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22 Apr 2024 at 01:40
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Bibliography on: covid-19


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 Apr 2024 at 01:40 Created: 


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-04-18

Oladejo BO, Adeboboye CF, TT Adebolu (2020)

Understanding the genetic determinant of severity in viral diseases: a case of SARS-Cov-2 infection.

The Egyptian journal of medical human genetics, 21(1):77.

BACKGROUND: Numerous research studies have identified specific human gene variants that affect enhanced susceptibility to viral infections. More recently is the current pandemic where the SARS-CoV-2 infection has shown a high degree of person-to-person clinical variability. A wide range of disease severity occurs in the patients' experiences, from asymptomatic cases, mild infections to serious life threatening conditions requiring admission into the intensive care unit (ICU).

MAIN BODY OF THE ABSTRACT: Although, it is generally reported that age and co-morbidities contribute significantly to the variations in the clinical outcome of the scourge of COVID-19, a hypothetical question of the possibility of genetic involvement in the susceptibility and severity of the disease arose when some unique severe outcomes were seen among young patients with no co-morbidity. The role human genetics play in clinical response to the viral infections is scarcely understood; however, several ongoing researches all around the world are currently focusing on possible genetic factors. This review reports the possible genetic factors that have been widely studied in defining the severity of viral infections using SARS-CoV-2 as a case study. These involve the possible involvements of ACE2, HLA, and TLR genes such as TLR7 and TLR3 in the presentation of a more severe condition.

SHORT CONCLUSION: Understanding these variations could help to inform efforts to identify people at increased risk of infection outbreaks through genetic diagnosis of infections by locating disease genes or mutations that predispose patients to severe infection. This will also suggest specific targets for therapy and prophylaxis.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Menshawey R, Menshawey E, Alserr AHK, et al (2020)

Low iron mitigates viral survival: insights from evolution, genetics, and pandemics-a review of current hypothesis.

The Egyptian journal of medical human genetics, 21(1):75.

BACKGROUND: Upon re-examination of our human history, evolutionary perspectives, and genetics, a prevailing iron deficiency phenotype appears to have evolved to protect the human race from extinction.

BODY: In this review, we summarize the evolutionary and genetic perspectives pointing towards the hypothesis that low iron mitigates infection. The presence of infection promotes the generation of resistance alleles, and there are some evolutionary and genetic clues that suggest the presence of an iron deficiency phenotype that may have developed to protect against infection. Examples include the relative paucity of iron overload genes given the essential role of iron, as well as the persistence of iron deficiency among populations in spite of public health efforts to treat it. Additional examination of geographic areas with severe iron deficiency in the setting of pandemics including H1N1, SARS, and COVID-19 reveals that areas with higher prevalence of iron deficiency are less affected. RNA viruses have several evolutionary adaptations which suggest their absolute need for iron, and this dependency may be exploited during treatment.

CONCLUSION: RNA viruses pose a unique challenge to modern healthcare, with an average of 2-3 new pathogens being discovered yearly. Their overarching requirements for iron, along with human evolutionary and genetic adaptations which favored an iron deficiency phenotype, ultimately suggest the potential need for iron control in these infections.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Rieder HE (2020)

[A review of the state of the climate crisis in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic].

Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik : E & I, 137(7):335-340.

The atmospheric concentration of well-mixed greenhouse gases has drastically increased since 1850. The prime cause for this increase is anthropogenic activity, particularly the burning of fossil fuels. As a consequence of the changing atmospheric composition, we observe a net positive radiative forcing, which manifests in global warming. The global mean surface temperature has increased since the preindustrial by about 1.0 °C. Under the assumption of continued greenhouse gas emissions, climate models project a temperature increase between 3.7 °C and 4.8 °C until 2100 (compared to the 1850-1900 mean). The assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change detail the catastrophic consequences of global warming of such extent for both ecosystems and mankind. As a consequence, the Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming to below 2 °C, ideally 1.5 °C, when compared to the preindustrial. To achieve this goal, fast and ambitious emission controls are required, reaching net zero emission by 2050 at the latest. Examining the global greenhouse gas emissions of recent decades, it becomes obvious how far away we are at present from reaching this goal. Also, the currently determined national contributions for emission reduction do not suffice to meet the 1.5 °C target. Thus, it is of uttermost importance to raise the global ambition in climate protection. The 1.5 °C target can still be reached, however, the time to set the required measures will expire within this decade.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Longhitano GA, Nunes GB, Candido G, et al (2021)

The role of 3D printing during COVID-19 pandemic: a review.

Progress in additive manufacturing, 6(1):19-37.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread through more than 180 countries, leading to diverse health systems overload around the world. Because of the high number of patients and the supply chain disruption, it generated a shortage of medical devices and personal protective equipment. In this context, initiatives from the additive manufacturing community emerged to fight the lack of devices. Diverse designs were produced and are currently being used in hospitals by patients and health workers. However, as some devices must follow strict standards, these products may not fulfill these standards. Therefore, to ensure the user's health, there is a need for understanding each device, their usage, and standards. This study reviews the use of additive manufacturing during COVID-19 pandemic. It gathers the source of several 3D printed devices such as face shields, face masks, valves, nasopharyngeal swabs, and others, discussing their use and regulatory issues. In this regard, the major drawbacks of the technology, addressed for the next pandemic scenario, are highlighted. Finally, some insights of the future of additive manufacturing during emergency are given and discussed.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Biswas TK, Biswas M, R Bandyopadhyay (2020)

An Overview of Coronavirus COVID-19 with their Pathogenesis and Risk Assessment of the Disease Utilizing Positive Predictive Value of the Clinical and Laboratory Data.

Transactions of the Indian National Academy of Engineering : an international journal of engineering and technology, 5(2):417-427.

COVID-19 has created a devastating pandemic, infecting more than 200 countries in its wake, only sparing Antarctica. The virus dissociates ferrous ion from the porphyrin ring of heme of haemoglobin-thus hampering the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in the lung and tissue. The toxic effect of ferrous (Fe[2+]) ions and carbon dioxide causes lung damage giving rise to severe respiratory distress and an often observed clotting disorder. Serum ferritin level is increased along with the rise of serum LDH, d-dimer, serum IL-6 and cardiac troponin. Associated leukocytosis, occasional lymphocytopenia and radiological changes of the lung are the pathological hallmarks of the disease. All these parameters including other clinical data such as age, fever, gender and associated co-morbidities may be used as a Risk Assessment tool for COVID-19 before the report of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) is available. A timely intervention can contribute to rescuing millions from an untimely death.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

da Silva FR, Junior AHL, Brant VM, et al (2020)

The effects of COVID-19 quarantine on eating and sleeping behaviors.

Nutrire : revista de Sociedade Brasileira de Alimentacao e Nutricao = journal of the Brazilian Society of Food and Nutrition, 45(2):25.

ABSTRACT: Since the beginning of the pandemic, the population has been exposed to a substantial period of social isolation, which leads to anxiety, fear, and metabolic and immune impairments.

PURPOSE: Considering that sleep restriction influences eating behavior, we highlight that changes in it may occur during the COVID-19 quarantine. Alterations in feeding time can uncouple the body clocks, leading to circadian misalignment and consequently to a disruption in homeostasis and disturbances in many metabolic functions.

METHOD: Narrative review.

RESULTS: Do not apply.

CONCLUSION: The increase of body weight is related to increased food intake in response to mental stress and more time spent at home, increased opportunity to feed, and increased visual and olfactory stimulation to eat, which represents a potential risk of overfeeding nowadays. In this article, we postulate that the unusual lifestyle imposed by the COVID-19 quarantine may induce a circadian misalignment, which is capable to induce alterations on eating and sleep behaviors.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Jefferson M (2020)

COVID-19: The Lessons We Should Have Learned from Existing Literature.

Biophysical economics and sustainability, 5(3):13.

The linkages between natural resources and human well-being lie at the heart of biophysical economics. Huge disruptions to human well-being which can occur as a result of the impact of particular natural resources or species are, or should be, an obvious focus of interest for the biophysical economist whose focus is on flows between the natural world and human society. The causes and consequences of such disruptions, such as emanate from pandemics and epidemics, are a clear example of this. There is a need for better understanding of these causes and consequences. As an example, twelve books on epidemics and pandemics are considered here as providing the core for what guidance they might, and should, have provided on the sources, spreaders, and responses to COVID-19. A substantial amount of guidance is given in these and other sources referenced, which if followed would have reduced spread and mortality, but in far too many countries preparedness and speed of responses were inadequate. An effective global network and funding are required, as long advocated, but still not implemented. The economic and resource costs of this failure are huge.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Chu AMY, Kwok PWH, Chan JNL, et al (2024)

COVID-19 Pandemic Risk Assessment: Systematic Review.

Risk management and healthcare policy, 17:903-925.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presents the possibility of future large-scale infectious disease outbreaks. In response, we conducted a systematic review of COVID-19 pandemic risk assessment to provide insights into countries' pandemic surveillance and preparedness for potential pandemic events in the post-COVID-19 era.

OBJECTIVE: We aim to systematically identify relevant articles and synthesize pandemic risk assessment findings to facilitate government officials and public health experts in crisis planning.

METHODS: This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and included over 620,000 records from the World Health Organization COVID-19 Research Database. Articles related to pandemic risk assessment were identified based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Relevant articles were characterized based on study location, variable types, data-visualization techniques, research objectives, and methodologies. Findings were presented using tables and charts.

RESULTS: Sixty-two articles satisfying both the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. Among the articles, 32.3% focused on local areas, while another 32.3% had a global coverage. Epidemic data were the most commonly used variables (74.2% of articles), with over half of them (51.6%) employing two or more variable types. The research objectives covered various aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic, with risk exposure assessment and identification of risk factors being the most common theme (35.5%). No dominant research methodology for risk assessment emerged from these articles.

CONCLUSION: Our synthesized findings support proactive planning and development of prevention and control measures in anticipation of future public health threats.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Mekonen ZT, Fenta TG, Nadeem SP, et al (2024)

Global Health Commodities Supply Chain in the Era of COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges, Impacts, and Prospects: A Systematic Review.

Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 17:1523-1539.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the most substantial health crisis in the 21st Century. This pandemic interrupted the supply of essential commodities for human beings. Among the essential commodities for human survival, disruption of the supply of essential health commodities has become a global concern.

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to systematically analyze published articles on the challenges, impacts, and prospects of the global health commodities' supply chain in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: A standard searching strategy was conducted in seven research databases to retrieve pertinent articles. Finally, 459 articles were retrieved for further screening, and only 13 articles were selected for final synthesis.

RESULTS: Almost 38.5% of the studies targeted the supply chain of health commodities used to treat HIV, TB, and malaria. Lockdown policies, travel restrictions, lack of transportation, low manufacturing capacity, and rising costs were the significant challenges indicated for the supply interruption of essential health commodities and COVID-19 vaccines. Findings indicated that the supply interruption of essential health commodities leads to a devastating impact on global health.

CONCLUSION: Global medicine shortages due to the pandemic crisis can have a devastatingly harmful impact on patient outcomes and might result in a devastatingly long-lasting effect on the health of the world community. Supply-related challenges of the COVID-19 vaccine affect countries' ambitions for achieving herd immunity quickly. Monitoring the pandemic's effect on the health commodities' supply system and designing a short-term and long-term resilient health supply chain system that can cope with current and future health catastrophes is pivotal.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Chattu VK, Mol R, Singh B, et al (2024)

Pandemic treaty as an instrument to strengthen global health security: Global health diplomacy at its crux.

Health promotion perspectives, 14(1):9-18.

BACKGROUND: The World Health Assembly (WHA), on 1[st] December 2021, unanimously agreed to launch a global process to draft and negotiate a convention, agreement, or other international instrument under the World Health Organization's (WHO's) constitution to strengthen pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response. We aimed to explore the role of global health diplomacy (GHD) in pandemic treaty negotiations by providing deep insight into the ongoing drafting process under the WHO leadership.

METHODS: We conducted a narrative review by searching Scopus, Web of Sciences, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar search engine using the keywords "Pandemic Treaty," OR "International Health Regulations," OR "International conventions," OR "International treaties" in the context of recent COVID-19 pandemic. Besides, we included articles recommending the need for GHD, leadership and governance mechanisms for this international treaty drafting approved by the WHA.

RESULTS: Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the concept of GHD bolstered the international system and remained high on the agendas of many national, regional and global platforms. As per Article 19 of the WHO constitution, the Assembly established an intergovernmental negotiating body (INB) to draft and negotiate this convention/ agreement to protect the world from disease outbreaks of pandemic potential. Since GHD has helped to strengthen international cooperation in health systems and address inequities in achieving health-related global targets, there is a great scope for the successful drafting of this pandemic treaty.

CONCLUSION: The pandemic treaty is a defining moment in global health governance, particularly the pandemic governance reforms. However, the treaty's purpose will only be served if the equity considerations are optimized, accountability mechanisms are established, and a sense of shared responsibility is embraced. While fulfilling treaty commitments might be complex and challenging, it provides an opportunity to rethink and build resilient systems for pandemic preparedness and response in the future.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Kamble P, Daulatabad V, Singhal A, et al (2024)

JN.1 variant in enduring COVID-19 pandemic: is it a variety of interest (VoI) or variety of concern (VoC)?.

Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, classified as a Variant of Concern (VoC) in November 2021, marked a significant shift in the COVID-19 landscape. This study investigates the subsequent development of a novel Omicron sublineage, JN.1, which displays distinctive mutations in the spike protein. The study delves into the phylogenetic differences between these variants and their potential implications. A comprehensive analysis of the genomic profiles and mutation patterns of JN.1 and BA.2.86 was conducted, utilizing SARS-CoV-2 database. The study explores the unique mutations, such as S:L455S in JN.1, associated with increased transmissibility and immune escape. Furthermore, a comparison with prevalent strains like XBB.1.5 and HV.1 highlights the substantial genetic divergence of JN.1. JN.1, first detected in August 2023, exhibits a notable spike protein mutation profile, including the reappearance of earlier variants' mutations (E484K and P681R). The variant's increased transmissibility and immune evasion potential are attributed to specific spike protein mutations like R21T, S50L, V127F, R158G, and others. The study also explores the distribution and prevalence of JN.1 globally, with a focus on the rising cases in India. JN.1 poses a unique challenge as one of the most immune-evading variants, with potential implications for COVID-19 transmission. The study emphasizes the importance of monitoring and understanding emerging variants, especially those with distinct spike protein mutations. The observed cases in India highlight the need for vigilance and prompt public health responses. As JN.1 continues to evolve, ongoing surveillance, vaccination strategies, and adherence to preventive measures are crucial to mitigating its potential impact on global public health.

RevDate: 2024-04-19
CmpDate: 2024-04-19

Bakhshaei A, Ramachandran S, M Brondani (2024)

Teledentistry within oral health care providers' training: A scoping review.

European journal of dental education : official journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe, 28(2):631-644.

INTRODUCTION: Despite teledentistry (TD) ubiquitous utilization, it has yet to be fully adopted by oral health care providers' educational training. This study aimed to explore TD incorporation in the training of oral health care providers.

METHODS: This review included studies on the TD content offered to oral health care providers. The JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute) methodology was used, and two reviewers screened the literature. Studies published between 1989 and 4 June 2022 were searched using "Teledentistry" and "Education" as initial keywords. The searched databases included MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EPPI, Scopus, Epistemonikos, ERIC, MedEdPORTAL, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, and Google Scholar. All of the relevant literature, regardless of their language, were added. The data were extracted using an extraction table and are presented in tabular and narrative summary formats.

RESULTS: A total of 2180 documents were found, and 1804 documents were screened by the title and abstract after deduplication; 59 were selected for full-text review; and 19 were eligible for data extraction. Of all studies, 63.15% were published after the COVID-19 pandemic. Practicing TD and TD reimbursement were some of the addressed topics. Didactic education and hands-on practice were the most employed training methods. Self/peer evaluations and surveys were among the employed assessment techniques.

CONCLUSION: TD education has been emphasized during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a variation in the existing TD educational programmes, from addressing topics to assessment techniques. However, the number of educational programmes on this topic is sparse.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Pomarici E, R Sardone (2020)

EU wine policy in the framework of the CAP: post-2020 challenges.

Agricultural and food economics, 8(1):17.

The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and with it the EU wine policy, is experiencing a reform process, started in 2018, in order to address ambitious environmental and social objectives, in conjunction with the goal of a competitive agricultural sector. Given the role of the EU in wine supply, the aim of this paper is to present the design, the rationale and the potential effect of the proposed reform with specific reference to wine sector. To better understand the forthcoming process, it is firstly presented how CAP and its wine policy evolved in terms of objectives and tools over time. The EU wine policy is a paradigmatic example of a combination between the horizontal measures, valid for all agricultural sectors, and vertical measures, peculiarly encompassing the whole wine supply chain. The reform proposal confirms, with some interesting modifications, the set of tools already operating in the sector; however, it calls for a planning of the implementation of the available tools for all products in a unitary frame represented by a national CAP Strategic Plan, applying a lean administrative procedure. In the hypothesis that the COVID-19 outbreak will not cause a radical change in the global agri-food system, the proposed planning process should stimulate shared strategies. These are intended to effectively coordinate, according to the principle of complementarity, the implementation of available policy tools, in order to obtain a better use of resources and a more balanced achievement of all policy objectives.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Singh R, V Vijayan (2020)

Chloroquine: A Potential Drug in the COVID-19 Scenario.

Transactions of the Indian National Academy of Engineering : an international journal of engineering and technology, 5(2):399-410.

Today, the whole world is fighting a public health emergency called 'COVID-19' caused by a new infectious virus called SARS-CoV2. Any person can catch COVID-19 from an infected person via aerosol droplets when the person coughs, sneezes, or speaks. To limit such a transmission, World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended people to wear masks and physically distance themselves by staying at least 1 m (3 feet) away from others. As aerosol droplets (by cough or sneeze) land on objects and surfaces around the person such as tables, doorknobs and handrails, and remain active on these surfaces for hours to days, people are advised to use soaps for at least 20 s. and alcohol-based sanitizers as well. As the public made efforts, clinicians and researchers investigated and found that drugs which were initially used to treat other diseases may work as a treatment option for COVID-19. One of those drugs was Chloroquine and its related derivative called hydroxychloroquine. In this review article, we have systematically searched for details of COVID-19 pandemic till May 2020 and assembled few data pertaining to (i) Corona viruses; (ii) SARS-CoV2, the virus that causes COVID-19' and (iii) How chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine mediates anti-viral effect in both prophylactic and therapeutic setting. These data have been acquired mostly from PubMed and websites of WHO and Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR). We did a systematic search and found that the properties of chloroquine are very much essential for the COVID-19 scenario. We also bring to you some evidence that the anti-lysosomal activity of chloroquine may be increased by botanicals like betulinic acid.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Teixeira Zavadzki de Pauli S, Kleina M, WH Bonat (2020)

Comparing Artificial Neural Network Architectures for Brazilian Stock Market Prediction.

Annals of data science, 7(4):613-628.

Prediction of financial time series is a great challenge for statistical models. In general, the stock market times series present high volatility due to its sensitivity to economic and political factors. Furthermore, recently, the covid-19 pandemic has caused a drastic change in the stock exchange times series. In this challenging context, several computational techniques have been proposed to improve the performance of predicting such times series. The main goal of this article is to compare the prediction performance of five neural network architectures in predicting the six most traded stocks of the official Brazilian stock exchange B3 from March 2019 to April 2020. We trained the models to predict the closing price of the next day using as inputs its own previous values. We compared the predictive performance of multiple linear regression, Elman, Jordan, radial basis function, and multilayer perceptron architectures based on the root of the mean square error. We trained all models using the training set while hyper-parameters such as the number of input variables and hidden layers were selected using the testing set. Moreover, we used the trimmed average of 100 bootstrap samples as our prediction. Thus, our approach allows us to measure the uncertainty associate with the predicted values. The results showed that for all times series, considered all architectures, except the radial basis function, the networks tunning provide suitable fit, reasonable predictions, and confidence intervals.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Zhou J, Hu Z, Zabihi F, et al (2020)

Progress and Perspective of Antiviral Protective Material.

Advanced fiber materials, 2(3):123-139.

Public health events caused by viruses pose a significant risk to humans worldwide. From December 2019 till now, the rampant novel 2019 coronavirus (SAR-CoV-2) has hugely impacted China and over world. Regarding a commendable means of protection, mask technology is relatively mature, though most of the masks cannot effectively resist the viral infections. The key material of the mask is a non-woven material, which makes the barrier of virus through filtration. Due to the lack of the ability to kill the viruses, masks are prone to cross-infection and become an additional source of infection after being discarded. If the filteration and antiviral effects can be simultaneously integrated into the mask, it will be more effcient, work for a longer time and create less difficulty in post-treatment. This mini-review presents the advances in antiviral materials, different mechanisms of their activity, and their potential applications in personal protective fabrics. Furthermore, the article addresses the future challenges and directions of mask technology.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Mack K, Kruszelnicki K, Randall L, et al (2020)

Reaching out.

Nature reviews. Physics, 2(6):282-284.

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, science is crucial to inform public policy. At the same time, mistrust of scientists and misinformation about scientific facts are rampant. Six scientists, actively involved in outreach, reflect on how to build a better understanding and trust of science.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Kullar R, Goff DA, Gauthier TP, et al (2020)

To Tweet or Not to Tweet-a Review of the Viral Power of Twitter for Infectious Diseases.

Current infectious disease reports, 22(6):14.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With real-time communication crucial to both healthcare professionals (HCPs) and the public in infectious diseases (ID), social media networking sites has become even more important. Twitter is the most popular form of social media used for ID communication. We will review the power of Twitter in ID.

RECENT FINDINGS: Twitter allows for real-time sharing of educational resources at ID scientific conferences, enabling individuals that are not able to attend conferences to follow conferences anytime anywhere and stimulate discussion around topics of interest with experts from across the globe. Further, Twitter chats are a valuable tool for stewardship, with different accounts periodically hosting chats on various stewardship topics. Several studies have also demonstrated the strong relationship between dissemination and citation impact of publications with the help of Twitter. There is great value in engaging with non-ID people on Twitter via dissemination of ID knowledge to other disciplines. Lastly, when used appropriately, Twitter is a useful site for distributing vaccine information, whether informally (by advocates and physicians) or formally (by government entities) and allows one to keep up with ongoing ID outbreaks in real time.

SUMMARY: Twitter has transformed how we communicate in healthcare. Particularly in ID, where bacteria and viruses can enter/exit borders anytime anywhere, global real-time information about outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance for clinicians and the public is critical. Twitter has no hierarchy or barriers, is a conduit for global collaboration, and is a way for HCPs and the public to "social"ize on healthcare topics, if used appropriately.

RevDate: 2024-04-17
CmpDate: 2024-04-17

Choi HS, Choi AY, Kopp JB, et al (2024)

Review of COVID-19 Therapeutics by Mechanism: From Discovery to Approval.

Journal of Korean medical science, 39(14):e134.

The global research and pharmaceutical community rapidly mobilized to develop treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Existing treatments have been repurposed and new drugs have emerged. Here we summarize mechanisms and clinical trials of COVID-19 therapeutics approved or in development. Two reviewers, working independently, reviewed published data for approved COVID-19 vaccines and drugs, as well as developmental pipelines, using databases from the following organizations: United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), Japanese Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), and ClinicalTrials.gov. In all, 387 drugs were found for initial review. After removing unrelated trials and drugs, 66 drugs were selected, including 17 approved drugs and 49 drugs under development. These drugs were classified into six categories: 1) drugs targeting the viral life cycle 2) Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Monoclonal Antibodies, 3) immunomodulators, 4) anti-coagulants, 5) COVID-19-induced neuropathy drugs, and 6) other therapeutics. Among the 49 drugs under development are the following: 6 drugs targeting the viral life cycle, 12 immunosuppression drugs, 2 immunostimulants, 2 HIF-PHD targeting drugs, 3 GM-CSF targeting drugs, 5 anti-coagulants, 2 COVID-19-induced neuropathy drugs, and 17 others. This review provides insight into mechanisms of action, properties, and indications for COVID-19 medications.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Plys E, Ahmad N, Wei A, et al (2024)

Psychosocial Distress Among Certified Nursing Assistants in Long-Term Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Social Ecological Model Informed Scoping Review.

Clinical gerontologist [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This scoping review maps the literature on psychosocial distress and coping among nursing assistants (CNAs) in long-term care facilities (LTC) during the COVID-19 pandemic onto the Social Ecological Model (SEM) of Occupational Stress.

METHODS: Searches yielded 862 unique studies. Inclusion criteria were sample CNAs or equivalent in LTC; includes psychosocial variable; and collect data from February 2020-. A multi-phasic, meta-synthesis was used to synthesize qualitative data.

RESULTS: We identified 20 studies (13 quantitative, 7 qualitative) conducted between March 2020 and December 2021 from 14 countries. Prevalence rates were reported for perceived stress (31-33%; n = 1 study), post-traumatic stress (42%; n = 1), anxiety (53%; n = 1), depression (15-59%; n = 2), suicidal thoughts (11-15%; n = 1), and everyday emotional burnout (28%; n = 1). Qualitative studies identified factors contributing to psychosocial distress and coping at each SEM level (i.e. individual, microsystem, organization, and peri-/extra-organizational). Quantitative studies primarily measured factors relating to psychosocial distress and coping at the individual and organizational levels.

This review identifies specific targets for intervention for psychosocial distress among CNAs in LTC at multiple levels, including job clarity; workload; facility culture; community relations; and policy. These intervention targets remain relevant to the LTC industry beyond the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Chan JF, Yuan S, Chu H, et al (2024)

COVID-19 drug discovery and treatment options.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused substantial morbidity and mortality, and serious social and economic disruptions worldwide. Unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated older individuals with underlying diseases are especially prone to severe disease. In patients with non-fatal disease, long COVID affecting multiple body systems may persist for months. Unlike SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which have either been mitigated or remained geographically restricted, SARS-CoV-2 has disseminated globally and is likely to continue circulating in humans with possible emergence of new variants that may render vaccines less effective. Thus, safe, effective and readily available COVID-19 therapeutics are urgently needed. In this Review, we summarize the major drug discovery approaches, preclinical antiviral evaluation models, representative virus-targeting and host-targeting therapeutic options, and key therapeutics currently in clinical use for COVID-19. Preparedness against future coronavirus pandemics relies not only on effective vaccines but also on broad-spectrum antivirals targeting conserved viral components or universal host targets, and new therapeutics that can precisely modulate the immune response during infection.

RevDate: 2024-04-17
CmpDate: 2024-04-17

Mahsusi M, Hudaa S, Nuryani N, et al (2024)

Global Rate of Willingness to Volunteer Among Medical and Health Students During Pandemic: Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JMIR medical education, 10:e56415.

BACKGROUND: During health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, shortages of health care workers often occur. Recruiting students as volunteers could be an option, but it is uncertain whether the idea is well-accepted.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to estimate the global rate of willingness to volunteer among medical and health students in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar for studies reporting the number of health students willing to volunteer during COVID-19 from 2019 to November 17, 2023. The meta-analysis was performed using a restricted maximum-likelihood model with logit transformation.

RESULTS: A total of 21 studies involving 26,056 health students were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of the willingness-to-volunteer rate among health students across multiple countries was 66.13%, with an I2 of 98.99% and P value of heterogeneity (P-Het)<.001. Removing a study with the highest influence led to the rate being 64.34%. Our stratified analyses indicated that those with older age, being first-year students, and being female were more willing to volunteer (P<.001). From highest to lowest, the rates were 77.38%, 77.03%, 65.48%, 64.11%, 62.71%, and 55.23% in Africa, Western Europe, East and Southeast Asia, Middle East, and Eastern Europe, respectively. Because of the high heterogeneity, the evidence from this study has moderate strength.

CONCLUSIONS: The majority of students are willing to volunteer during COVID-19, suggesting that volunteer recruitment is well-accepted.

RevDate: 2024-04-18
CmpDate: 2024-04-18

Shaji Mathew J, Shingina A, Khan MQ, et al (2024)

Proceedings of the 28th Annual Congress of the International Liver Transplantation Society.

Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society, 30(5):544-554.

The 2023 Joint International Congress of the International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS), the European Liver and Intestine Transplant Association (ELITA), and the Liver Intensive Care Group of Europe (LICAGE) held in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, marked a significant recovery milestone for the liver transplant community after COVID-19. With 1159 participants and a surge in abstract submissions, the event focused on "Liver Disorders and Transplantation: Innovations and Evolving Indications." This conference report provides a comprehensive overview of the key themes discussed during the event, encompassing Hepatology, Anesthesia and Critical Care, Acute Liver Failure, Infectious Disease, Immunosuppression, Pediatric Liver Transplantation, Living Donor Liver Transplantation, Transplant Oncology, Surgical Approaches, and Machine Perfusion. The congress provided a platform for extensive discussions on a wide range of topics, reflecting the continuous advancements and collaborative efforts within the liver transplant community.

RevDate: 2024-04-18
CmpDate: 2024-04-18

Kheur S, Ghosal S, KM Desai (2024)

Oral Microbial and Molecular Cross Talk between SARS-CoV-2 and Diabetes Mellitus - A Mini Review.

Current diabetes reviews, 20(2):e260423216221.

The oral microbiome has long been considered a measure of overall systemic health. It is often significantly altered in case of chronic inflammation or any other systemic infection. Therefore, a shift in oral microbiota and oral health is bound to be observed in diabetics infected with the coronavirus. The prognosis of COVID-19 in a diabetic individual is often worse than that in a healthy individual. The increased pathogenicity of coronavirus in diabetics is due to the peculiar ways in which it interacts with specific physiological mechanisms in a diabetic patient and vice versa. Diabetes Mellitus Type-II (DM -II) is one of the most frequently associated co-morbidities in a COVID-19 patient, and therefore it is even more pertinent that their interrelationship is understood. It is essential to recognize the above-mentioned interactions and consider their implications while treating susceptible patients. This article attempts to review and summarize the said vital interactions. Additionally, it attempts to guide and prepare oral health professionals on what to expect and how to treat diabetic patients in a future where coronavirus is, as unfortunate as it is, a regularity and not a rarity.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Bizzoca ME, Leuci S, Mignogna MD, et al (2022)

Natural compounds may contribute in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection: a narrative review.

Food science and human wellness, 11(5):1134-1142.

Coronavirus pandemic infection is the most important health issue worldwide. Coronavirus disease 2019 is a contagious disease characterized by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. To date, excluding the possibility of vaccination, against SARS-CoV-2 infection it is possible to act only with supportive care and non-virus-specific treatments in order to improve the patient's symptoms. Pharmaceutical industry is investigating effects of medicinal plants, phytochemical extracts and aromatic herbs to find out natural substances which may act as antiviral drugs. Several studies have revealed how these substances may interfere with the viral life cycle, viral entry, replication, assembly or discharge, as well as virus-specific host targets or stimulating the host immune system, reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response. A natural compound can be used as a prophylaxis by people professionally exposed to the risk of contagion and/or positive patients not in intensive care. The aim of this paper is to perform a narrative review of current literature in order to summarize the most studied natural compounds and their modes of action.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Wolf A, Khimani F, Yoon B, et al (2022)

The mechanistic basis linking cytokine storm to thrombosis in COVID-19.

Thrombosis update, 8:100110.

It is now well established that infection with SARS-CoV-2 resulting in COVID-19 disease includes a severely symptomatic subset of patients in whom an aggressive and/or dysregulated host immune response leads to cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) that may be further complicated by thrombotic events, contributing to the severe morbidity and mortality observed in COVID-19. This review provides a brief overview of cytokine storm in COVID-19, and then presents a mechanistic discussion of how cytokine storm affects integrated pathways in thrombosis involving the endothelium, platelets, the coagulation cascade, eicosanoids, auto-antibody mediated thrombosis, and the fibrinolytic system.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Silva-Hernández L, Cabal-Paz B, Mayo-Canalejo D, et al (2021)

Post-COVID symptoms of potential peripheral nervous and muscular origin.

Neurology perspectives, 1:S25-S30.

Many patients report persistent symptoms attributable to dysfunction of the peripheral nervous and muscular systems after acute COVID-19. These symptoms may constitute part of the so-called post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS), or may result from neuromuscular complications of hospitalisation in intensive care units (ICUs). This article provides an updated review of symptoms of potential neuromuscular origin in patients with PACS, differentiating symptoms according to muscle, peripheral nerve, or autonomic nervous system involvement, and analyses the forms of neuromuscular involvement in patients who were admitted to the ICU due to severe COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Altuna M, Sánchez-Saudinós MB, A Lleó (2021)

Cognitive symptoms after COVID-19.

Neurology perspectives, 1:S16-S24.

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 infection frequently causes neurological symptoms. Cognitive alterations are among the most frequent symptoms, and may persist beyond the acute phase of infection.

METHODS: We conducted a narrative review of the literature.

RESULTS: Hospitalised patients, and especially critically ill patients, are at greater risk of developing cognitive symptoms. Post-COVID-19 cognitive symptoms, unlike those associated with other viral illnesses, have been observed in patients with mild infection, and present some atypical features. Cognitive symptoms may last longer in COVID-19 than in other infectious processes, and more frequently affect young people. Post-COVID-19 cognitive symptoms share common features with those described in chronic fatigue syndrome, including a similar profile with affective symptoms. Brief screening tests for cognitive impairment present suboptimal diagnostic performance, and standardised criteria are needed to ensure correct diagnosis.Post-COVID-19 cognitive impairment can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life and functional independence, regardless of other post-COVID-19 symptoms. Currently, no specific treatments have been approved for post-COVID-19 cognitive impairment, although cognitive stimulation may be useful in some patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Post-COVID-19 cognitive symptoms are common and are often associated with other systemic symptoms. Neuropsychological evaluation may be useful for diagnosis and to quantify their severity and long-term prognosis. Detailed, and individualised assessment of cognitive impairment may enable the design of treatment plans.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Membrilla JA, Caronna E, Trigo-López J, et al (2021)

Persistent headache after COVID-19: Pathophysioloy, clinic and treatment.

Neurology perspectives, 1:S31-S36.

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The acute infection is characterised not only by respiratory symptoms, but also by multiple systemic manifestations, including neurological symptoms. Among these, headache is a frequent complaint. As the pandemic progresses and the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is becoming apparent that the headache present in the acute stage of the infection may persist for an indeterminate period, becoming a major problem for the patient and potentially leading to disability. In this review we describe the pathophysiological and clinical aspects of persistent headache after COVID-19 based on the information currently available in the literature and the authors' clinical experience.

RevDate: 2024-04-17
CmpDate: 2024-04-17

Kotani Y, Belletti A, Maiucci G, et al (2024)

Renin as a Prognostic Marker in Intensive Care and Perioperative Settings: A Scoping Review.

Anesthesia and analgesia, 138(5):929-936.

Serum renin increases in response to sympathetic nerve activation and hypotension. Recent studies have reported the association of serum renin levels with adverse clinical outcomes in acute care settings. This scoping review aimed to systematically review the available literature on renin as a prognostic marker in intensive care and perioperative patients. We searched for studies published since inception until March 31, 2023, which assessed the association between serum renin levels and clinical outcomes or the effect of synthetic angiotensin II administration on serum renin levels in critically ill and perioperative patients in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The primary outcome was mortality at the longest follow-up; the secondary outcomes were adverse renal outcomes (ie, acute kidney injury, the need for renal replacement therapy, and major adverse kidney events), hemodynamic instability, outcomes to angiotensin II administration, and prognostic performance for mortality when compared with lactate. Among the 2081 studies identified, we included 16 studies with 1573 patients (7 studies on shock, 5 on nonspecific critical illness, 2 on cardiac surgery, 1 on noncardiac surgery, and 1 on coronavirus disease 2019). A significant association between serum renin levels and poor outcomes was identified in 14 studies, with 10 studies demonstrating an association with mortality. One post hoc analysis found that angiotensin II administration reduced mortality in patients with markedly elevated renin values. Two studies showed that renin was superior to lactate as a prognostic marker of mortality. Our scoping review showed that elevated serum renin levels may be associated with clinically relevant outcomes among various perioperative and intensive care populations. Increased serum renin levels may identify patients in which synthetic angiotensin II administration improves clinical outcomes and may outperform serum lactate in predicting mortality.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Khimani F, Wolf AJ, Yoon B, et al (2023)

Therapeutic considerations for prevention and treatment of thrombotic events in COVID-19.

Thrombosis update, 10:100126.

Thrombosis is a known complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly within a severely symptomatic subset of patients with COVID-19 disease, in whom an aggressive host immune response leads to cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). The incidence of thrombotic events coinciding with CSS may contribute to the severe morbidity and mortality observed in association with COVID-19. This review provides an overview of pharmacologic approaches based upon an emerging understanding of the mechanisms responsible for thrombosis across a spectrum of COVID-19 disease involving an interplay between immunologic and pro-thrombotic events, including endothelial injury, platelet activation, altered coagulation pathways, and impaired fibrinolysis.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Risnandar (2022)

DeSa COVID-19: Deep salient COVID-19 image-based quality assessment.

Journal of King Saud University. Computer and information sciences, 34(10):9501-9512.

This study offers an advanced method to evaluate the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) image quality. The salient COVID-19 image map is incorporated with the deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), namely DeSa COVID-19, which exerts the n-convex method for the full-reference image quality assessment (FR-IQA). The glaring outcomes substantiate that DeSa COVID-19 and the recommended DCNN architecture can convey a remarkable accomplishment on the COVID-chestxray and the COVID-CT datasets, respectively. The salient COVID-19 image map is also gauged in the minuscule COVID-19 image patches. The exploratory results attest that DeSa COVID-19 and the recommended DCNN methods are very good accomplishment compared with other advanced methods on COVID-chestxray and COVID-CT datasets, respectively. The recommended DCNN also acquires the enhanced outgrowths faced with several advanced full-reference-medical-image-quality-assessment (FR-MIQA) techniques in the fast fading (FF), blocking artifact (BA), white noise Gaussian (WG), JPEG, and JPEG2000 (JP2K) in the distorted and undistorted COVID-19 images. The Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (SROCC) and the linear correlation coefficient (LCC) appraise the recommended DCNN and DeSa COVID-19 fulfillment which are compared the recent FR-MIQA methods. The DeSa COVID-19 evaluation outshines 2.63% and 2.62% higher compared the recommended DCNN, and 28.53% and 29.01% esteem all of advanced FR-MIQAs methods on SROCC and LCC measures, respectively. The shift add operations of trigonometric, logarithmic, and exponential functions are mowed down in the computational complexity of the DeSa COVID-19 and the recommended DCNN. The DeSa COVID-19 more superior the recommended DCNN and also the other recent full-reference medical image quality assessment methods.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Altooq N, Humood A, Alajaimi A, et al (2022)

The role of micronutrients in the management of COIVD-19 and optimizing vaccine efficacy.

Human nutrition & metabolism, 27:200141.

Since COVID-19 was declared as a pandemic, a race between researchers has begun to deeply examine the mechanism of the virus and how to combat it. Few clinical investigations and studies have paid attention to the role of micronutrients in the disease's course and how it may affect the disease outcomes. Micronutrients have a noticeable effect on the host immune system regulation, as well as micronutrients insufficiencies where they can affect the host immune response against SARS-CoV-2 by, for example, altering the production and the function of the inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IFN-α, TNF and interleukins. Recent studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc, selenium, copper and magnesium have a great clinical impact on COVID-19 patients, where, they are linked to prolong hospital stay, increase the mortality rate and raise the complications rate related not only to the respiratory system but also to the other systems. Optimizing the need for these micronutrients will act as a productive factor by decreasing the incidence of COVID-19 infection, lowering the rate of complications, and improving the disease prognosis and outcomes. Optimal micro-nutrition supports and contributes to the efficiency of COVID-19 vaccine. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of different micronutrients in the management of COVID-19 and optimizing vaccines, and to revile the clinical effects of micronutrients deficiencies on patients with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Shruti VC, Pérez-Guevara F, G Kutralam-Muniasamy (2021)

Wet wipes contribution to microfiber contamination under COVID-19 era: An important but overlooked problem.

Environmental challenges (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 5:100267.

Wet wipes for disinfection, sanitizing, and medical purposes, like personal protective equipment, have witnessed an upsurge in production and use as a result of COVID-19 outbreak. They are a potential source of microfibers and have recently been found in COVID-19 plastic litter survey campaigns conducted in a few marine environments around the world. This mini-review highlights wet wipes as a one of the key debris items contributing to the growing COVID-19-related microplastic pollution, and there are significant gaps in our understanding of microfiber release under different environmental conditions, morphological, and chemical degradation signatures, necessitating a comprehensive study of disinfectant wipes. Thus, we urge microplastic researchers to investigate the environmental implications of wet wipes in order to keep the total estimate of the plastic problem up to date and manage the associated environmental challenges.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Arbillaga-Etxarri A, Lista-Paz A, Alcaraz-Serrano V, et al (2022)

[Respiratory physiotherapy in post-COVID-19: a decision-making algorithm for clinical practice].

Open respiratory archives, 4(1):100139.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has posed a great challenge for the healthcare system which has been later aggravated by the need of managing clinical manifestations and potential sequelae in COVID-19 survivors. In this context, respiratory Physiotherapy emerges as a cornerstone in the interdisciplinary management warranted in this population. Given that the implementation and resources available for the interdisciplinary therapeutic interventions in Spain is scarce, it is essential to perform a comprehensive, exhaustive and personalised assessment. This will allow us to establish more accurate selection criteria in order to optimise the use of existing human and material resources. To this end, we propose here a decision-making algorithm for clinical practice to assess the clinical manifestations in people recovered from COVID-19 based on well-established, validated tests and assessment tools. This algorithm can be used at any clinical practice environment (primary care/community or hospital-based), combined with a patient-centered model and the use of community and e-Health resources and its application to improve the Physiotherapy care of these patients in the COVID-19 era.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Adhikari A, Sengupta J, CM Hussain (2021)

Declining carbon emission/concentration during COVID-19: A critical review on temporary relief.

Carbon trends, 5:100131.

In December 2019 the deadly pandemic COVID-19 traumatized mankind through its lethal impact. To seize the outbreak, nationwide/region-based lockdown strategies were adopted by most of the COVID-19 affected countries. This in turn resulted in restricted transportation via surface, water, and air, as well as significantly reduced working hours of the industry sectors, so on and so forth. The obvious outcome was a sudden discernible decline in atmospheric adulteration. Accordingly, the anthropogenic emissions at the global and regional/local scales were examined during the lockdown period by several researchers using both or either satellite-based and ground-based monitoring. Among several other air-contaminants, carbon has a dominant toxicological profile causing adverse health effects and thereby attracting researches interest in carbon-release probing during the systematic confinement period imposed by the ruling authorities across the globe. The results of those studies indicated a confirmed decline in carbon emission/concentration making the air more breathable for the period. In this review, the studies related to anthropogenic emissions of carbon during the lockdown period are accounted for by compiling the recently reported data from published articles.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Foroughi M, Gupta R, Ganguly A, et al (2021)

Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of COVID-19: A Review.

Advances in psychiatry and behavioral health, 1(1):161-172.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Shao L, Ge S, Jones T, et al (2021)

The role of airborne particles and environmental considerations in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Geoscience frontiers, 12(5):101189.

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus, results in an acute respiratory condition coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is highly infectious. The recent spread of this virus has caused a global pandemic. Currently, the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 are being established, especially the role of environmental transmission. Here we review the environmental transmission routes and persistence of SARS-CoV-2. Recent studies have established that the transmission of this virus may occur, amongst others, in the air, water, soil, cold-chain, biota, and surface contact. It has also been found that the survival potential of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is dependent on different environmental conditions and pollution. Potentially important pathways include aerosol and fecal matter. Particulate matter may also be a carrier for SARS-CoV-2. Since microscopic particles can be easily absorbed by humans, more attention must be focused on the dissemination of these particles. These considerations are required to evolve a theoretical platform for epidemic control and to minimize the global threat from future epidemics.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Paramitha MP, Suyanto JC, S Puspitasari (2021)

The role of continuous renal replacement therapy (Crrt) in Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) patients.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 39:12-18.

Even without the presence of the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), acute kidney injury has been a serious problem in medicine for decades, with mortality rate up to 70% among those who eventually required renal replacement therapy, and the number has not changed significantly for the last 30 years despite major advances in technology and experience. On the other hand, even without acute kidney injury, COVID-19 was a major cause of death globally in the year 2020, but the occurrence of acute kidney injury among COVID-19 patients is an independent risk factor of increased mortality. Continuous renal replacement therapy has been recommended to treat acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients instead of conventional intermittent hemodialysis. Moreover, its use might have another beneficial role in stopping the progression of severe COVID-19 by removing pro-inflammatory cytokines during cytokine storm syndrome, which is postulated as the pathophysiology behind severe and critically severe cases of COVID-19. This review will cover a brief history of continuous renal replacement therapy and its modalities, before digging up more into its use in COVID-19 patients, including the optimum filtration dose and timing, membrane filtration used, vascular access, anticoagulation therapy, and drug dosing adjustment during continuous renal replacement therapy.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Bhushan I, Sharma M, Mehta M, et al (2021)

Bioactive compounds and probiotics-a ray of hope in COVID-19 management.

Food science and human wellness, 10(2):131-140.

The use of bioactive compounds and probiotic bacteria against the viral diseases in human is known for a long time. Anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of bioactive compounds and bacteria with probiotic properties in respiratory viral diseases may have significance to enhance immunity. This review highlights some of the important bioactive compounds and probiotic bacteria, suggesting them as a ray of hope in the milieu of the COVID-19 management.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Sengupta J, CM Hussain (2021)

Carbon nanomaterials to combat virus: A perspective in view of COVID-19.

Carbon trends, 2:100019.

The rapid outbreaks of lethal viruses necessitate the development of novel antiviral substance. Besides the conventional antiviral substances, biocompatible nanomaterials also have significant potential in combating the virus at various stages of infection. Carbon nanomaterials have an impressive record against viruses and can deal with many crucial healthcare issues. In accordance with the published literature, biocompatible carbon nanomaterials have a promising prospect as an antiviral substance. Subsequently, the antiviral properties of different carbon nanomaterials namely fullerene, carbon nanotube, carbon dot and graphene oxide have been reviewed.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Lange KW (2021)

Food science and COVID-19.

Food science and human wellness, 10(1):1-5.

Theories proposing a role of specific dietary components or food supplements in the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 have received extensive social media coverage. A multitude of scientific publications have also pointed to the importance of food and nutrition in combating the COVID-19 pandemic. The present perspective critically addresses the question of what food science can actually contribute in this context. Animal studies suggest that micronutrients, food bioactives or functional foods may carry the potential to augment viral defense. However, the specific roles of food components in viral infectious diseases in humans remain unclear. Rigorous research assessing the efficacy of food compounds in counteracting infections would require long-term randomized controlled trials in large samples. While no foods, single nutrients or dietary supplements are capable of preventing infection with COVID-19, a balanced diet containing sufficient amounts of macronutrients and diverse micronutrients is a prerequisite of an optimally functioning immune system. High-energy diets and obesity are major risk factors for a more severe course of COVID-19. Therefore, population-wide body weight control and weight reduction in overweight people are important preventive measures. Diet may play a beneficial role in maintaining a healthy body weight and preventing non-communicable conditions.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Fajardo A, Rodríguez A, Chica C, et al (2023)

[Prone position in the third trimester of pregnancy during the COVID-19 era: a transdisciplinary approach.].

Clinica e investigacion en ginecologia y obstetricia pii:S0210-573X(23)00076-X [Epub ahead of print].

There is very limited evidence regarding the use of prone position as part of the treatment of severe ARDS in pregnant patients. Currently, recommendations for invasive ventilatory management in this population are very scarce and are based on the extrapolation of conclusions obtained in studies of non-pregnant patients. The available literature asserts that the anatomy and physiology of the pregnant woman undergoes complex adaptive changes that must be considered during invasive ventilatory support and prone position. With prone ventilation, the benefits obtained for the couple far outweigh the eventual risks. Adequate programming of the mechanical ventilator correlates with a clear and simple concept: individualization of support. In any case, the decision on the timing of termination of pregnancy should be based on adequate multidisciplinary clinical judgment and should be supported by strict monitoring of the product.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

de Broucker T (2023)

[COVID-19: Neurological manifestations and complications during the acute phase of the disease].

Bulletin de l'Academie nationale de medecine pii:S0001-4079(23)00190-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The neurological manifestations and complications of the acute phase of COVID-19 are numerous. They mainly concern the central nervous system in the frequent forms of encephalopathy, encephalitis and neurovascular pathologies. Peripheral neurological manifestations mainly include acute polyneuropathies such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and intensive care neuromyopathies. Most of these manifestations were described during the first wave of the pandemic. The epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects are addressed in this general review of the literature published from 2020 to early 2023.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Das A, Azarudheen S, Chandrasekaran B, et al (2023)

The plausible effects of wearing face masks on sports performance - A scoping review.

Science & sports pii:S0765-1597(23)00133-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this scoping review are to discuss, firstly, the positive aspects of wearing face masks during training (such as a barrier to COVID-19 transmission, air pollutant exposure, and adding load on respiratory resistance flow); secondly, the negative aspects (adverse effects on body temperature and hypoxia risks); and thirdly, the training responses of wearing face masks on aerobic and anaerobic performance.

NEWS: Besides social distancing and hand hygiene, wearing a face mask is proposed to be the prime advocacy for virus containment. During the period of high risk of contamination, the return to sport guidelines proposed by international and national sport federations included wearing face masks during training sessions. However, it is necessary to discuss the pros and cons of wearing face masks during exercise.

PROSPECTS: Although it was essential to wear a face mask during exercise or sport-specific training, there is conflicting evidence on the implications of the use of face masks on physical, physiological as well as psychological well-being or performance. Based on the conflicting empirical findings and anecdotal evidence, certain recommendations have been made for adequate use of face masks during exercise; both to break the chain of transmission and prevent the physiological compromise expected from wearing face masks during exercise. The present review can help stakeholders balance sport guidelines in the event of a respiratory virus pandemic with athlete safety.

CONCLUSION: Conflicting evidence of mechanistic links between the dose of exercise and the possible adverse effects associated with exercising with face masks is available. Adequately powered studies with strong methodological quality on appropriate selection of masks and usage based on the intensity, duration, and type of sport, age, and gender is needed now for the stakeholders to make informed decisions with respect to exercising with face masks.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Nori W, D Akeel Salman (2023)

Seminal fluid changes in the COVID-19 era: During infection and Post-vaccination.

Gynecology and obstetrics clinical medicine, 3(2):88-93.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predilection for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors allows its entrance and replication; however, they are not biochemically required for viral fusion into the cell membrane. Testicular tissue has abundant ACE2 receptors, making it a target for the COVID-19 virus. Seminal fluid parameters are measures of male fertility. Changes in semen parameters have been caused by coronavirus disease and vaccines. Some attribute that effect to direct hematogenic spread to the testis; others propose that the excessive immunological response triggered by the infection causes a deleterious effect. An unsubstantiated claim questioned whether the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine could trigger an unintentional immunological response that would impair male fertility once receiving the vaccine. Extensive research confirms the transient nature of those changes that affect sperm motility and count with full recovery post-COVID-19 infection and after vaccination. The vaccine's safety was reaffirmed; however, there are currently no recommendations for screening sperm donors. Research is warranted to guarantee the safety of couples undergoing assisted reproduction.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Shallik N, Bashir K, Elmoheen A, et al (2023)

High flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) in the treatment of COVID-19 infection of adult patients from - An emergency perspective: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 50:101238.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which was first discovered in Wuhan, China. The disease has grown into a global pandemic causing mild to moderate symptoms in most people. The disease can also exhibit serious illnesses, especially for patients with other chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer. In such cases of severe illness, high flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) has been used to provide oxygenation to COVID-19 patients. However, the efficiency of HFNO remains uncertain, prompting the conduction of this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. A thorough search for relevant and original articles was carried out on five electronic databases, including ScienceDirect, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Google Scholar. No time limitation was placed during the search as it included all the articles related to COVID-19 from 2019 to 2022. The search strategy utilized in this systematic review yielded 504 articles, of which only 10 met the eligibility criteria and were included. Our meta-analysis reveals that HFNO success rate was higher than HFNO failure rates (0.52 (95% CI; 0.47, 0.56) and 0.48 (95% CI; 0.44, 0.53), respectively), however, the difference was statistically insignificant. HFNO was associated with a significant decrease in mortality and intubation rates (0.28 (95% CI; 0.19, 0.39) and 0.28 (95% CI; 0.18, 0.41), respectively). Our statistical analysis has shown that significantly lower ROX index (5.07 ± 1.66, p = 0.028) and PaO2/FiO2 (100 ± 27.51, p = 0.031) are associated with HFNO failure, while a significantly lower respiratory rate (RR) (23.17 ± 4.167, p = 0.006) is associated with HFNO success. No statistically significant difference was observed in SpO2/FiO2 ratio between the HFNO success and failure groups (154.23 ± 42.74 vs. 124.025 ± 28.50, p = 0.62, respectively). Based on the results from our meta-analysis, the success or failure of HFNO in treating COVID-19 adult patients remains uncertain. However, HFNO has been shown to be an effective treatment in reducing mortality and intubation rates. Therefore, HFNO can be recommended for COVID-19 patients but with close monitoring and should be carried out by experienced healthcare workers.

RevDate: 2024-04-16
CmpDate: 2024-04-16

Chedid M, Hentzien M, Eckerle I, et al (2024)

[Singularities of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed persons].

Revue medicale suisse, 20(869):756-763.

Immunosuppressed persons are a heterogeneous population that represents approximately 3 % of the adult population. They are more vulnerable to infectious agents, such as SARS-CoV-2. This is reflected by a reduced response to vaccination, a higher rate of progression towards a severe form of the disease, and recurrent or persistent infections associated with intra-host viral evolution. This review summarizes the evidence regarding vaccine efficacy, clinical and virological singularities, and the management in immunosuppressed patients.

RevDate: 2024-04-16
CmpDate: 2024-04-16

Wei MZ, Chen L, Zhang R, et al (2024)

Overview of the recent advances in porcine epidemic diarrhea vaccines.

Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), 304:106097.

Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing and controlling porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). Conventional vaccines developed from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) GI-a subtypes (CV777 and SM98) have played a vital role in preventing classical PED. However, with the emergence of PEDV mutants in 2010, conventional PEDV GI-a subtype-targeting vaccines no longer provide adequate protection against PEDV GII mutants, thereby making novel-type PED vaccine development an urgent concern to be addressed. Novel vaccines, including nucleic acid vaccines, genetically engineered subunit vaccines, and live vector vaccines, are associated with several advantages, such as high safety and stability, clear targeting, high yield, low cost, and convenient usage. These vaccines can be combined with corresponding ELISA kits to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals, which is beneficial for disease confirmation. This review provides a detailed overview of the recent advancements in PED vaccines, emphasizing on the research and application evaluation of novel PED vaccines. It also considers the future directions and challenges in advancing these vaccines to widespread use in clinics.

RevDate: 2024-04-16
CmpDate: 2024-04-16

Tanev KS, Camprodon JA, Caplan DN, et al (2024)

Telemedicine-Based Cognitive Examinations During COVID-19 and Beyond: Perspective of the Massachusetts General Hospital Behavioral Neurology & Neuropsychiatry Group.

The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 36(2):87-100.

Telehealth and telemedicine have encountered explosive growth since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased access to care for patients located far from medical centers and clinics. Subspecialty clinicians in behavioral neurology & neuropsychiatry (BNNP) have implemented the use of telemedicine platforms to perform cognitive examinations that were previously office based. In this perspective article, BNNP clinicians at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describe their experience performing cognitive examinations via telemedicine. The article reviews the goals, prerequisites, advantages, and potential limitations of performing a video- or telephone-based telemedicine cognitive examination. The article shares the approaches used by MGH BNNP clinicians to examine cognitive and behavioral areas, such as orientation, attention and executive functions, language, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuospatial function, praxis, and abstract abilities, as well as to survey for neuropsychiatric symptoms and assess activities of daily living. Limitations of telemedicine-based cognitive examinations include limited access to and familiarity with telecommunication technologies on the patient side, limitations of the technology itself on the clinician side, and the limited psychometric validation of virtual assessments. Therefore, an in-person examination with a BNNP clinician or a formal in-person neuropsychological examination with a neuropsychologist may be recommended. Overall, this article emphasizes the use of standardized cognitive and behavioral assessment instruments that are either in the public domain or, if copyrighted, are nonproprietary and do not require a fee to be used by the practicing BNNP clinician.

RevDate: 2024-04-16
CmpDate: 2024-04-16

Genrich CM, Ward J, N Shokar (2024)

Telemedicine and Its Perceptions in a Border Community: A Review of How Health Care Technology Has Helped Increase Access.

Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association, 30(4):987-993.

Introduction: Telemedicine is a practical way of offering medical services to remote and underserved areas. During the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has provided convenient access to health care and has overcome barriers such as distance that prevent patients from receiving care. Border populations are impacted by this change in health care delivery. The goal of this study was to investigate how a border patient population perceives their experiences with telemedicine. Methods: We utilized telephone surveys of patients who had a recent telehealth visit at the Texas Tech University Health Science Center (TTUHSC) Family Medicine Center clinic in El Paso, Texas. Survey measures included patients' demographics, a quality assessment of the patients' most recent telehealth visit and their experience, a comparison of the patients' telehealth visit to past in-person visits, and a rating of their telehealth visit. Result: Over 2,000 individuals (n = 2,040), primarily Hispanic females, older than the age of 44 years were identified for potential inclusion in the study. Of these, 928 had a contact attempt, of which 1,378 could not be contacted, 592 were invited, 70 declined leading to a response rate of 67.6% (number invited/completed the survey). Most patients agreed that during their most recent telehealth visit their clinician listened well (98.7%), spent adequate time with them (98.2%), was prompt (94.5%), explained things well (98.0%), and was someone they would recommend to others (97.2%). When comparing telehealth to in-person visits, patients reported the following: less wait time, easier convenience, and similar quality between virtual and in-person visits. Patients rated both their likelihood of using telehealth again and their likelihood of recommending telehealth to others as an 8.68 out of 10, on average. Patients 65 years old or older had 3.17 times greater likelihood of satisfaction with virtual visits when compared with patients younger than 45 years old (confidence interval [95% CI], 1.24-11.11). Patients also had less satisfaction with virtual visits if they had lower educational attainment (odds ratio = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01-0.81). Conclusions: We found that individuals in a border community had a positive experience with telehealth primary care visits. This approach may improve access to health care.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Mandal SK, Tare M, PR Deepa (2023)

COVID-19 infection and metabolic comorbidities: Mitigating role of nutritional sufficiency and drug - nutraceutical combinations of vitamin D.

Human nutrition & metabolism, 31:200179.

The vulnerability of human health is amplified in recent times with global increase in non-communicable diseases (due to lifestyle changes and environmental insults) and infectious diseases (caused by newer pathogens and drug-resistance strains). Clinical management of diseases is further complicated by disease severity caused by other comorbid factors. Drug-based therapy may not be the sole approach, particularly in scenarios like the COVID-19 pandemic, where there is no specific drug against SARS-CoV-2. Nutritional interventions are significant in armouring human populations in disease prevention, and as adjunctive therapy for disease alleviation. Amidst ongoing clinical trials to determine the efficacy of Vit. D against infections and associated complications, this review examines the pleiotropic benefits of nutritional adequacy of vitamin D (Vit. D) in combating viral infections (COVID-19), its severity and complications due to co-morbidities (obesity, diabetes, stroke and Kawasaki disease), based on research findings and clinical studies. Supplements of Vit. D in combination with other nutrients, and drugs, are suggested as promising preventive-health and adjunct-treatment strategies in the clinical management of viral infections with metabolic comorbidities.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Hussain A, Kausar T, Sehar S, et al (2022)

Utilization of pumpkin, pumpkin powders, extracts, isolates, purified bioactives and pumpkin based functional food products: A key strategy to improve health in current post COVID 19 period: An updated review.

Applied food research, 2(2):100241.

Progression of today's world has been given setback due to the adversity of a novel, viral and deadly outbreak COVID 19, which raised the concerns of the scientists, researchers and health related officials about the inherent and adaptive immune system of the living body and its relation with healthy diet balanced with pharma foods. Choice of right food can help to build and boost adaptive immunity and pumpkin due to excellent profile of functional and nutraceutical constituents must be the part of both infected and non-infected person's daily diet. Vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids, essential oils, peptides, carotenoids and polysaccharides present in pumpkin could accommodate the prevailing deficiencies in the body to fought against the pathogens. Pumpkins are well equipped with nutraceuticals and functional ingredients therefore, consumption and processing of this remarkable fruit must be encouraged as pharma food due to its antihyperlipidemic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, immunomodulatory, antihypertensive, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential, and these pharmacological properties of pumpkin are directly or indirectly related to the COVID 19 outbreak. Utilization of pumpkin has a domain in the form of powders, extracts, isolates, and pumpkin incorporated food products. A wide range of healthy, nutritious and functional food products has been developed from pumpkin, which includes juice, soup, porridge, chips, biscuits, bread, cake, bar and noodles. In recent times some innovative and novel technologies have been applied to process and preserve pumpkin for its enhanced shelf life and bioaccessibility of nutrients. Need of healthy eating in current post COVID 19 period is very crucial for healthy population, and medicinal foods like pumpkin, and bioactive compounds present in this functional food could play a vital role in developing a healthy community around the globe.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Khan Z, Ahmad U, Ualiyeva D, et al (2022)

Guillain-Barre syndrome: An autoimmune disorder post-COVID-19 vaccination?.

Clinical immunology communications, 2:1-5.

SARS-CoV-2 causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious condition that can present none or one or more of these symptoms: fever, cough, headache, sore throat, loss of taste and smell, aches, fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. For the prevention of COVID-19, there are vaccines available including those developed by Pfizer, Moderna, Sinovac, Janssen, and AstraZeneca. Recent evidence has shown that some COVID-19-vaccinated individuals can occasionally develop as a potential side effect Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a severe neurological autoimmune condition in which the immune response against the peripheral nerve system (PNS) can result in significant morbidity. GBS had been linked previously to several viral or bacterial infections, and the finding of GBS after vaccination with certain COVID-19, while rare, should alert medical practitioners for an early diagnosis and targeted treatment. Here we review five cases of GBS that developed in different countries after COVID-19 vaccination.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Lamptey E, Senkyire EK, Banoya MT, et al (2022)

COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy: A review of maternal and infant benefits.

Gynecology and obstetrics clinical medicine, 2(3):124-128.

Pregnant women with COVID-19 are more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit and their babies born prematurely. Clinical trials excluded pregnant women from the vaccine and safety data were limited. However, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of the COVID-19 vaccines for pregnant women and their babies including evidence of maternal transfer of antibodies. In addition to these benefits, the vaccines are proved to be effective for both the pregnant women and infants. The current evidence supports the safety, immunogenicity of the COVID-19 vaccine and its effectiveness in reducing the theoretical risk of the infection among pregnant women and their infants. This review summarizes the recent data on the beneficial effects of COVID-19 immunization on both the pregnant mother and infant.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Ma L, J Willey (2022)

The interplay between inflammation and thrombosis in COVID-19: Mechanisms, therapeutic strategies, and challenges.

Thrombosis update, 8:100117.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can cause life-threatening pathology characterized by a dysregulated immune response and coagulopathy. While respiratory failure induced by inflammation is the most common cause of death, micro-and macrovascular thrombosis leading to multiple organ failure are also causes of mortality. Dysregulation of systemic inflammation observed in severe COVID-19 patients is manifested by cytokine release syndrome (CRS) - the aberrant release of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1, TNFα, MP-1, as well as complement. CRS is often accompanied by activation of endothelial cells and platelets, coupled with perturbation of the balance between the pro-and antithrombotic mechanisms, resulting in thrombosis. Inflammation and thrombosis form a vicious circle, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Treatment of hyperinflammation has been shown to decrease thrombosis, while anti-thrombotic treatment also downregulates cytokine release. This review highlights the relationship between COVID-19-mediated systemic inflammation and thrombosis, the molecular pathways involved, the therapies targeting these processes, and the challenges currently encountered.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Brenner B, Ay C, Gal GL, et al (2022)

Venous thromboembolism risk, prophylaxis and management in cancer patients with COVID-19: An unmet medical need.

Thrombosis update, 6:100098.

Cancer patients exhibit an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), with VTE being the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The implementation of lockdowns following the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in decreased mobility and delayed access to care, thus further increasing the susceptibility to VTE. Cancer patients may also be at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and have been shown to be more likely to experience severe COVID-19 disease compared to patients without cancer. Given that both cancer and COVID-19 exhibit a hypercoagulable state, stasis of blood flow, and endothelial injury, cancer patients with COVID-19 constitute a vulnerable population with a high risk of thrombosis and bleeding. However, to date there are limited studies evaluating whether cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have a higher VTE incidence than COVID-19 patients without cancer, how to assess the risk of VTE, prophylaxis and treatment in this special population. Herein, we highlight the urgent need for studies in cancer patients with COVID-19 to ensure appropriate patient care and improve clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Swan D, Enright H, Desmond R, et al (2021)

Vaccine-induced thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT) in Ireland: A review of cases and current practices.

Thrombosis update, 5:100086.

Since the beginning of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) virus pandemic, several highly effective and safe vaccines have been produced at remarkable speed. Following global implementation of vaccination programmes, cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia following administration of adenoviral vector-based vaccines started being reported. In this review we discuss the known pathogenesis and epidemiology of so-called vaccine induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT). We consider the available guidelines, diagnostic laboratory tests and management options for these patients. Finally, we discuss important unanswered questions and areas for future research in this novel pathoclinical entity.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Chavda VP, Vora LK, DR Vihol (2021)

COVAX-19Ⓡ Vaccine: Completely blocks virus transmission to non-immune individuals.

Clinical complementary medicine and pharmacology, 1(1):100004.

Various vaccine platforms are geared against COVID-19 vaccine development to produce immunogens in cells. To design a recombinant protein-based COVID-19 vaccine, Vaxine pty Ltd used computer models of the spike protein and its human receptor, ACE2, to identify how the virus infects human cells. Based on this, the COVAX-19Ⓡ vaccine is synthesized. It does reduce not only COVID-19 disease but also blocks virus shedding and transmission. Researchers are optimistic that this vaccine candidate could be clinically available soon with sufficient vaccine efficacy with a considerable amount of reduction in vaccination-related side effects.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Anand S, Mahajan D, Kataki S, et al (2021)

Conceptualizing a novel Hybrid Decontamination System (HDS) based on UV/H2O2 treatment for the enhanced decontamination and reuse of N95 FFRs.

Environmental challenges (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 5:100276.

The ongoing Pandemic of COVID-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has severely stressed the worldwide healthcare system and has created dangerous shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) including N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Even though suppliers struggled to meet global demand for N95 masks at an unprecedented level, a shortage of FFR appears as a significant factor in the transmission of the disease to frontline workers. CDC, USA has mentioned that FFR decontamination and reuse may be necessary during times of shortage to ensure guaranteed availability. Hence present stressed condition faced by the healthcare sector seeks for an affordable decontamination strategy that can be replicated easily broadening the utility of FFR decontamination across a range of healthcare settings. After reviewing available literature on the various disinfection techniques that may be used for the decontamination of FFRs, a first of its kind, portable Hybrid Decontamination System/procedure has been conceptualized and designed. This system combines the disinfecting properties of both vaporous hydrogen peroxide (VHP) and ultra-violet C irradiation (UV C) to ensure maximum decontamination of N95 respirators. The instrument will be equipped with a hydrogen peroxide chamber and UV light source. Sterilization of the FFRs will be done through treatment with VHP followed by UV light treatment. The proposed system will allow the user to completely sterilize the FFRs in a time-efficient manner.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Daru J, White K, BJ Hunt (2021)

COVID-19, thrombosis and pregnancy.

Thrombosis update, 5:100077.

Increased thromboembolic events have been seen in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially those with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intensive care support. The coronavirus pandemic has had varied effects on pregnant women globally. Concerns about the potential for thromboembolic events in the prothrombotic period of pregnancy and puerperium when combined with COVID-19 infection, and the impact this may have on maternal and infant morbidity and mortality has led to the development of expert-led guidance providing increased use of thromboprophylaxis in this group. We discuss the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on national and international guidance to prevent thromboembolic events in pregnant women.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Rijkers GT, FJ van Overveld (2021)

The "original antigenic sin" and its relevance for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) vaccination.

Clinical immunology communications, 1:13-16.

Imprinting of the specific molecular image of a given protein antigen into immunological memory is one of the hallmarks of immunity. A later contact with a related, but different antigen should not trigger the memory response (because the produced antibodies would not be effective). The preferential expansion of cross-reactive antibodies, or T-lymphocytes for that matter, by a related antigen has been termed the original antigenic sin and was first described by Thomas Francis Jr. in 1960. The phenomenon was initially described for influenza virus, but also has been found for dengue and rotavirus. The antibody dependent enhancement observed in feline coronavirus vaccination also may be related to the original antigenic sin. For a full interpretation of the effectivity of the immune response against SARS-CoV-2, as well as for the success of vaccination, the role of existing immunological memory against circulating corona viruses is reviewed and analyzed.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Maqsood A, Abbas J, Rehman G, et al (2021)

The paradigm shift for educational system continuance in the advent of COVID-19 pandemic: Mental health challenges and reflections.

Current research in behavioral sciences, 2:100011.

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic appeared as the worst global health disaster of the century. Since the advent of the Second world war-2, humankind has experienced the most challenging health emergencies. The novel respiratory disease (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan at the end of December 2019.

AIM: The study focuses on providing education through the educational system with a mode of delivery using digital solutions with a new paradigm method.

METHOD: This research incorporates the statistical data related to the Pakistani Ministry of Health's coronavirus epidemic to draw the results.

RESULTS: WHO reported more than 51.949 million confirmed COVID-19 patients in more than 200 territories and countries. This epidemic caused more than 1.282 million deaths; however, more than 36.49 million people have recovered from the infection of the deadly disease COVID-19, as of November 11, 2020. The COVID-19 has put forward unique challenges in personal and social life spheres. The precautionary measures, including social distancing, called for abrupt closure of educational institutions, leaving the digital solutions as the primary mean of continuity in educational activities.

CONCLUSION: The current review looks into the dynamics of embracing the change in the educational system, ranging from delivery mode to shifting to a new paradigm moving to digital solutions. This study looks into the challenges, issues, barriers, and success parameters of Pakistan's online learning management system. From the preparedness phase to the actual implementation of the learning system at higher education, the level is noteworthy. The private sector has provided higher, secondary, and primary levels; the private sector came forward to maintain learning continuity. The review suggests a way forward ahead for the educational system's continuity and sustainability in the coronavirus pandemic and educational institutions' crises.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Profili J, Brunet R, Dubois ÉL, et al (2021)

Use of 3D printed connectors to redesign full face snorkeling masks in the COVID-19 era: A preliminary technical case-study.

Annals of 3D printed medicine, 3:100023.

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in severe shortages of personal protection equipment and non-invasive ventilation devices. As traditional supply chains could not meet up with the demand, makeshift solutions were developed and locally manufactured by rapid prototyping networks. Among the different global initiatives, retrofitting of full-face snorkeling masks for Non-Invasive-Ventilation (NIV) applications seems the most challenging. This article provides a systematic overview of rapid prototyped - 3D printed - designs that enable attachment of medical equipment to snorkeling masks, highlighting potential and challenges in additive manufacturing. The different NIV connector designs are compared on low-cost 3D fabrication time and costs, which allows a rapid assessment of developed connectors for health care workers in urgent need of retrofitting snorkeling masks for NIV purposes. Challenges and safety issues of the rapid prototyping approach for healthcare applications during the pandemic are discussed as well. When critical parameters such as the final product cost, geographical availability of the feedstock and the 3D printers and the medical efficiency of the rapid prototyped products are well considered before deploying decentralized 3D printing as manufacturing method, this rapid prototyping strategy contributed to reduce personal protective equipment and NIV shortages during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also concluded that it is crucial to carefully optimize material and printer parameter settings to realize best fitting and airtight connector-mask connections, which is heavily depending on the chosen feedstock and type of printer.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Hassan MM, Sium FS, Islam F, et al (2021)

A review on plasmonic and metamaterial based biosensing platforms for virus detection.

Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research, 33:100429.

Due to changes in our climate and constant loss of habitat for animals, new pathogens for humans are constantly erupting. SARS-CoV-2 virus, become so infectious and deadly that they put new challenge to the whole technological advancement of healthcare. Within this very decade, several other deadly virus outbreaks were witnessed by humans such as Zika virus, Ebola virus, MERS-coronavirus etc. and there might be even more infectious and deadlier diseases in the horizon. Though conventional techniques have succeeded in detecting these viruses to some extent, these techniques are time-consuming, costly, and require trained human-resources. Plasmonic metamaterial based biosensors might pave the way to low-cost rapid virus detection. So this review discusses in details, the latest development in plasmonics and metamaterial based biosensors for virus, viral particles and antigen detection and the future direction of research in this field.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Piedade J, G Pereira (2021)

COVID-19 in liver transplant recipients.

Journal of liver transplantation, 3:100026.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged as a serious threat to public health. Liver transplant (LT) recipients may be at increased risk of acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection and higher morbidity and mortality due to constant contact with health-care services, the use of immunosuppressants and frequent comorbidities. In the first part of this review we discuss (1) the epidemiology and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in LT recipients; (2) the clinical and laboratory features of COVID-19 in this specific population, highlighting differences in presenting signs and symptoms with respect to general populations and (3) the natural history and prognostic factors in LT recipients hospitalized with COVID-19, with particular focus on the possible role of immunosuppression. Thereafter, we review the potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 treatment and prevention. Specifically, we give an overview of current practice in immunosuppressant regimen changes, showing the potential benefits of this strategy, and explore safety and efficacy issues of currently approved drugs in LT recipients. The last topic is dedicated to the potential benefits and pitfalls of vaccination.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Garg H, P Khanna (2021)

Consent in covid: A researcher's dilemma.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 38:10-12.

An informed consent is a vital component of health care and forms an important component of any research study. Informed consent is the process where a health care provider educates a patient about the risks, benefits, and alternatives of a given procedure or intervention. A proper consent is imperative to ensure safety of the patients. However, obtaining a consent in the hospital settings has become a matter of concern in the times of this coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. This brief review describes the additional complexities added to the consent for research and the various modifications needed in view of this pandemic. The current consent proformas need to be modified and individualised to the patient ensuring patient safety during research in the ongoing pandemic. We need to become more familiar with the technology and electronic tools as the acceptable alternative tools of communication in the current scenario. There is a need to incorporate a separate covid consent with due consideration to deferred consent, pre-emptive consent or waiver of a consent.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Vakharia VN, Khan S, Marathe K, et al (2021)

Printing in a Pandemic: 3D printing solutions for healthcare during COVID-19. A Protocol for a PRISMA systematic review.

Annals of 3D printed medicine, 2:100015.

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic had an unprecedented global socioeconomic impact. Responses to pandemics include strategies to accumulate vast stockpiles of vital medical equipment. In such times of desperation, 3D-printing could be a life-saving alternative.

METHODS: We undertook a PRISMA systematic review of 3D printing solutions in response to COVID-19 utilising the PICO methodology. The objectives were to identify the uses of 3D printing during the COVID-19 pandemic, determine the extent of preclinical testing, comparison to commercial alternatives, presence of regulatory approvals and replicability regarding the description of the printing parameters and the availability of the print file.

RESULTS: Literature searches of MEDLINE (OVID interface)/ PubMed identified 601 studies. Of these, 10 studies fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Reported uses of 3D printing included personal protective equipment (PPE), nasopharyngeal swabs and adjunctive anaesthetic equipment. Few studies undertook formal safety and efficacy testing before clinical use with only one study comparing to the commercial equivalent. Six articles made their model print files available for wider use.

CONCLUSION: We describe a protocol for a systematic review of 3D-printed healthcare solutions in response to COVID-19. This remains a viable method of producing vital healthcare equipment when supply chains are exhausted. We hope that this will serve as a summary of innovative 3D-printed solutions during the peak of the pandemic and also highlight concerns and omissions regarding safety and efficacy testing that should be addressed urgently in preparation for a subsequent resurgences and future pandemics.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Equbal A, Akhter S, Sood AK, et al (2021)

The usefulness of additive manufacturing (AM) in COVID-19.

Annals of 3D printed medicine, 2:100013.

COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus is a serious pandemic that has affected the various countries all across the globe. The effect of this pandemic is so devastating that many rising nations are brought to their knees and struggling to save the damage posed to their economy. Medical professionals and the healthcare community are paying their best effort to minimize and overcome the spread of this pandemic. To continue to fight against the COVID-19, healthcare delivery systems require the support of novel technologies which can meet their rapid demand for medical equipment and devices. The study explores the damage caused by COVID-19 to the industrial sector and the way AM is contributing to the economy post-COVID-19. State of the art concerning the application of AM in the present scenario especially to support the interrupted global supply chain is collected and analysed to identify its relevance in the battle against COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Muthuraman Y, I Lakshminarayanan (2021)

A review of the COVID-19 pandemic and its interaction with environmental media.

Environmental challenges (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 3:100040.

Viruses are biologically active parasites that only exist inside a host they are submicroscopic level. The novel coronavirus disease, or COVID-19, is generally caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is comparable to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). As a result of globalization, natural alterations or changes in the SARS-CoV-2 have created significant risks to human health over time. These viruses can live and survive in different ways in the atmosphere unless they reach another host body. At this stage, we will discuss the details of the transmission and detection of this deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus via certain environmental media, such as the atmosphere, water, air, sewage water, soil, temperature, relative humidity, and bioaerosol, to better understand the diffusion, survival, infection potential and diagnosis of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Selvaranjan K, Navaratnam S, Rajeev P, et al (2021)

Environmental challenges induced by extensive use of face masks during COVID-19: A review and potential solutions.

Environmental challenges (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 3:100039.

The ongoing COVID-19 disease significantly affects not only human health, it also affects the wealth of country' economy and everyday routine of human life. To control the spread of the virus, face mask is used as primary personal protective equipment (PPE). Thus, the production and usage of face masks significantly increase as the COVID-19 pandemic still escalating. Further, most of these masks contain plastics or other derivatives of plastics. Therefore, this extensive usage of face masks generates million tons of plastic wastes to the environments in a short span of time. This study aims to investigate the environmental impact induced by face mask wastes and sustainable solution to reduce this waste. An online survey was carried out to identify the types of face mask and number of masks used per week by an individual from 1033 people. Based on this survey and available literature, this study quantifies the amount of plastics waste generated by face masks. However, this survey was limited with certain ages, country and durations (July-August 2020). Thus, the prediction of plastic waste generation, only provide fundamental knowledge about the mask wastes. Results revealed that there is a huge plastic waste remained in land and marine environment in the form of mask waste, which will contribute to micro-plastic pollution. Therefore, this paper also highlights the sustainable approach to the mask production by integrating the use of natural plant fiber in the woven face mask technology to reduce the plastic waste induced by masks. Further, upcycling the mask waste and producing construction materials also discussed.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Garren MR, Ashcraft M, Qian Y, et al (2021)

Nitric oxide and viral infection: Recent developments in antiviral therapies and platforms.

Applied materials today, 22:100887.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gasotransmitter of great significance to developing the innate immune response to many bacterial and viral infections, while also modulating vascular physiology. The generation of NO from the upregulation of endogenous nitric oxide synthases serves as an efficacious method for inhibiting viral replication in host defense and warrants investigation for the development of antiviral therapeutics. With increased incidence of global pandemics concerning several respiratory-based viral infections, it is necessary to develop broad therapeutic platforms for inhibiting viral replication and enabling more efficient host clearance, as well as to fabricate new materials for deterring viral transmission from medical devices. Recent developments in creating stabilized NO donor compounds and their incorporation into macromolecular scaffolds and polymeric substrates has created a new paradigm for developing NO-based therapeutics for long-term NO release in applications for bactericidal and blood-contacting surfaces. Despite this abundance of research, there has been little consideration of NO-releasing scaffolds and substrates for reducing passive transmission of viral infections or for treating several respiratory viral infections. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent advances in developing gaseous NO, NO prodrugs, and NO donor compounds for antiviral therapies; discuss the limitations of NO as an antiviral agent; and outline future prospects for guiding materials design of a next generation of NO-releasing antiviral platforms.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Rubio Herrera MA, I Bretón Lesmes (2021)

[Obesity in the COVID era: A global health challenge].

Endocrinologia, diabetes y nutricion, 68(2):123-129.

Obesity is a chronic disease that leads to an increased risk of mortality and morbidity, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may create a new health challenge. There is clear evidence showing that some biological and social factors associated with obesity involve an increased risk of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and greater severity compared to people with normal weight. Undoubtedly, obesity involves a low-grade proinflammatory state that produces a dysregulation of the immune system that compromises its ability to respond to respiratory infection by COVID-19 and so produces a worsening of the disease. In this review, the main epidemiological and pathophysiological data that associate obesity with COVID-19 are described.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Singh S, Ambooken GC, Setlur R, et al (2021)

Challenges faced in establishing a dedicated 250 bed COVID-19 intensive care unit in a temporary structure.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 36:9-16.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is an organized system for the provision of care to critically ill patients that provides intensive and specialized medical and nursing care, an enhanced capacity for monitoring, and multiple modalities of physiologic organ support to sustain life during a period of life-threatening organ system insufficiency. While this availability of trained manpower and specialized equipment makes it possible to care for critically ill patients, it also presents singular challenges in the form of man and material management, design concerns, budgetary concerns, and protocolization of treatment. Consequently, the establishment of an ICU requires rigorous design and planning, a process that can take months to years. However, the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) epidemic has required the significant capacity building to accommodate the increased number of critically ill patients. At the peak of the pandemic, many countries were forced to resort to the building of temporary structures to house critically ill patients, to help tide over the crisis. This narrative review describes the challenges and lessons learned while establishing a 250 bedded ICU in a temporary structure and achieving functionality within a period of a fortnight.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Anand S, Baishya M, Singh A, et al (2021)

Effect of awake prone positioning in COVID-19 patients- A systematic review.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 36:17-22.

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning is known to reduce mortality in intubated non-COVID-19 patients suffering from moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, studies highlighting the effect of awake proning in COVID-19 patients are lacking. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the available literature to highlight the effect of awake proning on the need for intubation, improvement in oxygenation and mortality rates in COVID-19 patients with ARDS.

METHOD: - A systematic search of 2 medical databases (PubMed, Google Scholar) was performed until July 5, 2020. Thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and 210 patients were included for the final analysis.

RESULT: -Majority of the patients were above 50 years of age with a male gender predominance (69%). Face mask (26%) was the most common interface used for oxygen therapy. The intubation and mortality rates were 23.80% (50/210) and 5.41% (5/203) respectively. Awake proning resulted in improvement in oxygenation (reported by 11/13 studies): improvement in SpO2, P/F ratio, PO2 and SaO2 reported by 7/13 (54%), 5/13 (38%), 2/13 (15%) and 1/13 (8%) of the studies. No major complications associated with prone positioning were reported by the included studies.

CONCLUSION: Awake prone positioning demonstrated an improvement in oxygenation of the patients suffering from COVID-19 related respiratory disease. Need for intubation was observed in less than 30% of the patients. Thus, we recommend early and frequent proning in patients suffering from COVID-19 associated ARDS, however, randomized controlled trials are needed before any definite conclusions are drawn.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Deana C, Verriello L, Pauletto G, et al (2021)

Insights into neurological dysfunction of critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 36:30-38.

Novel coronavirus spread rapidly around the world infecting millions of people. It was thus declared a pandemic. This new virus damages the lungs. In the most severe cases, it leads to acute respiratory failure that requires intensive care treatment. However, many clinical reports have listed different neurological symptoms, leading to increased interest in the neurological involvement of COVID-19. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain these neurological aspects. Direct viral invasion of the nervous system, systemic cytokine storm and severe hypoxemia are key factors in the development of symptoms. Critically ill patients present several additional risk factors for nervous system damage. Reasons for these include deep sedation and extended muscular paralysis, bed rest for several days, and the inability to receive proper physical rehabilitation. After ICU treatment, COVID-19 patients generally require an extensive rehabilitation program. However, distancing restrictions mean that in many cases physiotherapists are unable to enter ICUs, delaying the process of rehabilitation. The role of telemedicine should be considered as an adjunctive tool in the rehabilitation of critically ill COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Round M, P Isherwood (2021)

Speech intelligibility in respiratory protective equipment - Implications for verbal communication in critical care.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 36:23-29.

Respiratory protective equipment (RPE) such as filtering facepiece respirators, elastomeric respirators and powered air-purifying respirators are routinely worn in the critical care unit as a component of personal protective equipment (PPE) when caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is the authors' anecdotal experience that RPE may, however, inadvertently interfere with verbal communication between critical care staff. The literature pertaining to the effects of RPE wear on verbal communication was therefore reviewed. A literature search returned 98 articles, and 4 records were identified from other sources; after screening for content relevancy, 15 experimental studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Previous studies in both healthcare and other occupational settings suggest a detrimental impact on speech intelligibility, varying according to RPE type and test conditions. The effects of background noise and potential for increased cognitive load through compensatory behaviours are also identified. The clinical significance of these effects remains uncertain though, as evidence measuring clinical outcomes or errors is lacking. Mitigating strategies include increasing speech intelligibility through environmental changes and technology; modifying verbal communication strategies; and decreasing reliance on verbal communication where possible.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Corbacho Abelaira MD, Corbacho Abelaira F, Ruano-Ravina A, et al (2021)

Use of Conventional Chest Imaging and Artificial Intelligence in COVID-19 Infection. A Review of the Literature.

Open respiratory archives, 3(1):100078 pii:S2659-6636(20)30090-4.

The coronavirus disease caused by SARS-Cov-2 is a pandemic with millions of confirmed cases around the world and a high death toll. Currently, the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the standard diagnostic method for determining COVID-19 infection. Various failures in the detection of the disease by means of laboratory samples have raised certain doubts about the characterisation of the infection and the spread of contacts. In clinical practice, chest radiography (RT) and chest computed tomography (CT) are extremely helpful and have been widely used in the detection and diagnosis of COVID-19. RT is the most common and widely available diagnostic imaging technique, however, its reading by less qualified personnel, in many cases with work overload, causes a high number of errors to be committed. Chest CT can be used for triage, diagnosis, assessment of severity, progression, and response to treatment. Currently, artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms have shown promise in image classification, showing that they can reduce diagnostic errors by at least matching the diagnostic performance of radiologists. This review shows how AI applied to thoracic radiology speeds up and improves diagnosis, allowing to optimise the workflow of radiologists. It can provide an objective evaluation and achieve a reduction in subjectivity and variability. AI can also help to optimise the resources and increase the efficiency in the management of COVID-19 infection.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Sengupta J, CM Hussain (2021)

Graphene-based field-effect transistor biosensors for the rapid detection and analysis of viruses: A perspective in view of COVID-19.

Carbon trends, 2:100011.

Current situation of COVID-19 demands a rapid, reliable, cost-effective, facile detection strategy to break the transmission chain and biosensor has emerged as a feasible solution for this purpose. Introduction of nanomaterials has undoubtedly improved the performance of biosensor and the addition of graphene enhanced the sensing ability to a peerless level. Amongst different graphene-based biosensing schemes, graphene field-effect transistor marked its unique presence owing to its ability of ultrasensitive and low-noise detection thereby facilitating instantaneous measurements even in the presence of small amounts of analytes. Recently, graphene field-effect transistor type biosensor is even successfully employed in rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 and this triggers the interest of the scientific community in reviewing the current developments in graphene field-effect transistor. Subsequently, in this article, the recent progress in graphene field-effect transistor type biosensors for the detection of the virus is reviewed and challenges along with their strengths are discussed.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Maus A, Strait L, D Zhu (2021)

Nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for antiviral therapeutic drugs.

Engineered regeneration, 2:31-46.

With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic still escalating, many researchers are turning to nanotechnology as a method of treatment not only for this pandemic, but in preparation for the pandemics of the future. Given both a wide variety of biomaterials at their disposal and the recent rise of nanotechnology, scientists now have the means to release and distribute therapeutic drugs in a variety of ways. Such a variety permits medical professionals the ability to choose biomaterials and methods that would provide the best release and treatment methodologies for the viral ailment they are attempting to remedy. This integrative review discusses context of previous pandemics, viral pathogenesis, issues associated with the current state of antiviral delivery systems, numerous biomaterials used for this purpose, and further information regarding the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Lesimple A, Jasim SY, Johnson DJ, et al (2020)

The role of wastewater treatment plants as tools for SARS-CoV-2 early detection and removal.

Journal of water process engineering, 38:101544.

The world is facing the third coronavirus caused pandemic in less than twenty years. The SARS-CoV-2 virus not only affects the human respiratory system, but also the gastrointestinal tract. The virus has been found in human feces, in sewage and in wastewater treatment plants. It has the potential to become a panzootic disease, as it is now proven that several mammalian species become infected. Since it has been shown that the virus can be detected in sewage even before the onset of symptoms in the local population, Wastewater Based Epidemiology should be developed not only to localize infection clusters of the primary wave but also to detect a potential second, or subsequent, wave. To prevent a panzootic, virus removal techniques from wastewater need to be implemented to prevent the virus dissemination into the environment. In that context, this review presents recent improvements in all the fields of wastewater treatment from treatment ponds to the use of algae or nanomaterials with a particular emphasis on membrane-based techniques.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Trujillo Gittermann LM, Valenzuela Feris SN, A von Oetinger Giacoman (2020)

[Relation between COVID-19 and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Systematic review].

Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain), 35(9):646-654.

INTRODUCTION: Numerous cases have been reported of patients with symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with COVID-19, but much information is still lacking on this association and its implications. The objective of this review is to analyse the available evidence on this topic in the adult population.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of studies published on scientific databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, Medline, and WHO COVID-19 database.

RESULTS: We identified 47 studies, which were analysed and completed using the Covidence platform; the final analysis included 24 articles, with a total of 30 patients.

CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong association between both conditions; furthermore, the studies analysed highlight differences in the presentation of the disease, with greater severity of symptoms in Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Maza-Solano JM, Plaza-Mayor G, Jiménez-Luna A, et al (2020)

[Strategies for the practice of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery during the monitoring phase of COVID-19].

Acta otorrinolaringologica espanola, 71(6):367-378.

The appearance of a new coronavirus disease called COVID-19 at the end of 2019 and its pandemic expansion in the world has changed the usual practice of the specialty of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT). After a phase of exponential growth of infections, it has been possible to enter a phase of control of the spread of the disease in which the possibility of infection persists, and the appearance of new cases is considered acceptable by the health system.The aim of this document is to review the available evidence and propose strategies and recommendations for the medical-surgical practice of otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery, which allow establishing the usual activity, adapting the safety and efficacy standards to the current situation. Therefore, it is required to identify and classify patients according to criteria of infectious-immunological status, and to establish recommendations for protection in consultations, hospitalization and the operating room, which avoid the transmission of the disease to other users and healthcare personnel, in the specific context of the development of our specialty. This document is the result of the collaboration of all the scientific commissions and the SEORLCCC COVID-19 committee.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Lop Gros J, Iglesias Coma M, González Farré M, et al (2020)

[Olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19, a review of the evidence and implications for pandemic management].

Acta otorrinolaringologica espanola, 71(6):379-385.

There is debate as to whether olfactory dysfunction should be considered a symptom of COVID-19 infection. We undertook a systematic literature review of the articles indexed in PubMed on olfactory disorders in viral respiratory tract conditions, with special emphasis on COVID-19. The main objective was to find evidence of clinical interest to support the relationship between anosmia and COVID-19. Olfactory disorders in upper respiratory tract infections are frequent, most caused by obstruction due to oedema of the nasal mucosa. Occasionally, post-viral sensorineural olfactory dysfunction occurs, with a variable prognosis. The evidence on anosmia in COVID-19 patients is extremely limited, corresponding to a level 5 or D of the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. According to the available evidence, it seems reasonable to apply isolation, hygiene and social distancing measures in patients with recent olfactory disorders as the only symptom, although the usefulness of diagnostic tests for this type of patient should be studied.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Alves Bersot CD, Linhares RM, Guimarães Pereira JE, et al (2020)

Is the prone position indicated in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 during the peri-operative period?.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 34:38-41.

Coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 are a large family of viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. A SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. The majority of critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units with confirmed severe infection with SARS-CoV-2 developed an acute respiratory distress like syndrome. The main objective of this opinion paper is to raise the discussion about the possible benefit of keeping the patient with COVID-19 disease and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) in the prone position during the perioperative period, especially where this position is not a required factor for the surgical or invasive procedure. We believe that the prone position, due to its favorable pulmonary physiology, can improve the V̇/Q̇ ratio in the perioperative period.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Frazer JS, AJ Tyrynis Everden (2020)

Emerging patterns of hypercoagulability associated with critical COVID-19: A review.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 34:4-13.

While the COVID-19 pandemic sweeps the world, much evidence is being gathered regarding its novel pathological mechanisms. It is the authors' clinical experience that patients in the intensive care unit suffering from COVID-19 are extremely pro-coagulable, with venous and arterial thromboembolism frequently observed, and losses of vascular access lines and filtration circuits to thrombosis now commonplace. Here, we explore the evidence for hypercoagulability in this group, presenting evidence of both a localised pulmonary hypercoagulability, and a systemic hypercoagulability resulting in thrombosis distant to the pulmonary vasculature. Furthermore, we discuss the possible risk factors exacerbated by, or selected for in COVID-19. We review the available evidence for use of plasma D-dimer as a prognostic marker, exploring the possibility that it acts as a marker of a COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability. We review the evidence for a pro-coagulant subtype of disseminated intravascular coagulation, discussing its clinical significance. Finally, we discuss the current evidence surrounding treatment of COVID-19 hypercoagulability, including prophylactic and treatment-dose heparin, thrombolytic agents, antiplatelet agents, and direct thrombin inhibitors, among others. We suggest areas in which further investigation is urgently needed to reduce the startling incidence of thrombosis in this group, a complication no doubt contributing to morbidity and mortality.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Fernández-Sarmiento J, Acevedo L, Mulett H, et al (2020)

Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in critical care.

Trends in anaesthesia & critical care, 34:28-37.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Hevia V, Lorca J, Hevia M, et al (2020)

[COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact and rapid reaction of Urology].

Actas urologicas espanolas, 44(7):450-457.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused tens of thousands of deaths in Spain and has managed to breakdown the healthcare system hospitals in the Community of Madrid, largely due to its tendency to cause severe pneumonia, requiring ventilatory support. This fact has caused our center to collapse, with 130% of its beds occupied by COVID-19 patients, thus causing the absolute cessation of activity of the urology service, the practical disappearance of resident training programs, and the incorporation of a good part of the urology staff into the group of medical personnel attending these patients. In order to recover from this extraordinary level of suspended activity, we will be obliged to prioritize pathologies based on purely clinical criteria, for which tables including the relevance of each pathology within each area of urology are being proposed. Technology tools such as online training courses or surgical simulators may be convenient for the necessary reestablishment of resident education.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

González-Castro A, Escudero-Acha P, Peñasco Y, et al (2020)

[Intensive care during the 2019-coronavirus epidemic].

Medicina intensiva, 44(6):351-362.

On 31 December 2019, the Health Commission of Hubei Province of China first unveiled a group of unexplained cases of pneumonia, which WHO subsequently defined as the new coronavirus of 2019 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 has presented rapid person-to-person transmission and is currently a global pandemic. In the largest number of cases described to date of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 disease (2019-nCoViD), 26% required care in an intensive care unit (ICU). This pandemic is causing an unprecedented mobilization of the scientific community, which has been associated with an exponentially growing number of publications in relation to it. This narrative literature review aims to gather the main contributions in the area of intensive care to date in relation to the epidemiology, clinic, diagnosis and management of 2019-nCoViD.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Lopez-Campos JL, Calle M, G Cosío B, et al (2020)

[Telephone Support for Copd Patients During COVID-19].

Open respiratory archives, 2(3):179-185.

The state of alarm declared by the Spanish government as the main measure for preventing contagion has involved a change in the clinical management of chronic patients. Although new communication technologies offer us many ways to establish direct but remote contact, the peculiarities of the COPD patient often mean that their healthcare is reduced to telephone calls. The challenge of caring for COPD patients is made even more complex when it has to be delivered over the phone. The interview must be conducted without examining the patient, without performing additional tests, and without checking their inhalation technique. Therefore, healthcare providers who conduct these interviews must be trained to perform them properly in order to make the right decisions. This document is aimed at healthcare professionals who need to provide some form of telephone care to COPD patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and is based on the authors' experience in telephone interviews conducted during this period. It summarizes essential aspects of how this interview should be approached, how to conduct it, what factors should be kept in mind, how to organize the interview, and how to keep patients informed. It is very likely that from now on this type of interview will be common practice in the care of our patients, so we need to learn how to structure a new model of healthcare for many of the clinical visits that have until now been conducted face-to-face.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Liu F, Wang W, Yu H, et al (2020)

Prevention and control strategies of general surgeons under COVID-19 pandemic.

Surgery in practice and science, 1:100008.

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the disease caused by it, COVID-19, have spread to virtually all countries worldwide within just a few months. The economic and sanitary impact has been enormous. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. How to effectively prevent and control SARS-CoV-2 transmission while providing care to surgical patients during the pandemic is a crucial topic. In order to minimize the risk of cross-infection between patients and physicians, many hospitals have taken measures to limit outpatient services, elective hospitalizations, and the number of operations. Based on the prevention and control measures stipulated by major medical institutions in China, this overview provides recommendations for surgeons from three aspects: outpatient treatment, ward management and perioperative protection. Telemedicine should be encouraged as a means of social distancing. Outpatient examination should be selected. Reasonable spatial arrangement and effective environmental disinfection are important for ward management. Patient selection for surgery and timing of operations should be carefully discussed within multi-disciplinary teams. Appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn adapted to the situational risk. On December 31, 2019, China reported to the WHO Country Office a pneumonia of unknown cause detected in Wuhan [1], [3]. Subsequently, the disease later named COVID-19 affected a substantial proportion of the population in Wuhan and spread to other areas of China. Relying on a nationwide shutdown and mandatory quarantine, China has effectively curtailed the domestic outbreak. However, due to the high transmissibility of SARS-Cov-2 and the mobility of people, COVID-19 spread to the rest of the world. Many hospitals worldwide were faced with confirmed and suspected SARS-Cov-2 infections, putting a huge strain on the safety of patients and employees. Consequently, surgical patients who seek medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic present significant challenges. This paper summarizes medical care and infection prevention and control in general surgery patients during the COVID-19, pandemic in the light of the current situation in China. It provides reference for surgeons and decision makers in health care in other countries suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Ramírez-Olivencia G, Estébanez M, Membrillo FJ, et al (2019)

[Use of ribavirin in viruses other than hepatitis C. A review of the evidence].

Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica, 37(9):602-608.

Ribavirin is a molecule with antiviral activity against different viruses. In clinical practice, it has made its niche almost exclusively for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. However, there are other diseases in which it could be of benefit and it has the advantage of being suitable for oral, intravenous and inhaled administration. We conducted a review of the indications of the main drug agencies (Spanish, European and American) and other possible indications, mainly haemorrhagic fevers and coronavirus.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Adiba A, Sidhu SS, Shaligram D, et al (2023)

Advances in Child Psychiatry Education and Training.

Advances in psychiatry and behavioral health pii:S2667-3827(23)00006-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The article provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of child and adolescent psychiatry, including historical background and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. It discusses recent advances in theoretical frameworks related to physician burnout, prevention, access to care, diversity, equity, and inclusion, and trauma-informed care. The authors conclude by emphasizing the importance of education and training in improving the lives of youth and families and encourage their colleagues to push the boundaries of education and training for a better today and brighter tomorrow, while honoring and doing justice to those they serve.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Jantan I, Norahmad NA, Yuandani , et al (2024)

Inhibitory effect of food-functioned phytochemicals on dysregulated inflammatory pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2: a mechanistic review.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory cascades of the dysregulated inflammatory pathways in COVID-19 can cause excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines leading to cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). The molecular cascades involved in the pathways may be targeted for discovery of new anti-inflammatory agents. Many plant extracts have been used clinically in the management of COVID-19, however, their immunosuppressive activities were mainly investigated based on in silico activity. Dietary flavonoids of the extracts such as quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, naringenin, isorhamnetin, baicalein, wogonin, and rutin were commonly identified as responsible for their inhibitory effects. The present review critically analyzes the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of phytochemicals, including dietary compounds against cytokine storm (CS) and hyperinflammation via inhibition of the altered inflammatory pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2, published since the emergence of COVID-19 in December 2019. Only a few phytochemicals, mainly dietary compounds such as nanocurcumin, melatonin, quercetin, 6-shagoal, kaempferol, resveratrol, andrographolide, and colchicine have been investigated either in in silico or preliminary clinical studies to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effects against COVID-19. Sufficient pre-clinical studies on safety and efficacy of anti-inflammatory effects of the phytochemicals must be performed prior to proper clinical studies to develop them into therapeutic adjuvants in the prevention and treatmemt of COVID-19 symptoms.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Russell CA, Fouchier RAM, Ghaswalla P, et al (2024)

Seasonal influenza vaccine performance and the potential benefits of mRNA vaccines.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 20(1):2336357.

Influenza remains a public health threat, partly due to suboptimal effectiveness of vaccines. One factor impacting vaccine effectiveness is strain mismatch, occurring when vaccines no longer match circulating strains due to antigenic drift or the incorporation of inadvertent (eg, egg-adaptive) mutations during vaccine manufacturing. In this review, we summarize the evidence for antigenic drift of circulating viruses and/or egg-adaptive mutations occurring in vaccine strains during the 2011-2020 influenza seasons. Evidence suggests that antigenic drift led to vaccine mismatch during four seasons and that egg-adaptive mutations caused vaccine mismatch during six seasons. These findings highlight the need for alternative vaccine development platforms. Recently, vaccines based on mRNA technology have demonstrated efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory syncytial virus and are under clinical evaluation for seasonal influenza. We discuss the potential for mRNA vaccines to address strain mismatch, as well as new multi-component strategies using the mRNA platform to improve vaccine effectiveness.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Mylavarapu M, Dondapati VVK, Dadana S, et al (2024)

Effect of Surfactant Therapy on Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients With ARDS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cureus, 16(3):e56238.

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges, not only in terms of public health but also in the realm of innovative therapeutic approaches to combat the severe respiratory complications associated with the virus. The effect of surfactant therapy on reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) hasn't been explored before.

METHODS: We conducted a search on PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Clinicaltrials.gov to identify relevant studies, incorporating subject headings and keywords related to "Surfactant Therapy," "COVID-19," and "ARDS." Binary random effects were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for 28-day mortality, and continuous random effects were used to estimate the mean difference (MD) for length of hospitalization with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Analysis was performed with RevMan Version 5.4.1 (The Cochrane Collaboration, London, GBR).

RESULTS: We included four studies with 126 patients. Patients who received surfactant had lower odds of mortality (OR 0.53, 95% CI (0.23, 1.20), p=0.13) and a shorter duration of hospital stay (MD -5.69, 95% CI [-7.06, -4.30], p <0.00001) compared to patients who did not receive surfactant therapy. However, the findings regarding mortality were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 patients with ARDS who received surfactant therapy had lower hospitalization stays and mortality rates, indicating that surfactant therapy may improve clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients with ARDS. However, the results were not significant, and further research with more prospective studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm these findings and assess their practical significance and generalizability.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Collett G, Korszun A, AK Gupta (2024)

Potential strategies for supporting mental health and mitigating the risk of burnout among healthcare professionals: insights from the COVID-19 pandemic.

EClinicalMedicine, 71:102562.

Healthcare professionals (HCPs) experienced prolonged stressful conditions during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, and the global situation (particularly in the United Kingdom) meant that they continue to sustain mental stress related to the subsequent cost-of-living and healthcare budgeting crises. The psychological toll on HCPs may lead to increased staff attrition, adversely impacting the quality of patient care and work security. To help mitigate this psychological impact, the current evidence is strongly supportive of healthcare providers consistently adopting programmes fostering improvement in coping and resilience, facilitating healthy lifestyle, and allocating some resources for therapeutic strategies (e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy-based strategies and other strategies specified to trauma-related issues) which can be delivered by trained professionals. We stress that some approaches are not a one-size-fits-all strategy, and we also highlight the need to encourage treatment-seeking among those who need it. These strategies are highly relevant to healthcare employers and policymakers to support all HCPs in settings marked by prolonged periods of stress. The investment in these strategies are expected not only to reduce staff attrition in the long-term, but are likely to add to the cost-effectiveness of overall healthcare budgetary allocation.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Zhang Q, Pavlinov I, Ye Y, et al (2024)

Therapeutic development targeting host heparan sulfate proteoglycan in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Frontiers in medicine, 11:1364657.

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an urgent need for effective therapeutic options. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic that has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The virus is known to enter host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, and emerging evidence suggests that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a crucial role in facilitating this process. HSPGs are abundant cell surface proteoglycan present in many tissues, including the lung, and have been shown to interact directly with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of the role of HSPGs in SARS-CoV-2 infection and the potential of developing new therapies targeting HSPGs.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Cheng FC, Chang WC, CP Chiang (2024)

The implementation of strengthening infection control in dental institutions in Taiwan.

Journal of dental sciences, 19(2):1293-1296.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Feng S, Rcheulishvili N, Jiang X, et al (2024)

A review on Gaucher disease: therapeutic potential of β-glucocerebrosidase-targeted mRNA/saRNA approach.

International journal of biological sciences, 20(6):2111-2129.

Gaucher disease (GD), a rare hereditary lysosomal storage disorder, occurs due to a deficiency in the enzyme β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). This deficiency leads to the buildup of substrate glucosylceramide (GlcCer) in macrophages, eventually resulting in various complications. Among its three types, GD2 is particularly severe with neurological involvements. Current treatments, such as enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), are not effective for GD2 and GD3 due to their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Other treatment approaches, such as gene or chaperone therapies are still in experimental stages. Additionally, GD treatments are costly and can have certain side effects. The successful use of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines for COVID-19 in 2020 has sparked interest in nucleic acid-based therapies. Remarkably, mRNA technology also offers a novel approach for protein replacement purposes. Additionally, self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) technology shows promise, potentially producing more protein at lower doses. This review aims to explore the potential of a cost-effective mRNA/saRNA-based approach for GD therapy. The use of GCase-mRNA/saRNA as a protein replacement therapy could offer a new and promising direction for improving the quality of life and extending the lifespan of individuals with GD.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.


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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )