISPR technologies that can be applied to synthetic biology and discuss the development of synthetic biology combined with CRISPR technology in microbiology.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Rish AD, TM Fu (2023)

CRISPR-Cas has a new juggling act: interplay between nuclease and protease.

Nature structural & molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-02-01
CmpDate: 2023-02-01

Cao H, Xie J, Cheng J, et al (2023)

CRISPR Cas12a-Powered Silicon Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Ratiometric Chip for Sensitive and Reliable Quantification.

Analytical chemistry, 95(4):2303-2311.

Sensitive and reliable clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) quantification without preamplification of the sample remains a challenge. Herein, we report a CRISPR Cas12a-powered silicon surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) ratiometric chip for sensitive and reliable quantification. As a proof-of-concept application, we select the platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as the target. We first develop a microfluidic synthetic strategy to prepare homogeneous silicon SERS substrates, in which uniform silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are in situ grown on a silicon wafer (AgNPs@Si) by microfluidic galvanic deposition reactions. Next, one 5'-SH-3'-ROX-labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is modified on AgNPs via Ag-S bonds. In our design, such ssDNA has two fragments: one fragment hybridizes to its complementary DNA (5'-Cy3-labeled ssDNA) to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and the other fragment labeled with 6'-carboxy-X-rhodmine (ROX) extends out as a substrate for Cas12a. The cleavage of the ROX-tagged fragment by Cas12a is controlled by the presence or not of PDGF-BB. Meanwhile, Cy3 molecules serving as internal standard molecules still stay at the end of the rigid dsDNA, and their signals remain constant. Thereby, the ratio of ROX signal intensity to Cy3 intensity can be employed for the reliable quantification of PDGF-BB concentration. The developed chip features an ultrahigh sensitivity (e.g., the limit of detection is as low as 3.2 pM, approximately 50 times more sensitive than the fluorescence counterpart) and good reproducibility (e.g., the relative standard deviation is less than 5%) in the detection of PDGF-BB.

RevDate: 2023-02-01
CmpDate: 2023-02-01

Park JU, Tsai AW, Rizo AN, et al (2023)

Structures of the holo CRISPR RNA-guided transposon integration complex.

Nature, 613(7945):775-782.

CRISPR-associated transposons (CAST) are programmable mobile genetic elements that insert large DNA cargos using an RNA-guided mechanism[1-3]. CAST elements contain multiple conserved proteins: a CRISPR effector (Cas12k or Cascade), a AAA+ regulator (TnsC), a transposase (TnsA-TnsB) and a target-site-associated factor (TniQ). These components are thought to cooperatively integrate DNA via formation of a multisubunit transposition integration complex (transpososome). Here we reconstituted the approximately 1 MDa type V-K CAST transpososome from Scytonema hofmannii (ShCAST) and determined its structure using single-particle cryo-electon microscopy. The architecture of this transpososome reveals modular association between the components. Cas12k forms a complex with ribosomal subunit S15 and TniQ, stabilizing formation of a full R-loop. TnsC has dedicated interaction interfaces with TniQ and TnsB. Of note, we observe TnsC-TnsB interactions at the C-terminal face of TnsC, which contribute to the stimulation of ATPase activity. Although the TnsC oligomeric assembly deviates slightly from the helical configuration found in isolation, the TnsC-bound target DNA conformation differs markedly in the transpososome. As a consequence, TnsC makes new protein-DNA interactions throughout the transpososome that are important for transposition activity. Finally, we identify two distinct transpososome populations that differ in their DNA contacts near TniQ. This suggests that associations with the CRISPR effector can be flexible. This ShCAST transpososome structure enhances our understanding of CAST transposition systems and suggests ways to improve CAST transposition for precision genome-editing applications.

RevDate: 2023-02-01
CmpDate: 2023-02-01

Brown EA, Eikenbary SR, WG Landis (2022)

Bayesian network-based risk assessment of synthetic biology: Simulating CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive dynamics in invasive rodent management.

Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis, 42(12):2835-2846.

Gene drive technology has been proposed to control invasive rodent populations as an alternative to rodenticides. However, this approach has not undergone risk assessment that meets criteria established by Gene Drives on the Horizon, a 2016 report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. To conduct a risk assessment of gene drives, we employed the Bayesian network-relative risk model to calculate the risk of mouse eradication on Southeast Farallon Island using a CRISPR-Cas9 homing gene drive construct. We modified and implemented the R-based model "MGDrivE" to simulate and compare 60 management strategies for gene drive rodent management. These scenarios spanned four gene drive mouse release schemes, three gene drive homing rates, three levels of supplemental rodenticide dose, and two timings of rodenticide application relative to gene drive release. Simulation results showed that applying a supplemental rodenticide simultaneously with gene drive mouse deployment resulted in faster eradication of the island mouse population. Gene drive homing rate had the highest influence on the overall probability of successful eradication, as increased gene drive accuracy reduces the likelihood of mice developing resistance to the CRISPR-Cas9 homing mechanism.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Sánchez-Gómez C, Posé D, C Martín-Pizarro (2023)

Genome Editing by CRISPR/Cas9 in Polyploids.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2545:459-473.

CRISPR/Cas system has been widely used for genome editing in the past few years. Even though it has been performed in many polyploid species to date, its efficient accomplishment in these organisms is still a challenge. The presence of multiple homoeologous genes as targets for their editing requires more rigorous work and specific needs to assess successful genome editing. Here, we describe a general stepwise protocol to select target sites, design sgRNAs, indicate vector requirements, and screen CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in polyploid species.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Tarek N, El-Gendy AO, Khairalla AS, et al (2022)

Genomic analysis of Enterococcus durans NT21, a putative bacteriocin-producing isolate.

Molecular biology research communications, 11(3):143-153.

Enterococcus species are a long-standing and non-pathogenic commensal bacterium, representing an important part of the normal. Enterococcus durans is a rarely isolated species from animals and humans, and it was a tiny constituent of human oral cavity and animal intestinal flora, as well as animal-derived foods, particularly dairy products. This study evaluated the security of our strain E. durans NT21 by using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), physicochemical features, and antimicrobial activity. The complete genomic of our strain Enterococcus durans NT21was sequenced and analyzed by using several bioinformatics tools to identify bacteriocin genes, virulence genes, antibiotic resistance genes, Crispr-Cas and pathogenicity islands. The results showed that our strain NT21 lacks the presence of virulence genes, pathogenicity islands, plasmids and has only two antibiotic resistance genes. On the other hand, it produces three bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (Enterolysin A, P and L50a). It has six gene-encoded Crisper-Cas and one cluster Crispr-Cas gene. According to our findings, E. durans NT21 is a possible probiotic strain that is safe for both human and animal use.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Liao X, Xia X, Yang H, et al (2023)

Bacterial drug-resistance and viability phenotyping upon disinfectant exposure revealed by single-nucleotide resolved-allele specific isothermal RNA amplification.

Journal of hazardous materials, 448:130800 [Epub ahead of print].

Disinfectant abuse poses a risk of bacterial evolution against stresses, especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, bacterial phenotypes, such as drug resistance and viability, are hard to access quickly. Here, we reported an allele specific isothermal RNA amplification (termed AlleRNA) assay, using an isothermal RNA amplification technique, i.e., nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), integrated the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), involving the use of sequence-specific primers to allow the amplification of the targets with complete complementary sequences. AlleRNA assay enables rapid and simultaneous detection of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (a detection limit, a LOD of 0.5 % SNP) and the viability (a LOD of 80 CFU) of the quinolone resistant Salmonella enterica. With the use of AlleRNA assay, we found that the quinolone resistant S. enterica exhibited higher survival ability during exposure toquaternary ammonium salt, 75 % ethanol and peracetic acid, which might be attributed to the upregulation of stress response-associated genescompared with the susceptible counterparts. Additionally, the AlleRNA assay indicated the potential risk in a high-frequency occurrence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) quinolone resistant S. enterica induced by disinfectants due to the depression of ATP biosynthesis. The excessive usage of disinfectants during the COVID-19 pandemic should be carefully evaluated due to the latent threat to ecological and human health.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Chen J, Li Y, Z Liu (2023)

Functional nucleic acids as potent therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Cell reports. Physical science [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a severe threat to human life and the global economy. Although conventional treatments, including vaccines, antibodies, and small-molecule inhibitors, have been broadly developed, they usually fall behind the constant mutation of SARS-CoV-2, due to the long screening process and high production cost. Functional nucleic acid (FNA)-based therapeutics are a newly emerging promising means against COVID-19, considering their timely adaption to different mutants and easy design for broad-spectrum virus inhibition. In this review, we survey typical FNA-related therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection, including aptamers, aptamer-integrated DNA frameworks, functional RNA, and CRISPR-Cas technology. We first introduce the pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of SARS-CoV-2, then analyze the existing therapeutic and prophylactic strategies, including their pros and cons. Subsequently, the FNAs are recommended as potent alternative therapeutics from their screening process and controllable engineering to effective neutralization. Finally, we put forward the remaining challenges of the existing field and sketch out the future development directions.

RevDate: 2023-01-31
CmpDate: 2023-01-31

Sieliwonczyk E, Vandendriessche B, Claes C, et al (2023)

Improved selection of zebrafish CRISPR editing by early next-generation sequencing based genotyping.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1491.

Despite numerous prior attempts to improve knock-in (KI) efficiency, the introduction of precise base pair substitutions by the CRISPR-Cas9 technique in zebrafish remains challenging. In our efforts to generate KI zebrafish models of human CACNA1C mutations, we have tested the effect of several CRISPR determinants on KI efficiency across two sites in a single gene and developed a novel method for early selection to ameliorate KI efficiency. We identified optimal KI conditions for Cas9 protein and non-target asymmetric PAM-distal single stranded deoxynucleotide repair templates at both cacna1c sites. An effect of distance to the cut site on the KI efficiency was only observed for a single repair template conformation at one of the two sites. By combining minimally invasive early genotyping with the zebrafish embryo genotyper (ZEG) device and next-generation sequencing, we were able to obtain an almost 17-fold increase in somatic editing efficiency. The added benefit of the early selection procedure was particularly evident for alleles with lower somatic editing efficiencies. We further explored the potential of the ZEG selection procedure for the improvement of germline transmission by demonstrating germline transmission events in three groups of pre-selected embryos.

RevDate: 2023-01-31
CmpDate: 2023-01-31

Hyde L, Osman K, Winfield M, et al (2023)

Identification, characterization, and rescue of CRISPR/Cas9 generated wheat SPO11-1 mutants.

Plant biotechnology journal, 21(2):405-418.

Increasing crop yields through plant breeding is time consuming and laborious, with the generation of novel combinations of alleles being limited by chromosomal linkage blocks and linkage-drag. Meiotic recombination is essential to create novel genetic variation via the reshuffling of parental alleles. The exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes occurs at crossover (CO) sites but CO frequency is often low and unevenly distributed. This bias creates the problem of linkage-drag in recombination 'cold' regions, where undesirable variation remains linked to useful traits. In plants, programmed meiosis-specific DNA double-strand breaks, catalysed by the SPO11 complex, initiate the recombination pathway, although only ~5% result in the formation of COs. To study the role of SPO11-1 in wheat meiosis, and as a prelude to manipulation, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate edits in all three SPO11-1 homoeologues of hexaploid wheat. Characterization of progeny lines shows plants deficient in all six SPO11-1 copies fail to undergo chromosome synapsis, lack COs and are sterile. In contrast, lines carrying a single copy of any one of the three wild-type homoeologues are phenotypically indistinguishable from unedited plants both in terms of vegetative growth and fertility. However, cytogenetic analysis of the edited plants suggests that homoeologues differ in their ability to generate COs and in the dynamics of synapsis. In addition, we show that the transformation of wheat mutants carrying six edited copies of SPO11-1 with the TaSPO11-1B gene, restores synapsis, CO formation, and fertility and hence opens a route to modifying recombination in this agronomically important crop.

RevDate: 2023-01-31
CmpDate: 2023-01-31

Kim K, Shin J, Kang TA, et al (2023)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated AtGATA25 mutant represents a novel model for regulating hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Molecular biology reports, 50(1):31-41.

BACKGROUND: Plants have evolved to adapt to the ever-changing environments through various morphological changes. An organism anticipates and responds to changes in its environment via the circadian clock, an endogenous oscillator lasting approximately 24 h. The circadian clock regulates various physiological processes, such as hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochrome interacting factor 4 (PIF4), a member of the bHLH protein family, plays a vital hub role in light signaling pathways and temperature-mediated growth response mechanisms. PIF4 is controlled by the circadian clock and interacts with several factors. However, the components that regulate PIF4 transcription and activity are not clearly understood.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we showed that the Arabidopsis thaliana GATA25 (AtGATA25) transcription factor plays a fundamental role in promoting hypocotyl elongation by positively regulating the expression of PIF4. This was confirmed to in the loss-of-function mutant of AtGATA25 via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing, which inhibits hypocotyl elongation and decreases the expression of PIF4. In contrast, the overexpression of AtGATA25 in transgenic plants resulted in increased expression of PIF4 and enhanced hypocotyl elongation. To better understand AtGATA25-mediated PIF4 transcriptional regulation, we analyzed the promoter region of the target gene PIF4 and characterized the role of GATA25 through transcriptional activation analysis.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a novel role of the AtGATA25 transcription factor in hypocotyl elongation.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Gumustop I, F Ortakci (2022)

Analyzing the genetic diversity and biotechnological potential of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides by comparative genomics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1074366.

Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides is a lactic acid bacteria species widely exist in fermented dairy foods, cane juice, sourdough, kimchi, apple dumpster, caecum, and human adenoid. In the dairy industry, Ln. pseudomesenteroides strains are usually found in mesophilic starter cultures with lactococci. This species plays a crucial role in the production of aroma compounds such as acetoin, acetaldehyde, and diacetyl, thus beneficially affecting dairy technology. We performed genomic characterization of 38 Ln. pseudomesenteroides from diverse ecological niches to evaluate this species' genetic diversity and biotechnological potential. A mere ~12% of genes conserved across 38 Ln. pseudomesenteroides genomes indicate that accessory genes are the driving force for genotypic distinction in this species. Seven main clades were formed with variable content surrounding mobile genetic elements, namely plasmids, transposable elements, IS elements, prophages, and CRISPR-Cas. All but three genomes carried CRISPR-Cas system. Furthermore, a type IIA CRISPR-Cas system was found in 80% of the CRISPR-Cas positive strains. AMBR10, CBA3630, and MGBC116435 were predicted to encode bacteriocins. Genes responsible for citrate metabolism were found in all but five strains belonging to cane juice, sourdough, and unknown origin. On the contrary, arabinose metabolism genes were only available in nine strains isolated from plant-related systems. We found that Ln. pseudomesenteroides genomes show evolutionary adaptation to their ecological environment due to niche-specific carbon metabolism and forming closely related phylogenetic clades based on their isolation source. This species was found to be a reservoir of type IIA CRISPR-Cas system. The outcomes of this study provide a framework for uncovering the biotechnological potential of Ln. pseudomesenteroides and its future development as starter or adjunct culture for dairy industry.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Xu J, Ma Y, Song Z, et al (2023)

Evaluation of an automated CRISPR-based diagnostic tool for rapid detection of COVID-19.

Heliyon [Epub ahead of print].

The performance of an automated commercial CRISPR/Cas based technology was evaluated and compared with routine RT-PCR testing to diagnose COVID-19. Suspected and discharged COVID-19 cases were included and tested with CRISPR-based SARS-CoV-2 test and RT-PCR assay using throat swab and sputum specimens. The diagnostic yield was calculated and compared using the McNemar test. A total of 437 patients were included for analysis, including COVID-19 (n = 171), discharged cases (n = 155), and others (n = 111). For the diagnosis of COVID-19, the CRISPR-SARS-CoV-2 test had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.2% (168/171) and 100.0% (266/266), respectively; the RT-PCR test had a sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% (171/171) and 100.0% (266/266), respectively. No significant difference was found in the sensitivity of CRISPR-SARS-CoV-2 and RT-PCR. In conclusion, the CRISPR-SARS-CoV-2 test had a comparable performance with RT-PCR and showed several advantages, such as short assay time, low cost, and no requirement for expensive equipment.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Zhang X, Yang Y, Cao J, et al (2022)

Point-of-care CRISPR/Cas biosensing technology: A promising tool for preventing the possible COVID-19 resurgence caused by contaminated cold-chain food and packaging.

Food frontiers [Epub ahead of print].

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused great public health concern and has been a global threat due to its high transmissibility and morbidity. Although the SARS-CoV-2 transmission mainly relies on the person-to-person route through the respiratory droplets, the possible transmission through the contaminated cold-chain food and packaging to humans has raised widespread concerns. This review discussed the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via the contaminated cold-chain food and packaging by tracing the occurrence, the survival of SARS-CoV-2 in the contaminated cold-chain food and packaging, as well as the transmission and outbreaks related to the contaminated cold-chain food and packaging. Rapid, accurate, and reliable diagnostics of SARS-CoV-2 is of great importance for preventing and controlling the COVID-19 resurgence. Therefore, we summarized the recent advances on the emerging clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system-based biosensing technology that is promising and powerful for preventing the possible COVID-19 resurgence caused by the contaminated cold-chain food and packaging during the COVID-19 pandemic, including CRISPR/Cas system-based biosensors and their integration with portable devices (e.g., smartphone, lateral flow assays, microfluidic chips, and nanopores). Impressively, this review not only provided an insight on the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through the food supply chain, but also proposed the future opportunities and challenges on the development of CRISPR/Cas system-based detection methods for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Zhao L, You D, Wang T, et al (2022)

Acylation driven by intracellular metabolites in host cells inhibits Cas9 activity used for genome editing.

PNAS nexus, 1(5):pgac277.

CRISPR-Cas, the immune system of bacteria and archaea, has been widely harnessed for genome editing, including gene knockouts and knockins, single-base editing, gene activation, and silencing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluctuations in the genome editing efficiency of crispr in various cells under different conditions remain poorly understood. In this work, we found that Cas9 can be ac(et)ylated by acetyl-phosphate or acyl-CoA metabolites both in vitro and in vivo. Several modifications are associated with the DNA or sgRNA binding sites. Notably, ac(et)ylation of Cas9 driven by these metabolites in host cells potently inhibited its binding and cleavage activity with the target DNA, thereby decreasing Crispr genome editing efficiency. This study provides more insights into understanding the effect of the intracellular environment on genome editing application of crispr with varying efficiency in hosts.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Esmaeili Anvar N, Lin C, Wilson LL, et al (2023)

Combined genome-scale fitness and paralog synthetic lethality screens with just 44k clones: the IN4MER CRISPR/Cas12a multiplex knockout platform.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.03.522655.

Genetic interactions mediate the emergence of phenotype from genotype, but initial technologies for multiplex genetic perturbation in mammalian cells suffer from inefficiency and are challenging to scale. Recent focus on paralog synthetic lethality in cancer cells offers an opportunity to evaluate different CRISPR/Cas multiplexing technologies and improve on the state of the art. Here we report a meta-analysis of CRISPR genetic interactions screens, identifying a candidate set of background-independent paralog synthetic lethals, and find that the CRISPR/enCas12a platform provides superior sensitivity and assay replicability. We demonstrate that enCas12a can independently target up to four genes from a single guide array, and build on this knowledge by constructing a one-component library that expresses arrays of four guides per clone, a platform we call 'in4mer'. Our genome-scale human library, with only 44k clones, is substantially smaller than a typical CRISPR/Cas9 monogenic library while also targeting more than two thousand paralog pairs, triples, and quads. Proof of concept screens in two cell lines demonstrate discrimination of core and context-dependent essential genes similar to that of state of the art CRISPR/Cas9 libraries, as well as detection of synthetic lethal and masking (also known as buffering) genetic interactions between paralogs of various family sizes, a capability not offered by any extant library. Importantly, the in4mer platform offers a fivefold reduction in the number of clones required to assay genetic interactions, dramatically improving the cost and effort required for these studies.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Walker MWG, Klompe SE, Zhang DJ, et al (2023)

Transposon mutagenesis libraries reveal novel molecular requirements during CRISPR RNA-guided DNA integration.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.19.524723.

CRISPR-associated transposons (CASTs) direct DNA integration downstream of target sites using the RNA-guided DNA binding activity of nuclease-deficient CRISPR-Cas systems. Transposition relies on several key protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, but little is known about the explicit sequence requirements governing efficient transposon DNA integration activity. Here, we exploit pooled library screening and high-throughput sequencing to reveal novel sequence determinants during transposition by the Type I-F Vibrio cholerae CAST system. On the donor DNA, large mutagenic libraries identified core binding sites recognized by the TnsB transposase, as well as an additional conserved region that encoded a consensus binding site for integration host factor (IHF). Remarkably, we found that VchCAST requires IHF for efficient transposition, thus revealing a novel cellular factor involved in CRISPR-associated transpososome assembly. On the target DNA, we uncovered preferred sequence motifs at the integration site that explained previously observed heterogeneity with single-base pair resolution. Finally, we exploited our library data to design modified transposon variants that enable in-frame protein tagging. Collectively, our results provide new clues about the assembly and architecture of the paired-end complex formed between TnsB and the transposon DNA, and inform the design of custom payload sequences for genome engineering applications of CAST systems.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Armstrong DA, Hudson TR, Hodge CA, et al (2023)


bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.02.522476.

CRISPR/Cas is under development as a therapeutic tool for the cleavage, excision, and/or modification of genes in eukaryotic cells. While much effort has focused on CRISPR/Cas from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) and Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9), alternative CRISPR systems have been identified using metagenomic datasets from non-pathogenic microbes, including previously unknown class 2 systems, adding to a diverse toolbox of gene editors. The Cas12e (CasX1, CasX2) endonucleases from non-pathogenic Deltaproteobacteria (DpeCas12e) and Planctomycetes (PlmCas12e) are more compact than SpCas9, have a more selective protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) requirement, and deliver a staggered cleavage cut with 5-7 base overhangs. We investigated varying guide RNA (spacer) lengths and alternative PAM sequences to determine optimal conditions for PlmCas12e cleavage of the cellular gene CCR5 (CC-Chemokine receptor-5). CCR5 encodes one of two chemokine coreceptors required by HIV-1 to infect target cells, and a mutation of CCR5 (delta-32) is responsible for HIV-1 resistance and reported cures following bone marrow transplantation. Consequently, CCR5 has been an important target for gene editing utilizing CRISPR, TALENs, and ZFNs. We determined that CCR5 cleavage activity varied with the target site, guide RNA length, and the terminal nucleotide in the PAM sequence. Our analyses demonstrated a PlmCas12e PAM preference for purines (A, G) over pyrimidines (T, C) in the fourth position of the CasX2 PAM (TTCN). These analyses have contributed to a better understanding of CasX2 cleavage requirements and will position us more favorably to develop a therapeutic that creates the delta-32 mutation in the CCR5 gene in hematopoietic stem cells.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Alipanahi R, Safari L, A Khanteymoori (2022)

CRISPR genome editing using computational approaches: A survey.

Frontiers in bioinformatics, 2:1001131.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based gene editing has been widely used in various cell types and organisms. To make genome editing with Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats far more precise and practical, we must concentrate on the design of optimal gRNA and the selection of appropriate Cas enzymes. Numerous computational tools have been created in recent years to help researchers design the best gRNA for Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats researches. There are two approaches for designing an appropriate gRNA sequence (which targets our desired sites with high precision): experimental and predicting-based approaches. It is essential to reduce off-target sites when designing an optimal gRNA. Here we review both traditional and machine learning-based approaches for designing an appropriate gRNA sequence and predicting off-target sites. In this review, we summarize the key characteristics of all available tools (as far as possible) and compare them together. Machine learning-based tools and web servers are believed to become the most effective and reliable methods for predicting on-target and off-target activities of Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats in the future. However, these predictions are not so precise now and the performance of these algorithms -especially deep learning one's-depends on the amount of data used during training phase. So, as more features are discovered and incorporated into these models, predictions become more in line with experimental observations. We must concentrate on the creation of ideal gRNA and the choice of suitable Cas enzymes in order to make genome editing with Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats far more accurate and feasible.

RevDate: 2023-01-29

Weng Z, You Z, Yang J, et al (2023)

CRISPR-Cas Biochemistry and CRISPR-Based Molecular Diagnostics.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) [Epub ahead of print].

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based nucleic acid testing has played a critical role in disease diagnostics, pathogen surveillance, and many more. However, this method requires a long turnaround time, expensive equipment, and trained personnel, limiting its widespread availability and diagnostic capacity. On the other hand, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology has recently demonstrated capability for nucleic acid detection with high sensitivity and specificity. CRISPR-mediated biosensing holds great promise for revolutionizing nucleic acid testing procedures and developing point-of-care diagnostics. This review focuses on recent developments in both fundamental CRISPR biochemistry and CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection techniques. Four ongoing research hotspots in molecular diagnostics-target preamplification-free detection, microRNA (miRNA) detection, non-nucleic-acid detection, and SARS-CoV-2 detection-are also covered.

RevDate: 2023-01-30
CmpDate: 2023-01-30

Zhang S, Song L, Yuan B, et al (2023)

TadA reprogramming to generate potent miniature base editors with high precision.

Nature communications, 14(1):413.

Although miniature CRISPR-Cas12f systems were recently developed, the editing efficacy and targeting range of derived miniature cytosine and adenine base editors (miniCBEs and miniABEs) have not been comprehensively addressed. Moreover, functional miniCBEs have not yet be established. Here we generate various Cas12f-derived miniCBEs and miniABEs with improved editing activities and diversified targeting scopes. We reveal that miniCBEs generated with traditional cytidine deaminases exhibit wide editing windows and high off-targeting effects. To improve the editing signatures of classical CBEs and derived miniCBEs, we engineer TadA deaminase with mutagenesis screening to generate potent miniCBEs with high precision and minimized off-target effects. We show that newly designed miniCBEs and miniABEs are able to correct pathogenic mutations in cell lines and introduce genetic mutations efficiently via adeno-associated virus delivery in the brain in vivo. Together, this study provides alternative strategies for CBE development, expands the toolkits of miniCBEs and miniABEs and offers promising therapeutic tools for clinical applications.

RevDate: 2023-01-30
CmpDate: 2023-01-30

Zhang S, Yuan B, Cao J, et al (2023)

TadA orthologs enable both cytosine and adenine editing of base editors.

Nature communications, 14(1):414.

Cytidine and adenosine deaminases are required for cytosine and adenine editing of base editors respectively, and no single deaminase could enable concurrent and comparable cytosine and adenine editing. Additionally, distinct properties of cytidine and adenosine deaminases lead to various types of off-target effects, including Cas9-indendepent DNA off-target effects for cytosine base editors (CBEs) and RNA off-target effects particularly severe for adenine base editors (ABEs). Here we demonstrate that 25 TadA orthologs could be engineered to generate functional ABEs, CBEs or ACBEs via single or double mutations, which display minimized Cas9-independent DNA off-target effects and genotoxicity, with orthologs B5ZCW4, Q57LE3, E8WVH3, Q13XZ4 and B3PCY2 as promising candidates for further engineering. Furthermore, RNA off-target effects of TadA ortholog-derived base editors could be further reduced or even eliminated by additional single mutation. Taken together, our work expands the base editing toolkits, and also provides important clues for the potential evolutionary process of deaminases.

RevDate: 2023-01-30
CmpDate: 2023-01-30

Bisio H, Legendre M, Giry C, et al (2023)

Evolution of giant pandoravirus revealed by CRISPR/Cas9.

Nature communications, 14(1):428.

Giant viruses (GVs) are a hotspot of unresolved controversies since their discovery, including the definition of "Virus" and their origin. While increasing knowledge of genome diversity has accumulated, GV functional genomics was largely neglected. Here, we describe an experimental framework to genetically modify nuclear GVs and their host Acanthamoeba castellanii using CRISPR/Cas9, shedding light on the evolution from small icosahedral viruses to amphora-shaped GVs. Ablation of the icosahedral major capsid protein in the phylogenetically-related mollivirus highlights a transition in virion shape and size. We additionally demonstrate the existence of a reduced core essential genome in pandoravirus, reminiscent of their proposed smaller ancestors. This proposed genetic expansion led to increased genome robustness, indicating selective pressures for adaptation to uncertain environments. Overall, we introduce new tools for manipulation of the unexplored genome of nuclear GVs and provide experimental evidence suggesting that viral gigantism has aroused as an emerging trait.

RevDate: 2023-01-30
CmpDate: 2023-01-30

Qi L, Sui Y, Tang XX, et al (2023)

Shuffling the yeast genome using CRISPR/Cas9-generated DSBs that target the transposable Ty1 elements.

PLoS genetics, 19(1):e1010590.

Although homologous recombination between transposable elements can drive genomic evolution in yeast by facilitating chromosomal rearrangements, the details of the underlying mechanisms are not fully clarified. In the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most common class of transposon is the retrotransposon Ty1. Here, we explored how Cas9-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) directed to Ty1 elements produce genomic alterations in this yeast species. Following Cas9 induction, we observed a significant elevation of chromosome rearrangements such as deletions, duplications and translocations. In addition, we found elevated rates of mitotic recombination, resulting in loss of heterozygosity. Using Southern analysis coupled with short- and long-read DNA sequencing, we revealed important features of recombination induced in retrotransposons. Almost all of the chromosomal rearrangements reflect the repair of DSBs at Ty1 elements by non-allelic homologous recombination; clustered Ty elements were hotspots for chromosome rearrangements. In contrast, a large proportion (about three-fourths) of the allelic mitotic recombination events have breakpoints in unique sequences. Our analysis suggests that some of the latter events reflect extensive processing of the broken ends produced in the Ty element that extend into unique sequences resulting in break-induced replication. Finally, we found that haploid and diploid strain have different preferences for the pathways used to repair double-stranded DNA breaks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of DNA lesions in retrotransposons in driving genome evolution.

RevDate: 2023-01-30
CmpDate: 2023-01-30

Yi P, Luo D, Gao Z, et al (2023)

Fluorescent aptasensor based on the MNPs-CRISPR/Cas12a-TdT for the determination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived exosomes.

Mikrochimica acta, 190(2):74.

A fluorescence aptasensor based on taking the advantage of the combination of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), and CRISPR/Cas12a was developed for the determination of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)-derived exosomes. The MNPs can eliminate background interference due to their magnetic separation capability. TdT can form an ultra-long polynucleotide tail which can bind with multiple crRNA, generating a signal amplification effect. The trans-cleavage activity of CRISPR/Cas12a can be specifically triggered via the crRNA binding with DNA, resulting in the bi-labeled DNA reporter with fluorophore and quencher being cleaved. The excitation wavelength of the fluorescence spectra was 490 nm. Fluorescence spectra with emission wavelengths ranging from 511 to 600 nm were collected. Under the optimization condition, the fabricated fluorescence aptasensor for NPC-derived exosome determination exhibited excellent sensitivity and specificity, with the linear range between 500 to 5 × 10[4] particles mL[-1] and the limit of detection of 100 particles mL[-1]. It can be used for the determination of NPC-derived exosomes in clinical samples, which has a considerable clinical potential and prospect.

RevDate: 2023-01-30
CmpDate: 2023-01-30

Pellegrino GM, Browne TS, Sharath K, et al (2023)

Metabolically-targeted dCas9 expression in bacteria.

Nucleic acids research, 51(2):982-996.

The ability to restrict gene expression to a relevant bacterial species in a complex microbiome is an unsolved problem. In the context of the human microbiome, one desirable target metabolic activity are glucuronide-utilization enzymes (GUS) that are implicated in the toxic re-activation of glucuronidated compounds in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including the chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan. Here, we take advantage of the variable distribution of GUS enzymes in bacteria as a means to distinguish between bacteria with GUS activity, and re-purpose the glucuronide-responsive GusR transcription factor as a biosensor to regulate dCas9 expression in response to glucuronide inducers. We fused the Escherichia coli gusA regulatory region to the dCas9 gene to create pGreg-dCas9, and showed that dCas9 expression is induced by glucuronides, but not other carbon sources. When conjugated from E. coli to Gammaproteobacteria derived from human stool, dCas9 expression from pGreg-dCas9 was restricted to GUS-positive bacteria. dCas9-sgRNAs targeted to gusA specifically down-regulated gus operon transcription in Gammaproteobacteria, with a resulting ∼100-fold decrease in GusA activity. Our data outline a general strategy to re-purpose bacterial transcription factors responsive to exogenous metabolites for precise ligand-dependent expression of genetic tools such as dCas9 in diverse bacterial species.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

van der Oost J, C Patinios (2023)

The genome editing revolution.

Trends in biotechnology pii:S0167-7799(22)00350-X [Epub ahead of print].

A series of spectacular scientific discoveries and technological advances in the second half of the 20th century have provided the basis for the ongoing genome editing revolution. The elucidation of structural and functional features of DNA and RNA was followed by pioneering studies on genome editing: Molecular biotechnology was born. Since then, four decades followed during which progress of scientific insights and technological methods continued at an overwhelming pace. Fundamental insights into microbial host-virus interactions led to the development of tools for genome editing using restriction enzymes or the revolutionary CRISPR-Cas technology. In this review, we provide a historical overview of milestones that led to the genome editing revolution and speculate about future trends in biotechnology.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Sun SX, Liu YC, Limbu SM, et al (2023)

Vitellogenin 1 is essential for fish reproduction by transporting DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine from liver to ovary.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids pii:S1388-1981(23)00013-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Vitellogenins (Vtgs) are essential for female reproduction in oviparous animals, yet the exact roles and mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we knocked out vtg1, which is the most abundant Vtg in zebrafish, Danio rerio via the CRISPR/Cas 9 technology. We aimed to identify the roles of Vtg1 and related mechanisms in reproduction and development. We found that, the Vtg1-deficient female zebrafish reduced gonadosomatic index, egg production, yolk granules and mature follicles in ovary compared to the wide type (WT). Moreover, the Vtg1-deficient zebrafish diminished hatching rates, cumulative survival rate, swimming capacity and food intake, but increased malformation rate, and delayed swim bladder development during embryo and early-larval phases. The Vtg1-deficiency in female broodstock inhibited docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) transportation from liver to ovary, which lowered DHA-PC content in ovary and offspring during larval stage. However, the Vtg1-deficient zebrafish increased gradually the total DHA-PC content via exogeneous food intake, and the differences in swimming capacity and food intake returned to normal as they matured. Furthermore, supplementing Vtg1-deficient zebrafish with dietary PC and DHA partly ameliorated the impaired female reproductive capacity and larval development during early phases. This study indicates that, DHA and PC carried by Vtg1 are crucial for female fecundity, and affect embryo and larval development through maternal-nutrition effects. This is the first study elucidating the nutrient and physiological functions of Vtg1 and the underlying biochemical mechanisms in fish reproduction and development.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Aman Mohammadi M, Maximiano MR, Hosseini SM, et al (2023)

CRISPR-Cas engineering in food science and sustainable agriculture: recent advancements and applications.

Bioprocess and biosystems engineering pii:10.1007/s00449-022-02842-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The developments in the food supply chain to support the growing population of the world is one of today's most pressing issues, and to achieve this goal improvements should be performed in both crops and microbes. For this purpose, novel approaches such as genome editing (GE) methods have upgraded the biological sciences for genome manipulation and, among such methods, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) are the main exciting innovations since the Green Revolution. CRISPR/Cas systems can be a potent tool for the food industry, improvement of agricultural crops and even for protecting food-grade bacteria from foreign genetic invasive elements. This review introduces the history and mechanism of the CRISPR-Cas system as a genome editing tool and its applications in the vaccination of starter cultures, production of antimicrobials and bioactive compounds, and genome editing of microorganisms.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Heinemann JA, Clark K, Hiscox TC, et al (2022)

Are null segregants new combinations of heritable material and should they be regulated?.

Frontiers in genome editing, 4:1064103.

Through genome editing and other techniques of gene technology, it is possible to create a class of organism called null segregants. These genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are products of gene technology but are argued to have no lingering vestige of the technology after the segregation of chromosomes or deletion of insertions. From that viewpoint regulations are redundant because any unique potential for the use of gene technology to cause harm has also been removed. We tackle this question of international interest by reviewing the early history of the purpose of gene technology regulation. The active ingredients of techniques used for guided mutagenesis, e.g., site-directed nucleases, such as CRISPR/Cas, are promoted for having a lower potential per reaction to create a hazard. However, others see this as a desirable industrial property of the reagents that will lead to genome editing being used more and nullifying the promised hazard mitigation. The contest between views revolves around whether regulations could alter the risks in the responsible use of gene technology. We conclude that gene technology, even when used to make null segregants, has characteristics that make regulation a reasonable option for mitigating potential harm. Those characteristics are that it allows people to create more harm faster, even if it creates benefits as well; the potential for harm increases with increased use of the technique, but safety does not; and regulations can control harm scaling.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Huo Y, Zhao H, Dong Q, et al (2023)

Cryo-EM structure and protease activity of the type III-E CRISPR-Cas effector.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The recently discovered type III-E CRISPR-Cas effector Cas7-11 shows promise when used as an RNA manipulation tool, but its structure and the mechanisms underlying its function remain unclear. Here we present four cryo-EM structures of Desulfonema ishimotonii Cas7-11-crRNA complex in pre-target and target RNA-bound states, and the cryo-EM structure of DiCas7-11-crRNA bound to its accessory protein DiCsx29. These data reveal structural elements for pre-crRNA processing, target RNA cleavage and regulation. Moreover, a 3' seed region of crRNA is involved in regulating RNA cleavage activity of DiCas7-11-crRNA-Csx29. Our analysis also shows that both the minimal mismatch of 4 nt to the 5' handle of crRNA and the minimal matching of the first 12 nt of the spacer by the target RNA are essential for triggering the protease activity of DiCas7-11-crRNA-Csx29 towards DiCsx30. Taken together, we propose that target RNA recognition and cleavage regulate and fine-tune the protease activity of DiCas7-11-crRNA-Csx29, thus preventing auto-immune responses.

RevDate: 2023-01-27
CmpDate: 2023-01-27

Wu WH, Ma XM, Huang JQ, et al (2022)

CRISPR/Cas9 (D10A) nickase-mediated Hb CS gene editing and genetically modified fibroblast identification.

Bioengineered, 13(5):13398-13406.

This study investigated whether CRISPR/Cas9 (D10A) nickase-mediated gene editing can correct the aberrant Hb Constant Spring mutation (Hb CS or HBA2: c.427 T > C) in fibroblasts. Vectors for repairing the α-globin-encoding gene, HBA2:c.427 T > C mutation, includingthe CRISPR/Cas9(D10A)-sg plasmid and donor with homology arms, were constructed and used to perform gene editing in patient-derived fibroblasts. We subsequently analyzed the genetic correction, the gene editing efficiency and off-target effect. Sequencing analysis and the BamHI assay showed that HB CS mutant cells were repaired with Hb CS point mutations, the editing efficiency was 4.18%~9.34% and no off-target effects were detected. The results indicate that the HB CS mutant gene is effectively repaired by the CRISPR/Cas9 (D10A)system, which may enable truly personalized therapy for precise repair of α-thalassemia.

RevDate: 2023-01-27
CmpDate: 2023-01-27

Xu S, Wang S, Guo L, et al (2023)

Nanozyme-catalysed CRISPR-Cas12a system for the preamplification-free colorimetric detection of lead ion.

Analytica chimica acta, 1243:340827.

CRISPR-based detection was often based on the target preamplification to realize the high sensitivity. Here, we prepared a CRISPR-Cas12a system for the colorimetric detection of lead ion (Pb[2+]) based on the assistance of DNAzyme and nanozyme instead of preamplification. The recognition between GR-5 DNAzyme and Pb[2+] could trigger the CRISPR-Cas12a system. MnO2 nanozymes connected with magnetic beads through single stranded DNA were prepared as the colorimetric signal probes and catalyst of CRISPR-Cas12a system for the strong oxidase-like activity inducing the color change of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine. The nanozyme-catalysed CRISPR-Cas12a system could be used to detect Pb[2+] through the color change with high specificity and sensitivity. The linear range of this approach was 0.8 nM-2500 nM, with a limit of detection of 0.54 nM. This method was applied for the detection of the Pb[2+] in food samples indicating good accuracy and anti-interference ability.

RevDate: 2023-01-27
CmpDate: 2023-01-27

Shi K, Yi Z, Han Y, et al (2023)

PAM-free cascaded strand displacement coupled with CRISPR-Cas12a for amplified electrochemical detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.

Analytical biochemistry, 664:115046.

The early diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is dependent on the specific and sensitive detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Herein, we develop a highly sensitive and specific electrochemical biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 target RNA detection based on the integration of protospacer adjacent motif (PAM)-free cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TSDR) and CRISPR-Cas12a (PfTSDR-CRISPR). In this study, each target is transformed into multiple DNA substrates with bubble structure in the seed region by the cascaded TSDR, which can directly hybridize with guide RNA (gRNA) without PAM requirement and then activate CRISPR-Cas12a's trans-cleavage activity. Subsequently, the hairpin DNA modified with methylene blue (MB-HP) is cleaved by activated CRISPR-Cas12a. Therefore, as MB leaves the electrode surface, a decreased current signal is obtained. With the involvement of PAM-free cascaded TSDRs and CRISPR-Cas12a amplification strategy, the PfTSDR-CRISPR-based electrochemical biosensor achieves the detection of target RNA as low as 40 aM. The biosensor has high sequence specificity, reliability and robustness. Thanks to the PAM-free cascaded TSDR, the biosensor can achieve universal detection of different target RNA without redesigning gRNA sequence of CRISPR-Cas12a. In addition, this biosensor successfully detects SARS-CoV-2 target RNA in complex samples, which highlights its potential for diagnosing COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-01-27
CmpDate: 2023-01-27

Leal AF, Fnu N, Benincore-Flórez E, et al (2023)

The landscape of CRISPR/Cas9 for inborn errors of metabolism.

Molecular genetics and metabolism, 138(1):106968.

Since its discovery as a genome editing tool, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has opened new horizons in the diagnosis, research, and treatment of genetic diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 can rewrite the genome at any region with outstanding precision to modify it and further instructions for gene expression. Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM) are a group of more than 1500 diseases produced by mutations in genes encoding for proteins that participate in metabolic pathways. IEM involves small molecules, energetic deficits, or complex molecules diseases, which may be susceptible to be treated with this novel tool. In recent years, potential therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and new models have been developed using CRISPR/Cas9. In this review, we summarize the most relevant findings in the scientific literature about the implementation of CRISPR/Cas9 in IEM and discuss the future use of CRISPR/Cas9 to modify epigenetic markers, which seem to play a critical role in the context of IEM. The current delivery strategies of CRISPR/Cas9 are also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-01-27
CmpDate: 2023-01-27

Wang W, Yuan D, Jiang K, et al (2022)

Genome-Wide CRISPR-Cas9 Screening and Identification of Potential Genes Promoting Prostate Cancer Growth and Metastasis.

Current cancer drug targets, 23(1):71-86.

OBJECTIVE: Identification and validation of genes that functionally account for the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer.

METHODS: DU145-KO cell line was constructed by transfecting DU145 cells with lentivirus packaged with the genome-wide knock-out library. The DU145-KO cells were transplanted into the armpits of immunocompromised Nu/Nu mice, followed by the tissue collection from the lung at week 3 (early lung tissue) or week 7 (late lung tissue with micro-metastasis), as well as from primary tumor site at week 7 (late primary tumor) after inoculation. Lung metastasis was retrieved at various time points for DNA sequencing analysis to identify enriched sgRNAs, thus candidate genes/miRNAs. Further bioinformatics analysis and limited functional validation studies were carried out.

RESULTS: DU145-KO cells promoted the formation of transplanted tumors in mice and promoted the growth and metastasis of primary tumors, compared to the controls (DU145-NC cells). The analysis of sequence data showed that the abundance of sgRNAs significantly changed in the primary tumor and micro-metastasis site. Fifteen target genes (C1QTNF9B, FAM229A, hsa-mir-3929, KRT23, TARS2, CRADD, GRIK4, PLA2G15, LOXL1, SLITRK6, CDC42EP5, SLC2A4, PTGDS, MYL9 and ACOX2 for the enriched sgRNAs) have been selected for experimental validation, which showed that knock-out of any of these genes led to the enhanced potential of invasion and metastasis of DU145 cells.

CONCLUSION: Genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knock-out screening technology combined with highthroughput sequencing analysis identified genes that potentially relate to prostate tumor invasion and metastasis. Analysis of these genes provided insights into biological pathways relevant to the disease and disclosed innovative markers for diagnosis or prognosis as well as potential targets for therapy.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Zarghamian P, Klermund J, T Cathomen (2022)

Clinical genome editing to treat sickle cell disease-A brief update.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:1065377.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common hemoglobinopathies. Due to its high prevalence, with about 20 million affected individuals worldwide, the development of novel effective treatments is highly warranted. While transplantation of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is the standard curative treatment approach, a variety of gene transfer and genome editing strategies have demonstrated their potential to provide a prospective cure for SCD patients. Several stratagems employing CRISPR-Cas nucleases or base editors aim at reactivation of γ-globin expression to replace the faulty β-globin chain. The fetal hemoglobin (HbF), consisting of two α-globin and two γ-globin chains, can compensate for defective adult hemoglobin (HbA) and reverse the sickling of hemoglobin-S (HbS). Both disruption of cis-regulatory elements that are involved in inhibiting γ-globin expression, such as BCL11A or LRF binding sites in the γ-globin gene promoters (HBG1/2), or the lineage-specific disruption of BCL11A to reduce its expression in human erythroblasts, have been demonstrated to reestablish HbF expression. Alternatively, the point mutation in the HBB gene has been corrected using homology-directed repair (HDR)-based methodologies. In general, genome editing has shown promising results not only in preclinical animal models but also in clinical trials, both in terms of efficacy and safety. This review provides a brief update on the recent clinical advances in the genome editing space to offer cure for SCD patients, discusses open questions with regard to off-target effects induced by the employed genome editors, and gives an outlook of forthcoming developments.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Wu D, Liu J, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Temperature-dependent affinity changes in substrate binding affect the cleavage activity of BthC2c1.

Protein and peptide letters pii:PPL-EPUB-129070 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune mechanism for bacteria and archaea to resist foreign invasion. Currently, Cas9 and Cpf1 have been widely studied and applied in gene editing. C2c1 is a newly discovered CRISPR-Cas system endonuclease. It has broad application prospects due to its small molecular weight and high substrate recognition specificity.

OBJECTIVES: Bacillus thermoamylovorans C2c1(BthC2c1) was expressed in E. coli C43 (DE3) competent cells, purified, and the BthC2c1-sgRNA-dsDNA complex was assembled. The effect of temperature on the cleavage ability of the BthC2c1 system was investigated.

METHODS: The cDNA of BthC2c1 was cloned into the vector pGEX-6P-1. BthC2c1 was expressed in E. coli C43(DE3) cells and purified using a GST affinity column and FPLC. The sgRNAs were transcribed and purified in vitro, and the complexes were assembled by gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme cleavage activity of BthC2c1 at different temperatures was investigated using an in vitro cleavage assay. Microscale Thermophoresis detected the affinity of the BthC2c1-sgRNA complexes to substrate DNA.

RESULTS: BthC2c1 proteins were prokaryotically expressed and purified. The complex of BthC2c1 with sgRNA and dsDNA was assembled. In vitro cleavage assay results showed that BthC2c1 cleaved the target DNA at temperatures ranging from 37°C to 67°C. The cleavage ability of BthC2c1 at 42℃ was stronger than that at 37℃. The results of affinity detection showed that the affinity between the BthC2c1-sgRNA complex and ds36/36 at 42℃ was stronger than that at 37℃.

CONCLUSION: In this study, BthC2c1 was expressed, purified, and assembled into a complex with sgRNA and dsDNA. BthC2c1 cleaved DNA within the temperature range of 37℃ to 67℃. The affinity of BthC2c1-sgRNA to DNA at 42°C was significantly enhanced than that at 37°C. It may be related to its stringent substrate recognition pattern, which differs from Cas9 and Cpf1. The temperature-dependent affinity changes of substrate binding may be part of the reason for the stronger cleavage activity of BthC2c1 at 42℃. This study may provide an experimental basis for optimizing and modifying the C2c1 gene editing system.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Zhou Y, Yang Y, Li X, et al (2023)

Exploiting a conjugative endogenous CRISPR-Cas3 system to tackle multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

EBioMedicine, 88:104445 pii:S2352-3964(23)00010-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Mobile plasmids play a key role in spurring the global dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae, while plasmid curing has been recognized as a promising strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance. Here we exploited a K. pneumoniae native CRISPR system to cure the high-risk IncFII plasmids.

METHODS: We examined matched protospacers in 725 completely sequenced IncFII plasmids from K. pneumoniae genomes. Then, we re-engineered a native CRISPR-Cas3 system and deliver the CRISPR-Cas3 system via conjugation. Plasmid killing efficiency and G. mellonella infection model were applied to evaluate the CRISPR-Cas3 immunity in vitro and in vivo.

FINDINGS: Genomic analysis revealed that most IncFII plasmids could be targeted by the native CRISPR-Cas3 system with multiple matched protospacers, and the targeting regions were highly conserved across different IncFII plasmids. This conjugative endogenous CRISPR-Cas3 system demonstrated high plasmid curing efficiency in vitro (8-log decrease) and in vivo (∼100% curing) in a Galleria mellonella infection model, as well as provided immunization against the invasion of IncFII plasmids once the system entering a susceptible bacterial host.

INTERPRETATION: Overall, our work demonstrated the applicability of using native CRISPR-mediated plasmid curing to re-sensitize drug-resistant K. pneumoniae to multiple antibiotics. This work provided strong support for the idea of utilizing native CRISPR-Cas systems to tackle AMR in K. pneumoniae.

FUNDING: This work was supported by research grants National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant numbers 81871692, 82172315, 82102439, and 82202564], the Shanghai Science and Technology Commission [grant number 19JC1413002], and Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 22YF1437500].

RevDate: 2023-01-26
CmpDate: 2023-01-26

Gao Y, Guitton-Sert L, Dessapt J, et al (2023)

A CRISPR-Cas9 screen identifies EXO1 as a formaldehyde resistance gene.

Nature communications, 14(1):381.

Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare, genome instability-associated disease characterized by a deficiency in repairing DNA crosslinks, which are known to perturb several cellular processes, including DNA transcription, replication, and repair. Formaldehyde, a by-product of metabolism, is thought to drive FA by generating DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). However, the impact of formaldehyde on global cellular pathways has not been investigated thoroughly. Herein, using a pangenomic CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identify EXO1 as a critical regulator of formaldehyde-induced DNA lesions. We show that EXO1 knockout cell lines exhibit formaldehyde sensitivity leading to the accumulation of replicative stress, DNA double-strand breaks, and quadriradial chromosomes, a typical feature of FA. After formaldehyde exposure, EXO1 is recruited to chromatin, protects DNA replication forks from degradation, and functions in parallel with the FA pathway to promote cell survival. In vitro, EXO1-mediated exonuclease activity is proficient in removing DPCs. Collectively, we show that EXO1 limits replication stress and DNA damage to counteract formaldehyde-induced genome instability.

RevDate: 2023-01-26
CmpDate: 2023-01-26

Ma D, Yuan Q, Peng F, et al (2023)

Engineered PROTAC-CID Systems for Mammalian Inducible Gene Regulation.

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 145(3):1593-1606.

Gene regulation via chemically induced dimerization (CID) is useful for biomedical research. However, the number, type, versatility, and in vivo applications of CID tools remain limited. Here, we demonstrate the development of proteolysis-targeting chimera-based scalable CID (PROTAC-CID) platforms by systematically engineering the available PROTAC systems for inducible gene regulation and gene editing. Further, we show orthogonal PROTAC-CIDs that can fine-tune gene expression at gradient levels or multiplex biological signals with different logic gating operations. Coupling the PROTAC-CID platform with genetic circuits, we achieve digitally inducible expression of DNA recombinases, base- and prime-editors for transient genome manipulation. Finally, we package a compact PROTAC-CID system into adeno-associated viral vectors for inducible and reversible gene activation in vivo. This work provides a versatile molecular toolbox that expands the scope of chemically inducible gene regulation in human cells and mice.

RevDate: 2023-01-26
CmpDate: 2023-01-26

Yan F, Wang J, Zhang S, et al (2023)

CRISPR/FnCas12a-mediated efficient multiplex and iterative genome editing in bacterial plant pathogens without donor DNA templates.

PLoS pathogens, 19(1):e1010961.

CRISPR-based genome editing technology is revolutionizing prokaryotic research, but it has been rarely studied in bacterial plant pathogens. Here, we have developed a targeted genome editing method with no requirement of donor templates for convenient and efficient gene knockout in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), one of the most important bacterial pathogens on rice, by employing the heterologous CRISPR/Cas12a from Francisella novicida and NHEJ proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FnCas12a nuclease generated both small and large DNA deletions at the target sites as well as it enabled multiplex genome editing, gene cluster deletion, and plasmid curing in the Xoo PXO99A strain. Accordingly, a non-TAL effector-free polymutant strain PXO99AD25E, which lacks all 25 xop genes involved in Xoo pathogenesis, has been engineered through iterative genome editing. Whole-genome sequencing analysis indicated that FnCas12a did not have a noticeable off-target effect. In addition, we revealed that these strategies are also suitable for targeted genome editing in another bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). We believe that our bacterial genome editing method will greatly expand the CRISPR study on microorganisms and advance our understanding of the physiology and pathogenesis of Xoo.

RevDate: 2023-01-26
CmpDate: 2023-01-26

Hu JJ, Liu D, Cai MZ, et al (2023)

One-Pot Assay for Rapid Detection of Benzimidazole Resistance in Venturia carpophila by Combining RPA and CRISPR/Cas12a.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 71(3):1381-1390.

High resistance to benzimidazole fungicides in Venturia carpophila is caused by the point mutation E198K of the β-tubulin (TUB2) gene. Traditional methods for detection of fungicide resistance are time-consuming, which are routinely based on tedious operation, reliance on expensive equipment, and specially trained people. Therefore, it is important to establish efficient methods for field detection of benzimidazole resistance in V. carpophila to make suitable management strategies and ensure food safety. Based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with CRISPR/Cas12a, a rapid one-pot assay ORCas12a-BRVc (one-pot RPA-CRISPR/Cas12 platform) was established for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in V. carpophila. The ORCas12a-BRVc assay enabled one-pot detection by adding components at the bottom and wall of the tube separately, solving the problems of aerosol contamination and decreased sensitivity caused by competing DNA substrates between Cas12a cleavage and RPA amplification. The ORCas12a-BRVc assay could accomplish the detection with a minimum of 7.82 × 10[3] fg μL[-1] V. carpophila genomic DNA in 45 min at 37 °C. Meanwhile, this assay showed excellent specificity due to the specific recognition ability of the Cas12a-crRNA complex. Further, we combined a method that could rapidly extract DNA from V. carpophila within 2 min with the ORCas12a-BRVc to achieve more rapid and simple detection of V. carpophila with benzimidazole resistance in fields. The ORCas12a-BRVc assay has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, high specificity, and ease of operation without the need for precision instruments and the need to isolate and culture pathogens. This assay is the first application of the one-pot platform based on the combination of RPA and CRISPR/Cas12a in fungicide resistance detection and can be used for monitoring of resistant populations in fields, providing guidance on making suitable management strategies for peach scab.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Morelli KH, Smargon AA, GW Yeo (2023)

Programmable Macromolecule-based RNA-targeting Therapies To Treat Human Neurological Disorders.

RNA (New York, N.Y.) pii:rna.079519.122 [Epub ahead of print].

Disruptions in RNA processing play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. In this perspective, we discuss recent progress in the development of RNA-targeting therapeutic modalities. We focus on progress, limitations, and opportunities in a new generation of therapies engineered from RNA binding proteins and other endogenous RNA regulatory macromolecules to treat human neurological disorders.

RevDate: 2023-01-25
CmpDate: 2023-01-25

Wu Q, Michaels YS, TA Fulga (2023)

Interrogation of Functional miRNA-Target Interactions by CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Engineering.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2630:243-264.

Posttranscriptional silencing by microRNAs (miRNAs) is a critical constituent of eukaryotic gene regulation. miRNAs are short (~22 nt) noncoding RNAs capable of specifically targeting the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) to transcripts bearing a complementary miRNA response element (MRE). Although recent methodological advances have greatly improved our understanding of miRNA biogenesis and the mechanisms by which miRNAs repress their cognate targets, exploring the physiological relevance of direct miRNA-target interactions in vivo has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we describe the experimental protocol underlying a novel approach, which allows direct in situ interrogation of specific miRNA-MRE interactions by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering (Bassett G et al., Nat Commun 5, 4640, 2014). In this instance, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is first used to catalyze homology-directed replacement of candidate MREs with molecular barcodes at endogenous loci. Subsequently, the effect of MRE mutation on transcript abundance (i.e., MRE activity) can be rapidly evaluated by routine quantitative PCR. This strategy enables functional investigation of a putative miRNA-target pair in a pool of transiently transfected cells, obviating the need for generation of clonal cell lines or transgenic animals. This protocol can be implemented in any cell line in less than 2 weeks and can readily be scaled up for multiplex studies. To facilitate the conceptual workflow underlying this strategy, we also describe a genome-wide resource for automated design and computational evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNAs targeting all predicted MREs in various species (miR-CRISPR).

RevDate: 2023-01-25
CmpDate: 2023-01-25

Godden AM, Antonaci M, GN Wheeler (2023)

An Efficient CRISPR-Cas9 Method to Knock Out MiRNA Expression in Xenopus Tropicalis.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2630:231-241.

In recent years CRISPR-Cas9 knockouts (KO) have become increasingly utilized to study gene function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs, 20-25 nucleotides long, which affect gene expression through posttranscriptional repression. As miRNAs are so small and due to the limitations of known PAM sequences, it is difficult to design CRISPR sgRNAs that reproducibly lead to a KO. We have therefore developed a novel approach using two guide RNAs to effectively "drop out" a miRNA. Validation of efficient CRISPR miRNA KO and phenotype analysis included use of q-RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. To show specificity of the phenotype, we provide a protocol to use miRNA mimics to rescue the KO phenotype.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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By delivering the Cas9 nuclease, complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be precisely cut at any desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. That is, the CRISPR-Cas system provides a tool for the cut-and-paste editing of genomes. Welcome to the brave new world of genome editing. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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