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Bibliography on: covid-19

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 02:00 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") AND review[SB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-11-09

Landerholm A, Fedotova NO, Levy-Carrick N, et al (2022)

C-L Case Conference: Torsades de Pointes in a Patient with Lifelong Medical Trauma, COVID-19, Remdesivir, Citalopram, Quetiapine and Hemodialysis.

Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry pii:S2667-2960(22)00604-8 [Epub ahead of print].

We present a case of Torsades de Pointes (TdP) in a patient with COVID-19 infection and multiple TdP risk factors including QTc prolongation, hemodialysis, bradycardia, and treatment with remdesivir, citalopram and quetiapine. The case was complicated by post-resuscitation anxiety superimposed on a history of medical trauma since childhood. Top experts in the field of consultation liaison psychiatry, trauma informed care (TIC) and cardiac electrophysiology provide perspectives on this case with a review of the literature. Key teaching topics include identification of TdP risk factors in patients with complex illness; the necessity for prompt electrophysiology consultation in clinical scenarios with high risk for TdP; and the approach to patients with medical trauma using a trauma-informed lens. We highlight the contributions of COVID-19, the pharmacokinetics of QTc-prolonging psychotropic medications, the risks of hemodialysis, and the role of remdesivir-induced bradycardia in this first reported case of TdP in a patient treated with remdesivir.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Spencer AE, Sikov J, Adams WG, et al (2022)

Addressing Social Determinants of Mental Health in Pediatrics during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Academic pediatrics pii:S1876-2859(22)00560-5 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Blenke EO, Örnskov E, Schöneich C, et al (2022)

The storage and in-use stability of mRNA vaccines and therapeutics: Not a cold case.

Journal of pharmaceutical sciences pii:S0022-3549(22)00514-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The remarkable impact of mRNA vaccines on mitigating disease and improving public health has been amply demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many new mRNA-based vaccine and therapeutic candidates are in development, yet the current reality of their stability limitations requires their frozen storage. Numerous challenges remain to improve formulated mRNA stability and enable refrigerator storage, and this review provides an update on developments to tackle this multi-faceted stability challenge. We describe the chemistry underlying mRNA degradation during storage and highlight how lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulations are a double-edged sword: while LNPs protect mRNA against enzymatic degradation, interactions with and between LNP excipients introduce additional risks for mRNA degradation. We also discuss strategies to improve mRNA stability both as a drug substance (DS) and a drug product (DP) including the (1) design of the mRNA molecule (nucleotide selection, primary and secondary structures), (2) physical state of the mRNA-LNP complexes, (3) formulation composition and purity of the components, and (4) DS and DP manufacturing processes. Finally, we summarize analytical control strategies to monitor and assure the stability of mRNA-based candidates, and advocate for an integrated analytical and formulation development approach to further improve their storage, transport, and in-use stability profiles.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Verbeke R, Hogan MJ, Loré K, et al (2022)

Innate immune mechanisms of mRNA vaccines.

Immunity, 55(11):1993-2005.

The lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA platform has been used to generate safe and effective vaccines in record time against COVID-19. Here, we review the current understanding of the manner whereby mRNA vaccines induce innate immune activation and how this contributes to protective immunity. We discuss innate immune sensing of mRNA vaccines at the cellular and intracellular levels and consider the contribution of both the mRNA and the LNP components to their immunogenicity. A key message that is emerging from recent observations is that the LNP carrier acts as a powerful adjuvant for this novel vaccine platform. In this context, we highlight important gaps in understanding and discuss how new insight into the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of mRNA-LNP vaccines may enable tailoring mRNA and carrier molecules to develop vaccines with greater effectiveness and milder adverse events in the future.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Chen XF, Zhao X, Z Yang (2022)

Aptasensors for the detection of infectious pathogens: design strategies and point-of-care testing.

Mikrochimica acta, 189(12):443.

The epidemic of infectious diseases caused by contagious pathogens is a life-threatening hazard to the entire human population worldwide. A timely and accurate diagnosis is the critical link in the fight against infectious diseases. Aptamer-based biosensors, the so-called aptasensors, employ nucleic acid aptamers as bio-receptors for the recognition of target pathogens of interest. This review focuses on the design strategies as well as state-of-the-art technologies of aptasensor-based diagnostics for infectious pathogens (mainly bacteria and viruses), covering the utilization of three major signal transducers, the employment of aptamers as recognition moieties, the construction of versatile biosensing platforms (mostly micro and nanomaterial-based), innovated reporting mechanisms, and signal enhancement approaches. Advanced point-of-care testing (POCT) for infectious disease diagnostics are also discussed highlighting some representative ready-to-use devices to address the urgent needs of currently prevalent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pressing issues in aptamer-based technology and some future perspectives of aptasensors are provided for the implementation of aptasensor-based diagnostics into practical application.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Summerlin J, Wells DA, Anderson MK, et al (2022)

A Review of Current and Emerging Therapeutic Options for Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

The Annals of pharmacotherapy [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of clinical sequelae and emerging treatment options for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH).

DATA SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using the search terms "hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis," "hemophagocytic syndrome," "macrophage activation syndrome," and "treatment" on Ovid and PubMed from January 1, 2017, through September 28, 2022.

Relevant clinical trials, meta-analyses, case reports, review articles, package inserts, and guidelines to identify current and emerging therapeutic options for the management of HLH.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Genetic disorders and secondary causes may trigger HLH in both children and adults. Notable improvements in the diagnosis of HLH were seen with implementation of the HLH-2004 standard diagnostic criteria; however, timely and accurate identification of HLH remain significant barriers to optimal management. Multiagent immunochemotherapy are the backbone of aggressive therapy for acutely ill patients with HLH.

The global coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and emerging immune effector cell therapies have served to highlight the concerns with immune dysregulation and subsequent HLH precipitation. Without prompt identification and treatment, HLH can be fatal. Historically, the clinician's armamentarium for managing HLH was sparse, with etoposide-based protocols serving as the standard of care. Relapsed or refractory disease portends a poor prognosis and requires additional treatment options. Second- or subsequent-line options now include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, emapalumab, alemtuzumab, anakinra, ruxolitinib, and tocilizumab.

CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in diagnostic methods and novel immunosuppressive treatment strategies, including noncytotoxic immunochemotherapy, have transformed the therapeutic landscape. Unfortunately, many unanswered questions remain. Additional studies are required to optimize dosing, schedules, treatment sequences, and indications for novel treatment options.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Du X, Witthöft M, Zhang T, et al (2022)

Interpretation bias in health anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychological medicine pii:S0033291722003427 [Epub ahead of print].

Interpretation bias (i.e. the selective negative interpretation of ambiguous stimuli) may contribute to the development and maintenance of health anxiety. However, the strength of the empirical evidence for this association remains a topic of debate. This study aimed to estimate the association between health anxiety and interpretation bias and to identify potential moderators of this association. Chinese-language databases (CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang), English-language databases (Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus), and German-language databases (Psyndex and PubPsych) were searched for relevant studies. There were 36 articles (39 studies) identified by this search (N = 8984), of which 32 articles (34 studies) were included in the meta-analysis (N = 8602). Results revealed a medium overall effect size (g = 0.67). Statistically equivalent effect sizes were observed for patients diagnosed with clinical health anxiety (g = 0.58) and subclinical health anxiety (g = 0.72). The effect sizes for threat stimuli that were health related (g = 0.68) and not health related (g = 0.63) did not differ significantly. The effect size for studies using an offline paradigm (g = 0.75) was significantly higher than that for studies using an online paradigm (g = 0.50). It is concluded that health anxiety is significantly and robustly associated with interpretation bias. These findings are of central importance for the advancement of models and treatment of health anxiety.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Xie L, Li J, Ai Y, et al (2022)

Current strategies for SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection.

Analytical methods : advancing methods and applications [Epub ahead of print].

The molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 is extremely important for the discovery and prevention of pandemic dissemination. Because SARS-CoV-2 is not always present in the samples that can be collected, the sample chosen for testing has inevitably become the key to the SARS-CoV-2 positive cases screening. The nucleotide amplification strategy mainly includes Q-PCR assays and isothermal amplification assays. The Q-PCR assay is the most used SARS-CoV-2 detection assay. Due to heavy expenditures and other drawbacks, isothermal amplification cannot replace the dominant position of the Q-PCR assay. The antibody-based detection combined with Q-PCR can help to find more positive cases than only using nucleotide amplification-based assays. Pooled testing based on Q-PCR significantly increases efficiency and reduces the cost of massive-scale screening. The endless stream of variants emerging across the world poses a great challenge to SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection. The multi-target assays and several other strategies have proved to be efficient in the detection of mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants. Further research work should concentrate on: (1) identifying more ideal sample plucking strategies, (2) ameliorating the Q-PCR primer and probes targeted toward mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants, (3) exploring more economical and precise isothermal amplification assays, and (4) developing more advanced strategies for antibody/antigen or engineered antibodies to ameliorate the antibody/antigen-based strategy.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Ramachandran S, Shayanfar M, M Brondani (2022)

Stressors and mental health impacts of COVID-19 in dental students: A scoping review.

Journal of dental education [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to mental health hazards to healthcare providers in general and to undergraduate dental students. The present study undertakes a scoping review to identify and discuss the mental health issues and stressors impacting dental students globally during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: A systematic search following the Joanna Briggs Institute's framework for scoping reviews was conducted on Embase, MEDLINE by Ovid, Web of Science, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC to identify peer reviewed publications published globally since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 until June 22, 2021. Manual search was also performed on Google scholar. Eligible studies were selected based on the predetermined set of criteria and focused specifically on mental health issues experienced by undergraduate dental students in the context of COVID-19.

RESULTS: Fifty-five publications were retained. Fifty-one reported stress, anxiety, or depression experienced by undergraduate dental students during the pandemic. Twenty-five studies employed validated psychometric instruments to explore mental health status among the same students. A total of 28 publications reported that the predominant concern for students was fear of infection, especially during patient interaction. Adapting to virtual learning, clinical skill deficit due to lack of/limited practical training and social isolation were other majorly reported stressors.

CONCLUSIONS: Many mental health issues and stressors related to the COVID-19 pandemic have been identified. Mitigation of COVID-19-related stressors on dental students' mental health should be a priority across all dental academic institutions. Continued efforts should be made to create a supportive learning environment.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Chee YJ, Fan BE, Young BE, et al (2022)

Clinical trials on the pharmacological treatment of long COVID: a systematic review.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC), also known as post-acute coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) or the long COVID syndrome (long COVID) is an emerging public health concern. A substantial proportion of individuals may remain symptomatic months after initial recovery. An updated review of published and ongoing trials focusing on managing long COVID will help identify gaps and address the unmet needs of patients suffering from this potentially debilitating syndrome.

METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on the international databases and clinical trial registries from inception to 31 July 2022.

RESULTS: This review included 6 published trials and 54 trial registration records. There is significant heterogeneity in the characterization of long COVID and ascertainment of primary outcomes. Most of the trials are focused on individual symptoms of long COVID or isolated organ dysfunction, classified according to cardiovascular, respiratory and functional capacity, neurological and psychological, fatigue, and olfactory dysfunction. Most of the interventions are related to the mechanisms causing the individual symptoms. Although the 6 published trials showed significant improvement in the symptoms or organ dysfunction studied, these initial studies lack internal and external validity limiting the generalizability.

CONCLUSIONS: This review provides an update of the pharmacological agents that could be used to treat long COVID. Further standardization of the diagnostic criteria, inclusion of participants with concomitant chronic cardiometabolic diseases and standardization of outcomes will be essential in future clinical trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Lei Y, Guan H, Xin W, et al (2022)

A Meta-Analysis of 13 Randomized Trials on Traditional Chinese Medicine as Adjunctive Therapy for COVID-19: Novel Insights into Lianhua Qingwen.

BioMed research international, 2022:4133610.

The efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) paired with western medicine in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 remains controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to identify the effects of TCM. Seven electronic databases were reviewed from the inception of these databases to 30 June 2022. A quality assessment of the included studies was performed with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool to provide a score of high, unclear, or low risk of bias. The standard software program (Stata, version 12.0, statistical software) was used for endpoint analyses. A total of 13 RCTs involving 1398 patients conducted in China were included. The cross-sectional data from various studies were plotted, and the results illustrated that the statistically higher rates of total effectiveness (RR, 1.357; 95% CI, 1.259 to 1.464; P < 0.001), improvement of chest CT (RR, 1.249; 95% CI, 1.143 to 1.356; P < 0.001), and cough improvement (RR, 1.228; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.570; P = 0.012) and a lower incidence of conversion to severe cases (RR, 0.408; 95% CI, 0.275 to 0.605; P < 0.001) were demonstrated in the TCM group than that of the control group. Of note, the subgroup on specific TCM of Lianhua Qingwen (LQ) revealed that the experiment group was associated with a higher rate of total effectiveness (RR, 1.248; 95% CI, 1.136 to 1.371; P < 0.001) and improvement of chest CT (RR, 1.226; 95% CI, 1.110 to 1.356; P < 0.001) and a lower rate of conversion to severe cases (RR, 0.469; 95% CI, 0.311 to 0.707; P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in fever improvement (RD, 0.110; 95% CI, -0.063 to 0.283; P = 0.213). The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that TCM combined with western medicine is more effective in treating COVID-19 via relieving symptoms, promoting patients' recovery, and cutting the rate of patients developing into severe conditions. However, given the relevant possible biases in our study, adequately powered and better-designed studies with long-term follow-up are required to reach a firmer conclusion.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Baral N, Abusnina W, Balmuri S, et al (2022)

COVID-19 Positive Status is Associated with Increased In-hospital Mortality in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives, 12(4):17-24 pii:jchim-12-05-017.

Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may have concomitant positive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to compare the risk of in-hospital mortality in patients primarily hospitalized for AMI with or without concomitant COVID-19 positive status. Using the random-effects model, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published articles from December 1, 2019, to April 1, 2022. There were eight studies with 10,128 patients, including 612 patients with COVID and 9516 patients without COVID. A total of 261 patients (42.64%) with COVID-19 positive and 612 patients (6.43%) with negative COVID-19 status died in the hospital. Pooled data showed that patients with a primary diagnosis of AMI with COVID-19 infection had more than five times increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared to patients without COVID-19 (OR: 5.06, 95% CI: 3.61, 7.09; I2 = 35%, P < 0.001). However, pooled data from five studies with adjustment of baseline differences in patient demographics and characteristics, comorbidities, and in-hospital pharmacology revealed more than three times increased risk of in-hospital mortality compared to patients who had primary AMI without COVID-19 infection (aOR: 3.47, 95% CI: 2.21, 5.45; I2 = 0%, P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) had lower in-hospital mortality (OR 4.23, 95% CI: 3.31, 5.40; I2 = 0%, P < 0.001) compared to non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 5.71, 17.41; I2 = 0%, P < 0.001) (p-value = 0.006). Our study shows that COVID-19 infection is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in patients with index hospitalization for AMI.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Aiyer I, Shaik L, Kashyap R, et al (2022)

COVID-19 Misinformation: A Potent Co-Factor in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Cureus, 14(10):e30026.

COVID-19, the biggest global health crisis of our times was complicated by an equally potent co-factor: the misinformation infodemic. A confluence of unique factors led to the emergence of the crisis of misinformation, including the widespread reach of social media, the lack of credible sources and strategies for information dissemination, and the sticky and virulent nature of the misinformation campaigns. One of the primary targets of the misinformation campaign was the COVID-19 vaccine effort, leading to significant impediments to implementing an effective and successful vaccination campaign. The time to act is now and will need a concerted multipronged approach with a close partnership between scientists, public health agencies, government agencies, and social media companies to foster accuracy in the exchange of health information in social media and curb the menace of misinformation. This paper aims to review the scope of the problem and examine strategies to help mitigate it.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Hussain A, Kaler J, Lau G, et al (2022)

Clinical Conundrums: Differentiating Monkeypox From Similarly Presenting Infections.

Cureus, 14(10):e29929.

Post the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there arises the concern of a new epidemic as cases of monkeypox are being confirmed, globally. With the initial clinical manifestation of monkeypox resembling that of the common cold or seasonal flu, recognizing alternative differential diagnoses is imperative as a medical health practitioner. The characteristic monkeypox maculopapular rash with the progression to vesicles and pustules before scabbing can be described in several other infections. Understanding the disease progression and distinct clinical presentation of monkeypox in its various stages may allow for a more expedient diagnosis among healthcare providers. Though eradicated, the clinical presentation of smallpox is the most similar to that of monkeypox; however, smallpox is no longer a concern for the general population. Other conditions such as molluscum contagiosum, syphilis, varicella zoster, measles, rickettsialpox, and scabies can present with rashes that may resemble singular or multiple states of the monkeypox rash progression. The ability to correctly diagnose an individual's condition promptly may allow healthcare providers to provide correct supportive therapies or treatments.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Sly PD, Trottier B, Ikeda-Araki A, et al (2022)

Environmental Impacts on Infectious Disease: A Literature View of Epidemiological Evidence.

Annals of global health, 88(1):91.

Background: This article summarises a session from the recent Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health Focus meeting on Environmental Impacts on Infectious Disease.

Objective: To provide an overview of the literature underpinning the presentations from this session.

Methods: References used in developing the presentations were obtained from the presenters. Additional references were obtained from PubMed using key words from the presentations.

Findings and Conclusions: The Hokkaido longitudinal children's study has found that exposure to chemicals in early life, such as persistent organic pollutants and per/polyfluorinated compounds, is associated with a range of immunological outcomes such as decreased cord blood IgE, otitis media, wheeze, increased risk of infections and higher risk of food allergy.Epidemiological evidence links exposure to poor air quality to increased severity and mortality of Covid-19 in many parts of the world. Most studies suggest that long-term exposure has a more marked effect than acute exposure.Components of air pollution, such as a newly described combustion product known as environmentally persistent free radicals, induce oxidative stress in exposed individuals. Individuals with genetic variations predisposing them to oxidative stress are at increased risk of adverse health effects from poor air quality.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

De Pasquale I, Lo Porto C, Dell'Edera M, et al (2021)

TiO2-based nanomaterials assisted photocatalytic treatment for virus inactivation: perspectives and applications.

Current opinion in chemical engineering, 34:100716.

The COVID 19 pandemic has demonstrated the need for urgent access to measures to contain the spread of the virus and bacteria. In this frame, the use of photocatalytic nanomaterials can be a valuable alternative to chemical disinfectants without the limitation of generating polluting by-products and with the advantage of re-usability in time. Here, on the basis of up-to-date literature reports, the use of TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in disinfection will be overviewed, considering the peculiar nanocatalysts assisted inactivation mechanisms. The potential of this class of photocatalysts for air, surface and water disinfection will be highlighted, critically revising the recent achievements in view of their potential in real application.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Erlich MD, Casoy F, Berezin J, et al (2022)

Building and Landing the Plane While Flying: How New York State Addressed the Needs of People With Serious Mental Illness During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Schizophrenia bulletin open, 3(1):sgac035 pii:sgac035.

New York State was the epicenter for COVID-19 in Spring 2020 when little was known about the pandemic. Dire circumstances necessitated New York State's (NYS) public mental health system to rapidly pivot, adapt, and innovate its policies and procedures to ensure continuous high-level care to individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), a population especially vulnerable to both the physical and psychosocial sequelae of COVID-19. NYS rapidly adopted emergency measures to support community providers, expanded the capacity of its State-Operated facilities, created policies to promote improved infection control access, collaborated to enhance the public-private continuum of service to support people with SMI, and broadened the use of new technologies to ensure continued engagement of care.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Lui LMW, RS McIntyre (2022)

Canadian Healthcare System and Individuals with Severe Mental Disorders During Coronavirus Disease 2019: Challenges and Unmet Needs.

Schizophrenia bulletin open, 3(1):sgac036 pii:sgac036.

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a syndemic of viral infection and mental health adversity. The pandemic has exacerbated inequalities of access to care in vulnerable populations within the Canadian mental healthcare system. Primary care services are first-line health services in Canada, and are necessary to access specialized services. However, as a result of the limited availability of primary health services, and subsequently, specialized providers (eg, psychiatrists), the demand for these services outweigh the supply. Hitherto, timely access to appropriate services has been cited as a common challenge in Canada as a result of limitations as it relates to resources and in-person activities and support services. While there has been an increase in virtual care opportunities, concerns have been raised with respect to the digital divide. Moreover, while individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) and psychosis are at an increased risk for hospitalization and death from COVID-19, testing and vaccination services have not been prioritized for this population. Taken together, increased funding for mental health service delivery should be emphasized especially for individuals with SMI. There should also be a focus on increased collaboration among individuals with lived experience and health care providers to ensure future policies are developed specifically for this population. Addressing the social determinants of health and prioritizing a continuum of care across various stakeholders may lead to strong integration of care both during and after the pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Gadelha A, Cerqueira RO, Mari J, et al (2022)

Challenges and Insights From Treating Psychotic Disorders During COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil.

Schizophrenia bulletin open, 3(1):sgac061 pii:sgac061.

The COVID-19 pandemic mainly affected the most vulnerable individuals. Among those, patients with schizophrenia especially suffered from unexpected changes in their routines, barriers to treatment, and distress-related events. We conducted a narrative review using all available sources of information to describe the challenges faced by schizophrenia patients and their families in Brazil, including the strategies that have been adopted to tackle them. In addition, we analyzed public data on antipsychotic prescriptions and hospitalizations. It was found that digital prescriptions with extended expiration dates implemented during the pandemic in Brazil allowed patients to maintain their access to antipsychotics. Hospitalizations among patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal, and schizoaffective disorders decreased at the beginning of the pandemic. Nevertheless, in the following months, the admissions returned to a trend similar to the prepandemic period. The systematization of online resources will be one of the main legacies to mental health care, including schizophrenia. We believe one of the main limitations of the policies adopted was the decision to not prioritize COVID-19 vaccination in patients with severe psychiatric disorders, despite preliminary evidence of a higher risk of complications in this group. The coronavirus pandemic is still ongoing and a longer time will be required to have a better perspective of its effects, but we expect this record of challenges and insights about the lessons learned during the pandemic can help healthcare professionals to face similar situations in the future.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Rangaswamy T, Grover S, Tyagi V, et al (2022)

How Did the Mental Health Care System in India Respond to COVID 19 Pandemic?.

Schizophrenia bulletin open, 3(1):sgac043 pii:sgac043.

India with a population of 1.3 billion has a unique health care system in its different states. Mental health care varies widely across the country and this became even more apparent after the COVID-19 pandemic set in. This paper examines the various strategies in response to COVID-19 adopted by the Government of India, the health departments of the individual states, and other private players such as on-government organizations and the civil society. The cessation of many services including outpatient and inpatient care and the scarcity of medicines were serious impacts of COVID-19. The prolonged lockdown in many parts of the country impeded access to mental health care services since public transport was unavailable. This led to many relapses in persons with serious mental disorders. The emergence of new cases of psychosis and an increase in suicides were also seen. Tele consultations came to the fore and many helplines were started offering counseling and guidance regarding the availability of mental health care facilities. While these helped the urban dwellers, those in remote and rural areas were unable to use these services effectively. Many mental health wards were used for COVID-19 patients and mental health professionals were deployed for COVID-19 related duty. The severely mentally ill, the homeless mentally ill, and the elderly were especially vulnerable. Based on our experience with COVID-19, we urge a strong call for action, in terms of strengthening the primary care facilities and increasing the manpower resources to deliver mental health care.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Carpiniello B, A Vita (2022)

Impact of COVID-19 on the Italian Mental Health System: A Narrative Review.

Schizophrenia bulletin open, 3(1):sgac038 pii:sgac038.

Italy has been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, consequently producing a heavy burden on the Italian National Health Service. From February 2020 until the end of the same year, the Italian Mental Health System (MHS), comprising an extensive network of community services, was subjected to a significant decrease in standards of care followed at the beginning of 2021 by a slow return to usual levels of activity. Data reported in the present article highlight how the Italian MHS - as was the case in the majority of countries-was largely unprepared for this emergency, suggesting an impelling need to develop appropriate supplementary national plans with the aim of preventing similar situations from developing in the future. The upheaval caused by the pandemic has highlighted the need to reinforce, both at a local and national level, the organization and standards of care of the Italian MHS in order to protect and support the mental health of patients with severe mental disorders, health workers, and the general population, thus preventing a potential "pandemic" of mental disorders.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Gandhi L, Maisnam D, Rathore D, et al (2022)

Respiratory illness virus infections with special emphasis on COVID-19.

European journal of medical research, 27(1):236.

Viruses that emerge pose challenges for treatment options as their uniqueness would not know completely. Hence, many viruses are causing high morbidity and mortality for a long time. Despite large diversity, viruses share common characteristics for infection. At least 12 different respiratory-borne viruses are reported belonging to various virus taxonomic families. Many of these viruses multiply and cause damage to the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The description of these viruses in comparison with each other concerning their epidemiology, molecular characteristics, disease manifestations, diagnosis and treatment is lacking. Such information helps diagnose, differentiate, and formulate the control measures faster. The leading cause of acute illness worldwide is acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and are responsible for nearly 4 million deaths every year, mostly in young children and infants. Lower respiratory tract infections are the fourth most common cause of death globally, after non-infectious chronic conditions. This review aims to present the characteristics of different viruses causing respiratory infections, highlighting the uniqueness of SARS-CoV-2. We expect this review to help understand the similarities and differences among the closely related viruses causing respiratory infections and formulate specific preventive or control measures.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Brink AJ, Richards G, Tootla H, et al (2022)

Epidemiology of Gram-negative bacteria during coronavirus disease 2019. What is the real pandemic?.

Current opinion in infectious diseases, 35(6):595-604.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial infections play a key role in hospital outcomes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Nonetheless, the global impact on the epidemiology of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and antibiotic resistance has not been clearly established.

RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple limitations exist in the current literature, in that substantial variability was observed with regard to methodology. Notwithstanding the heterogeneity, the evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic had a substantial negative impact on global epidemiology with an increase in hospital-onset infections, associated with GNB. Similarly, an alarming increase in resistant GNB compared to prepandemic rates, was apparent. This was most evident for carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (bloodstream infections), carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ventilator-associated pneumonia), and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (all infections). Significant variations were most apparent in the large, system-wide regional or national comparative assessments, vs. single-centre studies. Categorizing concurrent bacteria as co- or secondary-infections may be paramount to optimize standard of care.

SUMMARY: The data from most studies signal the probability that COVID-19 accelerated resistance. However, multiple limitations intrinsic to interpretation of current COVID-19 data, prevents accurately quantifying collateral damage on the global epidemiology and antibiotic resistance amongst GNB. It is likely to be substantial and renewed efforts to limit further increases is warranted.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Tran K, Padwal R, Hamilton P, et al (2022)

Review of the utility of routine mortality reviews among deaths on General Internal Medicine wards in a Canadian tertiary care hospital.

BMJ open quality, 11(4):.

BACKGROUND: Hospital morbidity and mortality reviews are common quality assurance activities, intended to uncover latent or unrecognised systemic issues that contribute to preventable adverse events and patient harm. Mortality reviews may be routinely mandated by hospital policy or for accreditation purposes. However, patients under the care of certain specialties, such as general internal medicine (GIM), are affected by a substantial burden of chronic disease, advanced age, frailty or limited life expectancy. Many of their deaths could be viewed as reasonably foreseeable, and unrelated to poor-quality care.

METHODS: We sought to determine how frequently postmortem chart reviews for hospitalised GIM patients at our tertiary care centre in Canada would uncover patient safety or quality of care issues that directly led to these patients' deaths. We reviewed the charts of all patients who died while admitted to the GIM admitting service over a 12-month time period between 1 July 2020 and 30 June 2021.

RESULTS: We found that in only 2% of cases was a clinical adverse event detected that directly contributed to a poor or unexpected outcome for the patient, and of those cases, more than half were related to unfortunate nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 infection.

CONCLUSION: Due to an overall low yield, we discourage routine mortality chart reviews for general medical patients, and instead suggest that organisations focus on strategies to recognise and capture safety incidents that may not necessarily result in death.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Robins-Browne K, Lewis M, Burchill LJ, et al (2022)

Interventions to support the mental health and well-being of front-line healthcare workers in hospitals during pandemics: an evidence review and synthesis.

BMJ open, 12(11):e061317 pii:bmjopen-2022-061317.

OBJECTIVE: Pandemics negatively impact healthcare workers' (HCW's) mental health and well-being causing additional feelings of anxiety, depression, moral distress and post-traumatic stress. A comprehensive review and evidence synthesis of HCW's mental health and well-being interventions through pandemics reporting mental health outcomes was conducted addressing two questions: (1) What mental health support interventions have been reported in recent pandemics, and have they been effective in improving the mental health and well-being of HCWs? (2) Have any mobile apps been designed and implemented to support HCWs' mental health and well-being during pandemics?

DESIGN: A narrative evidence synthesis was conducted using Cochrane criteria for synthesising and presenting findings when systematic review and pooling data for statistical analysis are not suitable due to the heterogeneity of the studies.

DATA SOURCES: Evidence summary resources, bibliographic databases, grey literature sources, clinical trial registries and protocol registries were searched.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Subject heading terms and keywords covering three key concepts were searched: SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (or similar infectious diseases) epidemics, health workforce and mental health support interventions. Searches were limited to English-language items published from 1 January 2000 to 14 June 2022. No publication-type limit was used.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two authors determined eligibility and extracted data from identified manuscripts. Data was synthesised into tables and refined by coauthors.

RESULTS: 2694 studies were identified and 27 papers were included. Interventions were directed at individuals and/or organisations and most were COVID-19 focused. Interventions had some positive impacts on HCW's mental health and well-being, but variable study quality, low sample sizes and lack of control conditions were limitations. Two mobile apps were identified with mixed outcomes.

CONCLUSION: HCW interventions were rapidly designed and implemented with few comprehensively described or evaluated. Tailored interventions that respond to HCWs' needs using experience co-design for mental health and well-being are required with process and outcome evaluation.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Fan YT, Lee JY, Cheng YC, et al (2022)

The requirements of nucleic acid test for COVID-19 during public health emergency: Current regulatory in Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States.

Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA, 85(11):1038-1043.

In mid-2022, the COVID-19 cases have reached close to 562 million, but its overall infection rate is hard to confirm. Even with effective vaccines, break-through infections with new variants occur, and safe and reliable testing still plays a critical role in isolation of infected individuals and in control of an outbreak of a COVID-19 pandemic. In response to this urgent need, the diagnostic tests for COVID-19 are rapidly evolving and improving these days. The health authorities of many countries issued requirements for detecting SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis tests during the pandemic and have timely access to these tests to ensure safety and effectiveness. In this study, we compared the requirements of EUA in Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States. For the performance evaluations of nucleic acid extraction, inclusivity, limit of detection (LoD), cross-reactivity, interference, cutoff, and stability, the requirements are similar in the three countries. The use of natural clinical specimens is needed for clinical evaluation in Taiwan and the United States. However, carry-over and cross-contamination studies can be exempted in Taiwan and the United States but are required in Singapore. This review outlines requirements and insight to guide the test developers on the development of IVDs. Considering the rapidly evolving viruses and severe pandemic of COVID-19, timely and accurate diagnostic testing is imperative to the management of diseases. As noted above, the performance requirements for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests are similar between Taiwan, Singapore and the United States. The differences are mainly in two points: the recommended microorganisms for cross-reactivity study, and the specimen requirement for clinical evaluation. This study provides an overview of current requirements of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests in Taiwan, Singapore, and the United States.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Brugler Yonts A, Burton J, L Jones Herbert (2022)

A Review of Current Evaluation and Management Strategies in Pediatric Postacute Sequelae of COVID-19.

Pediatric annals, 51(11):e421-e425.

Pediatric postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (pPASC), or long COVID, is a complex, heterogeneous, multisystem syndrome that leads to disruption in the lives of children and adolescents for months, and possibly years, after recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection. While the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of PASC are still under investigation, clinicians are facing the immediate challenges of treating these patients. In this article, we provide an overview of the current multidisciplinary evaluation of patients with pPASC. We also offer guidance on the medical, psychological, and rehabilitative management strategies based on experience with both pPASC and patients with other postviral syndromes. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(11):e421-e425.].

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Brugler Yonts A (2022)

Pediatric Long-COVID: A Review of the Definition, Epidemiology, Presentation, and Pathophysiology.

Pediatric annals, 51(11):e416-e420.

Although children have been largely spared the most severe consequences of acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus, it is estimated that up to one-quarter of the more than 14 million children diagnosed as having coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have developed persistent symptoms of fatigue, postexertional malaise, neurologic and cognitive symptoms, and other symptoms that interfere with activities of daily living for months after their initial illness. Pediatric postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (pPASC), or long-COVID, is a complex, heterogeneous, postviral condition involving multiple body systems and is likely attributable to several concurrent underlying physiologic processes, including damage from direct viral invasion, endovascular dysfunction and microthrombosis, viral persistence, and the development of autoimmunity. In this review, we explore the current state of the literature regarding definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of pPASC. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(11):e416-e420.].

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Cooper N, Ghanima W, Hill QA, et al (2023)

Recent advances in understanding spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) in human biology and disease, with a focus on fostamatinib.

Platelets, 34(1):2131751.

Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is an important regulatory molecule of signal transduction pathways involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), and the SYK-signaling pathway has emerged as a potential target for the treatment of numerous diseases. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the biological properties of SYK and its involvement in disease pathways, provide an update on SYK inhibitors in the treatment of ITP, and consider other potential applications. Fostamatinib, the only licensed SYK inhibitor to date, produces clinical response in ITP patients, including those who are refractory to other treatments. It appears to reduce the risk of thrombotic events and may therefore be a drug to consider for patients with an increased thrombotic risk. Encouraging results have also been obtained in the treatment of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Several other SYK inhibitors have entered clinical trials for a range of indications, reflecting the ability of these drugs to affect multiple signaling pathways. SYK inhibitors have the potential to target several aspects of COVID-19 pathogenesis including thrombosis, without affecting normal hemostasis, and data from the first study of fostamatinib in COVID-19 are encouraging. It is hoped that ongoing trials in autoimmune indications other than ITP, as well as in hematological malignancies and other disorders, confirm the promise of SYK inhibitors.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Kontogiannis T, Dimitriou TG, Didaras NA, et al (2022)

Antiviral Activity of Bee Products.

Current pharmaceutical design, 28(35):2867-2878.

Honey bees provide many products exerting a wide range of benefits to humans. Honey, propolis, royal jelly, beeswax, bee venom, bee pollen and bee bread have been used as natural medicines since ancient times because of their therapeutic effects. These products have demonstrated healing properties against wounds, diabetes, gastrointestinal diseases, cancer, asthma, neurological diseases, bacterial and viral infections. The antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of honey bee products is widely studied, and a huge body of evidence supports it. On the other hand, their antiviral effect has not been extensively studied. However, recent research has demonstrated their potential against various viral infections including SARS-CoV-2. Hence, honey bee products could be alternatives to treat viral diseases, especially when there is no effective treatment available. This narrative review aims to present up-to-date data (including ongoing clinical trials) regarding the antiviral activity of honey bee products, aiming to elucidate how honey bee product supplementation contributes to antiviral treatment.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Zahar JR, JF Timsit (2022)

Risk stratification for selecting empiric antibiotherapy during and after COVID-19.

Current opinion in infectious diseases, 35(6):605-613.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: SARS-CoV-2 deeply modified the risk of bacterial infection, bacterial resistance, and antibiotic strategies. This review summarized what we have learned.

RECENT FINDINGS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, we observed an increase in healthcare-acquired infection and multidrug-resistant organism-related infection, triggered by several factors: structural factors, such as increased workload and ongoing outbreaks, underlying illnesses, invasive procedures, and treatment-induced immunosuppression. The two most frequently healthcare-acquired infections described in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were bloodstream infection, related or not to catheters, health-acquired pneumonia (in ventilated or nonventilated patients). The most frequent species involved in bacteremia were Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli in health-acquired pneumonia. The rate of Gram-negative bacilli is particularly high in late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia, and the specific risk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa- related pneumonia increased when the duration of ventilation was longer than 7 days. A specificity that remains unexplained so far is the increase in enterococci bacteremia.

SUMMARY: The choice of empiric antibiotimicrobials depends on several factors such as the site of the infection, time of onset and previous length of stay, previous antibiotic therapy, and known multidrug-resistant organism colonization. Pharmacokinetics of antimicrobials could be markedly altered during SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory failure, which should encourage to perform therapeutic drug monitoring.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Yogesh R, Srivastava N, SN Abbas Bukhari (2022)

COVID-19 Challenge: A Quest for Effective Vaccine Strategies Against Circulating and Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variants.

Current pharmaceutical design, 28(35):2901-2913.

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the coronavirus family, a large family of viruses infecting avian and mammalian hosts. Accumulated mutations over time in the genome of SARS-CoV-2 have given rise to different variants differing in type and sequence. Variants that did not affect transmissibility, infectivity, and severity have gone unnoticed, and mutations that made the virus unfit for survival were eventually deleted from the gene pool. An emerging variant in the host population needs to be monitored closely for its infection consequences. In addition, the variants of concern (VOC) need to be focused on developing effective disease-fighting regimes. As viral epidemics are better fought using effective vaccines, several vaccines have been developed and used since December 2020. The central point of the present study is the continuous variation in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, instigating the researchers to refine their modus operandi to fight against COVID-19.

METHODS: Prominent medical and literature databases were searched using relevant keywords to gather study results, reports, and other data helpful in writing this narrative review.

RESULTS: This article successfully collates information about the structure and life cycle of SARS-CoV-2, followed by types and nomenclature of mutations in SARS-CoV-2. Variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) are current VOCs due to their widespread transmission capability and probable immune evasion. Furthermore, this review article presents information about the major vaccines available and those under development. Based on the original and new strains of SARS-CoV-2, 19 vaccines have been granted emergency use or conditional marketing approvals, 141 are under clinical development, and 194 are in preclinical development stages worldwide.

CONCLUSION: Continuous variation in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, presenting new VOCs frequently, has posed a compelling need to amend and evolve current and future vaccine development strategies to overpower the ever-evolving virus.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Fisher JE, Rice AJ, Zuleta RF, et al (2022)

Bereavement during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Impact on Coping Strategies and Mental Health.

Psychiatry, 85(4):354-372.

The COVID-19 coronavirus has caused 5.4 million deaths worldwide, including over 800,000 deaths in the United States (as of December 2021). In addition to these staggering statistics, an even greater number of individuals have died from other causes during the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, a large portion of the global population has faced bereavement during the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting quarantine. The often rapid and unexpected nature of COVID-19 deaths and the presence of pandemic-related stressors and living restrictions make it more difficult for individuals bereaved during the pandemic to implement effective strategies for coping with the loss compared to non-pandemic periods. Quarantine-related constraints (e.g., social distancing, availability of and access to resources) impede coping strategies that have been found to be adaptive after a loss, such as supportive (e.g., seeking emotional and instrumental support) and active (e.g., problem-focused and cognitive reframing) coping, and they augment avoidant strategies (e.g., substance use, denial, and isolation) that have been found to be maladaptive. Poorer mental health outcomes (including prolonged grief disorder; PGD) have been associated with less healthy coping. This article reviews research findings regarding bereavement during the COVID-19 pandemic, discusses the effects of pandemic-related stressors on bereavement coping strategies, and proposes how different types of coping during the pandemic may account for the poorer mental health outcomes described in recent reports. Interventions for promoting adaptive coping strategies and minimizing maladaptive coping strategies are also outlined.

RevDate: 2022-11-07
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

Schroeder H, Numa R, E Shapiro (2022)

Promoting a Culturally Adapted Policy to Deal with the COVID-19 Crisis in the Haredi Population in Israel.

Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities, 9(6):2508-2517.

COVID-19 has caused high morbidity and mortality in Israel but, as in other countries, not all groups were equally affected. Haredi Jews (often called ultra-Orthodox), a religious minority, were disproportionately harmed by the pandemic. This group has distinctive cultural, lifestyle, and demographic characteristics, which may be related to these higher COVID-19 rates and call for policies specifically adapted for this community. This paper describes in detail the steps the Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) took to try to improve the quality of care and prevent morbidity in the Haredi population through working in cooperation with the leadership and members of the Haredi community and strengthening mutual trust in order to increase adherence to government regulations and recommendations. This case study is based on the unique perspective of the two people who worked in the Israeli MoH and led the initiative as well as a review of relevant government documents and statistics. It discusses to what extent the initiative seemed to have been successful and what lessons can be learned not only for Haredim but for other religious and/or minority groups and closed communities in Israel and elsewhere.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Rosati G, Idili A, Parolo C, et al (2021)

Nanodiagnostics to Face SARS-CoV-2 and Future Pandemics: From an Idea to the Market and Beyond.

ACS nano, 15(11):17137-17149.

The COVID-19 pandemic made clear how our society requires quickly available tools to address emerging healthcare issues. Diagnostic assays and devices are used every day to screen for COVID-19 positive patients, with the aim to decide the appropriate treatment and containment measures. In this context, we would have expected to see the use of the most recent diagnostic technologies worldwide, including the advanced ones such as nano-biosensors capable to provide faster, more sensitive, cheaper, and high-throughput results than the standard polymerase chain reaction and lateral flow assays. Here we discuss why that has not been the case and why all the exciting diagnostic strategies published on a daily basis in peer-reviewed journals are not yet successful in reaching the market and being implemented in the clinical practice.

RevDate: 2022-10-13
CmpDate: 2022-10-07

Ben-Eltriki M, Hopefl R, Wright JM, et al (2022)

Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

Journal of the American Nutrition Association, 41(7):679-689.

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D), the surrogate marker for vitamin D3, serum concentration and COVID-19 has come to the forefront as a potential pathway to improve COVID-19 outcomes. The current evidence remains unclear on the impact of vitamin D status on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 infection. To explore possible association between low 25(OH)D levels and risk of developing severe COVID-19 (i.e. need for invasive mechanical ventilation, the length of hospital stay, total deaths). We also aimed to understand the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency and elevated inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers.

METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive electronic literature search for any original research study published up to March 30, 2021. For the purpose of this review, low vitamin D status was defined as a range of serum total 25(OH)D levels of <10 to <30 ng/ml. Two independent investigators assessed study eligibility, synthesized evidence, analyzed, critically examined, and interpreted herein.

RESULTS: Twenty-four observational studies containing 3637 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The mean age of the patients was 61.1 years old; 56% were male. Low vitamin D status was statistically associated with higher risk of death (RR, 1.60 (95% CI, 1.10-2.32), higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia (RR: 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10-2.05). COVID-19 patients with low vitamin D levels had a greater prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, abnormally high serum troponin and peak D-dimer levels, as well as elevated interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein than those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml.

CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, we found a potential increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection among patients with low vitamin D levels. There are plausible biological mechanisms supporting the role of vitamin D in COVID-19 severity. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test for potential beneficial effects of vitamin D in COVID-19 outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-11

Castro GB, Bernegossi AC, Sousa BJO, et al (2022)

Global occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in environmental aquatic matrices and its implications for sanitation and vulnerabilities in Brazil and developing countries.

International journal of environmental health research, 32(10):2160-2199.

This paper includes a systematic review of the SARS-CoV-2 occurrence in environmental aquatic matrices and a critical sanitation analysis. We discussed the interconnection of sanitation services (wastewater, water supply, solid waste, and stormwater drainage) functioning as an important network for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in waters. We collected 98 studies containing data of the SARS-CoV-2 occurrence in aquatic matrices around the world, of which 40% were from developing countries. Alongside a significant number of people infected by the virus, developing countries face socioeconomic deficiencies and insufficient public investment in infrastructure. Therefore, our study focused on highlighting solutions to provide sanitation in developing countries, considering the virus control in waters by disinfection techniques and sanitary measures, including alternatives for the vulnerable communities. The need for multilateral efforts to improve the universal coverage of sanitation services demands urgent attention in a pandemic scenario.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Ryu S, Adams K, Chen Y, et al (2022)

Breast cancer survivors' physical activity, psychosocial beliefs, daily trip behaviors, and subjective well-being: A descriptive study.

Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 49:101688 pii:S1744-3881(22)00156-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has been a great public health concern among breast cancer survivors (BCS), especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, as it is closely related to a higher risk of cancer recurrence and mortality. The positive impacts of psychosocial beliefs in promoting physical activity (PA) have been well acknowledged. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effects of psychosocial beliefs on PA in BCS to prevent physical inactivity. Furthermore, we examined the relationships between daily activities, trip behaviors, and associated subjective well-being.

METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive study design. Female BCS who were able to exercise regularly completed the battery of assessments in March 2021. Specifically, the international PA questionnaires and the adapted PA-related psychosocial beliefs questionnaires were used to assess BCS's PA and psychosocial beliefs, respectively. In addition, the smartphone-based Day Reconstruction Method was utilized to measure subjective well-being. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-squared test, analyses of variance, and correlation analysis.

RESULTS: In the context of investigations during the COVID-19 pandemic, our study showed that 77.8% of BCS reported meeting PA guidelines. As the components of psychosocial beliefs, the change strategies, social support, and confidence were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Additionally, the protective effect of leisure/recreation activities among BCS on their emotional well-being was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study demonstrated the importance of understanding the relationship between BCS's psychosocial beliefs and PA during the pandemic. Notably, this study is unique because it used an application-based method to assess BCS' subjective well-being objectively.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Grandone E, Chiocca S, Castelvecchio S, et al (2022)

Thrombosis and bleeding after COVID-19 vaccination: do differences in sex matter?.

Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue pii:2022.0060-22 [Epub ahead of print].

Gender medicine deals with differences in approach to diagnostic work-up and management according to gender. Although the issue is relevant in every field of medicine, it is often neglected. However, the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has made consideration of gender even more urgent. In fact, available literature has suggested a higher number of deaths among infected men than in women and more side effects in women than in male recipients of certain anti-COVID-19 vaccines. This review examines sex-disaggregated data on thrombotic and bleeding events associated with vaccination against COVID-19. Thrombotic complications are by far more frequently reported than bleeding events after vaccination and are mostly observed in young women receiving viral-vectored vaccines. However, detailed data that could help better stratify the risk according to sex/gender are generally lacking. Likewise, overall bleeding complications and those associated with a specific vaccine are mainly reported as aggregated data, including thrombocytopenia that is reported to occur in the presence or absence of thrombotic complications. Such information is important as it underlines the need to differentiate between thrombocytopenia with and without thrombosis because management and prognosis differ according to the association of thrombotic events. Here, we highlight how the lack of disaggregated data has led to the publication of conflicting information about adverse events by sex in recipients of viral-vectored vaccines. Lastly, we examine the possible mechanisms underlying vaccine-associated thrombotic and bleeding complications according to sex/gender.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Milton-Laskibar I, Trepiana J, Macarulla MT, et al (2022)

Potential usefulness of Mediterranean diet polyphenols against COVID-19-induced inflammation: a review of the current knowledge.

Journal of physiology and biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern typical of the populations living in the Mediterranean basin during the 50s-60s of the last century. This diet has demonstrated beneficial effects in the prevention of several pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, or several cancer types, at least in part, due to its antioxidant compounds. Since the COVID-19 pandemic started, different authors have been studying the effects of certain dietary habits on the presence of COVID-19 and its severity, and the Mediterranean diet is one of them. This review gathers data from studies supporting the potential usefulness of the main phenolic compounds present in the Mediterranean diet, based on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as preventive/therapeutic agents against COVID-19. The current evidence supports the potential benefits that hydroxytyrosol, resveratrol, flavonols such as quercetin, flavanols like catechins, and flavanones on the order of naringenin could have on COVID-19. This is due to the increase in the synthesis and translocations of Nrf-2, which increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes and thus reduces ROS production, the scavenging of free radicals, and the suppression of the activity of MMP-9, which is involved in the cytokine storm, and the inhibition of NF-κB.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Bonnet U, Specka M, Roser P, et al (2022)

Cannabis use, abuse and dependence during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review.

Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) [Epub ahead of print].

The interaction between cannabis use or addiction and SARS-COV-2 infection rates and COVID-19 outcomes is obscure. As of 08/01/2022 among 57 evaluated epidemiological/clinical studies found in Pubmed-database, most evidence for how cannabis use patterns were influenced by the pandemic was given by two systematic reviews and 17 prospective studies, mostly involving adolescents. In this age group, cannabis use patterns have not changed markedly. For adults, several cross-sectional studies reported mixed results with cannabis use having increased, decreased or remained unchanged. Two cross-sectional studies demonstrated that the severity of adults´ cannabis dependence was either increased as a consequence of increasing cannabis use during the pandemic or not changed. Regarding the effect of cannabis use on COVID-19 outcomes, we found only five retrospective/cross-sectional studies. Accordingly, (i) cannabis use did not impact mild COVID-19 symptoms; (ii) cannabis using individuals experienced more COVID-19-related hospitalizations; (iii) cannabis using veterans were associated with reduced SARS-COV-2 infection rates; (iv) frequent cannabis use was significantly associated with COVID-19 mortality, and (v) cannabis dependents were at higher risk of COVID-19 breakthrough after vaccination. It should be outlined that the validity of these retrospective/cross-sectional studies (all self-reports or register/e-health-records) is rather low. Future prospective studies on the effects of cannabis use on SARS-COV-2 infection rates and COVID-19 outcomes are clearly required for conclusive risk-benefit assessments of the role of cannabis on users' health during the pandemic. Moreover, substance dependence (including cannabis) is associated with (often untreated) somatic comorbidity, which severity is a proven key risk factor for worse COVID-19 outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Chen F, Hao L, Zheng K, et al (2022)

Potential influence of COVID-19 and dexamethasone on the reproductive system: what we know and can expect.

Human fertility (Cambridge, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Dexamethasone is the first and an important therapy that significantly reduces the risk of death in patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, a lot of studies have revealed that it has adverse impacts on multiple systems of the body especially the reproductive system, and dexamethasone exposure during the human foetal period may be associated with various diseases. In this paper, we reviewed the literature regarding the adverse effects of COVID-19 and dexamethasone administration on the reproductive system as well as related disease pathogenesis, in an attempt to clarify the potential harms of dexamethasone treatment in COVID-19 patients. Overall, we strongly support the application of dexamethasone as a pharmaceutical therapy in critical COVID-19 patients before a better therapy is developed, but the adverse side effects that may arise cannot be ignored. Our review will help medical professionals in the prognosis and follow-up of patients treated with dexamethasone. In addition, given that a considerable amount of uncertainty, confusion and even controversy that still remains, further studies and more clinical trials are urgently needed to improve the understanding of the parameters and the effects of dexamethasone on reproductive function of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Wadiwala IJ, Garg P, Alomari M, et al (2022)

Accelerated LVAD pump thrombosis in COVID-19 patient: Case report and mini review.

Journal of cardiac surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection exposes patients with heart failure specially who are on mechanical support to a higher risk of morbidity and mortality.

AIMS: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 infection on left ventricular assist device (LVAD) thrombosis in heart failure patients.

MATERIALS & METHODS: We searched the medical electronic records, Medline, PubMed and Cochrane databases for; (LVAD) AND (thrombosis)) AND (covid-19)) AND (heart failure). We divided cases reported into, LVAD thrombosis with COVID-19 infection and compare them with LVAD thrombosis without COVID-19 infection. Demographic data, LVAD device, presentation, treatment and outcomes were reviewed in all the LVAD thrombosis patients.

RESULTS: In addition to our case, 8 other cases of LVAD thrombosis associated with COVID and 9 cases of LVAD thrombosis without covid infection were found. Patients with Covid infection had worse presentation and outcomes (3 deaths VS. 1 death in non-covid group).

DISCUSSION: In LVAD patients, pump malfunction due to thrombus development in the inflow cannula, device body, or outflow graft can result in hemodynamic instability, hemolysis and other life-threatening complications. COVID infection significantly increases the risk of mortality in LVAD patient by accelerating the pump thrombosis due to elevated levels of endothelial protein C receptor and thrombomodulin along with procoagulants such as factor VIII, P-selectin, and von Willebrand factor.

CONCLUSION: Significant morbidity and mortality are attributed to LVAD thrombosis, which are exasperated by prothrombotic conditions created in COVID-19 infections.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Schwichtenberg AJ, Janis A, Lindsay A, et al (2022)

Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Narrative Review and Systematic Update.

Current sleep medicine reports pii:234 [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose of Review: Sleep problems are a common comorbidity for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and research in this area has a relatively long history. Within this review, we first outline historic patterns in the field of sleep and ASD. Second, we conducted a systematic update and coded these studies based on their alignment with historic patterns. Research on ASD and sleep over the past two decades has primarily focused on four principal areas: (1) documenting the prevalence and types of sleep problems; (2) sleep problem treatment options and efficacy; (3) how sleep problems are associated with other behavioral, contextual, or biological elements; and (4) the impact of child sleep problems on families and care providers. The systematic update in this paper includes empirical studies published between 2018 and 2021 with terms for sleep and ASD within the title, keywords, or abstract.

Recent Findings: In sum, 60 studies fit the inclusion/exclusion criteria and most fit within the historic patterns noted above. Notable differences included more global representation in study samples, studies on the impacts of COVID-19, and a growing body of work on sleep problems as an early marker of ASD. The majority of studies focus on correlates of sleep problems noting less optimal behavioral, contextual, and biological elements are associated with sleep problems across development for children with ASD.

Summary: Recommendations for future directions include continued expansion of global and age representation across samples, a shift toward more treatment and implementation science, and studies that inform our mechanistic understanding of how sleep and ASD are connected.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40675-022-00234-5.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Hardin LT, N Xiao (2022)

miRNAs: The Key Regulator of COVID-19 Disease.

International journal of cell biology, 2022:1645366.

As many parts of the world continue to fight the innumerable waves of COVID-19 infection, SARS-CoV-2 continues to sculpt its antigenic determinants to enhance its virulence and evolvability. Several vaccines were developed and used around the world, and oral antiviral medications are being developed against SARS-CoV-2. However, studies showed that the virus is mutating in line with the antibody's neutralization escape; thus, new therapeutic alternatives are solicited. We hereby review the key role that miRNAs can play as epigenetic mediators of the cross-talk between SARS-CoV-2 and the host cells. The limitations resulting from the "virus intelligence" to escape and antagonize the host miRNAs as well as the possible mechanisms that could be used in the viral evasion strategies are discussed. Lastly, we suggest new therapeutic approaches based on viral miRNAs.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Shaheen N, Mohamed A, Attalla A, et al (2022)

Could the New BA.2.75 Sub-Variant Cause the Emergence of a Global Epidemic of COVID-19? A Scoping Review.

Infection and drug resistance, 15:6317-6330 pii:387551.

With over 58 million cases and 6 million deaths by August 2022, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARs-CoV-2), has had an insurmountable impact on the world's population. This is one of the worst health crises since 1918's influenza pandemic. There are four subvariants of Omicron; BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2 and BA.3. As a result of new mutations in its spike protein, most of which occur in its receptor binding site, the Omicron variant appears to be more transmissible and less resistant to vaccination and antibody response. Understanding Omicron's virology and mutations is essential to developing diagnostic and therapeutic methods. A thorough assessment of control measures, as well as timely adjustment of control measures, requires addressing such issues as re-infection risk, vaccine response, booster vaccine doses, and the increased rate of Omicron infections. This review article aims to look at the current information about the different types of SARs-CoV-2, focusing on the new subtype BA.2.75.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Wut TM, Xu JB, SM Wong (2021)

Crisis management research (1985-2020) in the hospitality and tourism industry: A review and research agenda.

Tourism management, 85:104307.

The global tourism industry has already suffered an enormous loss due to COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) in 2020. Crisis management, including disaster management and risk management, has been becoming a hot topic for organisations in the hospitality and tourism industry. This study aims to investigate relevant research domains in the hospitality and tourism industry context. To understand how crisis management practices have been adopted in the industry, the authors reviewed 512 articles including 79 papers on COVID-19, spanning 36 years, between 1985 and 2020. The findings showed that the research focus of crisis management, crisis impact and recovery, as well as risk management, risk perception and disaster management dominated mainstream crisis management research. Look back the past decade (2010 to present), health-related crisis (including COVID-19), social media, political disturbances and terrorism themes are the biggest trends. This paper proposed a new conceptual framework for future research agenda of crisis management in the hospitality and tourism industry. Besides, ten possible further research areas were also suggested in a TCM (theory-context-method) model: the theories of crisis prevention and preparedness, risk communication, crisis management education and training, risk assessment, and crisis events in the contexts of COVID-19, data privacy in hospitality and tourism, political-related crisis events, digital media, and alternative analytical methods and approaches. In addition, specific research questions in these future research areas were also presented in this paper.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Chen W, Liang B, Wu X, et al (2022)

Advances And Challenges In Using Nirmatrelvir And Its Derivatives Against Sars-Cov-2 Infection.

Journal of pharmaceutical analysis pii:S2095-1779(22)00101-0 [Epub ahead of print].

On 22 December 2021, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first Mpro inhibitor, i.e., oral antiviral nirmatrelvir (PF-07321332)/ritonavir (Paxlovid), for the treatment of early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Nirmatrelvir inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection, but high doses or long-term treatment may cause embryonic developmental toxicity and changes in host gene expression. The chiral structure of nirmatrelvir plays a key role in its antiviral activity. Ritonavir boosts the efficacy of nirmatrelvir by inactivating cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) expression and occupying the plasma protein binding sites. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) inhibitors may increase the efficacy of nirmatrelvir. However, paxlovid has many contraindications. Some patients treated with paxlovid experience a second round of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms soon after recovery. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of nirmatrelvir metabolites, such as compounds 12-18, is similar to or higher than that of nirmatrelvir. Herein, we review the advances and challenges in using nirmatrelvir and its derivatives with the aim of providing knowledge to drug developers and physicians in the fight against COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Pruthi HS (2022)

When to Initiate Antifungal Treatment in COVID-19 Patients with Secondary Fungal Co-infection.

Current clinical microbiology reports pii:184 [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose of Review: Severe-acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been driving the health care delivery system for over 2 years. With time, many issues related to co-infections in COVID-19 patients are constantly surfacing. There have been numerous reports about various fungal co-infections in patients with COVID-19. The extent of severity of fungal pathogens has been recognized as a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Awareness, understanding, and a systematic approach to managing fungal co-infections in COVID-19 patients are important. No guidelines have enumerated the stepwise approach to managing the fungal infections co-occurring with COVID-19. This review is intended to present an overview of the fungal co-infections in COVID-19 patients and their stepwise screening and management.

Recent Findings: The most common fungal infections that have been reported to co-exist with COVID-19 are Candidemia, Aspergillosis, and Mucormycosis. Prevalence of co-infections in COVID-19 patients has been reported to be much higher in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially those in intensive care units. While clear pathogenetic mechanisms have not been delineated, COVID-19 patients are at a high risk of invasive fungal infections.

Summary: As secondary fungal infections have been challenging to treat in COVID-19 patients, as they tend to affect the critically ill or immunocompromised patients, a delay in diagnosis and treatment may be fatal. Antifungal drugs should be initiated with caution after carefully assessing the immune status of the patients, drug interactions, and adverse effects. The crucial factors in successfully treating fungal infections in COVID-19 patients are optimal diagnostic approach, routine screening, and timely initiation of antifungal therapy.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Alkafaas SS, Abdallah AM, Ghosh S, et al (2022)

Insight into the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Reviews in medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants warrants sustainable efforts to upgrade both the diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Understanding the details of cellular and molecular basis of the virus-host cell interaction is essential for developing variant-independent therapeutic options. The internalization of SARS-CoV-2, into lung epithelial cells, is mediated by endocytosis, especially clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Although vaccination is the gold standard strategy against viral infection, selective inhibition of endocytic proteins, complexes, and associated adaptor proteins may present a variant-independent therapeutic strategy. Although clathrin and/or dynamins are the most important proteins involved in CME, other endocytic mechanisms are clathrin and/or dynamin independent and rely on other proteins. Moreover, endocytosis implicates some subcellular structures, like plasma membrane, actin and lysosomes. Also, physiological conditions, such as pH and ion concentrations, represent an additional factor that mediates these events. Accordingly, endocytosis related proteins are potential targets for small molecules that inhibit endocytosis-mediated viral entry. This review summarizes the potential of using small molecules, targeting key proteins, participating in clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis, as variant-independent antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The review takes two approaches. The first outlines the potential role of endocytic inhibitors in preventing endocytosis-mediated viral entry and its mechanism of action, whereas in the second computational analysis was implemented to investigate the selectivity of common inhibitors against endocytic proteins in SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis. The analysis revealed that remdesivir, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, rottlerin, and Bis-T can effectively inhibit clathrin, HMG-CoA reductase, actin, and dynamin I GTPase and are more potent in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 than chloroquine. CME inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 infection remain understudied.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Carroll S, Joshi D, E Espey (2022)

Physicians and healthcare professionals as advocates for abortion care and reproductive choice.

Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology, 34(6):367-372.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review discusses the overarching role of advocacy as a primary component of access to abortion care. Abortion is viewed differently from any other form of health care, resulting in a marginalized, but essential healthcare component: without ongoing effective and strategic advocacy, abortion will not become or remain available. Lack of access to abortion care disproportionately affects historically excluded communities.

RECENT FINDINGS: Advocacy is core to the provision of sexual and reproductive health. The antiabortion community has effectively used policy to achieve long-term goals of severely restricting access to abortion. Crisis pregnancy centers, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the antiabortion legislation of 2022 have exacerbated existing health inequities. Community engagement and advocacy skills assist providers to support access and combat inequities. Provider and trainee education, interprofessional collaboration, and leadership are critical in the effort to support comprehensive reproductive health care.

SUMMARY: Through this literature review and our lived experiences as abortion providers, we assert the importance of healthcare professionals as advocates for abortion rights and services. The need for advocacy crosses specialties and communities; together we are stronger advocates as we continue to support and fight for access to safe legal and equitable abortion care.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Shobako N (2022)

Lessons from the health policies for children during the pandemic in Japan.

Frontiers in public health, 10:1015955.

It is everyone's desire to seek the sound growth of children through food education and there is a critical need for fostering an environment for this purpose. Health policies are important for this support. To the present, the Japanese society has been greatly disrupted by COVID-19 pandemic. "Stay at home", "mokusyoku (silent eating)", and mask wearing were encouraged in nationwide campaigns as public health measures to combat COVID-19. There are some papers reporting negative effects of "stay at home" and lockdowns such as weight gain, decrease in physical activities and change in eating habits. In Japan, while benefits and advantages of food education during mealtime were previously well studied, the "mokusyoku" rule may directly run counter to this food education. Moreover, there are several reports showing that nutrients might contribute to prevention of infectious diseases. Japanese children were also encouraged to wear masks all day long. The results of the clinical research, especially randomized control trials, show limited protective effect of masks. On the other hand, negative outcomes of the masks were reported in various scenes. This review focuses on these topics and arousing reconsideration for a better environment for children.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Buyvalenko UV, Perepelova MA, Zolotareva RA, et al (2022)

[Pituitary and COVID-19: review].

Problemy endokrinologii, 68(5):14-23.

A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world since was first scientifically described in December 2019. At present approximately 400 million people have suffered from the disease, almost 6 million people have died.SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in several endocrine glands, including the pituitary, pancreas, thyroid, ovaries, and testes. Thus, the endocrine glands may be a direct target for SARS-CoV-2. The main risk factors for severity of the COVID-19 are obesity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), vertebral fractures, which potentially predisposes patients to a severe course of COVID-19.In this review, we present current data on the course of COVID-19 in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases, and also discuss treatment for endocrinopathies during to COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Miller M, Tracey M, Simpson M, et al (2022)

Pearls and pitfalls: Adverse cutaneous reactions after COVID-19 vaccination.

Allergy and asthma proceedings, 43(6):555-558.

Background: Rashes after coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccinations occur with typical and atypical presentations. Objective: The goal of this article is to increase awareness and review the various diagnosis and management of cutaneous adverse reactions associated with COVID-19 vaccinations for allergy/immunology fellows, residents, general physicians, and general practitioners. Methods: Pertinent information was included from the patient's case. A review of the available literature using the works cited in the most up-to-date reviews was completed. Results: A case of a patient with cutaneous adverse reaction after COVID-19 vaccination as presented, followed by a review of cutaneous reactions after COVID-19 vaccinations. Conclusion: Providers should be aware of the different rashes after COVID-19 vaccinations. Pearls and pitfalls of the diagnosis and management are provided.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Tameze Y, YH Low (2022)

Outpatient Robotic surgery: Considerations for the Anesthesiologist.

Advances in anesthesia, 40(1):15-32.

A shortage of inpatient beds and nurses during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has lent priority to safe same-day discharge after surgery. The minimally invasive nature of robotic surgery has allowed an increasing number of procedures to be done on an outpatient basis. Anesthetic management should be designed to complement the technical advantages of robotic surgery in facilitating early discharge.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Guleria A, Krishan K, Sharma V, et al (2022)

Impact of prolonged wearing of face masks - medical and forensic implications.

Journal of infection in developing countries, 16(10):1578-1587.

Since December 2019, the global outbreak of coronavirus disease had a significant impact on humanity. Because of the large number of casualties worldwide, the WHO (World Health Organization) declared the coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 a pandemic. Since the start of the pandemic, facial masks have become essential as well as mandatory to protect ourselves from COVID-19. As a result of the pandemic, healthcare professionals (HCPs) have been required to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) for extended periods. Wearing face masks for an extended period has been shown to have several negative effects on HCPs. Additionally, face masks have hampered the use of digital techniques for facial identification. This paper examines the effects of wearing face masks for an extended period, as well as the effect of wearing face masks on facial identification technology. The Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases were searched and screened for relevant studies. According to the current review, prolonged use of masks was found to be associated with adverse effects on the face and skin, including acne, redness, rashes, and itching. The use of masks also resulted in headaches, hypoxic conditions, and changes in voice and speech parameters. This communication in no way intends to advocate the discontinuation of wearing masks, on the contrary, the primary goal of this article is to spread awareness about the adverse effects associated with prolonged use of facial masks (N95, KF94, or surgical). This will help in increasing compliance with mask mandates by helping to develop preventive solutions to the problems that tend to deter the general public. This also demonstrates how the use of masks has become a challenge for facial recognition technologies.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Molato BJ, LA Sehularo (2022)

Recommendations for online learning challenges in nursing education during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Curationis, 45(1):e1-e6.

BACKGROUND: Nursing education institutions have had to change from face-to-face to online learning because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The online learning mode, however, had several challenges.

OBJECTIVES: To explore and describe recommendations made to address the online learning challenges in nursing education during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHOD: This study adopted a narrative literature review to achieve its objectives. The search for the relevant literature used Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, African Journal (previously SAePublications), EBSCOhost, EBSCO Discovery Service and Scopus databases.

RESULTS: There were four findings identified from the literature search: provision of adequate resources, monitoring of academic dishonesty, provision of technical support and revision of the curriculum.

CONCLUSION: More work in nursing education is necessary to address the challenges of adopting online learning during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. To meet the issues of online learning in nursing education, thorough preparations and safeguards are necessary.Contribution: The outcomes of this study will benefit nursing education by incorporating recommendations from many studies to overcome online learning issues in nursing education during the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Zenani NE, Gause G, L Sehularo (2022)

Strategies to enhance resilience to cope with workplace adversities post-COVID-19 among ICU nurses.

Curationis, 45(1):e1-e8.

BACKGROUND: It is critical for intensive care unit (ICU) nurses to develop resilient coping strategies to cope with workplace adversities. The coping strategies will mitigate the development of maladaptive psychological disorders prone to working in a stressful environment.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyse previous literature conducted on strategies that enhance resilience in ICU nurses to cope with workplace adversities beyond the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study was conducted by examining all available global literature in the context of the aim of the study.

METHOD: An integrative literature review was chosen for the study. Purposive sampling method was used to select the relevant databases to answer the review question, namely Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, Medline and Nursing/Academic Edition. The search terms used were 'strategies', 'resilience', 'intensive care unit nurses', 'coping', 'workplace adversities', 'beyond COVID-19' and post 'COVID-19'.

RESULTS: Three themes emerged from the study, namely promoting personal attributes, effective relational support and active psychological support.

CONCLUSION: Enhancing resilience among ICU nurses requires both intentional individualised care from the ICU nurses and a systematic approach by nursing management that will meet the psychological needs of ICU nurses when working in a stressful ICU environment.Contribution: The findings of the review have highlighted specific strategies of improving resilience in ICU nurses, which can ultimately create a safe working environment in the ICU.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Jansen EM, Frijlink HW, Hinrichs WL, et al (2022)

Are inhaled mRNA vaccines safe and effective? A review of preclinical studies.

Expert opinion on drug delivery, 19(11):1471-1485.

INTRODUCTION: Injected mRNA vaccines have been proven effective and safe in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Using the machinery of the cell, mRNA vaccines translate into an antigen, which triggers an adaptive immune response. The effectiveness of intramuscular administered mRNA vaccines wanes in the months post-vaccination, which makes frequent booster administrations necessary. To make booster administration easier and increase efficacy, pulmonary administration could be investigated. The aim of this literature study was therefore to review the published preclinical (animal) studies on the safety and efficacy of pulmonary administered mRNA vaccines.

AREAS COVERED: We first provide background information on mRNA vaccines and immunological mechanisms of vaccination. Thereafter, we provide an evaluation of published animal studies, in which mRNA vaccines (or mRNA containing nanoparticles) were delivered into the lungs. We covered the following areas: biodistribution, cellular uptake, immune response, protection, and safety. All relevant papers were found using PubMed/MEDLINE database.

EXPERT OPINION: In our opinion, head-to-head comparison studies examining the safety and efficacy of intramuscular injected and pulmonary administered liquid mRNA vaccines should be performed first. When pulmonary delivered mRNA vaccines are shown to be effective and safe, inhalable dry powder formulations should be engineered. Finally, the tolerability of patients with respiratory diseases should be considered.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Miller HE, Darmawan KF, A Henkel (2022)

Optimizing postpartum contraception for high-risk obstetric patients.

Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology, 34(6):351-358.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on those who are at greatest risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity from a subsequent unplanned or short interval pregnancy and the interventions to increase contraceptive uptake in the postpartum period.

RECENT FINDINGS: Populations at highest risk of maternal or neonatal morbidity - those with a history of preterm birth or those with complex medical conditions - are also those at the highest risk for unintended pregnancies attributed to low-efficacy contraceptive failure/ noncontraceptive use, and many are discharged from birth hospitalization without understanding the importance of birth spacing related to their high-risk pregnancies. Current innovative strategies to improve postpartum contraception access and uptake among high-risk populations include utilizing the antenatal period to initiate contraception counseling, developing multidisciplinary teams, and incorporating multimedia-based educational tools. However, ongoing challenges that continue to pose barriers to contraception access include racial and economic disparities and the restructuring of obstetric care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

SUMMARY: Preventing an unintended short interval pregnancy by providing contraception in the postpartum period is one of the most modifiable risk factors for those at highest risk of subsequent maternal or neonatal morbidity and therefore should be prioritized by clinicians, hospitals, and insurance coverage.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Elhiny R, Al-Jumaili AA, MJ Yawuz (2022)

What might COVID-19 patients experience after recovery? A comprehensive review.

The International journal of pharmacy practice, 30(5):404-413.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to describe the COVID-19 complications after recovery.

METHODS: The researchers systematically reviewed studies that reported post-COVID-19 complications from three databases: PubMed, Google Scholar and the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 database. The search was conducted between 21 November 2020 and 14 January 2021. Inclusion criteria were articles written in English, with primary data, reporting complications of COVID-19 after full recovery. The review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2020 statement.

KEY FINDINGS: This review included 69 studies with 146 725 patients from 22 countries related to post-COVID-19 complications. Thirty-six studies reported post-cure respiratory complications, ranging from dyspnoea to residual pulmonary fibrosis. Cardiac symptoms were reported in nine studies, including palpitation, chest pain and diastolic dysfunction. Neurological complications included post-traumatic stress syndrome, anxiety, depression, memory issues, insomnia and sleeping disturbance, cognitive impairments and stigma. Gastrointestinal symptoms included nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and acute liver injury. The physical decline was the most common symptom reported in the musculoskeletal complications.

CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may cause several types of complications after recovery (testing negative PCR). The identified complications include respiratory, neurological/mental, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, musculoskeletal and miscellaneous complications. However, the key impairments were pulmonary consequences, psychological problems and exercise intolerance. Thus, COVID-19 patients may need long-term follow-up.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Jung JH, Bae EY, JY Ko (2022)

Factors associated with the mental health status of isolated COVID-19 patients in Korea.

Infection, disease & health, 27(4):184-190.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has a substantial impact on the physical and mental health status of patients with COVID-19. This study's objective was to evaluate the factors associated with mental health in patients isolated with COVID-19.

METHODS: It is a retrospective, cross-sectional study. One hundred and two patients discharged from COVID-19 hospitalization in Korea were analyzed. The primary outcome was the correlation between psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, and fear of stigma and physical symptoms such as respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, headache, and fever. Mental and physical symptoms were ascertained using closed and multiple-choice questions. The secondary outcome was the correlation between mental issues, demographic factors, and disease severity. Hypoxia and the need for oxygen therapy, a need for remdesivir antiviral treatment, and indications of pneumonia progression on chest x-ray were confirmed through a review of medical records and used to measure disease severity.

RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 indicated feelings of depression (48.1%), anxiety (49.1%), and fear of stigma (60.45%), and some continued to experience physical symptoms even after discharge. Logistic regression revealed that gastrointestinal symptoms positively correlated with depression (p < .05) and headache positively correlated with fear of stigma (p < .05), while the other factors were not statistically significant (p > .05).

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that psychological symptoms persisted even after discharge. Gastrointestinal symptoms and headache were influential factors in predicting depression and fear of stigma. Based on this, dedicated COVID-19 hospitals should provide mental health support and preventive management.

RevDate: 2022-10-14
CmpDate: 2022-10-14

Karampela I, Vallianou NG, Tsilingiris D, et al (2022)

Could inhaled corticosteroids be the game changers in the prevention of severe COVID-19? A review of current evidence.

Panminerva medica, 64(3):384-395.

As the Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic is going through its second year, the world is counting more than 4.9 million lives lost. Many repurposed immunomodulatory drugs have been tried and failed to treat COVID-19. The only successful treatments that improve survival are systemic corticosteroids and tocilizumab, by targeting the systemic inflammatory cascade. An intriguing observation that patients with chronic respiratory disease seem to be less prone to COVID-19 gave ground to the hypothesis that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may protect them from SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we summarize current evidence regarding the therapeutic role of inhaled and systemic corticosteroids in COVID-19, and we present experimental data on the potential actions of ICS against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also discuss safety issues as well as therapeutic considerations and clinical implications of the use of ICS in COVID-19. Four randomized controlled trials (RCT) with more than 3000 participants suggest that ICS may lead to earlier clinical improvement and lower rate of hospitalization in patients with mild COVID-19, while 9 ongoing RCTs are anticipated to provide more evidence for the use of ICS in COVID-19. Recent evidence has shown promise that ICS could provide tangible benefits to patients suffering from COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-10-05
CmpDate: 2022-10-05

Ignatova D, Krasteva K, Akabalieva K, et al (2022)

Post-COVID-19 psychosis: Cotard's syndrome and potentially high risk of harm and self-harm in a first-onset acute and transient psychotic disorder after resolution of COVID-19 pneumonia.

Early intervention in psychiatry, 16(10):1159-1162.

AIM: This report aims to illustrate the possibility of an acute onset of psychosis after COVID-19 infection in a patient without previous history of psychiatric disorders and to highlight the need for early screening and intervention in such cases.

METHODS: Clinical presentation of a case, followed by clinical discussion and literature review of the effect of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on mental health in terms of neuropsychiatric conditions.

RESULTS: We present a case of acute and transient psychotic disorder following complete recovery of COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia. The patient has no prior psychiatric history and presents with acute onset, disorganized behaviour, Cotard's delusion and a potentially high risk of psychotic homicide and suicide.

CONCLUSION: Early intervention and treatment with antipsychotic medication are of crucial importance for the effective treatment and complete recovery of these patients.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Zhang CX, Quigley MA, Bankhead C, et al (2022)

Ethnic differences and inequities in paediatric healthcare utilisation in the UK: a scoping review.

Archives of disease in childhood pii:archdischild-2022-324577 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Despite the increased policy attention on ethnic health inequities since the COVID-19 pandemic, research on ethnicity and healthcare utilisation in children has largely been overlooked.

OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aimed to describe and appraise the quantitative evidence on ethnic differences (unequal) and inequities (unequal, unfair and disproportionate to healthcare needs) in paediatric healthcare utilisation in the UK 2001-2021.

METHODS: We searched Embase, Medline and grey literature sources and mapped the number of studies that found differences and inequities by ethnic group and healthcare utilisation outcome. We summarised the distribution of studies across various methodological parameters.

RESULTS: The majority of the 61 included studies (n=54, 89%) identified ethnic differences or inequities in paediatric healthcare utilisation, though inequities were examined in fewer than half of studies (n=27, 44%). These studies mostly focused on primary and preventive care, and depending on whether ethnicity data were aggregated or disaggregated, findings were sometimes conflicting. Emergency and outpatient care were understudied, as were health conditions besides mental health and infectious disease. Studies used a range of ethnicity classification systems and lacked the use of theoretical frameworks. Children's ethnicity was often the explanatory factor of interest while parent/caregiver ethnicity was largely overlooked.

DISCUSSION: While the current evidence base can assist policy makers to identify inequities in paediatric healthcare utilisation among certain ethnic groups, we outline recommendations to improve the validity, generalisability and comparability of research to better understand and thereby act on ethnic inequities in paediatric healthcare.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Jantan I, Arshad L, Septama AW, et al (2022)

Antiviral effects of phytochemicals against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and their mechanisms of action: A review.

Phytotherapy research : PTR [Epub ahead of print].

The worldwide spreading of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a serious threat to health, economic, environmental, and social aspects of human lives. Currently, there are no approved treatments that can effectively block the virus although several existing antimalarial and antiviral agents have been repurposed and allowed use during the pandemic under the emergency use authorization (EUA) status. This review gives an updated overview of the antiviral effects of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids against the COVID-19 virus and their mechanisms of action. Search for natural lead molecules against SARS-CoV-2 has been focusing on virtual screening and in vitro studies on phytochemicals that have shown great promise against other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV. Until now, there is limited data on in vivo investigations to examine the antiviral activity of plants in SARS-CoV-2-infected animal models and the studies were performed using crude extracts. Further experimental and preclinical investigations on the in vivo effects of phytochemicals have to be performed to provide sufficient efficacy and safety data before clinical studies can be performed to develop them into COVID-19 drugs. Phytochemicals are potential sources of new chemical leads for the development of safe and potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Martora F, Villani A, Fabbrocini G, et al (2022)

COVID-19 and cutaneous manifestations: A review of the published literature.

Journal of cosmetic dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. COVID-19 outbreak, which caused thousands of deaths, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020.

AIM: Skin manifestations related to SARS-CoV-2 infection can be divided mainly into five groups: chilblainlike lesions (CBLLs), maculopapular eruptions, urticarial eruptions, vesicular eruptions, and livedo or necrosis. Other skin findings reported are erythema multiforme (EM)-like lesions and skin findings associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and rarely with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). Other manifestations such as pityriasis rosea or shingles are also reported.

METHODS: A total of 60 articles including reviews, studies and case reports were selected for the evaluation in this review.

RESULTS: The skin manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection are numerous and can vary widely. The major dermatological patterns of COVID-19 can be classified as inflammatory reactions (maculopapular/morbilliform, urticarial and vesicular rashes), or lesions of vascular origin (chilblain like rashes, petechiae/purpura, and livedo acemose-like pattern) CONCLUSION: We believe that the dermatologist could play an important role in the response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic through early recognition of skin lesions suggestive of COVID-19, particularly in paucisymptomatic infections where this recognition could direct toward an early diagnosis of infection that certainly leads to a better prognosis.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kumar S, Saikia D, Bankar M, et al (2022)

Efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of phase 3 randomized controlled trials.

Pharmacological reports : PR [Epub ahead of print].

Several vaccines have been approved for the prevention of COVID-19. However, no head-to-head trials comparing their clinical efficacy have been performed. This network meta-analysis aims to identify those, among the competing existing vaccines, conferring the maximum protection against COVID-19. A literature search was done in Medline (via PubMed), Embase and Cochrane Library databases for phase 3 randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of different COVID-19 vaccines. Search results were screened and eligible studies were included to perform a network meta-analysis in software 'R' version 4.1.2 using a random effect model. Cochrane's 'Risk of Bias tool (RoB2)' was used for quality assessment. Raw data from the included studies was used for network meta-analysis. Assessment of inconsistency was not possible as no study compared two or more vaccines directly. A forest plot for indirect comparison of various COVID-19 vaccines was obtained. Rankogram and 'P' scores were obtained to rank the vaccines based on the indirect evidence of their comparative efficacy. A total of 17 randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of 16 COVID-19 vaccines, were included in the network meta-analysis. A total of 361,386 participants was included in this network meta-analysis. Overall risk of bias among included studies was of 'some concern'. All the COVID-19 vaccines had a statistically significant reduction of risk for contracting symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to the placebo, however, the maximum protection (RR 0.05) was with BNT126b2. The indirect comparison also revealed BNT126b2 vaccine confers the highest protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison to all others included, with a 'P' score of 0.9771 followed by mRNA-1273, rAD26 & rAD5 and NVX-CoV2373. The evidence generated from this network meta-analysis indicates the good efficacy of all the included vaccines in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 as compared to placebo. The BNT126b2 vaccine was found to provide the highest protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 among all included followed by mRNA-1273, rAD26 & rAD5, NVX-CoV2373 and others.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Quinn A, Grant JE, SR Chamberlain (2022)

COVID-19 and resultant restrictions on gambling behaviour.

Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 143:104932 pii:S0149-7634(22)00421-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the onset of COVID-19, studies suggest a significant increase in online gambling, potentially facilitated by increased time at home, social isolation and boredom. This study aimed to address what is known about the impact of the pandemic on gambling behaviour by conducting a mapping review. A systematic literature search was conducted using four online databases. Additional studies were identified using reference lists. Relevant studies were quality scored and their findings synthesised in terms of overall changes at the population level and potentially vulnerable groups. The weight of evidence from 35 relevant reports across 12 countries indicated reductions of gambling during the pandemic at the level of the general population. However, marked increases in gambling amongst vulnerable sub-populations including amongst young adults and people with pre-existing at-risk gambling were also noted. The impact of COVID-19 on gambling is highly contingent on context. If policy makers examine only population level data, this could overlook profound negative effects identified in those with at-risk gambling, gambling disorder, and amongst young adults.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Peng P, Hao Y, Liu Y, et al (2022)

The prevalence and risk factors of mental problems in medical students during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of affective disorders, 321:167-181 pii:S0165-0327(22)01231-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis and systematic review aimed to evaluate the global prevalence and risk factors of mental problems (i.e., depression, anxiety, stress, sleep disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), burnout, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHOD: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, psycARTICLES, PsycINFO, CNKI, and Wan Fang for studies on the prevalence of mental problems among medical students from January 1, 2020, to April 1, 2022. The pooled prevalence was calculated by random-effect models. We performed a narrative review to identify the risk factors.

RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 201 studies (N = 198,000). The prevalence of depression (41 %, 95 % CI, 37-45 %,), anxiety (38 %,95 % CI, 34 %-42 %), stress (34 %, 95 % CI, 27 %-42 %), sleep disorder (52 %, 95 % CI, 44 %-60 %), psychological distress (58 %, 95 % CI, 51 %-65 %), PTSD (34 %, 95 % CI, 22 %-46 %), suicidal ideation (15 %, 95 % CI, 11 %-18 %) and burnout (38 %, 95 % CI, 25 %-50 %) was high. The major risk factors were being female, being junior or preclinical students, exposure to COVID-19, academic stress, psychiatric or physical disorders history, economic trouble, fear of education impairment, online learning trouble, fear of infection, loneliness, low physical activity, low social support, problematic internet or smartphone use, and young age.

LIMITATIONS: Most studies were cross-sectional. Few studies provided a reasonable response rate, suggesting potential selection bias.

CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated a high prevalence and risk factors for mental problems during COVID-19, calling for mental health services. Our findings are valuable for college and health authorities to identify high-risk students and provide targeted intervention.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Miyasaka M (2022)

The lymphatic system and COVID-19 vaccines.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1041025.

Understanding the precise mechanism of vaccine-induced protection and the immune correlates of protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is crucially important for developing next-generation vaccines that confer durable and protective immunity against COVID-19. Similar factors are also important for other infectious diseases. Here, I briefly summarize the mechanism of action of the currently used COVID-19 mRNA vaccines from the viewpoint of the function of the lymphatic system.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Ma H, Murphy C, Loscher CE, et al (2022)

Autoantibodies - enemies, and/or potential allies?.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:953726.

Autoantibodies are well known as potentially highly harmful antibodies which attack the host via binding to self-antigens, thus causing severe associated diseases and symptoms (e.g. autoimmune diseases). However, detection of autoantibodies to a range of disease-associated antigens has enabled their successful usage as important tools in disease diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. There are several advantages of using such autoantibodies. These include the capacity to measure their presence very early in disease development, their stability, which is often much better than their related antigen, and the capacity to use an array of such autoantibodies for enhanced diagnostics and to better predict prognosis. They may also possess capacity for utilization in therapy, in vivo. In this review both the positive and negative aspects of autoantibodies are critically assessed, including their role in autoimmune diseases, cancers and the global pandemic caused by COVID-19. Important issues related to their detection are also highlighted.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Yang Y, Zou S, G Xu (2022)

An update on the interaction between COVID-19, vaccines, and diabetic kidney disease.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:999534.

Up to now, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still affecting worldwide due to its highly infectious nature anrapid spread. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes, and they have a certain correlation in some aspects. Particularly, the activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulation state play an important role in the underlying mechanism linking COVID-19 to DKD. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor is considered a potential therapy for COVID-19 and has similarly shown organ protection in DKD. In addition, neuropilin-1 as an alternative pathway for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 also contributes to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 entering the host cells, and its decreased expression can affect podocyte migration and adhesion. Here, we review the pathogenesis and current evidence of the interaction of DKD and COVID-19, as well as focus on elevated blood glucose following vaccination and its possible mechanism. Grasping the pathophysiology of DKD patients with COVID-19 is of great clinical significance for the formulation of therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Khowa T, Cimi A, T Mukasi (2022)

Socio-economic impact of COVID-19 on rural livelihoods in Mbashe Municipality.

Jamba (Potchefstroom, South Africa), 14(1):1361 pii:JAMBA-14-1361.

The study sought to examine the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on the socioeconomic livelihoods of rural communities by focusing on the Good Hope community under Mbashe Municipality. A qualitative research methodology was employed through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The study sought to examine the impact and survival strategies employed by the Good Hope community with the outbreak of the coronavirus, which has widely affected the world since 2019. The study further aimed to examine the role of the South African government in assisting rural communities since the outbreak of the coronavirus.

Contribution: The study's findings highlight the lack of proper intervention strategies employed by the government in assisting rural communities. Communities including Good Hope have been hard hit by the pandemic and continue to suffer under the implemented lockdown regulations imposed by all governments globally.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Minamimoto R (2022)

Oncology and cardiology positron emission tomography/computed tomography faced with COVID-19: A review of available literature data.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:1052921.

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to significantly change their lifestyles and attitudes, and has greatly burdened healthcare delivery systems worldwide. The redistribution of the medical delivery system to maintain normal medical care while responding generously to COVID-19 is a continuing challenge that weighs heavily on medical institutions. Among imaging modalities, chest X-rays and computed tomography (CT) examinations have clearly made a large contribution to treatment of COVID-19. In contrast, it is difficult to express the standpoint of nuclear medicine examinations in a straightforward manner, as the greatest emphasis in this modality has been on how necessary medical care can continue to be provided. Many clinical reports of nuclear medicine examinations related to COVID-19 have been published, and knowledge continues to accumulate. This review provides a summary of the current state of oncology and cardiology positron emission tomography (PET) examinations related to COVID-19, and includes preparation of the nuclear medicine department, trends in PET examinations, specific imaging findings on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, imaging of complications of COVID-19, PET tracers other than FDG, and the effects of vaccines on PET imaging findings.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Šajnić A, Kelly C, Smith S, et al (2022)

Need and baseline for harmonising nursing education in respiratory care: preliminary results of a global survey.

Breathe (Sheffield, England), 18(3):210172.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic confirmed that respiratory nurses are critical healthcare providers. Limited knowledge is available about appropriate education to prepare nurses to deliver high-quality respiratory care. A survey was developed by the International Coalition for Respiratory Nursing (ICRN) group to identify the need for a respiratory nursing core curriculum.

Method: A 39-item survey was distributed to 33 respiratory nursing experts in 27 countries. Questions asked about current roles, perception of need, expectations for a core curriculum project and respiratory content in nursing education in their countries.

Results: 30 responses from 25 countries were analysed; participants predominantly worked in academia (53.3%, 16/30) and clinical practice (40%, 12/30). In total, 97% (29/30) confirmed a need for a core respiratory nursing curriculum. Post-registration nursing programmes at bachelor (83.3%, 25/30) and masters (63.3%, 19/30) levels include internal/medical nursing care; less than half identified separate respiratory nursing content. The core educational programme developed should include knowledge (70%, 21/30), skills (60%, 18/30), and competencies (50%, 15/30), with separate paediatric and adult content.

Conclusion: Survey results confirm a wide variation in nursing education and respiratory nursing education across the world, with many countries lacking any formal educational programmes to prepare nurses capable of providing enhanced quality respiratory care. These findings support the need for a core respiratory curriculum. To advance this significant work the ICRN group plans to conduct a Delphi study to identify core curriculum requirements for respiratory nursing education at pre-registration and advanced educational levels to flexibly meet each country's specific educational requirements for recognition of respiratory nursing speciality practice.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Grote L (2022)

Lessons for sleep medicine learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Breathe (Sheffield, England), 18(3):220146.

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, sleep medicine services were dramatically reduced worldwide. Implementation of mitigation strategies was suggested by expert organisations and helped to restart sleep medicine services. Distance communication and monitoring during diagnosis, treatment initiation, and treatment follow-up have been used widely, in particular for patients with sleep apnoea. Follow-up studies demonstrate both advantages and potential disadvantages with the use of these new technologies. Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnoea may be an independent risk factor for adverse outcome in COVID-19, including an increased risk for hospitalisation and elevated mortality. Experimental studies explaining the underlying mechanisms behind these findings are warranted.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Marano G, Traversi G, Gaetani E, et al (2022)

Alcohol use disorder and liver injury related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

World journal of hepatology, 14(10):1875-1883.

Alcohol use disorder is a complex and heterogeneous phenomenon that can be studied from several points of view by focusing on its different components. Alcohol is a hepatotoxin whose metabolism creates profound alterations within the hepatocyte. The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of alcohol, a process that also involves other organs and tissues such as the brain, heart and muscles, but the most relevant organ is the liver. The anatomopathological alterations in the liver associated with the prolonged use of alcohol range from the simple accumulation of neutral fats in the hepatocytes, to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol abuse frequently leads to liver disease such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and tumors. Following the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there was an increase in alcohol consumption, probably linked to the months of lockdown and smart working. It is known that social isolation leads to a considerable increase in stress, and it is also recognized that high levels of stress can result in an increase in alcohol intake. Cirrhotic patients or subjects with liver cancer are immunocompromised, so they may be more exposed to COVID-19 infection with a worse prognosis. This review focuses on the fact that the COVID-19 pandemic has made the emergence of alcohol-induced liver damage a major medical and social problem.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bray L, Meznikova K, James D, et al (2022)

Misdiagnoses in the Context of Suspected Pandemic Influenza or Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Systematic Review.

Open forum infectious diseases, 9(11):ofac515 pii:ofac515.

There have been numerous reports of patients initially misdiagnosed in the 2009 H1N1 influenza and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemics within the literature. A systematic review was undertaken to collate misdiagnoses during the H1N1 and COVID-19 pandemics and identify which cognitive biases may contribute to this. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and MedRxiv databases were searched for misdiagnoses or cognitive biases resulting in misdiagnosis, occurring during the H1N1 or COVID-19 virus pandemics. Eligible studies were assessed for quality using JBI criteria; primary outcome was the final diagnosis. Sixty-nine studies involving 2551 participants were included. We identified 686 cases of misdiagnosis, categorized as viral respiratory infection, other respiratory infection, non-respiratory infection, and non-infective. Misdiagnoses are listed and relevant investigations are offered. No article described prospective assessment of decision making in the pandemic setting or debiasing diagnostic thinking. Further research is required to understand why misdiagnoses occur and harm arises and how clinicians can be assisted in their decision making in a pandemic context.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Reddy H, Joshi S, Joshi A, et al (2022)

A Critical Review of Global Digital Divide and the Role of Technology in Healthcare.

Cureus, 14(9):e29739.

Healthcare and technology, the fusion of these two distinct sciences can be traced back to the Vedic era. Regrettably, while it is evident that the journey of advancements in knowledge and innovation leading to the advent of technology to better the health of mankind is not a recent one, owing to inexistent means of transfer of knowledge, these contraptions stayed mostly localized to the regions of their inventors. This article seeks to review the vital role that technology has in bettering the health status of the global community and the challenges associated with healthcare technologies like inequity in connectivity, affordability, and accessibility. Technology and artificial intelligence are integrated to the best of the health systems across the world but these advancements are not accessible to a considerable part of the global population. While affordability, the absence of a steady internet supply, and the lack of a device to use the technology are the major impediments causing this digital divide, cultural factors and health literacy also contribute to this scenario. Nevertheless, access to the internet has been recognized as a basic need by all governments around the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic shook the health systems of developed and developing countries alike and has made every administration feel the urgency in making healthcare more accessible. Having seamless internet coverage and setups to make telemedicine or online consultations possible, can contribute significantly in paving the path to making our societies prosperous and healthier. With the world's consensus about this goal, efforts now should be focused on research and development for making these technologies more affordable and accessible without compromising their utility.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Byambasuren O, Cardona M, Bell K, et al (2020)

Estimating the extent of asymptomatic COVID-19 and its potential for community transmission: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada = Journal officiel de l'Association pour la microbiologie medicale et l'infectiologie Canada, 5(4):223-234.

Background: Knowing the prevalence of true asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases is critical for designing mitigation measures against the pandemic. We aimed to synthesize all available research on asymptomatic cases and transmission rates.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 trials, and Europe PMC for primary studies on asymptomatic prevalence in which (1) the sample frame includes at-risk populations and (2) follow-up was sufficient to identify pre-symptomatic cases. Meta-analysis used fixed-effects and random-effects models. We assessed risk of bias by combination of questions adapted from risk of bias tools for prevalence and diagnostic accuracy studies.

Results: We screened 2,454 articles and included 13 low risk-of-bias studies from seven countries that tested 21,708 at-risk people, of which 663 were positive and 111 asymptomatic. Diagnosis in all studies was confirmed using a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test. The asymptomatic proportion ranged from 4% to 41%. Meta-analysis (fixed effects) found that the proportion of asymptomatic cases was 17% (95% CI 14% to 20%) overall and higher in aged care (20%; 95% CI 14% to 27%) than in non-aged care (16%; 95% CI 13% to 20%). The relative risk (RR) of asymptomatic transmission was 42% lower than that for symptomatic transmission (combined RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.34 to 0.99, p = 0.047).

Conclusions: Our one-in-six estimate of the prevalence of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases and asymptomatic transmission rates is lower than those of many highly publicized studies but still sufficient to warrant policy attention. Further robust epidemiological evidence is urgently needed, including in subpopulations such as children, to better understand how asymptomatic cases contribute to the pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kumar M (2022)

Spectrum of Environmental Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 fragments: Questions, Quests, and Conquest.

Current opinion in environmental science & health pii:S2468-5844(22)00076-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This works examines the entire spectrum of 'Environmental Surveillance (EnvSurv)' of SARS-CoV-2 fragments i.e. the Questions, Quests, and Conquests of the technology since early year 2020. The prime focus of the present work to document the journey with achieved objectives and remaining ambitions associated with the technology. Despite the EnvSurv may be regarded as the techniques which rather achieved more than expected, will it win the struggle for its existence or lose its way once the pandemic and fear associated with it completely fades. Pertaining to this discussions, major researched topics were investigated, followed by enlisting of ten bullets of the past experiences along with corresponding challenges, and finally key targets for the techniques are enlisted. The article targets to be a simple guide of the journey of EnvSur in terms of its effectiveness for treatment, infectivity, monitoring & estimation (TIME) till date.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Brezing CA, FR Levin (2022)

Applications of technology in the assessment and treatment of cannabis use disorder.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 13:1035345.

Cannabis use and Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) have been increasing. There are no FDA approved medications and evidence-based psychotherapy is limited by insufficient providers, serving very few patients effectively. The lack of resources for prevention and treatment of CUD has resulted in a significant gap between the need for services and access to treatment. The creation of a scalable system to prevent, screen, refer and provide treatment for a chronic, relapsing diagnosis like CUD could be achieved through the application of technology. Many studies have utilized ecological momentary assessments (EMA) in treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking cannabis users. EMA allows for repeated, intensive, longitudinal data collection in vivo. EMA has been studied in cannabis use and its association with affect, craving, withdrawal, other substances, impulsivity, and interpersonal behaviors. EMA has the potential to serve as a valuable monitoring tool in prevention, screening, and treatment for CUD. Research has also focused on the development of internet and application-based treatments for CUD, including a currently available prescription digital therapeutic. Treatment options have expanded to more broadly incorporate telehealth as an option for CUD treatment with broad acceptance and change in regulation following the COVID-19 pandemic. While technology has limitations, including cost, privacy concerns, and issues with engagement, it will be a necessary medium to meet societal health needs as a consequence of an ever-changing cannabis regulatory landscape. Future work should focus on improving existing platforms while ethically incorporating other functions (e.g., sensors) to optimize a public and clinical health approach to CUD.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Amekran Y, Damoun N, AJE Hangouche (2022)

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and post-acute COVID-19.

Global cardiology science & practice, 2022(1-2):e202213 pii:gcsp.2022.13.

While the acute illness of COVID-19 was the initial focus of concern, there are increasing reports of patients with chronic symptoms, known as long-COVID. Dysautonomia may be a possible post-acute neurological complication explaining the persistent symptoms observed in long COVID. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a form of dysautonomia characterized by sustained tachycardia and orthostatic intolerance, has been increasingly reported in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this context, this review aimed to report and discuss the available literature pertaining to post COVID-19 POTS.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Huang P, Zhang J, Duan W, et al (2022)

Plant polysaccharides with anti-lung injury effects as a potential therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:982893 pii:982893.

When coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develops into the severe phase, lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and/or respiratory failure could develop within a few days. As a result of pulmonary tissue injury, pathomorphological changes usually present endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell infiltration of the lung interstitium, defective gas exchange, and wall leakage. Consequently, COVID-19 may progress to tremendous lung injury, ongoing lung failure, and death. Exploring the treatment drugs has important implications. Recently, the application of traditional Chinese medicine had better performance in reducing fatalities, relieving symptoms, and curtailing hospitalization. Through constant research and study, plant polysaccharides may emerge as a crucial resource against lung injury with high potency and low side effects. However, the absence of a comprehensive understanding of lung-protective mechanisms impedes further investigation of polysaccharides. In the present article, a comprehensive review of research into plant polysaccharides in the past 5 years was performed. In total, 30 types of polysaccharides from 19 kinds of plants have shown lung-protective effects through the pathological processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and immunomodulation by mediating mucin and aquaporins, macrophage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, neutrophil, TGF-β1 pathways, Nrf2 pathway, and other mechanisms. Moreover, the deficiencies of the current studies and the future research direction are also tentatively discussed. This research provides a comprehensive perspective for better understanding the mechanism and development of polysaccharides against lung injury for the treatment of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Deng J, Li F, Zhang N, et al (2022)

Prevention and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia in COVID-19.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:945892 pii:945892.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common acquired infection in the intensive care unit. Recent studies showed that the critical COVID-19 patients with invasive mechanical ventilation have a high risk of developing VAP, which result in a worse outcome and an increasing economic burden. With the development of critical care medicine, the morbidity and mortality of VAP remains high. Especially since the outbreak of COVID-19, the healthcare system is facing unprecedented challenges. Therefore, many efforts have been made in effective prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment of VAP. This review focuses on the treatment and prevention drugs of VAP in COVID-19 patients. In general, prevention is more important than treatment for VAP. Prevention of VAP is based on minimizing exposure to mechanical ventilation and encouraging early release. There is little difference in drug prophylaxis from non-COVID-19. In term of treatment of VAP, empirical antibiotics is the main treatment, special attention should be paid to the antimicrobial spectrum and duration of antibiotics because of the existence of drug-resistant bacteria. Further studies with well-designed and large sample size were needed to demonstrate the prevention and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia in COVID-19 based on the specificity of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kuroda Y, Oguma Y, Hall K, et al (2022)

Endogenous reparative pluripotent Muse cells with a unique immune privilege system: Hint at a new strategy for controlling acute and chronic inflammation.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:1027961 pii:1027961.

Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, non-tumorigenic endogenous pluripotent stem cells, reside in the bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood, and connective tissue as pluripotent surface marker SSEA-3(+) cells. They express other pluripotent markers, including Nanog, Oct3/4, and Sox2 at moderate levels, differentiate into triploblastic lineages, self-renew at a single cell level, and exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. Cultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts contain several percent of SSEA-3(+)-Muse cells. Circulating Muse cells, either endogenous or administered exogenously, selectively accumulate at the damaged site by sensing sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a key mediator of inflammation, produced by damaged cells and replace apoptotic and damaged cells by spontaneously differentiating into multiple cells types that comprise the tissue and repair the tissue. Thus, intravenous injection is the main route for Muse cell treatment, and surgical operation is not necessary. Furthermore, gene introduction or cytokine induction are not required for generating pluripotent or differentiated states prior to treatment. Notably, allogenic and xenogenic Muse cells escape host immune rejection after intravenous injection and survive in the tissue as functioning cells over 6 and ∼2 months, respectively, without immunosuppressant treatment. Since Muse cells survive in the host tissue for extended periods of time, therefore their anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and trophic effects are long-lasting. These unique characteristics have led to the administration of Muse cells via intravenous drip in clinical trials for stroke, acute myocardial infarction, epidermolysis bullosa, spinal cord injury, neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome without HLA-matching or immunosuppressive treatment.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Wang ZP, Hua M, Jiu T, et al (2022)

Biofunctional roles of estrogen in coronavirus disease 2019: Beyond a steroid hormone.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:1003469 pii:1003469.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), epidemic poses a major global public health threat with more than one million daily new infections and hundreds of deaths. To combat this global pandemic, efficient prevention and management strategies are urgently needed. Together with the main characteristics of COVID-19, impaired coagulation with dysfunctions of the immune response in COVID-19 pathophysiology causes high mortality and morbidity. From recent clinical observations, increased expression of specific types of estrogen appears to protect patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection, thereby, reducing mortality. COVID-19 severity is less common in women than in men, particularly in menopausal women. Furthermore, estrogen levels are negatively correlated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. These findings suggest that estrogen plays a protective role in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the potential roles of estrogen in blocking the SARS-CoV-2 from invading alveolar cells and replicating, and summarize the potential mechanisms of anti-inflammation, immune modulation, reactive oxygen species resistance, anti-thrombosis, vascular dilation, and vascular endothelium protection. Finally, the potential therapeutic effects of estrogen against COVID-19 are reviewed. This review provides insights into the role of estrogen and its use as a potential strategy to reduce the mortality associated with COVID-19, and possibly other viral infections and discusses the possible challenges and pertinent questions.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Sheridan R, K Spelman (2022)

Polyphenolic promiscuity, inflammation-coupled selectivity: Whether PAINs filters mask an antiviral asset.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:909945 pii:909945.

The Covid-19 pandemic has elicited much laboratory and clinical research attention on vaccines, mAbs, and certain small-molecule antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. By contrast, there has been comparatively little attention on plant-derived compounds, especially those that are understood to be safely ingested at common doses and are frequently consumed in the diet in herbs, spices, fruits and vegetables. Examining plant secondary metabolites, we review recent elucidations into the pharmacological activity of flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds and also survey their putative frequent-hitter behavior. Polyphenols, like many drugs, are glucuronidated post-ingestion. In an inflammatory milieu such as infection, a reversion back to the active aglycone by the release of β-glucuronidase from neutrophils and macrophages allows cellular entry of the aglycone. In the context of viral infection, virions and intracellular virus particles may be exposed to promiscuous binding by the polyphenol aglycones resulting in viral inhibition. As the mechanism's scope would apply to the diverse range of virus species that elicit inflammation in infected hosts, we highlight pre-clinical studies of polyphenol aglycones, such as luteolin, isoginkgetin, quercetin, quercetagetin, baicalein, curcumin, fisetin and hesperetin that reduce virion replication spanning multiple distinct virus genera. It is hoped that greater awareness of the potential spatial selectivity of polyphenolic activation to sites of pathogenic infection will spur renewed research and clinical attention for natural products antiviral assaying and trialing over a wide array of infectious viral diseases.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Pires De Souza GA, Le Bideau M, Boschi C, et al (2022)

Choosing a cellular model to study SARS-CoV-2.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1003608.

As new pathogens emerge, new challenges must be faced. This is no different in infectious disease research, where identifying the best tools available in laboratories to conduct an investigation can, at least initially, be particularly complicated. However, in the context of an emerging virus, such as SARS-CoV-2, which was recently detected in China and has become a global threat to healthcare systems, developing models of infection and pathogenesis is urgently required. Cell-based approaches are crucial to understanding coronavirus infection biology, growth kinetics, and tropism. Usually, laboratory cell lines are the first line in experimental models to study viral pathogenicity and perform assays aimed at screening antiviral compounds which are efficient at blocking the replication of emerging viruses, saving time and resources, reducing the use of experimental animals. However, determining the ideal cell type can be challenging, especially when several researchers have to adapt their studies to specific requirements. This review strives to guide scientists who are venturing into studying SARS-CoV-2 and help them choose the right cellular models. It revisits basic concepts of virology and presents the currently available in vitro models, their advantages and disadvantages, and the known consequences of each choice.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Mrozovski JM (2021)

[Health costs in times of pandemic].

Actualites pharmaceutiques, 60(608):40-43.

The 2008 financial crisis provides some useful lessons for understanding future challenges in relation to the Covid-19 pandemic. Knowledge of the share of gross domestic product contributing to health expenditure sheds light on the efficiency of health policies in the major countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Asghar Z, Sharaf K, Butt FA, et al (2022)

A global review of racial, ethnic and socio-economic disparities in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to COVID-19.

Frontiers in public health, 10:996311.

With over 500 million confirmed cases and 6.2 million deaths worldwide, the novel coronavirus has highlighted the underlying disparities in healthcare, unpreparedness to deal with a new disease and the need for monitoring and surveillance for a post-infectious syndrome as well as complicated diseases. Initially, children were thought to be spared but reports of a new phenomenon manifesting as Kawasaki-like disease, toxic shock syndrome, and multi-system inflammatory syndrome, which developed after a few weeks of severe COVID-19 infection, emerged in the pediatric population. As the pandemic progressed, increased prevalence of multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to COVID-19 was seen in non-Hispanic blacks, Asians, and Latinos as compared to the white population drawing attention to a possible role of ethnicity and socio-economic disparities. The CDC currently reports that 31% of MIS-C cases were seen in Black Non-Hispanics and 26% in Latinos, who were historically more affected in previous pandemics. Furthermore, MIS-C cases in developing countries showed higher mortality as compared to high-income countries, which points toward the role of social determinants of health and limitations in a low-resource set up in increasing the disease burden of MIS-C, which should be treated as a public health emergency. Our review highlights the role of ethnicity, socio-economic factors, comorbidities, and differences in populations affected by MIS-C in high-income vs. low- and middle-income countries.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Chung CCY, Hong Kong Genome Project, Chu ATW, et al (2022)

Rare disease emerging as a global public health priority.

Frontiers in public health, 10:1028545.

The genomics revolution over the past three decades has led to great strides in rare disease (RD) research, which presents a major shift in global policy landscape. While RDs are individually rare, there are common challenges and unmet medical and social needs experienced by the RD population globally. The various disabilities arising from RDs as well as diagnostic and treatment uncertainty were demonstrated to have detrimental influence on the health, psychosocial, and economic aspects of RD families. Despite the collective large number of patients and families affected by RDs internationally, the general lack of public awareness and expertise constraints have neglected and marginalized the RD population in health systems and in health- and social-care policies. The current Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed the long-standing and fundamental challenges of the RD population, and has reminded us of the critical need of addressing the systemic inequalities and widespread disparities across populations and jurisdictions. Owing to the commonality in goals between RD movements and universal health coverage targets, the United Nations (UN) has highlighted the importance of recognizing RDs in policies, and has recently adopted the UN Resolution to promote greater integration of RDs in the UN agenda, advancing UN's commitment in achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals of "leav[ing] no one behind." Governments have also started to launch Genome Projects in their respective jurisdictions, aiming to integrate genomic medicine into mainstream healthcare. In this paper, we review the challenges experienced by the RD population, the establishment and adoption of RD policies, and the state of evidence in addressing these challenges from a global perspective. The Hong Kong Genome Project was illustrated as a case study to highlight the role of Genome Projects in enhancing clinical application of genomic medicine for personalized medicine and in improving equity of access and return in global genomics. Through reviewing what has been achieved to date, this paper will provide future directions as RD emerges as a global public health priority, in hopes of moving a step toward a more equitable and inclusive community for the RD population in times of pandemics and beyond.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Hu X, Jin W, Yang A, et al (2022)

Management of capital liquidity in public hospitals under the epidemic situation of COVID-19.

Frontiers in public health, 10:977221.

The epidemic of COVID-19 has a great impact on the life and safety of people around the world. As the main force in the fight against COVID-19, the financial management of public hospitals will provide a strong guarantee for the diagnosis and treatment behavior of medical staff. The financial department needs to recognize the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on hospital finance, quantify and predict the potential risk factors, and develop reasonable financial management strategies. As an important part of assessing the financial health of public hospitals, the capital liquidity can be used as the focus direction of the hospital managers. In this study, we determine the effects of COVID-19 on the finance of public hospitals. Subsequently, we invested the conception, components, risk factors of capital liquidity in public hospitals. In addition, we provided some management strategies of capital liquidity in public hospitals under the epidemic of COVID-19. We deemed that good capital liquidity can ensure that medical staff have enough confidence and mentality to face the risk of death from COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Sara JDS (2022)

Lessons from a crisis-opportunities for lasting public health change from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Frontiers in public health, 10:893871.

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic has wrought hardship and disrupted lives across all strata of humanity, giving rise to a variety of social, psychological, and medical challenges to individuals in almost every country in the world. Yet for all the difficulties the pandemic has inflicted, it has forced us to examine previously accepted practices at home, work, and society more broadly and has led to innovative changes in the way we communicate and collaborate. These novel approaches to contemporary challenges were devised primarily to allow continued productivity despite the need for social distancing, but have offered secondary advantages that could provide society with lasting benefits. In the following review, we outline three aspects of working life and public health which could experience lasting improvement on the back of lessons learnt from the current crisis.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Zhou H, Gao JY, Y Chen (2022)

The paradigm and future value of the metaverse for the intervention of cognitive decline.

Frontiers in public health, 10:1016680.

Cognitive decline is a gradual neurodegenerative process that is affected by genetic and environmental factors. The doctor-patient relationship in the healthcare for cognitive decline is in a "shallow" medical world. With the development of data science, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, and digital twin, the introduction of the concept of the metaverse in medicine has brought alternative and complementary strategies in the intervention of cognitive decline. This article technically analyzes the application scenarios and paradigms of the metaverse in medicine in the field of mental health, such as hospital management, diagnosis, prediction, prevention, rehabilitation, progression delay, assisting life, companionship, and supervision. The metaverse in medicine has made primary progress in education, immersive consultation, dental disease, and Parkinson's disease, bringing revolutionary prospects for non-pharmacological complementary treatment of cognitive decline and other mental problems. In particular, with the demand for non-face-to-face communication generated by the global COVID-19 epidemic, the needs for uncontactable healthcare service for the elderly have increased. The paradigm of self-monitoring, self-healing, and healthcare experienced by the elderly through the metaverse in medicine, especially from meta-platform, meta-community, and meta-hospital, will be generated, which will reconstruct the service modes for the elderly people. The future map of the metaverse in medicine is huge, which depends on the co-construction of community partners.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Mehta A, Andrew Awuah W, Yarlagadda R, et al (2022)

Investigating thyroid dysfunction in the context of COVID-19 infection.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) pii:S2049-0801(22)01566-7 [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 is a contagious viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). One of the key features of COVID-19 infection is inflammation. There is increasing evidence pointing to an association between cytokine storm and autoimmunity. One autoimmune disease of interest in connection to COVID-19 is hyperthyroidism. COVID-19 has been shown to decrease TSH levels and induce thyrotoxicosis, destructive thyroiditis, and de novo Graves' disease. It has also been suggested that the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 antigens following vaccination can cross-react through a mechanism called molecular mimicry which can elicit autoimmune reactivity, potentially leading to potential thyroid disease post vaccine. However, if the COVID-19 vaccine is linked to reduced COVID-19 related serious disease, it could potentially play a protective role against post COVID-19 hyperthyroidism (de novo disease and exacerbations). Further studies investigating the complex interplay between COVID-19 or COVID-19 vaccine and thyroid dysfunction can help provide substantial evidence and potential therapeutic targets that can alter prognosis and improve COVID-19 related outcomes in individuals with or without preexisting thyroid disease.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Garrood WT, Cuber P, Willis K, et al (2022)

Driving down malaria transmission with engineered gene drives.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:891218 pii:891218.

The last century has witnessed the introduction, establishment and expansion of mosquito-borne diseases into diverse new geographic ranges. Malaria is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. Despite making great strides over the past few decades in reducing the burden of malaria, transmission is now on the rise again, in part owing to the emergence of mosquito resistance to insecticides, antimalarial drug resistance and, more recently, the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in the reduced implementation efficiency of various control programs. The utility of genetically engineered gene drive mosquitoes as tools to decrease the burden of malaria by controlling the disease-transmitting mosquitoes is being evaluated. To date, there has been remarkable progress in the development of CRISPR/Cas9-based homing endonuclease designs in malaria mosquitoes due to successful proof-of-principle and multigenerational experiments. In this review, we examine the lessons learnt from the development of current CRISPR/Cas9-based homing endonuclease gene drives, providing a framework for the development of gene drive systems for the targeted control of wild malaria-transmitting mosquito populations that overcome challenges such as with evolving drive-resistance. We also discuss the additional substantial works required to progress the development of gene drive systems from scientific discovery to further study and subsequent field application in endemic settings.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Wu HHL, Athwal VS, Kalra PA, et al (2022)

COVID-19 and hepatorenal syndrome.

World journal of gastroenterology, 28(39):5666-5678.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease which emerged into a global pandemic. Although it primarily causes respiratory symptoms for affected patients, COVID-19 was shown to have multi-organ manifestations. Elevated liver enzymes appear to be commonly observed during the course of COVID-19, and there have been numerous reports of liver injury secondary to COVID-19 infection. It has been established that patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) are more likely to have poorer outcomes following COVID-19 infection compared to those without CLD. Co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease frequently co-exist in individuals living with CLD, and a substantial population may also live with some degree of frailty. The mechanisms of how COVID-19 induces liver injury have been postulated. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the occurrence of kidney dysfunction in patients with severe CLD/fulminant liver failure in the absence of another identifiable cause, and is usually a marker of severe decompensated liver disease. Select reports of HRS following acute COVID-19 infection have been presented, although the risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms leading to HRS in COVID-19 infection or following COVID-19 treatment remain largely unestablished due to the relative lack and novelty of published data. Evidence discussing the management of HRS in high-dependency care and intensive care contexts is only emerging. In this article, we provide an overview on the speculative pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 induced HRS and propose strategies for clinical diagnosis and management to optimize outcomes in this scenario.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Payus AO, Mohd Noh M, Azizan N, et al (2022)

SARS-CoV-2-induced liver injury: A review article on the high-risk populations, manifestations, mechanisms, pathological changes, management, and outcomes.

World journal of gastroenterology, 28(39):5723-5730.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 is an infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was declared a global pandemic with more than 500 million reported cases and more than 6 million deaths worldwide to date. Although it has transitioned into the endemic phase in many countries, the mortality rate and overall prognosis of the disease are still abysmal and need further improvement. There has been evidence that shows the significance of SARS-CoV-2-related liver injury. Here, we review the literature on the various spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced liver injury and the possible mechanisms of damage to the hepatobiliary system. This review aimed to illustrate the latest understanding regarding SARS-CoV-2-induced liver injury including the high-risk populations, the characteristic clinical manifestations, the possible pathogenic mechanism, the pathological changes, the current suggestions for clinical treatment for various spectrum of populations, and the prognosis of the condition. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 patients with a liver injury warrant close monitoring as it is associated with the more severe and poorer outcome of the infection.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )