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Bibliography on: covid-19

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Jun 2022 at 01:38 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") AND review[SB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-06-29

Hohmann F, Wedekind L, Grundeis F, et al (2022)

Early spontaneous breathing for acute respiratory distress syndrome in individuals with COVID-19.

The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 6:CD015077.

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents the most severe course of COVID-19 (caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus), usually resulting in a prolonged stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) and high mortality rates. Despite the fact that most affected individuals need invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), evidence on specific ventilation strategies for ARDS caused by COVID-19 is scarce. Spontaneous breathing during IMV is part of a therapeutic concept comprising light levels of sedation and the avoidance of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). This approach is potentially associated with both advantages (e.g. a preserved diaphragmatic motility and an optimised ventilation-perfusion ratio of the ventilated lung), as well as risks (e.g. a higher rate of ventilator-induced lung injury or a worsening of pulmonary oedema due to increases in transpulmonary pressure). As a consequence, spontaneous breathing in people with COVID-19-ARDS who are receiving IMV is subject to an ongoing debate amongst intensivists.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of early spontaneous breathing activity in invasively ventilated people with COVID-19 with ARDS compared to ventilation strategies that avoid spontaneous breathing.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register (which includes CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, Clinical Trials.gov WHO ICTRP, and medRxiv) and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease to identify completed and ongoing studies from their inception to 2 March 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible study designs comprised randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated spontaneous breathing in participants with COVID-19-related ARDS compared to ventilation strategies that avoided spontaneous breathing (e.g. using NMBA or deep sedation levels). Additionally, we considered controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series with comparison group, prospective cohort studies and retrospective cohort studies. For these non-RCT studies, we considered a minimum total number of 50 participants to be compared as necessary for inclusion. Prioritised outcomes were all-cause mortality, clinical improvement or worsening, quality of life, rate of (serious) adverse events and rate of pneumothorax. Additional outcomes were need for tracheostomy, duration of ICU length of stay and duration of hospitalisation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the methods outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two review authors independently screened all studies at the title/abstract and full-text screening stage. We also planned to conduct data extraction and risk of bias assessment in duplicate. We planned to conduct meta-analysis for each prioritised outcome, as well as subgroup analyses of mortality regarding severity of oxygenation impairment and duration of ARDS. In addition, we planned to perform sensitivity analyses for studies at high risk of bias, studies using NMBA in addition to deep sedation level to avoid spontaneous breathing and a comparison of preprints versus peer-reviewed articles. We planned to assess the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified no eligible studies for this review.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no direct evidence on whether early spontaneous breathing in SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS is beneficial or detrimental to this particular group of patients. RCTs comparing early spontaneous breathing with ventilatory strategies not allowing for spontaneous breathing in SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS are necessary to determine its value within the treatment of severely ill people with COVID-19. Additionally, studies should aim to clarify whether treatment effects differ between people with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS and people with non-SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Luo M, Ballester MP, Soffientini U, et al (2022)

SARS-CoV-2 infection and liver involvement.

Hepatology international [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic is the largest public health challenge in living memory. Patients with underlying liver disease have been disproportionately affected, experiencing high morbidity and mortality. In addition, elevated liver enzymes appear to be a risk factor for disease progression, even in the absence of underlying liver disease. Nevertheless, the mechanism of liver injury in SARS-CoV-2 infection remains largely unknown. This review aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 induces liver injury, and the impact of COVID-19 on cirrhosis, alcohol-related liver disease, autoimmune liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis B and C virus infection, liver-transplant recipients and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, emerging data on vaccination in liver diseases is discussed, to help inform public health policy.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Xerfan EMS, Morelhao PK, Arakaki FH, et al (2022)

Could melatonin have a potential adjuvant role in the treatment of the lasting anosmia associated with COVID-19? A review.

International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Anosmia, the loss of the sense of smell, is usually associated with rhinopathies, and has been reported as a common symptom of COVID-19. There is no specific drug to treat this condition, although some evidence suggests that melatonin could promote the recovery of olfactory sensory neurons.

METHODS: We set out to perform a narrative review to synthesize the current evidence in this area in respect of our hypothesis that melatonin may be linked with anosmia and play a part in oxidative stress and the regulation of inflammation. The main electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane) were searched.

RESULTS: The search produced 26 articles related to our hypothesis. Some studies examined issues related to melatonin's effects and its use as adjuvant therapy for COVID-19. Despite some studies suggesting that melatonin may have potential in the treatment of COVID-19, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no trials that have used it to treat anosmia associated with the disease. Few articles identified proposed that melatonin might have an effect on olfactory cells.

DISCUSSION: Further experimental and clinical research on the role of circadian melatonin in the olfactory system is warranted. This will provide evidence of the use of melatonin in the management of anosmia. A number of identified studies suggest that the imbalanced release of melatonin by the pineal gland associated with sleep disturbance may play a role in anosmia, although the specific pathway is not yet entirely clear. This may be a base for further research into the potential role of melatonin as adjuvant treatment of anosmia.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Vasques AI, Ochoa-Leite C, Ramos Rocha D, et al (2022)

[Occupational Dermatoses in Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review].

Acta medica portuguesa [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: On the 11th March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus outbreak as a pandemic. Preventive measures such as the appropriate use of personal protective equipment and proper hand hygiene are essential in decreasing transmissibility. Healthcare workers have been required to wear personal protective equipment and to wash their hands even more frequently. These preventive measures are associated with an increased risk of skin conditions, namely, contact dermatitis and exacerbation of pre-existing skin lesions such as acne and seborrheic dermatitis. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the main skin lesions, and highlighting the role in occupational dermatology and preventive measures.

METHODS: A search was conducted on PubMed and some guidelines from organizations like World Health Organization and Portuguese General Directorate of Health were included.

RESULTS: Most skin conditions seen in healthcare professionals throughout the pandemic were associated with hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment and comprised hand eczema, mask-induced contact dermatitis, personal protective equipment related irritant contact dermatitis, cheilitis and exacerbation of pre-existing conditions such as acne and seborrheic dermatitis. Prevention and early recognition of dermatitis associated with personal protective equipment and hand hygiene are essential to maximize work performance, healthcare workers' safety and the adherence to preventive measures.

CONCLUSION: Protection of healthcare workers' health and safety is an essential measure in the fight against the pandemic. Occupational Health has a fundamental role, acting in terms of disease prevention and health promotion, for example, through educational sessions and orientation of skin conditions associated with work, thus maximizing workers' well-being.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Parihar A, Pandita V, R Khan (2022)

3D printed human organoids: High throughput system for drug screening and testing in current COVID-19 pandemic.

Biotechnology and bioengineering [Epub ahead of print].

In the current pandemic, scenario the world is facing a huge shortage of effective drugs and other prophylactic medicine to treat patients which created havoc in several countries with poor resources. With limited demand and supply of effective drugs, researchers rushed to repurpose the existing approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. The process of drug screening and testing is very costly and requires several steps for validation and treatment efficacy evaluation ranging from in-vitro to in-vivo setups. After these steps, a clinical trial is mandatory for the evaluation of treatment efficacy and side effects in humans. These processes enhance the overall cost and sometimes the lead molecule show adverse effects in humans and the trial ends up in the final stages. Recently with the advent of 3D organoid culture which mimics the human tissue exactly the process of drug screening and testing can be done in a faster and cost-effective manner. Further 3D organoids prepared from stems cells taken from individuals can be beneficial for personalized drug therapy which could save millions of lives. This review discussed approaches and techniques for the synthesis of 3D-printed human organoids for drug screening. The key findings of the usage of organoids for personalized medicine for the treatment of COVID-19 have been discussed. In the end, the key challenges for the wide applicability of human organoids for drug screening with prospects of future orientation have been included. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Oliyaei N, Moosavi-Nasab M, SM Mazloomi (2022)

Therapeutic activity of fucoidan and carrageenan as marine algal polysaccharides against viruses.

3 Biotech, 12(7):154.

Marine resources are today a renewable source of various compounds that are used in numerous industries. In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on diverse algae or their metabolites to develop several novel bioactive substances. Algae derivatives are defined as a food or part of food that has health benefits and prevention or treatment of disease. Algal sulfated polysaccharides have a high potential as a source of functional ingredients with a wide range of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Fucoidan and carrageenan, as two main seaweed sulfated polysaccharides, possess numerous biological properties. These polysaccharides are highly valuable in food and healthy immune system diet and also can be applied in the pharmaceutical field. They have shown antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19 infection by preventing virus entry into the cell or interfering with viral replication. Thus, they may provide some novel ingredients for the production of healthy functional foods, antiviral supplement formulations, or algal-based treatments for viral respiratory diseases, especially anti-COVID-19 and recommend solutions to this global health problem in the future. This article provides a review of recent researches on immune-boosting food ingredients, the antiviral activity of algae bioactive compounds, fucoidan, and carrageenan, in particular against SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Morajkar RV, Kumar AS, Kunkalekar RK, et al (2022)

Advances in nanotechnology application in biosafety materials: a crucial response to COVID-19 pandemic.

Biosafety and health pii:S2590-0536(22)00075-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has adversely affected the public domain causing unprecedented cases and high mortality across the globe. This has brought back the concept of biosafety into the spotlight to solve biosafety problems in developing diagnostics and therapeutics to treat COVID-19. The advances in nanotechnology and material science in combination with medicinal chemistry have provided a new perspective to overcome this crisis. Herein, we discuss the efforts of researchers in the field of material science in developing personal protective equipment (PPE), detection devices, vaccines, drug delivery systems, and medical equipment. Such a synergistic approach of disciplines can strengthen the research to develop biosafety products in solving biosafety problems.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Yoon E, Kim D, Jeon H, et al (2022)

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Variants-Possibility of Universal Vaccine Design: A Review.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal pii:S2001-0370(22)00257-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Both novel and conventional vaccination strategies have been implemented worldwide since the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite various medical advances in the treatment and prevention of the spread of this contagious disease, it remains a major public health threat with a high mortality rate. As several lethal SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge, the development of several vaccines and medicines, each with certain advantages and disadvantages, is underway. Additionally, many modalities are at various stages of research and development or clinical trials. Here, we summarize emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, including delta, omicron, and "stealth omicron," as well as available oral drugs for COVID-19. We also discuss possible antigen candidates other than the receptor-binding domain protein for the development of a universal COVID-19 vaccine. The present review will serve as a helpful resource for future vaccine and drug development to combat COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Bajpai J, Pradhan A, Verma AK, et al (2022)

Use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination to treat the COVID-19 infection.

World journal of experimental medicine, 12(3):44-52.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is unequivocally the worst crisis in recent decades, which is caused by a severe acute respiratory virus 2. Currently, there is no effective therapy for the COVID-19 infection. Different countries have different guidelines for treating COVID-19 in the absence of an approved therapy for COVID-19. Therefore, there is an imminent need to identify effective treatments, and several clinical trials have been conducted worldwide. Both hydroxychloroquine [HCQS], chloroquine, and azithromycin (AZ) have been widely used for management based on in vitro studies favoring antiviral effects against the COVID-19 virus. However, there is evidence both in favor and against the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQS+AZ) combination therapy to manage the COVID-19 infection. The combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin was significantly associated with increased adverse events. However, the inference of these findings was from observational studies. Therefore, large randomized trials are imperative to show the future path for the use of HCQS+AZ combination therapy. However, owing to the ban on HCQS use in COVID-19, this may no longer be essential. This review is on the pharmacology, trials, regimens, and side effects of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin combination therapy.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

El-Sherif DM, M Abouzid (2022)

Analysis of mHealth research: mapping the relationship between mobile apps technology and healthcare during COVID-19 outbreak.

Globalization and health, 18(1):67.

BACKGROUND: Mobile health applications (mHealth apps) offer enormous promise for illness monitoring and treatment to improve the provided medical care and promote health and wellbeing.

OBJECTIVE: We applied bibliometric quantitative analysis and network visualization to highlight research trends and areas of particular interest. We expect by summarizing the trends in mHealth app research, our work will serve as a roadmap for future investigations.

METHODS: Relevant English publications were extracted from the Scopus database. VOSviewer (version 1.6.17) was used to build coauthorship networks of authors, countries, and the co-occurrence networks of author keywords.

RESULTS: We analyzed 550 published articles on mHealth apps from 2020 to February 1, 2021. The yearly publications increased from 130 to 390 in 2021. JMIR mHealth and uHealth (33/550, 6.0%), J. Med. Internet Res. (27/550, 4.9%), JMIR Res. Protoc. (22/550, 4.0%) were the widest journals for these publications. The United States has the largest number of publications (143/550, 26.0%), and England ranks second (96/550, 17.5%). The top three productive authors were: Giansanti D., Samuel G., Lucivero F., and Zhang L. Frequent authors' keywords have formed major 4 clusters representing the hot topics in the field: (1) artificial intelligence and telehealthcare; (2) digital contact tracing apps, privacy and security concerns; (3) mHealth apps and mental health; (4) mHealth apps in public health and health promotion.

CONCLUSIONS: mHealth apps undergo current developments, and they remain hot topics in COVID-19. These findings might be useful in determining future perspectives to improve infectious disease control and present innovative solutions for healthcare.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Chlamydas S, Markouli M, Strepkos D, et al (2022)

Epigenetic mechanisms regulate sex-specific bias in disease manifestations.

Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Sex presents a vital determinant of a person's physiology, anatomy, and development. Recent clinical studies indicate that sex is also involved in the differential manifestation of various diseases, affecting both clinical outcome as well as response to therapy. Genetic and epigenetic changes are implicated in sex bias and regulate disease onset, including the inactivation of the X chromosome as well as sex chromosome aneuploidy. The differential expression of X-linked genes, along with the presence of sex-specific hormones, exhibits a significant impact on immune system function. Several studies have revealed differences between the two sexes in response to infections, including respiratory diseases and COVID-19 infection, autoimmune disorders, liver fibrosis, neuropsychiatric diseases, and cancer susceptibility, which can be explained by sex-biased immune responses. In the present review, we explore the input of genetic and epigenetic interplay in the sex bias underlying disease manifestation and discuss their effects along with sex hormones on disease development and progression, aiming to reveal potential new therapeutic targets. KEY MESSAGES: Sex is involved in the differential manifestation of various diseases. Epigenetic modifications influence X-linked gene expression, affecting immune response to infections, including COVID-19. Epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for the sex bias observed in several respiratory and autoimmune disorders, liver fibrosis, neuropsychiatric diseases, and cancer.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Hameed SA, Paul S, Dellosa GKY, et al (2022)

Towards the future exploration of mucosal mRNA vaccines against emerging viral diseases; lessons from existing next-generation mucosal vaccine strategies.

NPJ vaccines, 7(1):71.

The mRNA vaccine platform has offered the greatest potential in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic owing to rapid development, effectiveness, and scalability to meet the global demand. There are many other mRNA vaccines currently being developed against different emerging viral diseases. As with the current COVID-19 vaccines, these mRNA-based vaccine candidates are being developed for parenteral administration via injections. However, most of the emerging viruses colonize the mucosal surfaces prior to systemic infection making it very crucial to target mucosal immunity. Although parenterally administered vaccines would induce a robust systemic immunity, they often provoke a weak mucosal immunity which may not be effective in preventing mucosal infection. In contrast, mucosal administration potentially offers the dual benefit of inducing potent mucosal and systemic immunity which would be more effective in offering protection against mucosal viral infection. There are however many challenges posed by the mucosal environment which impede successful mucosal vaccination. The development of an effective delivery system remains a major challenge to the successful exploitation of mucosal mRNA vaccination. Nonetheless, a number of delivery vehicles have been experimentally harnessed with different degrees of success in the mucosal delivery of mRNA vaccines. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of mRNA vaccines and summarise their application in the fight against emerging viral diseases with particular emphasis on COVID-19 mRNA platforms. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects and challenges of mucosal administration of mRNA-based vaccines, and we explore the existing experimental studies on mucosal mRNA vaccine delivery.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Sun C, Xie C, Bu GL, et al (2022)

Molecular characteristics, immune evasion, and impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 7(1):202.

The persistent COVID-19 pandemic since 2020 has brought an enormous public health burden to the global society and is accompanied by various evolution of the virus genome. The consistently emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring critical mutations impact the molecular characteristics of viral proteins and display heterogeneous behaviors in immune evasion, transmissibility, and the clinical manifestation during infection, which differ each strain and endow them with distinguished features during populational spread. Several SARS-CoV-2 variants, identified as Variants of Concern (VOC) by the World Health Organization, challenged global efforts on COVID-19 control due to the rapid worldwide spread and enhanced immune evasion from current antibodies and vaccines. Moreover, the recent Omicron variant even exacerbated the global anxiety in the continuous pandemic. Its significant evasion from current medical treatment and disease control even highlights the necessity of combinatory investigation of the mutational pattern and influence of the mutations on viral dynamics against populational immunity, which would greatly facilitate drug and vaccine development and benefit the global public health policymaking. Hence in this review, we summarized the molecular characteristics, immune evasion, and impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 variants and focused on the parallel comparison of different variants in mutational profile, transmissibility and tropism alteration, treatment effectiveness, and clinical manifestations, in order to provide a comprehensive landscape for SARS-CoV-2 variant research.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Gold IM, Reis N, Glaser F, et al (2022)

Coronaviral PLpro proteases and the immunomodulatory roles of conjugated versus free Interferon Stimulated Gene product-15 (ISG15).

Seminars in cell & developmental biology pii:S1084-9521(22)00215-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) share some features with ubiquitin (Ub) such as their globular 3D structure and the ability to attach covalently to other proteins. Interferon Stimulated Gene 15 (ISG15) is an abundant Ubl that similar to Ub, marks many hundreds of cellular proteins, altering their fate. In contrast to Ub, , ISG15 requires interferon (IFN) induction to conjugate efficiently to other proteins. Moreover, despite the multitude of E3 ligases for Ub-modified targets, a single E3 ligase termed HERC5 (in humans) is responsible for the bulk of ISG15 conjugation. Targets include both viral and cellular proteins spanning an array of cellular compartments and metabolic pathways. So far, no common structural or biochemical feature has been attributed to these diverse substrates, raising questions about how and why they are selected. Conjugation of ISG15 mitigates some viral and bacterial infections and is linked to a lower viral load pointing to the role of ISG15 in the cellular immune response. In an apparent attempt to evade the immune response, some viruses try to interfere with the ISG15 pathway. For example, deconjugation of ISG15 appears to be an approach taken by coronaviruses to interfere with ISG15 conjugates. Specifically, coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, encode papain-like proteases (PL1pro) that bear striking structural and catalytic similarities to the catalytic core domain of eukaryotic deubiquitinating enzymes of the Ubiquitin-Specific Protease (USP) sub-family. The cleavage specificity of these PLpro enzymes is for flexible polypeptides containing a consensus sequence (R/K)LXGG, enabling them to function on two seemingly unrelated categories of substrates: (i) the viral polyprotein 1 (PP1a, PP1ab) and (ii) Ub- or ISG15-conjugates. As a result, PLpro enzymes process the viral polyprotein 1 into an array of functional proteins for viral replication (termed non-structural proteins; NSPs), and it can remove Ub or ISG15 units from conjugates. However, by de-conjugating ISG15, the virus also creates free ISG15, which in turn may affect the immune response in two opposite pathways: free ISG15 negatively regulates IFN signaling in humans by binding non-catalytically to USP18, yet at the same time free ISG15 can be secreted from the cell and induce the IFN pathway of the neighboring cells. A deeper understanding of this protein-modification pathway and the mechanisms of the enzymes that counteract it will bring about effective clinical strategies related to viral and bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Feng XW, Hadizadeh M, JPG Cheong (2022)

Global Trends in Physical-Activity Research of Autism: Bibliometric Analysis Based on the Web of Science Database (1980-2021).

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(12): pii:ijerph19127278.

The World Health Organization has identified nervous system diseases as one of the biggest public health problems, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Considering the extensive benefits of physical activity (PA), the literature on the PA research of ASD has increased each year, but there is a lack of bibliometric analyses in this field. To investigate the research achievements worldwide, this paper adopts bibliometrics to analyze the trend in the academic literature on the PA research of ASD published from 1980 to 2021. The documents were retrieved from the Web of Science database, and the search strategy was to combine the keywords related to "physical activity" and "autism spectrum disorder" by using the Boolean operator tools "OR" and "AND" in the title. A total of 359 English documents were retrieved. Microsoft Excel, Data Wrapper, VOSviewer, and Biblioshiny were used for the visual analysis. We found that the number of published documents increased the fastest from 2017 to 2021, which may be due to the promulgation of the Global Action Plan for Physical Activity 2018-2030 and the influence of COVID-19 on the world. The United States and the University of California systems are in the leading position in this field. Cooperation among countries with different levels of development will help to jointly promote the PA research progress on ASD. The focus themes include "individual effect", "social support" and "activity dose". The analysis of the frontier topic points out that researchers are paying increasing attention to how to improve the health and physical fitness of this group through PA. This research clearly puts forward a comprehensive overview, theme focus, and future trends in this field, which may be helpful to guide future research.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Bert F, Scaioli G, Vola L, et al (2022)

Booster Doses of Anti COVID-19 Vaccines: An Overview of Implementation Policies among OECD and EU Countries.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(12): pii:ijerph19127233.

The need for an anti-COVID-19 booster dose posed an organizational challenge for health policy makers worldwide. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the health policies regarding the booster dose through an overview of recommendations issued in high-income countries. Between 10 November and 16 December 2021, the authors searched for state-level official documents about the offer of the booster dose, considering the 43 countries belonging to the European Union (EU) or the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Mainly due to the lack of English translation, 15 countries were excluded. A total of 135 documents were selected. Almost all the countries started administering the booster dose between September and November 2021. The most used products were mRNA vaccines, followed by Vaxzevria-AstraZeneca and Jcovden-Janssen/Johnson & Johnson. All countries established criteria to define categories of individuals to be vaccinated as a priority. A six/five-months interval was the main choice for general population vaccinated with mRNA vaccines, while shorter intervals were chosen for vulnerable individuals or other vaccines. Despite diversities related to the differences in health systems, economical resources, and population numbers, and the need to adapt all these factors to a massive vaccination campaign, a progressive convergence towards the same vaccination policies was highlighted.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Gómez-Domínguez V, Navarro-Mateu D, Prado-Gascó VJ, et al (2022)

How Much Do We Care about Teacher Burnout during the Pandemic: A Bibliometric Review.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(12): pii:ijerph19127134.

In this study, a descriptive bibliometric analysis of the scientific production was performed in the Web of Science on burnout and/or stress in teachers in pandemic situations. The aim of the study was to analyse the scientific production on stress and burnout in teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 75 documents from 33 journals with 3947 cited references were considered, with 307 researchers from 35 countries publishing at least one article. The country with the most publications was the USA, followed by China and Spain. The USA was the country with the most collaborations. A total of 184 institutions published documents, and the universities with the most records were Christopher Newport and Columbia, although the American University of Sharjah and Cape Breton University had a higher overall citation coefficient. Of the 33 journals that have published on the subject, Frontiers in Psychology and the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health stood out in terms of the number of articles, and they were also listed in this order with regard to their impact factor.

RevDate: 2022-06-29

Ali H, Z Shah (2022)

Combating COVID-19 Using Generative Adversarial Networks and Artificial Intelligence for Medical Images: Scoping Review.

JMIR medical informatics, 10(6):e37365 pii:v10i6e37365.

BACKGROUND: Research on the diagnosis of COVID-19 using lung images is limited by the scarcity of imaging data. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are popular for synthesis and data augmentation. GANs have been explored for data augmentation to enhance the performance of artificial intelligence (AI) methods for the diagnosis of COVID-19 within lung computed tomography (CT) and X-ray images. However, the role of GANs in overcoming data scarcity for COVID-19 is not well understood.

OBJECTIVE: This review presents a comprehensive study on the role of GANs in addressing the challenges related to COVID-19 data scarcity and diagnosis. It is the first review that summarizes different GAN methods and lung imaging data sets for COVID-19. It attempts to answer the questions related to applications of GANs, popular GAN architectures, frequently used image modalities, and the availability of source code.

METHODS: A search was conducted on 5 databases, namely PubMed, IEEEXplore, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The search was conducted from October 11-13, 2021. The search was conducted using intervention keywords, such as "generative adversarial networks" and "GANs," and application keywords, such as "COVID-19" and "coronavirus." The review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines for systematic and scoping reviews. Only those studies were included that reported GAN-based methods for analyzing chest X-ray images, chest CT images, and chest ultrasound images. Any studies that used deep learning methods but did not use GANs were excluded. No restrictions were imposed on the country of publication, study design, or outcomes. Only those studies that were in English and were published from 2020 to 2022 were included. No studies before 2020 were included.

RESULTS: This review included 57 full-text studies that reported the use of GANs for different applications in COVID-19 lung imaging data. Most of the studies (n=42, 74%) used GANs for data augmentation to enhance the performance of AI techniques for COVID-19 diagnosis. Other popular applications of GANs were segmentation of lungs and superresolution of lung images. The cycleGAN and the conditional GAN were the most commonly used architectures, used in 9 studies each. In addition, 29 (51%) studies used chest X-ray images, while 21 (37%) studies used CT images for the training of GANs. For the majority of the studies (n=47, 82%), the experiments were conducted and results were reported using publicly available data. A secondary evaluation of the results by radiologists/clinicians was reported by only 2 (4%) studies.

CONCLUSIONS: Studies have shown that GANs have great potential to address the data scarcity challenge for lung images in COVID-19. Data synthesized with GANs have been helpful to improve the training of the convolutional neural network (CNN) models trained for the diagnosis of COVID-19. In addition, GANs have also contributed to enhancing the CNNs' performance through the superresolution of the images and segmentation. This review also identified key limitations of the potential transformation of GAN-based methods in clinical applications.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Puthucheary ZA, TW Rice (2022)

Nutritional priorities in patients with severe COVID-19.

Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 25(4):277-281.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered the profile of critical care services internationally, as professionals around the globe have struggled to rise to the unprecedented challenge faced, both in terms of individual patient management and the sheer volume of patients that require treatment and management in intensive care. This review article sets out key priorities in nutritional interventions during the patient journey, both in the acute and recovery phases.

RECENT FINDINGS: The current review covers the care of the acutely unwell patient, and the evidence base for nutritional interventions in the COVID-19 population. One of the biggest differences in caring for critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure from COVID-19 is often the time prior to intubation. This represents specific nutritional challenges, as does nursing patients in the prone position or in the setting of limited resources. This article goes on to discuss nutritional support for COVID-19 sufferers as they transition through hospital wards and into the community.

SUMMARY: Nutritional support of patients with severe COVID-19 is essential. Given the longer duration of their critical illness, combined with hypermetabolism and energy expenditure, patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for malnutrition during and after their hospital stay.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Zeidler H, AP Hudson (2022)

Quo vadis reactive arthritis?.

Current opinion in rheumatology, 34(4):218-224.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of recent articles which describe new thinking regarding HLA-B27-associated reactive arthritis (ReA), including those additional infection-related arthritides triggered by microbes that often are grouped under the term ReA.

RECENT FINDINGS: With the advent and continuation of the pandemic, an increasing number of cases and case series of post-COVID-19 arthritis have been reported and classified as ReA. Further, arthritis after COVID-19 vaccination is a new entity included within the spectrum of ReA. New causative microorganisms identified in case reports include Clostridium difficile, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Giardia lamblia, Leptospira , and babesiosis. SARS-CoV-2 is emerging as a significant etiologic agent for apparent ReA.

SUMMARY: It is now clear that comprehensive clinical and laboratory investigations, synovial fluid analyses, and close follow-up of patients all are essential to differentiate ReA from diseases that may present with similar clinical attributes. Further, and importantly, additional research is required to define the wide diversity in causative agents, epidemiology, and rare case presentations of these arthritides. Finally, new classification and diagnostic criteria, and updated treatment recommendations, are essential to the advancement of our understanding of ReA.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Shin JH, Lee J, Jung YK, et al (2022)

Therapeutic applications of gene editing in chronic liver diseases: an update.

BMB reports, 55(6):251-258.

Innovative genome editing techniques developed in recent decades have revolutionized the biomedical research field. Liver is the most favored target organ for genome editing owing to its ability to regenerate. The regenerative capacity of the liver enables ex vivo gene editing in which the mutated gene in hepatocytes isolated from the animal model of genetic disease is repaired. The edited hepatocytes are injected back into the animal to mitigate the disease. Furthermore, the liver is considered as the easiest target organ for gene editing as it absorbs almost all foreign molecules. The mRNA vaccines, which have been developed to manage the COVID-19 pandemic, have provided a novel gene editing strategy using Cas mRNA. A single injection of gene editing components with Cas mRNA is reported to be efficient in the treatment of patients with genetic liver diseases. In this review, we first discuss previously reported gene editing tools and cases managed using them, as well as liver diseases caused by genetic mutations. Next, we summarize the recent successes of ex vivo and in vivo gene editing approaches in ameliorating liver diseases in animals and humans. [BMB Reports 2022; 55(6): 251-258].

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Mazucheli J, Alves B, Menezes AFB, et al (2022)

An overview on parametric quantile regression models and their computational implementation with applications to biomedical problems including COVID-19 data.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 221:106816.

Quantile regression allows us to estimate the relationship between covariates and any quantile of the response variable rather than the mean. Recently, several statistical distributions have been considered for quantile modeling. The objective of this study is to provide a new computational package, two biomedical applications, one of them with COVID-19 data, and an up-to-date overview of parametric quantile regression. A fully parametric quantile regression is formulated by first parameterizing the baseline distribution in terms of a quantile. Then, we introduce a regression-based functional form through a link function. The density, distribution, and quantile functions, as well as the main properties of each distribution, are presented. We consider 18 distributions related to normal and non-normal settings for quantile modeling of continuous responses on the unit interval, four distributions for continuous response, and one distribution for discrete response. We implement an R package that includes estimation and model checking, density, distribution, and quantile functions, as well as random number generators, for distributions using quantile regression in both location and shape parameters. In summary, a number of studies have recently appeared applying parametric quantile regression as an alternative to the distribution-free quantile regression proposed in the literature. We have reviewed a wide body of parametric quantile regression models, developed an R package which allows us, in a simple way, to fit a variety of distributions, and applied these models to two examples with biomedical real-world data from Brazil and COVID-19 data from US for illustrative purposes. Parametric and non-parametric quantile regressions are compared with these two data sets.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Sansotta N, Norsa L, L D'Antiga (2022)

Gastrointestinal coronavirus disease 2019 manifestations in childhood.

Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 25(3):195-202.

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged and caused a massive global health crisis. The aim of this review is first, to provide the latest evidence on what is known about the pathophysiology and the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and then to focus on the manifestations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in children with COVID-19. Lastly, we summarise the impact of COVID-19 on patients with preexisting GI diseases.

RECENT FINDINGS: Even though the virus is mostly transmitted from human to human via respiratory droplets, ACE2 is known to be expressed throughout the GI tract, and SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid has been isolated from patients' stools. GI symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting are frequently reported in paediatric patients. Interestingly, a small number of patients seem to exhibit solely GI symptoms. In addition, a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-COV-2 described in children, has a high rate of GI involvement. Several etiopathogenetic mechanisms have been postulated to explain the GI involvement of COVID-19.

SUMMARY: Clinicians should not underestimate or disregard these early or mild GI symptoms, because the patients may be infected and transmit the virus, or develop a more severe condition such as MIS-C.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Sakalidis VS, Perrella SL, Prosser SA, et al (2022)

Breastfeeding in a COVID-19 world.

Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 25(3):188-194.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the birthing and postnatal experience of women. This review highlights how policy changes have affected pregnant and breastfeeding women, the evidence for continued breastfeeding and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, and how the pandemic's unexpected consequences have affected these women's wellbeing. Additionally, we postulate the future of lactation and perinatal support as the pandemic continues.

RECENT FINDINGS: Women who have given birth during the pandemic have had restricted access to postnatal care. Although pregnant and breastfeeding women who contract SARS-CoV-2 are more vulnerable to poor health outcomes than their nonpregnant counterparts, they are also at higher risk of mental health difficulties, with limited access to support. Continued breastfeeding may be protective to the infant, offering passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2, and vaccination against COVID-19 is safe and effective for pregnant and lactating women. Innovative and adaptable lactation care, including holistic perinatal, mental health, and social support services, both digital and in-person, will help mothers continue breastfeeding during future outbreaks.

SUMMARY: Continued breastfeeding and vaccination may confer protection to the infant against SARS-CoV-2 infection. New mothers should not be isolated in future pandemics. Prioritizing lactation and perinatal care, including in-person services, remains paramount to optimizing breastfeeding during COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-06-29
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Bear DE, JL Merriweather (2022)

Nutrition in postacute rehabilitation of COVID-19 survivors.

Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, 25(3):154-158.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are at high nutrition risk and a significant number are likely to require ongoing nutrition rehabilitation. Here, we summarise guideline recommendations for nutritional rehabilitation in postacute COVID-19 infection, outline the rationale for nutrition rehabilitation for survivors of postacute COVID-19 in patients admitted to both the hospital ward and intensive care unit and discuss current evidence for interventions.

RECENT FINDINGS: Several guidelines exist outlining recommendations for nutrition care in hospital, critical care and the community setting. All have common themes pertaining to the importance of nutrition screening, nutrition assessment, appropriate choice of intervention and continuity of care across settings. While a plethora of data exists highlighting the high nutrition risk and prevalence of malnutrition in this population, minimal interventional studies have been published.

SUMMARY: Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are at high nutrition risk. Future studies should focus on nutrition interventions for the rehabilitation period and determine whether nutrition needs differ between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 survivors.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Hasan Q, Elfakki E, Fahmy K, et al (2022)

Inequities in the deployment of COVID-19 vaccine in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2020-2021.

BMJ global health, 7(Suppl 4):.

The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is characterised by a large range in routine immunisation coverage. We reviewed progress in access, deployment efforts, and use of COVID-19 vaccines in the EMR to identify bottlenecks and propose recommendations. We compiled and analysed data reported to WHO regarding the number of vaccines provided emergency use authorisation (EUA) in each country, the number of vaccine doses allocated and delivered by COVAX, the number of vaccine doses received bilaterally, the date of initiation of vaccination, vaccine usage rate and overall vaccination coverage. In June-July and October-November 2021, we conducted two rounds of a regional survey to assess vaccine acceptance and calculated the weighted proportion of individuals who would get vaccinated once a vaccine is available and recommended. We stratified the analysis according to four groups based on their participation status in COVAX, from the highest to lowest income, that is, (1) fully self-financing high-income countries (group 1), (2) fully self-financing upper middle-income countries (group 2), (3) Advance Market Commitment (AMC) countries not eligible to receive Gavi support (group 3) and (4) AMC countries eligible for Gavi support (group 4). As of 31 December 2021, the median number of vaccines provided with EUA was 6 for group 1, 11 for group 2, 8 for group 3 and 9 for group 4. On the same date, COVAX had delivered 179 793 310 doses to EMR countries. Vaccination started on 10 December 2020 in group 1, on 13 December 2020 in group 2, on 30 December 2020 in group 3 and on 20 January 2021 in group 4. The regional acceptance survey (first round) pointed to higher vaccine acceptance in group 1 (96%), than in others, including group 2 (73.9%), group 3 (78.8%) and group 4 (79.3%), with identical patterns in the second round (98%, 78%, 84% and 76%), respectively. Usage of vaccine allocated by COVAX to participating countries was 89% in group 1, 75% in group 2, 78% in group 3 and 42% in group 4. The full dose and partial dose coverage decreased with the income groups of countries, from 70% and 6% in group 1, to 43% and 8% in group 2, to 33% and 11% in group 3, and 20% and 8% in group 4. All 22 EMR countries introduced COVID-19 vaccines by 21 April 2021, but with major inequities in coverage. Additional efforts are needed to address the determinants of unequal vaccine coverage at all stages of the result chain to improve vaccine equity.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Pereira E, Felipe S, de Freitas R, et al (2022)

ABO blood group and link to COVID-19: A comprehensive review of the reported associations and their possible underlying mechanisms.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(22)00271-6 [Epub ahead of print].

ABO blood group is long known to be an influencing factor for the susceptibility to infectious diseases, and many studies have been describing associations between ABO blood types and COVID-19 infection and severity, with conflicting findings. This narrative review aims to summarize the literature regarding associations between the ABO blood group and COVID-19. Blood type O is mostly associated with lower rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, while blood type A is frequently described as a risk factor. Although results regarding the risk of severe outcomes are more variable, blood type A is the most associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality, while many studies describe O blood type as a protective factor for the disease progression. Furthermore, genetic associations with both the risk of infection and disease severity have been reported for the ABO locus. Some underlying mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the reported associations, with incipient experimental data. Three major hypotheses emerge: SARS-CoV-2 could carry ABO(H)-like structures in its envelope glycoproteins and would be asymmetrically transmitted due to a protective effect of the ABO antibodies, ABH antigens could facilitate SARS-CoV-2 interaction with the host' cells, and the association of non-O blood types with higher risks of thromboembolic events could confer COVID-19 patients with blood type O a lower risk of severe outcomes. The hypothesized mechanisms would affect distinct aspects of the COVID-19 natural history, with distinct potential implications to the disease transmission and its management.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Al-Hazmi HE, Shokrani H, Shokrani A, et al (2022)

Recent advances in aqueous virus removal technologies.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(22)01934-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 outbreak has triggered a massive research, but still urgent detection and treatment of this virus seems a public concern. The spread of viruses in aqueous environments underlined efficient virus treatment processes as a hot challenge. This review critically and comprehensively enables identifying and classifying advanced biochemical, membrane-based and disinfection processes for effective treatment of virus-contaminated water and wastewater. Understanding the functions of individual and combined/multi-stage processes in terms of manufacturing and economical parameters makes this contribution a different story from available review papers. Moreover, this review discusses challenges of combining biochemical, membrane and disinfection processes for synergistic treatment of viruses in order to reduce the dissemination of waterborne diseases. Certainly, the combination technologies are proactive in minimizing and restraining the outbreaks of the virus. It emphasizes the importance of health authorities to confront the outbreaks of unknown viruses in the future.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Paybast S, Emami A, Baghalha F, et al (2022)

Watch out for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder onset or clinical relapse after COVID-19 vaccination: What neurologists need to know?.

Multiple sclerosis and related disorders, 65:103960 pii:S2211-0348(22)00471-0 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted our lives. We conducted this systematic review to investigate the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines in NMOSD patients.

METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase from the beginning of the COVID-19 vaccination to March 1, 2022. Except for the letters, posters, and reviews, we included all related articles to answer two main questions. Our first question examined the occurrence of NMOSD onset as an adverse effect of the COVID-19 vaccine. Our second question investigated the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines in NMOSD patients.

RESULTS: Out of 262 records, nine studies, including five studies for the first question and four studies for the second question, met the inclusion criteria. Out of the six patients with NMOSD onset after COVID-19 vaccination, five (83.3%) were female. The median time to NMOSD onset was 6.5 days, and the frequency of the COVID-19 vaccine type was identical in all patients. The most common presentation was longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, significantly improved by pulse methylprednisolone with or without plasma exchange. The maintenance therapy was described only in three patients: rituximab (n=2) and azathioprine (n=1). Regarding the second question, out of 67 patients, 77.61% were female, with a mean age of 54.75 years old, a mean EDSS of 2.83, and a mean disease duration of 9.5 years. 77% reported at least one preexisting comorbidity. 88.05% were under treatment, most of which were rituximab and azathioprine. 98.50% received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. mRNA vaccines were the most commonly used vaccine(86.56%), which were well tolerated. No significant adverse event was reported, and local pain was the most frequently reported. 4.67% of the patients experienced a clinical relapse after a mean interval of 49.75 days, which was mainly mild to moderate in severity. Unfortunately, the data on the COVID-19 vaccines were missing.

CONCLUSION: The analysis suggests the safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccines. All NMOSD patients are strongly recommended to vaccinate for COVID-19. To maximize the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccines, further studies are needed to draw the best practice for vaccination.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Zhu T, Jin J, Chen M, et al (2022)

The impact of infection with COVID-19 on the respiratory microbiome: A narrative review.

Virulence, 13(1):1076-1087.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has affected millions of individuals with various implications. Consistent with the crucial role of the microbiome in determining health and disease in humans, various studies have investigated the gut and respiratory microbiome effect on the COVID-19. Microbiota dysbiosis might support the entry, replication, and establishment of SARS-CoV-2 infection by modulating various mechanisms. One of the main mechanisms that the modulation of respiratory microbiota composition during the COVID-19 infection affects the magnitude of the disease is changes in innate and acquired immune responses, including inflammatory markers and cytokines and B- and T-cells. The diversity of respiratory microbiota in COVID-19 patients is controversial; some studies reported low microbial diversity, while others found high diversity, suggesting the role of respiratory microbiota in this disease. Modulating microbiota diversity and profile by supplementations and nutrients can be applied prophylactic and therapeutic in combating COVID-19. Here, we discussed the lung microbiome dysbiosis during various lung diseases and its interaction with immune cells, focusing on COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Ochoa-Fuentes DA, Gutiérrez-Chablé LE, Méndez-Martínez S, et al (2022)

[Confinement and social distancing: stress, anxiety, depression in children and adolescents].

Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 60(3):338-344.

Among the strategies to avoid COVID-19 disease that affects the world population it is keeping away from contagion through confinement and social distancing, which can cause in children and adolescents a change in the psychosocial environment with a high prevalence of psychological and psychiatric disorders, such as stress, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, risk of suicide and eating disorders. During confinement, were made school closures, shutdowns of recreational and sports spaces, cancellation of outdoor activities, which can have consequences in social habits, sleep, modifications in the eating pattern that entails alterations in anthropometric variables, neurophysiological alterations with behaviors that affect mental health, in addition to the frustration of not executing plans, fear, boredom and the uncertainty of the duration of the pandemic could lead to further stress. Social distancing favors a reduction in interaction, is related to anxiety, stress and depression, in addition to the concern of infecting the family. These scenarios can generate stress for parents, domestic violence and uncontrolled use of the internet. Children and adolescents are vulnerable populations that adapt to the environment in crisis. The objective of this work was to review the influence of confinement and social distancing on stress, anxiety and depression in children and adolescents.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Caron P (2022)

Autoimmune and inflammatory thyroid diseases following vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines: from etiopathogenesis to clinical management.

Endocrine [Epub ahead of print].

Since the Covid-19 pandemic emerged in 2019, several adenoviral-vectored, mRNA-based and inactivated whole-virus vaccines have been developed. A massive vaccination campaign has been undertaken around the world, and an increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced thyroid diseases have been described in the literature. Subacute thyroiditis has been reported in 52 patients, mean age 45.5 ± 1.8 years, mainly in women (n = 39). Graves' disease is more frequent in women (n = 22) than in men (n = 10), mean age 46.2 ± 2.6 years, reported as new onset, recurrent or exacerbation of well-controlled hyperthyroidism. The mean time to symptoms onset is 9.0 ± 0.8 days in subacute thyroiditis, and 15.1 ± 2.6 days in Graves' patients. Rare patients (n = 6) present silent or painless autoimmune thyroiditis. Thyroid function and autoimmune tests, inflammatory markers, thyroid echography with colour flow Doppler, radio-activity uptake on thyroid scan, medical treatment and follow-up are described and compared in patients with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced thyroid diseases. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of vaccine-induced thyroid diseases, molecular mimicry (various SARS-CoV-2 proteins sharing a genetic homology with a large heptapeptide human protein) or autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) are discussed in the context of predisposition or genetic susceptibility. The benefits of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination far outweigh the potential vaccine-induced adverse effects, but clinicians should be aware of possible autoimmune and inflammatory thyroid diseases, and can advise patients to seek medical assistance when experiencing anterior neck pain, fever or palpitations following SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Further studies are warranted to investigate the etiopathogenesis and to clarify the factors which predispose patients to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced thyroid diseases.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Yelemali P, Hao L, Q Liu (2022)

Mechanisms of host type I interferon response modulation by the nucleocapsid proteins of alpha- and betacoronaviruses.

Archives of virology [Epub ahead of print].

Coronaviruses can have a devastating impact on the health of humans and animals. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes extremely high fatality rates in neonatal piglets, whereas severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic in humans. As a critical component of the host antiviral innate immune response, type I interferon production and signaling play a very important role, especially in the initial phase of the antiviral responses. Coronaviruses have evolved multiple ways to counteract type I interferon responses. Although the primary functions of the nucleocapsid protein are to facilitate viral RNA replication and package viral genomic RNA into virions, recent studies have shown that the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in virus-host interactions. The aim of this review is to summarize our current understanding of how the nucleocapsid proteins of PEDV and SARS-CoV-2 modulate type I interferon responses. This knowledge will be useful for developing strategies to combat coronavirus infections.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Ikonomou L, Magnusson M, Dries R, et al (2022)

Stem Cells, Cell Therapies, and Bioengineering in Lung Biology and Disease 2021.

American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology [Epub ahead of print].

The 9th biennial conference titled "Stem Cells, Cell Therapies, and Bioengineering in Lung Biology and Diseases" was hosted virtually, due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, in collaboration with the University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the Alpha-1 Foundation, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, and the International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy. The event was held from July 12th through 15th, 2021 with a pre-conference workshop held July 9th. As in previous years the objectives remained to review and discuss the status of active research areas involving stem cells, cellular therapeutics, and bioengineering as they relate to the human lung. Topics included: 1) technological advancements in the in situ analysis of lung tissues, 2) new insights into stem cell signalling and plasticity in lung remodelling and regeneration, 3) the impact of extracellular matrix in stem cell regulation and airway engineering in lung regeneration, 4) differentiating and delivering stem cell therapeutics to the lung, 5) regeneration in response to viral infection, and 6) ethical development of cell-based treatments for lung diseases. This selection of topics represents some of the most dynamic and current research areas in lung biology. The virtual workshop included active discussion on state-of-the-art methods relating to the core features of the 2021 conference, including in-situ protemics, lung-on-chip, iPSC-airway differentiation, and light sheet microscopy. The conference concluded with an open discussion to suggest funding priorities and recommendations for future research directions in basic and translational lung biology.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Fé LXSGM, Cipolatti EP, Pinto MCC, et al (2022)

Enzymes in the time of COVID-19: An overview about the effects in the human body, enzyme market, and perspectives for new drugs.

Medicinal research reviews [Epub ahead of print].

The rising pandemic caused by a coronavirus, resulted in a scientific quest to discover some effective treatments against its etiologic agent, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This research represented a significant scientific landmark and resulted in many medical advances. However, efforts to understand the viral mechanism of action and how the human body machinery is subverted during the infection are still ongoing. Herein, we contributed to this field with this compilation of the roles of both viral and human enzymes in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this sense, this overview reports that proteases are vital for the infection to take place: from SARS-CoV-2 perspective, the main protease (Mpro) and papain-like protease (PLpro) are highlighted; from the human body, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, transmembrane serine protease-2, and cathepsins (CatB/L) are pointed out. In addition, the influence of the virus on other enzymes is reported as the JAK/STAT pathway and the levels of lipase, enzymes from the cholesterol metabolism pathway, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase are also be disturbed in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, this paper discusses the importance of detailed enzymatic studies for future treatments against SARS-CoV-2, and how some issues related to the syndrome treatment can create opportunities in the biotechnological market of enzymes and the development of new drugs.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Zhao X, Liu S, Yin Y, et al (2022)

Airborne transmission of COVID-19 virus in enclosed spaces: An overview of research methods.

Indoor air, 32(6):e13056.

Since the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) has spread worldwide. This study summarized the transmission mechanisms of COVID-19 and their main influencing factors, such as airflow patterns, air temperature, relative humidity, and social distancing. The transmission characteristics in existing cases are providing more and more evidence that SARS CoV-2 can be transmitted through the air. This investigation reviewed probabilistic and deterministic research methods, such as the Wells-Riley equation, the dose-response model, the Monte-Carlo model, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the Eulerian method, CFD with the Lagrangian method, and the experimental approach, that have been used for studying the airborne transmission mechanism. The Wells-Riley equation and dose-response model are typically used for the assessment of the average infection risk. Only in combination with the Eulerian method or the Lagrangian method can these two methods obtain the spatial distribution of airborne particles' concentration and infection risk. In contrast with the Eulerian and Lagrangian methods, the Monte-Carlo model is suitable for studying the infection risk when the behavior of individuals is highly random. Although researchers tend to use numerical methods to study the airborne transmission mechanism of COVID-19, an experimental approach could often provide stronger evidence to prove the possibility of airborne transmission than a simple numerical model. All in all, the reviewed methods are helpful in the study of the airborne transmission mechanism of COVID-19 and epidemic prevention and control.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Amani B, Zareei S, B Amani (2022)

Rapid Review and Meta-Analysis of Adverse Events Associated with Molnupiravir in Patients with COVID-19.

British journal of clinical pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To evaluate the safety profile of molnupiravir in COVID-19 patients METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, medRxive, and Google Scholar were searched for articles published up to April 25, 2022. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software.

RESULTS: Four trials involving 2241 patients met the inclusion criteria. No significant difference was observed between molnupiravir at 200, 400, and 800 mg compared with placebo (200 mg: risk ratio[RR] = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.78-1.20; P=0.80; 400 mg: RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64-1.02; P=0.07; 800 mg: RR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.83-1.06; P=0.36) for any adverse events (AEs), at 200, 400, and 800 mg compared with placebo (200 mg: RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.41-1.63; P=0.57; 400 mg: RR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.41-1.61; P=0.56; 800 mg: RR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.59-1.08; P=0.15) for serious adverse events, at 200, 400, and 800 mg compared with placebo (200 mg: RR = 1.74; 95% CI: 0.48-6.30; P=0.39; 400 mg: RR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.28-4.09; P=0.91; 800 mg: RR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.17-1.28; P=0.14) for AEs leading to death, and at 200, 400, and 800 mg compared with placebo (200 mg: RR = 1.50; 95% CI: 0.26-8.55; P=0.64; 400 mg: RR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.17-5.68; P=0.99; 800 mg: RR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.31-1.23; P=0.17) for treatment discontinuation due to AEs.

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that the use of three doses of molnupiravir (200, 400, and 800 mg) is safe for COVID-19 patients. Further research is needed to confirm the present findings.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Marta RA, Nakamura GEK, de Matos Aquino B, et al (2022)

COVID-19 Vaccines: Update of the vaccines in use and under development.

Vacunas pii:S1576-9887(22)00063-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has imposed a series of challenges on the scientific community. One of the biggest was the development of safe and effective vaccines in record time, which could be achieved through a global effort. A topic of great discussion has been the technology surrounding these vaccines: ranging from the well-known inactivated virus vaccines to the latest RNA vaccines. As vaccines became available, another point also came into question: their efficacy and effectiveness against the original Wuhan strain and its variants. Among the numerous variants, five of them (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and, more recently, Omicron) gained greater prominence due to their epidemiological relevance. In this scenario, with numerous variants and several vaccine options, scientific information can often be mismatched. This review aims to provide an overview of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of eleven vaccines in use or under development against the original Wuhan strain and the variants of concern identified by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Simultaneously, we aim to explore possible scenarios that can be expected shortly regarding new variants and vaccines. Overall, COVID-19 vaccines have satisfactory efficacy and loss of effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially the Omicron strain.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Shoemaker ME, Huynh LM, Smith CM, et al (2022)

Immunomodulatory Effects of Vitamin D and Prevention of Respiratory Tract Infections and COVID-19.

Topics in clinical nutrition, 37(3):203-217.

Little is known about potential protective factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), referred to as COVID-19. Suboptimal vitamin D status is a risk factor for immune dysfunction, respiratory tract infections (RTIs), and viral infections. Supplementation of vitamin D (2000-4000 IU) has decreased incidence and complications from RTIs, respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumonia and may be beneficial in high-risk populations. Given the possible link between low vitamin D status and RTIs, such as COVID-19, this review examined whether vitamin D supplementation can be supported as a nutritional strategy for reducing risk of infection, complications, and mortality from COVID-19 and found that the relationship between vitamin D and RTIs warrants further exploration.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Detopoulou P, Tsouma C, V Papamikos (2022)

COVID-19 and Nutrition: Summary of Official Recommendations.

Topics in clinical nutrition, 37(3):187-202.

Medical nutrition therapy may have a key role in the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the spread of misinformation, the present review organizes and summarizes nutrition recommendations regarding COVID-19, serving as a reference guide for health professionals. Nineteen official recommendations were included of international, US, Asian, European, Canadian, and Australian origin on (i) lactation, (ii) nutrition during quarantine, (iii) nutrition in high-risk groups, (iv) nutrition for recovery at home, and (v) nutrition in hospital. Breastfeeding is encouraged, and the role of hydration and the adoption of a healthy diet during quarantine are emphasized. Older people and/or people with comorbidities should be checked for malnutrition and follow a healthy diet. For patients recovering at home, hydration, protein, and energy intake should be ensured. For hospitalized patients, early feeding with a priority on enteral route is recommended.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Faruk MO, Rahman MS, Jannat SN, et al (2022)

A review of the impact of environmental factors and pollutants on covid-19 transmission.

Aerobiologia pii:9748 [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused an unprecedented loss of life with colossal social and economic fallout over 237 countries and territories worldwide. Environmental conditions played a significant role in spreading the virus. Despite the availability of literature, the consecutive waves of COVID-19 in all geographical conditions create the necessity of reviewing the impact of environmental factors on it. This study synthesized and reviewed the findings of 110 previously published articles on meteorological factors and COVID-19 transmission. This study aimed to identify the diversified impacts of meteorological factors on the spread of infection and suggests future research. Temperature, rainfall, air quality, sunshine, wind speed, air pollution, and humidity were found as investigated frequently. Correlation and regression analysis have been widely used in previous studies. Most of the literature showed that temperature and humidity have a favorable relationship with the spread of COVID-19. On the other hand, 20 articles stated no relationship with humidity, and nine were revealed the negative effect of temperature. The daily number of COVID-19 confirmed cases increased by 4.86% for every 1 °C increase in temperature. Sunlight was also found as a significant factor in 10 studies. Moreover, increasing COVID-19 incidence appeared to be associated with increased air pollution, particularly PM10, PM2.5, and O3 concentrations. Studies also indicated a negative relation between the air quality index and the COVID-19 cases. This review determined environmental variables' complex and contradictory effects on COVID-19 transmission. Hence it becomes essential to include environmental parameters into epidemiological models and controlled laboratory experiments to draw more precious results.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Farias da Cruz M, Baraúna Magno M, Alves Jural L, et al (2022)

Probiotics and dairy products in dentistry: A bibliometric and critical review of randomized clinical trials.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 157:111228.

The oral environment is an essential part of the human microbiome. The consumption of probiotic products may improve the oral microbiota and reduce the risk of diseases. This paper presents a bibliometric and critical review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that used probiotics to analyze oral parameters in humans. RCTs carried out with no age, gender, and ethnicity restrictions and published in the pre-COVID-19 period were included. Furthermore, the utilization of probiotic dairy products to improve oral health is discussed. The bibliometric review demonstrated that 'Microbiology,' 'Dental caries,' and 'Streptococcus mutants' were the most highlighted keywords. Furthermore, Sweden and India have the highest number of publications. The most prevalent outcomes were 'salivary parameters,' 'periodontal disease,' and 'dental caries.' The most used vehicles for probiotic administration were pharmaceutical formulas and dairy products. The administration of probiotic dairy products could modify the oral microbiota (reductions in S. mutans counts), influence the caries development and periodontal disease in children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly, and improve gingival health. The main probiotic dairy products investigated were milk, fermented milk, yogurt, kefir, curd, and cheese. Lacticaseibacillus paracasei SD1 was the most used probiotic culture. The studies demonstrated that the probiotic effect lasted 2-4 weeks after discontinuing consumption. However, the results depended on the subject type, study design, probiotic strain and concentration, and dairy product type. In conclusion, probiotic dairy products are promising alternatives to improve oral health.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Qi H, Liu B, Wang X, et al (2022)

The humoral response and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Nature immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Two and a half years into the COVID-19 pandemic, we have gained many insights into the human antibody response to the causative SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this Review, we summarize key observations of humoral immune responses in people with COVID-19, discuss key features of infection- and vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, and consider vaccine designs for inducing antibodies that are broadly protective against different variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Kerner G, L Quintana-Murci (2022)

The genetic and evolutionary determinants of COVID-19 susceptibility.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG [Epub ahead of print].

Devastating pandemics, such as that due to COVID-19, can provide strong testimony to our knowledge of the genetic and evolutionary determinants of infectious disease susceptibility and severity. One of the most remarkable aspects of such outbreaks is the stunning interindividual variability observed in the course of infection. In recent decades, enormous progress has been made in the field of the human genetics of infectious diseases, and an increasing number of human genetic factors have been reported to explain, to a great extent, the observed variability for a large number of infectious agents. However, our understanding of the cellular, molecular, and immunological mechanisms underlying such disparities between individuals and ethnic groups, remains very limited. Here, we discuss recent findings relating to human genetic predisposition to infectious disease, from an immunological or population genetic perspective, and show how these and other innovative approaches have been applied to deciphering the genetic basis of human susceptibility to COVID-19 and the severity of this disease. From an evolutionary perspective, we show how past demographic and selection events characterizing the history of our species, including admixture with archaic humans, such as Neanderthals, facilitated modern human adaptation to the threats imposed by ancient pathogens. In the context of emerging infectious diseases, these past episodes of genetic adaptation may contribute to some of the observed population differences in the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the severity of COVID-19 illness.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Kumar N, Acharya A, Gendelman HE, et al (2022)

The 2022 outbreak and the pathobiology of the monkeypox virus.

Journal of autoimmunity pii:S0896-8411(22)00063-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Following two reports of monkeypox virus infection in individuals who returned from Nigeria to the USA, one who returned to Texas (July 2021) and the other to the Washington, DC area (November 2021), the number of monkeypox infection have dramatically increased. This sounded an alarm of potential for spreading of the virus throughout the USA. During 2022, there was a report of monkeypox virus infection (May 6, 2022) in a British national following a visit to Nigeria who developed readily recognizable signs and symptoms of monkeypox virus infection. Soon following this report, case numbers climbed. By June 10, 2022, more than 1,500 cases were reported in 43 countries, including Europe and North America. While the prevalence of the monkeypox virus is well known in central and western Africa, its presence in the developed world has raised disturbing signs for worldwide spread. While infection was reported during the past half-century, starting in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1970, in the United States, only sporadic monkeypox cases have been reported. All cases have been linked to international travel or through African animal imports. The monkeypox virus is transmitted through contact with infected skin, body fluids, or respiratory droplets. The virus spreads from oral and nasopharyngeal fluid exchanges or by intradermal injection; then rapidly replicates at the inoculation site with spreads to adjacent lymph nodes. Monkeypox disease begins with constitutional symptoms that include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, backache, and fatigue. Phylogenetically the virus has two clades. One clade emerged from West Africa and the other in the Congo Basin of Central Africa. During the most recent outbreak, the identity of the reservoir host or the primary carriage remains unknown. African rodents are the suspected intermediate hosts. At the same time, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) affirmed that there are no specific treatments for the 2022 monkeypox virus infection; existing antivirals shown to be effective against smallpox may slow monkeypox spread. A smallpox vaccine JYNNEOS (Imvamune or Imvanex) may also be used to prevent infection. The World Health Organization (WHO), has warned that the world could be facing a formidable infectious disease challenge in light of the current status of worldwide affairs. These affairs include the SARS-COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine-Russia war. In addition, the recent rise in case of numbers worldwide could continue to pose an international threat. With this in mind, strategies to mitigate the spread of monkeypox virus are warranted.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Facondo P, Maltese V, Delbarba A, et al (2022)

Case Report: Hypothalamic Amenorrhea Following COVID-19 Infection and Review of Literatures.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:840749.

SARS-CoV-2 infection, responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can impair any organ system including endocrine glands. However, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions following SARS-CoV-2 infection remain largely unexplored. We described a case of hypothalamic amenorrhea following SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 36-year-old healthy woman. The diagnostic workup excluded all the causes of secondary amenorrhea, in agreement to the current guidelines, whereas the gonadotropin increase in response to GnRH analogue tests was suggestive for hypothalamic impairment. Therefore, since our patient did not present any organic cause of hypothalamic-pituitary disorder, we hypothesized that her hypothalamic deficiency may have been a consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This assumption, besides on the temporal consecutio, is strengthened by the fact that SARS-CoV-2 infection can impair the hypothalamic circuits, altering the endocrine axes, given that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors have also been observed in the hypothalamus. We reviewed the literature regarding hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. No study has previously described female hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with secondary amenorrhea following COVID-19. We suggest clinicians focusing greater attention on this possible endocrine disorder.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Đorđević Betetto L, Luzar B, Pipan Tkalec Ž, et al (2022)

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis following COVID-19 vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S vaccine: a case report and literature review.

Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica, 31(2):83-87.

Cutaneous vasculitis is a recognized and potentially serious adverse event of immunization with several vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccines are no exception. We present a case of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis occurring 17 days after inoculation with adenoviral vector vaccine (Ad26.COV2.S) in a previously healthy 30-year-old patient with no history of prior adverse events following vaccination. Transient laboratory abnormalities (mild proteinuria, cryoglobulinemia, and slightly diminished C3 complement level) were also noted, but they resolved with the resolution of skin changes after treatment with topical steroids. Although the frequency of cutaneous vasculitis after COVID-19 vaccines is extremely low, it presents an important challenge for the clinician when faced with an uncertain and delicate decision whether these patients can safely receive booster doses of COVID-19 vaccine. Because vaccination certificates are necessary for day-to-day activities and have a limited validity date, this may be an uncomfortable issue.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Khan SH, Zaidi SK, M Gilani (2022)

PCR to CRISPR: Role of Nucleic Acid Tests (NAT) in detection of COVID-19.

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 72(6):1166-1174.

COVID-19 infection has emerged as an unparalleled pandemic with morbidity and mortality tolls challenging diagnostic approaches and therapeutic interventions, and raising serious questions for healthcare policy-makers. From the diagnostic perspective, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction remains the gold standard. However, issues associated with gene primer variation in different countries, low analytical sensitivity, cross-reactivity with certain human coronaviruses have raised serious concerns within the scientific community. Alongside longer turnaround times, requirements of sophisticated equipment and trained technicians are the other challenges for conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. The recent biotechnological boom has now allowed newer nucleic acid testing options for diagnosing severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronovairus 2 (SARS-CoV2) with much better diagnostic efficiency, reduced turnaround times and possible benefit for use as a point-of-care test. Isothermal techniques with simple equipment requirements along with uniform temperature for analysis have emerged to be more sensitive and specific with turnaround times as low as 10-15 minutes. Similarly, Cluster Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats have also been seen to play a very decisive role in COVID-19 diagnostics with much superior diagnostic efficiency and feasibility as a point-of-care test and its possible use for sequencing. The current narrative review was planned to consolidate data for all possible nucleic acid testing options under research/clinical use, and to provide a comparative assessment from the perspective of both the clinician and the laboratory.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

La Rosa G, de Aretxabala X, Martin T, et al (2022)

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Pandemic: Chilean Air Force Experience in the Air Transport of Critically Ill Patients-The First 100 Cases.

Air medical journal, 41(4):396-401.

OBJECTIVE: Critical care air transport has played an important role during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The goal of this article is to analyze results and lessons learned from the evacuation of the first 100 COVID-19 patients transported between medical facilities in Chile.

METHODS: We reviewed prospective data of patients who were referred for air transport between March 27, 2020, and July 9, 2020.

RESULTS: Of 115 referred patients, 100 were transported by air. All patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Hypertension, diabetes, and obesity were the most commonly observed comorbidities. Our service did not experience any major problems in patient care en route or among the crewmembers. We did not observe any severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections among our flight team members during the study period. Twelve (12%) patients died at their destination intensive care unit, whereas the remaining 88 patients (88%) returned to their primary hospitals after recovery.

CONCLUSIONS: Air transport of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection has been shown to be a safe way of transport, with no in-flight deaths and an in-hospital mortality of 12%, which compares favorably with the in-hospital mortality of similar patients who did not undergo air transport.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Hossain SMM, Al-Dahir S, Hilfi RA, et al (2022)

Evaluation of dedicated COVID-19 hospitals in the pandemic response in Iraq: pandemic preparation within a recovering healthcare infrastructure.

BMJ global health, 7(Suppl 3):.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate Iraq's health facility preparedness for the surge of hospitalised cases associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we review pandemic preparedness at both general and tertiary hospitals throughout all districts of Iraq. COVID-19 pandemic preparedness, for the purpose of this review, is defined as: (1) staff to patient ratio, (2) personal protective equipment (PPE) to staff ratio, (3) infection control measures training and compliance and (4) laboratory and surveillance capacity. Despite the designation of facilities as COVID-19 referral hospitals, we did not find any increased preparedness with regard to staffing and PPE allocation. COVID-19 designated hospital reported an increased mean number of respiratory therapists as well as sufficient intensive care unit staff, but this did not reach significant levels. Non-COVID-19 facilities tended to have higher mean numbers of registered nurses, cleaning staff and laboratory staff, whereas the COVID-19 facilities were allocated additional N-95 masks (554.54 vs 147.76), gowns (226.72 vs 104.14) and boot coverings (170.48 vs 86.8) per 10 staff, but none of these differences were statistically significant. Though COVID-19 facilities were able to make increased requisitions for PPE supplies, all facility types reported unfulfilled requisitions, which is more likely a reflection of global storage rather than Iraq's preparedness for the pandemic. Incorporating future pandemic preparedness into health system strengthening efforts across facilities, including supplies, staffing and training acquisition, retention and training, are critical to Iraq's future success in mitigating the ongoing impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Khalil M, Mataria A, H Ravaghi (2022)

Building resilient hospitals in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic.

BMJ global health, 7(Suppl 3):.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, hospitals in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) have faced significant challenges in providing essential services, while simultaneously combatting this pandemic and responding to new and ongoing shocks and emergencies. Despite these challenges, policy-makers and hospital managers adapted their hospital responses to maintain operations and continue providing essential health services in resource-restraint and fragile and conflict affected, offering valuable insights to others in similar contexts. The aim of this paper is to share the lessons learnt from hospital responses to COVID-19 from the EMR. To do this, we triangulated findings from literature review, open-ended online surveys and 46 in-depth key informant interviews from 18 EMR countries. Qualitative findings from semistructured key informant interviews along with the open-ended survey responses resulted in nine major themes for lessons learnt in the EMR. These themes include Preparedness, Leadership and Coordination, Communication, Human Resources, Supplies and Logistics, Surge Capacity and Essential Services, Clinical Management (including Rapid Identification, Diagnosis and Isolation), Infection Prevention and Control, and Information and Research. Each of the nine themes (domains) included 4-6 major subthemes offering key insights into the regional hospital response to health emergencies. Resilient hospitals are those that can provide holistic, adaptable, primary-care-based health systems to deliver high-quality, effective and people-centred health services and respond to future outbreaks. Both bottom-up and top-down approaches are needed to strengthen collaboration between policy-makers, hospitals, front-line workers and communities to mitigate the continued spread of SARS CoV2, build resilient hospital systems and improve public health preparedness and emergency response.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Rohrig A, N Eyal (2022)

A new day for human challenge trials?.

Trends in molecular medicine, 28(7):531-532.

Two years into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and following several hot debates, the world's first COVID-19 human challenge trial has recently been published by Killingley et al. We review its findings and explain why this particular juncture in time makes additional challenge trials for COVID-19 and for other diseases justified and important.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Meaney JFM, O'Donnell JS, Bridgewood C, et al (2022)

Perspective: The Case for Acute Large Vessel Ischemic Stroke in COVID-19 Originating Within Thrombosed Pulmonary Venules.

Stroke, 53(7):2411-2419.

The main burden of SARS-CoV-2 falls on the lungs but neurological manifestations, the most disabling of which are strokes and which correlate with disease severity, are common. We proffer a novel mechanism for acute COVID-19 stroke whereby pulmonary vein clots developing within the characteristic pulmonary intravascular thrombotic lesions can embolize to the brain. Appreciation of this mechanism requires an understanding of the tricompartmental model of lung parenchyma oxygenation (the alveolus, the bronchial artery, and the pulmonary artery), all of which are compromised in COVID-19. Of these 3 sources, the bronchial artery plays a crucial role in COVID-19 stroke because the unique collaterals from bronchial artery to pulmonary vein which exist under normal physiological conditions (and which maintain venous patency when the pulmonary artery is blocked by embolus) are occluded, thus leading to venular thrombosis in the presence of hypercoagulability. Dislodgement of clots from this source translocates the pathology to the brain and is a disease mechanism, formerly rare, which may account for many cases of large vessel occlusion stroke in COVID-19. This mechanism extends the concept of cardioembolic stroke from endocardium retrogradely into the pulmonary circulation with which the left cardiac chambers lie in direct continuity, and which is an accepted stroke mechanism under other circumstances such as lung lobectomy, where surgical ligation of the pulmonary vein creates a blind sac from which thrombi can embolize. The proposed model is supported by postmortem studies which have demonstrated venular thrombosis and by case reports of pulmonary vein thrombosis in COVID-19. This concept provides a more plausible cause for COVID-19 associated large vessel occlusion stroke than other putative mechanisms, such as cerebral endotheliitis, cytokine storm, and hypercoagulopathy, although it is acknowledged that the latter mechanism contributes to the genesis of pulmonary vein clots. Recognizing that extrapulmonary manifestations including stroke arise within thrombosed pulmonary veins is key to understanding of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Doenst T, Schneider U, Can T, et al (2022)

Cardiac Surgery 2021 Reviewed.

The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon, 70(4):278-288.

PubMed displayed more than 35,000 hits for the search term "cardiac surgery AND 2021." We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) approach and selected relevant publications for a results-oriented summary. As in recent years, we reviewed the fields of coronary and conventional valve surgery and their overlap with their interventional alternatives. COVID reduced cardiac surgical activity around the world. In the coronary field, the FAME 3 trial dominated publications by practically repeating SYNTAX, but with modern stents and fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). PCI was again unable to achieve non-inferiority compared with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in patients with triple-vessel disease. Survival advantages of CABG over PCI could be linked to a reduction in myocardial infarctions and current terminology was criticized because the term "myocardial revascularization" is not precise and does not reflect the infarct-preventing collateralization effect of CABG. In structural heart disease, new guidelines were published, providing upgrades of interventional treatments of both aortic and mitral valve disease. While for aortic stenosis, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) received a primary recommendation in older and high-risk patients; recommendations for transcatheter mitral edge-to-edge treatment were upgraded for patients considered inappropriate for surgery. For heart team discussions it is important to know that classic aortic valve replacement currently provides strong signals (from registry and randomized evidence) for a survival advantage over TAVI after 5 years. This article summarizes publications perceived as important by us. It can neither be complete nor free of individual interpretation, but provides up-to-date information for decision-making and patient information.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

deVries CR (2022)

A global view of pediatric urology.

Journal of pediatric urology, 18(3):271-279.

Over the course of approximately 60 years, the field of pediatric urology has evolved as a convergence of pediatric surgery, urology, and plastic surgery to address congenital anomalies of the urinary tract and genitalia in children. Guidelines for training and certification are narrowing in high-income countries (HICs) at the same time as the fertility rate is declining and the prevalence of complex genitourinary (GU) conditions is decreasing. In low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), health systems for large populations are currently in a state of stress. Here we briefly review the history of pediatric urology as a surgical subspecialty, identify unmet needs especially in LMICs and place the field in the context of a global surgical ecosystem.

METHODS: The English language literature on workforce trends in pediatric urology, pediatric surgery and urology was reviewed as well as development of the emerging field of global surgery. Global surgery looks at the social, economic and political context of health systems as well as unmet clinical need. World trends in fertility rates were reviewed to identify regions of workforce surplus and gaps, supply chain needs, infrastructure and systems strengths and weaknesses.

RESULTS: The proliferation of training programs in pediatric surgery and specialties in high-income countries (HICs) coupled with declining birth rates has led to a saturation of specialists and declining surgical case load. In LMICs, while the birth rate has also been declining, surgical specialization has not progressed. In the lowest income countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, training in pediatric surgical specialties and urology is rare. The broad workforce that supports surgical care, such as anesthesia, intensivist pediatrics, radiology, laboratory, and nursing face similar challenges. Supply chains for specialized pediatric urological surgery are weak.

CONCLUSION: There is an evolving maldistribution of pediatric surgical and pediatric urological workforce globally, with too few practitioners in LMICs and too many in HICs. The high cost of specialized equipment limits access to quality care, and the supply chain for consumables and medication is patchy. In LIC's, basic community-based infrastructure for health including reliable electricity is lacking. Recent experience with Covid and environmental disasters has highlighted that even in HICs surgical resilience can be challenged. This is an opportunity to consider the state of children's urological care globally and to build resilience by identifying and addressing strengths and gaps.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Flor LS, Friedman J, Spencer CN, et al (2022)

Quantifying the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on gender equality on health, social, and economic indicators: a comprehensive review of data from March, 2020, to September, 2021.

Lancet (London, England), 399(10344):2381-2397.

BACKGROUND: Gender is emerging as a significant factor in the social, economic, and health effects of COVID-19. However, most existing studies have focused on its direct impact on health. Here, we aimed to explore the indirect effects of COVID-19 on gender disparities globally.

METHODS: We reviewed publicly available datasets with information on indicators related to vaccine hesitancy and uptake, health care services, economic and work-related concerns, education, and safety at home and in the community. We used mixed effects regression, Gaussian process regression, and bootstrapping to synthesise all data sources. We accounted for uncertainty in the underlying data and modelling process. We then used mixed effects logistic regression to explore gender gaps globally and by region.

FINDINGS: Between March, 2020, and September, 2021, women were more likely to report employment loss (26·0% [95% uncertainty interval 23·8-28·8, by September, 2021) than men (20·4% [18·2-22·9], by September, 2021), as well as forgoing work to care for others (ratio of women to men: 1·8 by March, 2020, and 2·4 by September, 2021). Women and girls were 1·21 times (1·20-1·21) more likely than men and boys to report dropping out of school for reasons other than school closures. Women were also 1·23 (1·22-1·23) times more likely than men to report that gender-based violence had increased during the pandemic. By September 2021, women and men did not differ significantly in vaccine hesitancy or uptake.

INTERPRETATION: The most significant gender gaps identified in our study show intensified levels of pre-existing widespread inequalities between women and men during the COVID-19 pandemic. Political and social leaders should prioritise policies that enable and encourage women to participate in the labour force and continue their education, thereby equipping and enabling them with greater ability to overcome the barriers they face.

FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Hall CA, Jacobs JP, Stammers AH, et al (2022)

Multi-institutional Analysis of 505 Patients With Coronavirus Disease-2019 Supported With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Predictors of Survival.

The Annals of thoracic surgery, 114(1):61-68.

BACKGROUND: We reviewed our experience with 505 patients with confirmed coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at 45 hospitals and estimated risk factors for mortality.

METHODS: A multi-institutional database was created and used to assess all patients with COVID-19 who were supported with ECMO. A Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression model was estimated to assess the effect on survival of multiple potential risk factors for mortality, including age at cannulation for ECMO as well as days between diagnosis of COVID-19 and intubation and days between intubation and cannulation for ECMO.

RESULTS: Median time on ECMO was 18 days (interquartile range, 10-29 days). All 505 patients separated from ECMO: 194 patients (38.4%) survived and 311 patients (61.6%) died. Survival with venovenous ECMO was 184 of 466 patients (39.5%), and survival with venoarterial ECMO was 8 of 30 patients (26.7%). Survivors had lower median age (44 vs 51 years, P < .001) and shorter median time interval from diagnosis to intubation (7 vs 11 days, P = .001). Adjusting for several confounding factors, we estimated that an ECMO patient intubated on day 14 after the diagnosis of COVID-19 vs day 4 had a relative odds of survival of 0.65 (95% credible interval, 0.44-0.96; posterior probability of negative effect, 98.5%). Age was also negatively associated with survival: relative to a 38-year-old patient, we estimated that a 57-year-old patient had a relative odds of survival of 0.43 (95% credible interval, 0.30-0.61; posterior probability of negative effect, >99.99%).

CONCLUSIONS: ECMO facilitates salvage and survival of select critically ill patients with COVID-19. Survivors tend to be younger and have shorter time from diagnosis to intubation. Survival of patients supported with only venovenous ECMO was 39.5%.

RevDate: 2022-06-28
CmpDate: 2022-06-28

Schat KA (2022)

Northeastern Conference on Avian Diseases from 1928-2021: 93 Years of Contributions to Organized Avian Medicine.

Avian diseases, 66(1):7-19.

Bacillary white diarrhea in chickens was a major disease concern for the poultry industry during the early 1900s. Drs. L. F. Rettger and W. R. Hinshaw organized a meeting in 1928 to discuss methods for controlling this disease. In this meeting, representatives of five northeastern states discussed approaches to test for the presence of the etiological agent of bacillary white diarrhea, namely, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Pullorum. Meeting attendees decided to have a yearly meeting of the Northeastern Conference of Laboratory Workers in Bacillary White Diarrhea. The next year, the name was changed to Conference of Laboratory Workers in Pullorum Disease Eradication, which was changed to Northeastern Conference on Avian Diseases (NECAD) in 1957. Not only has NECAD been important for the control of pullorum disease but also, starting with the fifth Annual Conference in 1932, other poultry diseases became an official part of the program. As such, NECAD served for a long time as the premier organization to present new information on avian diseases. The success of NECAD was based on the work of the many committees, which are described in detail in this review. For example, the antigen committee started officially in 1929 and remained active until at least 1987. The main task of this committee was to evaluate Salmonella Pullorum strains to be used by all participants in the pullorum antibody testing programs. NECAD started as a closed organization with participants from universities and government organizations but did not allow representatives from commercial groups until 1968 when all American Association of Avian Pathologists (AAAP) members in the Northeastern United States could participate. The journal Avian Diseases started with discussions by Dr. P. P. Levine with M. S. Cover, H. L. Chute, R. F. Gentry, E. Jungherr, and H. Van Roekel about the idea that NECAD would sponsor a journal dealing specifically with avian diseases. During the first few years of Avian Diseases publication, many articles including abstracts came from the NECAD Annual Conferences. The importance of NECAD as a precursor for other regional meetings and the AAAP and as a forum for graduate students to present their research are described. Several recipients of the award for the best paper presented by a graduate student have continued to work in avian disease research. The decline in the participation of scientists in the late 1990s and early 2000s was discussed extensively in 2006 and led to a merger of the NECAD meeting with the Pennsylvania Poultry Sales and Service Conference. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the 92nd Annual Conference was a virtual meeting in 2020. Fortunately, the 93rd Annual Conference in 2021 was an in-person meeting held in State College, PA.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Gupta M, Ish P, N Malhotra (2022)

Recent updates in diagnosis and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in India: A paradigm shift and the way ahead during the COVID-19 crisis.

The Indian journal of tuberculosis, 69(3):264-267.

The recent guidelines on the Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (DR-TB) in India (PMDT) have been released in March 2021 on World TB Day. The new guidelines have considered emerging diagnostic trends including TrueNat, Xpert Mtb/XDR, Next generation sequencing and evaluation for resistance to newer drugs including Bedaquiline (Bdq) and Delamanid. The emerging therapeutic trends include focus on oral shorter Bdq based regimen with phasing out injectables use. The replacement sequence of drugs for DR-TB have also been updated. Updated definitions for pre-XDR, XDR, culture conversion and default have also been added. These guidelines are a paradigm shift which will make treating DR-TB easier and more efficient especially during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic crisis.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Tan YR, Agrawal A, Matsoso MP, et al (2022)

A call for citizen science in pandemic preparedness and response: beyond data collection.

BMJ global health, 7(6):.

The COVID-19 pandemic has underlined the need to partner with the community in pandemic preparedness and response in order to enable trust-building among stakeholders, which is key in pandemic management. Citizen science, defined here as a practice of public participation and collaboration in all aspects of scientific research to increase knowledge and build trust with governments and researchers, is a crucial approach to promoting community engagement. By harnessing the potential of digitally enabled citizen science, one could translate data into accessible, comprehensible and actionable outputs at the population level. The application of citizen science in health has grown over the years, but most of these approaches remain at the level of participatory data collection. This narrative review examines citizen science approaches in participatory data generation, modelling and visualisation, and calls for truly participatory and co-creation approaches across all domains of pandemic preparedness and response. Further research is needed to identify approaches that optimally generate short-term and long-term value for communities participating in population health. Feasible, sustainable and contextualised citizen science approaches that meaningfully engage affected communities for the long-term will need to be inclusive of all populations and their cultures, comprehensive of all domains, digitally enabled and viewed as a key component to allow trust-building among the stakeholders. The impact of COVID-19 on people's lives has created an opportune time to advance people's agency in science, particularly in pandemic preparedness and response.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Pavlova MA, AA Sokolov (2022)

Reading language of the eyes.

Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews pii:S0149-7634(22)00244-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The need for assessment of social skills in clinical and neurotypical populations has led to the widespread, and still increasing use of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test' (RMET) developed more than two decades ago by Simon Baron-Cohen and colleagues for evaluation of social cognition in autism. By analyzing most recent clinical and brain imaging data, we illuminate a set of factors decisive for using the RMET. Converging evidence indicates: (i) In neurotypical individuals, RMET scores are tightly correlated with other social skills (empathy, emotional intelligence, and body language reading); (ii) The RMET assesses recognition of facial affect, but also heavily relies on receptive language skills, semantic knowledge, and memory; (iii) RMET performance is underwritten by the large-scale ensembles of neural networks well-outside the social brain; (iv) The RMET is limited in its capacity to differentiate between neuropsychiatric conditions as well as between stages and severity of a single disorder, though it reliably distinguishes individuals with altered social cognition or elevated pathological traits from neurotypical persons; (v) Merely gender (as a social construct) rather than neurobiological sex influences performance on the RMET; (vi) RMET scores do not substantially decline in healthy aging, and they are higher with higher education level, cognitive abilities, literacy, and mental well-being; (vii) Accuracy on the RMET, and engagement of the social brain, are greater when emotions are expressed and recognized by individuals with similar cultural/ethnic background. Further research is required to better inform usage of the RMET as a tool for swift and reliable examination of social cognition. In light of comparable visual input from the RMET images and faces covered by masks due to COVID-19 regulations, the analysis is of value for keeping efficient social interaction during the current pandemic, in particular, in professional settings related to social communication.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Dos Santos PG, Vieira HCVS, Wietholter V, et al (2022)

When to test for COVID-19 using RT-PCR: a systematic review.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(22)00370-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the time in days between symptom onset and first positive RT-PCR result for COVID-19.

METHODS: This systematic review was conducted in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and Scopus databases using the following descriptors: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "coronavirus", "RT-PCR", "real time PCR" and "diagnosis".

RESULTS: The included studies were conducted in 31 different countries and reported on a total of 6831 patients. The median age of the participants was 49.95 years. The three most common symptoms were fever, cough, and dyspnea, which affected 4012 (58.68%), 3192 (46.69%), and 2009 patients (29.38%), respectively. Among the 90 included studies, 13 were prospective cohorts, 15 were retrospective cohorts, 36 were case reports, 20 were case series, and 6 were cross-sectional studies. The overall mean time between symptom onset and positive test results was 6.72 days. Fourteen articles were analyzed separately for the temporal profile of RT-PCR tests, and the best performance was on days 22-24, when 98% of tests resulted positive.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings corroborate the RT-PCR COVID-19 testing practices of some health units. In addition, the most frequently described symptoms of these patients can be considered the initial symptoms of infection and used in decision-making about RT-PCR testing.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Abdulgader SM, Okunola AO, Ndlangalavu G, et al (2022)

Diagnosing Tuberculosis: What Do New Technologies Allow Us to (Not) Do?.

Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases pii:000525142 [Epub ahead of print].

New tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are at a crossroads: their development, evaluation, and implementation is severely damaged by resource diversion due to COVID-19. Yet several technologies, especially those with potential for non-invasive non-sputum-based testing, hold promise for efficiently triaging and rapidly confirming TB near point-of-care. Such tests are, however, progressing through the pipeline slowly and will take years to reach patients and health workers. Compellingly, such tests will create new opportunities for difficult-to-diagnose populations, including primary care attendees (all-comers in high burden settings irrespective of reason for presentation) and community members (with early stage disease or risk factors like HIV), many of whom cannot easily produce sputum. Critically, all upcoming technologies have limitations that implementers and health workers need to be cognizant of to ensure optimal deployment without undermining confidence in a technology that still offers improvements over the status quo. In this state-of-the-art review, we critically appraise such technologies for active pulmonary TB diagnosis. We highlight strengths, limitations, outstanding research questions, and how current and future tests could be used in the presence of these limitations and uncertainties. Among triage tests, CRP (for which commercial near point-of-care devices exist) and computer-aided detection software with digital chest X-ray hold promise, together with late-stage blood-based assays that detect host and/or microbial biomarkers; however, aside from a handful of prototypes, the latter category has a shortage of promising late-stage alternatives. Furthermore, positive results from new triage tests may have utility in people without TB; however, their utility for informing diagnostic pathways for other diseases is under-researched (most sick people tested for TB do not have TB). For confirmatory tests, few true point-of-care options will be available soon; however, combining novel approaches like tongue swabs with established tests like Ultra have short-term promise but first require optimizations to specimen collection and processing procedures. Concerningly, no technologies yet have compelling evidence of meeting the World Health Organization optimal target product profile performance criteria, especially for important operational criteria crucial for field deployment. This is alarming as the target product profile criteria are themselves almost a decade old and require urgent revision, especially to cater for technologies made prominent by the COVID-19 diagnostic response (e.g., at-home testing and connectivity solutions). Throughout the review, we underscore the importance of how target populations and settings affect test performance and how the criteria by which these tests should be judged vary by use case, including in active case finding. Lastly, we advocate for health workers and researchers to themselves be vocal proponents of the uptake of both new tests and those - already available tests that remain suboptimally utilized.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Sobhani N, Scaggiante B, Morris R, et al (2022)

Therapeutic cancer vaccines: From biological mechanisms and engineering to ongoing clinical trials.

Cancer treatment reviews, 109:102429 pii:S0305-7372(22)00093-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Therapeutic vaccines are currently at the forefront of medical innovation. Various endeavors have been made to develop more consolidated approaches to producing nucleic acid-based vaccines, both DNA and mRNA vaccines. These innovations have continued to propel therapeutic platforms forward, especially for mRNA vaccines, after the successes that drove emergency FDA approval of two mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. These vaccines use modified mRNAs and lipid nanoparticles to improve stability, antigen translation, and delivery by evading innate immune activation. Simple alterations of mRNA structure- such as non-replicating, modified, or self-amplifying mRNAs- can provide flexibility for future vaccine development. For protein vaccines, the use of long synthetic peptides of tumor antigens instead of short peptides has further enhanced antigen delivery success and peptide stability. Efforts to identify and target neoantigens instead of antigens shared between tumor cells and normal cells have also improved protein-based vaccines. Other approaches use inactivated patient-derived tumor cells to elicit immune responses, or purified tumor antigens are given to patient-derived dendritic cells that are activated in vitro prior to reinjection. This review will discuss recent developments in therapeutic cancer vaccines such as, mode of action and engineering new types of anticancer vaccines, in order to summarize the latest preclinical and clinical data for further discussion of ongoing clinical endeavors in the field.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Cortés-Ginez MDC, Baiza-Gutman LA, Manuel-Apolinar L, et al (2022)

[Activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress sensors by metabolic disease-associated diets and COVID-19].

Revista medica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, 60(2):211-223.

The endoplasmic reticulum is an abundant, dynamic and energy-sensing organelle. Its abundant membranes, rough and smooth, are distributed in different proportions depending on the cell lineage and requirement. Its function is to carry out protein and lipid synthesis, and it is the main intracellular Ca2+ store. Caloric overload and glycolipotoxicity generated by hypercaloric diets cause alteration of the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) as a reaction to cellular stress related to the endoplasmic reticulum and whose objective is to restore the homeostasis of the organelle by decreasing oxidative stress, protein synthesis and Ca2+ leakage. However, during chronic stress, the UPR induces reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation and apoptosis, exacerbating the state of the endoplasmic reticulum and propagating a deleterious effect on the other organelles. This is why endoplasmic reticulum stress has been considered an inducer of the onset and development of metabolic diseases, including the aggravation of COVID-19. So far, few strategies exist to reestablish endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, which are targeted to sensors that trigger UPR. Therefore, the identification of new mechanisms and novel therapies related to mitigating the impact of endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated complications is urgently warranted.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Cong Y, T Endo (2022)

Multi-Omics and Artificial Intelligence-Guided Drug Repositioning: Prospects, Challenges, and Lessons Learned from COVID-19.

Omics : a journal of integrative biology [Epub ahead of print].

Drug repurposing is of interest for therapeutics innovation in many human diseases including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methodological innovations in drug repurposing are currently being empowered by convergence of omics systems science and digital transformation of life sciences. This expert review article offers a systematic summary of the application of artificial intelligence (AI), particularly machine learning (ML), to drug repurposing and classifies and introduces the common clustering, dimensionality reduction, and other methods. We highlight, as a present-day high-profile example, the involvement of AI/ML-based drug discovery in the COVID-19 pandemic and discuss the collection and sharing of diverse data types, and the possible futures awaiting drug repurposing in an era of AI/ML and digital technologies. The article provides new insights on convergence of multi-omics and AI-based drug repurposing. We conclude with reflections on the various pathways to expedite innovation in drug development through drug repurposing for prompt responses to the current COVID-19 pandemic and future ecological crises in the 21st century.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Valeriani E, Porfidia A, Ageno W, et al (2022)

High-dose versus low-dose venous thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Internal and emergency medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients are at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Standard doses of anticoagulant prophylaxis may not be sufficiently effective for the prevention of VTE. The objective of this systematic-review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of high-dose versus low-dose thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to October 2021 for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing high-dose with low-dose thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19. The primary efficacy outcome was the occurrence of VTE and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding.

RESULTS: A total of 5470 patients from 9 RCTs were included. Four trials included critically ill patients, four non-critically ill patients, and one included both. VTE occurred in 2.9% of patients on high-dose and in 5.7% of patients on low-dose thromboprophylaxis (relative risk [RR] 0.53; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.41-0.69; I2 = 0%; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome, 22). Major bleeding occurred in 2.5% and 1.4% of patients, respectively (RR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.20-2.66; I2 = 0%; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome, 100). All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (RR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.75-1.26; I2 = 47%). The risk of VTE was significantly reduced by high-dose thromboprophylaxis in non-critically ill (RR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86; I2 = 0%), but not in critically ill patients (RR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.39-1.21; I2 = 36%).

DISCUSSION: In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, high-dose thromboprophylaxis is more effective than low-dose for the prevention of VTE but increases the risk of major bleeding.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Cimolai N (2022)

Disinfection and Decontamination in the Context of SARS-CoV-2 Specific Data.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

Given the high transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 as witnessed early in the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns arose with the existing methods for virus disinfection and decontamination. The need for SARS-CoV-2-specific data stimulated considerable research in this regard. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 is practically and equally susceptible to approaches for disinfection and decontamination that have been previously found for other human or animal coronaviruses. The latter have included techniques utilizing temperature modulation, pH extremes, irradiation, and chemical treatments. These physicochemical methods are a necessary adjunct to other prevention strategies given the environmental and patient surface ubiquity of virus. Classic studies of disinfection have also allowed for extrapolation to the eradication of virus on human mucosal surfaces with some chemical means. Despite considerable laboratory study, practical field assessments are generally lacking and need to be encouraged in order to confirm the correlation of interventions with viral eradication and infection prevention. Transparency in the constitution and use of any method or chemical is also essential to furthering practical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Rovito R, Augello M, Ben-Haim A, et al (2022)

Hallmarks of Severe COVID-19 Pathogenesis: A Pas de Deux Between Viral and Host Factors.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:912336.

Two years into Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a comprehensive characterization of the pathogenesis of severe and critical forms of COVID-19 is still missing. While a deep dysregulation of both the magnitude and functionality of innate and adaptive immune responses have been described in severe COVID-19, the mechanisms underlying such dysregulations are still a matter of scientific debate, in turn hampering the identification of new therapies and of subgroups of patients that would most benefit from individual clinical interventions. Here we review the current understanding of viral and host factors that contribute to immune dysregulation associated with COVID-19 severity in the attempt to unfold and broaden the comprehension of COVID-19 pathogenesis and to define correlates of protection to further inform strategies of targeted therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Ventura-Santana E, Ninan JR, Snyder CM, et al (2022)

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps, Sepsis and COVID-19 - A Tripod Stand.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:902206.

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Majority of COVID-19 patients have mild disease but about 20% of COVID-19 patients progress to severe disease. These patients end up in the intensive care unit (ICU) with clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has also been associated with severe COVID-19. Understanding of the immunopathology of COVID-19 is critical for the development of effective therapeutics. In this article, we discuss evidence indicating that severe COVID-19 has clinical presentations consistent with the definitions of viral sepsis. We highlight the role of neutrophils and NETs formation in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Finally, we highlight the potential of therapies inhibiting NETs formation for the treatment of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Dai Z, Xu S, Wu X, et al (2022)

Knowledge Mapping of Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Healthcare: A Bibliometric Analysis.

Frontiers in public health, 10:895552.

Objective: Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a useful tool in complex decision-making situations, and has been used in medical fields to evaluate treatment options and drug selection. This study aims to provide valuable insights into MCDA in healthcare through examining the research focus of existing studies, major fields, major applications, most productive authors and countries, and most common journals in the domain.

Methods: A bibliometric analysis was conducted on the publication related to MCDA in healthcare from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database on 14 July 2021. Three bibliometric software (VOSviewer, R-bibliometrix, and CiteSpace) were used to conduct the analysis including years, countries, institutes, authors, journals, co-citation references, and keywords.

Results: A total of 410 publications were identified with an average yearly growth rate of 32% (1999-2021), from 196 academic journals with 23,637 co-citation references by 871 institutions from 70 countries/regions. The United States was the most productive country (n = 80). Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (n = 16), Université de Montréal (n = 13), and Syreon Research Institute (n = 12) were the top productive institutions. A A Zaidan, Mireille Goetghebeur and Zoltan Kalo were the biggest nodes in every cluster of authors' networks. The top journals in terms of the number of articles (n = 17) and citations (n = 1,673) were Value in Health and Journal of Medical Systems, respectively. The extant literature has focused on four aspects, including the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), decision-making, health technology assessment, and healthcare waste management. COVID-19 and fuzzy TOPSIS received careful attention from MCDA applications recently. MCDA in big data, telemedicine, TOPSIS, and fuzzy AHP is well-developed and an important theme, which may be the trend in future research.

Conclusion: This study uncovers a holistic picture of the performance of MCDA-related literature published in healthcare. MCDA has a broad application on different topics and would be helpful for practitioners, researchers, and decision-makers working in healthcare to advance the wheel of medical complex decision-making. It can be argued that the door is still open for improving the role of MCDA in healthcare, whether in its methodology (e.g., fuzzy TOPSIS) or application (e.g., telemedicine).

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Briceno Noriega D, HFJ Savelkoul (2022)

Vitamin D: A Potential Mitigation Tool for the Endemic Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic?.

Frontiers in public health, 10:888168.

The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and associated development of clinical symptoms of COVID-19 have presented an enormous global impact on our health care systems, public health and economy. To date several observational epidemiological studies consistently found that vitamin D deficiency, measured as low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, is associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, certain cancers, autoimmune diseases and many infectious diseases, including acute respiratory infections. Since vitamin D is not merely immunosuppressive but also acts as an immunomodulator in tolerance and homeostasis, many experts have considered a role of vitamin D in the prevalence and severity of immune mediated inflammatory diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2, adding to the evidence of the importance of vitamin D in the immune response against viral respiratory infections and reinforcing the need for targeted vitamin D supplementation, with a focus on high-risk populations and a high-dose supplementation treatment for COVID-19 hospitalized patients. The expected transition to endemicity of SARS-CoV-2 even further corroborates as a potential of vitamin D as an potential mitigation tool for the prevention of COVID-19. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current evidence regarding vitamin D and present a hypothesis of its potential role in the current COVID-19 pandemic and in the future as a potential preventive measurement in public health.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Sorsa T, Nwhator SO, Sakellari D, et al (2022)

aMMP-8 Oral Fluid PoC Test in Relation to Oral and Systemic Diseases.

Frontiers in oral health, 3:897115.

The manuscript uses the previously published literature and highlights the benefits of active-matrix metalloproteinase (aMMP)-8 chairside/point-of-care (PoC) diagnostic tools as adjunctive measures in oral and systemic diseases. Previous studies suggest that as a biomarker, aMMP-8 is more precise than total MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-13, MMP-7, MMP-1, calprotectin, myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and bleeding of probing (BOP). Therefore, aMMP-8 could be implemented as the needed key biomarker for the new disease classification for both periodontitis and peri-implantitis. With a sensitivity to the tune of 75-85% and specificity in the range of 80-90%, lateral flow aMMP-8 PoC testing is comparable to catalytic protease activity assays for aMMP-8. The test can be further applied to estimate the glycemic status of an individual, to ascertain whether a person is at risk for COVID-19, in managing the oral side effects of radiotherapy carried in head and neck cancers, and in selected cases pertaining to reproductive health. In the future, aMMP-8 could find application as a potential systemic biomarker in diseases affecting the cardiovascular system, cancers, bacteremia, sepsis, diabetes, obesity, meningitis, as well as pancreatitis. The aMMP-8 PoCT is the first practical test in the emerging new dental clinical field, that is, oral clinical chemistry representing oral medicine, clinical chemistry, peri-implantology, and periodontology.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Tidmarsh LV, Harrison R, Ravindran D, et al (2022)

The Influence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Pain Management: Mechanisms, Processes, and Trauma-Informed Care.

Frontiers in pain research (Lausanne, Switzerland), 3:923866.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the likelihood of reduced physical and psychological health in adulthood. Though understanding and psychological management of traumatic experiences is growing, the empirical exploration of ACEs and physical clinical outcomes remains under-represented and under-explored. This topical review aimed to highlight the role of ACEs in the experience of chronic pain, pain management services and clinical decision making by: (1) providing an overview of the relationship between ACEs and chronic pain; (2) identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms through which ACEs may increase risk of persistent pain; (3) highlighting the impact of ACEs on patient adherence and completion of pain management treatment; and (4) providing practical clinical implications for pain management. Review findings demonstrated that in chronic pain, ACEs are associated with increased pain complications, pain catastrophizing and depression and the combination of these factors further heightens the risk of early treatment attrition. The pervasive detrimental impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on ACEs and their cyclical effects on pain are discussed in the context of psychological decline during long treatment waitlists. The review highlights how people with pain can be further supported in pain services by maintaining trauma-informed practices and acknowledging the impact of ACEs on chronic pain and detrimental health outcomes. Clinicians who are ACE-informed have the potential to minimize the negative influence of ACEs on treatment outcomes, ultimately optimizing the impact of pain management services.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Dang M, J Song (2022)

A review of the effects of ATP and hydroxychloroquine on the phase separation of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein.

Biophysical reviews pii:957 [Epub ahead of print].

SARS-CoV-2 is the coronavirus causing the ongoing pandemic with > 460 millions of infections and > 6 millions of deaths. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) is the only structural protein which plays essential roles in almost all key steps of the viral life cycle with its diverse functions depending on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) driven by interacting with various nucleic acids. The 419-residue N protein is highly conserved in all variants including delta and omicron, and composed of both folded N-/C-terminal domains (NTD/CTD) as well as three long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Recent results have suggested that its CTD and IDRs are also cryptic nucleic acid-binding domains. In this context, any small molecules capable of interfering in its interaction with nucleic acids are anticipated to modulate its LLPS and associated functions. Indeed, ATP, the energy currency existing at very high concentrations (2-12 mM) in all living cells but absent in viruses, modulates LLPS of N protein, and consequently appears to be evolutionarily hijacked by SARS-CoV-2 to promote its life cycle. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been also shown to specifically bind NTD and CTD to inhibit their interactions with nucleic acids, as well as to disrupt LLPS. Particularly, the unique structure of the HCQ-CTD complex offers a promising strategy for further design of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs with better affinity and specificity. The finding may indicate that LLPS is indeed druggable by small molecules, thus opening up a promising direction for drug discovery/design by targeting LLPS in general.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Bhuiyan AA, Brahmachari S, Ripa IJ, et al (2022)

Overview of dreadful consequences of SARS-CoV-2 invasion in Italy from March 2020 to March 2022.

Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 46(1):176.

Background: The unpredicted pandemic disease COVID-19 first flared up adversely in Europe by imparting interminable force of infected and fatality cases to Italy. In late February 2020, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in northern Italy and swiftly proliferated to the entire country, albeit continuous to date (23 March 2022) with a lesser extent of deadliness. Current review focused on the invasions and the associated consequences by SARS-CoV-2 during the period of March 2020-March 2022.

Main body of the abstract: Initially, the lethality and transmissibility of the novel virus made Italy stunned within 1 month, the number of death cases reached 12,428 at the end of March 2020. The Italian Government announced an immediate emergency phase in entire country, educational institutions to local businesses, manufacturing works, cultural activities to elective activities were rescinded and all the hospitals to morgues were swamped, ensuing that fear of epidemic was impended. Besides, the Italian National Health System and Service coordinated massive public health interventions and conferred unprecedented efforts to limit the high mortality rate of the first wave of infection. Amidst 2 years of epidemic (as of 23 March 2022), Italy has documented 14,070,450 (23.74% of the population) confirmed infected cases, 12,685,306 (21.41% of the population) healed cases, 158,254 death cases (0.27% of the population) and ranking 9th worldwide in the number of deaths.

Short conclusion: Based on publicly available Italian Ministry of Health COVID-19 data, current review has comprehended region-wise total infected cases, death cases and healed cases for three consecutive years 2020-2022 to foresee different patterns of the regional outbreak and gradual subservience. At a glance, we highlighted the overview of the exhaustion and exertion of COVID-19 crisis throughout the periods in Italy.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Katre SG, Asnani AJ, Pratyush K, et al (2022)

Review on development of potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (MPro).

Future journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 8(1):36.

Background: The etiological agent for the coronavirus illness outbreak in 2019-2020 is a novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19), whereas coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) has compelled the implementation of novel therapeutic options.

Main body of the abstract: There are currently no targeted therapeutic medicines for this condition, and effective treatment options are quite restricted; however, new therapeutic candidates targeting the viral replication cycle are being investigated. The primary protease of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus is a major target for therapeutic development (MPro). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) all seem to have a structurally conserved substrate-binding domain that can be used to develop novel protease inhibitors.

Short conclusion: With the recent publication of the X-ray crystal structure of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Mm, virtual and in vitro screening investigations to find MPro inhibitors are fast progressing. The focus of this review is on recent advancements in the quest for small-molecule inhibitors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 main protease.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Rajkumar E, Rajan AM, Daniel M, et al (2022)

The psychological impact of quarantine due to COVID-19: A systematic review of risk, protective factors and interventions using socio-ecological model framework.

Heliyon, 8(6):e09765.

Background: Though quarantine is a pertinent control measure for the spread of COVID-19, it is equally important to consider its negative impacts, as it causes severe psychological, emotional, and financial problems not only for those who are quarantined but also for many others who are directly or indirectly connected to those who are quarantined. There appears to be a need to synthesise the available literature evidence on the psychological impact of quarantine experience, especially the multilevel risk factors that make individuals vulnerable to psychological impact and the protective factors to deal with the negative effects of quarantine.

Objective: This systematic review attempted to identify the various psychological impacts associated with the experience of quarantine, the risk and protective factors and list out various psycho-social interventions that can minimise the risks and facilitate the protective factors associated with the experience of quarantine.

Methods: A systematic search adhering to the PRISMA guidelines was performed in four databases PubMed, Scopus, PsycNet, Web of Science and 10518 articles related to COVID-19 and quarantine were obtained. After screening processes and quality assessment using standard checklist 74 articles that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were chosen for the final review.

Findings: Individuals subjected to quarantine had anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep problems, and somatic difficulties. Some of the key risk factors during quarantine are young age, female gender, low money, fear of infection, poor sleep quality, reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviours, and a lack of social support. Financial difficulties and stigma remained risk factors even after the quarantine period had ended. Key protective factors were coping skills, home based exercise, leisure, recreational activities, maintaining relationships using social media and availability of mental health services. The findings also highlight the necessity for tele mental health interventions to address the psychological effects of quarantine.

Conclusion: Multilevel interventions are required to minimise the impact of risk factors and enhance protective factors.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Domán M, K Bányai (2022)

COVID-19-Associated Fungal Infections: An Urgent Need for Alternative Therapeutic Approach?.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:919501.

Secondary fungal infections may complicate the clinical course of patients affected by viral respiratory diseases, especially those admitted to intensive care unit. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients are at increased risk of fungal co-infections exacerbating the prognosis of disease due to misdiagnosis that often result in treatment failure and high mortality rate. COVID-19-associated fungal infections caused by predominantly Aspergillus and Candida species, and fungi of the order Mucorales have been reported from several countries to become significant challenge for healthcare system. Early diagnosis and adequate antifungal therapy is essential to improve clinical outcomes, however, drug resistance shows a rising trend highlighting the need for alternative therapeutic agents. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on COVID-19-associated mycoses, treatment strategies and the most recent advancements in antifungal drug development focusing on peptides with antifungal activity.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Anaf A, Ibnu F, Romdiati H, et al (2022)

Indonesian Migrant Workers: The Migration Process and Vulnerability to COVID-19.

Journal of environmental and public health, 2022:2563684.

Indonesia is one of the largest sources of migrant workers in Southeast Asia. Presently, these workers are vulnerable to COVID-19 due to the prolonged migration process, which requires them to relocate from their villages to another country and back to Indonesia on completion of their working contract. Therefore, this study describes and discusses the vulnerability of Indonesian migrant workers (IMWs) to the pandemic at various phases of the migration process. It is related to the implementation and practice of health protocols, ignorance and indifference to the dangers and transmission of the virus, and also to the national vaccination program. The analysis is based on the review of literature studies, such as studies related to the topic, international and national regulations on migrant workers, and official data and statistics published by the Indonesian government. The materials and data were collected from search engines such as Google Search and Google Scholar and also relevant published reports available. Several policies have been implemented by the government of Indonesia and other destination countries where the prospective IMWs intend to work, to protect and prevent the transmission of COVID-19. However, there is still a contagion among IMWs willing to leave abroad and those returning home after completing their employment contract. Therefore, both countries need to be responsible for each migration process, specifically related to providing health protection, increasing awareness of the danger and transmission of the virus, and applying polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests and COVID-19 vaccination for migrant workers.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Koch T (2022)

Disease mapping and innovation: A history from wood-block prints to Web 3.0.

Patterns (New York, N.Y.), 3(6):100507 pii:S2666-3899(22)00099-X.

This paper presents a point in the transition of publicly available data and the means of its presentation. With syndromic mapping and new systems of data collection and distribution at all levels, previously privileged materials are now generally available. At the same time, the means of their analysis and presentation are being transformed by new systems of digital collaboration and presentation. With the coronavirus disease 2019 COVID-19) dashboard as an example, the history of both data and their presentation is presented as the backcloth against which the evolving systems of data collection and graphic presentation can be understood in a world of interactive research and Web 3.0.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Klimek L, Hagemann J, Döge J, et al (2022)

Olfactory and gustatory disorders in COVID-19.

Allergo journal international pii:216 [Epub ahead of print].

Loss of olfaction is one of the symptoms most commonly reported by patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the spontaneous recovery rate is high, recent studies have shown that up to 7% of patients remain anosmic for more than 12 months after the onset of infection, leaving millions of people worldwide suffering from severe olfactory impairment. Olfactory training remains the first recommended treatment. With the continued lack of approved drug treatments, new therapeutic options are being explored. This article reviews the current state of science on COVID-19-related olfactory disorders, focusing on epidemiology, pathophysiology, cure rates, currently available treatment options, and research on new treatments.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Tiwari V, Sharma PK, Sampath Kumar V, et al (2022)

Changes in the Management of Malignant Bone Tumors in the COVID-19 Pandemic in Developing Countries.

Cureus, 14(5):e25245.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has drastically affected healthcare delivery to cancer patients, including those with malignant bone tumors, worldwide. Such cancer patients are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and risk contracting the severe disease, but their holistic tumor management has also suffered a significant impact. Because of the acute shortage of healthcare resources due to their diversion in COVID management, substantial changes are needed in various aspects of management for high-grade tumor patients, particularly in developing countries and population-dense regions, so that their evidence-based appropriate treatment is ensured. Owing to a lack of consensus regarding the ideal course of action for the management of malignant bone tumors in the current situation, many such patients often get neglected, leading to loss of life/limb. This review elaborates on various guidelines proposed by different healthcare organizations and institutes regarding the modified care pathways for malignant bone neoplasms in the current coronavirus pandemic. The early published results of these modified care pathways and the changes in the oncology practice brought about by the pandemic are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Sodhi KK, CK Singh (2022)

A systematic review on the occurrence, fate, and remediation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater.

International journal of environmental science and technology : IJEST pii:4326 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Along with impairing the respiratory system, it also affects the gastrointestinal system. By reviewing experiments on the wastewater analysis for the detection of coronavirus, this study explores the fate, persistence, and various remediation strategies for the virus removal from the wastewater. The results indicated that the virus can be detected in the wastewater samples, feces, and sewage, even before the onset of symptoms. Coronavirus can be a potential panzootic disease, as several mammalian species get infected by the deadly virus. The disinfection strategies used earlier for the treatment of wastewater are not sufficient for the removal of viruses from the wastewater. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made to understand their fate, sources, and occurrence in the environmental matrices. To prevent the spread of the panzootic disease, revised guidelines should be issued for the remediation of the virus. Recent viral remediation methods such as membrane bioreactors and advanced oxidation methods can be used. Therefore, the present review puts a light on the current knowledge on the occurrence of coronaviruses in wastewater, the possible sources, fate, and removal strategies.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Yao X, Liu Y, Chu Z, et al (2022)

Membranes for the life sciences and their future roles in medicine.

Chinese journal of chemical engineering pii:S1004-9541(22)00227-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the global outbreak of COVID-19, membrane technology for clinical treatments, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and protective masks and clothing, has attracted intense research attention for its irreplaceable abilities. Membrane research and applications are now playing an increasingly important role in various fields of life science. In addition to intrinsic properties such as size sieving, dissolution and diffusion, membranes are often endowed with additional functions as cell scaffolds, catalysts or sensors to satisfy the specific requirements of different clinical applications. In this review, we will introduce and discuss state-of-the-art membranes and their respective functions in four typical areas of life science: artificial organs, tissue engineering, in vitro blood diagnosis and medical support. Emphasis will be given to the description of certain specific functions required of membranes in each field to provide guidance for the selection and fabrication of the membrane material. The advantages and disadvantages of these membranes have been compared to indicate further development directions for different clinical applications. Finally, we propose challenges and outlooks for future development.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

J A, Girigoswami A, K Girigoswami (2022)

Versatile Applications of Nanosponges in Biomedical Field: A Glimpse on SARS-CoV-2 Management.

BioNanoScience pii:1000 [Epub ahead of print].

Nanotechnology has a versatile use in the field of disease therapy, targeted drug delivery, biosensing, and environmental protection. The cross-linked nanosponges are one of the types of nanostructures that provide huge application in the biomedical field. They are available up to the fourth generation and can act as a payload for both kinds of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. There are different methods available for the synthesis of these nanosponges as well as loading the drugs inside them. A variety of approved drugs based on nanosponges are already in the market including drugs for cancer. Other applications include the uses of nanosponges as topical agent, in improving solubility, as protein carrier, in chemical sensors, in wastewater remediation, and in agriculture. The present review discusses in detail about different applications of nanosponges and also mentions about the recent SARS-CoV-2 management using nanosponges.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Baptista CJ, Oliveira de Arruda G, Rayzel Barroso W, et al (2022)

Factors Associated With Increased Alcohol Consumption During Physical and Social Distancing Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a University in Brazil.

Substance abuse : research and treatment, 16:11782218211061140 pii:10.1177_11782218211061140.

Objective: To report alcohol consumption during the first month of social home-isolation and physical distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in an public University in Mid-West Brazil.

Methods: We designed an online observational study. Initial data of 2166 participants was obtained between April and May, 2020, less than a month after University's measures of social distancing with remote work and classes. We used Poisson regression model with robust variance to identify the significant factors associated with self-reported increase in alcohol consumption during social and physical distancing measures.

Results: Increased alcohol consumption during social and physical distancing was reported by 22.9% of 1371 alcohol drinkers. Factors associated with reporting increased alcoholic consumption during University's physical and social distancing measures were: not professing any religion (1.52, 95% CI 1.25-1.83), having signs/symptom suggesting SARS-COV-2 infection (1.56, 95% CI 1.26-1.93), missing social interaction with peers carried out without any mediating technology (1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.20), experiencing financial distress/hardship (1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.54), perceiving duration of social isolation as long (1.62, 95% CI 1.10-2.41), reporting worsening of emotional/mental wellbeing (1.76, 95% CI 1.34-2.33), and previous psychological disorders (1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.52).

Conclusions: This study highlights several individual, psychological, and social determinants of increase in consumption of alcoholic beverages during physical and social distancing measures due to the pandemic and the results may reflect the presence of emotional changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It urges that sanitary authorities adopt measures to avoid excessive alcohol consumption during social distancing measures.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Wu H, Song C, Ge Y, et al (2022)

Link Prediction on Complex Networks: An Experimental Survey.

Data science and engineering pii:188 [Epub ahead of print].

Complex networks have been used widely to model a large number of relationships. The outbreak of COVID-19 has had a huge impact on various complex networks in the real world, for example global trade networks, air transport networks, and even social networks, known as racial equality issues caused by the spread of the epidemic. Link prediction plays an important role in complex network analysis in that it can find missing links or predict the links which will arise in the future in the network by analyzing the existing network structures. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the link prediction problem on complex networks. There are a variety of techniques for link prediction based on the topology of the network and the properties of entities. In this work, a new taxonomy is proposed to divide the link prediction methods into five categories and a comprehensive overview of these methods is provided. The network embedding-based methods, especially graph neural network-based methods, which have attracted increasing attention in recent years, have been creatively investigated as well. Moreover, we analyze thirty-six datasets and divide them into seven types of networks according to their topological features shown in real networks and perform comprehensive experiments on these networks. We further analyze the results of experiments in detail, aiming to discover the most suitable approach for each kind of network.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Brust KB, Papineni V, Columbus C, et al (2022)

COVID-19-from emerging global threat to ongoing pandemic crisis.

Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 35(4):468-475 pii:2068940.

In December 2019, China witnessed the emergence of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Its ability to spread quickly made it a global pandemic. The United States has been greatly affected, with more than 980,000 lives lost so far. Diagnosis is made primarily through nasopharyngeal swab for polymerase chain reaction. Point-of-care testing by antigen is less sensitive and specific and may require polymerase chain reaction confirmation. Management of the COVID-19 patient remains largely supportive. Steroids are now a therapy mainstay if the patient is hypoxic. Direct antivirals, such as nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, remdesivir, or molnupirivir, can be used if certain criteria are met. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted primarily by inhalation of large droplets, though transmission by aerosolization may occur, particularly via certain procedures. In the hospital setting, use of personal protective equipment for the care of COVID-19 patients has largely remained the same, with full use of gowns, gloves, respirators, and eye protection. Inadequate supply at the start of the pandemic required innovative ways to reprocess and extend the use of personal protective equipment. Three vaccines are now available in the US, all with excellent efficacy against severe disease and hospitalization, though booster doses are needed to bolster waning antibody levels. The possibility of emerging variants continues to remain a threat to control of the pandemic. The leader of the World Health Organization, Dr. Tedros, has stated, "The pandemic will not be over anywhere until it's over everywhere."

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Cavazos A, Deb A, Sharma U, et al (2022)

COVID toes following vaccination.

Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 35(4):476-479 pii:2043732.

Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 infections include "COVID toes." These are pernio-like, pale purple, painful, ill-defined cyanotic lesions that have inflammatory infiltrates on histologic studies. COVID toes can also develop following COVID vaccination. COVID toes was reported by 29 individuals to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through May 25, 2021. The mean age of these individuals was 52 ± 18 years; 23 (79%) were women. They had received both mRNA vaccines and the adenovirus vector-based vaccine. This discoloration developed 4.5 ± 9.8 days following vaccination, usually after the first dose. Four individuals required hospitalization for systemic symptoms, and one died. This information indicates that some individuals develop important clinical syndromes following vaccination and suggests that some of the manifestations of COVID-19 infection represent immune responses and not necessarily active tissue infection.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

González Del Castillo J, Martín-Delgado MC, Martín Sánchez FJ, et al (2022)

Lessons from COVID-19 for future disasters: an opinion paper.

Revista espanola de quimioterapia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia [Epub ahead of print].

A "Pandemic/Disaster Law" is needed to condense and organize the current dispersed and multiple legislation. The State must exercise a single power and command appropriate to each situation, with national validity. The production of plans for the use of land and real estate as potential centers for health care, shelter or refuge is recommended. There should be specific disaster plans at least for Primary Health Care, Hospitals and Socio-sanitary Centers. The guarantee of the maintenance of communication and supply routes is essential, as well as the guarantee of the autochthonous production of basic goods. The pandemic has highlighted the need to redefine the training plans for physicians who, in their different specialties, have to undertake reforms that allow a more versatile and transversal training. National research must have plans to be able to respond quickly to questions posed by the various crises, using all the nation's resources and in particular, all the data and capabilities of the health sector. Contingency plans must consider ethical aspects, and meet the needs of patients and families with a humanized approach. In circumstances of catastrophe, conflicts increase and require a bioethical response that allows the best decisions to be made, with the utmost respect for people's values. Rapid, efficient and truthful communication systems must be contained in a special project for this sector in critic circumstances. Finally, we believe that the creation of National Coordination Centers for major disasters and Public Health can contribute to better face the crises of the future.

RevDate: 2022-06-26

Signori D, Magliocca A, Hayashida K, et al (2022)

Inhaled nitric oxide: role in the pathophysiology of cardio-cerebrovascular and respiratory diseases.

Intensive care medicine experimental, 10(1):28.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a key molecule in the biology of human life. NO is involved in the physiology of organ viability and in the pathophysiology of organ dysfunction, respectively. In this narrative review, we aimed at elucidating the mechanisms behind the role of NO in the respiratory and cardio-cerebrovascular systems, in the presence of a healthy or dysfunctional endothelium. NO is a key player in maintaining multiorgan viability with adequate organ blood perfusion. We report on its physiological endogenous production and effects in the circulation and within the lungs, as well as the pathophysiological implication of its disturbances related to NO depletion and excess. The review covers from preclinical information about endogenous NO produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to the potential therapeutic role of exogenous NO (inhaled nitric oxide, iNO). Moreover, the importance of NO in several clinical conditions in critically ill patients such as hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, hemolysis, cerebrovascular events and ischemia-reperfusion syndrome is evaluated in preclinical and clinical settings. Accordingly, the mechanism behind the beneficial iNO treatment in hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension is investigated. Furthermore, investigating the pathophysiology of brain injury, cardiopulmonary bypass, and red blood cell and artificial hemoglobin transfusion provides a focus on the potential role of NO as a protective molecule in multiorgan dysfunction. Finally, the preclinical toxicology of iNO and the antimicrobial role of NO-including its recent investigation on its role against the Sars-CoV2 infection during the COVID-19 pandemic-are described.

RevDate: 2022-06-26

Alipoor SD, M Mirsaeidi (2022)

SARS-CoV-2 cell entry beyond the ACE2 receptor.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is known as the major viral entry site for SARS-CoV-2. However, viral tissue tropism and high rate of infectivity do not directly correspond with the level of ACE2 expression in the organs. It may suggest involvement of other receptors or accessory membrane proteins in SARSCoV-2 cell entry.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for studies reporting SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. We used a group of the MeSH terms including "cell entry", "surface receptor", "ACE2", and "SARS-CoV-2". We reviewed all selected papers published in English up to end of February 2022. We found several receptors or auxiliary membrane proteins (including CD147, NRP-1, CD26, AGTR2, Band3, KREMEN1, ASGR1, ANP, TMEM30A, CLEC4G, and LDLRAD3) along with ACE2 that facilitate virus entry and transmission. Expression of Band3 protein on the surface of erythrocytes and evidence of binding with S protein of SARS-CoV-2 may explain asymptomatic hypoxemia during COVID19 infection. The variants of SARS-CoV-2 including the B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.1 (Kappa), B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.617.2+ (Delta+), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) may have different potency to bond with these receptors.

CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 may be due to its ability to enter the host cell through a group of cell surface receptors. These receptors are potential targets to develop novel therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2022-06-26

Angeli F, Reboldi G, Trapasso M, et al (2022)

COVID-19, vaccines and deficiency of ACE2 and other angiotensinases. Closing the loop on the "Spike effect".

European journal of internal medicine pii:S0953-6205(22)00234-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The role of a dysregulated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is well recognized. The imbalance between angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin1-7 (Ang1,7) caused by the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors exerts a pivotal role on the clinical picture and outcome of COVID-19. ACE2 receptors are not the exclusive angiotensinases in nature. Other angiotensinases (PRCP, and POP) have the potential to limit the detrimental effects of the interactions between ACE2 and the Spike proteins. In the cardiovascular disease continuum, ACE2 activity tends to decrease, and POP/PRCP activity to increase, from the health status to advanced deterioration of the cardiovascular system. The failure of the counter-regulatory RAS axis during the acute phase of COVID-19 is characterized by a decrease of ACE2 expression coupled to unchanged activity of other angiotensinases, therefore failing to limit the accumulation of Ang II. COVID-19 vaccines increase the endogenous synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. Once synthetized, the free-floating spike proteins circulate in the blood, interact with ACE2 receptors and resemble the pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 ("Spike effect" of COVID-19 vaccines). It has been noted that an increased catalytic activity of POP/PRCP is typical in elderly individuals with comorbidities or previous cardiovascular events, but not in younger people. Thus, the adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccination associated with Ang II accumulation are generally more common in younger and healthy subjects. Understanding the relationships between different mechanisms of Ang II cleavage and accumulation offers the opportunity to close the pathophysiological loop between the risk of progression to severe forms of COVID-19 and the potential adverse events of vaccination.

RevDate: 2022-06-26

Pontali E, Silva DR, Marx FM, et al (2022)

Breathing Back Better! A State of the Art on the Benefits of Functional Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Post-Tuberculosis and Post-COVID Lungs.

Archivos de bronconeumologia pii:S0300-2896(22)00443-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Currently, tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 account for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, not only during their acute phase, but also because of their sequelae. This scoping review aims to describe the specific aspects of post-TB and post-COVID (long-COVID-19) sequelae, and the implications for post-disease follow-up and rehabilitation. In particular, evidence on how to identify patients affected by sequelae is presented and discussed. A section of the review is dedicated to identifying patients eligible for pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), as not all patients with sequelae are eligible for PR. Components of PR are presented and discussed, as well as their effectiveness. Other essential components to implement comprehensive rehabilitation programmes such as counselling and health education of enrolled patients, evaluation of cost-effectiveness of PR and its impact on health systems as well as research priorities for the future are included in this scoping review.

RevDate: 2022-06-26

Cueto-Robledo G, Rivera-Sotelo N, Roldan-Valadez E, et al (2022)

A brief review on failed hybrid treatment for massive pulmonary embolism: catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) and pharmaco-mechanical thrombolysis (PMT).

Current problems in cardiology pii:S0146-2806(22)00191-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Acute massive or high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE), described as a lung arteries occlusion by an embolus, causes a significant compromise of hemodynamic stability and could lead to a lethal event. Systemic fibrinolytic therapy has been accepted as the standard reperfusion therapy in massive PE, except when there is an increased risk of bleeding. Catheter-based mechanical strategies (thrombofragmentation, thromboaspiration with catheter-guided thrombolysis) are described as options when there are absolute contraindications to systemic thrombolysis. We briefly reviewed clinical situations when patients with severe pneumonia due to COVID-19 are complicated by a high-risk saddle pulmonary embolism and underwent repeated pharmacomechanical thrombolysis and high-flow oxygen therapy. There are scarce reports of failed catheter-guided pharmacomechanical thrombolysis in patients with PE secondary to COVID-19. Re-administration of systemic thrombolysis and alteplase (15 mg dose) can show favorable results.

RevDate: 2022-06-26

Mai AS, Lee ARYB, Tay RYK, et al (2022)

Booster doses of COVID-19 vaccines for patients with haematological and solid cancer: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis.

European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990), 172:65-75 pii:S0959-8049(22)00308-2 [Epub ahead of print].

IMPORTANCE: Patients with cancer have an increased risk of severe disease and mortality from COVID-19, as the disease and antineoplastic therapy cause reduced vaccine immunogenicity. Booster doses have been proposed to enhance protection, and efficacy data are emerging from several studies.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proportion of COVID-19 primary vaccination non-responders with cancer who seroconvert after a booster dose.

METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL and medRxiv were searched from 1st January 2021 to 10th March 2022. Quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal checklist.

RESULTS: After the eligibility assessment, 22 studies were included in this systematic review and 17 for meta-analysis of seroconversion in non-responders, pooling a total of 849 patients with haematological cancer and 82 patients with solid cancer. Haematological cancer non-responders exhibited lower seroconversion at 44% (95% CI 36-53%) than solid cancer at 80% (95% CI 69-87%). Individual patient data meta-analysis found the odds of having a meaningful rise in antibody titres to be significantly associated with increased duration between the second and third dose (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03, P ≤ 0.05), age of patient (OR 0.960, 95% CI 0.934-0.987, P ≤ 0.05) and cancer type. With patients with haematological cancer as a reference, patients with lung cancer had 16.8 times the odds of achieving a meaningful increase in antibody titres (OR 16.8, 95% CI 2.95-318, P ≤ 0.05) and gastrointestinal cancer patients had 25.4 times the odds of achieving a meaningful increase in antibody titres (OR 25.4, 95% CI 5.26-492.21, P ≤ 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: administration of a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is effective in improving seroconversion and antibody levels. Patients with haematological cancer consistently demonstrate poorer response to booster vaccines than patients with solid cancer.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Woźniak J, Garbacz K, Wojciechowska O, et al (2022)

Alternative and online weight loss interventions during Covid-19 pandemic lockdown.

Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, 73(2):147-158.

The problem of obesity is affecting an increasing number of people worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic and the required social distancing, which make it impossible to see a dietitian, present new challenges and require the development of new ways of working with overweight individuals. Based on research and practice, dietetic services are beginning to shift from in-office consultations to a form of online consultation using mobile apps and websites. This literature review aims to critically analyze the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of interventions targeting weight loss in overweight or obese individuals focusing on behavioral and online interventions. The data from the presented studies suggest that the effectiveness of online interventions to control body weight is high enough to be used in nutritional education and in weight reduction or maintenance. The main advantage is a wide access to them for the public.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Saloner B, Eber GB, Sufrin CB, et al (2022)

A Human Rights Framework for Advancing the Standard of Medical Care for Incarcerated People in the United States in the Time of COVID-19.

Health and human rights, 24(1):59-75.

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the lack of resources and oversight that hinders medical care for incarcerated people in the United States. The US Supreme Court has held that "deliberate indifference" to "serious medical needs" violates the Constitution. But this legal standard does not assure the consistent provision of health care services. This leads the United States to fall behind European nations that define universal standards of care grounded in principles of human rights and the ideal of equivalence that incarcerated and non-incarcerated people are entitled to the same health care. In this paper, we review a diverse legal and policy literature and undertake a conceptual analysis of policy issues related to the standard of care in correctional health; we then describe a framework for moving incrementally closer toward a universal standard. The expansion of Medicaid funding and benefits to corrections facilities, alongside a system of comprehensive and enforceable external oversight, would meaningfully raise the standard of care. Although these changes on their own will not resolve all of the thorny health problems posed by mass incarceration, they present a tangible opportunity to move closer to the human rights ideal.

RevDate: 2022-06-27
CmpDate: 2022-06-27

Schmitz KS, Lange MV, Gommers L, et al (2022)

Repurposing an In Vitro Measles Virus Dissemination Assay for Screening of Antiviral Compounds.

Viruses, 14(6): pii:v14061186.

Measles virus (MV) is a highly contagious respiratory virus responsible for outbreaks associated with significant morbidity and mortality among children and young adults. Although safe and effective measles vaccines are available, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in vaccination coverage gaps that may lead to the resurgence of measles when restrictions are lifted. This puts individuals who cannot be vaccinated, such as young infants and immunocompromised individuals, at risk. Therapeutic interventions are complicated by the long incubation time of measles, resulting in a narrow treatment window. At present, the only available WHO-advised option is treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, although this is not approved as standard of care. Antivirals against measles may contribute to intervention strategies to limit the impact of future outbreaks. Here, we review previously described antivirals and antiviral assays, evaluate the antiviral efficacy of a number of compounds to inhibit MV dissemination in vitro, and discuss potential application in specific target populations. We conclude that broadly reactive antivirals could strengthen existing intervention strategies to limit the impact of measles outbreaks.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )