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Bibliography on: covid-19

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 21 Jun 2024 at 01:42 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Li J, Li ZP, Ruan WJ, et al (2024)

Colorectal cancer screening: The value of early detection and modern challenges.

World journal of gastroenterology, 30(20):2726-2730.

The screening of colorectal cancer (CRC) is pivotal for both the prevention and treatment of this disease, significantly improving early-stage tumor detection rates. This advancement not only boosts survival rates and quality of life for patients but also reduces the costs associated with treatment. However, the adoption of CRC screening methods faces numerous challenges, including the technical limitations of both noninvasive and invasive methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, socioeconomic factors such as regional disparities, economic conditions, and varying levels of awareness affect screening uptake. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic further intensified these cha-llenges, leading to reduced screening participation and increased waiting periods. Additionally, the growing prevalence of early-onset CRC necessitates innovative screening approaches. In response, research into new methodologies, including artificial intelligence-based systems, aims to improve the precision and accessibility of screening. Proactive measures by governments and health organizations to enhance CRC screening efforts are underway, including increased advocacy, improved service delivery, and international cooperation. The role of technological innovation and global health collaboration in advancing CRC screening is undeniable. Technologies such as artificial intelligence and gene sequencing are set to revolutionize CRC screening, making a significant impact on the fight against this disease. Given the rise in early-onset CRC, it is crucial for screening strategies to continually evolve, ensuring their effectiveness and applicability.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Jakovljevic M, Timofeyev Y, T Zhuravleva (2024)

The Impact of Pandemic-Driven Care Redesign on Hospital Efficiency.

Risk management and healthcare policy, 17:1477-1491.

PURPOSE: This study aims to identify medical care transformations during the COVID-19 pandemic and to assess the economic efficiency of these care transformations.

METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviewing and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The databases used in the search protocol included PubMed, RSCI, and Google Scholar.

RESULTS: Ten eligible studies in English and one publication in Russian were identified. In general, the following changes in organization of health care processes since 2020 are observed: hospital at home, telemedicine (physician-to-patient), and the adoption of new information communication technologies within physician-to-physician and physician-to-nurse communication. Earlier trends, such as (a) wider use of electronic devices, (b) adoption of Lean techniques, (c) the incorporation of patient and other customer experience feedback, and (d) the implementation of clinical decision support systems and automation of workflow, tend to be preserved.

CONCLUSION: The most common changes in hospital care organization and the respective impacts of workflow changes (ie, workflow interventions, redesign, and transformations) on the efficiency of hospital care were summarized and avenues for future research and policy implications were discussed. The pandemic demonstrated a need for building more resilient and adaptive healthcare systems, enhancing crisis preparedness along with rapid and effective responses.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Alwahaibi N, Al Maskari M, Al-Jaaidi S, et al (2023)

COVID-19 in the Arab countries: Three-year study.

F1000Research, 12:1448.

BACKGROUND: Twenty-two Arab countries share a common language, history, and culture. Nevertheless, governmental policies, healthcare systems, and resources differ from one Arab country to another. We have been following Coronavirus (COVID-19) from the beginning in each Arab country. In the present study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 in the Arab world and to compare these findings with other significantly affected countries.

METHODS: Websites of the World Health Organization, World COVID-vaccinations tracker, Worldometer, and Ministries of Health were used to extract COVID-19 data in all Arab countries between the period January 2020 to December 2022.

RESULTS: All Arab countries had 14,218,042 total confirmed COVID-19 cases, 13,384,924 total recovered cases and 173,544 total related deaths. The trend demonstrated that the third quarter of 2021 recorded the highest death toll and the first quarter of 2022 recorded the highest number of confirmed and recovered cases. Compared to the top 15 affected countries, the Arab world ranked last as it had the lowest overall incidence per million population (PMP) of 31,609. The data on total deaths PMP showed that India had the lowest number of deaths with only 377 cases followed by the Arab world with 386 cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of confirmed, death, and recovered cases of COVID-19 have greatly reduced in the last quarter of 2022 in most Arab countries, many Arab countries still need to re-campaign about COVID-19 vaccines and raise awareness programs about boosters. COVID-19 has had a relatively smaller impact on Arab countries than on other countries that have been significantly affected.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Dash N, D Choudhury (2024)

Dry Eye Disease: An Update on Changing Perspectives on Causes, Diagnosis, and Management.

Cureus, 16(5):e59985.

Dry eye disease is a common clinical problem encountered by ophthalmologists worldwide. Interest in this entity has increased in recent years due to the consequences it has on the ocular surface after any surface procedure. With changing times, several new factors have come to light that can influence this disease. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has also been greatly felt, with a range of causes, starting from increased screen work to inflammatory processes, exacerbating the condition in many. With changes in the concepts of the etiopathogenesis of the disease, a paradigm shift has taken place in the approaches to treatment. More researchers are in favor of a new tear film-oriented approach that tries to localize the disease to a single component in the tear film. Innovation of newer techniques for the treatment of meibomian gland disease has also made its foray into clinical ophthalmology. Newer drug formulations and molecules are underway to better treat the inflammatory component of the disease. Many other receptors and targets for the treatment of dry eyes are being researched. This review hopes to provide a succinct, narrative summary of the relevant research on dry eye disease to date to increase awareness about the nature and future course of this disease and its management.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Kumar DS, Prasanth K, Bhandari A, et al (2024)

Innovations and Challenges in the Development of COVID-19 Vaccines for a Safer Tomorrow.

Cureus, 16(5):e60015.

Vaccination, a historically effective public health intervention, has shielded millions from various diseases. Lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) have improved COVID-19 vaccine development. Despite mRNA vaccines' efficacy, emerging variants pose challenges, exhibiting increased transmissibility, infectivity, and severity. Developing COVID-19 vaccines has faced hurdles due to urgency, limited virus understanding, and the need for safe solutions. Genetic variability necessitates continuous vaccine adjustments and production challenges demand scaling up manufacturing with stringent quality control. This review explores SARS-CoV-2's evolution, upcoming mutations that challenge vaccines, and strategies such as structure-based, T cell-based, respiratory mucosal-based, and nanotechnology approaches for vaccine development. This review insight provides a roadmap for navigating virus evolution and improving vaccine development.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Panahi P, Zafardoust H, Mirzohreh ST, et al (2024)

The study of mental health status of people with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis study.

Epilepsy & behavior : E&B, 157:109834 pii:S1525-5050(24)00215-4 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people with epilepsy (PWE) in various ways. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the mental health status and prevalence of mental disorders including depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological distress among PWE. Furthermore, this study evaluates changes in sleep patterns and presence of sleep disturbances among them. The findings of this systematic review can help health organizations, policymakers, and health workers to better prepare and respond to future health crises for PWE and other chronic disease patients.

METHOD: This systematic review was prepared using PRISMA reporting guidelines. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases for studies that reported data on mental health parameters including depression, anxiety, stress, psychological distress, quality of life, and sleep quality, during the pandemic until May 2023. The analytical procedures were executed through the utilization of Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software.

RESULTS: In our study, a total of 61 carefully selected studies were analyzed, yielding valuable insights into the prevalence and impact of various mental health indicators among PWE. The findings revealed that a significant proportion of PWE experienced distressing psychological symptoms, with depression being reported by 34% of participants. Additionally, anxiety was prevalent among 43% of individuals, while stress symptoms were reported by 49% of respondents. Moreover, a substantial portion of PWE, approximately 38%, reported experiencing poor sleep quality, further underscoring the multifaceted nature of the challenges faced by this population. These findings highlight the need for targeted interventions and comprehensive support systems to address the mental health concerns and sleep disturbances faced by individuals living with epilepsy.

CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that a substantial number of PWE experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and poor sleep quality. These results emphasize the importance of considering mental health and sleep assessments as integral components of care for individuals with epilepsy. The study underscores the need for further research and targeted interventions to address the mental health burden faced by this population. By prioritizing and addressing these challenges, healthcare providers can enhance the overall well-being and quality of life for individuals living with epilepsy.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Mo CC, Richardson E, Calabretta E, et al (2024)

Endothelial injury and dysfunction with emerging immunotherapies in multiple myeloma, the impact of COVID-19, and endothelial protection with a focus on the evolving role of defibrotide.

Blood reviews, 66:101218.

Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were among the groups impacted more severely by the COVID-19 pandemic, with higher rates of severe disease and COVID-19-related mortality. MM and COVID-19, plus post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are associated with endothelial dysfunction and injury, with overlapping inflammatory pathways and coagulopathies. Existing treatment options for MM, notably high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation and novel chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies and bispecific T-cell engaging antibodies, are also associated with endothelial cell injury and mechanism-related toxicities. These pathologies include cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity that may be exacerbated by underlying endotheliopathies. In the context of these overlapping risks, prophylaxis and treatment approaches mitigating the inflammatory and pro-coagulant effects of endothelial injury are important considerations for patient management, including cytokine receptor antagonists, thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin and direct oral anticoagulants, and direct endothelial protection with defibrotide in the appropriate clinical settings.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Lu W, Yan L, Tang X, et al (2024)

Efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stem cells therapy in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):550.

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a serious public health issue. In COVID-19 patients, the elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines lead to the manifestation of COVID-19 symptoms, such as lung tissue edema, lung diffusion dysfunction, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), secondary infection, and ultimately mortality. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, thus providing a potential treatment option for COVID-19. The number of clinical trials of MSCs for COVID-19 has been rising. However, the treatment protocols and therapeutic effects of MSCs for COVID-19 patients are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to systematically determine the safety and efficacy of MSC infusion in COVID-19 patients.

METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search from PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library up to 22 November 2023 to screen for eligible randomized controlled trials. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for searched literature were formulated according to the PICOS principle, followed by the use of literature quality assessment tools to assess the risk of bias. Finally, outcome measurements including therapeutic efficacy, clinical symptoms, and adverse events of each study were extracted for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 14 randomized controlled trials were collected. The results of enrolled studies demonstrated that patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who received MSC inoculation showed a decreased mortality compared with counterparts who received conventional treatment (RR: 0.76; 95% CI [0.60, 0.96]; p = 0.02). Reciprocally, MSC inoculation improved the clinical symptoms in patients (RR: 1.28; 95% CI [1.06, 1.55]; p = 0.009). In terms of immune biomarkers, MSC treatment inhibited inflammation responses in COVID-19 patients, as was indicated by the decreased levels of CRP and IL-6. Importantly, our results showed that no significant differences in the incidence of adverse reactions or serious adverse events were monitored in patients after MSC inoculation.

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that MSC inoculation is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Without increasing the incidence of adverse events or serious adverse events, MSC treatment decreased patient mortality and inflammatory levels and improved the clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients. However, large-cohort randomized controlled trials with expanded numbers of patients are required to further confirm our results.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Pempa , Dorji T, Tashi U, et al (2024)

Implementation of a nationwide population-level cancer screening in Bhutan: A programmatic experience.

Journal of cancer policy, 41:100488 pii:S2213-5383(24)00022-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This article delves into Bhutan's adept execution of a nationwide cancer screening initiative within the Health Flagship Programme, concentrating on gastric, cervical, and breast cancers. Despite challenges like the COVID-19 pandemic, infrastructure constraints, logistical complexities, health human resource shortages, and data management issues, the programme succeeded. The procurement and logistics management ensured the timely provision of essential medical equipment and test kits. Robust political commitment, a comprehensive advocacy programme, and community engagement were pivotal for the programme's success. Impressive screening coverage for all three cancers showcased the transformative impact on cancer care, integrating technology and fostering community involvement. Recommendations highlight the need for strengthened integration, strategic approaches, and ongoing evaluation, positioning Bhutan's programme as a potential model for nations facing similar health challenges.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-20

Garaev TM, Grebennikova TV, Lebedeva VV, et al (2024)

Compounds based on Adamantyl-substituted Amino Acids and Peptides as Potential Antiviral Drugs Acting as Viroporin Inhibitors.

Current pharmaceutical design, 30(12):912-920.

The discussion has revolved around the derivatives of amino acids and peptides containing carbocycles and their potential antiviral activity in vitro against influenza A, hepatitis C viruses, and coronavirus. Studies conducted on cell cultures reveal that aminoadamantane amino acid derivatives exhibit the capacity to hinder the replication of viruses containing viroporins. Furthermore, certain compounds demonstrate potent virucidal activity with respect to influenza A/H5N1 and hepatitis C virus particles. A conceptual framework for viroporin inhibitors has been introduced, incorporating carbocyclic motifs as membranotropic carriers in the structure, alongside a functional segment comprised of amino acids and peptides. These components correspond to the interaction with the inner surface of the channel's pore or another target protein.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Oyama G, Ogawa M, Sekimoto S, et al (2023)

A Narrative Review of Current Status and Future Perspective of Telemedicine for Parkinson's Disease, Dementia, and Intractable Neurological Diseases in Japan.

Juntendo Iji zasshi = Juntendo medical journal, 69(1):14-20.

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has uncovered several inherent problems in society. While the demand for telemedicine surged worldwide and some countries responded flexibly, in Japan, most telemedicine services were limited to telephone consultations, and full-fledged telemedicine did not become widespread. In addition, the digitalization process in both medicine and wider society lags behind some other nations. It is necessary to accelerate digital transformation in healthcare to build a sustainable society that is resilient to crises, such as new pandemics. In particular, as Japan is facing an issue of super-aged society, a sustainable care model for people with Parkinson's disease, dementia, and intractable neurological diseases should be established. Many neurodegenerative and intractable neurological diseases are progressive; as the disease progresses, patients could become difficult to visit specialists. Although online medical care has many advantages, it does not provide the same quality of information as face-to-face consultations. However, new technology can overcome the limitations of online medical care. As an evolutionary direction for telemedicine, three-dimensional telemedicine technologies are being developed, which enable online medical treatment to be delivered as if the patient was sharing the same space. Telemonitoring can enable the objective and continuous evaluation of patient information at home through the use of motion capture, wearable devices, and other devices. The advancement of digital transformation in medical care should be a game-changer in accumulating big data and analyzing it using artificial intelligence.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Le VG, Nguyen MK, Lin C, et al (2024)

Review on personal protective equipment: Emerging concerns in micro(nano)plastic pollution and strategies for addressing environmental challenges.

Environmental research, 257:119345 pii:S0013-9351(24)01250-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic was caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, marking one of the most catastrophic global health crises of the 21st century. Throughout this period, widespread use and improper disposal of personal protective equipment (PPE) emerged as a pressing environmental issue, significantly impacting various life forms. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a high rate of PEP disposal. An alarming 1.6 × 10[6] tons of plastic waste each day has been generated since the onset of the outbreak, predominantly from the inadequate disposal of PPE. The mismanagement and subsequent degradation of discarded PPE significantly contribute to increased non-biodegradable micro(nano)plastic (MNP) waste. This pollution has had profound adverse effects on terrestrial, marine, and aquatic ecosystems, which have been extensively of concern recently. Accumulated MNPs within aquatic organisms could serve as a potential route for human exposure when consuming seafood. This review presents a novel aspect concerning the pollution caused by MNPs, particularly remarking on their role during the pandemic and their detrimental effects on human health. These microplastic particles, through the process of fragmentation, transform into nanoparticles, persisting in the environment and posing potential hazards. The prevalence of MNP from PPE, notably masks, raises concerns about their plausible health risks, warranting global attention and comprehensive exploration. Conducting a comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects of these processes and implementing effective management strategies is essential.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Niu L, Li Y, Bai R, et al (2024)

Global prevalence of violence against children and adolescents during COVID-19: A meta-analysis.

Child abuse & neglect, 154:106873 pii:S0145-2134(24)00263-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that children and adolescents are at an increased risk of experiencing violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is limited knowledge about the prevalence of violence against children and adolescents across different regions in the world.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the pooled prevalence of violence against children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and explore how geographical and methodological factors explain the variation across studies.

METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycInfo databases for articles published from January 1, 2020 to October 1, 2022. The study protocol was pre-registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022338181). We included published and unpublished studies available in English that reported the prevalence of violence (e.g., physical, emotional, or sexual violence, neglect, bullying) against children and adolescents (age <18 years) during the pandemic. Data extraction followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 2740 nonduplicate titles and abstracts were screened, and 217 full-text articles were reviewed for eligibility.

RESULTS: Twenty-five studies with 66,637 participants met inclusion criteria. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of violence against children and adolescents was 24 % (95%CI 18 %-30 %). The reported prevalence was higher in studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries compared to high-income countries.

CONCLUSIONS: Over one in five children and adolescents globally reported ever experiencing violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight the urgent need for effective child protection policies and interventions, as well as multisectoral collaboration, to reduce violence against children and adolescents.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Okoli GN, Reddy VK, Lam OL, et al (2024)

Update on efficacy of the approved remdesivir regimen for treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Current medical research and opinion [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Efficacy of remdesivir for COVID-19 remains unclear. We updated our published systematic review to better inform on the use of remdesivir for COVID-19.

METHODS: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) among hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Meta-analysis was conducted using an inverse variance, random-effects model, presenting relative risk (RR) or mean difference (MD) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical heterogeneity was calculated using the I[2] statistic. In addition, we conducted trial sequential analysis (TSA). Outcomes with additional data were clinical progression, hospitalisation days, and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS: We included nine RCTs (12,876 individuals). Three trials each were of a low, unclear, and a high risk of bias. Compared with no treatment/placebo, remdesivir (100mg daily, over 10 days) significantly improved clinical progression (RR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.11), but did not significantly reduce hospitalisation days (MD -0.48, CI -2.18-1.21) and all-cause mortality (RR 0.92, CI 0.84-1.01). TSA suggested that further information is not required to conclude on the efficacy of remdesivir in improving clinical progression, and that, while more information is required for hospitalisation days and all-cause mortality, further RCTs to prove fewer hospitalisation days may be futile, as efficacy of remdesivir for this outcome is unlikely.

CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir appeared promising for COVID-19, but there is insufficient evidence of its efficacy. High quality RCTs are needed for a stronger evidence base.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Amani B, B Amani (2024)

Azvudine versus Paxlovid in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Reviews in medical virology, 34(4):e2551.

This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of azvudine versus nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid) in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The researchers conducted searches on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, medRxiv, and Google Scholar until January 2024. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was utilised to evaluate the quality of the included studies, and data analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Thirteen studies, including 4949 patients, were analysed. The meta-analysis results showed no significant difference between the azvudine and Paxlovid groups in terms of mortality rate (odds rate [OR] = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-1.21), negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conversion time (standard mean difference [SMD] = 1.52, 95% CI: -1.07-4.11), and hospital stay (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI: -1.12-0.33). However, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of intensive care unit admission (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23-0.75) and the need for mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.44-0.86) in favour of azvudine. The incidence of adverse events in the azvudine group was significantly lower (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99). The certainty of evidence was rated as low and moderate. Azvudine and Paxlovid demonstrated similar effectiveness in reducing mortality rates, negative PCR conversion time and hospital stay. However, azvudine showed better effectiveness in improving other outcomes. Regarding the level of certainty of evidence, further research is needed to validate or challenge these results.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Endo HM, Bandeca SCS, Olchanheski LR, et al (2024)

Probiotics and the reduction of SARS-CoV-2 infection through regulation of host cell calcium dynamics.

Life sciences, 350:122784.

Calcium is a secondary messenger that interacts with several cellular proteins, regulates various physiological processes, and plays a role in diseases such as viral infections. Next-generation probiotics and live biotherapeutic products are linked to the regulation of intracellular calcium levels. Some viruses can manipulate calcium channels, pumps, and membrane receptors to alter calcium influx and promote virion production and release. In this study, we examined the use of bacteria for the prevention and treatment of viral diseases, such as coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Vaccination programs have helped reduce disease severity; however, there is still a lack of well-recognized drug regimens for the clinical management of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the host cell calcium (Ca[2+]), manipulates proteins, and disrupts Ca[2+] homeostasis. This article explores how viruses exploit, create, or exacerbate calcium imbalances, and the potential role of probiotics in mitigating viral infections by modulating calcium signaling. Pharmacological strategies have been developed to prevent viral replication and block the calcium channels that serve as viral receptors. Alternatively, probiotics may interact with cellular calcium influx, such as Lactobacillus spp. The interaction between Akkermansia muciniphila and cellular calcium homeostasis is evident. A scientific basis for using probiotics to manipulate calcium channel activity needs to be established for the treatment and prevention of viral diseases while maintaining calcium homeostasis. In this review article, we discuss how intracellular calcium signaling can affect viral replication and explore the potential therapeutic benefits of probiotics.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Tavares-Júnior JWL, Ciurleo GCV, Feitosa EAAF, et al (2024)

The Clinical Aspects of COVID and Alzheimer's Disease: A Round-Up of Where Things Stand and Are Headed.

Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD, 99(4):1159-1171.

The link between long COVID-19 and brain/cognitive impairments is concerning and may foster a worrisome worldwide emergence of novel cases of neurodegenerative diseases with aging. This review aims to update the knowledge, crosstalk, and possible intersections between the Post-COVID Syndrome (PCS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). References included in this review were obtained from PubMed searches conducted between October 2023 and November 2023. PCS is a very heterogenous and poorly understood disease with recent evidence of a possible association with chronic diseases such as AD. However, more scientific data is required to establish the link between PCS and AD.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Chigor VN, Digwo DC, Adediji A, et al (2024)

Epidemiology of norovirus infection in Nigeria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Archives of virology, 169(7):138.

Human norovirus (HuNoV) is responsible for most cases of gastroenteritis worldwide, but information about the prevalence and diversity of HuNoV infections in lower-income settings is lacking. In order to provide more information about the burden and distribution of norovirus in Nigeria, we systematically reviewed original published research articles on the prevalence of HuNoV in Nigeria by accessing databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and African Journals Online (AJOL). The protocol for the review was registered on PROSPERO (registration number CRD42022308857). Thirteen relevant articles were included in the review, and 10 of them were used for meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of HuNoV-associated gastroenteritis among children below 5 years of age in Nigeria, determined using the random-effects model, was 10.9% (95% CI, 6.7-16.7%). Among children below the age of 5 presenting with HuNoV infections, the highest prevalence was in children ≤2 years old (n = 127, 83%). The prevalence of HuNoV infections was seen to decrease with increasing age. In addition, HuNoV was detected in asymptomatic food handlers, bats, and seafoods. A total of 85 sequences of HuNoV isolates from Nigeria have been determined, and based on those sequences, the most prevalent norovirus genogroup was GII (84%). Genotypes GII.4 and GI.3 were the most frequently identified genotypes, with GII.4 constituting 46% of all of the HuNoVs identified in Nigeria. These results suggest a risk associated with cocirculation of emerging variants with known genotypes because of their recombination potential. Larger molecular epidemiological studies are still needed to fully understand the extent and pattern of circulation of HuNoVs in Nigeria.

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Chen N, Jin J, Zhang B, et al (2024)

Viral strategies to antagonize the host antiviral innate immunity: an indispensable research direction for emerging virus-host interactions.

Emerging microbes & infections, 13(1):2341144.

The public's health is gravely at risk due to the current global outbreak of emerging viruses, specifically SARS-CoV-2 and MPXV. Recent studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 mutants (such as Omicron) exhibit a higher capability to antagonize the host innate immunity, increasing their human adaptability and transmissibility. Furthermore, current studies on the strategies for MPXV to antagonize the host innate immunity are still in the initial stages. These multiple threats from emerging viruses make it urgent to study emerging virus-host interactions, especially the viral antagonism of host antiviral innate immunity. Given this, we selected several representative viruses that significantly threatened human public health and interpreted the multiple strategies for these viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immunity, hoping to provide ideas for molecular mechanism research that emerging viruses antagonize the host antiviral innate immunity and accelerate the research progress. The IAV, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, EBOV, DENV, ZIKV, and HIV are some of the typical viruses. Studies have shown that viruses could antagonize the host antiviral innate immunity by directly or indirectly blocking antiviral innate immune signaling pathways. Proviral host factors, host restriction factors, and ncRNAs (microRNAs, lncRNAs, circRNAs, and vtRNAs) are essential in indirectly blocking antiviral innate immune signaling pathways. Furthermore, via controlling apoptosis, ER stress, stress granule formation, and metabolic pathways, viruses may antagonize it. These regulatory mechanisms include transcriptional regulation, post-translational regulation, preventing complex formation, impeding nuclear translocation, cleavage, degradation, and epigenetic regulation.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

van den Berg S, T Sun (2024)

Describing Elephants: An Update on the Immunopathology of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children.

Immunological investigations [Epub ahead of print].

First described in 2020, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an, initially life-threatening, disease characterised by severe inflammation and following exposure to SARS-CoV-2. The immunopathology of MIS-C involves a hyperinflammation characterised by a cytokine storm and activation of both the innate and adaptive immune system, eventually leading to multi-organ failure. Several etiological theories are described in literature. Firstly, it is suggested that the gut plays an important role in the translocation of microbial products to the systemic circulation. Additionally, the production of autoantibodies that develop after the initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to many of its broad clinical symptoms. Finally, the superantigen theory where non-specific binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein to the T-cell receptor leads to a subsequent activation of T cells, generating a powerful immune response. Despite the sudden outbreak of MIS-C and alarming messages, as of 2024, cases have declined drastically and subsequently show a less severe clinical spectrum. However, subacute cases not meeting current diagnostic criteria might be overlooked even though they represent a valuable research population. In the future, research should focus on adjusting these criteria to better understand the broad pathophysiology of MIS-C, aiding early detection, therapy, and prediction.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Zhang Y, Chen S, Tian Y, et al (2024)

Host factors of SARS-CoV-2 in infection, pathogenesis, and long-term effects.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1407261.

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative virus of the devastating COVID-19 pandemic that results in an unparalleled global health and economic crisis. Despite unprecedented scientific efforts and therapeutic interventions, the fight against COVID-19 continues as the rapid emergence of different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and the increasing challenge of long COVID-19, raising a vast demand to understand the pathomechanisms of COVID-19 and its long-term sequelae and develop therapeutic strategies beyond the virus per se. Notably, in addition to the virus itself, the replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2 and clinical severity of COVID-19 is also governed by host factors. In this review, we therefore comprehensively overview the replication cycle and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 from the perspective of host factors and host-virus interactions. We sequentially outline the pathological implications of molecular interactions between host factors and SARS-CoV-2 in multi-organ and multi-system long COVID-19, and summarize current therapeutic strategies and agents targeting host factors for treating these diseases. This knowledge would be key for the identification of new pathophysiological aspects and mechanisms, and the development of actionable therapeutic targets and strategies for tackling COVID-19 and its sequelae.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Huang Y, Chen J, Chen S, et al (2024)

Molecular characterization of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1415885.

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly prevalent and potent infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Until now, the world is still endeavoring to develop new ways to diagnose and treat COVID-19. At present, the clinical prevention and treatment of COVID-19 mainly targets the spike protein on the surface of SRAS-CoV-2. However, with the continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of concern (VOC), targeting the spike protein therapy shows a high degree of limitation. The Nucleocapsid Protein (N protein) of SARS-CoV-2 is highly conserved in virus evolution and is involved in the key process of viral infection and assembly. It is the most expressed viral structural protein after SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans and has high immunogenicity. Therefore, N protein as the key factor of virus infection and replication in basic research and clinical application has great potential research value. This article reviews the research progress on the structure and biological function of SARS-CoV-2 N protein, the diagnosis and drug research of targeting N protein, in order to promote researchers' further understanding of SARS-CoV-2 N protein, and lay a theoretical foundation for the possible outbreak of new and sudden coronavirus infectious diseases in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Wang Y, Chen T, Li C, et al (2024)

Research on coronavirus disease 2019 and the kidney: A bibliometric analysis.

Heliyon, 10(11):e31749.

BACKGROUND: In addition to damage to the lungs, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage multiple organs, including the kidney. Our purpose was to analyze the research hotspots and trends in COVID-19 and kidney diseases using bibliometrics to help clarify the development direction of this field.

METHODS: We selected and extracted all relevant publications related to COVID-19 and the kidney from the Web of Science from December 1, 2019, to July 24, 2022. VOSviewer, RStudio, CiteSpace, and other software were used to visualize keywords, publishing trends, authors and their countries, and institutions in this field and perform the statistical analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 645 articles published in 220 journals were included in this study. The United States and China contributed the most publications and were most active in international cooperation. In addition to COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), acute kidney injury (AKI), kidney transplant and mortality were the three keywords with the highest frequencies. In the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak, research focused on the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and other macrocharacteristics, while in a later stage, the associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and CKD and AKI, as well as the prognosis of patients with kidney disease or those who underwent kidney transplantation, gained more attention. The immune response and vaccines were also recent research hotspots.

CONCLUSIONS: This bibliometric analysis provides a comprehensive overview of research on COVID-19 and kidney disease, which has received continuous, global attention. AKI, CKD, kidney transplantation, immune response and vaccines are among the hotspots in this field.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Lotfaliany M, Agustini B, Walker AJ, et al (2024)

Development of a harmonized sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire for mental health research: A Delphi-method-based consensus recommendation.

The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Harmonized tools are essential for reliable data sharing and accurate identification of relevant factors in mental health research. The primary objective of this study was to create a harmonized questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical and behavioral data in diverse clinical trials in adult psychiatry.

METHODS: We conducted a literature review and examined 24 questionnaires used in previously published randomized controlled trials in psychiatry, identifying a total of 27 domains previously explored. Using a Delphi-method process, a task force team comprising experts in psychiatry, epidemiology and statistics selected 15 essential domains for inclusion in the final questionnaire.

RESULTS: The final selection resulted in a concise set of 22 questions. These questions cover factors such as age, sex, gender, ancestry, education, living arrangement, employment status, home location, relationship status, and history of medical and mental illness. Behavioral factors like physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use were also included, along with one question addressing family history of mental illness. Income was excluded due to high confounding and redundancy, while language was included as a measure of migration status.

CONCLUSION: The recommendation and adoption of this harmonized tool for the assessment of demographic, clinical and behavioral data in mental health research can enhance data consistency and enable comparability across clinical trials.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Fallah MP, Sembuche S, Kabwe PC, et al (2024)

Urgent support mechanism: saving millions of COVID-19 vaccines from expiry in Africa.

BMJ global health, 9(6):.

Delivering COVID-19 vaccines with 4-6 weeks shelf life remains one of Africa's most pressing challenges. The Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) leadership recognised that COVID-19 vaccines donated to many African countries were at risk of expiry considering the short shelf life on delivery in the Member States and slow vaccine uptake rates. Thus, a streamlined rapid response system, the urgent support mechanism, was developed to assist countries accelerate COVID-19 vaccine uptake. We describe the achievements and lessons learnt during implementation of the urgent support mechanism in eight African countries. An Africa CDC team was rapidly deployed to meet with the Ministry of Health of each country alerted for COVID-19 vaccine expiry and identified national implementing partners to quickly develop operational work plans and strategies to scale up the urgent use of the vaccines. The time between the initiation of alerts to the start of the implementation was typically within 2 weeks. A total of approximately 2.5 million doses of vaccines, costing $900 000, were prevented from expiration. The urgent support has also contributed to the increased COVID-19 vaccination coverage in the Member States from 16.1% at the initiation to 25.3% at the end of the urgent support. Some of the effective strategies used by the urgent support mechanism included coordination between Africa CDC and country vaccine task forces, establishment of vaccination centres, building the capacity of routine and surge health workforce, procurement and distribution of vaccine ancillaries, staff training, advocacy and sensitisation events, and use of trusted religious scriptures and community influencers to support public health messages. The urgent support mechanism demonstrated a highly optimised process and serves as a successful example for acceleration and integration of vaccination into different healthcare delivery points.

RevDate: 2024-06-16
CmpDate: 2024-06-16

Aghajani Mir M (2024)

Illuminating the pathogenic role of SARS-CoV-2: Insights into competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) regulatory networks.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 122:105613.

The appearance of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 triggered a significant economic and health crisis worldwide, with heterogeneous molecular mechanisms that contribute to its development are not yet fully understood. Although substantial progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms behind SARS-CoV-2 infection and therapy, it continues to rank among the top three global causes of mortality due to infectious illnesses. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), being integral components across nearly all biological processes, demonstrate effective importance in viral pathogenesis. Regarding viral infections, ncRNAs have demonstrated their ability to modulate host reactions, viral replication, and host-pathogen interactions. However, the complex interactions of different types of ncRNAs in the progression of COVID-19 remains understudied. In recent years, a novel mechanism of post-transcriptional gene regulation known as "competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA)" has been proposed. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and viral ncRNAs function as ceRNAs, influencing the expression of associated genes by sequestering shared microRNAs. Recent research on SARS-CoV-2 has revealed that disruptions in specific ceRNA regulatory networks (ceRNETs) contribute to the abnormal expression of key infection-related genes and the establishment of distinctive infection characteristics. These findings present new opportunities to delve deeper into the underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, offering potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This progress paves the way for a more comprehensive understanding of ceRNETs, shedding light on the intricate mechanisms involved. Further exploration of these mechanisms holds promise for enhancing our ability to prevent viral infections and develop effective antiviral treatments.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Popadyuk EE, Sizikova TE, Khmelev AL, et al (2024)

[The use of immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies against COVID-19].

Voprosy virusologii, 69(2):119-126.

INTRODUCTION: When a new disease occurs, one of the most affordable remedies is drugs containing specific antibodies to this infectious agent. The use of such drugs is aimed at reducing the amount of the pathogen in the macroorganism and the associated reduction in the severity of the symptoms of the disease or recovery. The purpose of this review is to analyze the experience of using immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of COVID-19 patients during the pandemic.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The two main groups of medical protective agents that block the penetration of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into permissive cells are drugs obtained from blood plasma of convalescents (immunoglobulin) and human monoclonal antibodies. The first group of drugs in the treatment of COVID-19 includes blood plasma of convalescents, which can be successfully used for emergency prevention. The main disadvantage of using blood plasma convalescents is the difficulty of standardization due to the different content of specific antibodies in donors. Another disadvantage is the undesirable side effects in recipients that occur after plasma administration. An alternative approach to COVID-19 therapy is the use of humanized and genetically engineered human monoclonal antibodies against certain epitopes of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. For example, monoclonal antibodies against receptor-binding domain of the S-protein, which prevents the virus from entering permissive cells and interrupts the development of infection. The advantages of these drugs are their safety, high specific activity, and the possibility of standardization. However, the complexity of their production and high cost make them inaccessible for mass use in practical medicine.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Jogdeo CM, Siddhanta K, Das A, et al (2024)

Beyond Lipids: Exploring Advances in Polymeric Gene Delivery in the Lipid Nanoparticles Era.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

The recent success of gene therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the importance of effective and safe delivery systems. Complementing lipid-based delivery systems, polymers present a promising alternative for gene delivery. Significant advances have been made in the recent past, with multiple clinical trials progressing beyond phase I and several companies actively working on polymeric delivery systems which provides assurance that polymeric carriers can soon achieve clinical translation. The massive advantage of structural tunability and vast chemical space of polymers is being actively leveraged to mitigate shortcomings of traditional polycationic polymers and improve the translatability of delivery systems. Tailored polymeric approaches for diverse nucleic acids and for specific subcellular targets are now being designed to improve therapeutic efficacy. This review describes the recent advances in polymer design for improved gene delivery by polyplexes and covalent polymer-nucleic acid conjugates. The review also offers a brief note on novel computational techniques for improved polymer design. The review concludes with an overview of the current state of polymeric gene therapies in the clinic as well as future directions on their translation to the clinic.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Sugraliyev AB (2024)

[Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia].

Kardiologiia, 64(5):18-25.

The extensive use of therapeutic doses of heparin to prevent thrombosis in critically ill patients with COVID-19 during the pandemic has led to an increased incidence of bleeding and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In addition, the introduction of the AstraZeneca and Johnson&Johnson vaccines against COVID-19 into clinical practice was associated with the development of a rare but very severe, adverse thrombotic complication, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Thrombotic complications of VITT turned out to be similar to HIT both clinically and pathophysiologically. HIT is a potentially fatal immune-mediated adverse drug response that results in emergence of antibodies that activate platelets in the presence of heparin. HIT is characterized by a high incidence of venous and arterial thromboses, often with fatal outcomes. Currently, there are clearly defined international guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIT. In case of thrombotic complications, non-heparin anticoagulants should be used.

RevDate: 2024-06-16

Xu W, Yang T, Zhang J, et al (2024)

Rhodiola rosea: a review in the context of PPPM approach.

The EPMA journal, 15(2):233-259.

A natural "medicine and food" plant, Rhodiola rosea (RR) is primarily made up of organic acids, phenolic compounds, sterols, glycosides, vitamins, lipids, proteins, amino acids, trace elements, and other physiologically active substances. In vitro, non-clinical and clinical studies confirmed that it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune regulatory effects, balances the gut microbiota, and alleviates vascular circulatory disorders. RR can prolong life and has great application potential in preventing and treating suboptimal health, non-communicable diseases, and COVID-19. This narrative review discusses the effects of RR in preventing organ damage (such as the liver, lung, heart, brain, kidneys, intestines, and blood vessels) in non-communicable diseases from the perspective of predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine (PPPM/3PM). In conclusion, as an adaptogen, RR can provide personalised health strategies to improve the quality of life and overall health status.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Cortial L, Montero V, Tourlet S, et al (2024)

Artificial intelligence in drug repurposing for rare diseases: a mini-review.

Frontiers in medicine, 11:1404338.

Drug repurposing, the process of identifying new uses for existing drugs beyond their original indications, offers significant advantages in terms of reduced development time and costs, particularly in addressing unmet medical needs in rare diseases. Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a transformative force in healthcare, and by leveraging AI technologies, researchers aim to overcome some of the challenges associated with rare diseases. This review presents concrete case studies, as well as pre-existing platforms, initiatives, and companies that demonstrate the application of AI for drug repurposing in rare diseases. Despite representing a modest part of the literature compared to other diseases such as COVID-19 or cancer, the growing interest, and investment in AI for drug repurposing in rare diseases underscore its potential to accelerate treatment availability for patients with unmet medical needs.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Ganjeh S, Aslani H, Kalantari KK, et al (2024)

Parsonage-Turner syndrome, affecting suprascapular nerve and especially to infraspinatus muscles after COVID-19 vaccination in a professional wrestler, a case report and literature review of causes and treatments.

BMC neurology, 24(1):187.

BACKGROUND: Acute peripheral neuropathy, also known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome or neuralgic amyotrophy, mostly affects the upper brachial plexus trunks, which include the shoulder girdle. It is typically accompanied by abrupt, intense pain, weakness, and sensory disruption. The etiology and causes of this disease are still unknown because of its low prevalence, however viral reactions-induced inflammation is one of its frequent causes.

CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we introduce a professional wrestler patient who was diagnosed with PTS after vaccination and was treated, and we review some articles in this field.

CONCLUSION: When it comes to shoulder-girdle complaints and pain, Parsonage-Turner syndrome can be a differential diagnosis. Corticosteroids during the acute period, followed by physical therapy, appear to be an efficient way to manage pain, inflammation, muscular atrophy, and the process of recovering to full nerve regeneration.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Issahaku GR, Fischer HT, Appiah-Brempong E, et al (2024)

Strategies to foster community engagement for epidemic and pandemic preparedness and response in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ open, 14(6):e082757.

INTRODUCTION: The surge of public health emergencies over the past decade has disproportionately affected sub-Saharan Africa. These include outbreaks of infectious diseases such as Ebola, Monkeypox and COVID-19. Experience has shown that community participation is key to the successful implementation of infection control activities. Despite the pivotal role community engagement plays in epidemic and pandemic preparedness and response activities, strategies to engage communities have been underexplored to date, particularly in sub-Sahara Africa. Furthermore, reviews conducted have not included evidence from the latest pandemic, COVID-19. This scoping review aims to address these gaps by documenting through available literature, the strategies for community engagement for epidemic and pandemic preparedness and response in sub-Sahara Africa.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews and the methodological framework for scoping reviews from Arksey and O'Malley to guide the review. Two reviewers will develop a systematic search strategy to identify articles published from January 2014 to date. We will retrieve peer-reviewed research published in the English language from databases including Embase, EBSCO-host, PubMed, Global Health, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science. Additionally, we will search for relevant grey literature from the websites of specific international organisations, public health institutes and Government Ministries of Health in African countries. After the removal of duplicates, the two reviewers will independently screen all titles, abstracts and full articles to establish the relevance of each study for inclusion in the review. We will extract data from the included articles using a data extraction tool and present the findings in tabular form with an accompanying narrative to aid comprehension.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for the conduct of scoping reviews. We plan to disseminate the findings from this review through publications in a peer-reviewed journal, presentations at conferences and meetings with policy-makers.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Petrovsky N (2024)

Clinical development of SpikoGen®, an Advax-CpG55.2 adjuvanted recombinant spike protein vaccine.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 20(1):2363016.

Recombinant protein vaccines represent a well-established, reliable and safe approach for pandemic vaccination. SpikoGen® is a recombinant spike protein trimer manufactured in insect cells and formulated with Advax-CpG55.2 adjuvant. In murine, hamster, ferret and non-human primate studies, SpikoGen® consistently provided protection against a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants. A pivotal Phase 3 placebo-controlled efficacy trial involving 16,876 participants confirmed the ability of SpikoGen® to prevent infection and severe disease caused by the virulent Delta strain. SpikoGen® subsequently received a marketing authorization from the Iranian FDA in early October 2021 for prevention of COVID-19 in adults. Following a successful pediatric study, its approval was extended to children 5 years and older. Eight million doses of SpikoGen® have been delivered, and a next-generation booster version is currently in development. This highlights the benefits of adjuvanted protein-based approaches which should not overlook when vaccine platforms are being selected for future pandemics.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Kulkarni DH, Starick M, Aponte Alburquerque R, et al (2024)

Local complement activation and modulation in mucosal immunity.

Mucosal immunology pii:S1933-0219(24)00047-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The complement system is an evolutionarily conserved arm of innate immunity, which forms one of the first lines of host response to pathogens, and assists in the clearance of debris. A deficiency in key activators/amplifiers of the cascade results in recurrent infection, whereas a deficiency in regulating the cascade predisposes to accelerated organ failure, as observed in colitis and transplant rejection. Given that there are over 60 proteins in this system, it has become an attractive target for immunotherapeutics, many of which are FDA approved or in multiple phase 2/3 clinical trials.Moreover, there have been key advances in the last few years in the understanding of how the complement system operates locally in tissues, independent of its activities in the circulation. In this review, we will put into perspective the abovementioned discoveries to optimally modulate the spatiotemporal nature of complement activation and regulation at mucosal surfaces.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Amini A, Klenerman P, NM Provine (2024)

Role of mucosal-associated invariant T cells in coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine immunogenicity.

Current opinion in virology, 67:101412 pii:S1879-6257(24)00026-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an unconventional T cell population that are highly abundant in humans. They possess a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) that recognises microbial metabolites formed during riboflavin biosynthesis, presented on a nonpolymorphic MHC-like molecule MR1. MAIT cells possess an array of effector functions, including type 1, type 17, and tissue repair activity. Deployment of these functions depends on the stimuli they receive through their TCR and/or cytokine receptors. Strong cytokine signalling, such as in response to vaccination, can bypass TCR triggering and provokes a strong proinflammatory response. Although data are still emerging, multiple aspects of MAIT cell biology are associated with modulation of immunity induced by the coronavirus disease 2019 mRNA and adenovirus vector vaccines. In this review, we will address how MAIT cells may play a role in immunogenicity of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and how these cells can be harnessed as cellular adjuvants.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Burns K, Bloom S, Gilbert C, et al (2024)

Centering Digital Health Equity During Technology Innovation: Protocol for a Comprehensive Scoping Review of Evidence-Based Tools and Approaches.

JMIR research protocols, 13:e53855 pii:v13i1e53855.

BACKGROUND: In the rush to develop health technologies for the COVID-19 pandemic, the unintended consequence of digital health inequity or the inability of priority communities to access, use, and receive equal benefits from digital health technologies was not well examined.

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review will examine tools and approaches that can be used during digital technology innovation to improve equitable inclusion of priority communities in the development of digital health technologies. The results from this study will provide actionable insights for professionals in health care, health informatics, digital health, and technology development to proactively center equity during innovation.

METHODS: Based on the Arksey and O'Malley framework, this scoping review will consider priority communities' equitable involvement in digital technology innovation. Bibliographic databases in health, medicine, computing, and information sciences will be searched. Retrieved citations will be double screened against the inclusion and exclusion criteria using Covidence (Veritas Health Innovation). Data will be charted using a tailored extraction tool and mapped to a digital health innovation pathway defined by the Centre for eHealth Research roadmap for eHealth technologies. An accompanying narrative synthesis will describe the outcomes in relation to the review's objectives.

RESULTS: This scoping review is currently in progress. The search of databases and other sources returned a total of 4868 records. After the initial screening of titles and abstracts, 426 studies are undergoing dual full-text review. We are aiming to complete the full-text review stage by May 30, 2024, data extraction in October 2024, and subsequent synthesis in December 2024. Funding was received on October 1, 2023, from the Centre for Health Equity Incubator Grant Scheme, University of Melbourne, Australia.

CONCLUSIONS: This paper will identify and recommend a series of validated tools and approaches that can be used by health care stakeholders and IT developers to produce equitable digital health technology across the Centre for eHealth Research roadmap. Identified evidence gaps, possible implications, and further research will be discussed.

DERR1-10.2196/53855.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Aouabdi S, Aboalola D, Zakari S, et al (2024)

Protective potential of mesenchymal stem cells against COVID-19 during pregnancy.

Future science OA, 10(1):FSO924.

SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19. COVID-19 has led to severe clinical illnesses and an unprecedented death toll. The virus induces immune inflammatory responses specifically cytokine storm in lungs. Several published reports indicated that pregnant females are less likely to develop severe symptoms compared with non-pregnant. Putative protective role of maternal blood circulating fetal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged and have been put forward as an explanation to alleviated symptoms. MSCs with immune-modulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral roles, hold great potential for the treatment of COVID-19. MSCs could be an alternative to treat infections resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 and potential future outbreaks. This review focuses on the MSCs putative protective roles against COVID-19 in pregnant females.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Panos LD, Bargiotas P, Hadjigeorgiou G, et al (2024)

Neurovascular Adverse Effects of Sars-Cov-2 Vaccination.

Drug design, development and therapy, 18:1891-1905.

The global deployment of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has been pivotal in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic, reducing morbidity and mortality associated with the virus. While most of these vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy and overall safety, emerging reports have highlighted potential neurovascular adverse effects, albeit uncommon, associated with these vaccinations. This review aims to assess and summarize the current knowledge on the neurovascular complications arising post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We conducted an extensive literature review, focusing on clinical studies and case reports to identify reported neurovascular events, such as ischemic stroke, cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, intracerebral hemorrhage, pituitary apoplexy and primary CNS angiitis Despite the relative rarity of these events, their impact on affected individuals underscores the importance of ongoing surveillance, early detection, and management strategies. We aim to provide healthcare professionals with the latest evidence on neurovascular adverse effects, facilitating informed decision-making in the context of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programs. Furthermore, we highlight areas requiring further research to understand the pathophysiology of these adverse events better and to develop targeted prevention and treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Gill B, Kehler T, M Schneider (2024)

Meaning and prediction of 'excess mortality': a comparison of Covid-19 and pre-Covid-19 mortality data in 31 Eurostat countries from 1965 to 2021.

Biology methods & protocols, 9(1):bpae031.

Determining 'excess mortality' makes it possible to compare the burden of disasters between countries and over time, and thus also to evaluate the success of mitigation measures. However, the debate on coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has exposed that calculations of excess mortalities vary considerably depending on the method and its specification. Moreover, it is often unclear what exactly is meant by 'excess mortality'. We define excess mortality as the excess over the number of deaths that would have been expected counter-factually, that is without the catastrophic event in question. Based on this definition, we use a very parsimonious calculation method, namely the linear extrapolation of death figures from previous years to determine the excess mortality during the Covid-19 pandemic. But unlike most other literature on this topic, we first evaluated and optimized the specification of our method using a larger historical data set in order to identify and minimize estimation errors and biases. The result shows that excess mortality rates in the literature are often inflated. Moreover, they would have exhibited considerable excess mortalities in the period before Covid-19, if this value had already been of public interest at that time. Three conclusions can be drawn from this study and its findings: (i) All calculation methods for current figures should first be evaluated against past figures. (ii) To avoid alarm fatigue, thresholds should be introduced which would differentiate between 'usual fluctuations' and 'remarkable excess'. (iii) Statistical offices could provide more realistic estimates.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-05

Fisman D, Giglio N, Levin MJ, et al (2024)

The economic rationale for cell-based influenza vaccines in children and adults: A review of cost-effectiveness analyses.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 20(1):2351675.

Seasonal influenza significantly affects both health and economic costs in children and adults. This narrative review summarizes published cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of cell-based influenza vaccines in children and adults <65 years of age, critically assesses the assumptions and approaches used in these analyses, and considers the role of cell-based influenza vaccines for children and adults. CEAs from multiple countries demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of cell-based quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVc) compared with egg-based trivalent/quadrivalent influenza vaccines (TIVe/QIVe). CEA findings were consistent across models relying on different relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) estimate inputs, with the rVE of QIVc versus QIVe ranging from 8.1% to 36.2% in favor of QIVc. Across multiple scenarios and types of analyses, QIVc was consistently cost-effective compared with QIVe, including in children and adults across different regions of the world.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Aydogdu ALF (2024)

Work engagement among nurses in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review.

Nursing ethics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Despite nurses receiving education on how to respond during crises, the stress and demands arising from unprecedented situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, may affect their work engagement.

AIM: To appraise and synthesize studies examining work engagement among nurses in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: It is a systematic review in which three databases were searched. Critical appraisal tools and PRISMA guidelines were used. Content analysis was performed.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Ethical approval was not required for this systematic review.

FINDINGS: A total of 21 studies were included. The results were classified into three categories: (1) levels and meanings of work engagement, (2) the relationship of work engagement with various factors, and (3) measures to enhance work engagement.

CONCLUSION: The review revealed that nurses' work engagement varied from moderate to high. Factors such as education level and work schedule flexibility influenced their engagement. Positive associations were found between work engagement and job satisfaction, intention to stay, and organizational support, while stress and workload showed negative relationships. The crucial role of health policymakers, hospital administrators, and nurse managers in acting ethically, creating favorable working conditions and fostering nurses' work engagement was emphasized.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Kumar S, Narayanasamy S, Nepal P, et al (2024)

Imaging of pulmonary infections encountered in the emergency department in post-COVID 19 era- common, rare and exotic. Bacterial and viral.

Emergency radiology [Epub ahead of print].

Pulmonary infections contribute substantially to emergency department (ED) visits, posing a considerable health burden. Lower respiratory tract infections are prevalent, particularly among the elderly, constituting a significant percentage of infectious disease-related ED visits. Timely recognition and treatment are crucial to mitigate morbidity and mortality. Imaging studies, primarily chest radiographs and less frequently CT chests, play a pivotal role in diagnosis. This article aims to elucidate the imaging patterns of both common and rare pulmonary infections (bacterial and viral) in the post COVID-19 era, emphasizing the importance of recognizing distinct radiological manifestations. The integration of clinical and microbiological evidence aids in achieving accurate diagnoses, and guiding optimal therapeutic interventions. Despite potential overlapping manifestations, a nuanced understanding of radiological patterns, coupled with comprehensive clinical and microbiological information, enhances diagnostic precision in majority cases.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Guillen-Angel M, JY Roignant (2024)

Exploring pseudouridylation: dysregulation in disease and therapeutic potential.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 87:102210 pii:S0959-437X(24)00059-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudouridine (Ψ), the most abundant RNA modification, plays a role in pre-mRNA splicing, RNA stability, protein translation efficiency, and cellular responses to environmental stress. Dysregulation of pseudouridylation is linked to human diseases. This review explores recent insights into the role of RNA pseudouridylation alterations in human disorders and the therapeutic potential of Ψ. We discuss the impact of the reduction of Ψ levels in ribosomal, messenger, and transfer RNA in RNA processing, protein translation, and consequently its role in neurodevelopmental diseases and cancer. Furthermore, we review the success of N1-methyl-Ψ messenger RNA vaccines against COVID-19 and the development of RNA-guided pseudouridylation enzymes for treating genetic diseases caused by premature stop codons.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Ng HJ, Alata MK, Nguyen QT, et al (2024)

Managing and treating COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancies: a narrative review and expert insights.

Clinical and experimental medicine, 24(1):119.

Patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs) are at a significantly higher risk of contracting COVID-19 and experiencing severe outcomes compared to individuals without HMs. This heightened risk is influenced by various factors, including the underlying malignancy, immunosuppressive treatments, and patient-related factors. Notably, immunosuppressive regimens commonly used for HM treatment can lead to the depletion of B cells and T cells, which is associated with increased COVID-19-related complications and mortality in these patients. As the pandemic transitions into an endemic state, it remains crucial to acknowledge and address the ongoing risk for individuals with HMs. In this review, we aim to summarize the current evidence to enhance our understanding of the impact of HMs on COVID-19 risks and outcomes, identify particularly vulnerable individuals, and emphasize the need for specialized clinical attention and management. Furthermore, the impaired immune response to COVID-19 vaccination observed in these patients underscores the importance of implementing additional mitigation strategies. This may include targeted prophylaxis and treatment with antivirals and monoclonal antibodies as indicated. To provide practical guidance and considerations, we present two illustrative cases to highlight the real-life challenges faced by physicians caring for patients with HMs, emphasizing the need for individualized management based on disease severity, type, and the unique circumstances of each patient.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Uthaya Kumar A, Ahmad Zan M, Ng CL, et al (2024)

Diabetes and Infectious Diseases with a Focus on Melioidosis.

Current microbiology, 81(7):208.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) leads to impaired innate and adaptive immune responses. This renders individuals with DM highly susceptible to microbial infections such as COVID-19, tuberculosis and melioidosis. Melioidosis is a tropical disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, where diabetes is consistently reported as the most significant risk factor associated with the disease. Type-2 diabetes is observed in 39% of melioidosis patients where the risk of infection is 13-fold higher than non-diabetic individuals. B. pseudomallei is found in the environment and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, often exhibiting severe clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. The pathophysiology of diabetes significantly affects the host immune responses that play a critical role in fighting the infection, such as leukocyte and neutrophil impairment, macrophage and monocyte inhibition and natural killer cell dysfunction. These defects result in delayed recruitment as well as activation of immune cells to target the invading B. pseudomallei. This provides an advantage for the pathogen to survive and adapt within the immunocompromised diabetic patients. Nevertheless, knowledge gaps on diabetes-infectious disease comorbidity, in particular, melioidosis-diabetes comorbidity, need to be filled to fully understand the dysfunctional host immune responses and adaptation of the pathogen under diabetic conditions to guide therapeutic options.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Li Y, Wang K, Liu W, et al (2024)

The potential emerging role of piRNA/PIWI complex in virus infection.

Virus genes [Epub ahead of print].

P-element-induced wimpy testis-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs with about 24-32 nucleotides, often interact with PIWI proteins to form a piRNA/PIWI complex that could influence spermiogenesis, transposon silencing, epigenetic regulation, etc. PIWI proteins have a highly conserved function in a variety of species and are usually expressed in germ cells. However, increasing evidence has revealed the important role of the piRNA/PIWI complex in the occurrence and prognosis of various human diseases and suggests its potential application in the diagnosis and treatment of related diseases, becoming a prominent marker for these human diseases. Recent studies have confirmed that piRNA/PIWI complexes or piRNAs are abnormally expressed in some viral infections, effecting disease progression and viral replication. In this study, we reviewed the association between the piRNA/PIWI complex and several human disease-associated viruses, including human papillomavirus, human immunodeficiency virus, human rhinovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Vasconez Martinez MG, Frauenlob M, M Rothbauer (2024)

An update on microfluidic multi-organ-on-a-chip systems for reproducing drug pharmacokinetics: the current state-of-the-art.

Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Advances in the accessibility of manufacturing technologies and iPSC-based modeling have accelerated the overall progress of organs-on-a-chip. Notably, the progress in multi-organ systems is not progressing with equal speed, indicating that there are still major technological barriers to overcome that may include biological relevance, technological usability as well as overall accessibility.

AREAS COVERED: We here review the progress in the field of multi-tissue- and body-on-a-chip pre and post- SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and review five selected studies with increasingly complex multi-organ chips aiming at pharmacological studies.

EXPERT OPINION: We discuss future and necessary advances in the field of multi-organ chips including how to overcome challenges regarding cell diversity, improved culture conditions, model translatability as well as sensor integrations to enable microsystems to cover organ-organ interactions in not only toxicokinetic but more importantly pharmacodynamic and -kinetic studies.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Zhao WJ, Tan RZ, Gao J, et al (2024)

Research on the global trends of COVID-19 associated acute kidney injury: a bibliometric analysis.

Renal failure, 46(1):2338484.

Critically ill COVID-19 patients may exhibit various clinical symptoms of renal dysfunction including severe Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Currently, there is a lack of bibliometric analyses on COVID-19-related AKI. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the current research status and hot topics regarding COVID-19 AKI. The literature was retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database. Subsequently, we utilized Microsoft Excel, VOSviewer, Citespace, and Pajek software to revealed the current research status, emerging topics, and developmental trends pertaining to COVID-19 AKI. This study encompassed a total of 1507 studies on COVID-19 AKI. The United States, China, and Italy emerged as the leading three countries in terms of publication numbers, contributing 498 (33.05%), 229 (15.20%), and 140 (9.29%) studies, respectively. The three most active and influential institutions include Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan University and Harvard Medical School. Ronco C from Italy, holds the record for the highest number of publications, with a total of 15 papers authored. Cheng YC's work from China has garnered the highest number of citations, totaling 470 citations. The co-occurrence analysis of author keywords reveals that 'mortality', 'intensive care units', 'chronic kidney disease', 'nephrology', 'renal transplantation', 'acute respiratory distress syndrome', and 'risk factors' emerge as the primary areas of focus within the realm of COVID-19 AKI. In summary, this study analyzes the research trends in the field of COVID-19 AKI, providing a reference for further exploration and research on COVID-19 AKI mechanisms and treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Matsuura R, Y Aida (2024)

Purification of living environments using photocatalysts: Inactivation of microorganisms and decomposition of allergens.

The Journal of veterinary medical science, 86(6):689-699.

Many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are prevalent, and the number of patients with allergies is increasing. Therefore, the importance of purifying the living environment is increasing. Photocatalysts undergo extreme redox reactions and decompose organic matter upon exposure to the excitation light. In contrast to ultraviolet light and disinfectants, which are standard methods for inactivating viruses and eliminating microorganisms, photocatalysts can decompose toxic substances, such as endotoxins and allergens, rendering them harmless to the human body. Photocatalysts have attracted significant attention as potential antiviral and antimicrobial agents. This review outlines the antiviral, antimicrobial, and anti-allergenic effects of photocatalysts. Especially, we have discussed the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in liquids and aerosols, elimination of Legionella pneumophila in liquids, decomposition of its endotoxin, decomposition of cat and dog allergens, and elimination of their allergenicity using photocatalysts. Furthermore, we discuss future perspectives on how photocatalysts can purify living environments, and how photocatalytic technology can be applied to companion animals and the livestock industry.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Quecedo Gutierrez L, Alsina E, Del Blanco Narciso B, et al (2024)

Pre-anaesthesia assessment in cataract surgery: Recommendations from the SEDAR Working Group.

Revista espanola de anestesiologia y reanimacion, 71(5):403-411.

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Cataract surgery is one of the most common procedures in outpatient surgery units. The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in clinical practice and the advent of new health scenarios, such as the Covid pandemic, have driven the development of pre-anaesthesia assessment models that free up resources to improve access to cataract surgery without sacrificing patient safety. The approach to cataract surgery varies considerably among public, subsidised and private hospitals. This raises the need for guidelines to standardise patient assessment, pre-operative tests, management of background medication, patient information and informed consent.

RESULTS: In this document, the SEDAR Clinical Management Division together with the Major Outpatient Surgery Division SEDAR Working Group put forward a series of consensus recommendations on pre-anaesthesia testing based on the use of ITCs, health questionnaires, patient information and informed consent supervised and evaluated by an anaesthesiologist.

CONCLUSIONS: This consensus document will effectivise pre-anaesthesia assessment in cataract surgery while maintaining the highest standards of quality, safety and legality.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Castro-Varela A, Martinez-Magallanes DM, Reyes-Chavez MF, et al (2024)

Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation, Therapeutic Trends, and Outcomes in Arterial Thrombosis Complicating Unvaccinated COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review.

Angiology, 75(7):625-634.

Data on characteristics and outcomes of coronavirus (COVID)-19 patients complicated with arterial thrombosis (AT) are scarce. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review (PRISMA, PROSPERO statements; PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to identify risk factors, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes. We included publications from December 2019 to October 2020. Groups: (a) ischemic stroke, (b) thrombotic storm, (c) peripheral vascular thrombosis, (d) myocardial infarction, and (e) left cardiac thrombus or in-transit thrombus (venous system thrombus floating or attaching to the right heart). We considered 131 studies. The most frequent cardiovascular risk factors were: hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. A high proportion presented with asymptomatic, mild, or moderate COVID-19 (n = 91, 41.4%). We identified a high percentage of isolated ischemic stroke and thrombotic storm. Groups with higher mortality rate: intracardiac thrombus (1/2, 50.0%), thrombotic storm (18/49, 36.7%), and ischemic stroke (48/131, 36.6%). A small number received thromboprophylaxis. Most patients received antithrombotic treatment. The most frequent bleeding complication was intracranial hemorrhage, primarily with isolated stroke. Overall mortality was 33.6% (74/220). Despite a wide range of COVID-19 severity, a high proportion had AT as a complication of non-severe disease. AT can affect different vascular territories; mortality is associated with stroke, intensive care unit stay, and severe COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Valadez-Cuen K, Bhatt T, Mendez IE, et al (2024)

E-cigarette Use and Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis.

Cureus, 16(5):e59591.

E-cigarettes have been known to cause varied poor health outcomes prior to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but after the impact of COVID-19, evidence came out that was, in some instances, not as expected regarding the severity of COVID-19 among e-cigarette users (vapers). A meta-analysis was performed on the available evidence to comprehensively find the effect of COVID-19 on existing or past e-cigarette users (vapers). The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were used to perform this meta-analysis. PubMed was searched for observational studies that described outcomes after COVID-19 positivity from December 1, 2019, to December 2023. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords were used for searching the relevant studies highlighting the relationship between COVID-19 and e-cigarette users. Calculations for pooled prevalence, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), weights for current e-cigarette users and vapers, and outcomes (events) were made. To analyze the data, Review Manager V.5.4 was used. The I[2] statistic was used to assess statistical heterogeneity. The I[2] statistic of >50% was considered significant heterogeneity. The "leave-one-out" method was used for sensitivity analysis. Out of 3231 studies, four studies reported data on vaping and non-vaping status and composite outcomes, resulting in a sample size of 653 COVID-19-positive cases. The pooled prevalence of being COVID-19 positive, having symptoms, or visiting an emergency room was 7.78% (653/8392). COVID-19 patients with current vaping status had decreased odds of poor outcomes compared to non-smokers, with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 0.09 (95% CI 0.00-2.42; p>0.05) with heterogeneity between studies (I[2]=99%, p=0.15). Because of difficulties related to data collection and other factors, this meta-analysis was unable to conclusively establish the correlation between e-cigarette usage and severe COVID-19 outcomes such as hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, and fatality. Additional research using more detailed data is necessary to fully understand this correlation.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Dutra LS, N Shigaeff (2024)

Proposed protocol for post COVID-19 cognitive rehabilitation for attention and memory.

Dementia & neuropsychologia, 18:e20230109.

UNLABELLED: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many people suffered from Long Covid Syndrome, in which affected individuals do not recover immediately after the end of the infectious and inflammatory process caused by the virus. The most common neuropsychological symptoms of this syndrome are: memory decline, lack of attention, anxiety and depression.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a proposed cognitive rehabilitation protocol for post-COVID individuals with cognitive symptoms.

METHODS: A rehabilitation proposed protocol focusing on attention and memory was developed, based on the tests used in the neuropsychological evaluation of affected patients. Researchers held weekly sessions for six months, each lasting 60 minutes. Homework activities were also assigned and corrected in the following session. The attention and memory sessions were conducted with activities based on the applied tests.

RESULTS: Despite the methodological separation of attention and memory, the activities indirectly affect other cognitive functions and abilities, such as executive function, language, reasoning, execution strategies, and cognitive flexibility. A computer, a sheet of paper, and a pen were used to present the slides for the activities. Attention training included all types of attention: sustained, alternating, selective and divided. Memory training sessions included activities that stimulated both short-term and long-term memory. With each session, the difficulty of the activities was gradually increased.

CONCLUSION: Cognitive rehabilitation already has more consolidated evidence about its effectiveness for the treatment of other pathologies, so it can be thought that it will also be a promising strategy for COVID-19 too.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Potestio L, Lauletta G, Tommasino N, et al (2024)

Risk Factors for Psoriasis Flares: A Narrative Review.

Psoriasis (Auckland, N.Z.), 14:39-50.

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease with multifactorial pathogenesis involving both genetic and environmental factors as well as the innate and acquired immune response. Several triggering factors may exacerbate or worsen the disease. In this context, we performed a review manuscript with the aim of investigating current literature on psoriasis risk factors, also showing possible mechanisms by which they act on psoriasis. Globally, risk factors can be divided in classic risk factors (eg, mechanical stress, infections and dysbiosis of the skin, common drugs, environment and pollution, lifestyle, psychological stress, hormonal and metabolic alterations) which have long been known to be responsible for worsening and/or reoccurrence of psoriatic manifestations, and emerging risk factors (eg, biological drugs, immunotherapy for oncologic disease, Covid-19, and vaccines) defined as those newly identified risk factors. Accurate patient information and monitoring of risk factors as well as planned follow-ups may help to prevent and treat the worsening of psoriasis and consequently improve the quality of life of psoriatic patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Ankolekar A, Eppings L, Bottari F, et al (2024)

Using artificial intelligence and predictive modelling to enable learning healthcare systems (LHS) for pandemic preparedness.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 24:412-419.

In anticipation of potential future pandemics, we examined the challenges and opportunities presented by the COVID-19 outbreak. This analysis highlights how artificial intelligence (AI) and predictive models can support both patients and clinicians in managing subsequent infectious diseases, and how legislators and policymakers could support these efforts, to bring learning healthcare system (LHS) from guidelines to real-world implementation. This report chronicles the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic, emphasizing the diverse data sets generated throughout its course. We propose strategies for harnessing this data via AI and predictive modelling to enhance the functioning of LHS. The challenges faced by patients and healthcare systems around the world during this unprecedented crisis could have been mitigated with an informed and timely adoption of the three pillars of the LHS: Knowledge, Data and Practice. By harnessing AI and predictive analytics, we can develop tools that not only detect potential pandemic-prone diseases early on but also assist in patient management, provide decision support, offer treatment recommendations, deliver patient outcome triage, predict post-recovery long-term disease impacts, monitor viral mutations and variant emergence, and assess vaccine and treatment efficacy in real-time. A patient-centric approach remains paramount, ensuring patients are both informed and actively involved in disease mitigation strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Rezabakhsh A, Sadaie MR, Ala A, et al (2024)

STING agonists as promising vaccine adjuvants to boost immunogenicity against SARS-related coronavirus derived infection: possible role of autophagy.

Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 22(1):305.

As a major component of innate immunity and a positive regulator of interferons, the Stimulator of interferon gene (STING) has an immunotherapy potential to govern a variety of infectious diseases. Despite the recent advances regarding vaccines against COVID-19, nontoxic novel adjuvants with the potential to enhance vaccine efficacy are urgently desired. In this connection, it has been well-documented that STING agonists are applied to combat COVID-19. This approach is of major significance for boosting immune responses most likely through an autophagy-dependent manner in susceptible individuals against infection induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS‑CoV‑2). Given that STING agonists exert substantial immunomodulatory impacts under a wide array of pathologic conditions, these agents could be considered novel adjuvants for enhancing immunogenicity against the SARS-related coronavirus. Here, we intend to discuss the recent advances in STING agonists' recruitment to boost innate immune responses upon vaccination against SARS-related coronavirus infections. In light of the primordial role of autophagy modulation, the potential of being an antiviral vaccine adjuvant was also explored.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Vallée A (2024)

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the socioeconomic gradient of hypertension.

Journal of public health policy [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought into sharp focus the impact of socioeconomic factors on hypertension outcomes. This review examines the implications of the pandemic on the socioeconomic gradient of hypertension and explores the physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying this relationship. Changes in socioeconomic factors have disproportionately affected individuals with lower socioeconomic status, leading to adverse hypertension outcomes. The pandemic-related stressors, coupled with social isolation and disrupted daily routines, have contributed to elevated stress levels among individuals, particularly those with lower socioeconomic status. Equitable access to healthcare, enhancing health literacy and patient empowerment, and addressing social determinants of health are essential components of hypertension management strategies. By recognizing the specific challenges faced by individuals with lower socioeconomic status and implementing targeted interventions, public health efforts can help reduce the socioeconomic gradient of hypertension.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Bibi A, Bartekova M, Gandhi S, et al (2024)

Circular RNA regulatory role in pathological cardiac remodelling.

British journal of pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

Cardiac remodelling involves structural, cellular and molecular alterations in the heart after injury, resulting in progressive loss of heart function and ultimately leading to heart failure. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a recently rediscovered class of non-coding RNAs that play regulatory roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the role of circRNAs in the processes governing cardiac remodelling may set the ground for the development of circRNA-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In this review, the current knowledge about circRNA origin, conservation, characteristics and function is summarized. Bioinformatics and wet-lab methods used in circRNA research are discussed. The regulatory function of circRNAs in cardiac remodelling mechanisms such as cell death, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, fibrosis and metabolism is highlighted. Finally, key challenges and opportunities in circRNA research are discussed, and orientations for future work to address the pharmacological potential of circRNAs in heart failure are proposed.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Shah R, Loo CE, Hanna NM, et al (2024)

Global review of COVID-19 mitigation strategies and their impact on cancer service disruptions.

Journal of cancer policy, 41:100486 pii:S2213-5383(24)00020-1 [Epub ahead of print].

During the COVID-19 pandemic, countries adopted mitigation strategies to reduce disruptions to cancer services. We reviewed their implementation across health system functions and their impact on cancer diagnosis and care during the pandemic. A systematic search was performed using terms related to cancer and COVID-19. Included studies reported on individuals with cancer or cancer care services, focusing on strategies/programs aimed to reduce delays and disruptions. Extracted data were grouped into four functions (governance, financing, service delivery, and resource generation) and sub-functions of the health system performance assessment framework. We included 30 studies from 16 countries involving 192,233 patients with cancer. Multiple mitigation approaches were implemented, predominantly affecting sub-functions of service delivery to control COVID-19 infection via the suspension of non-urgent cancer care, modified treatment guidelines, and increased telemedicine use in routine cancer care delivery. Resource generation was mainly ensured through adequate workforce supply. However, less emphasis on monitoring or assessing the effectiveness and financing of these strategies was observed. Seventeen studies suggested improved service uptake after mitigation implementation, yet the resulting impact on cancer diagnosis and care has not been established. This review emphasizes the importance of developing effective mitigation strategies across all health system (sub)functions to minimize cancer care service disruptions during crises. Deficiencies were observed in health service delivery (to ensure equity), governance (to monitor and evaluate the implementation of mitigation strategies), and financing. In the wake of future emergencies, implementation research studies that include pre-prepared protocols will be essential to assess mitigation impact across cancer care services.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Alway T, Bastiaenen R, Pantazis A, et al (2024)

The development of inherited cardiac conditions services: current position and future perspectives.

British medical bulletin, 150(1):11-22.

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, inherited cardiac conditions (ICC) centres have emerged with the aim of improving outcomes for patients and their families, through early diagnosis, genetic testing, risk assessment and specialist treatment.

SOURCES OF DATA: A literature search was performed using PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). Commissioned ICC service reviews from NHS England, NHS Improvement and PHG Foundation were evaluated.

AREAS OF AGREEMENT: ICC patient management requires a multi-disciplinary approach. ICC services are predominantly based within tertiary centres. Despite expansion, provision of care remains inadequate to meet rising demands. Access to services is inconsistent, partly due to geographic variation and lack of standardized pathways.

AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: The optimal ICC care model remains undecided, although there is growing interest in 'hub-and-spoke' networks, which could aid secondary and tertiary service integration and repatriation of care.

GROWING POINTS: Genetic mainstreaming is a priority for the Genomic Medicine Service Alliance. The benefits of telehealth and virtual clinics have been validated by their use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Other innovations to improve resource efficiency, such as clinical scientist-led and nurse-led clinics, show promise.

An update for the NHS ICC service specifications is planned that appears well timed given the rapid evolution of the ICC landscape in the decade since last review. This has the potential to address needs including national audit, standardized pathways and ICC networks to improve governance and equity of care. Delegation of commissioning for specialist services to integrated care systems may also provide opportunity for increased regional direction.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

O'Brien CV, D Charura (2023)

Refugees, asylum seekers, and practitioners' perspectives of embodied trauma: A comprehensive scoping review.

Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy, 15(7):1115-1127.

INTRODUCTION: Individuals seeking refuge and asylum commonly present to health care practitioners with embodiment of mental distress resulting from the traumatic nature of their migration experiences. The number of displaced individuals has doubled over the past decade due to the impacts of war, religious and political conflict, climate change, and COVID-19. Studies point towards the need for a comprehensive scoping review to fully explicate the concept of embodied trauma, bridging the gap between phenomenological lived experience and the many treatments available.

OBJECTIVES: To inform psychotherapy guidelines by identifying the evidence for embodied trauma, clarifying key terms, examining how research is conducted, and identifying gaps in the knowledge.

METHOD: A five-stage scoping review protocol was operationalized to explore and analyze the existing literature and associated terminology by (a) identifying the research question, (b) identifying the relevant literature, (c) selecting the studies, (d) charting the data, and (e) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results.

RESULTS: Highlight the need for a clear definition of terms, the development of a culturally informed assessment and formulation for individuals experiencing embodied trauma, and reveal a gap in the research for the best treatment approach(es).

CONCLUSION: Proposal of a clear definition of embodied trauma and key themes for future research including culturally informed care, psychosocial support, language considerations, relational belonging, and inclusion of sexual, spiritual, and existential factors, moving away from purely Westernized diagnoses and treatments towards culturally informed care. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Koiso S, Gulbas E, Dike L, et al (2024)

Modeling approaches to inform travel-related policies for COVID-19 containment: a scoping review and future directions.

Travel medicine and infectious disease pii:S1477-8939(24)00044-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Travel-related strategies to reduce the spread of COVID-19 evolved rapidly in response to changes in the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and newly available tools for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Modeling is an important methodology to investigate the range of outcomes that could occur from different disease containment strategies.

METHODS: We examined 43 articles published from December 2019 through September 2022 that used modeling to evaluate travel-related COVID-19 containment strategies. We extracted and synthesized data regarding study objectives, methods, outcomes, populations, settings, strategies, and costs. We used a standardized approach to evaluate each analysis according to 26 criteria for modeling quality and rigor.

RESULTS: The most frequent approaches included compartmental modeling to examine quarantine, isolation, or testing. Early in the pandemic, the goal was to prevent travel-related COVID-19 cases with a focus on individual-level outcomes and assessing strategies such as travel restrictions, quarantine without testing, social distancing, and on-arrival PCR testing. After the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines, modeling studies projected population-level outcomes and investigated these tools to limit COVID-19 spread. Very few published studies included rapid antigen screening strategies, costs, explicit model calibration, or critical evaluation of the modeling approaches.

CONCLUSION: Future modeling analyses should leverage open-source data, improve the transparency of modeling methods, incorporate newly available prevention, diagnostics, and treatments, and include costs and cost-effectiveness so that modeling analyses can be informative to address future SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and other emerging infectious diseases (e.g., mpox and Ebola) for travel-related health policies.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Gridneva GI, Belov BS, ES Aronova (2024)

[Chronic hepatitis B in rheumatic diseases: issues of screening and reactivation of infection: A review].

Terapevticheskii arkhiv, 96(5):523-530.

Patients with rheumatic diseases infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are difficult to manage not only due to the presence of risk factors for the development and rapid progression of liver cirrhosis, but also due to the likelihood of reactivation of this infection. Despite the successes achieved in the fight against HBV, the virus cannot be completely defeated due to the presence of hidden forms of the disease, escaping the field of vision of a rheumatologist and an infectionist. Based on the results of the analysis of current publications, the paper presents the rationale for a complete immunological screening of patients with rheumatic diseases when prescribing antirheumatic therapy. The issues of the role of COVID-19 in the exacerbation of chronic viral hepatitis B, antiviral prevention and monitoring are discussed, the classification of antirheumatic drugs according to the risk of HBV reactivation is presented.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Julide T, Cigdem T, T Baris (2024)

Cognitive impairment in long-COVID.

Ideggyogyaszati szemle, 77(5-6):151-159.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Long Covid is a complex con&shy;dition characterised by symptoms that per&shy;sist for weeks and months after the Co&shy;vid infection, accompanied by cognitive im&shy;pairment that negatively affects daily life. Understanding this complex condition is im&shy;portant for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of cognitive impairment in long-COVID, including its definition, symptoms, pathophysiology, risk factors, assessment tools, imaging abnormalities, potential biomarkers, management strategies, long-term outcomes, and future directions for research.




.

METHODS:

The search methodology used in this review aimed to include a wide range of research on cognitive impairment related to both COVID-19 and long-COVID. Systematic searches of PubMed and Google Scholar databases were conducted using a mixture of MeSH terms and keywords including ‘cognition’, ‘cognitive impairment’, ‘brain fog’, ‘COVID-19’ and ‘long-COVID’. The search was restricted to studies published in English between 1 January 2019 and 11 February 2024, which presented findings on neurological manifestations in human participants.

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RESULTS:

Long-COVID is characterized by persistent symptoms following COVID-19 infection, with cognitive impairment being a prominent feature. Symptoms include brain fog, difficulties with concentration, memory issues, and executive function deficits. Pa&shy;tho&shy;physiological mechanisms involve vi&shy;ral persistence, immune responses, and vas&shy;cular damage. Risk factors include age, pre-existing conditions, and disease seve&shy;rity. Cognitive assessment tools such as the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) are essential for diagnosis. Imaging studies, including MRI, PET, and SPECT, reveal structural and functional brain alterations. Potential biomarkers include C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and neuron-specific enolase. Management strategies encompass cognitive rehabilitation, occupational therapy, medications, and lifestyle modifications.

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CONCLUSION:

Long-COVID poses a multifaceted challenge, and cognitive impairment significantly impacts patients’ lives. A multi&shy;disciplinary approach, including cognitive rehabilitation and medication when appropriate, is essential for effective management. Future research should focus on validating biomarkers and understanding long-term cognitive outcomes.

Conclusion &ndash; Long-COVID is a global health concern, and cognitive impairment is a distressing symptom. While pharmacological interventions have potential, they require careful consideration. Continued research is crucial for improving the understanding and treatment of cognitive impairment in long-COVID.

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RevDate: 2024-06-03

Dong Y, Wang J, Chen L, et al (2024)

Aptamer-based assembly systems for SARS-CoV-2 detection and therapeutics.

Chemical Society reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Nucleic acid aptamers are oligonucleotide chains with molecular recognition properties. Compared with antibodies, aptamers show advantages given that they are readily produced via chemical synthesis and elicit minimal immunogenicity in biomedicine applications. Notably, aptamer-encoded nucleic acid assemblies further improve the binding affinity of aptamers with the targets due to their multivalent synergistic interactions. Specially, aptamers can be engineered with special topological arrangements in nucleic acid assemblies, which demonstrate spatial and valence matching towards antigens on viruses, thus showing potential in the detection and therapeutic applications of viruses. This review presents the recent progress on the aptamers explored for SARS-CoV-2 detection and infection treatment, wherein applications of aptamer-based assembly systems are introduced in detail. Screening methods and chemical modification strategies for aptamers are comprehensively summarized, and the types of aptamers employed against different target domains of SARS-CoV-2 are illustrated. The evolution of aptamer-based assembly systems for the detection and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the construction principle and characteristics of aptamer-based DNA assemblies are demonstrated. The typically representative works are presented to demonstrate how to assemble aptamers rationally and elaborately for specific applications in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and neutralization. Finally, we provide deep insights into the current challenges and future perspectives towards aptamer-based nucleic acid assemblies for virus detection and neutralization in nanomedicine.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Brailovskaia J (2024)

The "Vicious Circle of addictive Social Media Use and Mental Health" Model.

Acta psychologica, 247:104306.

Social media use (SMU) is a significant part of many people's everyday life. Research around the globe describes an increase of addictive SMU tendencies since the COVID-19 outbreak. The present work combines available findings in the "Vicious Circle of addictive Social Media Use and Mental Health" model to explain how social media (SM) activity can contribute to the development of addictive tendencies, which consequences they have for mental health, and how to prevent them. Following the model, the interplay between the risk factors negative experiences caused by daily hassles and by unexpected global and traumatic events, SMU (dimension "quality"), and SM flow can directly contribute to addictive SMU through the "vicious circle". Time spent on SMU (dimension "quantity"), symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the personality trait narcissism contribute to the circle as moderators. Symptoms of stress, insomnia, and suicide-related outcomes are described as potential consequences of addictive SMU. Based on longitudinal intervention studies, a conscious reduction of SMU time and an increase of physical activity, as well as positive mental health and mindfulness are identified as protective factors that reduce the risk of addictive tendencies. The model contributes to a better understanding of addictive SMU. Implications of the model for future research and praxis, specifically for mental health programs and therapeutic treatment are discussed.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Bowdle A, Brosseau LM, Tellier R, et al (2024)

Reducing airborne transmissible diseases in perioperative environments.

British journal of anaesthesia, 133(1):19-23.

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed our understanding of aerosol transmissible disease and the measures required to minimise transmission. Anaesthesia providers are often in close proximity to patients and other hospital staff for prolonged periods while working in operating and procedure rooms. Although enhanced ventilation provides some protection from aerosol transmissible disease in these work areas, close proximity and long duration of exposure have the opposite effect. Surgical masks provide only minimal additional protection. Surgical patients are also at risk from viral and bacterial aerosols. Despite having recently experienced the most significant pandemic in 100 yr, we continue to lack adequate understanding of the true risks encountered from aerosol transmissible diseases in the operating room, and the best course of action to protect patients and healthcare workers from them in the future. Nevertheless, hospitals can take specific actions now by providing respirators for routine use, encouraging staff to utilise respirators routinely, establishing triggers for situations that require respirator use, educating staff concerning the prevention of aerosol transmissible diseases, and providing portable air purifiers for perioperative spaces with low levels of ventilation.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Takefuji Y (2024)

Exploring the connection between frailty and cardiovascular diseases.

Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 124:105449.

This study explores the significant correlation between frailty and an elevated risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that increased frailty screening could enhance disease management and optimize resource distribution. An analysis of peer-reviewed papers on frailty and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) over a ten-year period reveals a peak of 4480 articles from September 2021 to September 2022. The literature review conducted on frailty and CVD highlights the high prevalence of frailty in older adults with CVD and its role as a predictor of cardiovascular death. The study suggests that frailty can inform treatment decisions, offering more personalized care. However, standardizing frailty assessment in clinical practice and trials is needed. The impact of frailty on coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and atrial fibrillation requires further research. The study also discusses the increasing global burden of CVD among older adults due to aging populations and improved care. It highlights the challenges posed by older age, multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy, frailty, and adverse noncardiovascular outcomes. The review focuses on geriatric conditions that significantly impacted health status, quality of life, and overall prognosis. The study concludes that frailty significantly increases the risk of CVD events and major adverse cardiovascular events in older adults without prior CVD. Screening for frailty could help identify those at higher risk and facilitate targeted preventive measures.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Kaufman MR, Palmer C, Hirner S, et al (2024)

Inequities in COVID-19-Related Patient Outcomes by Socio-Demographic Characteristics: A Scoping Review.

Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 35(2):391-424.

Socio-demographic inequities in health treatment and outcomes are not new. However, the COVID-19 pandemic presented new opportunities to examine and address biases. This article describes a scoping review of 170 papers published prior to the onset of global vaccinations and treatment (December 2021). We report differentiated COVID-19-related patient outcomes for people with various socio-demographic characteristics, including the need for intubation and ventilation, intensive care unit admission, discharge to hospice care, and mortality. Using the PROGRESS-Plus framework, we determined that the most researched socio-demographic factor was race/ethnicity/culture/language. Members of minoritized racial and ethnic groups tended to have worse COVID-19-related patient outcomes; more research is needed about other categories of social disadvantage, given the scarcity of literature on these factors at the time of the review. It is only by researching and addressing the causes of social disadvantage that we can avoid such injustice in future public health crises.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Hu YC, Yang YH, BL Chiang (2024)

Immunoglobulin A vasculitis: The clinical features and pathophysiology.

The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences [Epub ahead of print].

Palpable purpura, gastrointestinal symptoms, joint involvement, and renal disease characterize immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV). Renal involvement ranging from mild proteinuria to severe nephritic or nephrotic syndrome highlights the importance of monitoring kidney function in patients with IgAV. Recognizing these key features is crucial for early diagnosis and appropriate management to prevent long-term complications related to kidney disease. However, the pathogenesis of IgAV remains unclear. Disease mechanisms involve various factors, including the interplay of aberrantly glycosylated IgA, anti-endothelial cell antibodies, and neutrophils following infection triggers, which are the main pathogenic mechanisms of IgAV. Insights from cases of IgAV related to Coronavirus disease 2019 have offered additional understanding of the connection between infection and IgAV pathogenesis. This review provides a valuable resource for healthcare professionals and rheumatology researchers seeking a better understanding of the clinical features and pathophysiology of IgAV.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Yong J, CH Toh (2024)

The convergent model of coagulation.

Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH pii:S1538-7836(24)00297-6 [Epub ahead of print].

It is increasingly apparent that the pathologic interplay between coagulation and innate immunity, ie, immunothrombosis, forms the common basis of many challenges across the boundaries of specialized medicine and cannot be fully explained by the conventional concepts of cascade and cell-based coagulation. To improve our understanding of coagulation, we propose a model of coagulation that converges with inflammation and innate immune activation as a unified response toward vascular injury. Evolutionarily integral to the convergent response are damage-associated molecular patterns, which are released as a consequence of injury. Damage-associated molecular patterns facilitate diverse interactions within and between systems, not only to complement and reinforce cell-based clot formation but also to steer the response toward clot resolution and wound healing. By extending coagulation beyond its current boundaries, the convergent model aims to deliver novel diagnostics and therapeutics for contemporary and unexpected challenges across medicine, as exposed by COVID-19 and vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

de Campos-Rudinsky TC, Bosha SL, Wainstock D, et al (2024)

Decolonising global health: why the new Pandemic Agreement should have included the principle of subsidiarity.

The Lancet. Global health, 12(7):e1200-e1203.

The negotiations for the WHO Pandemic Agreement have brought attention to issues of racism and colonialism in global health. Although the agreement aims to promote global solidarity, it fails to address these deeply embedded problems. This Viewpoint argues that not including the principle of subsidiarity into Article 4 of the agreement as a pragmatic strategy was a missed opportunity to decolonise global health governance and promote global solidarity. Subsidiarity, as a structural principle, empowers local units to make decisions and address issues at their level, fostering collaboration, coordination, and cooperation. By integrating subsidiarity, the agreement could have ensured contextually appropriate responses, empowered local communities, and achieved justice in global health. This paper discusses the elements of subsidiarity-namely, agency and non-abandonment-and highlights the need to strike a balance between them. It also maps the principle of subsidiarity within the Pandemic Agreement, emphasising the importance of creating a practical framework for its implementation. By integrating subsidiarity into the agreement, a just and decolonialised approach to pandemic prevention and response could have been closer to being realised, promoting global solidarity and addressing health inequities.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Pasharawipas T (2024)

Host factors influencing variable symptoms of COVID-19.

Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology, 42(2):97-104.

Similar to many other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causes various symptoms in individuals who have been exposed to the virus. Individuals exposed to the virus can be asymptomatic, mild, severe, and critical for mortality. Most hypotheses explaining the uncertainty of symptoms are based on innate immunity, which is unclear in explaining some issues. For example, 1. uncertain symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2. failure to induce immunity for prevention by vaccines in some individuals, and 3. repeated infections in some individuals. With the ambition of explaining this clearly, this article proposed another perspective to explain the cause of uncertain symptoms in SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. This could be influenced by host factors with a variety of cellular molecules (viral receptors/co-receptors) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms, which are crucial factors in explaining this question. Hopefully, this perspective could encourage further research and pave the way for developing new public health policies to deal with COVID-19 and emergent viral epidemics in the future.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Ciliberti V, Maffei E, Giudice V, et al (2024)

COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy: a review.

Le infezioni in medicina, 32(2):119-130.

Following the introduction of RNA-based vaccines, COVID-19 vaccine-associated clinical lymphadenopathy (C19-LAP) has been reported as a side effect. Moreover, subclinical lymphadenopathy detected on imaging (SLDI) has also been observed, mainly as incidental findings while performing screening tests on oncological patients. In these cases, surgical lymphadenectomy, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and core needle biopsy (CNB) have been used as a valuable diagnostic tool for SLDI and C19-LAP. In this review the clinical, histologic and cytologic features of SLDI and C19-LAP have been investigated. A search for studies that reported on C19-LAP and SLDI histopathology and cytopathology was performed on PubMed and Google Scholar, on 11 January 2023. Thirty-one reports on SLDI and C19-LAP were retrieved and included in a pooled analysis. In total, we included 54 patients with a median age of 47 years. In our research, surgical excision, CNB and/or FNAC of C19-LAP or SLDI enlarged lymph nodes have been performed in 54 cases. Of all cases, only two metastases were diagnosed and one case was diagnosed as reactive hyperplasia with atypical follicles. The remaining cases were reactive lymphadenopathy (28 cases), follicular hyperplasia (13 cases), Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (6 cases), granulomatous lymphadenitis (2 cases), eosinophilic lymph node abscesses (1 case), Langherans cell histiocytosis (1 case), Rosai-Dorfman disease (1 case). SLDI and C19-LAP have represented a diagnostic dilemma, especially in oncologic patients. The role of different diagnostic tools for SLDI and C19-LAP has been discussed.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Adeiza SS, I Aminul (2024)

Meta-meta-analysis of the mortality risk associated with MRSA compared to MSSA bacteraemia.

Le infezioni in medicina, 32(2):131-137.

Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a bloodstream infection that carries a high risk of exacerbating a diseased state and may result in an increased death rate. The aim of this study was to assess mortality risk in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia compared to Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia through meta-meta-analyses. The study followed PRISMA guidelines, conducting a comprehensive search in Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. It included full-text systematic reviews and meta-analyses comparing MRSA vs. MSSA bacteraemia, excluding reviews without data pooling and unclear selection criteria. Validity was assessed using QUOROM and AMSTAR. Edwards' Venn diagrams were used to visualized overlaps between primary studies. Aggregated odds ratio (OR) and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the random-effect model. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Higgins I2 statistic. The study included 3 meta-analysis studies, a total of 38,159 patients, with 9,056 having MRSA bacteraemia and 29,103 having MSSA bacteraemia. Data were collected from 46 different outcome studies published between 2001 and 2022. The meta-analyses used 7 to 33 primary studies from 1990 to 2020, with no overlap. Odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.78 to 2.92, while relative risks (RR) ranged from 1.57 to 2.37 for the included meta-anlysis. The pooled analysis confirmed a higher risk of mortality in patients with MRSA bacteraemia (OR: 2.35, RR: 2.01, HR: 1.61) compared to MSSA bacteraemia. Heterogeneity among the studies was considerable (I2: 90-91%). The study strongly supports that most patient deaths from SAB are linked to MRSA rather than MSSA. This highlights the significant public health problem posed by SAB, with difficult and often unsuccessful treatment leading to increased mortality and high healthcare costs.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

De Greve H, A Fioravanti (2024)

Single domain antibodies from camelids in the treatment of microbial infections.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1334829.

Infectious diseases continue to pose significant global health challenges. In addition to the enduring burdens of ailments like malaria and HIV, the emergence of nosocomial outbreaks driven by antibiotic-resistant pathogens underscores the ongoing threats. Furthermore, recent infectious disease crises, exemplified by the Ebola and SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, have intensified the pursuit of more effective and efficient diagnostic and therapeutic solutions. Among the promising options, antibodies have garnered significant attention due to their favorable structural characteristics and versatile applications. Notably, nanobodies (Nbs), the smallest functional single-domain antibodies of heavy-chain only antibodies produced by camelids, exhibit remarkable capabilities in stable antigen binding. They offer unique advantages such as ease of expression and modification and enhanced stability, as well as improved hydrophilicity compared to conventional antibody fragments (antigen-binding fragments (Fab) or single-chain variable fragments (scFv)) that can aggregate due to their low solubility. Nanobodies directly target antigen epitopes or can be engineered into multivalent Nbs and Nb-fusion proteins, expanding their therapeutic potential. This review is dedicated to charting the progress in Nb research, particularly those derived from camelids, and highlighting their diverse applications in treating infectious diseases, spanning both human and animal contexts.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Krishna S, Kurrey C, Yadav M, et al (2024)

Insights into the emergence and evolution of monkeypox virus: Historical perspectives, epidemiology, genetic diversity, transmission, and preventative measures.

Infectious medicine, 3(2):100105.

In 2022, just before the COVID-19 pandemic ended, many countries noticed a viral monkeypox outbreak. Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic pathogen, causes a febrile illness in humans and resembles smallpox. Prevention strategies encompass vaccination, strict infection control measures, and avoiding contact with infected persons. As monkeypox and related poxviruses continue to pose challenges, ongoing surveillance, early diagnosis, prompt isolation, and effective control measures are crucial for limiting transmission and mitigating the impact of outbreaks on public health. This review provides valuable insights into the evolution of the monkeypox virus and its various modes of transmission, including postmortem transmission, and offers an overall perspective on the guidelines issued by the Government of India to prevent and effectively control the spread of this disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Ming A, Zhao J, Liu Y, et al (2024)

O-glycosylation in viruses: A sweet tango.

mLife, 3(1):57-73.

O-glycosylation is an ancient yet underappreciated protein posttranslational modification, on which many bacteria and viruses heavily rely to perform critical biological functions involved in numerous infectious diseases or even cancer. But due to the innate complexity of O-glycosylation, research techniques have been limited to study its exact role in viral attachment and entry, assembly and exit, spreading in the host cells, and the innate and adaptive immunity of the host. Recently, the advent of many newly developed methodologies (e.g., mass spectrometry, chemical biology tools, and molecular dynamics simulations) has renewed and rekindled the interest in viral-related O-glycosylation in both viral proteins and host cells, which is further fueled by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we summarize recent advances in viral-related O-glycosylation, with a particular emphasis on the mucin-type O-linked α-N-acetylgalactosamine (O-GalNAc) on viral proteins and the intracellular O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modifications on host proteins. We hope to provide valuable insights into the development of antiviral reagents or vaccines for better prevention or treatment of infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Montes de Oca-B P (2021)

Evidence of mitochondria origin of SARS-CoV-2 double-membrane vesicles: a review.

F1000Research, 10:1009.

Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that has infected in a year more than 200 million people and has killed almost 4.5 million people worldwide. This infection affects mainly certain groups of people that have high susceptibility to present severe COVID-19 due to comorbidities. Moreover, the long-COVID-19 comprises a series of symptoms that may remain in some patients for months after infection that further compromises health of individuals. Therefore, this pandemic poses a serious emergency worldwide. Thus, since this pandemic is profoundly affecting economic and social life of societies, a deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection cycle could help to envisage novel therapeutic alternatives that limit or stop COVID-19. Several recent findings have unexpectedly found that mitochondria play a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 cell infection. Indeed, it has been suggested that this organelle could be the origin of its replication niches, the double membrane vesicles (DMV), as its been observed with another virus. In this regard, mitochondria derived vesicles (MDV), involved in mitochondria quality control, were discovered more than 10 years ago and interestingly there is a population characterized by a double membrane. MDV shedding is induced by mitochondrial stress and it has a fast assembly dynamic, reason that perhaps has precluded their identification in electron microscopy or tomography studies. These and other features of MDV together with recent SARS-CoV-2 protein interactome with the host and other findings linking SARS-CoV-2 to mitochondria, support that these vesicles are the precursors of SARS-CoV-2 induced DMV. In this work, the celular, molecular, phenotypical and biochemical evidence that supports this hypothesis is reviewed and integrated into the current model of SARS-CoV-2 cell infection. In this scheme, some relevant questions are raised as pending topics for research that would help in the near future to test this hypothesis. The intention (abstract truncated).

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Chen S, C Cheng (2024)

Unveiling Coronasomnia: Pandemic Stress and Sleep Problems During the COVID-19 Outbreak.

Nature and science of sleep, 16:543-553.

The COVID-19 pandemic posed an unprecedented challenge to public well-being, necessitating an examination of its health impact. This review discusses the relationship between pandemic-induced stressors and individual sleep patterns and quality. The pandemic stressors include lockdown or physical distancing measures, direct virus exposure, and the dissemination of misinformation and disinformation. The pandemic led to delayed sleep-wake cycles, except for healthcare professionals, and worsened sleep quality. The prevalence of insomnia was higher for women due to pre-existing conditions and susceptibility stressors such as lockdown stress and family responsibilities. Healthcare professionals, who experienced worsened work conditions during the pandemic, reported higher rates of insomnia and sleep difficulties due to infection anxiety and post-traumatic stress from direct virus exposure. For the general population, stress stemmed from social isolation under lockdown and overwhelming false information available online, resulting in sleep problems. Taken together, the findings highlight the importance of promoting social interactions, providing psychological support services, and caution in navigating health information. In summary, this review underscores the need for individual- and group-centered approaches in ongoing research and interventions to address pandemic-related stress and sleep issues during COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Thilakasiri K, Wijegunawardana PKI, de Silva S, et al (2024)

"1990 Suwa Seriya" the national pre-hospital care ambulance service of Sri Lanka; a narrative review describing the EMS system with special emphasis on Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) in Sri Lanka.

Resuscitation plus, 19:100649.

BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka is a leading nation in healthcare provision in the South Asia. Notably, it recorded amongst the lowest maternal and neonatal mortality rates in the region. However a significant deficit in improving all-cause mortality rates was the absence of a cohesive system of pre-hospital care.

METHOD: This narrative review delves into the evolution of Sri Lanka's Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system over the past decade. It examines the historical context, challenges encountered, and the transformative role of the "1990 Suwa Seriya" ambulance service on all causes of morbidity and mortality rates including out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

RESULTS: The review elucidates the path from no organised pre-hospital system in 2015 to a comprehensive free to public, pre-hospital care emergency ambulance service that effectively serves 22 million people nationa-wide in 6 short years. Collaborations with emergency medicine, novel approaches to training and credentialing, as well as evolving research initiatives illustrate an approach to be emulated in countries with emerging pre-hospital systems. 1990 Suwa Seriya's response during the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications on public perception are discussed in conjunction with efforts to limit morbidity and mortality from OHCA.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the article underscores 1990 Suwa Seriya's dedication to continuous improvement and its potential as a model for bolstering emergency healthcare. By addressing challenges, fostering collaborations, and adapting to crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, 1990 Suwa Seriya exemplifies a pathway towards elevating pre-hospital care standards in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs).

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Nagahawatta DP, Liyanage NM, Jayawardena TU, et al (2024)

Role of marine natural products in the development of antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2: potential and prospects.

Marine life science & technology, 6(2):280-297.

UNLABELLED: A novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has surfaced and caused global concern owing to its ferocity. SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019; however, it was only discovered at the end of the year and was considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Therefore, the development of novel potent inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and future outbreaks is urgently required. Numerous naturally occurring bioactive substances have been studied in the clinical setting for diverse disorders. The intricate infection and replication mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 offers diverse therapeutic drug targets for developing antiviral medicines by employing natural products that are safer than synthetic compounds. Marine natural products (MNPs) have received increased attention in the development of novel drugs owing to their high diversity and availability. Therefore, this review article investigates the infection and replication mechanisms, including the function of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and structure. Furthermore, we highlighted anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic intervention efforts utilizing MNPs and predicted SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor design.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42995-023-00215-9.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Prusinski C, Yan D, Klasova J, et al (2024)

Multidisciplinary Management Strategies for Long COVID: A Narrative Review.

Cureus, 16(5):e59478.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of infections to date and has led to a worldwide pandemic. Most patients had a complete recovery from the acute infection, however, a large number of the affected individuals experienced symptoms that persisted more than 3 months after diagnosis. These symptoms most commonly include fatigue, memory difficulties, brain fog, dyspnea, cough, and other less common ones such as headache, chest pain, paresthesias, mood changes, muscle pain, and weakness, skin rashes, and cardiac, endocrine, renal and hepatic manifestations. The treatment of this syndrome remains challenging. A multidisciplinary approach to address combinations of symptoms affecting multiple organ systems has been widely adopted. This narrative review aims to bridge the gap surrounding the broad treatment approaches by providing an overview of multidisciplinary management strategies for the most common long COVID conditions.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Hamouda NI, Amin AM, Hasan MT, et al (2024)

Persistence of COVID-19 Human Milk Antibodies After Maternal COVID-19 Vaccination: Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis.

Cureus, 16(5):e59500.

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), WHO, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend vaccination of pregnant and lactating women, aiming to protect both mothers and their infants through transplacental and human milk antibody transmission. This study aims to assess the quantity of antibodies in human milk and determine the effect of time, vaccine type, and dose on antibody level. Single-arm prospective observational studies reporting the COVID-19-specific antibody level in human milk after COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy or lactation were included. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, EBSCO, and Web of Science were searched from December 2019 to November 22, 2022. Data were extracted in a uniform Google sheet. A total of 2657 studies were identified. After the removal of duplicates and screening, 24 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-regression. Human milk COVID-19-specific antibody levels increased with subsequent vaccine doses, as reflected by a positive relationship for the second (coefficient=0.91, P-value 0.043 for IgA and coefficient=1.77, P-value 0.009 for IgG) and third (coefficient=1.23, P-value 0.0029 for IgA and coefficient=3.73, P-value 0.0068 for IgG) doses. The antibody level exhibited a weak positive relationship with the follow-up time (coefficient=0.13, P-value 0.0029 for IgA and coefficient=0.18, P-value 0.016 for IgG). Only one of the 38 infants showed detectable COVID-19 IgM and IgA antibody levels in their blood. There was an increase in the neutralizing activity of COVID-19 antibodies in human milk following the COVID-19 vaccination. From the analysis of published data, we found high positive levels of antibodies in human milk that increased with subsequent doses. Additionally, the human milk antibodies exhibit a positive neutralizing effect. Only one infant had detectable COVID-19 IgM+IgA antibodies in the blood. Further research is needed to discuss infant protection through a mother's vaccination.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Kandaswamy E (2024)

Areas of Interest in Dental Education: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Last Decade.

Cureus, 16(5):e59589.

This study aimed to perform a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of journals focused on dental education (Journal of Dental Education and European Journal of Dental Education) from 2014 to 2023. An ISI Web of Science Search was performed in October 2023 with no filters for language or keywords. Published articles between 2014 and 2018, 2019 and 2023, and 2014-2023, along with the top 100 cited articles published within this period were exported as txt files. Keyword and title word network maps and occurrences were generated using VOS Viewer software. Author-affiliated countries with the most publications were tabulated from the Web of Science. Dental education and dental students and education were consistently in the top six keywords and title word occurrences in all periods and top 100 cited articles. Similar trends were observed for keyword and title word network maps with an emphasis on dental education and students. However, the 2019-2023 period saw the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019, three-dimensional printing, virtual reality, and education technology, with the earlier period (2014-2018) showing clusters around students, perceptions, dental hygiene education, and assessment. The United States ranked top of the list for most published author-affiliated countries, with England, Canada, Australia, and Saudi Arabia in the top six for all periods analyzed. In conclusion, within the limitations of this study, areas of interest in dental education journals in the last decade were identified along with the countries with most publications.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Köntös Z (2024)

Lessons should be learned: Why did we not learn from the Spanish flu?.

SAGE open medicine, 12:20503121241256820.

COVID-19 has become a global pandemic that has affected millions of people worldwide. The disease is caused by the novel coronavirus that was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The virus is highly contagious and can spread from person to person through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes. The symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and in severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, pneumonia, and death. The Spanish flu, caused by the H1N1 influenza virus, and the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are two of the most significant global health crises in history. While these two pandemics occurred almost a century apart and are caused by different types of viruses, there are notable similarities in their impact, transmission, and public health responses. Here are some key similarities between the Spanish flu and SARS-CoV-2. The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919 stands as one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, claiming the lives of an estimated 50 million people worldwide. Its impact reverberated across continents, leaving behind a legacy of devastation and lessons that, unfortunately, seem to have been forgotten or ignored over time. Despite the advancements in science, medicine, and public health in the intervening century, humanity found itself facing a strikingly similar situation with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, amidst the search for effective measures to combat COVID-19, novel approaches such as iodine complexes, such as Iodine-V has emerged as potential interventions, reflecting the ongoing quest for innovative solutions to mitigate the impact of pandemics. This raises the poignant question: why did we not learn from the Spanish flu?

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Morgan J, G M Breau (2024)

Access to maternal health services for Indigenous women in low- and middle-income countries: an updated integrative review of the literature from 2018 to 2023.

Rural and remote health, 24(2):8520.

INTRODUCTION: Ninety-seven per cent of Indigenous Peoples live in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). A previous systematic integrative review of articles published between 2000 and 2017 identified numerous barriers for Indigenous women in LMICs in accessing maternal healthcare services. It is timely given the aim of achieving Universal Health Coverage in six years' time, by 2030, to undertake another review. This article updates the previous review exploring the recent available literature on Indigenous women's access to maternal health services in LMICs identifying barriers to services.

METHODS: An integrative review of literature published between 2018 and 2023 was undertaken. This review followed a systematic process using Whittemore and Knafl's five-step framework for integrative reviews and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 944 articles were identified from six databases: Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, APA PsycInfo, CINAHL Plus with Full Text and APA PsycArticles (through EBSCOhost). The search was undertaken on 16 January 2023. After screening of the title/abstract and the full text using inclusion and exclusion criteria 26 articles were identified. Critical appraisal resulted in 24 articles being included in the review. Data were extracted using a matrix informed by Penchansky and Thomas's taxonomy, extended by Saurman, which focused on six dimensions of access to health care: affordability, accessibility, availability, accommodation, acceptability and awareness. Ten studies took place in Asia, 10 studies were from the Americas and four studies took place in the African region. Seventeen articles were qualitative, two were quantitative and five were mixed methods. The methods for the integrative review were prespecified in a protocol, registered at Open Science Framework.

RESULTS: Barriers identified included affordability; community awareness of services including poor communication between providers and women; the availability of services, with staff often missing from the facilities; poor quality services, which did not consider the cultural and spiritual needs of Indigenous Peoples; an overreliance on the biomedical model; a lack of facilities to enable appropriate maternal care; services that did not accommodate the everyday needs of women, including work and family responsibilities; lack of understanding of Indigenous cultures from health professionals; and evidence of obstetric violence and mistreatment of Indigenous women.

CONCLUSION: Barriers to Indigenous women's access to maternal health services are underpinned by the social exclusion and marginalisation of Indigenous Peoples. Empowerment of Indigenous women and communities in LMICs is required as well as initiatives to challenge the stigmatisation and marginalisation that they face. The importance of community involvement in design and interventions that support the political and human rights of Indigenous Peoples are required. Limitations of this review include the possibility of missing articles as it was sometimes unclear from the articles whether a particular group was from an Indigenous community. More research on access to services in the postnatal period is still needed, as well as quality quantitative research. There is also a lack of research on Indigenous groups in North Africa, and in sub-Saharan Africa - especially hunter-gatherer groups - as well as the impact of COVID-19 on access to services.

RevDate: 2024-06-05
CmpDate: 2024-06-02

Cao LM, Yu YF, Li ZZ, et al (2024)

Adjuvants for cancer mRNA vaccines in the era of nanotechnology: strategies, applications, and future directions.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 22(1):308.

Research into mRNA vaccines is advancing rapidly, with proven efficacy against coronavirus disease 2019 and promising therapeutic potential against a variety of solid tumors. Adjuvants, critical components of mRNA vaccines, significantly enhance vaccine effectiveness and are integral to numerous mRNA vaccine formulations. However, the development and selection of adjuvant platforms are still in their nascent stages, and the mechanisms of many adjuvants remain poorly understood. Additionally, the immunostimulatory capabilities of certain novel drug delivery systems (DDS) challenge the traditional definition of adjuvants, suggesting that a revision of this concept is necessary. This review offers a comprehensive exploration of the mechanisms and applications of adjuvants and self-adjuvant DDS. It thoroughly addresses existing issues mentioned above and details three main challenges of immune-related adverse event, unclear mechanisms, and unsatisfactory outcomes in old age group in the design and practical application of cancer mRNA vaccine adjuvants. Ultimately, this review proposes three optimization strategies which consists of exploring the mechanisms of adjuvant, optimizing DDS, and improving route of administration to improve effectiveness and application of adjuvants and self-adjuvant DDS.

RevDate: 2024-06-02
CmpDate: 2024-06-02

Yamada K, H Kakeya (2024)

Status and Challenge of Antifungal Stewardship at the Osaka Metropolitan University Hospital.

Medical mycology journal, 65(2):33-38.

Antifungal stewardship (AFS), compared with antimicrobial stewardship (AS), requires more advanced knowledge, skills, and multidisciplinary collaboration in its implementation. Therefore, fewer facilities are performing AFS compared with AS. At our hospital, we started AS and AFS in 2014. Our AFS programs include the following: i) interventions for patients with yeast-positive blood cultures, ii) introduction of a conditional antifungal notification system, and iii) commencement of AS team rounds. AFS for filamentous fungi includes bronchoscopy and microbial identification, including genetic and drug susceptibility testing. These AFS activities have improved several processes and outcome measures. However, our AFS team has faced several problems owing to the impact of COVID-19. This review introduces the practice of AFS, which we initiated at our hospital in 2014, and presents the current problems.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Ceasovschih A, Mantzouranis E, Dimitriadis K, et al (2024)

Coronary artery thromboembolism as a cause of myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA).

Hellenic journal of cardiology : HJC = Hellenike kardiologike epitheorese pii:S1109-9666(24)00105-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) usually represents the clinical manifestation of atherothrombotic coronary artery disease (CAD) resulting from atherosclerotic plaque rupture. However, there are cases in which coronary angiography or coronary computed tomography angiography reveals patients with acute coronary syndrome with non-obstructive CAD. This clinical entity is defined as myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and often is considered as a clinical dynamic working diagnosis, that needs further investigations for the establishment of a final etiological diagnosis. The main causes of a MINOCA working diagnosis include atherosclerotic, non-atherosclerotic (vessel-related and non-vessel related) and thromboembolic causes This literature review is aimed at investigating the major thromboembolic causes in patients presenting with MINOCA in regards of their etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, as well as diagnostic and treatment methods.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Chaqroun A, Bertrand I, Wurtzer S, et al (2024)

Assessing infectivity of emerging enveloped viruses in wastewater and sewage sludge: Relevance and procedures.

The Science of the total environment, 943:173648 pii:S0048-9697(24)03795-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has heightened the need to evaluate the detection of enveloped viruses in the environment, particularly in wastewater, within the context of wastewater-based epidemiology. The studies published over the past 80 years focused primarily on non-enveloped viruses due to their ability to survive longer in environmental matrices such as wastewater or sludge compared to enveloped viruses. However, different enveloped viruses survive in the environment for different lengths of time. Therefore, it is crucial to be prepared to assess the potential infectious risk that may arise from future emerging enveloped viruses. This will require appropriate tools, notably suitable viral concentration methods that do not compromise virus infectivity. This review has a dual purpose: first, to gather all the available literature on the survival of infectious enveloped viruses, specifically at different pH and temperature conditions, and in contact with detergents; second, to select suitable concentration methods for evaluating the infectivity of these viruses in wastewater and sludge. The methodology used in this data collection review followed the systematic approach outlined in the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. Concentration methods cited in the data gathered are more tailored towards detecting the enveloped viruses' genome. There is a lack of suitable methods for detecting infectious enveloped viruses in wastewater and sludge. Ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation, and polyethylene glycol precipitation methods, under specific/defined conditions, appear to be relevant approaches. Further studies are necessary to validate reliable concentration methods for detecting infectious enveloped viruses. The choice of culture system is also crucial for detection sensitivity. The data also show that the survival of infectious enveloped viruses, though lower than that of non-enveloped ones, may enable environmental transmission. Experimental data on a wide range of enveloped viruses is required due to the variability in virus persistence in the environment.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Van Loy B, Stevaert A, L Naesens (2024)

The coronavirus nsp15 endoribonuclease: A puzzling protein and pertinent antiviral drug target.

Antiviral research, 228:105921 pii:S0166-3542(24)00130-X [Epub ahead of print].

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has bolstered unprecedented research efforts to better understand the pathogenesis of coronavirus (CoV) infections and develop effective therapeutics. We here focus on non-structural protein nsp15, a hexameric component of the viral replication-transcription complex (RTC). Nsp15 possesses uridine-specific endoribonuclease (EndoU) activity for which some specific cleavage sites were recently identified in viral RNA. By preventing accumulation of viral dsRNA, EndoU helps the virus to evade RNA sensors of the innate immune response. The immune-evading property of nsp15 was firmly established in several CoV animal models and makes it a pertinent target for antiviral therapy. The search for nsp15 inhibitors typically proceeds via compound screenings and is aided by the rapidly evolving insight in the protein structure of nsp15. In this overview, we broadly cover this fascinating protein, starting with its structure, biochemical properties and functions in CoV immune evasion. Next, we summarize the reported studies in which compound screening or a more rational method was used to identify suitable leads for nsp15 inhibitor development. In this way, we hope to raise awareness on the relevance and druggability of this unique CoV protein.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Willing L, J Schreiber (2024)

Using Advocacy to Address the Crisis of Children's Mental Health.

Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3):319-330.

Children and youth in the United States are experiencing a mental health crisis that predates the COVID-19 pandemic. Child and adolescent psychiatrists have the knowledge and skillset to advocate for improving the pediatric mental health care system at the local, state, and federal levels. Child psychiatrists can use their knowledge and expertise to advocate legislatively or through regulatory advocacy to improve access to mental health care for youth. Further, including advocacy education in psychiatry and child psychiatry graduate medical education would help empower child psychiatrists to make an impact through their advocacy efforts.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Khan S (2024)

Interleukin 6 Antagonists in Severe COVID-19 Disease: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Outcomes.

Protein and peptide letters, 31(3):178-191.

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of interleukin 6 [IL-6] have been utilized to treat severe COVID-19 disease. Their immunosuppressive or immunomodulating impact may be beneficial in COVID-19.

OBJECTIVES: To discuss the role of IL-6 inhibitors and assess various trials conducted to evaluate the efficacy of IL-6 inhibitors in COVID-19 disease.

SUMMARY: Two of the most common causes of mortality in COVID-19-infected critically ill individuals are acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. Increased levels of inflammatory cytokines suggest that a cytokine storm, also known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS), is involved in the etiology of COVID-19. Most tissue damage, sepsis, and pulmonary and cardiovascular problems are caused mainly by the host defense system. Therefore, regulating this inflammatory cascade using immunomodulators is a prudent strategy. Although corticosteroids, as immunomodulators, are routinely used in COVID-19 management, interleukin (IL) inhibitors, especially IL-6 inhibitors, are also tested in many trials. Many studies have demonstrated that IL-6 inhibitors improve disease outcomes and decrease mortality, whereas others have shown that they are ineffective. In this paper, we briefly examined the role of IL-6 in COVID-19 pathogenesis and trials that support or refute the use of IL-6 inhibitors in treating COVID-19 disease.

RESULTS: Though mixed results are coming from trials regarding the adjuvant use of IL-6 inhibitors and standard anti-viral therapy with dexamethasone, a consensus favors using IL-6 inhibitors in severely ill COVID-19 patients regardless of the outcome.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Zendedel E, Tayebi L, Nikbakht M, et al (2024)

Clinical Trials of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of COVID 19.

Current stem cell research & therapy, 19(8):1055-1071.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are being investigated as a treatment for a novel viral disease owing to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, tissue repair and regeneration characteristics, however, the exact processes are unknown. MSC therapy was found to be effective in lowering immune system overactivation and increasing endogenous healing after SARS-CoV-2 infection by improving the pulmonary microenvironment. Many studies on mesenchymal stem cells have been undertaken concurrently, and we may help speed up the effectiveness of these studies by collecting and statistically analyzing data from them. Based on clinical trial information found on clinicaltrials. gov and on 16 November 2020, which includes 63 clinical trials in the field of patient treatment with COVID-19 using MSCs, according to the trend of increasing studies in this field, and with the help of meta-analysis studies, it is possible to hope that the promise of MSCs will one day be realized. The potential therapeutic applications of MSCs for COVID-19 are investigated in this study.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

de Lima WD, da Silva MD, de Souza Costa E, et al (2024)

Abusive use of Zolpidem as a Result of COVID-19 and Perspectives of Continuity of the Problem in the Post-Pandemic Period.

Current neuropharmacology, 22(10):1578-1582.

Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug that works as a positive modulator of Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid-A (GABA-A) receptors, with high selectivity for α1 subunits. Given this selective binding, the drug has a strong hypnotic activity. Social isolation during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has contributed to increased rates of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. As a result, studies have pointed to a possible increase in the indiscriminate use of drugs with sedative effects, such as Zolpidem, during the pandemic. The aim of this work was to present prospective evidence that warns of the possibility of the abusive use of Zolpidem even after the pandemic. High rates of addiction to this drug have been reported around the world after the emergence of the coronavirus. Data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and from Medicaid support the continuing growth in prescription and indiscriminate use of Zolpidem during the pandemic and afterward. Therefore, there is enough evidence to support the indiscriminate use of this drug since the beginning of the pandemic. Rates of indiscriminate use of sedatives may continue to increase in the post-pandemic period, especially if strict control measures are not taken by health authorities.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Benton TD, Beers L, Carlson G, et al (2024)

The Declaration of the National Emergency in Child and Adolescent Mental Health: It Takes a Village.

Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 33(3):277-291.

Recognition of the high prevalence of children's mental health conditions and challenges to accessing needed care faced by children and their families have been long-standing concerns, emerging well before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Global data examining the prevalence of at least one mental health and/or substance-use disorder for 2516 million people aged 5 to 24 years in 2019 found that at least 293 million people were affected by at least one mental health disorder and 31 million affected by a substance-use disorder.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Storer B, Holden M, Kershaw KA, et al (2024)

The prevalence of anxiety in respiratory and sleep diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Respiratory medicine, 230:107677 pii:S0954-6111(24)00151-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Anxiety is common in those with chronic physical health conditions and can have significant impacts on both quality of life and physical health outcomes. Despite this, there are limited studies comprehensively investigating the prevalence of anxiety in respiratory and sleep medicine settings. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to provide insight into the global prevalence of anxiety symptoms/disorders in respiratory and sleep medicine outpatients.

METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched from database inception to January 23, 2023 for studies assessing the prevalence of anxiety in adult (≥16 years) respiratory and sleep medicine outpatients. Data was screened and extracted independently by two investigators. Anxiety was measured using various self-report questionnaires, structured interviews, and/or patient records. Using CMA software for the meta-analysis, a random-effects model was used for pooled estimates, and subgroup analysis was conducted on relevant models using a mixed-effects model.

RESULTS: 116 studies were included, featuring 36,340 participants across 40 countries. The pooled prevalence of anxiety was 30.3 % (95%CI 27.9-32.9 %, 10,679/36,340). Subgroup analysis found a significant difference across type of condition, with pulmonary tuberculosis the highest at 43.1 % and COVID-19 outpatients the lowest at 23.4 %. No significant difference was found across anxiety types, country or age. Female sex and the use of self-report measures was associated with significantly higher anxiety estimates.

CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety is a common experience amongst patients in respiratory and sleep medicine outpatient settings. Thus, it is crucial that anxiety identification and management is considered by physicians in the field.

REGISTRATION: The protocol is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021282416).

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Ghadimi M, Siemieniuk RAC, Guyatt G, et al (2024)

The effects of empiric antibiotic regimens in adults with non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(24)00254-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The optimal empiric antibiotic regimen for non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is uncertain.

OBJECTIVES: To compare alternative empiric antibiotic regimens in HAP using a network meta-analysis (NMA).

METHODS: Data sources: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, and CINAHL from database inception to July 06, 2023.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCT).

PARTICIPANTS: Adults with clinical suspicion of HAP.

INTERVENTION: Any empiric antibiotic regimen versus another, placebo, or no treatment.

ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF BIAS: Paired reviewers independently assessed risk of bias using a modified Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials.

METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS: Paired reviewers independently extracted data on trial and patient characteristics, antibiotic regimens, and outcomes of interest. We conducted frequentist random-effects NMAs for treatment failure and all-cause mortality and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

RESULTS: 39 trials proved eligible. 30 RCTs involving 4,807 participants found low certainty evidence that piperacillin-tazobactam (RR compared to all cephalosporins: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.01) and carbapenems (RR compared to all cephalosporins: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.11) might be among the most effective in reducing treatment failure. The findings were robust to the secondary analysis comparing piperacillin-tazobactam vs antipseudomonal cephalosporins or antipseudomonal carbapenems vs antipseudomonal cephalosporins. 11 RCTs involving 2,531 participants found low certainty evidence that ceftazidime and linezolid combination may not be convincingly different from cephalosporin alone in reducing all-cause mortality. Evidence on other antibiotic regimens is very uncertain. Data on other patient-important outcomes including adverse events was sparse, and we did not perform network or pairwise meta-analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: For empiric antibiotic therapy of adults with HAP, piperacillin-tazobactam might be among the most effective in reducing treatment failure in HAP. Empiric MRSA coverage may not exert additional benefit in reducing mortality in HAP.

REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD 42022297224).

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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