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20 Jul 2024 at 01:42
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Bibliography on: covid-19


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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-07-17

Hussain A, Wang M, Yu D, et al (2024)

Medical and molecular biophysical techniques as substantial tools in the era of mRNA-based vaccine technology.

Biomaterials science [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted the advancement of vaccine technology using mRNA delivery into the host cells. Consequently, mRNA-based vaccines have emerged as a practical approach against SARS-CoV-2 owing to their inherent properties, such as cost-effectiveness, rapid manufacturing, and preservation. These features are vital, especially in resource-constrained regions. Nevertheless, the design of mRNA-based vaccines is intricately intertwined with the refinement of biophysical technologies, thereby establishing their high potential. The preparation of mRNA-based vaccines involves a sequence of phases combining medical and molecular biophysical technologies. Furthermore, their efficiency depends on the capability to optimize their positive attributes, thus paving the way for their subsequent preclinical and clinical evaluations. Using biophysical techniques, the characterization of nucleic acids extends from their initial formulation to their cellular internalization abilities and encapsulation in biomolecule complexes, such as lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), for designing mRNA-based LNPs. Furthermore, nanoparticles are subjected to a series of careful screening steps to assess their physical and chemical characteristics before achieving an optimum formulation suitable for preclinical and clinical studies. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental role of biophysical techniques in the complex development of mRNA-based vaccines and their role in the recent success during the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Pyarali M, Adeel M, Nawaz A, et al (2024)

Bell's Palsy, an Adverse Event Following COVID Vaccines.

Iranian journal of otorhinolaryngology, 36(4):527-535.

INTRODUCTION: Bell's palsy is one of the most concerning complications of the COVID vaccine that has impacted vaccine acceptance among the general population. These vaccines were introduced to provide immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and have been found to be quite effective. Little did we know that Bell's palsy could be one of its serious complications.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used various search engines to gather data in the form of a case series and case reports related to patients who were affected by the vaccine and had developed Bell's palsy.

RESULTS: A total of eleven case reports and 4 case series were included in the analysis. The vaccines mentioned in the case reports were Pfizer, Moderna, Sinovac, AstraZeneca, and Janssen, while the case series included Pfizer and Sinovac. The majority of patients were female and aged between 31-40 years. Right-sided laterality was observed in 45.45% of patients, left-sided laterality in 45.45% of patients, and bilateral laterality in 9.1% of patients. Three patients had a history of Bell's palsy or stroke. After treatment, three patients showed partial improvement, six patients fully recovered, and the status of two patients was unknown.

CONCLUSIONS: Bell's palsy is a rare complication that can occur after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. This review aims to increase awareness about this rare adverse event of the vaccine so that it can be properly addressed and managed. Additionally, it will serve as a foundation for future research on the administration of the COVID-19 vaccine.

RevDate: 2024-07-18
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Utunen H, Balaciano G, Arabi E, et al (2024)

Learning interventions and training methods in health emergencies: A scoping review.

PloS one, 19(7):e0290208.

BACKGROUND: Keeping the health workforce and the public informed about the latest evolving health information during a health emergency is critical to preventing, detecting and responding to infectious disease outbreaks or other health emergencies. Having a well-informed, ready, willing, and skilled workforce and an informed public can help save lives, reduce diseases and suffering, and minimize socio-economic loss in affected communities and countries. Providing "just in time" support and opportunities for learning in health emergencies is much needed for capacity building. In this paper, 'learning intervention' refers to the provision of ad-hoc, focused, or personalized training sessions with the goal of preparing the health workers for emergencies or filling specific knowledge or skill gaps. We refer to 'training methods' as instructional design strategies used to teach someone the necessary knowledge and skills to perform a task.

METHODS: We conducted a scoping review to map and better understand what learning interventions and training methods have been used in different types of health emergencies and by whom. Studies were identified using six databases (Pubmed/Medline, Embase, Hinari, WorldCat, CABI and Web of Science) and by consulting with experts. Characteristics of studies were mapped and displayed and major topic areas were identified.

RESULTS: Of the 319 records that were included, contexts most frequently covered were COVID-19, disasters in general, Ebola and wars. Four prominent topic areas were identified: 1) Knowledge acquisition, 2) Emergency plans, 3) Impact of the learning intervention, and 4) Training methods. Much of the evidence was based on observational methods with few trials, which likely reflects the unique context of each health emergency. Evolution of methods was apparent, particularly in virtual learning. Learning during health emergencies appeared to improve knowledge, general management of the situation, quality of life of both trainers and affected population, satisfaction and clinical outcomes.

CONCLUSION: This is the first scoping review to map the evidence, which serves as a first step in developing urgently needed global guidance to further improve the quality and reach of learning interventions and training methods in this context.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Du Z, Liu C, Bai Y, et al (2024)

Predicting Efficacies of Fractional Doses of Vaccines by Using Neutralizing Antibody Levels: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JMIR public health and surveillance, 10:e49812 pii:v10i1e49812.

BACKGROUND: With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that have eluded immunity from vaccines and prior infections, vaccine shortages and vaccine effectiveness pose unprecedented challenges for governments in expanding booster vaccination programs. The fractionation of vaccine doses might be an effective strategy for helping society to face these challenges, as fractional doses may have efficacies comparable with those of the standard doses.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between vaccine immunogenicity and protection and to project efficacies of fractional doses of vaccines for COVID-19 by using neutralizing antibody levels.

METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the relationship between in vitro neutralization levels and the observed efficacies against both asymptomatic infection and symptomatic infection, using data from 13 studies of 10 COVID-19 vaccines and from convalescent cohorts. We further projected efficacies for fractional doses, using neutralization as an intermediate variable, based on immunogenicity data from 51 studies included in our systematic review.

RESULTS: In comparisons with the convalescent level, vaccine efficacy against asymptomatic infection and symptomatic infection increased from 8.8% (95% CI 1.4%-16.1%) to 71.8% (95% CI 63%-80.7%) and from 33.6% (95% CI 23.6%-43.6%) to 98.6% (95% CI 97.6%-99.7%), respectively, as the mean neutralization level increased from 0.1 to 10 folds of the convalescent level. Additionally, mRNA vaccines provided the strongest protection, which decreased slowly for fractional dosing with dosages between 50% and 100% of the standard dose. We also observed that although vaccine efficacy increased with the mean neutralization level, the rate of this increase was slower for vaccine efficacy against asymptomatic infection than for vaccine efficacy against symptomatic infection.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with studies on immune protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on our study, we expect that fractional-dose vaccination could provide partial immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for the efficacy of fractional-dose vaccines, serving as reference evidence for implementing fractional dosing vaccine policies in areas facing vaccine shortages and thereby mitigating disease burden. Fractional-dose vaccination could be a viable vaccination strategy comparable to full-dose vaccination and deserves further exploration.

RevDate: 2024-07-19
CmpDate: 2024-07-19

Eftekhar Z, Haybar H, Mohebbi A, et al (2024)

Cardiac Complications and COVID-19: A Review of Life-threatening Co-morbidities.

Current cardiology reviews, 20(3):1-12.

The novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first reported in the last days of December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The presence of certain co-morbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), are the basis for worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Relevant English-language literature was searched and retrieved from the Google Scholar search engine and PubMed database up to 2023 using COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Heart failure, Myocardial infarction, and Arrhythmia and Cardiac complication as keywords. Increased hemodynamic load, ischemia-related dysfunction, ventricular remodeling, excessive neurohumoral stimulation, abnormal myocyte calcium cycling, and excessive or insufficient extracellular matrix proliferation are associated with heart failure (HF) in COVID-19 patients. Inflammatory reaction due to the excessive release of inflammatory cytokines, leads to myocardial infarction (MI) in these patients. The virus can induce heart arrhythmia through cardiac complications, hypoxia, decreased heart hemodynamics, and remarkable inflammatory markers. Moreover, studies have linked cardiac complications in COVID-19 with poor outcomes, extended hospitalization time, and increased mortality rate. Patients with COVID-19 and CVDs are at higher mortality risk and they should be given high priority when receiving the treatment and intensive care during hospitalization.

RevDate: 2024-07-19
CmpDate: 2024-07-19

Dobhal K, Garg R, Singh A, et al (2024)

Insight into the Natural Biomolecules (BMs): Promising Candidates as Zika Virus Inhibitors.

Infectious disorders drug targets, 24(7):e020224226681.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is among the relatively new infectious disease threats that include SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, monkeypox (Mpox) virus, etc. ZIKV has been reported to cause severe health risks to the fetus. To date, satisfactory treatment is still not available for the treatment of ZIKV infection. This review examines the last five years of work using natural biomolecules (BMs) to counteract the ZIKV through virtual screening and in vitro investigations. Virtual screening has identified doramectin, pinocembrin, hesperidins, epigallocatechin gallate, pedalitin, and quercetin as potentially active versus ZIKV infection. In vitro, testing has shown that nordihydroguaiaretic acid, mefloquine, isoquercitrin, glycyrrhetinic acid, patentiflorin-A, rottlerin, and harringtonine can reduce ZIKV infections in cell lines. However, in vivo, testing is limited, fortunately, emetine, rottlerin, patentiflorin-A, and lycorine have shown in vivo anti- ZIKV potential. This review focuses on natural biomolecules that show a particularly high selective index (>10). There is limited in vivo and clinical trial data for natural BMs, which needs to be an active area of investigation. This review aims to compile the known reference data and discuss the barriers associated with discovering and using natural BM agents to control ZIKV infection.

RevDate: 2024-07-19
CmpDate: 2024-07-19

Kaur G, Kaur R, Sumanpreet , et al (2024)

Association of COVID with Mycosis in General.

Infectious disorders drug targets, 24(6):e190124225866.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory disease which created havoc worldwide, was accompanied by another peculiar, otherwise rare, secondary fungal infection Mucormycosis which was observed at exceptionally high incidence in India during the second wave of COVID-19. The article explores possible links between the two infectious diseases to understand a higher-than-normal occurrence of Mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Coronavirus enters the patients through ACE-2 and many other receptors like- NRP-1, TfR, CD-126, and CD-26. Virus bind to cells possessing these receptors and affect their proper functioning, disturbing homeostatic metabolism and resulting in conditions like hyperglycemia, Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), low serum pH, iron overload, anemia, hypoxia, and immunosuppression as explained in the article. All these outcomes provide a very supportive environment for the attack and spread of Mucormycosis fungi. The major receptor for Mucormycosis in humans is the GRP-78. Its expression is upregulated by coronavirus entry and by hyperferritinemia, hyperglycemia, and acidic conditions prevalent in COVID patients, thus providing an easy entry for the fungal species. Upregulation of GRP-78 furthermore damages pancreatic β-cells and intensifies hyperglycemia, showing quite a synergic relationship. Inordinate rise of Mucormycosis cases in India might be explained by facts like- India possessing a large proportion of diabetic patients, emergence of a very deadly strain of coronavirus- Delta strain, higher doses of steroids and antibodies used to treat patients against this strain, overburdened health care services, sudden much higher need of oxygen supply and use of industrial oxygen could explain the Mucormycosis outbreak observed in India during the second wave of COVID-19.

OBJECTIVE: The present review discusses the functional interdependence between COVID-19 and Mucormycosis and summarizes the possible synergic links between COVID and Mucormycosis.

CONCLUSION: The receptors and metabolic pathways affected by COVID-19 result in severe physiological conditions- hyperglycemia, DKA, anemia, iron overload, immunosuppression, and hypoxia. All these conditions not only increase the expression of GRP-78, the major receptor for entry of fungi but also play a crucial role in providing quality media for Mucormycosis fungus to establish and grow. Hence explains the fungal epidemic observed in India during the second wave of COVID-19 in India.

RevDate: 2024-07-17

Leonard R, O'Connor SR, Hanratty J, et al (2024)

Psychological and psychosocial determinants of COVID-related handwashing behaviours: A systematic review.

Campbell systematic reviews, 20(3):e1421.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has resulted in illness, deaths and societal disruption on a global scale. Societies have implemented various control measures to reduce transmission of the virus and mitigate its impact. Individual behavioural changes are crucial to the successful implementation of these measures. One commonly recommended measure to limit risk of infection is frequent handwashing. It is important to identify those factors that can predict the uptake and maintenance of handwashing.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify and synthesise the evidence on malleable psychological and psychosocial factors that determine uptake and adherence to handwashing aimed at reducing the risk of infection or transmission of COVID-19.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched various literature sources including electronic databases (Medline ALL, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, ERIC, PsycInfo, CINAHL and Web of Science), web searches, conference proceedings, government reports, other repositories of literature and grey literature. The search strategy was built around three concepts of interest including (1) context (terms relating to COVID-19), (2) behaviour of interest and (3) terms related to psychological and psychosocial determinants of COVID Health-Related Behaviours and adherence or compliance with handwashing, to capture malleable determines. Searches capture studies up until October 2021.

SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligibility criteria included observational studies (both retrospective and prospective) and experimental studies that measure and report malleable psychological and psychosocial determinants and handwashing at an individual level, amongst the general public. Screening was supported by the Cochrane Crowd. Titles and abstracts were screened against the eligibility criteria by three independent screeners. Following this, all potentially relevant studies were screened at full-text level by the research team. All conflicts between screeners were resolved by discussion between the core research team.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: All data extraction was managed in EPPI-Reviewer software. All eligible studies, identified through full-text screening were extracted by one author. We extracted data on study information, population, determinant, behaviour and effects. A second author checked data extraction on 20% of all included papers. All conflicts were discussed by the two authors until consensus was reached.We assessed methodological quality of all included studies using an adapted version of the Joanna Briggs Institute Quality appraisal tool for cross-sectional studies.

MAIN RESULTS: Our initial searches yielded 23,587 results, of which 56 studies were included in this review. The included studies were cross sectional in design, came from 22 countries and had a combined sample of 199,376 participants. The vast majority of studies had samples from the general public, with eight of the studies focusing on specific samples. All included studies considered people over the age of 18. The quality of the majority of the studies was good (n = 30 rated low risk of bias), with 8 rated high risk of bias, predominately due to lack of reporting of recruitment, sample characteristics and methodology. Thirty-four studies were included in the narrative synthesis and 28 in the meta-analysis.Findings indicated that emotions about COVID-19 (worry [0.381, confidence interval [CI] = 0.270-0.482, I [2] = 92%) and anxiety (0.308, CI = 0.154-0.448, I [2] = 91%]), knowledge of COVID-19 (0.323, CI = 0.223-0.417, I [2] = 94%), and perceived social norms (0.303, CI = 0.184-0.413, I [2] = 92%) were among the malleable determinants most associated with handwashing. Perceived severity (0.006, CI = -0.011-0.023) and susceptibility of COVID-19 (0.041, CI = -0.034 to 0.115) had little to no effect on handwashing behaviour.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the effects of various malleable determinants on COVID-related handwashing can aid in the development and implementation of interventions and public health campaigns to promote handwashing behaviour in potential new waves of COVID-19 or other respiratory infections. Emotions about COVID, knowledge of COVID and perceived social norms warrant further consideration in future research and policy.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Gray B, Lubbock K, Love C, et al (2024)

Analytical advances in horseracing medication and doping control from 2018 to 2023.

Drug testing and analysis [Epub ahead of print].

The analytical approaches taken by laboratories to implement robust and efficient regulation of horseracing medication and doping control are complex and constantly evolving. Each laboratory's approach will be dictated by differences in regulatory, economic and scientific drivers specific to their local environment. However, in general, laboratories will all be undertaking developments and improvements to their screening strategies in order to meet new and emerging threats as well as provide improved service to their customers. In this paper, the published analytical advances in horseracing medication and doping control since the 22nd International Conference of Racing Analysts and Veterinarians will be reviewed. Due to the unprecedented impact of COVID-19 on the worldwide economy, the normal 2-year period of this review was extended to over 5 years. As such, there was considerable ground to cover, resulting in an increase in the number of relevant publications included from 107 to 307. Major trends in publications will be summarised and possible future directions highlighted. This will cover developments in the detection of 'small' and 'large' molecule drugs, sample preparation procedures and the use of alternative matrices, instrumental advances/applications, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, the detection and prevalence of 'endogenous' compounds and biomarker and OMICs approaches. Particular emphasis will be given to research into the potential threat of gene doping, which is a significant area of new and continued research for many laboratories. Furthermore, developments in analytical instrumentation relevant to equine medication and doping control will be discussed.

RevDate: 2024-07-18

Nithya Shree J, Premika T, Sharlin S, et al (2024)

Diverse approaches to express recombinant spike protein: A comprehensive review.

Protein expression and purification, 223:106556 pii:S1046-5928(24)00128-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The spike protein of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for infecting host cells. It has two segments, S1 and S2. The S1 segment has a receptor-binding domain (RBD) that attaches to the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S2 segment helps in the fusion of the viral cell membrane by creating a six-helical bundle through the two-heptad repeat domain. To develop effective vaccines and therapeutics against COVID-19, it is critical to express and purify the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Extensive studies have been conducted on expression of a complete recombinant spike protein or its fragments. This review provides an in-depth analysis of the different expression systems employed for spike protein expression, along with their advantages and disadvantages.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Choinski K, Smolock C, J Phair (2024)

The Top One Hundred Most Cited Articles in Venous Disease and Management.

Annals of vascular surgery pii:S0890-5096(24)00413-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Advancements in the management of venous disease have been documented in scientific literature. We performed a bibliometric analysis using citations as an indication of impact to analyze the most influential articles on venous disease and treatment.

METHODS: A retrospective search of the Web of Science database was conducted in May 2023. Key search terms were queried to generate relevant articles. Articles were ranked on total number of citations and average number of citations per year. Metrics analyzed included top journals, impact factor, journal discipline, institution and country of publication, author degree and gender, number of publications per year, level of evidence, and article topic area.

RESULTS: The top 100 articles on venous disease were published between 1994 and 2020, with a total of 102,856 citations, average 1028 citations/article, and mean of 70 citations/year. The most popular article was "Incidence of thrombotic complications of in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19" with 3,482 citations in total. The most popular journals were New England Journal of Medicine (22 articles), Lancet (14 articles), and CHEST (13 articles), pertaining to management of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The Journal of Vascular surgery had 2 influential articles, focused on management of chronic venous disease. Many articles were published in the United States (52), Canada (38), and Netherlands (25). Prolific authors were predominantly male (96%) and 59% were MDs versus 29% combined MD/PhD and 12% PhDs. Popular venous articles included guidelines/standards for DVT management (12%), epidemiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (12%), and anticoagulation for DVT (12%). Specific VTE risk factors within popular literature included prothrombotic genes, malignancy, pregnancy, trauma, and COVID-19. Articles on surgical interventions included inferior vena cava filter placement, catheter-directed thrombolysis, and risks of femoral and subclavian vein catheterization. Venous stenting and mechanical thrombectomy were not within the top articles.

CONCLUSIONS: Top cited articles on venous disease emphasized management of DVT, followed by chronic venous disease, through the collaboration of multiple medical and surgical specialties. The largest number of citations in recent DVT literature was driven by COVID-19 complications.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Sotnikova-Meleshkina ZV, Yatsyk YO, Bobrova OV, et al (2024)

The influence of vitamin and mineral consumption on the course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960), 77(5):1086-1092.

OBJECTIVE: Aim: The study of the role of micronutrients in the prevention of the severe course of the coronavirus disease.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: In order to fulfill the task, there was conducted an analytical review of medical and biological publications in English in the electronic databases PubMed Medline of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the period from 2015 to November 2023, where included 50 published articles, 28 preprints and 109 trials. In the course of the study, the bibliographic-semantic research method was used according to the "Preferred Reporting Elements for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" (PRISMA) protocol. According to this protocol, identified literary sources were sequentially analyzed by title, keywords, abstract and full text of articles. Based on the results of 16 searches, 2650 articles from PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Embase, 3162 articles from preprint servers and 237 trials were rejected. In the final article synthesis, we included 50 published articles, 28 preprints, and 109 trials.

CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The most effective in preventing complications of the coronavirus disease are vitamins A, D, E, K, C, B3, B6, B9, B12 and such mineral substances as Mg, Se and Zn. The consumption of appropriate bioactive complexes and source products can be considered a clinically and economically effective strategy for the prevention of a severe course of the coronavirus disease.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

da Silva MBF, CMLL Teixeira (2024)

Cyanobacterial and microalgae polymers: antiviral activity and applications.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

At the end of 2019, the world witnessed the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. As an aggressive viral infection, the entire world remained attentive to new discoveries about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its effects in the human body. The search for new antivirals capable of preventing and/or controlling the infection became one of the main goals of research during this time. New biocompounds from marine sources, especially microalgae and cyanobacteria, with pharmacological benefits, such as anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral attracted particular interest. Polysaccharides (PS) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), especially those containing sulfated groups in their structure, have potential antiviral activity against several types of viruses including HIV-1, herpes simplex virus type 1, and SARS-CoV-2. We review the main characteristics of PS and EPS with antiviral activity, the mechanisms of action, and the different extraction methodologies from microalgae and cyanobacteria biomass.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Kim S, Park J, Lee H, et al (2024)

Global public concern of childhood and adolescence suicide: a new perspective and new strategies for suicide prevention in the post-pandemic era.

World journal of pediatrics : WJP [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Suicide is the second leading cause of death in young people worldwide and is responsible for about 52,000 deaths annually in children and adolescents aged 5-19 years. Familial, social, psychological, and behavioral factors play important roles in suicide risk. As traumatic events such as the COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to suicidal behaviors in young people, there is a need to understand the current status of suicide in adolescents, including its epidemiology, associated factors, the influence of the pandemic, and management initiatives.

DATA SOURCES: We investigated global and regional suicide mortality rates among children and adolescents aged 5-19 years using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019. The suicide mortality rates from 1990 to 2019 were examined in 204 countries and territories across six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. Additionally, we utilized electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus, and employed various combinations of terms such as "suicide", "adolescents", "youth", "children", "risk factors", "COVID-19 pandemic", "prevention", and "intervention" to provide a narrative review on suicide within the pediatric population in the post-pandemic era.

RESULTS: Despite the decreasing trend in the global suicide mortality rate from 1990 to 2019, it remains high. The mortality rates from suicide by firearms or any other specified means were both greater in males. Additionally, Southeast Asia had the highest suicide rate among the six WHO regions. The COVID-19 pandemic seems to contribute to suicide risk in young people; thus, there is still a strong need to revisit appropriate management for suicidal children and adolescents during the pandemic.

CONCLUSIONS: The current narrative review integrates up-to-date knowledge on suicide epidemiology and the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, risk factors, and intervention strategies. Although numerous studies have characterized trends in suicide among young people during the pre-pandemic era, further studies are required to investigate suicide during the pandemic and new strategies for suicide prevention in the post-pandemic era. It is necessary to identify effective prevention strategies targeting young people, particularly those at high risk, and successful treatment for individuals already manifesting suicidal behaviors. Care for suicidal children and adolescents should be improved with parental, school, community, and clinical involvement.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Heinz A, Gutwinski S, Krausz M, et al (2024)

[Challenges in the treatment of opioid dependence].

Der Nervenarzt [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The number of persons using opioids has increased worldwide in the last decade, particularly the use of opioid analgesics in North America and Africa. In Germany, the prevalence of heroin addiction has remained relatively stable.

METHOD: Narrative review of the literature.

RESULTS: Opioid-assisted maintenance treatment (OMT) with the established substances methadone, levomethadone, slow-release morphine and buprenorphine is recommended as the first-line treatment for heroin dependence. The OMT reduces the use of heroin, mortality and individual suffering and improves the quality of life and physical health. A diamorphine and heroine-assisted treatment is an option for people who do not benefit from conventional OMT. An alternative to the use of diamorphine could be treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride. The regulations on carrying out maintenance treatment in the Controlled Substances Prescription Act and the guidelines of the Federal Medical Association in Germany have been loosened based on the experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic, for example with respect to take-home prescriptions. There is an ongoing intensive discussion on how to deal with the decreasing number of outpatient clinics offering OMT.

CONCLUSION: The first-line treatment for opioid addiction is opioid-assisted substitution treatment, including diamorphine and heroin-assisted treatment. Long-acting depot medications and implants still play a subordinate role.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Kontandreopoulou CN, Solomou EE, Kolorizos E, et al (2024)

Vaccine challenges in CLL: a comprehensive exploration of efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 immunization for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Annals of hematology [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by disease- and treatment-related immunosuppression. Patients with CLL comprise a vulnerable population to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination remains uncertain.We conducted a systematic review to evaluate published data reporting response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with CLL. The primary outcome was the rate of seropositivity after full primary vaccination, while secondary outcomes were rates of positive neutralizing antibodies, cellular responses, and adverse events. Response after booster doses of vaccination was also evaluated.Twenty-three studies of full primary vaccination (12 CLL-specific with 1747 patients, 11 with mixed hematologic diseases including 1044 patients with CLL) with a total of 2791 patients, and eight studies on booster doses with 389 patients were included in the analysis. The serologic response varied between studies with a median of 55%. Where reported, the median neutralizing antibody response rate was 61.2% and the cellular response rate was 44.2%. Poor serologic response was noted in patients under active treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, BCL2, and BTK inhibitors.The present review highlights the substantially impaired humoral and cellular response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients with CLL with patients under active treatment being the most vulnerable.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Ding Z, Wei X, Pan H, et al (2024)

Unveiling the intricacies of COVID-19: Autoimmunity, multi-organ manifestations and the role of autoantibodies.

Scandinavian journal of immunology, 99(2):e13344.

COVID-19 is a severe infectious disease caused by a SARS-CoV-2 infection. It has caused a global pandemic and can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Beyond the respiratory system, the disease manifests in multiple organs, producing a spectrum of clinical symptoms. A pivotal factor in the disease's progression is autoimmunity, which intensifies its severity and contributes to multi-organ injuries. The intricate interaction between the virus' spike protein and human proteins may engender the generation of autoreactive antibodies through molecular mimicry. This can further convolute the immune response, with the potential to escalate into overt autoimmunity. There is also emerging evidence to suggest that COVID-19 vaccinations might elicit analogous autoimmune responses. Advanced technologies have pinpointed self-reactive antibodies that target diverse organs or immune-modulatory proteins. The interplay between autoantibody levels and multi-organ manifestations underscores the importance of regular monitoring of serum antibodies and proinflammatory markers. A combination of immunosuppressive treatments and antiviral therapy is crucial for managing COVID-19-associated autoimmune diseases. The review will focus on the generation of autoantibodies in the context of COVID-19 and their impact on organ health.

RevDate: 2024-07-15

Voormann AJ, C Specker (2024)

[The German Society for Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology (DGRh) and the COVID-19 pandemic].

Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie [Epub ahead of print].

The pandemic led to a global disruption of public life unprecedented in modern times due to an infectious disease, which certainly caused additional special burdens for patients with chronic diseases as well as for personnel in the healthcare system. The German Society of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology (DGRh), with its Executive Board and two ad hoc commissions, responded promptly to the complex challenges posed by the pandemic for rheumatological care in Germany with provision of a comprehensive and professionally sound range of information and provided concrete assistance in many situations. The diverse activities of the DGRh in the context of the pandemic led to national and international attention and consideration of its committees and recommendations in national committees and guidelines.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Dobrek Ł (2024)

A review on the current approaches and perspectives of Covid-19 treatment.

Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego, 52(3):337-346.

At the beginning of 2020, the world was faced with the challenge of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic announced by the WHO on March 11, caused by the betacoronavirus type 2 of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), which had profound health, sociological and even economic consequences. The quickly implemented and large-scale research resulted in the introduction of widely available vaccines that reduced the further development of the pandemic and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Currently, 11 antiviral drugs (Tixagevimab/Cilgavimab, Regdanvimab, Casirivimab/Imdevimab, Sotrovimab, Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir, Remdesivir, Molnupiravir, Baricitinib, Anakinra, Tocilizumab, Vilobelimab) have been approved or conditionally approved by the European Medicines Agency and/or by the Food and Drug Administration and are available on the pharmaceutical market. The progress in the pathophysiological description of the SARS-CoV-2 infection has allowed the identif i cation of potential targets for drugs against SARS-CoV-2: inhibitors of intracellular entry of the virus (the interaction between the viral spike (S) protein and the cellular angiotensin converting enzyme-2; ACE2 receptor), inhibitors of viral and cellular proteases, and immunomodulatory drugs (antagonists of pro-inf l ammatory cytokines or complement components). Novel agents against SARS-CoV-2 are also sought among the previously routinely used drugs as their repositioning and among plant-derived compounds. It is expected that ongoing research should result in the introduction of new drugs used in COVID-19 in the near future. The article brief l y describes the current epidemiological situation regarding COVID-19 and the currently used vaccines. Moreover, the paper outlines currently used and researched potential drugs in the pharmacotherapy of this disease.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Liang G, Han Y, He H, et al (2024)

Case report and brief literature review: possible association of secukinumab with Guillain-Barré syndrome in psoriasis.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1412470.

The etiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) may be autoimmune. About two-thirds of patients typically experience their first symptoms within 5 days to 3 weeks after common infectious diseases, surgery, or vaccination. Infection is a triggering factor for over 50% of patients. In recent years, a growing number of studies have indicated that some immune checkpoint inhibitors and COVID-19 may also contribute to the occurrence of GBS. However, drugs are considered a rare cause of GBS. The patient in our case was a 70-year-old man who developed GBS after initiating secukinumab for psoriasis. Upon diagnosis suggesting a potential association between secukinumab and the development of GBS, as per the Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR) probability scale, we decided to discontinue the drug. Following this intervention, along with the administration of immunoglobulin, the patient exhibited a significant improvement in extremity weakness. The association of GBS with secukinumab treatment, as observed in this case, appears to be uncommon. The underlying mechanisms that may link secukinumab to the development of GBS are not yet fully understood and warrant further scientific inquiry and rigorous investigation. However, we hope that this report can raise greater awareness and vigilance among medical professionals to enhance the safety of patients' medication.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Çakır GY, Paşaoğlu IB, Çakır İ, et al (2024)

Adie's tonic pupil after COVID-19: a case report and literature review.

Romanian journal of ophthalmology, 68(2):89-91.

Objective: Various neurological complications have been reported after COVID-19. The study aimed to document an unusual case of Adie's tonic pupil following COVID-19. Methods: The study was a case report. Results: A 28-year-old female had suffered a flu-like disease about 2 months before and the SARSCoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test at that time was positive. Two weeks after infection she noticed an asymmetry between the pupils. The only pathological finding on examination was anisocoria with a larger left pupil in ambient light. Light reflexes were observed in the right eye, while in the left eye, they were absent. Also, there was no near response in the left pupil. A 0.1% pilocarpine test results validated Adie's pupil diagnosis. After one year of follow-up, the anisocoria decreased but did not completely recover. Discussion: COVID-19 may cause damage to neural structures due to autoimmune ways by activating immune pathways or because of vascular complications that may affect the vasa nervorum. Adie's tonic pupil is often idiopathic, but it may develop following viral infection. Conclusions: Ocular complications that involve pupil abnormalities may manifest following COVID-19. In the cases of Adie's tonic pupil, infectious diseases, including COVID-19, should be questioned. Abbreviations: RT PCR = reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Nasir N, Khanum I, Habib K, et al (2024)

Insight into COVID-19 associated liver injury: Mechanisms, evaluation, and clinical implications.

Hepatology forum, 5(3):139-149.

COVID-19 has affected millions worldwide, causing significant morbidity and mortality. While predominantly involving the respiratory tract, SARS-CoV-2 has also caused systemic illnesses involving other sites. Liver injury due to COVID-19 has been variably reported in observational studies. It has been postulated that liver damage may be due to direct damage by the SARS-CoV-2 virus or multifactorial secondary to hepatotoxic therapeutic options, as well as cytokine release syndrome and sepsis-induced multiorgan dysfunction. The approach to a COVID-19 patient with liver injury requires a thorough evaluation of the pattern of hepatocellular injury, along with the presence of underlying chronic liver disease and concurrent medications which may cause drug-induced liver injury. While studies have shown uneventful recovery in the majority of mildly affected patients, severe COVID-19 associated liver injury has been associated with higher mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and greater morbidity in survivors. Furthermore, its impact on long-term outcomes remains to be ascertained as recent studies report an association with metabolic-fatty liver disease. This present review provides insight into the subject by describing the postulated mechanism of liver injury, its impact in the presence of pre-existing liver disease, and its short- and long-term clinical implications.

RevDate: 2024-07-18
CmpDate: 2024-07-18

Huang X, Chen X, Xian Y, et al (2024)

Anti-virus activity and mechanisms of natural polysaccharides from medicinal herbs.

Carbohydrate research, 542:109205.

There has been a sudden increase in viral diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causing significant harm to human and animal well-being, as well as economic development. Medicinal herbs, with a history of thousands of years in clinical use, contain versatile polysaccharides as one of their primary compounds. This review offers an overview of the antiviral effects of polysaccharides from medicinal herbs on viruses in humans, poultry, swine and aquaculture in recent years. The mechanism of these antiviral polysaccharides, involved in hindering various stages of the viral life cycle thereby blocking virus infection, is summarized. The review also explores other underlying mechanisms of antiviral effects, such as enhancing the immune response, regulating inflammatory reactions, balancing gut flora, reducing oxidative stress, and suppressing apoptosis through various corresponding signaling pathways. The structure-function relationships discussed in this article also aid in understanding the antiviral mechanism of natural polysaccharides, indicating the need for more in-depth research and analysis. Natural polysaccharides from medicinal herbs have emerged as valuable resources in the fight against viral infections, exhibiting high effectiveness. This review emphasizes the promising role of polysaccharides from medicinal herbs as potential candidates for blocking viral infections in humans and animals.

RevDate: 2024-07-18
CmpDate: 2024-07-18

Rafiee MJ, MG Friedrich (2024)

MRI of cardiac involvement in COVID-19.

The British journal of radiology, 97(1160):1367-1377.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has led to a diverse pattern of myocardial injuries, including myocarditis, which is linked to adverse outcomes in patients. Research indicates that myocardial injury is associated with higher mortality in hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients (75.8% vs 9.7%). Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) has emerged as a crucial tool in diagnosing both ischaemic and non-ischaemic myocardial injuries, providing detailed insights into the impact of COVID-19 on myocardial tissue and function. This review synthesizes existing studies on the histopathological findings and CMR imaging patterns of myocardial injuries in COVID-19 patients. CMR imaging has revealed a complex pattern of cardiac damage in these patients, including myocardial inflammation, oedema, fibrosis, and ischaemic injury, due to coronary microthrombi. This review also highlights the role of LLC criteria in diagnosis of COVID-related myocarditis and the importance of CMR in detecting cardiac complications of COVID-19 in specific groups, such as children, manifesting multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and athletes, as well as myocardial injuries post-COVID-19 infection or following COVID-19 vaccination. By summarizing existing studies on CMR in COVID-19 patients and highlighting ongoing research, this review contributes to a deeper understanding of the cardiac impacts of COVID-19. It emphasizes the effectiveness of CMR in assessing a broad spectrum of myocardial injuries, thereby enhancing the management and prognosis of patients with COVID-19 related cardiac complications.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Lee JH, Sergi C, Kast RE, et al (2024)

Basic implications on three pathways associated with SARS-CoV-2.

Biomedical journal pii:S2319-4170(24)00069-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interacts between the host and virus and govern induction, resulting in multiorgan impacts. Its pathophysiology involves the followings: 1) the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways: 2) the neuropilin (NRP) pathway: 3) the spike protein pathway. Therefore, it is necessary to block the pathological course with modulating innate lymphoid cells against diverse corona variants in the future.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Wilson JD, Dworsky-Fried M, N Ismail (2024)

Neurodevelopmental implications of COVID-19-induced gut microbiome dysbiosis in pregnant women.

Journal of reproductive immunology, 165:104300 pii:S0165-0378(24)00109-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The global public health emergency of COVID-19 in January 2020 prompted a surge in research focusing on the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of the virus. While numerous reports have been published on the acute effects of COVID-19 infection, the review explores the multifaceted long-term implications of COVID-19, with a particular focus on severe maternal COVID-19 infection, gut microbiome dysbiosis, and neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring. Severe COVID-19 infection has been associated with heightened immune system activation and gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe COVID-19 may also result in gut microbiome dysbiosis and a compromised intestinal mucosal barrier, often referred to as 'leaky gut'. Increased gut permeability facilitates the passage of inflammatory cytokines, originating from the inflamed intestinal mucosa and gut, into the bloodstream, thereby influencing fetal development during pregnancy and potentially elevating the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. The current review discusses the role of cytokine signaling molecules, microglia, and synaptic pruning, highlighting their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders following maternal COVID-19 infection. Additionally, this review addresses the potential of probiotic interventions to mitigate gut dysbiosis and inflammatory responses associated with COVID-19, offering avenues for future research in optimizing maternal and fetal health outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-07-14

Fazel F, Doost JS, Raj S, et al (2024)

The mRNA vaccine platform for veterinary species.

Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 274:110803 pii:S0165-2427(24)00089-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Vaccination has proven to be an effective means of controlling pathogens in animals. Since the introduction of veterinary vaccines in the 19th century, several generations of vaccines have been introduced. These vaccines have had a positive impact on global animal health and production. Despite, the success of veterinary vaccines, there are still some pathogens for which there are no effective vaccines available, such as African swine fever. Further, animal health is under the constant threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, some of which are zoonotic and can pose a threat to human health. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has highlighted the need for new vaccine platforms that are safe and efficacious, but also importantly, are adaptable and can be modified rapidly to match the circulating pathogens. mRNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective vaccine platform against various viral and bacterial pathogens. This review will cover some of the recent advances in the field of mRNA vaccines for veterinary species. Moreover, various mRNA vaccines and their delivery methods, as well as their reported efficacy, will be discussed. Current limitations and future prospects of this vaccine platform in veterinary medicine will also be discussed.

RevDate: 2024-07-17
CmpDate: 2024-07-17

Chin T, Foxman EF, Watkins TA, et al (2024)

Considerations for viral co-infection studies in human populations.

mBio, 15(7):e0065824.

When respiratory viruses co-circulate in a population, individuals may be infected with multiple pathogens and experience possible virus-virus interactions, where concurrent or recent prior infection with one virus affects the infection process of another virus. While experimental studies have provided convincing evidence for within-host mechanisms of virus-virus interactions, evaluating evidence for viral interference or potentiation using population-level data has proven more difficult. Recent studies have quantified the prevalence of co-detections using populations drawn from clinical settings. Here, we focus on selection bias issues associated with this study design. We provide a quantitative account of the conditions under which selection bias arises in these studies, review previous attempts to address this bias, and propose unbiased study designs with sample size estimates needed to ascertain viral interference. We show that selection bias is expected in cross-sectional co-detection prevalence studies conducted in clinical settings, except under a strict set of assumptions regarding the relative probabilities of being included in a study limited to individuals with clinical disease under different viral states. Population-wide studies that collect samples from participants irrespective of their clinical status would meanwhile require large sample sizes to be sufficiently powered to detect viral interference, suggesting that a study's timing, inclusion criteria, and the expected magnitude of interference are instrumental in determining feasibility.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Permana H, Soeriadi EA, Damara FA, et al (2022)

The Prognostic Properties of Thyroid Disorders, Hypothyroidism, and Hyperthyroidism in Predicting COVID-19 Poor Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Diagnostic Meta-analysis.

Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 26(6):510-517.

PURPOSE: The relationship between thyroid metabolism and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inflammation has been extensively investigated. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prognostic properties of unspecified thyroid disorders, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism for predicting poor COVID-19 outcomes.

METHODS: We conducted systematic literature searching through multiple databases-PubMed, EBSCO and CENTRAL up until 27 September 2021. The main exposure was unspecified thyroid disorders, hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism on-admission status. The outcome of interest was the COVID-19 composite poor outcome that comprises severity, mortality, ICU admission and hospitalisation.

RESULTS: There were 24517 patients from 20 studies. Meta-analysis showed that thyroid disorder, regardless of its type, was associated with COVID-19 poor outcome (OR 2.92 (95% CI 2.09 - 4.08), P < 0.001; I[2] = 71%, P < 0.001). Unspecified thyroid disorder has a sensitivity of 0.17 (0.08-0.33), specificity of 0.94 (0.88-0.97) and Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.66. Hypothyroidism has a sensitivity of 0.24 (0.12-0.42), specificity of 0.92 (0.87-0.96) and AUC of 0.77. Hyperthyroidism has a sensitivity of 0.05 (0.02-0.11), specificity of 0.98 (0.88-1.00) and AUC of 0.36. In this pooled analysis, the posttest probability of unspecified thyroid disease, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 42%, 27% and 8% for poor outcomes, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Thyroid disorders are associated with poor COVID-19 prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-14

Khubieva DH, Amlaev KR, Mazharov VN, et al (2024)

[The impact of alcohol and other psychoactive substance use during the covid-19 pandemic: problems and consequences].

Problemy sotsial'noi gigieny, zdravookhraneniia i istorii meditsiny, 32(Special Issue 1):681-686.

This article discusses issues related to the use of surfactants during the COVID-19 pandemic. The global nature of this crisis has had a significant impact on the lives of people around the world, including their mental health. The introduction of quarantine and «isolation» measures have become one of the measures to control the spread of the disease, but such restrictions have led to various adverse psychological reactions such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as cases of self-mutilation and even suicide. All of these factors can negatively affect other aspects of health and lead to increased use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances. Stress, social isolation, the unpredictability of the future, loss of a job or income - all these can be motivating factors for people to turn to alcohol or other substances in search of relaxation or emotional support. However, such strategies are short-term and irrational, since alcohol consumption only worsens the mental state and further increases the risk of developing mental problems.

RevDate: 2024-07-16
CmpDate: 2024-07-16

Cracowski JL, Molimard M, Richard V, et al (2024)

Assessing the benefit-risk balance of drugs. Some lessons from the COVID pandemic.

Expert opinion on drug safety, 23(8):959-967.

INTRODUCTION: Drug efficacy and effectiveness are assessed respectively through clinical trials and pharmaco-epidemiological studies. However, relative and absolute benefits of drugs are distinct measures that must be considered in relation to the baseline risk of disease incidence, complication or progression. On the other hand, adverse drug reactions are independent of the basic risk but depend on the characteristics of the population treated. Given these prerequisites, how can we balance the benefits and risks of drugs?

AREAS COVERED: We use the example of therapeutics evaluated during Covid to describe how assessing the benefit-risk balance of drugs is a complex process.

EXPERT OPINION: Clinical trials are not designed to identify rare adverse events, underscoring the necessity for a pharmacovigilance system. Evaluating the balance between the benefits and risks of drugs is an ongoing process, demanding the simultaneous analysis of data from clinical trials, potential drug-drug interactions, pharmacovigilance monitoring and pharmaco-epidemiological studies, to identify potential safety concerns. In addition, pharmacologists must play a major role in educating the general public about drugs, aiding in the accurate interpretation of the benefit-risk balance and preventing misinformation.

RevDate: 2024-07-16

Dong Y, Guo C, Wang J, et al (2024)

Recent Advances in DNA Nanotechnology-Based Sensing Platforms for Rapid Virus Detection.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology [Epub ahead of print].

Several major viral pandemics in history have significantly impacted the public health of human beings. The COVID-19 pandemic has further underscored the critical need for early detection and screening of infected individuals. However, current detection techniques are confronted with deficiencies in sensitivity and accuracy, restricting the capability of detecting trace amounts of viruses in human bodies and in the environments. The advent of DNA nanotechnology has opened up a feasible solution for rapid and sensitive virus determination. By harnessing the designability and addressability of DNA nanostructures, a range of rapid virus sensing platforms have been proposed. This review overviewed the recent progress, application, and prospect of DNA nanotechnology-based rapid virus detection platforms. Furthermore, the challenges and developmental prospects in this field were discussed.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Cheng L, Rui Y, Wang Y, et al (2024)

A glimpse into viral warfare: decoding the intriguing role of highly pathogenic coronavirus proteins in apoptosis regulation.

Journal of biomedical science, 31(1):70.

Coronaviruses employ various strategies for survival, among which the activation of endogenous or exogenous apoptosis stands out, with viral proteins playing a pivotal role. Notably, highly pathogenic coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV exhibit a greater array of non-structural proteins compared to low-pathogenic strains, facilitating their ability to induce apoptosis via multiple pathways. Moreover, these viral proteins are adept at dampening host immune responses, thereby bolstering viral replication and persistence. This review delves into the intricate interplay between highly pathogenic coronaviruses and apoptosis, systematically elucidating the molecular mechanisms underpinning apoptosis induction by viral proteins. Furthermore, it explores the potential therapeutic avenues stemming from apoptosis inhibition as antiviral agents and the utilization of apoptosis-inducing viral proteins as therapeutic modalities. These insights not only shed light on viral pathogenesis but also offer novel perspectives for cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Ye X, Li Y, Luo F, et al (2024)

Efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids in the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs.

Clinical and experimental medicine, 24(1):157.

In the realm of acute respiratory infections, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), poses a global public health challenge. The application of corticosteroids (CSs) in COVID-19 remains a contentious topic among researchers. Accordingly, our team performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to meticulously evaluate the safety and efficacy of CSs in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. To explore efficacy of CSs in the treatment of COVID-19 patients, we meticulously screened RCTs across key databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, as well as China's CNKI and Wanfang Data. We focused on assessing the 28 days mortality rates. We evaluated the data heterogeneity using the Chi-square test and I[2] values, setting significance at 0.1 and 50%. Data from 21 RCTs involving 5721 participants were analyzed. The analysis did not demonstrate a significant association between CSs intervention and the 28 days mortality risk in hospitalized COVID-19 patients (relative risk [RR] = 0.93; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.84-1.03; P = 0.15). However, subgroup analysis revealed a significant reduction in 28 days mortality among patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (RR at 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76-0.95; P = 0.004). Specifically, short-term CS administration (≤ 3 days) was associated with a substantial improvement in clinical outcomes (RR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.63; P = 0.004), as was longer-term use (≥ 8 days) (RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99; P = 0.04). Additionally, in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, the administration of dexamethasone increased the number of 28 days ventilator-free days (Mean Difference = 1.92; 95% CI: 0.44-3.40; P = 0.01). Methylprednisolone also demonstrated significant benefits in improving clinical outcomes (RR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.63; P = 0.004). Our meta-analysis demonstrated that although there is no significant difference in 28 days mortality rates among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the use of CSs may be beneficial in improving clinical outcomes in moderate or severe COVID-19 patients. There was no significant increase in the occurrence of adverse events associated with the use of CSs. Our meta-analysis provides evidence that while CSs may not be suitable for all COVID-19 patients, they could be effective and safe in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Consequently, it is recommended to administer CSs for personalized treatments in COVID-19 cases to improve the clinical outcomes while minimizing adverse events.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Shandera WX (2024)

COVID-19 ethics: unique aspects and a review as of early 2024.

Monash bioethics review [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 presents a variety of ethical challenges in a set of arenas, arenas not always considered in past pandemics. These challenges include issues related to autonomy, distributive ethics, and the establishment of policies of equity and justice. Methods are a literature review based on regular editing of an online textbook during the COVID-19 outbreak and a literature review using key ethical terms. Patients are confronted with new issues related to autonomy. Providers need to expand their concepts of ethical issues to include decisions based on proportionality and public health ethics. The public health sector needs to assess the beneficence of alternative modes of disease control. The research community needs to redefine the concept of informed consent in emergent conditions. All elements of the medical spectrum-physicians, scientists, and the community-at-large including the pharmaceutical industry-need to consider the multifaceted methods for preventing future pandemics. This will require giving particular emphasis to public health funding and ending the documented discrimination that exists in the provision of proven therapies. The developing world is especially at risk for most of the ethical issues, especially those related to equity and justice. The ethical issues associated with the COVID-19 outbreak are not unique but provide a diverse set of issues that apply to patients, providers, social groups, and investigators. The further study of such issues can help with preventing future outbreaks.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Thurston IB, Fix RL, E Getzoff Testa (2024)

Anti-racism, Heterosexism, and Transphobia: Strategies for Adolescent Health Promotion Post-Coronavirus Disease 2019.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):745-760.

Anti-Black racism, heterosexism, and transphobia are significant public health concerns contributing to poor adolescent health outcomes. The authors introduce the health-equity adapted STYLE framework to increase knowledge and awareness of Black and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, non-binary, queer, questioning, asexual, or intersex (LGBTQ) + intersectionality. Guided by case examples, the authors identify key strategies to promote anti-racist, anti-heterosexist, and anti-transphobic practices. Utilization of this framework by adolescent health providers could promote the health and well-being of Black and LGBTQ + adolescents.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

McNamara M, Barondeau J, J Brown (2024)

Mental Health, Climate Change, and Bodily Autonomy: An Analysis of Adolescent Health Policy in the Post-Pandemic Climate.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):729-744.

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated the vulnerability of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who face economic disadvantage, depend on social safety net resources, have politically targeted identities, are geopolitically displaced, and/or are racially or ethnically marginalized. A rapid change in social safety net policies has impacts that reverberate throughout interrelated domains of AYA health, especially for vulnerable AYAs. The authors analyze policy-related changes in mental health, climate change, and bodily autonomy to offer a paradigm for an equitable path forward.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Craig LN, R Arrington-Sanders (2024)

Social Media Use During Coronavirus Disease 2019 and the Impact on Adolescent Health.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):683-691.

During the coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown, adolescents spent a great deal of time using social media. There have always been a host of positives and negatives associated with social media use. The negatives are more notable with heavier use. Once restrictions lifted and normalcy returned, social media usage appears to be returning to prepandemic rates in adolescents. Adolescents are reporting mostly positive and neutral personal effects of social media on their postpandemic lives.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Desai N, Holliday S, D Braun-Courville (2024)

Addressing Post-Pandemic Adolescent Health in Schools.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):671-682.

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic disrupted in-person learning for adolescents and young adults across the world. Inequities in learning outcomes were primarily caused by digital inequalities. Social needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) emerged during the pandemic and school is a key part of supporting AYA social health. School-based health clinics can serve as a method to improve mental and physical health outcomes for AYA.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Hammond CJ, Van Eck K, H Adger (2024)

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Youth Substance Use and Substance-Related Risk Factors and Outcomes: Implications for Prevention, Treatment, and Policy.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):653-669.

Youth substance use and substance use disorders (SUD) are major public health issues associated with significant societal cost. The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic and pandemic-related lockdowns, school closures, and social distancing dramatically impacted the daily lives of young people worldwide, resulting in major disruptions to normal developmental trajectories and complex (and at times opposing effects) on different SUD risk and protective factors, which contributed to inconsistent outcomes. During the COVID-19 pandemic, substance use prevalence rates decreased in the general population of US youth, but increased for certain vulnerable subgroups. Additionally, overdose deaths related to fentanyl rose significantly among US youth.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Swamy AM (2024)

Obesity: Post-Pandemic Weight Management.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):645-652.

Societal changes secondary to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic led to increased prevalence of adolescents with obesity and heightened awareness of weight stigma and size bias. During this time the American Academy of Pediatrics published its first clinical practice guidelines, and the Food and Drug Administration approved new weight loss drugs for adolescents, but insurance coverage is largely unavailable.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Hartman-Munick SM, Allen S, A Powell (2024)

Disordered Eating/Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):631-643.

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was as tressful time for adolescents, with increased isolation, loss of routines, and changes in access to medical care. In this setting, the medical system saw a significant rise in the number of adolescents seeking care for eating disorders, as well as increased severity of patient presentation. Telehealth treatment for eating disorders was a unique shift during the pandemic, with some benefits but not universally positive experiences among patients, families and providers.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Broussard CA, Azola A, PC Rowe (2024)

Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Its Impact on Adolescents and Young Adults.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):613-630.

This review discusses the varying definitions for post-acute sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC) in adolescents and young adults (AYAs), symptom profiles of AYAs with PASC, and assessment and management strategies when AYAs present with symptoms concerning for PASC. Additionally, it reviews the impact that PASC can have on AYAs and includes strategies for providers to support AYAs with PASC. Finally, it concludes with a discussion around equity in the care of AYAs with possible PASC.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Potter JA, Aitken A, Yang L, et al (2024)

HEX17(Neumifil): An intranasal respiratory biotherapeutic with broad-acting antiviral activity.

Antiviral research, 228:105945.

Broad-acting antiviral strategies to prevent respiratory tract infections are urgently required. Emerging or re-emerging viral diseases caused by new or genetic variants of viruses such as influenza viruses (IFVs), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs), human rhinoviruses (HRVs), parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) or coronaviruses (CoVs), pose a severe threat to human health, particularly in the very young or old, or in those with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although vaccines remain a key component in controlling and preventing viral infections, they are unable to provide broad-spectrum protection against recurring seasonal infections or newly emerging threats. HEX17 (aka Neumifil), is a first-in-class protein-based antiviral prophylactic for respiratory viral infections. HEX17 consists of a hexavalent carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) with high affinity to sialic acids, which are typically present on terminating branches of glycans on viral cellular receptors. This allows HEX17 to block virus engagement of host receptors and inhibit infection of a wide range of viral pathogens and their variants with reduced risk of antiviral resistance. As described herein, HEX17 has demonstrated broad-spectrum efficacy against respiratory viral pathogens including IFV, RSV, CoV and HRV in multiple in vivo and in vitro studies. In addition, HEX17 can be easily administered via an intranasal spray and is currently undergoing clinical trials.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Chou R, Herman E, Ahmed A, et al (2024)

Long COVID Definitions and Models of Care : A Scoping Review.

Annals of internal medicine, 177(7):929-940.

BACKGROUND: Definitions of long COVID are evolving, and optimal models of care are uncertain.

PURPOSE: To perform a scoping review on definitions of long COVID and provide an overview of care models, including a proposed framework to describe and distinguish models.

DATA SOURCES: English-language articles from Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, SocINDEX, Scopus, Embase, and CINAHL published between January 2021 and November 2023; gray literature; and discussions with 18 key informants.

STUDY SELECTION: Publications describing long COVID definitions or models of care, supplemented by models described by key informants.

DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted by one reviewer and verified for accuracy by another reviewer.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 1960 screened citations, 38 were included. Five clinical definitions of long COVID varied with regard to timing since symptom onset and the minimum duration required for diagnosis; 1 additional definition was symptom score-based. Forty-nine long COVID care models were informed by 5 key principles: a core "lead" team, multidisciplinary expertise, comprehensive access to diagnostic and therapeutic services, a patient-centered approach, and providing capacity to meet demand. Seven characteristics provided a framework for distinguishing models: home department or clinical setting, clinical lead, collocation of other specialties, primary care role, population managed, use of teleservices, and whether the model was practice- or systems-based. Using this framework, 10 representative practice-based and 3 systems-based models of care were identified.

LIMITATIONS: Published literature often lacked key model details, data were insufficient to assess model outcomes, and there was overlap between and variability within models.

CONCLUSION: Definitions of long COVID and care models are evolving. Research is needed to optimize models and evaluate outcomes of different models.

PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (Protocol posted at https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/long-covid-models-care/protocol.).

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Anonymous (2024)

Annals Video Summary - Long COVID Definitions and Models of Care: A Scoping Review.

Annals of internal medicine, 177(7):eM240874.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Frangogiannis NG (2024)

The fate and role of the pericytes in myocardial diseases.

European journal of clinical investigation, 54(8):e14204.

The adult mammalian heart contains a large population of pericytes that play important roles in homeostasis and disease. In the normal heart, pericytes regulate microvascular permeability and flow. Myocardial diseases are associated with marked alterations in pericyte phenotype and function. This review manuscript discusses the role of pericytes in cardiac homeostasis and disease. Following myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac pericytes participate in all phases of cardiac repair. During the inflammatory phase, pericytes may secrete cytokines and chemokines and may regulate leukocyte trafficking, through formation of intercellular gaps that serve as exit points for inflammatory cells. Moreover, pericyte contraction induces microvascular constriction, contributing to the pathogenesis of 'no-reflow' in ischemia and reperfusion. During the proliferative phase, pericytes are activated by growth factors, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and contribute to fibrosis, predominantly through secretion of fibrogenic mediators. A fraction of pericytes acquires fibroblast identity but contributes only to a small percentage of infarct fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. As the scar matures, pericytes form a coat around infarct neovessels, promoting stabilization of the vasculature. Pericytes may also be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure, by regulating inflammation, fibrosis, angiogenesis and myocardial perfusion. Pericytes are also important targets of viral infections (such as SARS-CoV2) and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac complications of COVID19. Considering their role in myocardial inflammation, fibrosis and angiogenesis, pericytes may be promising therapeutic targets in myocardial disease.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Ripoll JG, Chang MG, Nabzdyk CS, et al (2024)

Should Obesity Be an Exclusion Criterion for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support? A Scoping Review.

Anesthesia and analgesia, 139(2):300-312.

Obesity is often considered a contraindication to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) candidacy due to technical challenges with vascular access, higher cardiac output requirements, and known associations between obesity and overall increased morbidity and mortality due to chronic health conditions. However, a growing body of literature suggests that ECMO may be as safe and efficacious in both obese and nonobese patients. This scoping review provides a synthesis of the available literature on the outcomes of obese patients supported with (1) venovenous (VV)-ECMO in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) not due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), (2) VV-ECMO in ARDS due to COVID-19, (3) venoarterial (VA)-ECMO for all indications, and (4) studies combining data of patients supported with VA- and VV-ECMO. A librarian-assisted search was performed using 4 primary electronic medical databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica database [Embase], and Cochrane Library) from January 2003 to March 2023. Articles that reported outcomes of obese patients requiring ECMO support were included. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full text of articles to determine eligibility. Data extraction was performed using customized fields established a priori within a systematic review software system. A total of 354 publications were imported for screening on titles and abstracts, and 30 studies were selected for full-text review. A total of 26 publications met the inclusion criteria: 7 on VV-ECMO support in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients, 6 on ECMO in COVID-19 ARDS patients, 8 in patients supported with VA-ECMO, and 5 combining both VA- and VV-ECMO data. Although the included studies are limited to retrospective analyses and display a heterogeneity in definitions of obesity and comparison groups, the currently available literature suggests that outcomes and complications of ECMO therapy are equivalent in obese patients as compared to nonobese patients. Hence, obesity as measured by body mass index alone should not be considered an exclusion criterion in the decision to initiate ECMO.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Ali F, Alom S, Ali SR, et al (2024)

Ebselen: A Review on its Synthesis, Derivatives, Anticancer Efficacy and Utility in Combating SARS-COV-2.

Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry, 24(12):1203-1225.

Ebselen is a selenoorganic chiral compound with antioxidant properties comparable to glutathione peroxidase. It is also known as 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one. In studies examining its numerous pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and anti- Alzheimer's, ebselen has demonstrated promising results. This review's primary objective was to emphasize the numerous synthesis pathways of ebselen and their efficacy in fighting cancer. The data were collected from multiple sources, including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Publons. The starting reagents for the synthesis of ebselen are 2-aminobenzoic acid and N-phenyl benzamide. It was discovered that ebselen has the ability to initiate apoptosis in malignant cells and prevent the formation of new cancer cells by scavenging free radicals. In addition, ebselen increases tumor cell susceptibility to apoptosis by inhibiting TNF-α mediated NF-kB activation. Ebselen can inhibit both doxorubicin and daunorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Allopurinol and ebselen administered orally can be used to suppress renal ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Due to excessive administration, diclofenac can induce malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract, which ebselen can effectively suppress. Recent research has demonstrated ebselen to inhibit viral function by binding to cysteinecontaining catalytic domains of various viral proteases. It was discovered that ebselen could inhibit the catalytic dyad function of M[pro] by forming an irreversible covalent bond between Se and Cys145, thereby altering protease function and inhibiting SARS-CoV-2. Ebselen may also inhibit the activation of endosomal NADPH oxidase of vascular endothelial cells, which is believed to be required for thrombotic complications in COVID-19. In this review, we have included various studies conducted on the anticancer effect of ebselen as well as its inhibition of SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Dos Santos Nascimento IJ, Gomes JNS, de Oliveira Viana J, et al (2024)

The Power of Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Their Applications to Discover Cysteine Protease Inhibitors.

Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry, 24(11):1125-1146.

A large family of enzymes with the function of hydrolyzing peptide bonds, called peptidases or cysteine proteases (CPs), are divided into three categories according to the peptide chain involved. CPs catalyze the hydrolysis of amide, ester, thiol ester, and thioester peptide bonds. They can be divided into several groups, such as papain-like (CA), viral chymotrypsin-like CPs (CB), papainlike endopeptidases of RNA viruses (CC), legumain-type caspases (CD), and showing active residues of His, Glu/Asp, Gln, Cys (CE). The catalytic mechanism of CPs is the essential cysteine residue present in the active site. These mechanisms are often studied through computational methods that provide new information about the catalytic mechanism and identify inhibitors. The role of computational methods during drug design and development stages is increasing. Methods in Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) accelerate the discovery process, increase the chances of selecting more promising molecules for experimental studies, and can identify critical mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology and molecular pathways of action. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are essential in any drug discovery program due to their high capacity for simulating a physiological environment capable of unveiling significant inhibition mechanisms of new compounds against target proteins, especially CPs. Here, a brief approach will be shown on MD simulations and how the studies were applied to identify inhibitors or critical information against cysteine protease from several microorganisms, such as Trypanosoma cruzi (cruzain), Trypanosoma brucei (rhodesain), Plasmodium spp. (falcipain), and SARS-CoV-2 (M[pro]). We hope the readers will gain new insights and use our study as a guide for potential compound identifications using MD simulations.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Milaniak I, Davidson S, Leewiwatanakul B, et al (2024)

The Impact of COVID on Adolescent Anxiety: Trends, Clinical Considerations, and Treatment Recommendations.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):601-612.

Rates of clinical anxiety have increased during COVID and post-quarantine in youth, with older adolescent girls and youth with minorized racial, gender, and sexuality identities most vulnerable. Given that increased anxiety to a threatening/uncertain environment is adaptive, it is important to conceptualize anxiety from a balanced perspective, evaluating its functionality. For adolescents continuing to struggle with re-integration into their social environments and school avoidance, an exposure framework is necessary to encourage approach behaviors to recalibrate the social environment as safe. Disproportion between demand for services and available providers increased greatly due to the pandemic. Evidence-based treatments for anxiety can be delivered via telehealth, in school, or in primary care settings.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Close J, Arshad SH, Soffer SL, et al (2024)

Adolescent Health in the Post-Pandemic Era: Evolving Stressors, Interventions, and Prevention Strategies amid Rising Depression and Suicidality.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):583-600.

Prior to COVID-19, there were already increasing rates of youth with mental health concerns, including an increase in youth presenting to medical emergency departments (EDs) with mental health chief complaints and limited access to treatment. This trend worsened during the pandemic, and rates of youth presenting to medical EDs with suicidal ideation and self-harm increased 50% from 2019 to 2022. This resulted in a "boarding" crisis, in part, due to a lack of inpatient psychiatric hospitalization beds, and many youth were left without access to adequate treatment. Additional study of innovations in health care delivery will be paramount in meeting this need.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Culyba A, Ragavan MI, E Miller (2024)

Supporting Youth Exposed to Violence in the Post-Pandemic: Prevention and Intervention Strategies.

Pediatric clinics of North America, 71(4):567-581.

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was a public health emergency that impacted adolescents across the United States and disproportionately affected youth experiencing marginalization due to less access to resources and supports. This study reviews the increases in intimate partner and youth violence during the pandemic, mechanisms contributing to these increases, and the overarching health impacts on adolescents. Pediatric health professionals have a vital role to play in implementing healing-centered practices and prevention efforts that mitigate impacts of trauma and violence and that support youth and families in pathways to healing and recovery.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Akula M, Nguyen M, Abraham J, et al (2024)

Determining if COPD Self-Management Televisit-Based Interventions are evaluated among and equitably effective across diverse patient populations to Reduce Acute Care Utilization: A Scoping Review.

Chest pii:S0012-3692(24)04608-7 [Epub ahead of print].

TOPIC IMPORTANCE: With telemedicine's expansion during the COVID-19 pandemic, it became critical to evaluate whether patients have equitable access and capabilities to optimally use televisits for improved COPD outcomes such as reduced hospitalizations. This scoping review evaluated whether televisit-based interventions are evaluated and equitably effective in improving healthcare utilization outcomes among diverse patient populations with COPD.

REVIEW FINDINGS: Using a systematic search for televisit-based COPD self-management interventions we found 20 studies for inclusion, all but one of which was published prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Most (11/20) were 'good' quality. The majority (19/20) of studies reported age and gender; few provided race (3/20) or income (1/20) data. The most frequently used televisit-based modalities were in-person plus phone (6/20), video-only (6/20), and phone-only (4/20). Most (12/20) showed a significant reduction in at least one healthcare utilization metric; nine found hospitalization-related reductions. Effective interventions typically used two modalities (e.g., in-person plus televisits) and/or video modality.

SUMMARY: Most studies failed to report on participants' race or income leading to a lack of data on equity of interventions' effectiveness across diverse patient populations. Multi-modality televisit-based interventions, particularly with an in-person component, were most commonly effective; no associations were seen with study quality or size. With the increasing reliance on telemedicine to provide chronic disease care, the lack of data among diverse populations since the COVID-19 pandemic began limits generalizability of these findings for real-world clinical settings. More comprehensive evaluations of televisit-based interventions are needed in the post-pandemic era within and across diverse patient populations.

RevDate: 2024-07-14
CmpDate: 2024-07-14

Zheng Y, Gong R, Du Z, et al (2024)

Analysis and visualization of the research progress on surgical smoke.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 281:116671.

BACKGROUND: With the advancement of medical technology, tools such as electrosurgical equipment, laser knives, and ultrasonic scalpels have made modern medical procedures more convenient and effective. However, the generation of surgical smoke during these procedures poses significant health risks to medical personnel. Despite this, only a few studies have examined the literature systematically in this area. By analyzing bibliometric data on surgical smoke, we can gain insights into current research hotspots and forecast future trends.

METHODS: This study included literature related to surgical smoke from the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, covering the period from 2000 to 2024. We used VOSviewer, CiteSpace, and BioBERT to visualize research trends and hotspots.

RESULTS: In the early stages of research, the focus was mainly on the composition, generation mechanisms, and susceptible populations related to surgical smoke. In recent years, with the development of laparoscopic surgery and the global COVID-19 pandemic, research interests have shifted towards occupational protection of healthcare workers and public health. Currently, the research in this field primarily explores the promoting effects of surgical smoke on conditions such as inflammation and tumors, as well as occupational protection and health education for healthcare workers. Disease research focuses heavily on Smoke Inhalation Injury, Infections, Neoplasms, Postoperative Complications, and Inflammation.

CONCLUSION: We explored future research directions in the field of surgical smoke using VOSviewer, CiteSpace, and BioBERT. Our findings indicate that current research focuses on investigating the promoting effects of surgical smoke on conditions such as inflammation and tumors, as well as on occupational protection and health education for healthcare workers. We summarized existing preventive measures, aiming to facilitate further research advancements and the translation of research outcomes into clinical results. These efforts provide new insights for advancing research in occupational protection of healthcare workers.

RevDate: 2024-07-14
CmpDate: 2024-07-14

Schardt JS, Sivaneri NS, PM Tessier (2024)

Monoclonal Antibody Generation Using Single B Cell Screening for Treating Infectious Diseases.

BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy, 38(4):477-486.

The screening of antigen-specific B cells has been pivotal for biotherapeutic development for over four decades. Conventional antibody discovery strategies, including hybridoma technology and single B cell screening, remain widely used based on their simplicity, accessibility, and proven track record. Technological advances and the urgent demand for infectious disease applications have shifted paradigms in single B cell screening, resulting in increased throughput and decreased time and labor, ultimately enabling the rapid identification of monoclonal antibodies with desired biological and biophysical properties. Herein, we provide an overview of conventional and emergent single B cell screening approaches and highlight their potential strengths and weaknesses. We also detail the impact of innovative technologies-including miniaturization, microfluidics, multiplexing, and deep sequencing-on the recent identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies for infectious disease applications. Overall, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has reinvigorated efforts to improve the efficiency of monoclonal antibody discovery, resulting in the broad application of innovative antibody discovery methodologies for treating a myriad of infectious diseases and pathological conditions.

RevDate: 2024-07-14
CmpDate: 2024-07-14

Wallace AS, Ryman TK, Privor-Dumm L, et al (2024)

Leaving no one behind: Defining and implementing an integrated life course approach to vaccination across the next decade as part of the immunization Agenda 2030.

Vaccine, 42 Suppl 1:S54-S63.

Strategic Priority 4 (SP4) of the Immunization Agenda 2030 aims to ensure that all people benefit from recommended immunizations throughout the life-course, integrated with essential health services. Therefore, it is necessary for immunization programs to have coordination and collaboration across all health programs. Although there has been progress, immunization platforms in the second year of life and beyond need continued strengthening, including booster doses and catch-up vaccination, for all ages, and recommended vaccines for older age groups. We note gaps in current vaccination programs policies and achieved coverage, in the second year of life and beyond. In 2021, the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2), given in the second year of life, achieved 71% global coverage vs 81% for MCV1. For adolescents, 60% of all countries have adopted human papillomavirus vaccines in their vaccination schedule with a global coverage rate of only 12 percent in 2021. Approximately 65% of the countries recommend influenza vaccines for older adults, high-risk adults and pregnant women, and only 25% recommended pneumococcal vaccines for older adults. To achieve an integrated life course approach to vaccination, we reviewed the evidence, gaps, and strategies in four focus areas: generating evidence for disease burden and potential vaccine impact in older age groups; building awareness and shifting policy beyond early childhood; building integrated delivery approaches throughout the life course; and identifying missed opportunities for vaccination, implementing catch-up strategies, and monitoring vaccination throughout the life course. We identified needs, such as tailoring strategies to the local context, conducting research and advocacy to mobilize resources and build political will. Mustering sufficient financial support and demand for an integrated life course approach to vaccination, particularly in times of COVID-19, is both a challenge and an opportunity.

RevDate: 2024-07-14
CmpDate: 2024-07-14

Blanc DC, Grundy J, Sodha SV, et al (2024)

Immunization programs to support primary health care and achieve universal health coverage.

Vaccine, 42 Suppl 1:S38-S42.

Gains in immunization coverage and delivery of primary health care service have stagnated in recent years. Remaining gaps in service coverage reflect multiple underlying reasons that may be amenable to improved health system design. Immunization systems and other primary health care services can be mutually supportive, for improved service delivery and for strengthening of Universal Health Coverage. Improvements require that dynamic and multi-faceted barriers and risks be addressed. These include workforce availability, quality data systems and use, leadership and management that is innovative, flexible, data driven and responsive to local needs. Concurrently, improvements in procurement, supply chain, logistics and delivery systems, and integrated monitoring of vaccine coverage and epidemiological disease surveillance with laboratory systems, and vaccine safety will be needed to support community engagement and drive prioritized actions and communication. Finally, political will and sustained resource commitment with transparent accountability mechanisms are required. The experience of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on essential PHC services and the challenges of vaccine roll-out affords an opportunity to apply lessons learned in order to enhance vaccine services integrated with strong primary health care services and universal health coverage across the life course.

RevDate: 2024-07-14
CmpDate: 2024-07-14

Saxenian H, Alkenbrack S, Freitas Attaran M, et al (2024)

Sustainable financing for Immunization Agenda 2030.

Vaccine, 42 Suppl 1:S73-S81.

Sustainable financing for immunization refers to the sufficient and predictable allocation and use of resources to support the achievement of immunization goals within the framework of overall health financing. The Immunization Agenda 2030 (IA2030) agenda spells out four important focus areas needed for sustainable financing: (1) ensuring sufficient and predictable resources, (2) making optimal use of resources, (3) aligning partnerships, and (4) supporting sustainable transitions from external assistance. This paper summarizes the evidence and proposes interventions under each area. While immunization is one of the best investments and justifies public financing, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the worst economic recession since the Great Depression and threatens countries' ability to mobilize funding to ensure continuity and access to essential services, including immunization. Strategies for ensuring adequate resources differ by income group but include raising more revenues, reprioritizing the budget towards health, and ensuring that health resources favor Primary Health Care (PHC) and immunization. In low- and lower-middle income countries, support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, which channels the largest amount of external financing, will remain important, but some lower-middle income countries will need to prepare for transition. Countries benefitting from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) are also experiencing a transition from GPEI financing to domestic and other external financing. This paper outlines ways in which countries can improve the use of domestic and external resources to better incentivize high-quality PHC and immunization services and align immunization programs with health sector reforms. While governments must lead, collective action from development partners, the private sector, and civil society is needed to promote health system financing systems that ensure that the world is better prepared for future outbreaks and pandemics, while reinforcing the IA2030 vision and making progress towards universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals.

RevDate: 2024-07-14
CmpDate: 2024-07-14

Cernuschi T, Malvolti S, Hall S, et al (2024)

The quest for more effective vaccine markets - Opportunities, challenges, and what has changed with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Vaccine, 42 Suppl 1:S64-S72.

The past two decades have seen important progress in access to timely, reliable, affordable, and quality-assured supplies of vaccines of global public health importance. The new vaccines developed are powerful tools to fight killers such as pneumonia, diarrhea, and cervical cancer. Global and regional financing and pooled procurement haveshortened the lag between access in high- andlower-income countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that by addressing shortcomings and seizing opportunities, we can do even more. In response to COVID-19, vaccine development and access shifted from a sequential, risk-averse paradigm to a rapid approach with maximum compression of time to market while ensuring quality. Vast public investments and innovative technologies were key facilitators. The pandemic has shown that governments play a crucial role in investing in new vaccines and manufacturing capacity and sharing risks with industry. Despite impressive progress, equity in access remains elusive with important moral, economic, and health-related consequences. Global leaders are working on a new International Treaty for Pandemic Prevention, Preparedness, and Response. To apply the lessons of COVID-19, that treaty should include a new paradigm for access to vaccines in which governments agree to:This would ensure that COVID-19 catalyzes a shift toward greater access for all under Immunization Agenda 2030.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Sun G, Lin K, Ai J, et al (2024)

The efficacy of antivirals, corticosteroids, and mAbs as acute COVID treatments in reducing the incidence of long COVID: a Systematic Review and meta-analysis.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(24)00335-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Whether treatment during acute COVID results in protective efficacy against long COVID incidence remains unclear.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between acute COVID treatments of antivirals, corticosteroids, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and long COVID incidence, and their effects in different populations and individual symptoms.

DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted up to Jan 29, 2024 in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Embase.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles that reported long COVID incidence post-acute COVID with a follow-up of at least 30 days with no language restrictions.

PARTICIPANTS: Patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis history.

INTERVENTIONS: Patients treated with antivirals, corticosteroids or mAbs.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF BIAS: Quality assessment was based on Newcastle-Ottawa scale, ROBINS-I and Cochrane risk of bias tool.

METHODS OF DATA SYNTHESIS: Basic characteristics were documented for each study. Random forest model and meta-regression was used to evaluate correlation between treatments and long COVID.

RESULTS: Our search identified 2363 records, 32 of which were included in the qualitative synthesis and 25 included into the meta-analysis. Effect size from 14 papers investigating acute COVID antiviral treatment concluded its protective efficacy against long COVID (OR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.79, p = 0.0002); however, corticosteroid (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 0.80-3.09, p = 0.1913) and mAbs treatments (OR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.56-1.56, p = 0.8012) did not generate such effect. Subsequent subgroup analysis revealed that antivirals provided stronger protection in the aged, male, unvaccinated and non-diabetic populations. Furthermore, antivirals effectively reduced eight out of the twenty-two analyzed long COVID symptoms.

DISCUSSION: Our meta-analysis determined that antivirals reduced long covid incidence across populations and should thus be recommended for acute COVID treatment. There was no relationship between mAbs treatment and long COVID, but studies should be conducted to clarify acute COVID corticosteroids' potential harmful effects on the post-acute phase of COVID.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Baral B, Saini V, Kandpal M, et al (2024)

The interplay of co-infections in shaping COVID-19 severity: Expanding the scope beyond SARS-CoV-2.

Journal of infection and public health, 17(8):102486 pii:S1876-0341(24)00220-X [Epub ahead of print].

High mortality has been reported in severe cases of COVID-19. Emerging reports suggested that the severity is not only due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also due to coinfections by other pathogens exhibiting symptoms like COVID-19. During the COVID-19 pandemic, simultaneous respiratory coinfections with various viral (Retroviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, and Picoviridae) and bacterial (Mycobacteriaceae, Mycoplasmataceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Helicobacteraceae) families have been observed. These pathogens intensify disease severity by potentially augmenting SARSCoV-2 replication, inflammation, and modulation of signaling pathways. Coinfection emerges as a critical determinant of COVID-19 severity, principally instigated by heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, as cytokine storm. Thereby, in co-infection scenario, the severity is also driven by the modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways by both pathogens possibly associated with interleukin, interferon, and cell death exacerbating the severity. In the current review, we attempt to understand the role of co- infections by other pathogens and their involvement in the severity of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Silva EP, Rechotnek F, Lima AMO, et al (2024)

Design and fabrication strategies of molybdenum disulfide-based nanomaterials for combating SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory diseases: A review.

Biomaterials advances, 163:213949 pii:S2772-9508(24)00192-4 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Kanwal K, Asif M, Khalid SG, et al (2024)

Current Diagnostic Techniques for Pneumonia: A Scoping Review.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 24(13): pii:s24134291.

Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the most lethal infectious diseases, especially for infants and the elderly. Given the variety of causative agents, the accurate early detection of pneumonia is an active research area. To the best of our knowledge, scoping reviews on diagnostic techniques for pneumonia are lacking. In this scoping review, three major electronic databases were searched and the resulting research was screened. We categorized these diagnostic techniques into four classes (i.e., lab-based methods, imaging-based techniques, acoustic-based techniques, and physiological-measurement-based techniques) and summarized their recent applications. Major research has been skewed towards imaging-based techniques, especially after COVID-19. Currently, chest X-rays and blood tests are the most common tools in the clinical setting to establish a diagnosis; however, there is a need to look for safe, non-invasive, and more rapid techniques for diagnosis. Recently, some non-invasive techniques based on wearable sensors achieved reasonable diagnostic accuracy that could open a new chapter for future applications. Consequently, further research and technology development are still needed for pneumonia diagnosis using non-invasive physiological parameters to attain a better point of care for pneumonia patients.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Padín JF, Pérez-Ortiz JM, FJ Redondo-Calvo (2024)

Aprotinin (II): Inhalational Administration for the Treatment of COVID-19 and Other Viral Conditions.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(13): pii:ijms25137209.

Aprotinin is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of human proteases that has been approved for the treatment of bleeding in single coronary artery bypass surgery because of its potent antifibrinolytic actions. Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an urgent need to find new antiviral drugs. Aprotinin is a good candidate for therapeutic repositioning as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug and for treating the symptomatic processes that characterise viral respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. This is due to its strong pharmacological ability to inhibit a plethora of host proteases used by respiratory viruses in their infective mechanisms. The proteases allow the cleavage and conformational change of proteins that make up their viral capsid, and thus enable them to anchor themselves by recognition of their target in the epithelial cell. In addition, the activation of these proteases initiates the inflammatory process that triggers the infection. The attraction of the drug is not only its pharmacodynamic characteristics but also the possibility of administration by the inhalation route, avoiding unwanted systemic effects. This, together with the low cost of treatment (≈2 Euro/dose), makes it a good candidate to reach countries with lower economic means. In this article, we will discuss the pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological characteristics of aprotinin administered by the inhalation route; analyse the main advances in our knowledge of this medication; and the future directions that should be taken in research in order to reposition this medication in therapeutics.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Langan EA (2024)

Prolactin: A Mammalian Stress Hormone and Its Role in Cutaneous Pathophysiology.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(13): pii:ijms25137100.

The hormone prolactin (PRL) is best recognised for its indispensable role in mammalian biology, specifically the regulation of lactation. Bearing in mind that the mammary gland is a modified sweat gland, it is perhaps unsurprising to discover that PRL also plays a significant role in cutaneous biology and is implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of skin diseases, often those reportedly triggered and/or exacerbated by psychological stress. Given that PRL has been implicated in over 300 biological processes, spanning reproduction and hair growth and thermo- to immunoregulation, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between PRL and the skin remains frustratingly elusive. In an historical curiosity, the first hint that PRL could affect skin biology came from the observation of seborrhoea in patients with post-encephalitic Parkinsonism as a result of another global pandemic, encephalitis lethargica, at the beginning of the last century. As PRL is now being postulated as a potential immunomodulator for COVID-19 infection, it is perhaps timeous to re-examine this pluripotent hormone with cytokine-like properties in the cutaneous context, drawing together our understanding of the role of PRL in skin disease to illustrate how targeting PRL-mediated signalling may represent a novel strategy to treat a range of skin diseases and hair disorders.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Liu Y, Z Luo (2024)

Repurposing Anticancer Drugs Targeting the MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathway for the Treatment of Respiratory Virus Infections.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(13): pii:ijms25136946.

Respiratory virus infections remain a significant challenge to human health and the social economy. The symptoms range from mild rhinitis and nasal congestion to severe lower respiratory tract dysfunction and even mortality. The efficacy of therapeutic drugs targeting respiratory viruses varies, depending upon infection time and the drug resistance engendered by a high frequency of viral genome mutations, necessitating the development of new strategies. The MAPK/ERK pathway that was well delineated in the 1980s represents a classical signaling cascade, essential for cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Since this pathway is constitutively activated in many cancers by oncogenes, several drugs inhibiting Raf/MEK/ERK have been developed and currently used in anticancer treatment. Two decades ago, it was reported that viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses could exploit the host cellular MAPK/ERK pathway for their replication. Thus, it would be feasible to repurpose this category of the pathway inhibitors for the treatment of respiratory viral infections. The advantage is that the host genes are not easy to mutate such that the drug resistance rarely occurs during short-period treatment of viruses. Therefore, in this review we will summarize the research progress on the role of the MAPK/ERK pathway in respiratory virus amplification and discuss the potential of the pathway inhibitors (MEK inhibitors) in the treatment of respiratory viral infections.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Cimino S (2024)

Parental Neglect and Childhood Obesity Amidst COVID-19: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Health and Developmental Risks.

Nutrients, 16(13): pii:nu16132162.

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted the mental health and developmental trajectories of children and adolescents, catalyzing a range of psychological and behavioral issues due to enforced lockdowns and other restrictions. This text explores these impacts through the lens of developmental psychopathology, which integrates clinical psychology and developmental science to examine the emergence and evolution of psychological disorders across a lifespan. This paper highlights how pandemic-related disruptions have exacerbated conditions such as anxiety and depression and, notably, increased childhood obesity due to changes in lifestyle and reductions in physical activity. The analysis includes a discussion of how isolation has not only restricted access to educational and psychological resources but also increased the risk of parental mental illness and related familial stress, thereby intensifying issues of neglect and their consequent impact on child health. By employing a developmental psychopathology framework, this paper argues for the necessity of targeted interventions that address these complex interplays of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Such interventions aim to support children through structured educational and health-oriented strategies, ensuring their well-being amidst the ongoing challenges posed by the pandemic. This approach underscores the importance of early, multifaceted strategies involving parents, educators, and healthcare providers to foster healthier developmental outcomes for children facing unprecedented global health crises.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Kansakar U, Trimarco V, Manzi MV, et al (2024)

Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Bromelain: Applications, Benefits, and Mechanisms.

Nutrients, 16(13): pii:nu16132060.

Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes primarily extracted from the fruit and stem of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus). It has a long history of traditional medicinal use in various cultures, particularly in Central and South America, where pineapple is native. This systematic review will delve into the history, structure, chemical properties, and medical indications of bromelain. Bromelain was first isolated and described in the late 19th century by researchers in Europe, who identified its proteolytic properties. Since then, bromelain has gained recognition in both traditional and modern medicine for its potential therapeutic effects.

RevDate: 2024-07-13

Al-Fadhl MD, Karam MN, Chen J, et al (2024)

Traumatic Brain Injury as an Independent Predictor of Futility in the Early Resuscitation of Patients in Hemorrhagic Shock.

Journal of clinical medicine, 13(13): pii:jcm13133915.

This review explores the concept of futility timeouts and the use of traumatic brain injury (TBI) as an independent predictor of the futility of resuscitation efforts in severely bleeding trauma patients. The national blood supply shortage has been exacerbated by the lingering influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of blood donors available, as well as by the adoption of balanced hemostatic resuscitation protocols (such as the increasing use of 1:1:1 packed red blood cells, plasma, and platelets) with and without early whole blood resuscitation. This has underscored the urgent need for reliable predictors of futile resuscitation (FR). As a result, clinical, radiologic, and laboratory bedside markers have emerged which can accurately predict FR in patients with severe trauma-induced hemorrhage, such as the Suspension of Transfusion and Other Procedures (STOP) criteria. However, the STOP criteria do not include markers for TBI severity or transfusion cut points despite these patients requiring large quantities of blood components in the STOP criteria validation cohort. Yet, guidelines for neuroprognosticating patients with TBI can require up to 72 h, which makes them less useful in the minutes and hours following initial presentation. We examine the impact of TBI on bleeding trauma patients, with a focus on those with coagulopathies associated with TBI. This review categorizes TBI into isolated TBI (iTBI), hemorrhagic isolated TBI (hiTBI), and polytraumatic TBI (ptTBI). Through an analysis of bedside parameters (such as the proposed STOP criteria), coagulation assays, markers for TBI severity, and transfusion cut points as markers of futilty, we suggest amendments to current guidelines and the development of more precise algorithms that incorporate prognostic indicators of severe TBI as an independent parameter for the early prediction of FR so as to optimize blood product allocation.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Ismail Y, Shiner N, R Tucker (2024)

Workplace factors impacting the wellbeing of diagnostic radiographers in clinical practice: A literature review.

Journal of medical imaging and radiation sciences, 55(4):101439 pii:S1939-8654(24)00165-6 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in an emphasis on external factors affecting the wellbeing of staff within the National Health Service. There is a national shortage of diagnostic radiographers in the United Kingdom, so maintaining the health and satisfaction of the current radiographic workforce is important. The aim of this literature review is to determine workplace-related factors affecting the wellbeing of diagnostic radiographers in their clinical practice.

METHODS: An interpretive phenomenological approach was selected to gain an insight of wellbeing from the perspective of radiographers and radiology managers. A systematic literature search was conducted, resulting in 10 core articles which were then thematically analysed.

RESULTS: Five themes were identified: Initial waves of COVID-19, Workload and Working Patterns, Mental Health, Sources of Support, and Recognition and Development.

DISCUSSION: COVID-19 has had a short and long-term impact on the working practices of radiographers, leading to a risk of burnout. Radiographers appreciated different forms of recognition from managers and support within their team but felt a lack of professional recognition outside the radiology department. Radiographers displayed resilience during the pandemic, using various strategies to cope with emotional challenges. A variety of external support was available to radiographers, but this was often self-directed, with in-person support difficult to access due to working patterns.

CONCLUSION: This review highlights the lack of tailored support addressing radiographers' unique experiences. As imaging modalities have different workloads and varying emotional involvement with patients, further research to provide evidence-based interventions to improve radiographers' mental health is advised.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Grizzi F, Bax C, Farina FM, et al (2024)

Recapitulating COVID-19 detection methods: RT-PCR, sniffer dogs and electronic nose.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 110(1):116430 pii:S0732-8893(24)00256-6 [Epub ahead of print].

In December 2019, a number of subjects presenting with an unexplained pneumonia-like illness were suspected to have a link to a seafood market in Wuhan, China. Subsequently, this illness was identified as the 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the World Committee on Virus Classification. Since its initial identification, the virus has rapidly sperad across the globe, posing an extraordinary challenge for the medical community. Currently, the Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is considered the most reliable method for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2. This procedure involves collecting oro-pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs from individuals. Nevertheless, for the early detection of low viral loads, a more sensitive technique, such as droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), has been suggested. Despite the high effectiveness of RT-PCR, there is increasing interest in utilizing highly trained dogs and electronic noses (eNoses) as alternative methods for screening asymptomatic individuals for SARS-CoV-2. These dogs and eNoses have demonstrated high sensitivity and can detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs), enabling them to distinguish between COVID-19 positive and negative individuals. This manuscript recapitulates the potential, advantages, and limitations of employing trained dogs and eNoses for the screening and control of SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Obeagu EI, GU Obeagu (2024)

Thromboinflammation in COVID-19: Unraveling the interplay of coagulation and inflammation.

Medicine, 103(28):e38922.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has not only challenged global health systems but also spurred intense scientific inquiry into its pathophysiology. Among the multifaceted aspects of the disease, coagulation abnormalities have emerged as a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. From endothelial dysfunction to dysregulated immune responses, various factors contribute to the hypercoagulable state seen in severe COVID-19 cases. The dysregulation of coagulation in COVID-19 extends beyond traditional thromboembolic events, encompassing a spectrum of abnormalities ranging from microvascular thrombosis to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Endothelial injury induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection triggers a cascade of events involving platelet activation, coagulation factor consumption, and fibrinolysis impairment. Moreover, the virus direct effects on immune cells and the cytokine storm further exacerbate the prothrombotic milieu. Unraveling this intricate web of interactions between viral pathogenesis and host responses is essential for elucidating novel therapeutic targets and refining existing management strategies for COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. In the quest to unravel the complex interplay between coagulation and COVID-19, numerous clinical and laboratory studies have yielded invaluable insights into potential biomarkers, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic avenues. Anticoagulation therapy has emerged as a cornerstone in the management of severe COVID-19, although optimal dosing regimens and patient selection criteria remain subjects of ongoing investigation. Additionally, innovative approaches such as targeting specific components of the coagulation cascade or modulating endothelial function hold promise for future therapeutic development.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Wong LR, S Perlman (2024)

A confusion of pathways: Discerning cell death mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Science immunology, 9(97):eadp8170.

Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, infected cells undergo necroptosis, whereas delayed apoptosis and pyroptosis occur in uninfected, bystander cells, thus providing a plausible explanation for the extensive injury among myriad uninfected cells.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Olowoyo P, Dhamija RK, MO Owolabi (2024)

Telerehabilitation - historical perspectives and conceptual framework in reference to neurological disorders: A narrative review.

NeuroRehabilitation pii:NRE240079 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Telerehabilitation as a new subdiscipline of telehealth is the application of information technology to support and deliver rehabilitation services via two-way or multipoint interactive online telecommunication technology. This enables the therapist to optimize the timing, intensity, and duration of therapy which is often not possible within the constraints of face-to-face treatment protocols in current health systems.

OBJECTIVE: To review the historical perspective and conceptual framework of telerehabilitation in neurological disorders.

METHODS: A narrative review of the literature was performed for the historical perspective and a systematic review of the conceptual framework was performed using the PRISMA guidelines on chronic neurological disorders; multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, cognitive impairment, and headaches. The search included articles from the past 20 years (2004 to 2024).

RESULTS: Telerehabilitation dates back to the 1960s and early 1970s. Documented effective interventions were mostly on therapies for speech disorders. The conceptual framework consisted of three major components of telerehabilitation programmes including development, implementation, and evaluation. The COVID-19 pandemic suddenly made telerehabilitation come to the limelight because physical distancing became necessary. Out of the 110,000 articles downloaded, 43 met the inclusion criteria for review on the conceptual framework of telerehabilitation in relation to neurological disorders. The articles discussed multiple sclerosis (2), spinal cord disorders (1), stroke (17), Parkinson's disease (15), headaches (3), and cognitive disorders (5). All articles reviewed assessed the effectiveness of telemedicine except for the articles on multiple sclerosis and spinal cord disorders which examined the interphase between the technology and the end users.

CONCLUSION: The future of telerehabilitation looks promising with the subsequent integration of innovative tools and applications. This will require the adaption of technology, continuous capacity building, education, and training of healthcare professionals to ensure that they are adequately equipped with the necessary skills to provide quality virtual reality rehabilitation care.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Gu C, Chen Y, Li H, et al (2024)

Considerations when treating influenza infections with oseltamivir.

Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Since the coronavirus disease 2019-mandated social distancing policy has been lifted worldwide, the circulation of influenza is expected to resume. Currently, oseltamivir is approved as the first-line agent for influenza prevention and treatment.

AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews the updated evidence in the pharmacology, resistance mechanisms, clinical pharmacy management, and real-world data on oseltamivir for influenza.

EXPERT OPINION: Oseltamivir is an oral prodrug of oseltamivir carboxylate, an influenza A and B neuraminidase inhibitor. Recently, the therapeutic efficacy of oseltamivir has been demonstrated in several trials. Oseltamivir is generally well-tolerated but may lead to neuropsychiatric events and bleeding. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus has been associated with the H275Y mutation in the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, while most strains are still sensitive to oseltamivir. Dose adjustment for oseltamivir should be based on creatinine clearance and body weight in pediatric patients with renal failure. According to real-world data from Nanfang Hospital, the annual number of patients prescribed oseltamivir declined from 35,711 in 2019 to 8,971 in 2020, with marked increases in 2022 (20,213) and 2023 (18,071). Among the 206 inpatients, children aged <6 years who were treated with oseltamivir had the shortest duration to defervescence.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Chen B, Yang Y, Wang X, et al (2024)

mRNA vaccine development and applications: A special focus on tumors (Review).

International journal of oncology, 65(2):.

Cancer is characterized by unlimited proliferation and metastasis, and traditional therapeutic strategies usually result in the acquisition of drug resistance, thus highlighting the need for more personalized treatment. mRNA vaccines transfer the gene sequences of exogenous target antigens into human cells through transcription and translation to stimulate the body to produce specific immune responses against the encoded proteins, so as to enable the body to obtain immune protection against said antigens; this approach may be adopted for personalized cancer therapy. Since the recent coronavirus pandemic, the development of mRNA vaccines has seen substantial progress and widespread adoption. In the present review, the development of mRNA vaccines, their mechanisms of action, factors influencing their function and the current clinical applications of the vaccine are discussed. A focus is placed on the application of mRNA vaccines in cancer, with the aim of highlighting unique advances and the remaining challenges of this novel and promising therapeutic approach.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Dong T, Zhang W, Wu T, et al (2024)

Efficacy and Safety of Azvudine in Patients With COVID-19 in China: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

The clinical respiratory journal, 18(7):e13798.

BACKGROUND: Azvudine (FNC) is a novel small molecule antiviral drug for treating COVID-19 that is available only on the Chinese market. Despite being recommended for treating COVID-19 by the Chinese guidelines, its efficacy and safety are still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of FNC on COVID-19 outcomes and its safety.

METHODS: We followed the PRISMA 2020 guidelines and searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to evaluate studies on the effectiveness of FNC in treating COVID-19 in China, focusing on mortality and overall outcomes. Additionally, its impact on the length of hospital stay (LOHS), time to first nucleic acid negative conversion (T-FNANC), and adverse events was evaluated. The inclusion criterion was that the studies were published from July 2021 to April 10, 2024. This study uses the ROBINS-I tool to assess bias risk and employs the GRADE approach to evaluate the certainty of the evidence.

RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 24 retrospective studies involving a total of 11 830 patients. Low-certainty evidence revealed no significant difference in mortality (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.76-1.08) or LOHS (WMD = -0.24, 95% CI: -0.83 to 0.35) between FNC and Paxlovid in COVID-19 patients. Low-certainty evidence shows that the T-FNANC was longer (WMD = 1.95, 95% CI: 0.36-3.53). Compared with the Paxlovid group, low-certainty evidence shows the FNC group exhibited a worse composite outcome (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63-0.95) and fewer adverse events (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46-0.85). Compared with supportive treatment, low certainty shows FNC significantly reduced the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51-0.74) and decreased the composite outcome (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50-0.91), and very low certainty evidence shows significantly decreased the T-FNANC (WMD = -4.62, 95% CI: -8.08 to -1.15). However, in very low certainty, there was no significant difference in LOHS (WMD = -0.70, 95% CI: -3.32 to 1.91) or adverse events (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.48-8.17).

CONCLUSIONS: FNC appears to be a safe and potentially effective treatment for COVID-19 in China, but further research with larger, high-quality studies is necessary to confirm these findings. Due to the certainty of the evidence and the specific context of the studies conducted in China, caution should be exercised when considering whether the results are applicable worldwide.


RevDate: 2024-07-12

Yang W, Lecuona E, Wu Q, et al (2023)

The role of lung-restricted autoantibodies in the development of primary and chronic graft dysfunction.

Frontiers in transplantation, 2:1237671.

Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for both chronic end-stage lung diseases and acute respiratory distress syndrome, including those caused by infectious agents like COVID-19. Despite its increasing utilization, outcomes post-lung transplantation are worse than other solid organ transplants. Primary graft dysfunction (PGD)-a condition affecting more than half of the recipients post-transplantation-is the chief risk factor for post-operative mortality, transplant-associated multi-organ dysfunction, and long-term graft loss due to chronic rejection. While donor-specific antibodies targeting allogenic human leukocyte antigens have been linked to transplant rejection, the role of recipient's pre-existing immunoglobulin G autoantibodies against lung-restricted self-antigens (LRA), like collagen type V and k-alpha1 tubulin, is less understood in the context of lung transplantation. Recent studies have found an increased risk of PGD development in lung transplant recipients with LRA. This review will synthesize past and ongoing research-utilizing both mouse models and human subjects-aimed at unraveling the mechanisms by which LRA heightens the risk of PGD. Furthermore, it will explore prospective approaches designed to mitigate the impact of LRA on lung transplant patients.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Li M, Shi T, Chen J, et al (2024)

The facilitators and barriers to implementing virtual visits in intensive care units: A mixed-methods systematic review.

Journal of evaluation in clinical practice [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Visitation has a positive effect on patients and families, yet, it can disrupt intensive care unit (ICU) care and increase the risk of patient infections, which previously favoured face-to-face visits. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised the importance of virtual visits and led to their widespread adoption globally, there are still many implementation barriers that need to be improved. Therefore, this review aimed to explore the use of ICU virtual visit technology during the COVID-19 pandemic and the barriers and facilitators of virtual visits to improve virtual visits in ICUs.

METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, six databases (CINAHL, China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], PubMed, Cochrane, VIP and Wang Fang databases) were searched for empirical studies published between 1 January 2020 and 22 October 2023. Studies that investigated and reported barriers to and facilitators of implementing virtual visits in ICUs during the COVID-19 pandemic were included. Evidence from the included studies was identified and thematically analysed using Thomas and Harden's three-step approach. Study quality was appraised with the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool.

RESULTS: A total of 6770 references were screened, of which 35 studies met the inclusion criteria after a full-text review. Eight main barriers to virtual visits use were identified: technical difficulties; insufficient resources; lack of physical presence and nonverbal information; low technical literacy; differences in families' perceptions of visual cues; privacy and ethics issues; inequitable access and use of virtual visit technology; and lack of advance preparation. Four facilitating factors of virtual visit use were identified: providing multidimensional professional support; strengthening coordination services; understanding the preferences of patients and their families; and enhancing privacy and security protection. In the quality appraisal of 35 studies, 12 studies were rated as low, five as medium and 18 as high methodological quality.

CONCLUSION: This review identified key facilitating factors and barriers to ICU virtual visits, which can foster the development of infrastructure, virtual visiting workflows, guidelines, policies and visiting systems to improve ICU virtual visiting services. Further studies are necessary to identify potential solutions to the identified barriers.

RevDate: 2024-07-11

Resar DF, Sapire R, Caldwell B, et al (2024)

Ensuring People Living with HIV Inform the Future of HIV Treatment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review and Recommendations for a Community-Led Research Agenda.

AIDS and behavior [Epub ahead of print].

The HIV treatment landscape in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is rapidly evolving, exemplified by the expansion of differentiated service delivery (DSD) during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Long-acting products represent a new frontier that will require a significant redesign of health systems. It is critical to understand service delivery and product preferences of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and ensure evidence generation is guided by community priorities. We conducted a scoping review to identify gaps among preference studies and inform future research. Peer-reviewed articles published from January 2014-May 2022 reporting acceptability or preference data from PLHIV or caregivers for one or more service delivery or product attribute were eligible. Service delivery studies were restricted to LMIC populations while product studies had no geographical restrictions. Based on gaps identified, we consulted advocates to develop community-led research agenda recommendations. Of 6,493 studies identified, 225 studies on service delivery attributes and 47 studies on product preferences were eligible. The most frequently studied delivery models were integration (n = 59) and technology-based interventions (n = 55). Among product literature, only 15 studies included LMIC populations. Consultation with advocates highlighted the need for research on long-acting products, including among pediatric, pregnant, and breastfeeding PLHIV, PLHIV on second-line regimens, and key populations. Consultation also emphasized the need to understand preferences on clinic visit frequency, side effects, and choice. While the preference literature has expanded, gaps remain around long-acting regimens and their delivery. To fill these gaps, the research agenda must be guided by the priorities of communities of PLHIV.

RevDate: 2024-07-11

Chang HH, Lee YH, Huang KC, et al (2024)

COVID-19 vaccination: 2023 Taiwan Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (TAGG) consensus statements.

Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi pii:S0929-6646(24)00303-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic remains challenging due to the rapid evolution of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. This article discusses recent findings on high-risk groups for COVID-19 mortality and morbidity, along with consensus statements from the 2023 Taiwan Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (TAGG) meeting. It examines evidence on viral mutation mechanisms, emerging variants, and their implications for vaccination strategies. The article underscores advanced age, immunocompromised status, chronic medical conditions, occupational exposure, and socioeconomic disparities as significant risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes. TAGG's consensus emphasizes robust vaccination promotion, prioritizing elderly, and immunocompromised groups, individualized multi-dose regimens for immunocompromised patients, and simplified clinical guidelines. Discussions on global and regional recommendations for regular, variant-adapted boosters highlight the non-seasonal nature of COVID-19. Key agreements include escalating domestic preparedness, implementing vigorous risk-based vaccination, and adapting global guidelines to local contexts. Given ongoing viral evolution, proactive adjustment of vaccination policies is essential. Scientific consensus, tailored recommendations, and rapid knowledge dissemination are vital for optimizing COVID-19 protection among vulnerable groups in Taiwan. This article seeks to inform clinical practice and public health policy by summarizing expert-driven vaccination perspectives.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Ijadi-Maghsoodi R, Meza JI, Bravo L, et al (2024)

Reimagining Social and Emotional Supports in Schools for Immigrant Students: A Contextual and Structural Approach.

Academic pediatrics, 24(5S):32-41.

Immigrant students and families experience disproportionate exposure to trauma, immigration-related stress, structural inequities, and poor access to mental health and social services which can lead to mental health inequities. Immigrant students and their families also have many strengths that can buffer potential negative mental health outcomes. Schools, which address social and emotional development in addition to academic achievement, are critical institutions that can play a unique role in enhancing the strengths and responding to the needs of immigrant students and families. In this review, we adapt the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to acknowledge the contextual and macro-level factors (e.g., relevant policies, environmental influences, and structural factors) and the predisposing, enabling, and need factors that immigrant students and families experience and impact access to school mental health and social services. We discuss school-based interventions that show efficacy for improving mental health outcomes and focus on addressing acculturative stress among immigrant students. We also discuss models to address social determinants of health need among immigrant students and families within schools, including the community schools model applied to immigrant students and families. We conclude this review by providing recommendations and strategies for pediatricians and schools to transform school-based supports for immigrant students and families and promote equitable outcomes. Our recommendations include incorporating multi-level school supports for addressing mental health, social need, and acculturative stress among immigrant students, along with reinforcing the strengths of immigrant students, and promoting school collaborations with pediatricians, school-based health centers, and trusted community partners.

RevDate: 2024-07-11

Bowsher R, Marczylo TH, Gooch K, et al (2024)

Smoking and vaping alter genes related to mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and severity.

The European respiratory journal pii:13993003.00133-2024 [Epub ahead of print].

Evidence for the impact of smoking on COVID-19 is contradictory, and there is little research on vaping. Here we provide greater clarity on mechanisms perturbed by tobacco cigarette, electronic cigarette and nicotine exposures that may impact the risks of infection and/or disease severity.Following PRISMA guidelines, OVID and Web of Science databases were searched. Study design and exposure-induced gene expression changes were extracted. Each study was quality assessed and higher confidence scores were assigned to genes consistently changed across multiple studies following the same exposure. These genes were used to explore pathways significantly altered following exposure.125 studies provided data on 480 genes altered by exposure to tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes, nicotine or SARS-CoV-2. Genes involved in both SARS-CoV-2 viral-entry and inflammation were changed following exposure. Pathway analysis revealed that many of those genes with high confidence scores are involved in common cellular processes relating to hyperinflammatory immune responses.Exposure to tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or nicotine, may therefore impact initial host-pathogen interactions and disease severity. Smokers and vapers of e-cigarettes with nicotine, could potentially be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, associated cytokine storm, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, further research is required, particularly on e-cigarettes, to determine the biological mechanisms involved in perturbation of viral-entry genes and host-pathogen interactions and subsequent responses within the respiratory tract. This will improve our physiological understanding of the impact of smoking and vaping on COVID-19, informing public health advice and providing improved guidance for management of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses.

RevDate: 2024-07-11

Besteman SB, Bogaert D, Bont L, et al (2024)

Interactions between respiratory syncytial virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of childhood respiratory infections: a systematic review.

The Lancet. Respiratory medicine pii:S2213-2600(24)00148-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Lower respiratory tract infections, commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), pose a substantial global health burden, especially in children younger than 5 years of age. A deeper understanding of the relationship between RSV and pneumococcus would aid the development of health-care approaches to disease prevention and management. We completed a systematic review to identify and assess evidence pertaining to the relationship between RSV and pneumococcus in the pathogenesis of childhood respiratory infections. We found mechanistic evidence for direct pathogen-pathogen interactions and for indirect interactions involving host modulation. We found a strong seasonal epidemiological association between these two pathogens, which was recently confirmed by a parallel decrease and a subsequent resurgence of both RSV and pneumococcus-associated disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, we found that pneumococcal vaccination was associated with reduced RSV hospitalisations in infants, further supporting the relevance of their interaction in modulating severe disease. Overall evidence supports a broad biological and clinical interaction between pneumococcus and RSV in the pathogenesis of childhood respiratory infections. We hypothesise that the implementation of next-generation pneumococcal and RSV vaccines and monoclonal antibodies targeting RSV will act synergistically to reduce global morbidity and mortality related to childhood respiratory infections.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Haslam A, Ranganathan S, Prasad V, et al (2024)

CDK4/6 inhibitors as adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer? Uncertain benefits, guaranteed harms.

European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990), 207:114192.

CDK4/6 inhibitors are oral agents inhibiting key molecules of the cell cycle regulation. In patients with endocrine receptor positive (ER+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2-) breast cancer, the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy is an effective treatment in the metastatic setting. Now, two studies in the adjuvant setting - MonarchE (2 years of abemaciclib) and NATALEE (3 years of ribociclib) - report positive invasive disease-free survival. Here, we re-evaluate these seminal trials. First, an excess drop-out or loss-to-follow up occurred early in the control arms of both studies. Since both trials are open-label, there is concern that the patients who drop-out do not do so at random but based on socioeconomic factors and alternative options. Is it possible that the results merely appear favorable due to loss to follow up? Based on re-constructed Kaplan-Meier curves, we concluded the results of these studies remain fragile, being prone to informative censoring. Secondly, adverse events were notably higher in both trials, and some of them, like COVID-19 related deaths in NATALEE, raise serious concerns. Third, the potential costs associated with CDK4/6 inhibition given as adjuvant therapy are unprecedented. The NATALEE strategy, in particular, could affect up to 35 % of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, which is the cancer with the highest incidence worldwide. Without confirmatory data based on a placebo-controlled trial, or better identification of patients that would benefit from the addition of CDK4/6 inhibitors in the adjuvant setting, we argue against their routine use as adjuvant therapy in ER+ /HER2- early breast cancer.

RevDate: 2024-07-13
CmpDate: 2024-07-13

Puchner KP, Bottazzi ME, Periago V, et al (2024)

Vaccine value profile for Hookworm.

Vaccine, 42(19S1):S25-S41.

Hookworm, a parasitic infection, retains a considerable burden of disease, affecting the most underprivileged segments of the general population in endemic countries and remains one of the leading causes of mild to severe anemia in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs), particularly in pregnancy and children under 5. Despite repeated large scale Preventive Chemotherapy (PC) interventions since more than 3 decades, there is broad consensus among scholars that elimination targets set in the newly launched NTD roadmap will require additional tools and interventions. Development of a vaccine could constitute a promising expansion of the existing arsenal against hookworm. Therefore, we have evaluated the biological and implementation feasibility of the vaccine development as well as the added value of such a novel tool. Based on pipeline landscaping and the current knowledge on key biological aspects of the pathogen and its interactions with the host, we found biological feasibility of development of a hookworm vaccine to be moderate. Also, our analysis on manufacturing and regulatory issues as well as potential uptake yielded moderate implementation feasibility. Modelling studies suggest a that introduction of a vaccine in parallel with ongoing integrated interventions (PC, WASH, shoe campaigns), could substantially reduce burden of disease in a cost - saving mode. Finally a set of actions are recommended that might impact positively the likelihood of timely development and introduction of a hookworm vaccine.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Noval Rivas M, Rosser CJ, M Arditi (2021)

Rationale for Randomized Clinical Trials Investigating the Potential of BCG Vaccination in Preventing COVID-19 Infection.

Bladder cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 7(2):121-131.

Despite the implementation of mitigation measures, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still spreading worldwide, and has caused more than 1 million deaths so far. Although recent reports indicate that three vaccine candidates are effective against SARS-CoV-2, more time is needed to generate enough doses for the general population. Meanwhile, frontline healthcare workers are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure. To avoid collapse of the medical care system, there is a need to develop novel approaches to limit SARS-CoV-2 spread. Through a process called trained immunity, the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine boosts the action of innate immune cells, resulting in a nonspecific reduction in the incidence of viral infections. Due to this immunomodulatory action, the BCG vaccine is currently used as a therapeutic in bladder cancer. Data collected from epidemiological and observational studies indicate that BCG vaccination might provide protection against COVID-19. While these observations do not provide evidence of causality and are limited by cofounding and intrinsic biases, it is crucial to explore the hypothesis that BCG vaccination may provide a nonspecific innate immune boost and therefore protect against COVID-19 in randomized controlled clinical trials, particularly for people at higher risk of developing COVID-19, such as frontline healthcare workers.

RevDate: 2024-07-11
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Eden DJ, Hermann A, Sombrotto LB, et al (2024)

Finding Our Lanes: A Roadmap for Collaboration Between Academic Medical Centers and Behavioral Telehealth Companies.

Harvard review of psychiatry, 32(4):140-149.

Outpatient mental health care in the United States is delivered by an uncoordinated patchwork of public and private entities that struggle to effectively differentiate the care they provide. The COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed transformative changes in this space, including rapid adoption of telehealth and escalating private sector investment to provide services for individuals wishing to obtain care through insurance. In this article, we briefly review the current landscape of ambulatory mental health care. Utilizing Kissick's Iron Triangle model of health care delivery, we compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of academic medical centers and the growing private sector, entities potentially positioned to synergistically foster a mental health ecosystem with improved quality, access, and cost-effectiveness. A roadmap for strategic integration is presented for how academic centers-institutions frequently overwhelmed by patient volume-might leverage partnerships with a private sector eager to utilize novel technology to improve access, demonstrate data-driven outcomes, and advocate for improved reimbursement from payers. We also assess the potential risks and pitfalls of such collaboration. In return, academic institutions can refocus on their strengths, including research, systems knowledge, quality-improvement initiatives, education and training, and specialty clinical care.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Amin L, Qayyum K, Uzair M, et al (2024)

Factor Xa inhibitors versus low-molecular-weight heparin for preventing coagulopathy following COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 86(7):4075-4082.

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 have shown a significant occurrence of thromboembolism and a heightened risk of death. It remains unclear whether factor Xa inhibitors are superior to enoxaparin in this context. Hence, there is a need for a direct comparison to assess the preventive effects and safety of factor Xa inhibitors versus enoxaparin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or retrospective studies that compared the effectiveness or safety of factor Xa inhibitors and enoxaparin in preventing thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Embolic incidence, incidence of bleeding, and all-cause mortality were among the outcomes of interest. Mantel-Haenszel weighted random-effects model was used to calculate relative risks (RRs) with 95 percent CIs.

RESULTS: The analysis included six RCTs and two retrospective studies containing 4048 patients. Meta-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction among patients on factor Xa inhibitors compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in the embolic incidence [risk ratio (RR) 0.64 (95%, CI 0.42, 0.98); P=0.04, I[2]=12%]. Upon subgroup analysis by type of study design, no significant reductions were noted in patients on factor Xa inhibitors in RCTs (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.33-1.17; P=0.14) or observational studies (RR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.23-1.26; P=0.15) when compared with enoxaparin Factor Xa inhibitors were not significantly associated with incidence of bleeding [RR 0.76 (95% CI 0.36, 1.61); P=0.47, I[2]=0%] or all-cause mortality (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.48-1.36; P=0.43). Consistent results were obtained upon subgroup analysis by the type of study design.

CONCLUSION: Factor Xa inhibitors are more effective than enoxaparin in preventing thromboembolism among patients with COVID-19 who are not acutely ill and are hospitalized. Additional rigorous RCTs comparing factor Xa inhibitors with enoxaparin are warranted.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

González-Parra G, Mahmud MS, C Kadelka (2024)

Learning from the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review of mathematical vaccine prioritization models.

Infectious Disease Modelling, 9(4):1057-1080.

As the world becomes ever more connected, the chance of pandemics increases as well. The recent COVID-19 pandemic and the concurrent global mass vaccine roll-out provides an ideal setting to learn from and refine our understanding of infectious disease models for better future preparedness. In this review, we systematically analyze and categorize mathematical models that have been developed to design optimal vaccine prioritization strategies of an initially limited vaccine. As older individuals are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, the focus is on models that take age explicitly into account. The lower mobility and activity level of older individuals gives rise to non-trivial trade-offs. Secondary research questions concern the optimal time interval between vaccine doses and spatial vaccine distribution. This review showcases the effect of various modeling assumptions on model outcomes. A solid understanding of these relationships yields better infectious disease models and thus public health decisions during the next pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-11

Hao X, Yuan F, X Yao (2024)

Advances in virus-like particle-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1406091.

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has incurred devastating human and economic losses. Vaccination remains the most effective approach for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, the sustained evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants has provoked concerns among the scientific community regarding the development of next-generation COVID-19 vaccines. Among these, given their safety, immunogenicity, and flexibility to display varied and native epitopes, virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines represent one of the most promising next-generation vaccines. In this review, we summarize the advantages and characteristics of VLP platforms, strategies for antigen display, and current clinical trial progress of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on VLP platforms. Importantly, the experience and lessons learned from the development of SARS-CoV-2 VLP vaccines provide insights into the development of strategies based on VLP vaccines to prevent future coronavirus pandemics and other epidemics.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Müller L, S Di Benedetto (2024)

Inflammaging, immunosenescence, and cardiovascular aging: insights into long COVID implications.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 11:1384996.

Aging leads to physiological changes, including inflammaging-a chronic low-grade inflammatory state with significant implications for various physiological systems, particularly for cardiovascular health. Concurrently, immunosenescence-the age-related decline in immune function, exacerbates vulnerabilities to cardiovascular pathologies in older individuals. Examining the dynamic connections between immunosenescence, inflammation, and cardiovascular aging, this mini-review aims to disentangle some of these interactions for a better understanding of their complex interplay. In the context of cardiovascular aging, the chronic inflammatory state associated with inflammaging compromises vascular integrity and function, contributing to atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening, and hypertension. The aging immune system's decline amplifies oxidative stress, fostering an environment conducive to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Noteworthy inflammatory markers, such as the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, interleukin-18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha emerge as key players in cardiovascular aging, triggering inflammatory signaling pathways and intensifying inflammaging and immunosenescence. In this review we aim to explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying inflammaging and immunosenescence, shedding light on their nuanced contributions to cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, we explore the reciprocal relationship between immunosenescence and inflammaging, revealing a self-reinforcing cycle that intensifies cardiovascular risks. This understanding opens avenues for potential therapeutic targets to break this cycle and mitigate cardiovascular dysfunction in aging individuals. Furthermore, we address the implications of Long COVID, introducing an additional layer of complexity to the relationship between aging, immunosenescence, inflammaging, and cardiovascular health. Our review aims to stimulate continued exploration and advance our understanding within the realm of aging and cardiovascular health.

RevDate: 2024-07-12

Milich KM, SS Morse (2024)

The reverse zoonotic potential of SARS-CoV-2.

Heliyon, 10(12):e33040.

There has been considerable emphasis recently on the zoonotic origins of emerging infectious diseases in humans, including the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; however, reverse zoonoses (infections transmitted from humans to other animals) have received less attention despite their potential importance. The effects can be devastating for the infected species and can also result in transmission of the pathogen back to human populations or other animals either in the original form or as a variant. Humans have transmitted SARS-CoV-2 to other animals, and the virus is able to circulate and evolve in those species. As global travel resumes, the potential of SARS-CoV-2 as a reverse zoonosis threatens humans and endangered species. Nonhuman primates are of particular concern given their susceptibility to human respiratory infections. Enforcing safety measures for all people working in and visiting wildlife areas, especially those with nonhuman primates, and increasing access to safety measures for people living near protected areas that are home to nonhuman primates will help mitigate reverse zoonotic transmission.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Lenart M, Rutkowska-Zapała M, M Siedlar (2024)

NK-cell receptor modulation in viral infections.

Clinical and experimental immunology, 217(2):151-158.

Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in controlling viral infections. The ability to kill infected cells without prior immunization, yet being tolerant to self, healthy cells, depends on the balance of germ-line encoded surface receptors. NK-cell receptors are divided into either activating, leading to activation of NK cell and its cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory activity, or inhibitory, providing tolerance for a target cell. The signals from inhibitory receptors dominate and NK-cell activation requires stimulation of activating receptors. In viral infections, NK-cell interaction with infected cells can result in activation, memory-like NK-cell differentiation, or NK-cell exhaustion, which constitutes one of the viral immune evasion mechanisms. All of these states are associated with the modulation of NK-cell receptor expression. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of NK-cell receptors and their role in viral infection control, as well as the alterations of their expression observed in acute or chronic infections. We present recently discovered SARS-CoV-2-mediated modulation of NK-cell receptor expression and compare them with other human viral infections. Finally, since modulation of NK-cell receptor activation gives a promising addition to currently used antiviral therapies, we briefly discuss the clinical significance and future perspective of the application of agonists or antagonists of activating and inhibitory receptors, respectively. In sum, our review shows that although much is known about NK-cell receptor biology, a deeper understanding of NK-cell receptors role in viral infections is still needed.

RevDate: 2024-07-12
CmpDate: 2024-07-12

Lima LR, da Silva Júnior FL, Arcanjo DDR, et al (2024)

Croton cajucara: Patents and Nanotechnological Advances.

Recent patents on nanotechnology, 18(4):389-394.

Croton cajucara Benth showed several pharmacological properties such as: antiinflammatory, antinociceptive hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, antiulcer, antiestrogenic, antitumor, antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and cardiovascular. The 19-nor-clerodane diterpene transdehydrocrotonin (t-DCTN or DCTN) is the major bioactive constituent extracted from the bark of this Croton. Patents for Croton cajucara Benth in the period 2015 to 2022 comprises 14 published documents. Among them 4 patents are colloidal systems (SM/SNEDDS) loading t-DCTN for pharmacological applications. Patent registrations highlighted the huge promising biotechnological potential of Croton cajucara Benth especially in the phytotherapy field, and the correlation with its bioactive constituents of which t-DCTN showed the foremost results, so this herbal could become an alternative in the treatment of COVID-19. However, investigation of more recently published patents for clerodane diterpenes with similar chemical structure of t-DCTN, who previously showed antiviral property must be carried out and should be searched on several patent data bases.

RevDate: 2024-07-10

Neemuchwala SZ, GE Lemack (2024)

Virtual Urology Residency Interviews in the Post-Pandemic Era.

Current urology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urology programs are considering maintaining the virtual format for residency interviews after COVID-19. This article explores the benefits and possible risks of this decision, as well as ways the application process can be improved.

RECENT FINDINGS: Virtual interviews save students and programs time and money, attracting a more diverse pool of applicants. Most applicants believe that faculty interviews are well replicated virtually; however, it is difficult to represent the culture of the program and city. Program directors are concerned about adequate evaluation of applicants virtually. There is also concern of over-application by candidates and inequities surrounding away rotations. Virtual interviews have become mandated in Urology over the last several years, with some notable benefits. Ongoing analysis of the advantages, and potential threats, of this policy is essential to developing an equitable and functional interview process for students and programs alike, in the post-pandemic era.

RevDate: 2024-07-10

Chemek M, Kadi A, Al-Mahdawi FKI, et al (2024)

Zinc as a Possible Critical Element to Prevent Harmful Effects of COVID-19 on Testicular Function: a Narrative Review.

Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) [Epub ahead of print].

Research into innovative non-pharmacological therapeutic routes via the utilization of natural elements like zinc (Zn) has been motivated by the discovery of new severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV2) variants and the ineffectiveness of certain vaccination treatments during COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, research on SARS-COV-2's viral cellular entry and infection mechanism has shown that it may seriously harm reproductive system cells and impair testicular function in young men and adolescents, which may lead to male infertility over time. In this context, we conducted a narrative review to give an overview of the data pertaining to Zn's critical role in testicular tissue, the therapeutic use of such micronutrients to enhance male fertility, as well as in the potential mitigation of COVID-19, with the ultimate goal of elucidating the hypothesis of the potential use of Zn supplements to prevent the possible harmful effects of SARS-COV2 infection on testis physiological function, and subsequently, on male fertility.

RevDate: 2024-07-10

Li X, Ding H, Feng G, et al (2024)

Role of angiotensin converting enzyme in pathogenesis associated with immunity in cardiovascular diseases.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(24)00493-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is not only a critical component in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), but also suggested as an important mediator for immune response and activity, such as immune cell mobilization, metabolism, biogenesis of immunoregulatory molecules, etc. The chronic duration of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been increasingly considered to be triggered by uncontrolled pathologic immune reactions from myeloid cells and lymphocytes. Considering the potential anti-inflammatory effect of the traditional antihypertensive ACE inhibitor (ACEi), we attempt to elucidate whether ACE and its catalytically relevant substances as well as signaling pathways play a role in the immunity-related pathogenesis of common CVD, such as arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis and arrythmias. ACEi was also reported to benefit the prognoses of COVID-19-positive patients with CVD, and COVID-19 disease with preexisting CVD or subsequent cardiovascular damage is featured by a significant influx of immune cells and proinflammatory molecules, suggesting that ACE may also participate in COVID-19 induced cardiovascular injury, because COVID-19 disease basically triggers an overactive pathologic immune response. Hopefully, the ACE inhibition and manipulation of those associated bioactive signals could supplement the current medicinal management of various CVD and bring greater benefit to patients' cardiovascular health.

RevDate: 2024-07-10
CmpDate: 2024-07-10

Fomenko A, Dähne T, Weibel S, et al (2024)

Test accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction against virus isolation in cell culture for assessing SARS-CoV-2 infectivity: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Reviews in medical virology, 34(4):e2569.

We aimed to assess the performance of Ag-RDT and RT-qPCR with regard to detecting infectious SARS-CoV-2 in cell cultures, as their diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) compared to virus isolation remains largely unknown. We searched three databases up to 15 December 2021 for DTA studies. The bivariate model was used to synthesise the estimates. Risk of bias was assessed using QUADAS-2/C. Twenty studies (2605 respiratory samples) using cell culture and at least one molecular test were identified. All studies were at high or unclear risk of bias in at least one domain. Three comparative DTA studies reported results on Ag-RDT and RT-qPCR against cell culture. Two studies evaluated RT-qPCR against cell culture only. Fifteen studies evaluated Ag-RDT against cell culture as reference standard in RT-qPCR-positive samples. For Ag-RDT, summary sensitivity was 93% (95% CI 78; 98%) and specificity 87% (95% CI 70; 95%). For RT-qPCR, summary sensitivity (continuity-corrected) was 98% (95% CI 95; 99%) and specificity 45% (95% CI 28; 63%). In studies relying on RT-qPCR-positive subsamples (n = 15), the summary sensitivity of Ag-RDT was 93% (95% CI 92; 93%) and specificity 63% (95% CI 63; 63%). Ag-RDT show moderately high sensitivity, detecting most but not all samples demonstrated to be infectious based on virus isolation. Although RT-qPCR exhibits high sensitivity across studies, its low specificity to indicate infectivity raises the question of its general superiority in all clinical settings. Study findings should be interpreted with caution due to the risk of bias, heterogeneity and the imperfect reference standard for infectivity.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.


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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )