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Bibliography on: covid-19

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Jan 2022 at 01:32 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") AND review[SB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-01-20

Shelef L, Schiff M, Pat-Horenczyk R, et al (2022)

COVID-19 vs. terrorism: Contribution of the COR theory to the process of coping with invisible threats.

Journal of psychiatric research, 147:176-182 pii:S0022-3956(22)00023-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Two years have passed since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The entire world is still struggling with the virus and its mutations, and governments have been imposing various restrictions, including social distancing and quarantine. This paper leans on the Conservation of Resources (COR) theoretical model in comparing the impact of COVID-19 with that of an ongoing threat of terror attacks, allowing us to understand the similarities and differences between them. Such exploration could result in an understanding that may guide devising psycho-social interventions to minimize the negative psychological consequences of a continuous life-threatening situation. By applying the extensive available literature on the aftermath of terrorist attacks to the little-known long-run consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, this paper comes up with several guidelines such as increasing online social support and enhancing adaptive coping with stress, that are applicable on the individual, community, and societal levels.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Dejon-Agobé JC, Edoa JR, Adegnika AA, et al (2022)

Schistosomiasis in Gabon from 2000 to 2021 - a review.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(22)00016-X [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis is a public health issue of concern in Gabon, with the disease being reported from all regions of the country. The topic has been of interest for the local researchers and physicians for over two decades. The objective of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the research activities in the area from 2000 to early 2021.

METHODS: We performed a narrative literature review. The search strategy was designed to get a broad overview of the different research topics on schistosomiasis and the national control programme, and included grey literature.

RESULTS: A total of 159 articles was screened, and 42 were included into the review in addition to the grey literature. During the past two decades, the work on schistosomiasis originated from five out of the nine provinces of the country, with diverse aspects of the disease investigated; including immunology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Several studies investigated various aspects of schistosomiasis-related morbidity in the respective study populations. The body of work demonstrates that much effort was made to understand the details of the host immune response to schistosomiasis, and the immune profile changes induced in patients treated with praziquantel. Although some MDA campaigns were conducted in the country; little, however, is known on the epidemiological situation of the disease, particularly of its distribution within the population, as well as co-infections with other parasitic diseases also endemic in the area.

CONCLUSION: Progress has been made over the past two decades in the understanding of schistosomiasis in the country, including disease-related morbidity and its interaction with other parasitic infections, and the immunology and epidemiology of the disease. However, for optimising control of the disease, there is a need to fine-tune these findings with detailed local epidemiological and malacological data. We call for such studies to accomplish the knowledge of schistosomiasis in the country, particularly in areas of moderate or high endemicity, and recommend this approach to comparable schistosomiasis-endemic areas elsewhere.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Ledda C, Costantino C, Motta G, et al (2022)

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine Breakthrough Infections in Fully Vaccinated Healthcare Personnel: A Systematic Review.

Tropical medicine and infectious disease, 7(1): pii:tropicalmed7010009.

The number of people vaccinated against COVID-19 increases worldwide every day; however, it is important to study the risk of breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals at high risk of exposure such as healthcare personnel (HCP). A systematic literature review (SLR) applying the PRISMA declaration and the PECOS format using the following entry terms was used: "Health Personnel OR Healthcare Worker OR Healthcare Provider OR Healthcare Personnel AND breakthrough OR infection after vaccine*". The research was carried out utilizing the following databases: SCOPUS, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Sciences. An overall very low incidence of post-vaccination breakthrough infections was found, ranging from 0.011 to 0.001 (per 100 individuals at risk). Our findings further support the published high effectiveness rates of mRNA vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections among fully vaccinated HCP. Additional studies are needed to define the duration of the vaccine-induced protection among HCP.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Brun JF, Varlet-Marie E, Myzia J, et al (2021)

Metabolic Influences Modulating Erythrocyte Deformability and Eryptosis.

Metabolites, 12(1): pii:metabo12010004.

Many factors in the surrounding environment have been reported to influence erythrocyte deformability. It is likely that some influences represent reversible changes in erythrocyte rigidity that may be involved in physiological regulation, while others represent the early stages of eryptosis, i.e., the red cell self-programmed death. For example, erythrocyte rigidification during exercise is probably a reversible physiological mechanism, while the alterations of red blood cells (RBCs) observed in pathological conditions (inflammation, type 2 diabetes, and sickle-cell disease) are more likely to lead to eryptosis. The splenic clearance of rigid erythrocytes is the major regulator of RBC deformability. The physicochemical characteristics of the surrounding environment (thermal injury, pH, osmolality, oxidative stress, and plasma protein profile) also play a major role. However, there are many other factors that influence RBC deformability and eryptosis. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the various elements and circulating molecules that might influence RBCs and modify their deformability: purinergic signaling, gasotransmitters such as nitric oxide (NO), divalent cations (magnesium, zinc, and Fe2+), lactate, ketone bodies, blood lipids, and several circulating hormones. Meal composition (caloric and carbohydrate intake) also modifies RBC deformability. Therefore, RBC deformability appears to be under the influence of many factors. This suggests that several homeostatic regulatory loops adapt the red cell rigidity to the physiological conditions in order to cope with the need for oxygen or fuel delivery to tissues. Furthermore, many conditions appear to irreversibly damage red cells, resulting in their destruction and removal from the blood. These two categories of modifications to erythrocyte deformability should thus be differentiated.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Basile K, Halliday C, Kok J, et al (2022)

Fungal Infections Other Than Invasive Aspergillosis in COVID-19 Patients.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(1): pii:jof8010058.

Invasive fungal disease (IFD) associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has focussed predominantly on invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. However, increasingly emergent are non-Aspergillus fungal infections including candidiasis, mucormycosis, pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis, and endemic mycoses. These infections are associated with poor outcomes, and their management is challenged by delayed diagnosis due to similarities of presentation to aspergillosis or to non-specific features in already critically ill patients. There has been a variability in the incidence of different IFDs often related to heterogeneity in patient populations, diagnostic protocols, and definitions used to classify IFD. Here, we summarise and address knowledge gaps related to the epidemiology, risks, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19-associated fungal infections other than aspergillosis.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Janjua OS, Shaikh MS, Fareed MA, et al (2021)

Dental and Oral Manifestations of COVID-19 Related Mucormycosis: Diagnoses, Management Strategies and Outcomes.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(1): pii:jof8010044.

It has been nearly two years since the pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has affected the world. Several innovations and discoveries related to COVID-19 are surfacing every day and new problems associated with the COVID-19 virus are also coming to light. A similar situation is with the emergence of deep invasive fungal infections associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent literature reported the cases of pulmonary and rhino-cerebral fungal infections appearing in patients previously infected by COVID-19. Histopathological analysis of these cases has shown that most of such infections are diagnosed as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis usually affects the maxillary sinus with involvement of maxillary teeth, orbits, and ethmoidal sinuses. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for both COVID-19 as well as mucormycosis. At this point, there is scanty data on the subject and most of the published literature comprises of either case reports or case series with no long-term data available. The aim of this review paper is to present the characteristics of COVID-19 related mucormycosis and associated clinical features, outcome, diagnostic and management strategies. A prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment planning can surely benefit these patients.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Bailey AJM, Kirkham AM, Monaghan M, et al (2022)

A Portrait of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.), 29(1):337-349 pii:curroncol29010030.

The management of COVID-19 in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients represents a special challenge given the variable states of immune dysregulation and altered vaccine efficacy in this population. A systematic search (Ovid Medline and Embase on 1 June 2021) was needed to better understand the presenting features, prognostic factors, and treatment options. Of 897 records, 29 studies were identified in our search. Most studies reporting on adults and pediatric recipients described signs and symptoms that were typical of COVID-19. Overall, the mortality rates were high, with 21% of adults and 6% of pediatric HCT recipients succumbing to COVID-19. The factors reported to be associated with increased mortality included age (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.03-1.43, p = 0.02), ICU admission (HR = 4.42, 95% CI 2.25-8.65, p < 0.001 and HR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.22-4.20, p = 0.01 for allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients), and low platelet count (OR = 21.37, 95% CI 1.71-267.11, p = 0.01). Performance status was associated with decreased mortality (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.93, p = 0.001). A broad range of treatments was described, although no controlled studies were identified. The risk of bias, using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, was low. Patients undergoing HCT are at a high risk of severe morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. Controlled studies investigating potential treatments are required to determine the efficacy and safety in this population.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Oliveira Carvalho P, Hülsdünker T, F Carson (2021)

The Impact of the COVID-19 Lockdown on European Students' Negative Emotional Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1): pii:bs12010003.

Considerable changes to higher education approaches, as a response to the global coronavirus pandemic, has increased the stress on university students. The impact of these changes has had an effect on the negative emotional symptoms being experienced, which can lead to more severe mental health issues. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression and stress during the coronavirus lockdown. A systematic review of three electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed and Medline) was conducted, with 13 studies from different European countries reporting data on students and their negative emotional symptoms identified. The random-effects model was used to perform the meta-analysis on anxiety, depression and stress. The overall pooled prevalence rate was 55% (95% CI: 45-64%) for anxiety, 63% (95% CI: 52-73%) for depression and 62% (95% CI: 43-79%) for stress. The impact of the coronavirus pandemic on negative emotional symptoms has been serious with studies reporting high prevalence rates for these. Isolation, reduced social contact, duration of quarantine and restrictions, which are the characteristics of a lockdown, played an important role in increased negative emotional symptoms for students. Countries have to be aware of this situation and develop mental support strategies to mitigate the impact.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Cai H, Cheng YT, Ren XL, et al (2022)

[Recent Developments and Future Directions of Oral Healthcare System and Dental Public Health System in China in Light of the Current Global Emergency].

Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition, 53(1):43-48.

The study is aimed to help promote the development of the oral healthcare system and dental public health system in China and to help achieve the goal of improving the nation's oral health. We herein provided an overview and critical evaluation of recent developments in oral healthcare systems and dental public health systems in China and other countries, and discussed a number of potential directions for the future development of dental public health. The current global public health emergency of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was also taken into account in our discussions. Thus, to facilitate the accomplishment of the goals of the Healthy China 2030 Program, we suggested the establishment of a community-based, prevention-oriented model for the oral healthcare system and dental public health system. The model we proposed features the integration of oral and general health services, the utilization of technological innovations and big data concerning health, and a forceful promotion of remote dental services focused on prevention and early diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, under the background of COVID-19 becoming a normal part of people's lives, we should adopt differentiated prevention and protection measures and emergency response preplans appropriate for the actual epidemic situation of a particular region so that clinical services are strengthened while unnecessary wastes of resources are avoided. We should actively explore for alternative approaches to care in the face of special circumstances.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Duan XQ, Xie H, LM Chen (2022)

[Interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and Host Innate Immunity].

Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition, 53(1):1-6.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic since its outbreak in 2019, presenting serious threats to public health and the health of the people. As one of the main components of the host innate immune system, type-Ⅰ interferon (IFN) plays a critical role in the defense against viral infections. The battle between the virus and the host innate immune system determines the disease progression. It has been reported that SARS-CoV-2 inhibits IFN production and suppresses the activation of IFN signaling pathway through its interactions with the host innate immune system. Then, the weakened or delayed response of type-Ⅰ interferon causes the disturbance of host immune responses, which is one of the important reasons why SARS-CoV-2 causes such high morbidity and mortality. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and the host innate immune system, especially the interaction with type-Ⅰ IFN pathway, to provide new insights into the mechanisms of viral evasion of host immune response and new perspectives and strategies for treating COVID-19 with IFN.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Lakeman R, King P, Hurley J, et al (2022)

Towards online delivery of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy: A scoping review.

International journal of mental health nursing [Epub ahead of print].

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) programmes are often the only available treatment for people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and were rapidly converted to online delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. Limited research exists surrounding how the major elements of DBT are delivered in an online environment. This scoping review considered the operationalization of online delivery of DBT and its effectiveness. EBSCO host databases were searched using free text. Of 127 papers, 11 studies from 2010 to 2021 investigating online DBT for any clinical population were included in the review. A narrative synthesis of papers selected was undertaken. Seven articles reported results from five clinical trials (n = 437). Most adaptations mirrored face-to-face programmes although there was considerable variation in how therapy was facilitated. Attendance was reported to be greater online with comparable clinical improvements to face-to-face for those who remained in therapy. Additional challenges included managing risk, therapist preparedness and technology difficulties. Online delivery of DBT programmes is feasible and may be more accessible, acceptable and as safe and effective as face-to-face delivery. However, mirroring face to face delivery in an online environment may not be the most effective and efficient way to adapt DBT to online provision. Research is needed to identify areas which require further adaptation.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Poppleton A, Howells K, Adeyemi I, et al (2022)

The perceptions of general practice among Central and Eastern Europeans in the United Kingdom: A systematic scoping review.

Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Around 2 million people have migrated from Central and Eastern Europe to the UK since 2004. The UK Central and Eastern European Community (UK-CEE) are disproportionately exposed to the social determinants of poor physical and mental health. Their health and healthcare beliefs remain under-researched, particularly regarding primary care.

OBJECTIVE: This review explores UK-CEE community members' use and perceptions of UK general practice.

METHODS: A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases identified 2094 publications that fulfilled the search criteria. Grey literature searches identified 16 additional relevant publications. Screening by title and abstract identified 201 publications of relevance, decreasing to 65 after full-text screening. Publications were critically appraised, with data extracted and coded. Thematic analysis using constant comparison allowed generation of higher-order thematic constructs.

RESULTS: Full UK-CEE national representation was achieved. Comparatively low levels of GP registration were described, with ability, desire and need to engage with GP services shaped by the interconnected nature of individual community members' cultural and sociodemographic factors. Difficulties overcoming access and in-consultation barriers are common, with health expectations frequently unmet. Distrust and dissatisfaction with general practice often persist, promoting alternative health-seeking approaches including transnational healthcare. Marginalized UK-CEE community subgroups including Roma, trafficked and homeless individuals have particularly poor GP engagement and outcomes. Limited data on the impact of Brexit and COVID-19 could be identified.

CONCLUSIONS: Review findings demonstrate the need for codesigned approaches to remove barriers to engagement, culturally adapt and develop trust in GP care for UK-CEE individuals.

COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT: Community members and stakeholders shaped the conceptualisation of the review question and validation of emergent themes.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Smallwood N, Harrex W, Rees M, et al (2022)

COVID-19 infection and the broader impacts of the pandemic on healthcare workers.

Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) [Epub ahead of print].

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease or COVID-19 pandemic is associated with more than 230 million cases and has challenged healthcare systems globally. Many healthcare workers (HCWs) have acquired the infection, often through their workplace, with a significant number dying. The epidemiology of COVID-19 infection in HCWs continues to be explored, with manifold exposure risks identified, leading to COVID-19 being recognised as an occupational disease for HCWs. The physical illness due to COVID-19 in HCWs is similar to the general population, with some HCWs experiencing a long-term illness, which may impact their ability to return to work. HCWs have also been affected by the immense workplace and psychosocial disruption caused by the pandemic. The impacts on the psychological well-being of HCWs globally have been profound, with high prevalence estimates for mental health symptoms, including emotional exhaustion. Globally, governments, healthcare organisations and employers have key responsibilities, including: to be better prepared for crises with comprehensive disaster response management plans, and to protect and preserve the health workforce from the physical and psychological impacts of the pandemic. While prioritising HCWs in vaccine rollouts globally has been critical, managing exposures and outbreaks occurring in healthcare settings remains challenging and continues to lead to substantial disruption to the health workforce. Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is critical as we move forward on the new path of 'COVID normal'.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Kumar A, Sharma A, Tirpude NV, et al (2022)

Pharmaco-immunomodulatory interventions for averting cytokine storm-linked disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Inflammopharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

The year 2020 is characterised by the COVID-19 pandemic that has quelled more than half a million lives in recent months. We are still coping with the negative repercussions of COVID-19 pandemic in 2021, in which the 2nd wave in India resulted in a high fatality rate. Regardless of emergency vaccine approvals and subsequent meteoric global vaccination drives in some countries, hospitalisations for COVID-19 will continue to occur due to the propensity of mutation in SARS-CoV-2 virus. The immune response plays a vital role in the control and resolution of infectious diseases. However, an impaired immune response is responsible for the severity of the respiratory distress in many diseases. The severe COVID-19 infection persuaded cytokine storm that has been linked with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), culminates into vital organ failures and eventual death. Thus, safe and effective therapeutics to treat hospitalised patients remains a significant unmet clinical need. In that state, any clue of possible treatments, which save patients life, can be treasured for this time point. Many cohorts and clinical trial studies demonstrated that timely administration of immunomodulatory drugs on severe COVID-19 patients may mitigate the disease severity, hospital stay and mortality. This article addresses the severity and risk factors of hypercytokinemia in COVID-19 patients, with special emphasis on prospective immunomodulatory therapies.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Laino ME, Ammirabile A, Lofino L, et al (2022)

Prognostic findings for ICU admission in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: baseline and follow-up chest CT and the added value of artificial intelligence.

Emergency radiology [Epub ahead of print].

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 has dominated discussion and caused global healthcare and economic crisis over the past 18 months. Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) causes mild-to-moderate symptoms in most individuals. However, rapid deterioration to severe disease with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can occur within 1-2 weeks from the onset of symptoms in a proportion of patients. Early identification by risk stratifying such patients who are at risk of severe complications of COVID-19 is of great clinical importance. Computed tomography (CT) is widely available and offers the potential for fast triage, robust, rapid, and minimally invasive diagnosis: Ground glass opacities (GGO), crazy-paving pattern (GGO with superimposed septal thickening), and consolidation are the most common chest CT findings in COVID pneumonia. There is growing interest in the prognostic value of baseline chest CT since an early risk stratification of patients with COVID-19 would allow for better resource allocation and could help improve outcomes. Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of baseline chest CT to predict intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with COVID-19. Furthermore, developments and progress integrating artificial intelligence (AI) with computer-aided design (CAD) software for diagnostic imaging allow for objective, unbiased, and rapid assessment of CT images.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Belibasakis GN, G Hajishengallis (2021)

Frontiers in Oral Mucosal Immunity and the Microbiome.

Frontiers in oral health, 2:821148.

The 2nd International Conference on Oral Mucosal Immunity and the Microbiome (OMIM) took place at the Grecotel Kos Imperial Hotel, Kos, Greece, between 25th and 30th September 2021, under the auspices of the Aegean Conferences. This has only been the second Aegean Conference of this thematic, the first one having taken place in 2018 in Crete, during the same period of the year. Given the hardships in travel and heightened infection transmission risks amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the Conference was well attended by 29 international speakers across the world. For many of the participants, this was the first conference travel in the post-pandemic era, and quite significant that it has taken place on the island of Hippocrates. Stringent regional health and safety regulations had to be followed to accomplish for this in-person Conference to take place. Frontiers in Oral Health has hosted papers from presentations of the Conference, whereas the present article serves as the proceedings of the Conference with summaries of the presentations.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Pittayapat P, Ampornaramveth R, Jirachoksopon C, et al (2021)

Procedures Used in Managing SARS-CoV-2 Infected Dental Personnel or Patients: A Case Study From a Thai Dental Hospital.

Frontiers in oral health, 2:750394.

SARS-CoV-2 can transmit undetected from asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients in dental clinics. Triaging dental patients using temperature and questionnaire screening cannot completely exclude asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Hence, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals might visit dental hospitals/clinics seeking dental treatment without knowing that they are infected and might infect others, especially in a pandemic area. Ideally, a nasopharyngeal swab for real-time polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen screening for dental personnel and patients prior to their appointment should be done. However, the implementation of this approach is impractical in some situations. Here, we describe the procedures for dental hospitals/clinics in case of an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected individual involved in dental service/treatment and later after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Potential closely contacted individuals were traced and classified according to their exposure risk. The recommended course of action is to identify individuals based on their risk and take the risk-appropriate action. We also discuss the implementation of these procedures in a dental setting during the COVID-19 pandemic in our school as a case study.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Negrini TC, Carlos IZ, Duque C, et al (2021)

Interplay Among the Oral Microbiome, Oral Cavity Conditions, the Host Immune Response, Diabetes Mellitus, and Its Associated-Risk Factors-An Overview.

Frontiers in oral health, 2:697428.

This comprehensive review of the literature aimed to investigate the interplay between the oral microbiome, oral cavity conditions, and host immune response in Diabetes mellitus (DM). Moreover, this review also aimed to investigate how DM related risk factors, such as advanced age, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), act in promoting or modifying specific mechanisms that could potentially perpetuate both altered systemic and oral conditions. We found that poorly controlled glycemic index may exert a negative effect on the immune system of affected individuals, leading to a deficient immune response or to an exacerbation of the inflammatory response exacerbating DM-related complications. Hyperglycemia induces alterations in the oral microbiome since poor glycemic control is associated with increased levels and frequencies of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival biofilm of individuals with DM. A bidirectional relationship between periodontal diseases and DM has been suggested: DM patients may have an exaggerated inflammatory response, poor repair and bone resorption that aggravates periodontal disease whereas the increased levels of systemic pro-inflammatory mediators found in individuals affected with periodontal disease exacerbates insulin resistance. SARS-CoV-2 infection may represent an aggravating factor for individuals with DM. Individuals with DM tend to have low salivary flow and a high prevalence of xerostomia, but the association between prevalence/experience of dental caries and DM is still unclear. DM has also been associated to the development of lesions in the oral mucosa, especially potentially malignant ones and those associated with fungal infections. Obesity plays an important role in the induction and progression of DM. Co-affected obese and DM individuals tend to present worse oral health conditions. A decrease in HDL and, an increase in triglycerides bloodstream levels seem to be associated with an increase on the load of periodontopathogens on oral cavity. Moreover, DM may increase the likelihood of halitosis. Prevalence of impaired taste perception and impaired smell recognition tend to be greater in DM patients. An important interplay among oral cavity microbiome, DM, obesity and hypertension has been proposed as the reduction of nitrate into nitrite, in addition to contribute to lowering of blood pressure, reduces oxidative stress and increases insulin secretion, being these effects desirable for the control of obesity and DM. Women with PCOS tend to present a distinct oral microbial composition and an elevated systemic response to selective members of this microbial community, but the association between oral microbiome, PCOS are DM is still unknown. The results of the studies presented in this review suggest the interplay among the oral microbiome, oral cavity conditions, host immune response and DM and some of the DM associated risk factors exist. DM individuals need to be encouraged and motivated for an adequate oral health care. In addition, these results show the importance of adopting multidisciplinary management of DM and of strengthening physicians-dentists relationship focusing on both systemic and on oral cavity conditions of DM patients.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Jiang CM, Duangthip D, Auychai P, et al (2021)

Changes in Oral Health Policies and Guidelines During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Frontiers in oral health, 2:668444.

The aim of this study was to describe the changes in oral health policies and guidelines in response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in different countries and regions around the world. Information on oral health policies and guidelines from 9 countries (Canada, China including Hong Kong, Egypt, India, Japan, New Zealand, Nigeria, Switzerland, and Thailand) were summarized, and sources of the information were mostly the national or regional health authorities and/or dental council/associations. The changes made to the oral health guidelines depended on the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. This included suspension of non-emergency dental care services at the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak, and easing the restrictions on non-essential and elective dental care when the pandemic became under control. The COVID-19 risk mitigation strategies include strict adherence to infection control practices (use of hand sanitizers, facemask and maintaining social distancing), reducing the amount of aerosol production in the dental setting, and managing the quality of air in the dental treatment rooms by reducing the use of air conditioners and improving air exchange. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown a major impact on dental practice. Dental professionals are trying to adapt to the new norms, while the medium to long-term impact of COVID-19 on dentistry needs further investigation.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Williams-Medina A, Deblock M, D Janigro (2020)

In vitro Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier: Tools in Translational Medicine.

Frontiers in medical technology, 2:623950.

Medical progress has historically depended on scientific discoveries. Until recently, science was driven by technological advancements that, once translated to the clinic, fostered new treatments and interventions. More recently, technology-driven medical progress has often outpaced laboratory research. For example, intravascular devices, pacemakers for the heart and brain, spinal cord stimulators, and surgical robots are used routinely to treat a variety of diseases. The rapid expansion of science into ever more advanced molecular and genetic mechanisms of disease has often distanced laboratory-based research from day-to-day clinical realities that remain based on evidence and outcomes. A recognized reason for this hiatus is the lack of laboratory tools that recapitulate the clinical reality faced by physicians and surgeons. To overcome this, the NIH and FDA have in the recent past joined forces to support the development of a "human-on-a-chip" that will allow research scientists to perform experiments on a realistic replica when testing the effectiveness of novel experimental therapies. The development of a "human-on-a-chip" rests on the capacity to grow in vitro various organs-on-a-chip, connected with appropriate vascular supplies and nerves, and our ability to measure and perform experiments on these virtually invisible organs. One of the tissue structures to be scaled down on a chip is the human blood-brain barrier. This review gives a historical perspective on in vitro models of the BBB and summarizes the most recent 3D models that attempt to fill the gap between research modeling and patient care. We also present a summary of how these in vitro models of the BBB can be applied to study human brain diseases and their treatments. We have chosen NeuroAIDS, COVID-19, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease as examples of in vitro model application to neurological disorders. Major insight pertaining to these illnesses as a consequence of more profound understanding of the BBB can reveal new avenues for the development of diagnostics, more efficient therapies, and definitive clarity of disease etiology and pathological progression.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Xu Z, Patel A, Tursi NJ, et al (2020)

Harnessing Recent Advances in Synthetic DNA and Electroporation Technologies for Rapid Vaccine Development Against COVID-19 and Other Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Frontiers in medical technology, 2:571030.

DNA vaccines are considered as a third-generation vaccination approach in which antigenic materials are encoded as DNA plasmids for direct in vivo production to elicit adaptive immunity. As compared to other platforms, DNA vaccination is considered to have a strong safety profile, as DNA plasmids neither replicate nor elicit vector-directed immune responses in hosts. While earlier work found the immune responses induced by DNA vaccines to be sub-optimal in larger mammals and humans, recent developments in key synthetic DNA and electroporation delivery technologies have now allowed DNA vaccines to elicit significantly more potent and consistent responses in several clinical studies. This paper will review findings from the recent clinical and preclinical studies on DNA vaccines targeting emerging infectious diseases (EID) including COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the technological advancements pivotal to the improved responses-including the use of the advanced delivery technology, DNA-encoded cytokine/mucosal adjuvants, and innovative concepts in immunogen design. With continuous advancement over the past three decades, the DNA approach is now poised to develop vaccines against COVID-19, as well as other EIDs.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Thompson D, Y Lei (2020)

Mini review: Recent progress in RT-LAMP enabled COVID-19 detection.

Sensors and actuators reports, 2(1):100017.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has infected millions of people around the globe. The outbreak caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great health risk to the public. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis of the virus plays a crucial role in treatment of the disease and saving lives. The current standard method for coronavirus detection is the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. However, laboratory-based RT-PCR test for SARS-COV-2 requires complex facilities and elaborate training of operators, thus suffering from limit testing capacity and delayed results. Consequently, isothermal PCR such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been emerging as a great alternative to the RT-PCR method. LAMP possesses some fundamental advantages such as amplification at a constant temperature, exclusion of a thermal cycler, a faster test result, and potentially a larger diagnostic capacity, while maintaining similar sensitivity and specificity, thus making it more suitable than the RT-PCR for monitoring a pandemic. Starting with a brief introduction of the working principle of LAMP method, this review summarizes recent progress in LAMP-enabled SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA detection. Lastly, future research directions are discussed. This critical review will motivate biosensor community in furthering the present research, which may pave the road for rapid and large-scale screening of SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Darestani MN, Akbari A, Yaghobee S, et al (2022)

COVID-19 Pandemic and Periodontal Practice: The Immunological, Clinical, and Economic Points of View.

BioMed research international, 2022:3918980.

The recent global health problem, COVID-19, has had far-reaching impacts on lifestyles. Although many effective WHO-approved vaccines have been produced that have reduced the spread and severity of the disease, it appears to persist in humans for a long time and possibly forever as everyday it turns out to have new mutations. COVID-19 involves the lungs and other organs primarily through cytokine storms, which have been implicated in many other inflammatory disorders, including periodontal diseases. COVID-19 is in a close association with dental and periodontal practice from two respects: first, repeated mandatory lockdowns have reduced patient referrals to dentists and limited the dental and periodontal procedures to emergency treatments, whereas it is important to recognize the oral manifestations of COVID-19 as well as the influence of oral and periodontal disease on the severity of COVID-19. Second, dentistry is one of the high-risk professions in terms of close contact with unmasked individuals, necessitating redefining the principles of infection control. The pressures of the economic recession on patients as well as dentists add to the difficulty of resuming elective dental services. Therefore, this study is divided into two parts corresponding to what mentioned above: the first part examines the clinical and immunological associations between COVID-19 and periodontal and oral diseases, and the second part delineates the measures needed to control the disease transmission in dental clinics as well as the economic impact of the pandemic era on dental services.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Zhou X, Dong J, Guo Q, et al (2021)

The Oral Complications of COVID-19.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 8:803785 pii:803785.

Background: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus infectious disease associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome. More and more patients are being cured due to the development of clinical guidelines for COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosis, treatment, and vaccines. However, the long-term impact of COVID-19 on patients after recovery is unclear. Currently available reports have shown that patients recovered from COVID-19 continue to experience health problems in respiratory and other organ systems. Oral problem is one of the important complications which has serious impacts on the rehabilitation and future quality of life, such as ageusia and macroglossia, but the oral complication is often being neglected. Aim of Review: From the perspective of stomatology, we summarized and elaborated in detail the types, pathogenesis of oral complications from COVID-19 patients after rehabilitation, and the reported prevention or treatment recommendations which may improve the COVID-19 patients associated oral diseases. Key Scientific Concepts of Review: 1) To understand the common oral complications and the mechanisms of the development of oral complications after the COVID-19 recovery; 2) To summary the practical strategies to prevent the oral complications and construct the rehabilitation plans for patients with oral complications.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Shi F, Li H, Liu R, et al (2021)

Emergency Preparedness and Management of Mobile Cabin Hospitals in China During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Frontiers in public health, 9:763723.

The healthcare systems in China and globally have faced serious challenges during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The shortage of beds in traditional hospitals has exacerbated the threat of COVID-19. To increase the number of available beds, China implemented a special public health measure of opening mobile cabin hospitals. Mobile cabin hospitals, also called Fangcang shelter hospitals, refer to large-scale public venues such as indoor stadiums and exhibition centers converted to temporary hospitals. This study is a mini review of the practice of mobile cabin hospitals in China. The first part is regarding emergency preparedness, including site selection, conversion, layout, and zoning before opening the hospital, and the second is on hospital management, including organization management, management of nosocomial infections, information technology support, and material supply. This review provides some practical recommendations for countries that need mobile cabin hospitals to relieve the pressure of the pandemic on the healthcare systems.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Shi Q, Wu M, Chen P, et al (2021)

Criminal of Adverse Pregnant Outcomes: A Perspective From Thyroid Hormone Disturbance Caused by SARS-CoV-2.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:791654.

Nowadays, emerging evidence has shown adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, preeclampsia, cesarean, and perinatal death, occurring in pregnant women after getting infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Thyroid hormone disturbance has been unveiled consistently in various studies. As commonly known, thyroid hormone is vital for promoting pregnancy and optimal fetal growth and development. Even mild thyroid dysfunction can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. We explored and summarized possible mechanisms of thyroid hormone abnormality in pregnant women after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and made a scientific thypothesis that adverse pregnancy outcomes can be the result of thyroid hormone disorder during COVID-19. In which case, we accentuate the importance of thyroid hormone surveillance for COVID-19-infected pregnant women.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Wolf SM, JG Hodge (Jr) (2022)

Designing COVID-19 vaccine mandates in colleges and universities: a roadmap to the 10 key questions.

Journal of law and the biosciences, 9(1):lsab035 pii:lsab035.

COVID-19 transmission among students, faculty, and staff at US institutions of higher education (IHEs) is a pressing concern, especially with the dominance of the highly contagious Delta variant and emergence of the Omicron variant. From the start of the pandemic to May 26, 2021, >700,000 cases were linked to US colleges and universities. To protect their populations and surrounding communities, IHE administrators are increasingly considering COVID-19 vaccine requirements. Roughly one-quarter of the nearly 4,000 college and university campuses across the US have announced COVID-19 vaccine mandates for students or employees. However, deciding to require vaccination is only the first of multiple decisions, as IHEs face complex issues of how to design and refine their mandates, including whether to require boosters. Mandates vary significantly in stringency, implementation, impact on members of the college or university community, and net benefit to the institution. This essay examines 10 key questions that an IHE must face in designing or refining a COVID-19 vaccination mandate. Showing that these 10 questions were carefully considered may be crucial if the institution's mandate is challenged. Ultimately, how an IHE designs its mandate may make the difference between meaningful risk mitigation that advances institutional goals and benefits students, faculty, and staff versus a public health failure that erodes trust, raises equity concerns, threatens to undermine preexisting vaccination requirements, and divides the campus.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Mistry P, Barmania F, Mellet J, et al (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 Variants, Vaccines, and Host Immunity.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:809244.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new beta coronavirus that emerged at the end of 2019 in the Hubei province of China. SARS-CoV-2 causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. Herd or community immunity has been proposed as a strategy to protect the vulnerable, and can be established through immunity from past infection or vaccination. Whether SARS-CoV-2 infection results in the development of a reservoir of resilient memory cells is under investigation. Vaccines have been developed at an unprecedented rate and 7 408 870 760 vaccine doses have been administered worldwide. Recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants are more transmissible with a reduced sensitivity to immune mechanisms. This is due to the presence of amino acid substitutions in the spike protein, which confer a selective advantage. The emergence of variants therefore poses a risk for vaccine effectiveness and long-term immunity, and it is crucial therefore to determine the effectiveness of vaccines against currently circulating variants. Here we review both SARS-CoV-2-induced host immune activation and vaccine-induced immune responses, highlighting the responses of immune memory cells that are key indicators of host immunity. We further discuss how variants emerge and the currently circulating variants of concern (VOC), with particular focus on implications for vaccine effectiveness. Finally, we describe new antibody treatments and future vaccine approaches that will be important as we navigate through the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Tariq H, Batool S, Asif S, et al (2021)

Virus-Like Particles: Revolutionary Platforms for Developing Vaccines Against Emerging Infectious Diseases.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:790121.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are nanostructures that possess diverse applications in therapeutics, immunization, and diagnostics. With the recent advancements in biomedical engineering technologies, commercially available VLP-based vaccines are being extensively used to combat infectious diseases, whereas many more are in different stages of development in clinical studies. Because of their desired characteristics in terms of efficacy, safety, and diversity, VLP-based approaches might become more recurrent in the years to come. However, some production and fabrication challenges must be addressed before VLP-based approaches can be widely used in therapeutics. This review offers insight into the recent VLP-based vaccines development, with an emphasis on their characteristics, expression systems, and potential applicability as ideal candidates to combat emerging virulent pathogens. Finally, the potential of VLP-based vaccine as viable and efficient immunizing agents to induce immunity against virulent infectious agents, including, SARS-CoV-2 and protein nanoparticle-based vaccines has been elaborated. Thus, VLP vaccines may serve as an effective alternative to conventional vaccine strategies in combating emerging infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Sallam M, Al-Sanafi M, M Sallam (2022)

A Global Map of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance Rates per Country: An Updated Concise Narrative Review.

Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 15:21-45 pii:347669.

The delay or refusal of vaccination, which defines vaccine hesitancy, is a major challenge to successful control of COVID-19 epidemic. The huge number of publications addressing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy necessitates periodic review to provide a concise summary of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates worldwide. In the current narrative review, data on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates were retrieved from surveys in 114 countries/territories. In East and Southern Africa (n = 9), the highest COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate was reported in Ethiopia (92%), while the lowest rate was reported in Zimbabwe (50%). In West/Central Africa (n = 13), the highest rate was reported in Niger (93%), while the lowest rate was reported in Cameroon (15%). In Asia and the Pacific (n = 16), the highest rates were reported in Nepal and Vietnam (97%), while the lowest rate was reported in Hong Kong (42%). In Eastern Europe/Central Asia (n = 7), the highest rates were reported in Montenegro (69%) and Kazakhstan (64%), while the lowest rate was reported in Russia (30%). In Latin America and the Caribbean (n = 20), the highest rate was reported in Mexico (88%), while the lowest rate was reported in Haiti (43%). In the Middle East/North Africa (MENA, n = 22), the highest rate was reported in Tunisia (92%), while the lowest rate was reported in Iraq (13%). In Western/Central Europe and North America (n = 27), the highest rates were reported in Canada (91%) and Norway (89%), while the lowest rates were reported in Cyprus and Portugal (35%). COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates ≥60% were seen in 72/114 countries/territories, compared to 42 countries/territories with rates between 13% and 59%. The phenomenon of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy appeared more pronounced in the MENA, Europe and Central Asia, and Western/Central Africa. More studies are recommended in Africa, Eastern Europe and Central Asia to address intentions of the general public to get COVID-19 vaccination.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Bhurwal A, Minacapelli CD, Orosz E, et al (2021)

COVID-19 status quo: Emphasis on gastrointestinal and liver manifestations.

World journal of gastroenterology, 27(46):7969-7981.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused one of the worst public health crises in modern history. Even though severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 primarily affects the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal manifestations are well described in literature. This review will discuss the epidemiology, virology, manifestations, immunosuppressant states, and lessons learned from COVID-19. Observations: At the time of writing, COVID-19 had infected more than 111 million people and caused over 2.5 million deaths worldwide. Multiple medical comorbidities including obesity, pre-existing liver condition and the use of proton pump inhibitor have been described as risk factor for severe COVID-19. COVID-19 most frequently causes diarrhea (12.4%), nausea/vomiting (9%) and elevation in liver enzymes (15%-20%). The current data does not suggest that patients on immunomodulators have a significantly increased risk of mortality from COVID-19. The current guidelines from American Gastroenterological Association and American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases do not recommend pre-emptive changes in patients on immunosuppression if the patients have not been infected with COVID-19. Conclusions and relevance: The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a change in structure and shape of gastroenterology departmental activities. Endoscopy should be performed only when necessary and with strict protective measures. Online consultations in the form of telehealth services and home drug deliveries have revolutionized the field.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Lashgari NA, Momeni Roudsari N, Momtaz S, et al (2021)

Transmembrane serine protease 2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 anti-inflammatory receptors for COVID-19/inflammatory bowel diseases treatment.

World journal of gastroenterology, 27(46):7943-7955.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) refer to a subgroup of chronic, progressive, long-term, and relapsing inflammatory disorders. IBD may spontaneously grow in the colon, and in severe cases may result in tumor lesions such as invasive carcinoma in inflamed regions of the intestine. Recent epidemiological reports indicate that old age and underlying diseases such as IBD contribute to severity and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Currently, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has also been shown that the transmembrane serine protease 2 is an essential factor for viral activation and viral engulfment. Generally, viral entry causes a 'cytokine storm' that induces excessive generation of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ. Future research could concentrate on developing inflammatory immunological responses that are efficient to encounter COVID-19. Current analysis elucidates the role of inflammation and immune responses during IBD infection with COVID-19 and provides a list of possible targets for IBD-regulated therapies in particular. Data from clinical, in vitro, and in vivo studies were collected in English from PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and the Cochrane library until May 2021.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Roy K, Agarwal S, Banerjee R, et al (2021)

COVID-19 and gut immunomodulation.

World journal of gastroenterology, 27(46):7925-7942.

The disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe respiratory illness that has emerged as a devastating health problem worldwide. The disease outcome is heterogeneous, and severity is likely dependent on the immunity of infected individuals and comorbidities. Although symptoms of the disease are primarily associated with respiratory problems, additional infection or failure of other vital organs are being reported. Emerging reports suggest a quite common co-existence of gastrointestinal (GI) tract symptoms in addition to respiratory symptoms in many COVID-19 patients, and some patients show just the GI symptoms. The possible cause of the GI symptoms could be due to direct infection of the epithelial cells of the gut, which is supported by the fact that (1) The intestinal epithelium expresses a high level of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 and transmembrane protease serine 2 protein that are required for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry into the cells; (2) About half of the severe COVID-19 patients show viral RNA in their feces and various parts of the GI tract; and (3) SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect gut epithelial cells in vitro (gut epithelial cells and organoids) and in vivo (rhesus monkey). The GI tract seems to be a site of active innate and adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 as clinically, stool samples of COVID-19 patients possess proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 8), calprotectin (neutrophils activity), and immunoglobulin A antibodies. In addition to direct immune activation by the virus, impairment of GI epithelium integrity can evoke immune response under the influence of systemic cytokines, hypoxia, and changes in gut microbiota (dysbiosis) due to infection of the respiratory system, which is confirmed by the observation that not all of the GI symptomatic patients are viral RNA positive. This review comprehensively summarizes the possible GI immunomodulation by SARS-CoV-2 that could lead to GI symptoms, their association with disease severity, and potential therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Zhang FS, He QZ, Qin CH, et al (2022)

Therapeutic potential of colchicine in cardiovascular medicine: a pharmacological review.

Acta pharmacologica Sinica [Epub ahead of print].

Colchicine is an ancient herbal drug derived from Colchicum autumnale. It was first used to treat familial Mediterranean fever and gout. Based on its unique efficacy as an anti-inflammatory agent, colchicine has been used in the therapy of cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, recurrent pericarditis, vascular restenosis, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. More recently, colchicine has also shown therapeutic efficacy in alleviating cardiovascular complications of COVID-19. COLCOT and LoDoCo2 are two milestone clinical trials that confirm the curative effect of long-term administration of colchicine in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. There is growing interest in studying the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of colchicine. The anti-inflammatory action of colchicine is mediated mainly through inhibiting the assembly of microtubules. At the cellular level, colchicine inhibits the following: (1) endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammation; (2) smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration; (3) macrophage chemotaxis, migration, and adhesion; (4) platelet activation. At the molecular level, colchicine reduces proinflammatory cytokine release and inhibits NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In this review, we summarize the current clinical trials with proven curative effect of colchicine in treating cardiovascular diseases. We also systematically discuss the mechanisms of colchicine action in cardiovascular therapeutics. Altogether, colchicine, a bioactive constituent from an ancient medicinal herb, exerts unique anti-inflammatory effects and prominent cardiovascular actions, and will charter a new page in cardiovascular medicine.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Dyck N, Martin D, S McClement (2021)

Baccalaureate Education as an Entry-to-Practice Requirement: Why It Matters Now More Than Ever.

Nursing leadership (Toronto, Ont.), 34(4):103-112.

Given the nursing shortage, nurse educators and leaders are responsible now more than ever to advocate for baccalaureate education as an entry-to-practice requirement for registered nurses. The world today is complex, with population health issues stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, high patient acuity and climate change. Accordingly, a nursing workforce that receives high-quality education is required. In this paper, an overview is provided about the evolution of a baccalaureate degree in nursing as an entry-to-practice requirement. We highlight evidence about patient outcomes associated with baccalaureate-prepared nurses, identify gaps and examine the nature of workplace environments in optimizing contributions stemming from baccalaureate-prepared nurses.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Crum T, Mooney K, BR Tiwari (2021)

Current situation of vaccine injury compensation program and a future perspective in light of COVID-19 and emerging viral diseases.

F1000Research, 10:652.

Background: Vaccines have had a great impact on disease prevention and reducing mortality. Very rarely, vaccines also can result in serious adverse effects. In consideration of this fact, vaccine injury compensation programs have been implemented in many countries to compensate a vaccinee for associated adverse effects. The existing vaccine injury compensation system addresses routine immunization schemes. However, there are rising concerns about the compensation for adverse effects caused by new vaccines such as those developed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This review focuses on vaccine injury compensation programs and highlights the necessity to include all upcoming new vaccines for COVID-19 and other emerging viral diseases in the compensation schemes. Methods: Published articles relating to vaccine compensation injury programs, vaccines, injuries, disabilities, illnesses, and deaths resulting from vaccination were searched in data bases. Through a careful review of the abstracts, 25 relevant articles were selected for analysis. Results: We identified 27 countries on four continents with vaccine injury compensation schemes: 17 countries in Europe, 7 countries in Asia, the United States, a Canadian Province and New Zealand. No programs were identified in Africa and in South America. Program design, funding, and eligibility for compensation vary vastly between countries. We identified 17 countries operating well-established vaccine injury compensation programs. However, minimal information is available on numerous other countries. Conclusion: We conclude that the vaccine injury compensation programs are available in limited number of countries across four continents - mostly in Europe. Lack of standard approach and scope of injury prevention and compensation programs across the countries exists. Some important limitations include limited scientific material, which hindered our research. Therefore, additional data concerning payout for each type of injury and the number of claimants related to a specific vaccine injury worldwide could provide a more comprehensive analysis.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Krishnaratne S, Littlecott H, Sell K, et al (2022)

Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review.

The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 1:CD015029.

BACKGROUND: In response to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), governments have implemented a variety of measures to control the spread of the virus and the associated disease. Among these, have been measures to control the pandemic in primary and secondary school settings.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of measures implemented in the school setting to safely reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular focus on the different types of measures implemented in school settings and the outcomes used to measure their impacts on transmission-related outcomes, healthcare utilisation outcomes, other health outcomes as well as societal, economic, and ecological outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and the Educational Resources Information Center, as well as COVID-19-specific databases, including the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease (indexing preprints) on 9 December 2020. We conducted backward-citation searches with existing reviews.

SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered experimental (i.e. randomised controlled trials; RCTs), quasi-experimental, observational and modelling studies assessing the effects of measures implemented in the school setting to safely reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Outcome categories were (i) transmission-related outcomes (e.g. number or proportion of cases); (ii) healthcare utilisation outcomes (e.g. number or proportion of hospitalisations); (iii) other health outcomes (e.g. physical, social and mental health); and (iv) societal, economic and ecological outcomes (e.g. costs, human resources and education). We considered studies that included any population at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 and/or developing COVID-19 disease including students, teachers, other school staff, or members of the wider community. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts. One review author extracted data and critically appraised each study. One additional review author validated the extracted data. To critically appraise included studies, we used the ROBINS-I tool for quasi-experimental and observational studies, the QUADAS-2 tool for observational screening studies, and a bespoke tool for modelling studies. We synthesised findings narratively. Three review authors made an initial assessment of the certainty of evidence with GRADE, and several review authors discussed and agreed on the ratings.

MAIN RESULTS: We included 38 unique studies in the analysis, comprising 33 modelling studies, three observational studies, one quasi-experimental and one experimental study with modelling components. Measures fell into four broad categories: (i) measures reducing the opportunity for contacts; (ii) measures making contacts safer; (iii) surveillance and response measures; and (iv) multicomponent measures. As comparators, we encountered the operation of schools with no measures in place, less intense measures in place, single versus multicomponent measures in place, or closure of schools. Across all intervention categories and all study designs, very low- to low-certainty evidence ratings limit our confidence in the findings. Concerns with the quality of modelling studies related to potentially inappropriate assumptions about the model structure and input parameters, and an inadequate assessment of model uncertainty. Concerns with risk of bias in observational studies related to deviations from intended interventions or missing data. Across all categories, few studies reported on implementation or described how measures were implemented. Where we describe effects as 'positive', the direction of the point estimate of the effect favours the intervention(s); 'negative' effects do not favour the intervention. We found 23 modelling studies assessing measures reducing the opportunity for contacts (i.e. alternating attendance, reduced class size). Most of these studies assessed transmission and healthcare utilisation outcomes, and all of these studies showed a reduction in transmission (e.g. a reduction in the number or proportion of cases, reproduction number) and healthcare utilisation (i.e. fewer hospitalisations) and mixed or negative effects on societal, economic and ecological outcomes (i.e. fewer number of days spent in school). We identified 11 modelling studies and two observational studies assessing measures making contacts safer (i.e. mask wearing, cleaning, handwashing, ventilation). Five studies assessed the impact of combined measures to make contacts safer. They assessed transmission-related, healthcare utilisation, other health, and societal, economic and ecological outcomes. Most of these studies showed a reduction in transmission, and a reduction in hospitalisations; however, studies showed mixed or negative effects on societal, economic and ecological outcomes (i.e. fewer number of days spent in school). We identified 13 modelling studies and one observational study assessing surveillance and response measures, including testing and isolation, and symptomatic screening and isolation. Twelve studies focused on mass testing and isolation measures, while two looked specifically at symptom-based screening and isolation. Outcomes included transmission, healthcare utilisation, other health, and societal, economic and ecological outcomes. Most of these studies showed effects in favour of the intervention in terms of reductions in transmission and hospitalisations, however some showed mixed or negative effects on societal, economic and ecological outcomes (e.g. fewer number of days spent in school). We found three studies that reported outcomes relating to multicomponent measures, where it was not possible to disaggregate the effects of each individual intervention, including one modelling, one observational and one quasi-experimental study. These studies employed interventions, such as physical distancing, modification of school activities, testing, and exemption of high-risk students, using measures such as hand hygiene and mask wearing. Most of these studies showed a reduction in transmission, however some showed mixed or no effects. As the majority of studies included in the review were modelling studies, there was a lack of empirical, real-world data, which meant that there were very little data on the actual implementation of interventions.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review suggests that a broad range of measures implemented in the school setting can have positive impacts on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and on healthcare utilisation outcomes related to COVID-19. The certainty of the evidence for most intervention-outcome combinations is very low, and the true effects of these measures are likely to be substantially different from those reported here. Measures implemented in the school setting may limit the number or proportion of cases and deaths, and may delay the progression of the pandemic. However, they may also lead to negative unintended consequences, such as fewer days spent in school (beyond those intended by the intervention). Further, most studies assessed the effects of a combination of interventions, which could not be disentangled to estimate their specific effects. Studies assessing measures to reduce contacts and to make contacts safer consistently predicted positive effects on transmission and healthcare utilisation, but may reduce the number of days students spent at school. Studies assessing surveillance and response measures predicted reductions in hospitalisations and school days missed due to infection or quarantine, however, there was mixed evidence on resources needed for surveillance. Evidence on multicomponent measures was mixed, mostly due to comparators. The magnitude of effects depends on multiple factors. New studies published since the original search date might heavily influence the overall conclusions and interpretation of findings for this review.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Munawwar R, Ali H, Asalm N, et al (2021)

The circlet effects of Covid-19 pandemic and major crisis faced by developing nation: Now and beyond.

Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 34(6):2247-2252.

COVID-19 has taken over the world as the largest viral outbreak in the past 100 years. With over 13 million confirmed cases and 0.5 million-plus people dead, it has affected the life around us. With Pakistan being amongst the top 15 countries affected by it, the government of Pakistan has started vaccination, issued SOPs on daily life and smart lockdown continues in the country, but a part of this activity developing countries are still facing even greater difficulties in handling this crisis. This paper was designed to evaluate the status of scientific literature available on Covid-19 pandemic and to relate this situation from Pakistan perspective. A detailed review of published literature was conducted from March 2020 to August 2020. Covid-19, pandemic, Pakistan, healthcare setup, psychological impact, educational activities and challenges SOPs were utilized as key vocabulary. Miscellaneous searching tools including, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar and Covid-19 portal from Government of Pakistan were visited for relevant information. A total of 30 research commentaries, articles, opinions and editorial letters were selected based on the required information. This article discusses the effects of COVID-19 on society and focus on SOPs introduced and their effects on the physical and mental health of the general public.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-14

Vus V, A Puzyrina (2021)

COVID-19 IMPACT: NEW TENDENCIES AND TRENDS IN MENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH.

Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960), 74(11 cz 1):2836-2839.

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To provide an analysis of contemporary investigations in the area of Mental Health Care for the individual \ population; to define the main trends, tendencies, key concepts of these investigations during \ after Covid -19 pandemic and established restrictions.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A literary review (163 research publications totally) of relevant articles was performed (a scoping review method) based on the followings criteria: publication year (2020-2021), publication source (only PubMed and Open Access), mental health issues in regards of individual \ population. We used "mental health," "covid19 mental health", "impact of covid 19 on mental health," and "covid 19 mental health impact" keywords for searching related research papers in the Pubmed database. Additionally, the clinical case of social restrictions' impact on a patient' mental health is described.

CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The main trends of modern research are determined by: the search for more modern scientific terms and categories (E - Mental Health, digital Mental Health, Tele-Mental Health, etc.); study of risks and benefits of widespread use of virtual and information technologies in the field of Mental Health Care; diagnosis and treatment of new mental health disorders; reassessment of traditional values, active search for new meanings in the field of interpersonal and intergroup relationships; development of health-responsive economy and health-responsive society.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Yoshida H (2022)

[Polio Environmental Surveillance and Its Application to SARS-CoV-2 Detection].

Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 142(1):11-15.

The polio eradication program, launched in 1988, has successfully decreased the number of poliomyelitis patients worldwide. However, in areas with immunization gaps where oral polio vaccine coverage has dropped, outbreaks of more virulent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have become a threat to public health. In Japan, inactivated polio vaccine replaced oral polio vaccine as the routine immunization in 2012. Polio environmental surveillance (ES) has been conducted nationwide since 2013 to efficiently monitor the wild type poliovirus or VDPV, which may be imported from overseas. ES may also be utilized to detect other viruses in stool samples. We propose a method of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection based on the polio ES network, and establish a procedure to detect fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome in wastewater solids. Our findings suggest that polio ES can be used to simultaneously monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragments in sewage waters.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Veizades S, Tso A, PK Nguyen (2022)

Infection, inflammation and thrombosis: a review of potential mechanisms mediating arterial thrombosis associated with influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

Biological chemistry, 403(2):231-241 pii:hsz-2021-0348.

Thrombosis has long been reported as a potentially deadly complication of respiratory viral infections and has recently received much attention during the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Increased risk of myocardial infarction has been reported during active infections with respiratory viruses, including influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which persists even after the virus has cleared. These clinical observations suggest an ongoing interaction between these respiratory viruses with the host's coagulation and immune systems that is initiated at the time of infection but may continue long after the virus has been cleared. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of viral-associated myocardial infarction, highlight recent clinical studies supporting a causal connection, and detail how the virus' interaction with the host's coagulation and immune systems can potentially mediate arterial thrombosis.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Steiger S, Rossaint J, Zarbock A, et al (2021)

Secondary Immunodeficiency Related to Kidney Disease (SIDKD)-Definition, Unmet Need, and Mechanisms.

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN pii:ASN.2021091257 [Epub ahead of print].

Kidney disease is a known risk factor for poor outcomes of COVID-19 and many other serious infections. Conversely, infection is the second most common cause of death in patients with kidney disease. However, little is known about the underlying secondary immunodeficiency related to kidney disease (SIDKD). In contrast to cardiovascular disease related to kidney disease, which has triggered countless epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental research activities or interventional trials, investments in tracing, understanding, and therapeutically targeting SIDKD have been sparse. As a call for more awareness of SIDKD as an imminent unmet medical need that requires rigorous research activities at all levels, we review the epidemiology of SIDKD and the numerous aspects of the abnormal immunophenotype of patients with kidney disease. We propose a definition of SIDKD and discuss the pathogenic mechanisms of SIDKD known thus far, including more recent insights into the unexpected immunoregulatory roles of elevated levels of FGF23 and hyperuricemia and shifts in the secretome of the intestinal microbiota in kidney disease. As an ultimate goal, we should aim to develop therapeutics that can reduce mortality due to infections in patients with kidney disease by normalizing host defense to pathogens and immune responses to vaccines.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Ciotti M, Ciccozzi M, Pieri M, et al (2022)

The COVID-19 pandemic: viral variants and vaccine efficacy.

Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences, 59(1):66-75.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has prompted the scientific community and the pharmaceutical companies to put maximum efforts into developing vaccines to contain the spread of this disease. Presently, many vaccines have been developed and authorized for use in human beings in different countries. In particular, in Europe to date, the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca and Janssen COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized. All of them are based on a version of the spike (S) glycoprotein characterized at the beginning of the pandemic. However, they differ by their level of efficacy against COVID-19. SARS-COV-2, like other RNA viruses, mutates continually. Genome sequencing analysis shows a nucleotide substitution rate of about 1 × 10-3 substitutions per year that leads to the emergence of variants through point mutations, insertions, deletions and recombination. There is concern about the ability of the current vaccines to protect against emerging viral variants. Mutations in the S-glycoprotein may affect transmission dynamics and the risk of immune escape. In this review, we address the different technological platforms in use for developing COVID-19 vaccines, the impact of emerging viral variants on virus transmission, hospitalization, and response to current vaccines, as well as rare but important adverse reactions to them. Finally, different methods for measuring antibody response to the vaccines, including the importance of using the WHO International Standard to calibrate immunoassays accurately to an arbitrary unit, to reduce interlaboratory variation and to create a common language for reporting results, are reported.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Iqbal A, Zhou K, Kashyap SR, et al (2022)

Early Post-Renal Transplant Hyperglycemia.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 107(2):549-562.

CONTEXT: Though posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM, occurring > 45 days after transplantation) and its complications are well described, early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia (EPTH) (< 45 days) similarly puts kidney transplant recipients at risk of infections, rehospitalizations, and graft failure and is not emphasized much in the literature. Proactive screening and management of EPTH is required given these consequences.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to promote recognition of early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia, and to summarize available information on its pathophysiology, adverse effects, and management.

METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted for "early post-renal transplant hyperglycemia," "immediate posttransplant hyperglycemia," "post-renal transplant diabetes," "renal transplant," "diabetes," and combinations of these terms. EPTH is associated with significant complications including acute graft failure, rehospitalizations, cardiovascular events, PTDM, and infections.

CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes experience better glycemic control in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with resurgence of hyperglycemia after kidney transplant. Patients with and without known diabetes are at risk of EPTH. Risk factors include elevated pretransplant fasting glucose, diabetes, glucocorticoids, chronic infections, and posttransplant infections. We find that EPTH increases risk of re-hospitalizations from infections (cytomegalovirus, possibly COVID-19), acute graft rejections, cardiovascular events, and PTDM. It is essential, therefore, to provide diabetes education to patients before discharge. Insulin remains the standard of care while inpatient. Close follow-up after discharge is recommended for insulin adjustment. Some agents like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists have shown promise. The tenuous kidney function in the early posttransplant period and lack of data limit the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. There is a need for studies assessing noninsulin agents for EPTH to decrease risk of hypoglycemia associated with insulin and long-term complications of EPTH.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Wolfisberg S, Gregoriano C, P Schuetz (2022)

Procalcitonin for individualizing antibiotic treatment: an update with a focus on COVID-19.

Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences, 59(1):54-65.

Procalcitonin (PCT) is useful for differentiating between viral and bacterial infections and for reducing the unnecessary use of antibiotics. As the rise of antimicrobial resistance reaches "alarming" levels according to the World Health Organization, the importance of using biomarkers, such as PCT to limit unnecessary antibiotic exposure has further increased. Randomized trials in patients with respiratory tract infections have shown that PCT has prognostic implications and its use, embedded in stewardship protocols, leads to reductions in the use of antibiotics in different clinical settings without compromising clinical outcomes. However, available data are heterogeneous and recent trials found no significant benefit. Still, from these trials, we have learned several key considerations for the optimal use of PCT, which depend on the clinical setting, severity of presentation, and pretest probability for bacterial infection. For patients with respiratory infections and sepsis, PCT can be used to determine whether to initiate antimicrobial therapy in low-risk settings and, together with clinical data, whether to discontinue antimicrobial therapy in certain high-risk settings. There is also increasing evidence regarding PCT-guided therapy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This review provides an up-to-date overview of the use of PCT in different clinical settings and diseases, including a discussion about its potential to improve the care of patients with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Iba T, Levy JH, M Levi (2022)

Viral-Induced Inflammatory Coagulation Disorders: Preparing for Another Epidemic.

Thrombosis and haemostasis, 122(1):8-19.

Several viral infectious diseases have emerged or re-emerged from wildlife vectors that have generated serious threats to global health. Increased international travel and commerce increase the risk of transmission of viral or other infectious diseases. In addition, recent climate changes accelerate the potential spread of domestic disease. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an important example of the worldwide spread, and the current epidemic will unlikely be the last. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as dengue and Lassa fevers, may also have the potential to spread worldwide with a significant impact on public health with unpredictable timing. Based on the important lessons learned from COVID-19, it would be prudent to prepare for future pandemics of life-threatening viral diseases. The key concept that connect COVID-19 and viral hemorrhagic fever is the coagulation disorder. This review focuses on the coagulopathy of acute viral infections since hypercoagulability has been a major challenge in COVID-19, but represents a different presentation compared with viral hemorrhagic fever. However, both thrombosis and hemorrhage are understood as the result of thromboinflammation due to viral infections, and the role of anticoagulation is important to consider.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Lichtenstein JD, Amato JT, Holding EZ, et al (2022)

How We Work Now: Preliminary Review of a Pediatric Neuropsychology Hybrid Model in the Era of COVID-19 and Beyond.

Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists, 37(1):40-49.

OBJECTIVE: Although telehealth has become a central component of medical care in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, comprehensive pediatric neuropsychological assessment over virtual platforms lacks empirical efficacy. This paper presents: a) the results of a quality improvement project examining the feasibility of in-person evaluation in the context of safety measures that alter test standardization, b) the impact such changes had upon neuropsychological test scores, and c) how using a hybrid model of clinical service delivery affected access to care.

METHOD: We compared demographic and outcome variables between patients seen during the pandemic (N = 87) to a group of patients seen in our service immediately prior to COVID-19 (N = 87). A subset of those patients were case-matched for age and diagnosis (N = 39 per group). Children seen for neuropsychological re-evaluation during the pandemic (N = 10) were examined using pairwise comparison.

RESULTS: Groups did not differ on age, sex, or FSIQ. Despite changes to standardized administration, no group differences were found for any selected neuropsychological test variables in the larger sample or subsamples. In fact, all variables were moderately to highly correlated in the re-evaluation subgroup. The hybrid model expedited feedback sessions and increased face-to-face (telehealth) feedbacks.

CONCLUSIONS: A hybrid model incorporating modified in-person testing and intake and feedback encounters via telehealth may be a feasible and effective way to provide pediatric neuropsychological services. These preliminary findings suggest such novel aspects of neuropsychological evaluation could represent an improvement over pre-COVID models, especially in rural settings.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Rai PK, Mueed Z, Chowdhury A, et al (2022)

Current Overviews on COVID-19 Management Strategies.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 23(3):361-387.

The coronavirus pandemic hit the world lately and caused acute respiratory syndrome in humans. The causative agent of the disease was soon identified by scientists as SARS-CoV-2 and later called a novel coronavirus by the general public. Due to the severity and rapid spread of the disease, WHO classifies the COVID-19 pandemic as the 6th public health emergency even after taking efforts like worldwide quarantine and restrictions. Since only symptomatic treatment is available, the best way to control the spread of the virus is by taking preventive measures. Various types of antigen/antibody detection kits and diagnostic methods are available for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. In recent years, various phytochemicals and repurposing drugs showing a broad range of anti-viral activities with different modes of actions have been identified. Repurposing drugs such as arbidol, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, favipiravir, remdesivir, hexamethylene amiloride, dexamethasone, tocilizumab, interferon-β, and neutralizing antibodies exhibit in vitro anti-coronaviral properties by inhibiting multiple processes in the virus life cycle. Various research groups are involved in drug trials and vaccine development. Plant-based antiviral compounds such as baicalin, calanolides, curcumin, oxymatrine, matrine, and resveratrol exhibit different modes of action against a wide range of positive/negative sense-RNA/DNA virus, and future researches need to be conducted to ascertain their role and use in managing SARS-CoV-2. Thus this article is an attempt to review the current understanding of COVID- 19 acute respiratory disease and summarize its clinical features with their prospective control and various aspects of the therapeutic approach.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Choy CL, Liaw SY, Goh EL, et al (2022)

Impact of sepsis education for healthcare professionals and students on learner and patient outcomes: A systematic review.

The Journal of hospital infection pii:S0195-6701(22)00009-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is an important global healthcare problem that is a key challenge faced by healthcare professionals face worldwide. One key effort aimed at reducing the global burden of sepsis is educating healthcare professionals about early identification and management of sepsis.

AIM: To provide a comprehensive evaluation of sepsis education among healthcare professionals and students.

METHODS: Six databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus) were searched. We included studies that described and evaluated any form of education or training on sepsis delivered to healthcare professionals and students. Study outcomes were summarised according to the adapted Kirkpatrick model of training evaluation.

RESULTS: Thirty-two studies were included in the review. The learning contents were reported to be in accordance with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. Seven studies included the topic of interprofessional teamwork and communication in their sepsis education content. Most educational programs were effective and reported positive effects on immediate knowledge outcomes. Interventions that were delivered through an active learning approach such as simulation and game-based learning generally produced greater gains than didactic teaching. Improvements in patient care processes and patient outcomes were associated with the concomitant existence or implementation of a hospital sepsis care bundle.

CONCLUSION: Incorporating active learning strategies into sepsis education interventions has the potential to improve learners' long-term outcomes. In addition, sepsis education and protocol-based sepsis care bundle act in synergy to augment greater improvements in care processes and patient benefits.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Dehmani S, Penkalla N, Jung EM, et al (2022)

Scoping Review: Ultrasonographic evidence of intraabdominal manifestations of COVID-19 infection.

Medical ultrasonography [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that in the majority of patients will only cause mild symptoms. The most common serious complication is COVID-19 pneumonia, however, gastrointestinal (GI) COV-ID-19 is also a frequent presentation and likely due to the high expression of the ACE2 receptor in the GI tract. As diagnostic ultrasound has been frequently used in the management of this patient cohort, we conducted a literature search with the aim to present and review the currently published evidence of using ultrasound examinations in the management of intraabdominal manifestations of COVID-19. Our analysis showed that sonographic abnormalities of the hepatobiliary system are the most commonly reported findings in adults, while gastrointestinal abnormalities are the most common findings in children. The most severe complications are related to thromboembolic complications in the intensive care unit.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Zhang JJ, Dong X, Liu GH, et al (2022)

Risk and Protective Factors for COVID-19 Morbidity, Severity, and Mortality.

Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology [Epub ahead of print].

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an evolving global health crisis. Currently, a number of risk factors have been identified to have a potential impact on increasing the morbidity of COVID-19 in adults, including old age, male sex, pre-existing comorbidities, and racial/ethnic disparities. In addition to these factors, changes in laboratory indices and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as possible complications, could indicate the progression of COVID-19 into a severe and critical stage. Children predominantly suffer from mild illnesses due to COVID-19. Similar to adults, the main risk factors in pediatric patients include age and pre-existing comorbidities. In contrast, supplementation with a healthy diet and sufficient nutrition, COVID-19 vaccination, and atopic conditions may act as protective factors against the infection of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccination not only protects vulnerable individuals from SARS-CoV-2 infection, more importantly, it may also reduce the development of severe disease and death due to COVID-19. Currently used therapies for COVID-19 are off-label and empiric, and their impacts on the severity and mortality of COVID-19 are still unclear. The interaction between asthma and COVID-19 may be bidirectional and needs to be clarified in more studies. In this review, we highlight the clinical evidence supporting the rationale for the risk and protective factors for the morbidity, severity, and mortality of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Hama Y, Morishita H, N Mizushima (2022)

Regulation of ER-derived membrane dynamics by the DedA domain-containing proteins VMP1 and TMEM41B.

EMBO reports [Epub ahead of print].

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central hub for the biogenesis of various organelles and lipid-containing structures. Recent studies suggest that vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) and transmembrane protein 41B (TMEM41B), multispanning ER membrane proteins, regulate the formation of many of these ER-derived structures, including autophagosomes, lipid droplets, lipoproteins, and double-membrane structures for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication. VMP1 and TMEM41B possess a DedA domain that is widely distributed not only in eukaryotes but also in prokaryotes and predicted to adopt a characteristic structure containing two reentrant loops. Furthermore, recent studies show that both proteins have lipid scrambling activity. Based on these findings, the potential roles of VMP1 and TMEM41B in the dynamic remodeling of ER membranes and the biogenesis of ER-derived structures are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Ahmed S, Grainger R, Santosa A, et al (2022)

APLAR recommendations on the practice of telemedicine in rheumatology.

International journal of rheumatic diseases [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid and widespread adoption of telemedicine in rheumatology care. The Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology (APLAR) working group was tasked with developing evidence-based recommendations for rheumatology practice to guide maintenance of the highest possible standards of clinical care and to enable broad patient reach.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of English-language articles related to telehealth in rheumatology was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed, Web Of Science and Scopus. The strength of the evidence was graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach as well as the Oxford Levels of Evidence. The recommendations were developed using a modified Delphi technique to establish consensus.

RESULTS: Three overarching principles and 13 recommendations were developed based on identified literature and consensus agreement. The overarching principles address telemedicine frameworks, decision-making, and modality. Recommendations 1-4 address patient suitability, triage, and when telemedicine should be offered to patients. Recommendations 5-10 cover the procedure, including the means, data safety, fail-safe mechanisms, and treat-to-target approach. Recommendations 11-13 focus on training and education related to telerheumatology.

CONCLUSION: These recommendations provide guidance for the approach and use of telemedicine in rheumatology care to guide highest possible standards of clinical care and to enable equitable patient reach. However, since evidence in telemedicine care in rheumatology is limited and emerging, most recommendations will need further consideration when more data are available.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Gidwani B, Bhattacharya R, Shukla SS, et al (2022)

Indian Spices: Past, Present and future challenges as the engine for bio- enhancement of drugs: Impact of Covid-19.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

Spices are natural plant products enriched with the history of being used as herbal medicine for prevention of diseases. India is also known as "Land of Spices". Out of 109 spices recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) world more than 52-60 spice crops are grown in India. The major spices exported by India are Turmeric, Cumin, Coriander, Fenugreek, Peppers etc. The Indian spices are divided into three era viz. early period, middle age and early modern period. Spices are used in beverages, liquors, and pharmaceutical, cosmetic and Perfumery products. The major issue with spices is their handling and storage. This review article mainly focuses on two aspects: At the outset the handling and storage of the spices is essential factor as spices are available in different forms like raw, processed, fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried. So the need of processing, packaging, storage and handling of the spices is important as spices deterioration can leads to the loss of its therapeutic activity. Furthermore many herbal constituents have the capability to enhance the bioavailability of drugs. So an attempt has been made to throw a light on the bio enhancer activity and therapeutic activity along with their mechanism of action of the some Indian Spices which are regularly used for cooking purpose on the daily basis to enhance the taste of food. The spices suggested by ministry of AYUSH which is relevant to its medicinal and biological property in treatment and prevention from COVID-19 are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Hosseini NF, Dalirfardouei R, Aliramaei MR, et al (2022)

Stem cells or their exosomes: which is preferred in COVID-19 treatment?.

Biotechnology letters [Epub ahead of print].

It only took 8 months for the pneumonia caused by a previously unknown coronavirus to turn into a global pandemic of unprecedentedly far-reaching implications. Failure of the already discovered treatment measures opened up a new opportunity to evaluate the potentials of mesenchymal stem cells and their extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes in particular. Eventually, the initial success experienced after the use of MSCs in treating the new pneumonia by Lnge and his team backed up the idea of MSC-based therapies and pushed them closer to becoming a reality. However, MSC-related concerns regarding safety such as abnormal differentiation, spontaneous malignant and the formation of ectopic tissues have triggered the replacement of MSCs by their secreted exosomes. The issue has been further strengthened by the fact that the exosomes leave similar treatment impacts when compared to their parental cells. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the use of MSC-derived exosomes in the treatment of a variety of diseases. With a primary focus on COVID-19 and its current treatment methods, the present review looks into the potentials of MSCs and MSC-derived exosomes in battling the ongoing pandemic. Finally, the research will draw an analogy between exosomes and their parental cells, when it comes to the progresses and challenges in using exosomes as a large-scale treatment method.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Subbaram K, Ali PSS, S Ali (2022)

Enhanced endocytosis elevated virulence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 due to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients.

Gene reports pii:S2452-0144(22)00003-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes hyperglycemia. In COVID-19 patients the severity of the disease depends on myriad factors but diabetes mellitus is the most important comorbidity. The current review was conducted to investigate the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 and disease severity of COVID-19 in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and relevant treatment. The literature published in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was reviewed up to September 2021. The keywords including SARS-CoV-2, type 2 diabetes mellitus in COVID-19, hyperglycemia in COVID-19, opportunistic infections in type 2 diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 were used in different combinations. Hyperglycemic individuals over-express ACE-2 receptors in the lungs thus increasing the SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and replication. Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, additionally it also stimulates the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α creating a cytokine storm. Cytokine storm might be responsible for respiratory insufficiency in severe COVID-19 patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with immunosuppression and the patients are prone to get many opportunistic infections. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with severe COVID-19 have lymphopenia. Moreover, in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients the neutrophils exhibit decreased chemotaxis, hydrogen peroxide production, and phagocytosis. Reduction in lymphocyte count and defective neutrophil capacity renders them with COVID-19 susceptible to opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections increasing the mortality rate. The opportunistic bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients were due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella sp. In COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, mucormycosis was found to be the most common fungal infection with a higher predilection to males. Hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enhances the SARS-CoV-2 replication with an adverse outcome. A strong correlation exists between the poor prognosis of COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Proper glycemic control in COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus might lessen the severity of the disease.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Smith SJ, SL Farra (2022)

The Impact of Covid-19 on the Regulation of Nursing Practice and Education.

Teaching and learning in nursing : official journal of the National Organization for Assciate Degree Nursing pii:S1557-3087(22)00004-X [Epub ahead of print].

To adapt to the environment resulting from a worldwide pandemic, states across the country enacted regulation changes impacting nursing education, entry into practice, and licensure. In this manuscript, the authors collected state board of nursing data from sources including websites and letters from the State Boards to deans, directors, and chairs. Information obtained reflected changes to regulation of practice and regulation of education. As the pandemic continues, associate degree educators will need to continue to stay abreast of nursing regulation changes made to meet healthcare workforce needs while also ensuring public safety.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

McInnes S, Halcomb E, Ashley C, et al (2022)

An integrative review of primary health care nurses' mental health knowledge gaps and learning needs.

Collegian (Royal College of Nursing, Australia) pii:S1322-7696(21)00175-X [Epub ahead of print].

Background: The global COVID-19 pandemic has escalated the prevalence of mental illness in the community. While specialist mental health nurses have advanced training and skills in mental health care, supporting mental health is a key role for all nurses. As front-line health care professionals, primary health care (PHC) nurses need to be prepared and confident in managing mental health issues.

Aim: To critically analyse and synthesise international literature about the knowledge gaps and learning needs of PHC nurses in providing mental health care.

Design and methods: An integrative review. The quality of papers was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Data were extracted into a summary table and analysed using narrative analysis.

Data sources: CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science and EBSCO electronic databases were searched between 1999 and 2019. Papers were included if they reported original research which explored mental health education/training of nurses working in PHC.

Findings: Of the 652 papers identified, 13 met the inclusion criteria. Four themes were identified: preparedness; addressing knowledge gaps, education programs, and facilitators and barriers.

Discussion: Despite increasing integration of physical and mental health management in PHC, there is limited evidence relating to knowledge gaps and skills development of PHC nurses or their preparedness to provide mental health care.

Conclusion: Findings from this review, together with the global increase in mental illness in communities arising from COVID-19, highlight the need for PHC nurses to identify their mental health learning needs and engage in education to prepare them to meet rising service demands.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Ahmad W, K Shabbiri (2022)

Two years of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2019-2021): structural biology, vaccination, and current global situation.

The Egyptian journal of internal medicine, 34(1):5.

The deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 259,502,031 confirmed cases with 5,183,003 deaths in 223 countries during the last 22 months (Dec 2019-Nov 2021), whereas approximately 7,702,859,718, vaccine doses have been administered (WHO: https://covid19.who.int/) as of the 24th of Nov 2021. Recent announcements of test trial completion of several new vaccines resulted in the launching of immunization for the common person around the globe highlighting a ray of hope to cope with this infection. Meanwhile, genetic variations in SARS-CoV-2 and third layer of infection spread in numerous countries emerged as a stronger prototype than the parental. New and parental SARS-CoV-2 strains appeared as a risk factor for other pre-existing diseases like cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, kidney, liver, heart, and eye injury. This situation requires more attention and re-structuring of the currently developed vaccines and/or drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although a decline in COVID-19 infection has been reported globally, an increase in COVID-19 cases in the subcontinent and east Mediterranean area could be alarming. In this review, we have summarized the current information about the SARS-CoV-2 biology, its interaction and possible infection pathways within the host, epidemiology, risk factors, economic collapse, and possible vaccine and drug development.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Klain A, Indolfi C, Dinardo G, et al (2022)

Covid-19 and spirometry in this age.

Italian journal of pediatrics, 48(1):11.

In the last year, many countries adopted a plan to contain hospital infections by Sars-Cov-2 also limiting pulmonary function tests (PFTs), exclusively to indispensable cases. All the recommendations of the major scientific societies regarding the use of PFTs, in particular spirometry, in the Covid era were formulated in the initial period of the pandemic. Currently, the new scientific knowledge about Sars-Cov-2 and the vaccination among healthcare workers, shown new insight to start doing PFTs again to help the investigation and monitoring of patients with respiratory pathology. In this article, we sum up the recommendations of major International Respiratory Societies, and we shared our experience about PFTs in a Pediatric Respiratory Disease Unit during the pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-18

Gao J, F Sun (2021)

Drug discovery to treat COVID-19 two years after its outbreak.

Drug discoveries & therapeutics, 15(6):281-288.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a significant impact on human health and economic development over the past two years. Therapeutics in combination with vaccines are critical measures to fight the pandemic. The three areas of drug development are blocking the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells, suppressing viral replication inside cells, and regulating the immune system, and important advances have recently been made in those areas. Increasing numbers of neutralizing antibodies and small molecules that show promise have been fully approved or authorized for emergency use, resulting in decreased mortality of patients with COVID-19. The use of therapeutics will have a great impact on formulating and revising public policies to control the pandemic. The pace of lifting of restrictions and economic recovery worldwide will also accelerate in the future. Here, the drugs or agents that have attracted considerable attention and that have led to remarkable progress in the fight against COVID-19 are reviewed.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Khezri MR, Varzandeh R, M Ghasemnejad-Berenji (2022)

The probable role and therapeutic potential of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SARS-CoV-2 induced coagulopathy.

Cellular & molecular biology letters, 27(1):6.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is associated with a high mortality rate. The majority of deaths in this disease are caused by ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) followed by cytokine storm and coagulation complications. Although alterations in the level of the number of coagulation factors have been detected in samples from COVID-19 patients, the direct molecular mechanism which has been involved in this pathologic process has not been explored yet. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is an intracellular pathway which plays a central role in cell survival. Also, in recent years the association between this pathway and coagulopathies has been well clarified. Therefore, based on the evidence on over-activity of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the current review, the probable role of this cellular pathway as a therapeutic target for the prevention of coagulation complications in patients with COVID-19 is discussed.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Yadav S, Sadique MA, Ranjan P, et al (2021)

SERS Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Point-of-Care Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Clinical Samples.

ACS applied bio materials, 4(4):2974-2995.

The current scenario, an ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, places a dreadful burden on the healthcare system worldwide. Subsequently, there is a need for a rapid, user-friendly, and inexpensive on-site monitoring system for diagnosis. The early and rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 plays an important role in combating the outbreak. Although conventional methods such as PCR, RT-PCR, and ELISA, etc., offer a gold-standard solution to manage the pandemic, they cannot be implemented as a point-of-care (POC) testing arrangement. Moreover, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) having a high enhancement factor provides quantitative results with high specificity, sensitivity, and multiplex detection ability but lacks in POC setup. In contrast, POC devices such as lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) offer rapid, simple-to-use, cost-effective, reliable platform. However, LFIA has limitations in quantitative and sensitive analyses of SARS-CoV-2 detection. To resolve these concerns, herein we discuss a unique modality that is an integration of SERS with LFIA for quantitative analyses of SARS-CoV-2. The miniaturization ability of SERS-based devices makes them promising in biosensor application and has the potential to make a better alternative of conventional diagnostic methods. This review also demonstrates the commercially available and FDA/ICMR approved LFIA kits for on-site diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Martins PM, Lima AC, Ribeiro S, et al (2021)

Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications: From the Soul of the Earth to the Deep History of Ourselves.

ACS applied bio materials, 4(8):5839-5870.

Precisely engineered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely explored for applications including theragnostic platforms, drug delivery systems, biomaterial/device coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, performance-enhanced therapeutic alternatives, and even in SARS-CoV-2 detection strips. Such popularity is due to their unique, challenging, and tailorable physicochemical/magnetic properties. Given the wide biomedical-related potential applications of MNPs, significant achievements have been reached and published (exponentially) in the last five years, both in synthesis and application tailoring. Within this review, and in addition to essential works in this field, we have focused on the latest representative reports regarding the biomedical use of MNPs including characteristics related to their oriented synthesis, tailored geometry, and designed multibiofunctionality. Further, actual trends, needs, and limitations of magnetic-based nanostructures for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Serrano-Aroca Á, Ferrandis-Montesinos M, R Wang (2021)

Antiviral Properties of Alginate-Based Biomaterials: Promising Antiviral Agents against SARS-CoV-2.

ACS applied bio materials, 4(8):5897-5907.

The COVID-19 pandemic has made it essential to explore alternative antiviral materials. Alginate is a biodegradable, renewable, biocompatible, water-soluble and antiviral biopolymer with many potential biomedical applications. In this regard, this review shows 17 types of viruses that have been tested in contact with alginate and its related biomaterials. Most of these studies show that alginate-based materials possess little or no toxicity and are able to inhibit a wide variety of viruses affecting different organisms: in humans by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1, the hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, Sindbis virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, poliovirus type 1, rabies virus, rubella virus, and the influenza virus; in mice by the murine norovirus; in bacteria by the T4 coliphage, and in plants by the tobacco mosaic virus and the potato virus X. Many of these are enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, like SARS-CoV-2, which render alginate-based materials highly promising in the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Rahimnejad M, Rabiee N, Ahmadi S, et al (2021)

Emerging Phospholipid Nanobiomaterials for Biomedical Applications to Lab-on-a-Chip, Drug Delivery, and Cellular Engineering.

ACS applied bio materials, 4(12):8110-8128.

The design of advanced nanobiomaterials to improve analytical accuracy and therapeutic efficacy has become an important prerequisite for the development of innovative nanomedicines. Recently, phospholipid nanobiomaterials including 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) have attracted great attention with remarkable characteristics such as resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion for various biomedical applications. Despite many recent reports, there is a lack of comprehensive review on the phospholipid nanobiomaterials from synthesis to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the synthesis and characterization of phospholipid nanobiomaterials focusing on MPC polymers and highlight their attractive potentials for applications in micro/nanofabricated fluidic devices, biosensors, lab-on-a-chip, drug delivery systems (DDSs), COVID-19 potential usages for early diagnosis and even treatment, and artificial extracellular matrix scaffolds for cellular engineering.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Acharya Y, Bhattacharyya S, Dhanda G, et al (2022)

Emerging Roles of Glycopeptide Antibiotics: Moving beyond Gram-Positive Bacteria.

ACS infectious diseases, 8(1):1-28.

Glycopeptides, a class of cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors, have been the antibiotics of choice against drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Their unique mechanism of action involving binding to the substrate of cell wall biosynthesis and substantial longevity in clinics makes this class of antibiotics an attractive choice for drug repurposing and reprofiling. However, resistance to glycopeptides has been observed due to alterations in the substrate, cell wall thickening, or both. The emergence of glycopeptide resistance has resulted in the development of synthetic and semisynthetic glycopeptide analogues to target acquired resistance. Recent findings demonstrate that these derivatives, along with some of the FDA approved glycopeptides have been shown to have antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacteria, and viruses thus expanding their spectrum of activity across the microbial kingdom. Additional mechanisms of action and identification of novel targets have proven to be critical in broadening the spectrum of activity of glycopeptides. This review focuses on the applications of glycopeptides beyond their traditional target group of Gram-positive bacteria. This will aid in making the scientific community aware about the nontraditional activity profiles of glycopeptides, identify the existing loopholes, and further explore this antibiotic class as a potential broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Brown SD, Hardy SM, MA Bruno (2022)

Rationing and Disparities in Health Care: Implications for Radiology Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR, 19(1 Pt A):84-89.

We examine the relationship between the rationing of health care resources and disparities in health care delivery and the specific implications for radiologic resource allocation frameworks such as the ACR Appropriateness Criteria. We explore what rationing is in this context and how it is manifested in radiology. We review how rationing has taken many forms and how rationing has influenced the development of disparities in access and outcomes within health care and specifically within the context of radiology. We describe how the relationship between rationing and health care delivery disparities manifested during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and the corrective measures that were proposed to established rationing frameworks to facilitate more equitable pandemic-related resource distribution. We offer suggestions regarding how such solutions might be brought into radiologic resource allocation schemes to help mitigate disparities in radiologic care in the future.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Casana R, Domanin M, Romagnoli S, et al (2021)

COVID-19 and supra-aortic trunks disease: review of literature about critical phase and sequelae.

The Journal of cardiovascular surgery, 62(6):535-541.

The acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 disease, a global pandemic. A strong association has been documented between COVID-19 and cardiovascular events, although the exact pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear. Carotid atherothrombosis and ischemic stroke represents one of the possible severe manifestations of COVID-19, as a leading cause of long-term disability and death. Different complex intertwined mechanisms seem to underlie the endothelitis which is the cause of multiple cardiovascular manifestations. To date, few case series describing COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke caused by cervical carotid thrombosis have been published. All the patients shared common similar radiographic features, comorbidities, and biomarker profiles. The aim of this brief review was to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the management of a Vascular Surgery Department, changing the daily vascular practice, as well as to provide practical suggestions for symptomatic carotid stenosis, while reviewing published literature.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-17

Banerjee S, AK Mahapatra (2021)

Systematic Review on Treatment Trials of Tocilizumab: A Repurposing Drug against COVID-19.

Reviews on recent clinical trials, 16(4):381-389.

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global issue today. There exists an ongoing health crisis all over the world, and efficacious drugs against COVID-19 are not available yet. Therefore, on an urgent basis, scientists are looking for safe and efficacious drugs against SARSCoV- 2.

METHODS: The reported individual patient data and clinical outcomes, including the rate of recovery and mortality, patients' characteristics, and complications, are reviewed. Randomized controlled trials, single-center cohort studies, and different case studies are provided, and the PICO model is used to illustrate the outcomes.

RESULTS: There exist several FDA (U.S Food and Drug Administration) approved anti coronavirus drugs that sometimes are unsuccessful in curing COVID-19 critical conditions. It has been observed that a humanized monoclonal antibody, Tocilizumab (licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis), targeting the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, has an integral role in the treatment of COVID-19.

CONCLUSION: The cause behind the mortality of COVID-19 patients was found to be the Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS). Therefore, besides other antiviral drugs, the utilization of tocilizumab should also be considered as it can effectively block IL-6 and reduce the inflammatory signal.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Costanzo M, De Giglio MAR, GN Roviello (2022)

Anti-Coronavirus Vaccines: Past Investigations on SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, the Approved Vaccines from BioNTech/Pfizer, Moderna, Oxford/AstraZeneca and others under Development Against SARSCoV- 2 Infection.

Current medicinal chemistry, 29(1):4-18.

The aim of this review article is to summarize the knowledge available to date on prophylaxis achievements in the frame of the fight against Coronaviruses. This work will give an overview of what is reported in the recent literature on vaccines (under investigation or already developed like BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and ChAdOx1-S) effective against the most pathogenic Coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2), with of course particular attention paid to those under development or already in use to combat the current COVID-19 (CoronaVIrus Disease 19) pandemic. Our main objective is to make a contribution to the comprehension, even at a molecular level, of what is currently ready for anti-SARS-CoV-2 prophylactic intervention, as well as to provide the reader with an overall picture of the most innovative approaches for the development of vaccines that could be of general utility in the fight against the most pathogenic Coronaviruses.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Karnaukhova E (2022)

C1-Inhibitor: Structure, Functional Diversity and Therapeutic Development.

Current medicinal chemistry, 29(3):467-488.

Human C1-Inhibitor (C1INH), also known as C1-esterase inhibitor, is an important multifunctional plasma glycoprotein that is uniquely involved in a regulatory network of complement, contact, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems. C1INH belongs to a superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) and exhibits its inhibitory activities towards several target proteases of plasmatic cascades, operating as a major antiinflammatory protein in the circulation. In addition to its inhibitory activities, C1INH is also involved in non-inhibitory interactions with some endogenous proteins, polyanions, cells and infectious agents. While C1INH is essential for multiple physiological processes, it is better known for its deficiency with regards to Hereditary Angioedema (HAE), a rare autosomal dominant disease clinically manifested by recurrent acute attacks of increased vascular permeability and edema. Since the link was first established between functional C1INH deficiency in plasma and HAE in the 1960s, tremendous progress has been made in the biochemical characterization of C1INH and its therapeutic development for replacement therapies in patients with C1INH-dependent HAE. Various C1INH biological activities, recent advances in the HAE-targeted therapies, and availability of C1INH commercial products have prompted intensive investigation of the C1INH potential for the treatment of clinical conditions other than HAE. This article provides an updated overview of the structural and biological activities of C1INH, its role in HAE pathogenesis, and recent advances in the research and therapeutic development of C1INH; it also considers some trends for using C1INH therapeutic preparations for applications other than angioedema, from sepsis and endotoxin shock to severe thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Abbas AA, Abdellattif MH, KM Dawood (2022)

Inhibitory activities of bipyrazoles: a patent review.

Expert opinion on therapeutic patents, 32(1):63-87.

INTRODUCTION: Bipyrazole is constituted from two pyrazole units either in their fully aromatic or partially hydrogenated forms. Pyrazoles are widely available in pharmaceutical and agrochemical products. Some pyrazoles are essential parts of commercial drugs in the market. This inspired us to collect the pharmacological activities of bipyrazoles that have potential therapeutic behaviors in several biological aspects but none of them were included in commercial drugs.

AREAS COVERED: This review covers all biological and pharmacological potentials of bipyrazole derivatives during 2010-2021. The topics of this review comprised anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitubercular, antimalarial, insecticidal activities as well as enzymatic inhibitions.

EXPERT OPINION: Bipyrazoles demonstrated a wide array of potent activities against various diseases such as anticancer, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Those are of great benefits for medicinal researchers to develop promising building blocks of bipyrazoles for treatment of diseases. The SAR studies showed that metallated bipyrazoles had better biological activities than bipyrazole ligands. For example, gold(III) and iridium(II) complexes of bipyrazoles were proved to be anticancer agents, and copper(I) as well as silver(I) complexes had excellent antibacterial activities. Several bipyrazoles were reported as antimalarial inhibitors better than chloroquine, the possible COVID-19 drug.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Singh A, Zaheer S, Kumar N, et al (2021)

Covid19, beyond just the lungs: A review of multisystemic involvement by Covid19.

Pathology, research and practice, 224:153384.

With the commencement of the COVID19 pandemic, following its 1st case reported in Wuhan in China, the knowledge about the virus as well as the symptoms produced by the disease have drastically increased to this day. The manifestations of COVID19 is now known to affect multiple organ systems of the body, which have shown to have acute as well as chronic complications. Histopathological analysis of the biopsies from the affected organs have implied a direct cytopathic effect of the virus but at the same time not ruling out other causes like hypoxia metabolic changes etc., occurring during the course of the disease. In this review article, we have highlighted the histopathological changes in various organs as reported by various studies throughout the world for a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of COVID19.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Deshmukh SK, Agrawal S, Gupta MK, et al (2022)

Recent Advances in the Discovery of Antiviral Metabolites from Fungi.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 23(4):495-537.

As the world manages the impact of a global pandemic caused by COVID-19, the discovery of new antiviral agents has become way more relevant and urgent. Viruses are submicroscopic infectious agents that replicate inside the living cells of different organisms. These viruses use nucleic acids (both DNA and RNA) for further replication and maturity inside the cells. Some of the viruses responsible for various human and plant diseases belong to the classes of Picornaviridae, Retroviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, Pneumoviridae, Virgaviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, and their treatment options are limited or non-existent. The consistent reemergence and resistance development in the viral strains demand the discovery and development of new antiviral drugs possessing better efficacy. Bio-active compounds isolated from fungi can be the source of new compounds with enhanced potency and new mechanisms of action. Fungi are known to produce a diverse lot of secondary metabolites due to their existence in harsh and testing climates which are often inhabitable for many organisms. Because of these unique environments, fungi produce a variety of secondary metabolites of different chemical classes like alkaloids, quinones, furanone, pyrones, benzopyranoids, xanthones, terpenes, steroids, peptides, and many acyclic compounds. Fungal metabolites are known to display a wide range of bioactive attributes, i.e., anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-Alzheimer's, along with antiviral properties. In this review article, we report over 300 antiviral compounds from fungal sources during the period of 2009 to 2019. The source of these compounds is marine and endophytic fungi and they are arranged based on their antiviral action against different viral families. These compounds offer promise for their use and development as future antiviral drugs.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Curran A, Arends J, Buhk T, et al (2021)

"Moving Fourth": Introduction of a practical toolkit for shared decision-making to facilitate healthy living beyond HIV viral suppression.

AIDS reviews, 23(4):204-213.

An extension of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target proposes >90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) should have good health-related quality of life (HrQoL); however, limited guidance exists. The "Health Goals for Me" framework, an individualized approach to HIV care, provides a framework to assess HrQoL. We analyzed several patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to develop a practical toolkit to facilitate shared physician-patient decision-making. HrQoL subdomains, actionable in the clinical setting and measurable as PROMs, were selected. PROMs were collated through systematic literature searches, scored by the authors on usability, validation, and availability, after which practical recommendations were made. Nine subdomains were selected across physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains; 46 validated PROMs were identified. After pre-screening, from 39 evaluated PROMs, we recommended PROMs in the following subdomains: fatigue/energy loss, frailty/resilience, sleep disturbance, substance use, anxiety/depression, cognition, sexual function and desire, and stigma. Using this toolkit, healthcare professionals and PLHIV can collaborate and mutually agree on individual care objectives. Following the "Health Goals for Me" framework, appropriate care interventions can be implemented and reviewed in a continuous cycle. We discussed how eHealth interventions, which will have increasing importance in the post-COVID era, can facilitate improved HrQoL for PLHIV by utilizing toolkits such as the one described here. Implementation of this practical framework and the PROMs toolkit could provide a useful approach to assessing HrQoL in PLHIV and could enhance the physician's ability to gain valuable insights into the patient's daily life across a broad range of HrQoL issues.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-18

de Filippis R, Soler-Vidal J, Pereira-Sanchez V, et al (2022)

Coronavirus outbreak from early career psychiatrists' viewpoint: What we have learned so far.

Perspectives in psychiatric care, 58(1):159-163.

PURPOSE: Since the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic several million cases and more than three million deaths have been already confirmed worldwide due to COVID-19.

DESIGN AND METHODS: Early Career Psychiatrists from all over the world present an overview of what happened in their own countries and what they have learned so far by this experience in everyday clinical practice.

PRACTICE IMPLICATION: We tried to take a real time picture of this unexpected situation, drawing useful hints for now and the future.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Ahmad A, Tiwari RK, IA Ansari (2021)

Revisiting the Antiviral Efficacy of Terpenoids: Plausible Adjunct Therapeutics for Novel SARS-CoV-2?.

Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets, 21(12):2119-2130.

Presently the world is witnessing the most devastating pandemic in the history of mankind caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or SARS-CoV-2. This dreaded pandemic is responsible for escalated mortality rates across the globe and this is the worst catastrophe in the history of mankind. Since its outbreak, substantial scientific explorations focusing on the formulation of novel therapeutical and/or adjunct intervention against the disease are continuously in the pipeline. However, till date, no effective therapy has been approved and hence the present alarming situation urges the necessity of exploring novel, safe and efficient interventional strategies. Functionally, terpenoids are a class of secondary plant metabolites having multi facet chemical structures and are categorically documented to be the largest reservoir of bioactive constituents, predominant in nature. Intriguingly, very little is scientifically explored or reviewed in regards to the anti-CoV-2 attributes of terpenoids. The present article thus aims to revisit the antiviral efficacy of terpenoids by reviewing the current scientific literature and thereby provide an opinion on the plausibility of exploring them as potential therapeutical intervention to deal with ongoing CoV-2 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Yang M, Wang J, Chen Y, et al (2021)

Effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on human reproduction.

Journal of molecular cell biology, 13(10):695-704.

The worldwide infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) impacts human health and life on multiple levels. People infected with SARS-CoV-2 suffer from physical disorders and psychological distress. At present, no direct evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 negatively influences human reproduction, and the possibility that gametes and embryos are affected requires further investigation. To evaluate the potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on human reproduction and fetal health, this review summarizes the basic and clinical research of SARS-CoV-2 on reproduction up to date, hoping to offer guidance and advice to people at reproductive age and provide clues for the prevention and treatment of associated diseases.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Agrawal N, A Goyal (2022)

Potential Candidates against COVID-19 Targeting RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: A Comprehensive Review.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 23(3):396-419.

Due to the extremely contagious nature of SARS-COV-2, it presents a significant threat to humans worldwide. A plethora of studies are going on all over the world to discover the drug to fight SARS-COV-2. One of the most promising targets is RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), responsible for viral RNA replication in host cells. Since RdRp is a viral enzyme with no host cell homologs, it allows the development of selective SARS-COV-2 RdRp inhibitors. A variety of studies used in silico approaches for virtual screening, molecular docking, and repurposing of already existing drugs and phytochemicals against SARS-COV-2 RdRp. This review focuses on collating compounds possessing the potential to inhibit SARS-COV-2 RdRp based on in silico studies to give medicinal chemists food for thought so that the existing drugs can be repurposed for the control and treatment of ongoing COVID-19 pandemic after performing in vitro and in vivo experiments.

RevDate: 2022-01-18
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Hussain M, Collier P, R Moudgil (2021)

Cardiovascular Complications in Major 21st Century Viral Epidemics and Pandemics: an Insight into COVID-19.

Current cardiology reviews, 17(6):e051121192897.

There have many major history-defining epidemics and pandemics in the 21st century. It is well known that acute infections can cause cardiovascular (CV) complications, especially in those with underlying cardiac disease. The variation in rates and types of CVD complications in major 21st century epidemics and pandemics varies greatly. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused the turmoil of the century and has COVID-19 has resulted in substantial human and economic loss. The novelty of COVID-19 and emerging CV effects is a new entity. In this review, we discuss the major epidemics and pandemics of the 21st century and associated CVD complications.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Majumder D, Debnath M, Sharma KN, et al (2022)

Olive Oil Consumption can Prevent Non-communicable Diseases and COVID-19: A Review.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 23(2):261-275.

The Mediterranean diet is appraised as the premier dietary regimen, and its espousal is correlated with the prevention of degenerative diseases and extended longevity. The consumption of olive oil stands out as the most peculiar feature of the Mediterranean diet. Olive oil rich in various bioactive compounds like oleanolic acid, oleuropein, oleocanthal, and hydroxytyrosol is known for its antiinflammatory as well as cardioprotective property. Recently in silico studies have indicated that phytochemicals present in olive oil are a potential candidate to act against SARS-CoV-2. Although there are many extensive studies on olive oil and its phytochemical composition, however, some lacunas persist in understanding how the phytochemical composition of olive oil is dependent on upstream processing. The signaling pathways regulated by olive oil in the restriction of various diseases are also not clear. For answering these queries, a detailed search of research and review articles published between 1990 to 2019 were reviewed. Olive oil consumption was found to be advantageous for various chronic non-communicable diseases. Olive oil's constituents are having potent anti-inflammatory activities and thus restrict the progression of various inflammation-linked diseases ranging from arthritis to cancer. But it is also notable that the amount and nature of the phytochemical composition of household olive oil are regulated by its upstream processing, and the physicochemical properties of this oil can give a hint regarding the manufacturing method as well as its therapeutic effect. Moreover, daily uptake of olive oil should be monitored as excessive intake can cause body weight gain and a change in the basal metabolic index. So, it can be concluded that the olive oil consumption is beneficial for human health, and particularly for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, and inflammation. The simple way of processing olive oil is to maintain the polyphenol constituents, whichprovide the protection against noncommunicable diseases and SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Fajardo Á, Perbolianachis P, Ferreiro I, et al (2021)

Molecular accuracy vs antigenic speed: SARS-CoV-2 testing strategies.

Current opinion in pharmacology, 62:152-158 pii:S1471-4892(21)00183-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has hit every corner of the world faster than any infectious disease ever known. In this context, rapid and accurate testing of positive cases are essential to follow the test-trace-isolate strategy (TETRIS), which has proven to be a key approach to constrain viral spread. Here, we discuss how to interpret and combine molecular or/and antigen-based detection methods for SARS-CoV-2 as well as when they should be used. Their application can be cleverly designed as an algorithm to prevent viral dissemination according to distinct epidemiological contexts within surveillance programs.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Malik JA, Ahmed S, Mir A, et al (2022)

The SARS-CoV-2 mutations versus vaccine effectiveness: New opportunities to new challenges.

Journal of infection and public health, 15(2):228-240 pii:S1876-0341(22)00002-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus epidemic is hastening the discovery of the most efficient vaccines. The development of cost-effective vaccines seems to be the only solution to terminate this pandemic. However, the vaccines' effectiveness has been questioned due to recurrent mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Most of the mutations are associated with the spike protein, a vital target for several marketed vaccines. Many countries were highly affected by the 2nd wave of the SARS-CoV-2, like the UK, India, Brazil and France. Experts are also alarming the further COVID-19 wave with the emergence of Omicron, which is highly affecting the South African populations. This review encompasses the detailed description of all vaccine candidates and COVID-19 mutants that will add value to design further studies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: The information was generated using various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, clinicaltrial.gov.in, WHO database, ScienceDirect, and news portals by using keywords SARS-CoV-2 mutants, COVID-19 vaccines, efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, COVID-19 waves.

RESULTS: This review has highlighted the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants and the vaccine efficacy. Currently, various vaccine candidates are undergoing several phases of development. Their efficacy still needs to check for newly emerged variants. We have focused on the evolution, multiple mutants, waves of the SARS-CoV-2, and different marketed vaccines undergoing various clinical trials and the design of the trials to determine vaccine efficacy.

CONCLUSION: Various mutants of SARS-CoV-2 arrived, mainly concerned with the spike protein, a key component to design the vaccine candidates. Various vaccines are undergoing clinical trial and show impressive results, but their efficacy still needs to be checked in different SARS-CoV-2 mutants. We discussed all mutants of SARS-CoV-2 and the vaccine's efficacy against them. The safety concern of these vaccines is also discussed. It is important to understand how coronavirus gets mutated to design better new vaccines, providing long-term protection and neutralizing broad mutant variants. A proper study approach also needs to be considered while designing the vaccine efficacy trials, which further improved the study outcomes. Taking preventive measures to protect from the virus is also equally important, like vaccine development.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Cheshmehzangi A, Zou T, Z Su (2022)

The Digital Divide Impacts on mental health during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(22)00012-5 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the most daunting unintended consequences of the digital revolution is the digital divide (DD), a pervasive social and information inequality. It negatively affects all sectors of society, and exerts compounding influences on other social inequities. To further complicate the situation, the COVID-19 pandemic has been intensifying the scale of DD and deepening the scope of DD barriers with the increasing but imbalanced applications of digital technologies. For instance, while digital technologies can provide support to fulfill people's mental health needs, recurring evidence shows that DD-prone people are more likely to be excluded from critical services, activities, and resources to support their health concerns and challenges. So far, studies about the mental health consequences of DD amid COVID-19 are limited. Available evidence suggests that the general mental health impacts of COVID-19 include anxiety, depression, and suicidal behaviors, while the mental health consequences of DD due to COVID-19 are mainly stress, distress, and anxiety. To shed light on the research gap, based on the social inequality roots of DD and the nexus between DD barriers and factors of social inequalities, this study highlights the alarming overlap between DD-prone communities and vulnerable populations. Furthermore, we underscore the future research directions that could help society better serve both underserved communities.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Tipre DN, Cidon M, RA Moats (2022)

Imaging Pulmonary Blood Vessels and Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatch in COVID-19.

Molecular imaging and biology [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 hypoxemic patients although sharing a same etiology (SARS-CoV-2 infection) present themselves quite differently from one another. Patients also respond differently to prescribed medicine and to prone Vs supine bed positions. A severe pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch usually triggers moderate to severe COVID-19 cases. Imaging can aid the physician in assessing severity of COVID-19. Although useful for their portability X-ray and ultrasound serving on the frontline to evaluate lung parenchymal abnormalities are unable to provide information about pulmonary vasculature and blood flow redistribution which is a consequence of hypoxemia in COVID-19. Advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography, single-photon emission tomography, and electrical impedance tomography use a sharp algorithm visualizing pulmonary ventilation-perfusion mismatch in the abnormal and in the apparently normal parenchyma. Imaging helps to access the severity of infection, lung performance, ventilation-perfusion mismatch, and informs strategies for medical treatment. This review summarizes the capacity of these imaging modalities to assess ventilation-perfusion mismatch in COVID-19. Despite having limitations, these modalities provide vital information on blood volume distribution, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary vasculature and are useful to assess severity of lung disease and effectiveness of treatment in COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Padiyar S, Kamath N, Mathew J, et al (2022)

New-onset Adult-onset Still's disease-like syndrome after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination-a case series with review of literature.

Clinical rheumatology [Epub ahead of print].

We report a series of 3 Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD)-like presentations in previously healthy females following vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, and also compare them with similar cases reported in literature through a PubMed database search. Our first patient had a high spiking bi-quotidian type of fever with myalgia, sore throat, and arthritis with onset 10-day post-vaccination, with laboratory features of hyper inflammation responding to only naproxen. She was off treatment after 2 months. The second patient, with onset 3-week post-vaccination, had a more severe illness, requiring high dose immunosuppression. In our third case, the onset of illness was slightly delayed i.e., 3-month post-vaccination, but she had the most severe disease with macrophage activation syndrome at presentation requiring immunosuppression and biologicals. The underlying mechanism may be linked to the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR)-TLR-7 and TLR-9-leading to a robust immune response. These 3 cases highlight the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines, with the possibility of occurrence of new-onset systemic hyper-inflammation illness which can happen a few days following the vaccination, sometimes even delayed to months, and can range in severity from mild to even life-threatening. More cases need to be studied to understand the profile and prognosis of these syndromes in the long run.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Kim S, Kim JA, JY Lee (2022)

International Trend of Non-Contact Healthcare and Related Changes Due to COVID-19 Pandemic.

Yonsei medical journal, 63(Suppl):S22-S33.

In response to the global spread of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), many countries have expanded access to non-contact healthcare. This study aimed to investigate the current state of non-contact healthcare in developed countries before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and examine the potential clinical and political implications applicable to Korea. Before the COVID-19 outbreak, non-contact healthcare was provided to a limited extent. However, given the surge in COVID-19 cases, countries have lifted the restrictions on non-contact healthcare by expanding eligibility to patients and providers and the range of services. Countries that were slow to implement non-contact healthcare before the pandemic experienced a paradigm shift. Non-contact healthcare has advantages in maintaining essential health services while protecting patients and providers from viral infections. In Korea, non-contact healthcare was regarded as a business sector, so it has not been formally discussed from a public health standpoint. Given this global urgency, discussions should begin surrounding how to best utilize non-contact healthcare, considering the values, safety, and efficacy from the perspective of continuity of patient care. Non-contact healthcare should shift to utilizing a patient-centered approach. The step-by-step strategic planning of non-contact healthcare is imperative for ensuring value, quality, equity, and safety of services.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Park Y, Lee C, JY Jung (2022)

Digital Healthcare for Airway Diseases from Personal Environmental Exposure.

Yonsei medical journal, 63(Suppl):S1-S13.

Digital technologies have emerged in various dimensions of human life, ranging from education to professional services to well-being. In particular, health products and services have expanded by the use and development of artificial intelligence, mobile health applications, and wearable electronic devices. Such advancements have enabled accurate and updated tracking and modeling of health conditions. For instance, digital health technologies are capable of measuring environmental pollution and predicting its adverse health effects. Several health conditions, including chronic airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, can be exacerbated by pollution. These diseases impose substantial health burdens with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, efforts have been made to develop digital technologies to alleviate such conditions. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has facilitated the application of telemedicine and telemonitoring for patients with chronic airway diseases. This article reviews current trends and studies in digital technology utilization for investigating and managing environmental exposure and chronic airway diseases. First, we discussed the recent progression of digital technologies in general environmental healthcare. Then, we summarized the capacity of digital technologies in predicting exacerbation and self-management of airway diseases. Concluding these reviews, we provided suggestions to improve digital health technologies' abilities to reduce the adverse effects of environmental exposure in chronic airway diseases, based on personal exposure-response modeling.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Zhang Y, Wang Q, Mackay CR, et al (2022)

Neutrophil subsets and their differential roles in viral respiratory diseases.

Journal of leukocyte biology [Epub ahead of print].

Neutrophils play significant roles in immune homeostasis and as neutralizers of microbial infections. Recent evidence further suggests heterogeneity of neutrophil developmental and activation states that exert specialized effector functions during inflammatory disease conditions. Neutrophils can play multiple roles during viral infections, secreting inflammatory mediators and cytokines that contribute significantly to host defense and pathogenicity. However, their roles in viral immunity are not well understood. In this review, we present an overview of neutrophil heterogeneity and its impact on the course and severity of viral respiratory infectious diseases. We focus on the evidence demonstrating the crucial roles neutrophils play in the immune response toward respiratory infections, using influenza as a model. We further extend the understanding of neutrophil function with the studies pertaining to COVID-19 disease and its neutrophil-associated pathologies. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these results for future therapeutic options through targeting and regulating neutrophil-specific responses.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Malik P, Jain S, Jain P, et al (2022)

A comprehensive update on the structure and synthesis of potential drug targets for combating the coronavirus pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2.

Archiv der Pharmazie [Epub ahead of print].

The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic COVID-19 created by its severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant, known for producing a very severe acute respiratory syndrome, has created an unprecedented situation by its continual assault around the world. The crisis caused by the SARS-CoV-2 variant has been a global challenge, calling to mitigate this unprecedented pandemic that has engulfed the whole world. Since the outbreak and spread of COVID-19, many researchers globally have been grappling to find new clinically trialed active drugs with anti-COVID-19 activity, from antimalarial drugs to JAK inhibitors, antiviral drugs, immune suppressants, and so forth. This article presents a brief discussion on the activity and synthesis of some active molecules such as favipiravir, hydroxychloroquine, pirfenidone, remdesivir, lopinavir, camostat, chloroquine, baricitinib, molnupiravir, and so forth, which are under trial.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Qin R, He L, Yang Z, et al (2022)

Identification of Parameters Representative of Immune Dysfunction in Patients with Severe and Fatal COVID-19 Infection: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Abnormal immunological indicators associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 have been reported in several observational studies. However, there are marked heterogeneities in patient characteristics and research methodologies in these studies. We aimed to provide an updated synthesis of the association between immune-related indicators and COVID-19 prognosis. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Willey, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and CNKI for studies reporting immunological and/or immune-related parameters, including hematological, inflammatory, coagulation, and biochemical variables, tested on hospital admission of COVID-19 patients with different severities and outcomes. A total of 145 studies were included in the current meta-analysis, with 26 immunological, 11 hematological, 5 inflammatory, 4 coagulation, and 10 biochemical variables reported. Of them, levels of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgG, and CD4+ T/CD8+ T cell ratio, WBC, neutrophil, platelet, ESR, CRP, ferritin, SAA, D-dimer, FIB, and LDH were significantly increased in severely ill patients or non-survivors. Moreover, non-severely ill patients or survivors presented significantly higher counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocyte/monocyte ratio, eosinophils, CD3+ T,CD4+T and CD8+T cells, B cells, and NK cells. The currently updated meta-analysis primarily identified a hypercytokinemia profile with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 containing IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, reflected by decreased eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, NK cells, T cells, and their subtype CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and augmented inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and nonpulmonary organ injury, were marked features of patients with poor prognosis. Therefore, parameters of immune response dysfunction combined with inflammatory, coagulated, or nonpulmonary organ injury indicators may be more sensitive to predict severe patients and those non-survivors.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Posada EL, Lauck KC, Tran T, et al (2022)

Educational Interventions to Support Primary Care Provider Performance of Diagnostic Skin Cancer Examinations: A Systematic Literature Review.

Journal of cancer education : the official journal of the American Association for Cancer Education [Epub ahead of print].

To our knowledge, there is no available standardized educational curriculum designed to promote the incorporation of skin cancer examinations and procedures into general practice. To explore the contemporary training landscape, we conducted a systematic review of educational interventions designed to support skin cancer diagnostic examinations by primary care providers (PCPs). Our review uniquely encompasses all PCPs, including practicing physicians, residents, and advanced practice practitioners (APPs). The objective of this study is to review and synthesize worldwide data on educational interventions addressing PCP performance of skin cancer diagnostic examinations. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Scopus for English language articles worldwide published from 2000 onwards. Articles were screened for eligibility, and possibly overlapping datasets were resolved. Data extracted included curriculum content, delivery format, and educational outcomes. This review followed the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 63 studies were selected for data inclusion with one addressing training for resident physicians, 4 for APPs, and the remainder for practicing physicians. Educational interventions included in this review reflect the pre-SARS-CoV-2 pandemic educational environment: half provided live/synchronous instruction of about 5-h duration on average, and a quarter featured interactive components. Less than a quarter of interventions included practice change as a specific reported outcome. Without sustainable practice change, the anticipated long-term benefits of early cancer detection in patients remain limited. Previous and existing educational interventions designed to support skin cancer detection by PCPs demonstrate heterogeneous curriculum content, delivery methods, and educational outcomes. An ideal intervention would teach consensus-derived clinical competencies, provide meaningful learner feedback, and measure outcomes, such as knowledge/competency, confidence/attitudes, and practice change, using validated instruments.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Smith CB, Purcell LN, A Charles (2022)

Cultural Competence, Safety, Humility, and Dexterity in Surgery.

Current surgery reports pii:306 [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose of Review: As the United States' population diversifies, urgent action is required to identify, dismantle, and eradicate persistent health disparities. The surgical community must recognize how patients' values, beliefs, and behaviors are influenced by race, ethnicity, nationality, language, gender, socioeconomic status, physical and mental ability, sexual orientation, and occupation.

Recent Findings: Lately, health disparities have been highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Surgery is no exception, with notable disparities occurring in pediatric, vascular, trauma, and cardiac surgery. In response, numerous curricula and training programs are being designed to increase cultural competence and safety among surgeons.

Summary: Cultural competence, safety, humility, and dexterity are required to improve healthcare experiences and outcomes for minorities. Various opportunities exist to enhance cultural competency and can be implemented at the medical student, resident, attending, management, and leadership levels.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Sarfraz Z, Sarfraz A, Sarfraz M, et al (2022)

Contact dermatitis due to personal protective equipment use and hygiene practices during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review of case reports.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) pii:S2049-0801(22)00014-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Prolonged use of personal protective equipment (PPE) may lead to contact dermatitis during the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. This paper aims to identify the causative factors of contact dermatitis from PPE and hygiene practices.

Methods: The search was conducted adhering to PRISMA 2020 guidelines. A Delphi process was employed to ensure that the aims of this study were met. PubMed and Web of Science databases were systematically searched through September 12, 2021, using search terms: Contact dermatitis, case report, covid-19. The findings were tabulated as author/year, gender, age, presentation, cause, dermatological diagnosis, testing modality, provided treatment, symptom resolution (time in days), prognosis, and follow-up.

Results: The mean age of all individuals was 29.75 years, with 75% females. All cases presented with erythema, with 62.5% reporting pruritus and 37.5% reporting burning facial symptoms. Surgical masks and hand-hygiene products (37.5%) were the most commonly reported causative agent with 25% due to KN95/FFP type 2 use. Allergic contact dermatitis (50%) and irritant contact dermatitis (25%) were common diagnoses. Treatments included creams, emollients, and desloratadine, with restriction of irritant-causing factors. The prognosis was generally good among the cases, with 62.5% presenting complete resolution within a week and 12.5% showing moderate improvement at the fourth month after discontinuing use.

Conclusion: This study finds pertinent links between PPE use and contact dermatitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. While many cases are bound to go underreported in literature, well-designed, large-scale studies in the future may help promote these associations in a more comprehensive manner.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Wong K, Farooq Alam Shah MU, Khurshid M, et al (2022)

COVID-19 associated vasculitis: A systematic review of case reports and case series.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) pii:S2049-0801(22)00009-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Vasculitis is one of the complications of COVID-19. We conducted a systematic review analysing the association of COVID-19 with vasculitis. We searched Google Scholar and PubMed from December 1, 2019, to October 11, 2021. The review included 8 studies (7 case reports and 1 case series) reporting 9 cases of vasculitis secondary to COVID-19. The mean age was 29.17 ± 28.2 years, ranging from 6 months to 83 years. The male to female ratio was 4:5. Maculopapular, violaceous, papular and erythematous rash were common. Heparin(n = 2), corticosteroids (n = 6) (methylprednisolone) and intravenous immunoglobulin (n = 4) were prescribed in these patients. Significant clinical improvement was observed in 8 out of 9 patients. One person died during treatment. Our study discusses vasculitis as one of the complications of COVID-19. Furthermore, the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of COVID-19 associated vasculitis is discussed.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Babaei G, Zare N, Mihanfar A, et al (2022)

Exosomes and COVID-19: challenges and opportunities.

Comparative clinical pathology pii:3311 [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19, starting from Wuhan, China, in December 2019, is a pandemic situation affecting millions worldwide and has exerted a huge burden on healthcare infrastructure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and design novel effective therapeutic strategies for combating this pandemic. In this regard, special attention has been paid to the exosomes. These nanoparticles are extracellular vesicles with critical function in the pathogenesis of several diseases including viral sepsis. Therefore, they may be involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection and also may be a way for transferring viral components and infecting other neighbor cells. Exosomes also can be considered as a therapeutic strategy for treating COVID-19 patients or used as a carrier for delivering effective therapeutic agents. Therefore, in this review, we discussed the biogenesis and contents of exosomes, their function in viral infection, and their potential as a therapeutic candidate in treating COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Lazo J, Aguirre G, D Watts (2022)

An impact study of COVID-19 on the electricity sector: A comprehensive literature review and Ibero-American survey.

Renewable & sustainable energy reviews pii:S1364-0321(22)00063-6 [Epub ahead of print].

To stop the spread of COVID-19, governments have implemented confinement measures unprecedented in modern society. One of the main consequences has been the paralysis of commercial and industrial sectors worldwide, primary electricity consumers. This paper examines the impact of these measures on the electricity sector through a literature review accompanied by fieldwork on the impact of COVID-19 in Ibero-America and its energy regulatory response. First, we will review the causes of the reduction in electricity demand due to the confinement measures and their technical and financial consequences in the electricity sector. Second, we will examine the impact of COVID-19 on the wind and solar PV energy sectors, mainly affected by the paralysis of production and export of materials and components. Third, we will revise the regulatory measures implemented by the countries to avoid the interruption of electricity supply to households. This paper will end by reviewing economic recovery plans and their relationship to the energy transition. Although there are no fundamental differences between developed and developing countries in their regulatory reaction to this crisis in the energy sector, there are significant differences in economic recovery planning. While developed countries aim for a green economic recovery and the creation of green jobs, developing countries are allocating least resources to social protection and general economic stimulus programs, postponing climate objectives. In Latin America, this adds to the high levels of debt faced by utilities and the possible resurgence of social crises that were stopped by the COVID-19 outbreak, making a green recovery even more difficult.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Elsaman T, Mohamed MS, Eltayib EM, et al (2022)

Isatin derivatives as broad-spectrum antiviral agents: the current landscape.

Medicinal chemistry research : an international journal for rapid communications on design and mechanisms of action of biologically active agents pii:2832 [Epub ahead of print].

In recent decades, several viruses have resulted in large outbreaks with serious health, economic and social consequences. The current unprecedented outbreak of the new coronavirus, SARS-COV-2, necessitates intensive efforts for delivering effective therapies to eradicate such a deadly virus. Isatin is an opulent heterocycle that has been proven to provide tremendous opportunities in the area of drug discovery. Over the last fifty years, suitably functionalized isatin has shown remarkable and broad-spectrum antiviral properties. The review herein is an attempt to compile all of the reported information about the antiviral activity of isatin derivatives with an emphasis on their structure-activity relationships (SARs) along with mechanistic and molecular modeling studies. In this regard, we are confident that the review will afford the scientific community a valuable platform to generate more potent and cost-effective antiviral therapies based on isatin templates.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Dutta S, Mukherjee A, U Nongthomba (2022)

Before the "cytokine storm": Boosting efferocytosis as an effective strategy against SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated complications.

Cytokine & growth factor reviews pii:S1359-6101(22)00002-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and causes many health complications, including major lung diseases. Besides investigations into the virology of SARS-CoV-2, understanding the immunological routes underlying the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 is important for developing effective therapeutic interventions. The clearance of SARS-CoV-2-infected apoptotic cells by professional efferocytes, through a process termed as 'efferocytosis', is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis, and reducing the chances of health complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we focus on the cellular events leading to engagement of the SARS-CoV-2 with type 2 alveolar cells, and how SARS-COV-2 infection impairs the macrophage anti-inflammatory programming. We also discuss accounts of impaired efferocytosis, and the "cytokine storm" which occur concomitantly with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we propose how targeting impaired efferocytosis, due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection, may be a beneficial therapeutic strategy to combat COVID-19, and its complications.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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