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08 Feb 2023 at 01:38
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Bibliography on: Biofilm


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 08 Feb 2023 at 01:38 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-02-07

Samadi A, Kermanshahi Pour A, Beims RF, et al (2023)

Delignified porous wood as biofilm support for 1,4-dioxane-degrading bacterial consortium.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

Delignified porous wood samples were used as carriers for biofilm formation of a bacterial consortium with the ability to degrade 1,4-dioxane (DX). The delignification treatment of the natural wood resulted in higher porosity, formation of macropores, increase in surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the treated wood pieces. These superior properties of two types of treated carriers (respectively, A and B) compared to the untreated wood resulted in 2.19 ± 0.52- and 2.66 ± 0.23-fold higher growth of biofilm. Moreover, analysis of the fatty acid profiles indicated an increase in proportion of the saturated fatty acids during the biofilm formation, characterizing an enhancement in rigidity and hydrophobicity of the biofilms. DX initial concentration of 100 mg/L was completely degraded (detection limit 0.01 mg/L) in 24 and 32 h using the treated A and B woods, while only 25.84 ± 5.95% was removed after 32 h using the untreated wood. However, fitting the DX biodegradation data to the Monod model showed a lower maximum specific growth rate for biofilm (0.0276 ± 0.0018 1/h) versus planktonic (0.0382 ± 0.0024 1/h), because of gradual accumulation of inactive cells in the biofilm. Findings of this study can contribute to the knowledge of biofilm formation regarding the physical/chemical properties of biofilm carriers and be helpful to the ongoing research on bioremediation of DX.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Tello-Díaz C, Palau M, Muñoz E, et al (2023)

Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation on Vascular Grafts: an In Vitro Study.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The aim of this study was to quantify in vitro biofilm formation by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) on the surfaces of different types of commonly used vascular grafts. We performed an in vitro study with two clinical strains of MSSA (MSSA2 and MSSA6) and nine vascular grafts: Dacron (Hemagard), Dacron-heparin (Intergard heparin), Dacron-silver (Intergard Silver), Dacron-silver-triclosan (Intergard Synergy), Dacron-gelatin (Gelsoft Plus), Dacron plus polytetrafluoroethylene (Fusion), polytetrafluoroethylene (Propaten; Gore), Omniflow II, and bovine pericardium (XenoSure). Biofilm formation was induced in two phases: an initial 90-minute adherence phase and a 24-hour growth phase. Quantitative cultures were performed, and the results were expressed as log10 CFU per milliliter. The Dacron-silver-triclosan graft and Omniflow II were associated with the least biofilm formation by both MSSA2 and MSSA6. MSSA2 did not form a biofilm on the Dacron-silver-triclosan graft (0 CFU/mL), and the mean count on the Omniflow II graft was 3.89 CFU/mL (standard deviation [SD] 2.10). The mean count for the other grafts was 7.01 CFU/mL (SD 0.82). MSSA6 formed a biofilm on both grafts, with 2.42 CFU/mL (SD 2.44) on the Dacron-silver-triclosan graft and 3.62 CFU/mL (SD 2.21) on the Omniflow II. The mean biofilm growth on the remaining grafts was 7.33 CFU/mL (SD 0.28). The differences in biofilm formation on the Dacron-silver-triclosan and Omniflow II grafts compared to the other tested grafts were statistically significant. Our findings suggest that of the vascular grafts we studied, the Dacron-silver-triclosan and Omniflow II grafts might prevent biofilm formation by MSSA. Although further studies are needed, these grafts seem to be good candidates for clinical use in vascular surgeries at high risk of infections due to this microorganism. IMPORTANCE The Dacron silver-triclosan and Omniflow II vascular grafts showed the greatest resistance to in vitro methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation compared to other vascular grafts. These findings could allow us to choose the most resistant to infection prosthetic graft.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Chávez-Jacobo VM, Becerra-Rivera VA, Guerrero G, et al (2023)

The Sinorhizobium meliloti NspS-MbaA system affects biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide production and motility in response to specific polyamines.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 169(1):.

We previously showed that specific polyamines (PAs) present in the extracellular environment markedly affect extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, biofilm formation and motility in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm8530. We hypothesized that extracellular PA signals were sensed and transduced by the NspS and MbaA proteins, respectively, which are homologs of the PA-sensing, c-di-GMP modulating NspS-MbaA proteins described in Vibrio cholerae. Here we show that the decrease in biofilm formation and EPS production in the quorum-sensing (QS)-deficient S. meliloti wild-type strain 1021 in cultures containing putrescine or spermine did not occur in a 1021 nspS mutant (1021 nspS). The transcriptional expression of nspS in strain 1021 was significantly increased in cultures containing either of these polyamines, but not by exogenous cadaverine, 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP), spermidine (Spd) or norspermidine (NSpd). Cell aggregation in liquid cultures did not differ markedly between strain 1021 and 1021 nspS in the presence or absence of PAs. The S. meliloti QS-proficient Rm8530 wild-type and nspS mutant (Rm8530 nspS) produced similar levels of biofilm under control conditions and 3.2- and 2.2-fold more biofilm, respectively, in cultures with NSpd, but these changes did not correlate with EPS production. Cells of Rm8530 nspS aggregated from two- to several-fold more than the wild-type in cultures without PAs or in those containing Spm. NSpd, Spd and DAP differently affected swimming and swarming motility in strains 1021 and Rm8530 and their respective nspS mutants. nspS transcription in strain Rm8530 was greatly reduced by exogenous Spm. Bioinformatic analysis revealed similar secondary structures and functional domains in the MbaA proteins of S. meliloti and V. cholerae, while their NspS proteins differed in some residues implicated in polyamine recognition in the latter species. NspS-MbaA homologs occur in a small subset of soil and aquatic bacterial species that commonly interact with eukaryotes. We speculate that the S. meliloti NspS-MbaA system modulates biofilm formation, EPS production and motility in response to environmental or host plant-produced PAs.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Abdian PL, Malori MS, Caramelo JJ, et al (2022)

Fusion of a bacterial cadherin-like domain and green fluorescent protein as a specific probe to study biofilm matrix formation in Rhizobium spp.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 168(12):.

Rhizobium adhering proteins or 'Raps' are secreted proteins identified in a very restricted group of rhizobial strains, specifically those belonging to R. leguminosarum and R. etli. The distinctive feature of members of the Rap family is the presence of one or two cadherin-like domains or CHDLs that are also present in numerous extracellular bacterial and archaeal proteins and were proposed to confer carbohydrate binding ability. We have previously made an in-depth characterization of RapA2, a calcium-binding lectin, composed by two CHDLs, involved in biofilm matrix remodelling in R. leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. In this study, CHDLs derived from RapA2 were analysed in detail, finding significant structural and functional differences despite their considerable sequence similarity. Only the carboxy-terminal CHDL retained properties similar to those displayed by RapA2. Our findings were used to obtain a novel fluorescent probe to study biofilm matrix development by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and also to shed some light on the role of the ubiquitous CHDL domains in bacterial secreted proteins.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Deng Y, Fu Y, Chua SL, et al (2023)

Biofilm Potentiates Cancer-Promoting Effects of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in a 3D Multi-Faceted Tumor Model.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Components of the tumor microenvironment (TME), such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), influence tumor progression. The specific polarization and phenotypic transition of TAMs in the tumor microenvironment lead to two-pronged impacts that can promote or hinder cancer development and treatment. Here, a novel microfluidic multi-faceted bladder tumor model (TAM[PIEB]) is developed incorporating TAMs and cancer cells to evaluate the impact of bacterial distribution on immunomodulation within the tumor microenvironment in vivo. It is demonstrated for the first time that biofilm-induced inflammatory conditions within tumors promote the transition of macrophages from a pro-inflammatory M1-like to an anti-inflammatory/pro-tumor M2-like state. Consequently, multiple roles and mechanisms by which biofilms promote cancer by inducing pro-tumor phenotypic switch of TAMs are identified, including cancer hallmarks such as reducing susceptibility to apoptosis, enhancing cell viability, and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis. Furthermore, biofilms formed by extratumoral bacteria can shield tumors from immune attack by TAMs, which can be visualized through various imaging assays in situ. The study sheds light on the underlying mechanism of biofilm-mediated inflammation on tumor progression and provides new insights into combined anti-biofilm therapy and immunotherapy strategies in clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Wang L, Wong YC, Correira JM, et al (2023)

Bacterial mechanosensing of surface stiffness promotes signaling and growth leading to biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.26.525810.

UNLABELLED: The attachment of bacteria onto a surface, consequent signaling, and the accumulation and growth of the surface-bound bacterial population are key initial steps in the formation of pathogenic biofilms. While recent reports have hinted that the stiffness of a surface may affect the accumulation of bacteria on that surface, the processes that underlie bacterial perception of and response to surface stiffness are unknown. Furthermore, whether, and how, the surface stiffness impacts biofilm development, after initial accumulation, is not known. We use thin and thick hydrogels to create stiff and soft composite materials, respectively, with the same surface chemistry. Using quantitative microscopy, we find that the accumulation, motility, and growth of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa respond to surface stiffness, and that these are linked through cyclic-di-GMP signaling that depends on surface stiffness. The mechanical cue stemming from surface stiffness is elucidated using finite-element modeling combined with experiments - adhesion to stiffer surfaces results in greater changes in mechanical stress and strain in the bacterial envelope than does adhesion to softer surfaces with identical surface chemistry. The cell-surface-exposed protein PilY1 acts as a mechanosensor, that upon surface engagement, results in higher cyclic-di-GMP levels, lower motility, and greater accumulation on stiffer surfaces. PilY1 impacts the biofilm lag phase, which is extended for bacteria attaching to stiffer surfaces. This study shows clear evidence that bacteria actively respond to different stiffness of surfaces where they adhere via perceiving varied mechanical stress and strain upon surface engagement.

IMPORTANCE: Bacteria colonize many types of biological and medical surfaces with a large range of stiffnesses. Colonization leads to the formation of biofilms, which cause costly and life-impairing chronic infections. However, whether and how bacteria can sense and respond to the mechanical cue provided by surface stiffness has remained unknown. We find that bacteria do indeed respond to surface stiffness in a way that is both consistent with expectations based on equilibrium continuum mechanics and that quantitatively impacts multiple aspects of early biofilm formation. This is a new understanding for the nascent field of bacterial mechanobiology. Furthermore, this finding suggests the possibility of a new category of approaches to hindering biofilm development by tuning the mechanical properties of biomedical surfaces.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Lee JW, Jeong SY, TG Kim (2023)

Epifluorescence Microscopy with Image Analysis as a Promising Method for Multispecies Biofilm Quantification.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 33(3):1-8 pii:jmb.2209.09045 [Epub ahead of print].

Epifluorescence microscopy with image analysis was evaluated as a biofilm quantification method (i.e., quantification of surface area colonized by biofilms), in comparison with crystal violet (CV) staining. We performed different experiments to generate multispecies biofilms with natural and artificial bacterial assemblages. First, four species were inoculated daily in 16 different sequences to form biofilms (surface colonization, 0.1%-56.6%). Second, a 9-species assemblage was allowed to form biofilms under 10 acylase treatment episodes (33.8%-55.6%). The two methods comparably measured the quantitative variation in biofilms, exhibiting a strong positive relationship (R[2] ≥ 0.7). Moreover, the two methods exhibited similar levels of variation coefficients. Finally, six synthetic and two natural consortia were allowed to form biofilms for 14 days, and their temporal dynamics were monitored. The two methods were comparable in quantifying four biofilms colonizing ≥18.7% (R[2] ≥ 0.64), but not for the other biofilms colonizing ≤ 3.7% (R[2] ≤ 0.25). In addition, the two methods exhibited comparable coefficients of variation in the four biofilms. Microscopy and CV staining comparably measured the quantitative variation of biofilms, exhibiting a strongly positive relationship, although microscopy cannot appropriately quantify the biofilms below the threshold colonization. Microscopy with image analysis is a promising approach for easily and rapidly estimating absolute quantity of multispecies biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Williams DE, Nesbitt NM, Muralidharan S, et al (2023)

H-NOX Regulates Biofilm Formation in Agrobacterium Vitis in Response to NO.

Biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Transitions between motile and biofilm lifestyles are highly regulated and fundamental to microbial pathogenesis. H-NOX (heme-nitric oxide/oxygen-binding domain) is a key regulator of bacterial communal behaviors, such as biofilm formation. A predicted bifunctional cyclic di-GMP metabolizing enzyme, composed of diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase (PDE) domains (avi_3097), is annotated downstream of an hnoX gene in Agrobacterium vitis S4. Here, we demonstrate that avH-NOX is a nitric oxide (NO)-binding hemoprotein that binds to and regulates the activity of avi_3097 (avHaCE; H-NOX-associated cyclic di-GMP processing enzyme). Kinetic analysis of avHaCE indicates a ∼four-fold increase in PDE activity in the presence of NO-bound avH-NOX. Biofilm analysis with crystal violet staining reveals that low concentrations of NO reduce biofilm growth in the wild-type A. vitis S4 strain, but the mutant ΔhnoX strain has no NO phenotype, suggesting that H-NOX is responsible for the NO biofilm phenotype in A. vitis. Together, these data indicate that avH-NOX enhances cyclic di-GMP degradation to reduce biofilm formation in response to NO in A. vitis.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Foote A, Schutz K, Zhao Z, et al (2023)

Characterizing Biofilm Interactions between Ralstonia insidiosa and Chryseobacterium gleum.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Ralstonia insidiosa and Chryseobacterium gleum are bacterial species commonly found in potable water systems, and these two species contribute to the robustness of biofilm formation in a model six-species community from the International Space Station (ISS) potable water system. Here, we set about characterizing the interaction between these two ISS-derived strains and examining the extent to which this interaction extends to other strains and species in these two genera. The enhanced biofilm formation between the ISS strains of R. insidiosa and C. gleum is robust to starting inoculum and temperature and occurs in some but not all tested growth media, and evidence does not support a soluble mediator or coaggregation mechanism. These findings shed light on the ISS R. insidiosa and C. gleum interaction, though such enhancement is not common between these species based on our examination of other R. insidiosa and C. gleum strains, as well as other species of Ralstonia and Chryseobacterium. Thus, while the findings presented here increase our understanding of the ISS potable water model system, not all our findings are broadly extrapolatable to strains found outside of the ISS. IMPORTANCE Biofilms present in drinking water systems and terminal fixtures are important for human health, pipe corrosion, and water taste. Here, we examine the enhanced biofilm of cocultures for two very common bacteria from potable water systems: Ralstonia insidiosa and Chryseobacterium gleum. While strains originally isolated on the International Space Station show enhanced dual-species biofilm formation, terrestrial strains do not show the same interaction properties. This study contributes to our understanding of these two species in both dual-culture and monoculture biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Boddapati S, SN Gummadi (2023)

Production and application of purified mutanase from novel Cellulosimicrobium funkei SNG1 in invitro biofilm degradation.

Biotechnology and applied biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Mutanase (α-1-3-glucanase) is an inducible extracellular enzyme with potential medical applications in dentistry. A novel Cellulosimicrobium funkei strain SNG1 producing mutanase enzyme using α-1-3 glucans was isolated and the enzyme was optimized for increased productivity using the one-factor-at-a-time approach. Maximum growth and enzyme-specific activity (2.12 ± 04 U/mg) were attained in a production medium with pH 7.0 and 1% α-1-3 glucans as carbon source, incubated at 37°C for 30 h. The result showed a five-fold increase in activity compared to unoptimized conditions (0.40 U/mg). The enzyme was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and recovered with a yield of 29.03% and a specific activity increase of 10.9-fold. The molecular mass of the monomeric enzyme is 137 kDa. The pH and temperature optima are 6.0 and 45°C with Km of 1.28 ± 0.11 mg for α-1-3 glucans. The enzyme activity was stimulated by adding Co[2+] , Ca[2+] , Cu[2+] and was entirely inhibited by Hg[2+] . On two-hour incubation, the purified enzyme effectively degraded invitro film with an 82.68% degradation rate and a saccharification yield of 30%. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Lan S, Chen X, Yin C, et al (2023)

Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of Disaspidin BB against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:999449.

INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus epidermidis infections are an important concern in worldwide, especially when associated with biofilms, and resistance of this agent to many drugs makes the situation even worse. We investigated the inhibitory effect of Disaspidin BB obtained from plant extracts and purifications on clinical S. epidermidis strains and their biofilms, and preliminarily investigated its mechanism of of its anti-biofilm activity.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The broth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of Disaspidin BB on 11 clinical S. epidermidis strains (MIC value of 0.63 ~ 2.5 μg/ml). SEP-05 was found to be erythromycin-resistant (MIC value>8 μg/ml) and Disaspidin BB sensitive with an MIC value of 0.63 μg/ml. The time-kill curve assay indicated that the antibacterial activity of Disaspidin BB against SEP-05 with concentration dependence. The metabolic activity and total biomass of the drug-treated SEP-05 biofilm in each stage were significantly inhibited by the crystalline violet and XTT assay, and the scavenging effect of Disaspidin BB on SEP-05 biofilm was also confirmed by SEM observation. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that subinhibitory concentrations Disaspidin BB can inhibit biofilm formation by affecting the expression level of key genes (aap, atlE, icaA, luxS, recA) in SEP-05 biofilm formation. In addition, the content of polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA in biofilm matrix after the intervention of Disaspidin BB was significantly reduced, and it was tentatively determined that the ability of SEP-05 biofilm formation and its stability were thus disturbed.

DISCUSSION: The results show that Disaspidin BB has promising antibacterial effect on erythromycin-resistant S. epidermidis and significant scavenging effect on its biofilm, which provides a theoretical basis for the further development of BB as a new drug for the treatment of skin infections caused by S. epidermidis.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Tang Z, Zhang H, Xiong J, et al (2023)

Enhanced iturin a production in a two-compartment biofilm reactor by Bacillus velezensis ND.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1102786.

In this study, a two-compartment biofilm reactor was designed for iturin A production. The biofilm reactor consists of a stirred-tank fermentor containing exclusively suspended cells and a packing column where the biofilm is attached. Polyester fiber with sphere shape and rough surfaces was chosen as the carrier of biofilm in packing column. Batch, fed-batch, and repeated-batch fermentation using Bacillus velezensis ND in the biofilm reactor were studied. Compared to conventional suspended cell fermentations, the productivity of iturin A in batch and fed-batch biofilm fermentation were increased by 66.7% and 63.3%, respectively. Maximum itutin A concentration of 6.8 ± 0.1 g/L and productivity of 46.9 ± 0.2 mg/L/h were obtained in fed-batch biofilm fermentation. Repeated-batch fermentation showed high stability, with almost same profile as batch fermentation. After a step-wise temperature control strategy was introduced in the biofilm reactor, productivity of iturin A was increased by 131.9% compared to suspended cell reactor. This superior performance of biofilm reactor confirms that it has great potential in industrial production of iturin A.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Winkelhorst M, Cabau-Peinado O, Straathof AJJ, et al (2023)

Biomass-specific rates as key performance indicators: A nitrogen balancing method for biofilm-based electrochemical conversion.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 11:1096086.

Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) employ microorganisms utilizing solid-state electrodes as either electron sink or electron source, such as in microbial electrosynthesis (MES). METs reaction rate is traditionally normalized to the electrode dimensions or to the electrolyte volume, but should also be normalized to biomass amount present in the system at any given time. In biofilm-based systems, a major challenge is to determine the biomass amount in a non-destructive manner, especially in systems operated in continuous mode and using 3D electrodes. We developed a simple method using a nitrogen balance and optical density to determine the amount of microorganisms in biofilm and in suspension at any given time. For four MES reactors converting CO2 to carboxylates, >99% of the biomass was present as biofilm after 69 days of reactor operation. After a lag phase, the biomass-specific growth rate had increased to 0.12-0.16 days[-1]. After 100 days of operation, growth became insignificant. Biomass-specific production rates of carboxylates varied between 0.08-0.37 molC molX [-1]d[-1]. Using biomass-specific rates, one can more effectively assess the performance of MES, identify its limitations, and compare it to other fermentation technologies.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Lu X, Wang G, Xie Y, et al (2023)

Efflux pump inhibitor combined with ofloxacin decreases MRSA biofilm formation by regulating the gene expression of NorA and quorum sensing.

RSC advances, 13(4):2707-2717.

Carbonyl cyanide p-nitrophenylhydrazone (2e) displayed a lone or synergistic efficacy against MRSA (RSC Adv., 2020, 10, 17854). In this work, the synergistic mechanism of 2e with ofloxacin was studied. MRSA2858 had potential for biofilm formation, and the value of MBEC of 2e alone was 0.78-1.56 μM, while that of 2e + ofloxacin was 0.39-0.78 μM. 2e combined with ofloxacin showed a synergistic anti-biofilm effect against MRSA. Efflux pump inhibitor 2e can better bind to NorA protein. After MRSA2858 was treated with 2e of 1/2MIC (0.78 μM) and ofloxacin of 1/8MIC (0.097 μM), the transcript levels of efflux genes (norA) and quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory genes (agrA, sarA, icaA, hla) were substantially down-regulated, and alpha-hemolysin (Hla) was inhibited by 99.15%. 2e combined with ofloxacin was more effective than 2e alone in reducing bacterial load in vivo. All in all, efflux pump inhibitor 2e enhanced the bactericidal activities of antibiotics through regulating the gene expression of NorA and QS system.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Taira H, Yaga M, Nakasone S, et al (2023)

Significant removal of bacterial biofilm induced by multiple-Short ranges of electric interventions.

Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association pii:S0949-2658(23)00006-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Biofilm-related infections are serious problems in the Orthopedics field, and Staphylococcus aureus are the most popular causative agents of bacterial infections associated with arthroplasty. Several studies demonstrated a synergistic effect of the electric intervention (EI) and the antibiotic administration in killing bacteria in biofilm; however, a constant, long-time EI was needed. In the present study, the effective removal of biofilm formed with S. aureus on a titanium ring by multiple times of one minute-EI was observed and described.

METHODS: A methicillin-sensitive S. aureus clinical isolate was used to form biofilm on a titanium ring. After applying a series of EI with various combinations of the frequencies and timings, the amount and principal components of biofilms were assessed with crystal violet staining, live bacterial cell count, and fluorescence staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

RESULTS: More than 60% biofilm removal was observed in the 2-time EI applied at 24 (1) and 72 (3) h (days) post bacterial exposure (PBE) and in the 3-time EI at 0 (0), 24 (1), and 72 (3) h (days) PBE, or at 24 (1), 48 (2), and 72 (3) h (days) PBE. The live bacterial cell numbers, the proportion of live and dead cells, and the amount of extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) of biofilm were similar with or without EI. It was assumed that an excess amount of the biofilm removal shown in the several EI was not attributed to the effect of the electrolysis.

CONCLUSIONS: The effective removal of biofilm was observed when multiple times 1 min EI was applied without any changes in the proportion of live and dead bacteria or the amount of EPS. The mechanisms to explain extra biofilm removal remain to be elucidated.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Park GH, Lee SY, Lee JB, et al (2023)

Effect of photodynamic therapy according to differences in photosensitizers on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on titanium.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy pii:S1572-1000(23)00045-5 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on a titanium surface and to compare the differences in the effect of PDT using toluidine blue O (TBO) and methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer.

METHODS: The bacterial strain S. aureus ATCC 25923 was used. Sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) disks were divided into the following six groups: phosphate buffer saline (PBS), TBO, MB, PBS with laser (PBS + L), TBO with laser (TBO + L), and MB with laser (MB + L). The laser group samples were irradiated by a cold diode laser for 60 s. After treatment, the number of surviving bacteria was calculated by counting the colony-forming units (CFUs) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was applied to observe the bacteria on the disk surface.

RESULTS: The TBO + L and MB + L groups showed significantly lower CFU/ml than the other groups (p < 0.01). The TBO + L group showed significantly lower CFU/ml than the MB + L group (p = 0.032). There was no significant difference between the PBS, TBO, MB, and PBS + L groups. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, PDT with TBO and MB can effectively reduce S. aureus biofilm on SLA titanium surfaces. TBO is more effective than MB as a photosensitizer. PDT with TBO may be applied to the treatment of peri-implant disease in the future.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Balasubramanian N, Pounpandi P, Varatharaju G, et al (2023)

Distribution of virulence genes and biofilm characterization of human isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: A pilot study.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 223:113151 pii:S0927-7765(23)00029-2 [Epub ahead of print].

This study included 21 newly isolated clinical samples of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) screened in patients (six male, fifteen female) from various states of India with different infections (urinary tract infections, blood, pus and eye infections). All isolates were identified as Group B Streptococcus (GBS) using hemolytic properties, serogrouping and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Six virulence genes, cfb (100%), cylE (90.4%), lmp (85.7%), bca (71.4%), rib (38%) and bac (4.7%) were detected via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Distribution studies of these six genes revealed five isolates containing five virulence genes (23.8%), followed by ten isolates containing four virulence genes (47.6%). The twenty GBS isolates selected on the glass surface included non-biofilm producers (n = 6, 30%), weak (n = 11, 55%) and moderate biofilm producers (n = 3, 15%). On the polystyrene surface, weak (n = 4, 20%), moderate (n = 2, 10%) and strong (n = 14, 70%) biofilm producers were detected. Live-dead cell staining revealed that more viable cells accumulated in the S. ag 7420 isolate than in the AH1 isolate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) biofilm analysis showed S. ag AH1 cells appeared as chain-like structures, whereas the S. ag 7420 isolate biofilm cells appeared as fork-like structures on the glass surface. Biofilm elements were analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX) for both isolates and 13 elements with different orders of composition were found. Thus, virulence gene detection, distribution and biofilm formation by these new clinical isolates suggested the virulent nature of these pathogens, which might cause different levels of disease severity in humans.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Doherty C, Byrne CV, Baqader S, et al (2023)

Anti-biofilm effects and healing promotion by silver oxynitrate-based dressings.

Scientific reports, 13(1):2014.

Microbial growth within a wound often manifests as biofilms, which can prevent healing and is difficult to eradicate. Novel silver dressings claim to combat wound infection, but anti-biofilm efficacy and effects on healing independent of infection are often unclear. Using in vitro and in vivo S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilm models, we report the efficacy of a dressing which produces Ag[1+] ions; an Ag[1+] dressing containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and benzethonium chloride (Ag[1+]/EDTA/BC), and a dressing containing silver oxynitrate (Ag Oxysalts) which produces Ag[1+], Ag[2+] and Ag[3+] ions, against wound biofilms, and their effects on healing. Ag[1+] dressings had minimal effect on in vitro and murine (C57BL/6j) wound biofilms. In contrast, Ag Oxysalts and Ag[1+]/EDTA/BC dressings significantly reduced viable bacteria within in vitro biofilms and demonstrated a visible reduction in bacteria and EPS components within murine wound biofilms. The dressings had different effects on the healing of biofilm-infected and uninfected wounds, with Ag Oxysalts dressings having a greater beneficial effect on re-epithelialisation, wound size and inflammation than the control treatment and the other silver dressings. The different physicochemical properties of the silver dressings result in varied effects on wound biofilms and healing which should be considered when selecting dressings to treat biofilm-infected wounds.

RevDate: 2023-02-04

Gabriele F, Ranaldi R, Bruno L, et al (2023)

Biodeterioration of stone monuments: Studies on the influence of bioreceptivity on cyanobacterial biofilm growth and on the biocidal efficacy of essential oils in natural hydrogel.

The Science of the total environment, 870:161901 pii:S0048-9697(23)00516-8 [Epub ahead of print].

An important field of research is devoted to the development of innovative, sustainable, and safe methodologies to counteract biodeterioration of stone monuments due to the growth of microbial communities. However, besides the biocide's efficacy, it is crucial to consider the features of substrates on which biocides must be applied, to define the so-called bioreceptivity of the lithic faces. In this research five different lithotypes, namely Lecce stone, Travertine, Peperino, Serena stone, and Granite, have been used as substrates for the growth of cyanobacterial biofilms. Open porosity, hygroscopic properties, and roughness parameters have been investigated for each lithotype and correlated to the photosynthetic yields of the biofilms colonizing the different stones to propose an easy method to estimate stone bioreceptivity. Different levels of coverage of the stone surfaces have been accomplished in relation to the typology of lithotypes. To develop innovative restoration methodologies against biodeterioration of stone monuments, a hydrogel-biocide system has been optimized by using a polysaccharide dispersion as a matrix where to embed T. vulgaris essential oil (at 0.25 % or 0.1 %) or its main component thymol (at 0.18 % or 0.07 %). The efficacy and the effect of the innovative biocide have been evaluated combining microscopy, photosynthetic measurements, and colorimetric analyses and both the biocides (with T. vulgaris EO or thymol) showed to be highly effective against the cyanobacterial biofilms for at least six months from the treatment without inducing any significant alteration to the lithic surfaces. The efficacy of thymol alone allows to treat colonized surfaces with a single active ingredient, or at least a mixture thereof, much cheaper and reproducible. The results obtained in this work pave the way to develop a sustainable cleaning protocol to counteract the biodeterioration of stone monuments or historic buildings induced by the presence of phototrophic biofilms that endangered their conservation.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Ćirković I, Pejović A, Jovićević M, et al (2023)

Staphylococcal biofilm on wedding rings worn by laboratory workers.

Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica [Epub ahead of print].

Hands of healthcare workers play essential role in the spreading of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in and out of the healthcare settings. Less is known about the role of laboratory workers (LWs). The aim of our study was to evaluate the presence of biofilm-forming staphylococci on the surface of jewelry rings of LWs and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.A total of 79 LWs from eight different microbiology laboratories that process and analyze specimens from the tertiary care hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia participated in the study. The study was reviewed and approved by the institutional review boards at hospitals. Samples were taken after hand washing. Bacteria on LWs wedding rings were detected with the rolling method, and further analyzed in order to determine the number of colony forming unit (CFU) per ring, species of bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, methicillin resistance and biofilm-producing capacity in vitro.Staphylococci were recovered from 60.8% of wedding rings. All strains produced biofilm (25% weak, 56.2% moderate and 18.8% large amount), with significant difference between species (P < 0.001). Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis formed the largest amount of biofilm and had the largest number of CFU per ring. Staphylococci were most commonly resistant to penicillin (66.7%), tetracycline (50.0%), and erythromycin (45.8%); 41.7% of isolates was multidrug resistant and mecA gene was detected in five strains. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin and tigecycline.Staphylococci colonize LWs wedding rings, form biofilm on it, have multidrug resistant phenotype and/or carry mecA gene, representing a significant reservoir for the spreading of microorganisms and resistance. As far as we know, our study is the first that address this topic in laboratory workers.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Maric T, Løvind A, Zhang Z, et al (2023)

Near Infrared Light-Driven Mesoporous SiO2 /Au Nanomotors for Eradication of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm.

Advanced healthcare materials [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilms are linked to several diseases and cause resistant and chronic infections in immune-compromised patients. Due to their ability to overcome, adapt and survive antibacterial treatment, biofilms pose enormous economic consequences. Nanomotors are a new field of research showing a great promise within biomedicine but pose challenges in terms of biocompatibility. Nanomotors propelled by thermophoresis could overcome this challenge, as they leave no waste product during propulsion. In this study, mesoporous-silica nanoparticles were coated with a thin layer of gold to make nanomotors, which could be driven by NIR light irradiation. The prepared mesoporous SiO2 -Au nanomotors exhibit efficient self-propulsion when exposed to NIR irradiation, they penetrate deep through a biofilm matrix and disperse the biofilm in situ due to the photothermal effect on the Au part of the nanomotors. The velocities of such nanomotors are investigated at different wavelengths and laser powers. Furthermore, the study examine the ability of these nanomotors to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm under NIR light irradiation. The conducted study shows that the nanomotors velocity depends on the intensity of the light and that it increases with increasing laser power. The mesoporous SiO2 /Au nanomotors show excellent capabilities to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms even under short (30 seconds - 3 minutes) irradiation time. This study shows great promise for overcoming the challenges related to bacterial biofilm eradication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Razvi E, Whitfield GB, Reichhardt C, et al (2023)

Glycoside hydrolase processing of the Pel polysaccharide alters biofilm biomechanics and Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):7 pii:10.1038/s41522-023-00375-7.

Pel exopolysaccharide biosynthetic loci are phylogenetically widespread biofilm matrix determinants in bacteria. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pel is crucial for cell-to-cell interactions and reducing susceptibility to antibiotic and mucolytic treatments. While genes encoding glycoside hydrolases have long been linked to biofilm exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, their physiological role in biofilm development is unclear. Here we demonstrate that the glycoside hydrolase activity of P. aeruginosa PelA decreases adherent biofilm biomass and is responsible for generating the low molecular weight secreted form of the Pel exopolysaccharide. We show that the generation of secreted Pel contributes to the biomechanical properties of the biofilm and decreases the virulence of P. aeruginosa in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Our results reveal that glycoside hydrolases found in exopolysaccharide biosynthetic systems can help shape the soft matter attributes of a biofilm and propose that secreted matrix components be referred to as matrix associated to better reflect their influence.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Wang Q, Pan Y, Chu G, et al (2023)

Impact of aerobic/anoxic alternation number on performance, microbial community and functional genes of sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating mariculture wastewater.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00125-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The performance, microbial community and functional genes of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) were investigated in treating mariculture wastewater under different aerobic/anoxic alternation number. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4[+]-N kept at 95.66 ± 1.83% and 90.28 ± 2.42% under aerobic/anoxic alternation number between 1 and 4. The total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency gradually decreased from 94.45 ± 1.12% to 83.06 ± 1.25% with increase of aerobic/anoxic alternative number from 1 to 4. The nitrification rates and their corresponding enzymatic activities increased slightly with increase of aerobic/anoxic alternation number, whereas the denitrifying process had the contrary results. The variation of aerobic/anoxic alternation number obviously affected the microbial diversity and abundance. The microbial network structure and keystone taxa of SBBR were different under different aerobic/anoxic alternation number. The functional genes abundance for the denitrification pathway decreased with the increase of aerobic/anoxic alternation number.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Dzofou Ngoumelah D, Kuchenbuch A, Harnisch F, et al (2023)

Combining Geobacter spp. Dominated Biofilms and Anaerobic Digestion Effluents─The Effect of Effluent Composition and Electrode Potential on Biofilm Activity and Stability.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

The combination of anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) offers different opportunities to increase the efficiency and sustainability of AD processes. However, methanogenic archaea and/or particles may partially hinder combining MET and AD processes. Furthermore, it is unclear if the applied anode potential affects the activity and efficiency of electroactive microorganisms in AD-MET combinations as it is described for more controlled experimental conditions. In this study, we confirm that 6-week-old Geobacter spp. dominated biofilms are by far more active and stable in AD-effluents than 3-week-old Geobacter spp. dominated biofilms. Furthermore, we show that the biofilms are twice as active at -0.2 V compared to 0.4 V, even under challenging conditions occurring in AD-MET systems. Paired-end amplicon sequencing at the DNA level using 16S-rRNA and mcrA gene shows that hydrogenotrophic methanogens incorporate into biofilms immersed in AD-effluent without any negative effect on biofilm stability and electrochemical activity.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Platt TG (2023)

Community outcomes depend on cooperative biofilm structure.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(6):e2221624120.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Zhou W, Niu D, Gao S, et al (2023)

Prevalence, biofilm formation, and mass spectrometric characterization of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus capitis isolated from a tertiary hospital in China.

Journal of global antimicrobial resistance pii:S2213-7165(23)00009-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus capitis (LRSC) has become a new challenge for clinical anti-infective therapy. The present study aims to investigate the trends of LRSC prevalence in a tertiary hospital of China 2017-2020, and the resistance mechanism, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and mass spectrometric characteristics of LRSC isolated were also analyzed.

METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzes the antibiotic resistance trends of CoNS isolated from clinical samples collected between 2017 and 2020. Antimicrobial resistance profile were tested by micro-broth dilution and E-test method. Antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence genes were detected by PCR, and dru-typing sequences were obtained by Sanger sequencing. Crystal violet staining in 96-well plates was used to detect biofilm formation ability. Mass spectrometric characterization of LRSC was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled with ClinProTools.

RESULTS: The linezolid resistance rate in 3,575 Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) clinical strains was 1.6%, wherein the great majority of was LRSC (91.1%, n = 51/56), with a resistant rate of 15.5% (n = 51/328) in all S. capitis isolates. In this study, 48 out of the 51 LRSC strains and 54 out of 277 linezolid-susceptible S. capitis (LSSC) strains were enrolled. G2576T, C2104T, T2130A, C2163T and T2319C mutations in the 23S rRNA V region and acquisition of cfr was the main linezolid resistant mechanism in LRSC. The biofilm-forming ability of LRSC was more potent than LSSC, with a higher detection rate of bap (P < 0.05). Eleven mass spectrometric peaks of interest were identified by using MALDI-TOF MS and ClinProTools which were differently distributed between LRSC and LSSC strains with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of more than 0.8, especially for 5465.37 m/z.

CONCLUSIONS: Linezolid resistance was mediated by mutations in the 23S rRNA V region and presence of the cfr gene in LRSC strains. LRSC strains have stronger biofilm-forming ability than linezolid-susceptible strains, which maybe associated with the adhesion-related gene of bap. Further, linezolid-resistant and linezolid-susceptible S. capitis could be rapidly identified with mass spectrometric characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to document the biofilm formation ability of LRSC and the potential usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS for the discrimination of LRSC and LSSC.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Fathi-Hafshejani P, Tinker HB, Freel K, et al (2023)

Effects of TiS2 on Inhibiting Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Its Compatibility with Human Gingival Fibroblasts in Titanium Implants.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Titanium is widely used in medical devices, such as dental and orthopedic implants, due to its excellent mechanical properties, low toxicity, and biocompatibility. However, the titanium surface has the risk of microbial biofilm formation, which results in infections from species such as Candida albicans (C. albicans). This kind of biofilm prevents antifungal therapy and complicates the treatment of infectious diseases associated with implanted devices. It is critical to developing a feasible surface to decrease microbial growth while not interfering with the growth of the host cells. This study reports the influence of titanium surface modification to titanium disulfide (TiS2) on inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation while allowing the attachment of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) on their surface. The surface of titanium parts is directly converted to structured titanium and TiS2 using direct laser processing and crystal growth methods. C. albicans adhesion and colonization are then investigated on these surfaces by the colony counting assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) and microscopy images. Also, the viability and adhesion of HGFs on these surfaces are investigated to show their adhesion and biocompatibility. Titanium samples with the TiS2 surface show both C. albicans biofilm inhibition and HGF attachment. This study provides insight into designing and manufacturing titanium biomedical implants.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Kraft L, Ribeiro VST, Petroski LP, et al (2023)

Saprochaete clavata invasive infection: characterization, antifungal susceptibility, and biofilm evaluation of a rare yeast isolated in Brazil.

Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, 65:e12 pii:S0036-46652023000100205.

Rare emerging pathogens such as Saprochaete clavata are associated with invasive fungal diseases, high morbidity, mortality, rapidly fatal infections, and outbreaks. However, little is known about S. clavata infections, epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, biofilms, and disease outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe a new case of severe S. clavata infection in a patient diagnosed at a referral children's hospital in Brazil, including antifungal minimal inhibitory concentration, S. clavata biofilm characterization, and molecular characterization. The S. clavata isolated from an immunocompromised 11-year-old male patient was characterized using MALDI-TOF, Gram staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomic DNA. Biofilm production was also evaluated in parallel with determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and biofilm sensitivity to antifungal treatment. We observed small to medium, whitish, farinose, dry, filamentous margin colonies, yeast-like cells with bacillary features, and biofilm formation. The MALDI-TOF system yielded a score of ≥ 2,000, while NGS confirmed S. clavata presence at the nucleotide level. The MIC values (in mg L-1) for tested drugs were as follows: fluconazole = 2, voriconazole ≤ 2, caspofungin ≥ 8, micafungin = 2, amphotericin B = 4, flucytosine ≤ 1, and anidulafungin = 1. Amphotericin B can be active against S. clavata biofilm and the fungus can be susceptible to new azoles. These findings were helpful for understanding the development of novel treatments for S. clavata-induced disease, including combined therapy for biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Rezania N, Rahmati P, Noorbakhsh F, et al (2022)

Investigation the effects of silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles on expression of bap and csu genes in biofilm formation of Acinetobacter baumannii.

Iranian journal of microbiology, 14(4):510-517.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the main pathogens of the hospital and causes various infections. csu A/BABCDE involved in the initial surface attachment during biofilm formation and bap gene produces specific proteins at the cell surface that play a direct role in formation of biofilm and the infectivity of this bacterium. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles on the expression of bap and csu genes in the Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm formation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The susceptibility test was performed to determine the MIC of silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles and gold-vancomycin nanoparticles performed by broth dilution method on A. baumannii strains. The ability of biofilms formation in strains treated by MIC of silver nanoparticles and gold-vancomycin nanoparticles were evaluated by microtiter plate method and A. baumannii ATCC19606 used as control. Expression of the csu and bap genes were determinded by measuring the cognate mRNA level by real-time PCR.

RESULTS: In present study, gold nanoparticles could not prevent the growth and biofilm formation of A. baumannii strains. The MIC concentration of silver nanoparticles and vancomycin- gold nanoparticles were 6.25 μg/ml and 0.625 μg/ml respectively and MBC concenteration of nanoparticles for 70% of strain was 12.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml respectively. Real-time PCR and data analysis, determined that the expression of bap, csuC and csuE genes in A. baumannii strains treated with MIC concentration (6.25 μg/ml) of silver nanoparticles decreased compared to control groups. Also, the expression of csuC and csuE genes in strains treated with MIC concentration (0.625 μg/ml) of vancomycin -gold nanoparticles increased, however the expression of bap was decreased compared to the control groups.

CONCLUSION: Due to the inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles and gold-vancomycin nanoparticles against A. baumannii biofilm formation and genes expression, they can probably be used for prevent of biofilm formation in medical instrument or can be use for treatment of infections with or without antibiotic.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Kanagasingam S, von Ruhland C, Welbury R, et al (2022)

Ex vivo Detection of Amyloid-β in Naturally Formed Oral Biofilm.

Journal of Alzheimer's disease reports, 6(1):757-773.

BACKGROUND: Oral infection has been implicated in the possible etiology of Alzheimer's disease.

OBJECTIVE: To detect amyloid-β (Aβ) within microbial biofilms.

METHODS: Freshly extracted teeth (N = 87) with periodontal disease were separated into Group A (N = 11), with primary root canal infection and Group B (N = 21) with failed endodontic treatment identified by the presence of, gutta percha root filling. Biofilm characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Demineralized paraffin wax embedded tooth sections and mineralized calculus biofilm were immunostained with the anti-Aβ antibody. The gutta perchas were processed either for on-section acrylic resin tissue immunocolloidal gold silver staining (IGSS) using the anti-Aβ antibody or in Araldite resin for ultrastructure.

RESULTS: SEM demonstrated calculus and gutta percha in situ harboring a polymicrobial biofilm featuring extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and water channels. Immunohistochemistry on rehydrated paraffin wax tooth sections from Group A, demonstrated Aβ staining on external (calculus and plaque) and all intracanal infected regions. In Group B, the gutta percha biofilm IGSS gave an inconclusive result for Aβ. Transmission electron microscopy of selected teeth with infected intra-canals (Group A) and 20% of gutta percha biofilm (Group B) EPS contained electron dense fibrils of variable sizes, some of which were typical of human Aβ fibrils.

CONCLUSION: This study detected both soluble and insoluble Aβ fibrils within the EPS of periodontal and endodontic natural biofilm, strongly suggesting its role as an antimicrobial peptide in combatting local infection, with potential risk for cross-seeding into the brain for AD development.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Sabzi N, Moniri R, Sehat M, et al (2022)

Antimicrobial effect of silver and gold nanoparticles in combination with linezolid on Enterococcus biofilm.

Iranian journal of microbiology, 14(6):863-873.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the past few years, application of new antimicrobial e.g. nanoparticles (NPs) to treat infection caused by drug-resistant bacteria has increased. This study aimed to determine antimicrobial property of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in combination with linezolid on Enterococcus biofilm.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of forty-eight isolates of Enterococcus spp. were collected and confirmed by PCR method. The synthesis of biocompatible AgNPs was performed, then analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We carried out minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and biofilm forming capacity of AgNPs and AuNPs with linezolid.

RESULTS: Twenty-two E. faecium isolates and twentysix E. faecalis investigated in this study. Strong biofilm formation was seen in 12 (25%) of isolates, and others isolates (75%) formed moderate biofilm. AgNPs and Au-NPs size were 26 nm and 20 nm respectively. The MIC of AgNPs was 23.2 μg/ml, and AuNPs were 92.1 μg/ml and the lowest MIC was obtained 2 μg/ml in linezolid. Biofilm formation inhibitory activity by AuNPs + Linezolide and AgNPs + Linezolide 70 to 80 percent increased in average.

CONCLUSION: The antibiofilm activity of AgNPs and AuNPs increased when both agents were used in combination with linezolid in comparison with each agent alone.

RevDate: 2023-02-01

Mahmoud S, Gaber Y, Khattab RA, et al (2022)

The inhibitory effect of dextranases from Bacillus velezensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

Iranian journal of microbiology, 14(6):850-862.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dental caries is a breakdown of the teeth enamel due to harmful bacteria, lack of oral hygiene, and sugar consumption. The acid-producing bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of dental caries. Dextranase is an enzyme that can degrade dextran to low molecular weight fractions, which have many therapeutic and industrial applications. The purpose of the present study was to isolate a novel dextranase-producing bacteria from a source (molasses). The cell-free extracts containing dextranases were tested as antibiofilm agents.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dextranase-producing bacteria were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and enzymatic characterization.

RESULTS: The highest six dextranase-producing bacterial isolates were Bacillus species. The best conditions for dextranase productivity were obtained after 72 hours of culture time at pH 7. The addition of glucose to the medium enhanced the production of the enzymes. The cell-free extract of the six most active isolates showed remarkable activity against biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The highest inhibition activities reached 60% and 80% for Bacillus velezensis and Pseudomonas stutzeri, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Therefore, our study added to the current dextranase-producing bacteria with potential as a source of dextranases.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Afrasiabi S, N Chiniforush (2023)

An in vitro study on the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide mediated high-power photodynamic therapy affecting Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation and dispersal.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy pii:S1572-1000(23)00038-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Biofilms are involved in failure of root canal treatment due to their high resistance to antimicrobial agents, which make their removal as a big challenge. The present study aims at utilizing hydrogen peroxide (HP) plus high frequency laser reinforced antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (a-PDT) as a complementary therapy against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) at planktonic and biofilm stages.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: E. faecalis at planktonic and biofilm stages was treated with the photosensitizer HP, followed by no irradiation or irradiation with a power of 2.5 W (ʎ = 980 nm). The cell viability, anti-biofilm, anti-metabolic potential, and temperature changes were evaluated.

RESULTS: The combination of HP and 980 nm diode laser intensely boosted antibacterial and anti-biofilm efficacy compared with either component alone, affirming HP reinforcement as a bacteriostatic agent. The maximum effect on biofilm occurs in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) group. During laser irradiations, the mean of temperature changes remains below 5.6°C.

CONCLUSIONS: It could be concluded that the HP could improve anti-biofilm efficacy as a photosensitizer in a-PDT.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Chew RJJ, Tang YL, Lin XYS, et al (2023)

Toll-like receptor-4 activation by subgingival biofilm and periodontal treatment response.

Clinical oral investigations [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate longitudinally the activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) by subgingival biofilm samples before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty periodontitis patients received NSPT and were reviewed 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Subgingival biofilm was sampled from 4 teeth per patient, at baseline and each follow-up time point. TLR-4 activation was determined using the HEK-BLUE™/hTLR4 system. Changes in TLR-4 activation and probing pocket depths (PPDs) were evaluated using generalised linear models, and the association between TLR-4 activation and pocket reduction (defined as 6-month PPDs ≤ 3mm) was determined using generalised estimating equations.

RESULTS: At 6 months, the mean TLR-4 activation by subgingival biofilm samples was significantly reduced from 11.2AU (95%CI 7.1AU, 15.4AU) to 3.6AU (95%CI 2.3AU, 4.8AU, p < 0.001), paralleling significant reductions in mean PPDs at sampled sites. The response to NSPT was associated with longitudinal TLR-4 activation profiles, with significantly higher TLR-4 activation by subgingival biofilm obtained from sites that did not achieve pocket reduction, compared to sites at which pocket reduction was achieved.

CONCLUSIONS: The activation of TLR-4 by subgingival biofilm samples was reduced after NSPT, and this reduction was significantly associated with the clinical improvements (PPD reductions) at sampled sites.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrated an association between the longitudinal profile of TLR-4 activation by subgingival biofilm and periodontal treatment response. Longitudinal monitoring of TLR-4 activation by subgingival biofilm may potentially identify non-responsive sites, enabling targeted additional treatment.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Rozman U, Filker S, G Kalčíková (2023)

Monitoring of biofilm development and physico-chemical changes of floating microplastics at the air-water interface.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)00159-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics in aquatic environments serve as habitat for microbial life, on which they can form biofilms. However, how the development of the biofilm alters the properties of floating microplastics that are at the air-water interface and, therefore, not fully submerged, is not well understood. In this context, an aging experiment was conducted to monitor biofilm formation and changes in physico-chemical properties of low-density polyethylene (floating) microplastics over time. The growth of the biofilm followed the typical bacterial/biofilm growth phases and reached about 30% of the total mass of the microplastics, while the concentration of extracellular polymeric substances within the biofilm remained stable. Presence of chlorophyll a and urease activity indicated presence of photosynthetic organisms within the biofilm which was also confirmed by analysis of the biofilm composition. Chemical characterization by FTIR showed the formation of additional functional groups attributed to the formed biofilm, and SEM imaging showed cracks on the surface of the aged microplastics, indicating incipient degradation of the polyethylene. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of the aged particles for metals (Pb(II)) was 52% higher compared to the pristine ones. Aging increased the density and size of the particles; however, it did not lead to the submersion of the aged particles even after 12 weeks of aging, suggesting that additional environmental processes may influence the transport of microplastics from the air-water interface into the water body.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Win Thant KJ, Anh-Vu N, Yun-Je K, et al (2023)

Performance of pilot-scale membrane aerated biofilm reactors integrated with anoxic nano-biotechnological reactor for domestic wastewater treatment.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)00194-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) have aroused increasing attention due to their excellent performance in treating wastewater, where the membranes behave as bio-carriers for microorganisms and bubbleless air diffusers. The MABR technology has not been fully commercialized due to reactor design and low total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency at short hydraulic retention times (HRT). In this study, a hybrid system of MABR 1 integrated with an anoxic nano-biotechnological reactor filled with Granulated Nanoscale Oxyhydroxides of Iron (GNOF) media was evaluated to assess the improvement in nitrogen removal performance at 12, 10, and 4 h of HRTs. At the same time, another MABR (MABR 2) was operated individually at 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 h of HRTs to assess the influence of HRT on nitrogen removal performance. An enhancement in removal performance was reported in the hybrid MABR + GNOF, achieving the highest removal efficiencies of 74.3 ± 3.1% for ammonia nitrogen (NH4[+]-N), 69.8 ± 2.1% for total nitrogen (TN), and 90.9 ± 1.7% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), at 12 h HRT. The performance of the hybrid MABR-GNOF system was 18% higher nitrogen removal than the MABR-only system at 12 h of HRT. A simultaneous anoxic nitrification-denitrification and COD oxidation might be developed for the removal of COD, NH4[+]-N, and TN from domestic wastewater by using GNOF as an electron acceptor in the hybrid MABR-GNOF unit. The findings in this study confirmed the possibility of integration of GNOF and MABR on a pilot scale and are promising for the application of this hybrid system on a full scale.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Rawindran H, Syed R, Alangari A, et al (2023)

Mechanistic behaviour of Chlorella vulgaris biofilm formation onto waste organic solid support used to treat palm kernel expeller in the recent Anthropocene.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)00144-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The capacity to maximize the proliferation of microalgal cells by means of topologically textured organic solid surfaces under various pH gave rise to the fundamental biophysical analysis of cell-surface attachment in this study. The substrate used in analysis was palm kernel expeller (PKE) in which the microalgal cells had adhered onto its surface. The findings elucidated the relevance of surface properties in terms of surface wettability and surface energy in relation to the attached microalgal growth with pH as the limiting factor. The increase in hydrophobicity of PKE-microalgae attachment was able to facilitate the formation of biofilm better. The pH 5 and pH 11 were found to be the conditions with highest and lowest microalgal growths, respectively, which were in tandem with the highest contact angle value at pH 5 and conversely for pH 11. The work of attachment (Wcs) had supported the derived model with positive values being attained for all the pH conditions, corroborating the thermodynamic feasibility. Finally, this study had unveiled the mechanism of microalgal attachment onto the surface of PKE using the aid of extracellular polymeric surfaces (EPS) from microalgae. Also, the hydrophobic nature of PKE enabled excellent attachment alongside with nutrients for microalgae to grow and from layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. This assembly was then isolated using organosolv method by means of biphasic solvents, namely, methanol and chloroform, to induce detachment.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Velsko IM, Semerau L, Inskip SA, et al (2022)

Ancient dental calculus preserves signatures of biofilm succession and interindividual variation independent of dental pathology.

PNAS nexus, 1(4):pgac148.

Dental calculus preserves oral microbes, enabling comparative studies of the oral microbiome and health through time. However, small sample sizes and limited dental health metadata have hindered health-focused investigations to date. Here, we investigate the relationship between tobacco pipe smoking and dental calculus microbiomes. Dental calculus from 75 individuals from the 19th century Middenbeemster skeletal collection (Netherlands) were analyzed by metagenomics. Demographic and dental health parameters were systematically recorded, including the presence/number of pipe notches. Comparative data sets from European populations before and after the introduction of tobacco were also analyzed. Calculus species profiles were compared with oral pathology to examine associations between microbiome community, smoking behavior, and oral health status. The Middenbeemster individuals exhibited relatively poor oral health, with a high prevalence of periodontal disease, caries, heavy calculus deposits, and antemortem tooth loss. No associations between pipe notches and dental pathologies, or microbial species composition, were found. Calculus samples before and after the introduction of tobacco showed highly similar species profiles. Observed interindividual microbiome differences were consistent with previously described variation in human populations from the Upper Paleolithic to the present. Dental calculus may not preserve microbial indicators of health and disease status as distinctly as dental plaque.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Guevara-Lora I, Bras G, Juszczak M, et al (2022)

Cecropin D-derived synthetic peptides in the fight against Candida albicans cell filamentation and biofilm formation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1045984.

The recent progressive increase in the incidence of invasive fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients, makes the search for new therapies crucial in the face of the growing drug resistance of prevalent nosocomial yeast strains. The latest research focuses on the active compounds of natural origin, inhibiting fungal growth, and preventing the formation of fungal biofilms. Antimicrobial peptides are currently the subject of numerous studies concerning effective antifungal therapy. In the present study, the antifungal properties of two synthetic peptides (ΔM3, ΔM4) derived from an insect antimicrobial peptide - cecropin D - were investigated. The fungicidal activity of both compounds was demonstrated against the yeast forms of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, reaching a MFC99.9 in the micromolar range, while Candida glabrata showed greater resistance to these peptides. The scanning electron microscopy revealed a destabilization of the yeast cell walls upon treatment with both peptides; however, their effectiveness was strongly modified by the presence of salt or plasma in the yeast environment. The transition of C. albicans cells from yeast to filamentous form, as well as the formation of biofilms, was effectively reduced by ΔM4. Mature biofilm viability was inhibited by a higher concentration of this peptide and was accompanied by increased ROS production, activation of the GPX3 and SOD5 genes, and finally, increased membrane permeability. Furthermore, both peptides showed a synergistic effect with caspofungin in inhibiting the metabolic activity of C. albicans cells, and an additive effect was also observed for the mixtures of peptides with amphotericin B. The results indicate the possible potential of the tested peptides in the prevention and treatment of candidiasis.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Wang C, Chantraine C, Viljoen A, et al (2022)

The staphylococcal biofilm protein Aap mediates cell-cell adhesion through mechanically distinct homophilic and lectin interactions.

PNAS nexus, 1(5):pgac278.

The accumulation phase of staphylococcal biofilms relies on both the production of an extracellular polysaccharide matrix and the expression of bacterial surface proteins. A prototypical example of such adhesive proteins is the long multidomain protein Aap (accumulation-associated protein) from Staphylococcus epidermidis, which mediates zinc-dependent homophilic interactions between Aap B-repeat regions through molecular forces that have not been investigated yet. Here, we unravel the remarkable mechanical strength of single Aap-Aap homophilic bonds between living bacteria and we demonstrate that intercellular adhesion also involves sugar binding through the lectin domain of the Aap A region. We find that the mechanical force needed to unfold individual β-sheet-rich G5-E domains from the Aap B-repeat regions is very high, ranging from 300 up to 1,000 pN at high loading rates, indicating these are extremely stable. This high mechanostability provides a means to the cells to form highly adhesive and cohesive biofilms capable of sustaining high physiological shear stress. Importantly, we identify a previously undescribed role of Aap in bacterial-bacterial adhesion, that is, heterophilic sugar binding by a specific lectin domain located in the N-terminal A region, which might be important to establish initial contacts between cells before strong homophilic bonds come into play. This study emphasizes the remarkable mechanical and binding properties of Aap as well as its wide diversity of adhesive functions.

RevDate: 2023-01-30

Nunez C, Kostoulias X, Peleg A, et al (2023)

A comprehensive comparison of biofilm formation and capsule production for bacterial survival on hospital surfaces.

Biofilm, 5:100105.

Biofilm formation and capsule production are known microbial strategies used by bacterial pathogens to survive adverse conditions in the hospital environment. The relative importance of these strategies individually is unexplored. This project aims to compare the contributory roles of biofilm formation and capsule production in bacterial survival on hospital surfaces. Representative strains of bacterial species often causing hospital-acquired infections were selected, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The importance of biofilm formation and capsule production on bacterial survival was evaluated by comparing capsule-positive wild-type and capsule-deficient mutant strains, and biofilm and planktonic growth modes respectively, against three adverse hospital conditions, including desiccation, benzalkonium chloride disinfection and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Bacterial survival was quantitatively assessed using colony-forming unit (CFU) enumeration and the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay and qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Correlations between capsule production and biofilm formation were further investigated. Biofilm formation contributed significantly to bacterial survival on hospital surface simulators, mediating high resistance to desiccation, benzalkonium chloride disinfection and UV radiation. The role of capsule production was minor and species-specific; encapsulated A. baumannii but not K. pneumoniae cells demonstrated slightly increased resistance to desiccation, and neither showed enhanced resistance to benzalkonium chloride. Interestingly, capsule production sensitized K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii to UV radiation. The loss of capsule in K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii enhanced biofilm formation, possibly by increasing cell surface hydrophobicity. In summary, this study confirms the crucial role of biofilm formation in bacterial survival on hospital surfaces. Conversely, encapsulation plays a relatively minor role and may even negatively impact bacterial biofilm formation and hospital survival.

RevDate: 2023-01-29

Zhao J, Li F, Kong S, et al (2023)

Elongated Riboflavin-Producing Shewanella oneidensis in a Hybrid Biofilm Boosts Extracellular Electron Transfer.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Shewanella oneidensis is able to carry out extracellular electron transfer (EET), although its EET efficiency is largely limited by low flavin concentrations, poor biofilm forming-ability, and weak biofilm conductivity. After identifying an important role for riboflavin (RF) in EET via in vitro experiments, the synthesis of RF is directed to 837.74 ± 11.42 µm in S. oneidensis. Molecular dynamics simulation reveals RF as a cofactor that binds strongly to the outer membrane cytochrome MtrC, which is correspondingly further overexpressed to enhance EET. Then the cell division inhibitor sulA, which dramatically enhanced the thickness and biomass of biofilm increased by 155% and 77%, respectively, is overexpressed. To reduce reaction overpotential due to biofilm thickness, a spider-web-like hybrid biofilm comprising RF, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene oxide (GO) with adsorption-optimized elongated S. oneidensis, achieve a 77.83-fold increase in power (3736 mW m[-2]) relative to MR-1 and dramatically reduce the charge-transfer resistance and boosted biofilm electroactivity. This work provides an elegant paradigm to boost EET based on a synthetic biology strategy and materials science strategy, opens up further opportunities for other electrogenic bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Yun Z, Xianghong L, Qianhua G, et al (2023)

Copper ions inhibit Streptococcus mutans-Veillonella parvula dual biofilm by activating Streptococcus mutans reactive nitrogen species.

BMC oral health, 23(1):48.

BACKGROUND: To investigate the inhibition mechanism of copper ions on Streptococcus mutans-Veillonella parvula dual biofilm.

METHODS: S. mutans-V. parvula dual biofilm was constructed and copper ions were added at different concentrations. After the biofilm was collected, RNA-seq and qRT-PCR were then performed to get gene information.

RESULTS: The coculture of S. mutans and V. parvula formed a significantly better dual biofilm of larger biomass than S. mutans mono biofilm. And copper ions showed a more significant inhibitory effect on S. mutans-V. parvula dual biofilm than on S. mutans mono biofilm when copper ions concentration reached 100 µM, and copper ions showed a decreased inhibitory effect on S. gordonii-V. parvula dual biofilm and S. sanguis-V.parvula dual biofilm than on the two mono biofilms as the concentration of copper ions increased. And common trace elements such as iron, magnesium, and zinc showed no inhibitory effect difference on S. mutans-V. parvula dual biofilm. The RNA-seq results showed a significant difference in the expression of a new ABC transporter SMU_651c, SMU_652c, SMU_653c, and S. mutans copper chaperone copYAZ. SMU_651c, SMU_652c, and SMU_653c were predicted to function as nitrite/nitrate transporter-related proteins, which suggested the specific inhibition of copper ions on S. mutans-V. parvula dual biofilm may be caused by the activation of S. mutans reactive nitrogen species.

CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella parvula are symbiotic, forming a dual biofilm of larger biomass to better resist the external antibacterial substances, which may increase the virulence of S. mutans. While common trace elements such as iron, magnesium, and zinc showed no specific inhibitory effect on S. mutans-V. parvula dual biofilm, copper ion had a unique inhibitory effect on S. mutans-V. parvula dual biofilm which may be caused by activating S. mutans RNS when copper ions concentration reached 250 µM.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Ham Y, TJ Kim (2023)

Synergistic inhibitory activity of Glycyrrhizae Radix and Rubi Fructus extracts on biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

BMC complementary medicine and therapies, 23(1):22.

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans is a bacterium that causes oral diseases. Plaque, a biofilm produced by S. mutans and other bacteria, makes it difficult to remove cariogenic oral microorganisms, including biofilm producers. Glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferase is one of the mechanisms underlying plaque formation. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of inhibiting biofilm formation by interfering with the glucosyltransferase activity of S. mutans using edible herbal medicines.

METHODS: This study investigated the inhibitory activity of Glycyrrhizae Radix extract, Rubi Fructus extract, glycyrrhizin from Glycyrrhizae Radix, and ellagic acid from Rubi Fructus against glucosyltransferase activity of S. mutans. Enzyme kinetic analysis identified the mechanism by which glycyrrhizin and ellagic acid inhibit enzyme activity.

RESULTS: The conditions for synergistically inhibiting biofilm formation by combining Glycyrrhizae Radix and Rubi Fructus extracts were identified. Biofilm formation was also synergistically inhibited by mixing their respective active constituents, glycyrrhizin and ellagic acid. Glycyrrhizin and ellagic acid inhibited glucosyltransferase via noncompetitive and uncompetitive mechanisms, respectively, indicating that they inhibit it via distinct mechanisms.

CONCLUSIONS: This study presents an effective oral hygiene method using the synergistic activity of two natural plant extracts to inhibit biofilm formation through different inhibitory mechanisms against glucosyltransferase of S. mutans.

RevDate: 2023-01-28

Pourhajibagher M, Parker S, Pourakbari B, et al (2023)

Enhancement of hypericin nanoparticle-mediated sonoinduced disruption of biofilm and persister cells of Streptococcus mutans by dermcidin-derived peptide DCD-1L.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy pii:S1572-1000(23)00036-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans is considered a major significant contributor to dental caries and its effective removal is difficult due to the formation of biofilm. Therefore, the development of adjuvant therapeutic strategies with anti-biofilm properties is a promising approach. In the present study, we examined the effect of dermcidin-derived peptide DCD-1L on the antibacterial activity of hypericin nanoparticle (HypNP)-mediated antimicrobial sonodynamic therapy (aSDT) against persister cells growing- and biofilm cultures of S. mutans.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following synthesis and confirmation of HypNP, the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index of HypNP and DCD-1L was determined by checkerboard assay. Cellular uptake of HypNP-DCD-1L and generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed and followed by the determination of antimicrobial sonoactivity of HypNP-DCD-1L against persister cells growing- and biofilm cultures of S. mutans. The water-insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and expression of the gtfD, comDE, and smuT genes were then evaluated in persister cells growing- and biofilm cultures of S. mutans.

RESULTS: There was a synergistic activity in the combination of HypNP and DCD-1L against S. mutans with an FIC index value of 0.37. The HypNP-DCD-1L-mediated aSDT also displayed the highest cellular uptake and endogenous ROS generation by bacterial cells. When biofilm and persister cells of S. mutans were treated with HypNP-DCD-1L and subsequently exposed to ultrasound waves, 5.1 log and 3.8 log reductions, respectively, in bacterial numbers were observed (P<0.05). According to the data, EPS in both persister cells growing- and biofilm cultures of S. mutans were significantly decreased after exposure to the HypNP-DCD-1L-mediated aSDT (P<0.05). In addition, the quantitative real-time PCR data illustrated the high level of similarities in very low-expression profiles of the gtfD before and after all treated groups for persister cells. While, following HypNP-DCD-1L-mediated aSDT treatment, the expression levels of gtfD, comDE, and smuT were significantly lower in treated persister cells growing- and biofilm cultures of S. mutans in comparison with control groups (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Combined, the results of this study indicate that ultrasound waves-activated HypNP-DCD-1L can sonoinactivate S. mutans biofilms and persister cells, as well as reduce effectively pathogenicity potency of S. mutans. Hence, HypNP-DCD-1L-mediated aSDT may be proposed as a promising adjunctive therapeutic approach for dental caries.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Kraft L, Ribeiro VST, Gonçalves GA, et al (2023)

Comparison of amphotericin B lipid complex, deoxycholate amphotericin B, fluconazole, and anidulafungin activity against Candida albicans biofilm isolated from breakthrough candidemia.

Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica (English ed.) pii:S2529-993X(23)00020-5 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Biofilm formation causes virulence and resistance in Candida albicans. However, little is known about breakthrough candidemia isolates. We evaluated the antifungal activity of fluconazole, anidulafungin, deoxycholate amphotericin B (dAMB), and amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) against biofilms of C. albicans isolated from patients with breakthrough candidemia.

METHODS: The present study used strains of C. albicans isolated from breakthrough and non-breakthrough candidemia patients (control group). The susceptibility of planktonic cells to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and fluconazole was determined by broth microdilution. Antifungal activity in sessile cells was evaluated using the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), metabolic activity was estimated by reducing MTT, and biomass was estimated using crystal violet retention.

RESULTS: The planktonic strains were susceptible to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and fluconazole, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1, ≤0.03, and 2mg/L, respectively. However, fluconazole and anidulafungin did not exert an antifungal effect on biofilms. Additionally, dAMB and ABCL reduced the metabolic activity and biomass. However, eradication was only achieved using 16mg/L dAMB. C. albicans isolates of breakthrough candidemia exhibited strong biofilm production, and the in vitro activity of available therapeutic options was poor.

CONCLUSION: In the present study, only dAMB and ABCL exhibited antibiofilm effects against sessile breakthrough candidemia isolates.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Anonymous (2023)

Corrigendum: Water Sci Technol (2022) 86 (6): 1578-1589: Degradation of tetracycline wastewater by suspended biochar as carriers in moving bed biofilm reactor, Shaoqin Liu, Hanyu Chen, Xueqi Zhang, Baozhong Zhang, Huina Zhu, Hongxia Chen, Bo Wen, Lefei Chen.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 87(2):508.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Sharan M, Dhaka P, Bedi JS, et al (2023)

Characterization of chicken eggs associated Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus for biofilm production and antimicrobial resistance traits.

Animal biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

The present study assessed the prevalence, virulence characteristics, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm-forming ability of E. coli and S. aureus recovered from egg samples in Ludhiana, Punjab. A total of 393 samples from hatcheries (n = 238), retail shops (n = 94), and households (n = 61) were collected. The prevalence of E. coli was observed as 11.70% and 9.16% for S. aureus. A total of 41.30% of E. coli isolates were positive for aggR gene and 52.17% were for fimA gene; while 36.11% of the S. aureus isolates were positive for coa gene. A high proportion of E. coli (76.10%) and S. aureus (69.44%) isolates were resistant toward ≥3 tested antibiotic classes. A total of 39.13% of E. coli isolates were moderate biofilm former, whereas the majority of the S. aureus (41.67%) were weak biofilm former. No significant difference regarding biofilm formation was observed between MDR and non-MDR isolates of E. coli and S. aureus. Biofilm genes viz., fimC and crl were reported in 43.47% and 80.43% of E. coli isolates, respectively; while icaA and icaD genes were reported in 58.34% and 47.22% of S. aureus isolates, respectively. A strong metabolic activity among 52.17% of E. coli and 41.66% of S. aureus isolates was observed using XTT assay. The present study highlights the need for applied food safety measures across the egg production chain of the region to prevent the development of MDR strains and biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Pokharel K, Dawadi BR, LB Shrestha (2022)

Role of Biofilm in Bacterial Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance.

JNMA; journal of the Nepal Medical Association, 60(253):836-840.

Biofilm refers to the complex, sessile communities of microbes found either attached to a surface or buried firmly in an extracellular matrix as aggregates. Microbial flora which produces biofilm manifests an altered growth rate and transcribes genes that provide them resistance to antimicrobial and host immune systems. Biofilms protect the invading bacteria against the immune system of the host via impaired activation of phagocytes and the complement system. Biofilm-producing isolates showed greater multidrug resistance than non-biofilm producers. Biofilm causes antibiotic resistance through processes like chromosomally encoded resistant genes, restriction of antibiotics, reduction of growth rate, and host immunity. Biofilm formation is responsible for the development of superbugs like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and maintaining hygiene, especially in hospitalized patients are required to control biofilm-related infections in order to prevent antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Rodríguez-Temporal D, Díez R, Díaz-Navarro M, et al (2022)

Determination of the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify high-biofilm-producing strains.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1104405.

BACKGROUND: The traditional method for assessing the capacity of a microorganism to produce biofilm is generally a static in vitro model in a multi-well plate using the crystal violet (CV) binding assay, which takes 96 h. Furthermore, while the method is simple to perform, its reproducibility is poor.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) could make it possible to differentiate between high-and low-biofilm-producing microorganisms on 24-h cultures of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

METHODS: We included 157 strains of S. aureus and 91 strains of C. albicans obtained from the blood cultures of patients with bacteremia/candidemia. We tested biofilm production using the CV binding assay as the gold standard to classify strains as low or high biofilm producers. We then applied MALDI-TOF MS to create a machine learning-based predictive model using 40 strains of S. aureus and C. albicans, each with extreme absorbance values, and validated this approach with the remaining 117 and 51 strains using the random forest algorithm and the support vector machine algorithm, respectively.

RESULTS: Overall, 81.2% of the S. aureus strains (95/117) and 74.5% of the C. albicans strains (38/51) used for validation were correctly categorized, respectively, as low and high-biofilm-producing.

CONCLUSION: Classification based on MALDI-TOF MS protein spectra enables us to predict acceptable information about the capacity of 24-h cultures of S. aureus and C. albicans to form biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Costa MOCE, do Nascimento APB, Martins YC, et al (2022)

The gene regulatory network of Staphylococcus aureus ST239-SCCmecIII strain Bmb9393 and assessment of genes associated with the biofilm in diverse backgrounds.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1049819.

INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent and relevant pathogens responsible for a wide spectrum of hospital-associated or community-acquired infections. In addition, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus may display multidrug resistance profiles that complicate treatment and increase the mortality rate. The ability to produce biofilm, particularly in device-associated infections, promotes chronic and potentially more severe infections originating from the primary site. Understanding the complex mechanisms involved in planktonic and biofilm growth is critical to identifying regulatory connections and ways to overcome the global health problem of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

METHODS: In this work, we apply literature-based and comparative genomics approaches to reconstruct the gene regulatory network of the high biofilm-producing strain Bmb9393, belonging to one of the highly disseminating successful clones, the Brazilian epidemic clone. To the best of our knowledge, we describe for the first time the topological properties and network motifs for the Staphylococcus aureus pathogen. We performed this analysis using the ST239-SCCmecIII Bmb9393 strain. In addition, we analyzed transcriptomes available in the literature to construct a set of genes differentially expressed in the biofilm, covering different stages of the biofilms and genetic backgrounds of the strains.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Bmb9393 gene regulatory network comprises 1,803 regulatory interactions between 64 transcription factors and the non-redundant set of 1,151 target genes with the inclusion of 19 new regulons compared to the N315 transcriptional regulatory network published in 2011. In the Bmb9393 network, we found 54 feed-forward loop motifs, where the most prevalent were coherent type 2 and incoherent type 2. The non-redundant set of differentially expressed genes in the biofilm consisted of 1,794 genes with functional categories relevant for adaptation to the variable microenvironments established throughout the biofilm formation process. Finally, we mapped the set of genes with altered expression in the biofilm in the Bmb9393 gene regulatory network to depict how different growth modes can alter the regulatory systems. The data revealed 45 transcription factors and 876 shared target genes. Thus, the gene regulatory network model provided represents the most up-to-date model for Staphylococcus aureus, and the set of genes altered in the biofilm provides a global view of their influence on biofilm formation from distinct experimental perspectives and different strain backgrounds.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Tour Savadkouhi S, Mohtasham Maram M, Purhaji Bagher M, et al (2021)

In Vitro Activity of Superoxide Water on Viability of Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm on Root Canal Wall.

Iranian endodontic journal, 16(3):189-192.

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of root canal irrigation with superoxidized water and sodium hypochlorite on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm from the root canal walls.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this experimental study, a total of 32 extracted human central incisors were used. The crowns of all teeth were cut to length of 16 mm. After cleaning and shaping, then the specimens were sterilized in autoclave and then divided into four groups (n=8) as following: group 1 (positive control, root canal irrigation with normal saline), group 2 (negative control without biofilm), group 3 (root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite) and group 4 (root canal irrigation with superoxidized water). The bacterial suspension was inserted to root canals of teeth except for negative control group in order to form a microbial biofilm in incubator for 2 weeks. Then all the samples received root canal irrigation for 5 min based on their allocation. At the end, colony forming unit (CFU) was evaluated and biofilm formation and thickness was detected with scanning electron microscopy. The Kruskal Wallis and Dunn's tests were done for biofilm thickness and CFU, respectively with the level of significance set at 0.05.

RESULTS: In negative control group no biofilm formation and CFU was present. The CFU counts and biofilm thickness were significantly different between the experimental groups (P=0.001) and both parameters were less in samples with hypochlorite irrigation compared to positive control (52.56±5.82 µm for biofilm thickness and 1.2×10[7] CFU) and samples irrigated with superoxidized water (2.92±1.76 µm for biofilm thickness and 5.4×10[4] CFU).

CONCLUSION: Based on this in vitro study reduction in biofilm thickness and CFU/mL was 100% for sodium hypochlorite and for superoxidized water was 98% and 90% for reduction in biofilm thickness and CFU/mL, respectively.

RevDate: 2023-01-27

Byakova SF, Dezhurko-Korol VA, Novozhilova NE, et al (2020)

Quantitative Assessment of Dentinal Tubule Disinfection in Absence of Biofilm on Root Canal Walls: An in vitro Study.

Iranian endodontic journal, 15(3):155-165.

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed at assessing the quantitative effect of calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, and 1.5% chlorhexidine linked to xanthan gel specifically against intratubular bacteria.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-two semi-cylindrical bovine dentin specimens were infected with Enterococcus (E.) faecalis by centrifugation with subsequent 7-days incubation. The surface of specimens was disinfected with 3% H2O2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the count of bacterial colony-forming units (CFU/mg) were used to assess dentin infection. A total of 40 specimens were incubated for 2 weeks with one of the intracanal medication applied (10 samples for each group): 1) calcium hydroxide, 2) 2% chlorhexidine gel, 3) 1.5% chlorhexidine linked to xanthan gel and 4) sterile saline. Final passive ultrasonic irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite was performed in half of the total specimens. The effect of intracanal medications and irrigation against intratubular bacteria was assessed by bacterial culturing of dentin shavings. Two-Way ANOVA model was applied followed by post-hoc Tukey's test for multiple pair-wise comparisons of mean CFU/mg values.

RESULTS: SEM, CLSM, and bacterial culturing confirmed the absence of the surface biofilm on the root canal wall and showed vital intratubular bacteria at the depth up to 700  m. Two-week application of 1.5% chlorhexidine with xanthan gel and 2% chlorhexidine gel significantly decreased intratubular bacterial counts compared with saline (P=0.0003 and P=0.0005, respectively). Subsequent passive ultrasonic irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced the number of intratubular bacteria in all groups except for the group with 1.5% chlorhexidine-xanthan gel (P=0.0054).

CONCLUSION: This modified ex vivo model study showed ultrasonically activated irrigation with sodium hypochlorite had greater effect on intratubular bacteria counts compared with 2-week application of intracanal medications.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Firdose A, Chong NHH, Ramli R, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial, Anti-adhesive and Anti-biofilm Actions of Rhamnolipids on ESKAPE Pathogens.

Letters in applied microbiology pii:7005219 [Epub ahead of print].

The aim of this study was to test the antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities of a rhamnolipid extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa UKMP14T previously isolated from oil contaminated soil in Malaysia against ESKAPE (i.e. multidrug resistant) pathogens. Zones of inhibition in an agar well diffusion assay were observed at 50 μg mL-1 concentrations of rhamnolipid for all the ESKAPE bacteria. The MIC and MBC values ranged between 7.81-62.5 µg mL-1 and 31.25-1000 µg mL-1, respectively. Percent killing was recorded to be more than 90% except for Klebsiella pneumoniae (86.84%). Furthermore, anti-adhesion studies showed that there was 76% hindrance in attachment of E. faecium and 91% in Acinetobacter baumannii at 4xMIC. The highest inhibition in adhesion was found at 4xMIC, which was 46% for A. baumannii and 62% for Enterococcus faecium. Finally, the anti-biofilm capability of the rhamnolipid was determined which ranged between 25%-76% in A. baumannii and 35%-88% in E. faecium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to include research on antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities of rhamnolipid from the local isolate P. aeruginosa UKMP14T against ESKAPE bacteria. Obtained results suggest that this rhamnolipid can be exploited commercially for the production of novel antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Yuan Q, Jia Z, Roots P, et al (2023)

A strategy for fast anammox biofilm formation under mainstream conditions.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)00222-9 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the bottlenecks to applying anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) is the long start-up time, especially under mainstream conditions. This study proposed a strategy for fast anammox biofilm formation under mainstream conditions. By first cultivating an aerobic heterotrophic biofilm, and then transferring to anoxic conditions, a pre-cultivated heterotrophic biofilm can be formed in 12 days. The pre-cultivated heterotrophic biofilm then functions as a "glue" to accelerate anammox bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation. Secondary settled effluent with externally added 15-30 mg-N·L[-1] ammonium and nitrite was applied as reactor influent. With a single inoculation of suspended growth anammox-laden biomass and no bioaugmentation, an anammox-enriched biofilm formed after 5 months of operation under uncontrolled temperature of 15-20 °C. Both the nitrogen removal rate and specific anammox activity exponentially increased over the course of study, corresponding to an estimated anammox doubling time of 10.8 days. The biofilm thickness on primed carriers was 2-3 times higher than on the non-primed carriers over the first 5 months of operation, and the hszA gene copy number in primed biofilms revealed was consistently 1 to 2 times higher than the non-primed carrier biofilm, indicating that biofil m carrier priming via selection for a pre-cultivated heterotrophic biofilm base can effectively improve the anammox enrichment rate at early stages of reactor operation. Time, rather than the type of biofilm (primed versus non-primed), had a stronger influence on microbial community structure over the full 230 days of reactor operation. Candidatus Brocadia was the only detected anammox bacteria genus. Overall, pre-cultivation of heterotrophs on biofilm carriers provides a simple route to accelerate anammox-enriched biofilm formation under mainstream conditions.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Jang Y, Lee SH, Kim NK, et al (2023)

Biofilm characteristics for providing resilient denitrification in a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

Water research, 231:119654 pii:S0043-1354(23)00089-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR), the biofilm thickness is considered to be one of the most important factors for denitrification. Thick biofilms in MBfRs are known for low removal fluxes owing to their resistance to substrate transport. In this study, the H2-MBfR was operated under various loading rates of oxyanions, such as NO3-N, SO4-S, and ClO4[-] at an H2 flux of 1.06 e[-] eq/m[2]-d. The experiment was initiated with NO3-N, SO4-S, and ClO4[-] loadings of 0.464, 0.026, and 0.211 e[-] eq/m[2]-d, respectively, at 20 °C. Under the most stressful conditions, the loading rates increased simultaneously to 1.911, 0.869, and 0.108 e[-] eq/m[2]-d, respectively, at 10 °C. We observed improved performance in significantly thicker biofilms (approximately 2.7 cm) compared to previous studies using a denitrifying H2-MBfR for 120 days. Shock oxyanion loadings led to a decrease in total nitrogen (TN) removal by 20 to 30%, but TN removal returned to 100% within a few days. Similarly, complete denitrification was observed, even at 10 °C. The protective function and microbial diversity of the thick biofilm may allow stable denitrification despite stress-imposing conditions. In the microbial community analysis, heterotrophs were dominant and acetogens accounted for 11% of the biofilm. Metagenomic results showed a high abundance of functional genes involved in organic carbon metabolism and homoacetogenesis. Owing to the presence of organic compounds produced by acetogens and autotrophs, heterotrophic denitrification may occur simultaneously with autotrophic denitrification. As a result, the total removal flux of oxyanions (1.84 e[-] eq/m[2]-d) far exceeded the H2 flux (1.06 e[-] eq/m[2]-d). Thus, the large accumulation of biofilms could contribute to good resilience and enhanced removal fluxes.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Barraza I, Pajon C, Diaz-Tang G, et al (2023)

Disturbing the Spatial Organization of Biofilm Communities Affects Expression of agr-Regulated Virulence Factors in Staphylococcus aureus.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus uses quorum sensing and nutrient availability to control the expression of agr-regulated virulence factors. Quorum sensing is mediated by autoinducing peptide (AIP), which at a high concentration reduces expression of surface attachment proteins (coa, fnbpA) and increases expression of exotoxins (lukS) and proteases (splA). Nutrient availability can be sensed through the saeS/saeR system. Low nutrients increase expression of saeR, which augments expression of coa and fnbpA, distinct from the activity of AIP. The formation of spatial structure, such as biofilms, can alter quorum sensing and nutrient acquisition. In natural environments, biofilms encounter forces that may alter their spatial structure. These forces may impact quorum sensing and/or nutrient acquisition and thus affect the expression of agr-regulated virulence factors. However, this has not been studied. We show that periodically disturbing biofilms composed of S. aureus using a physical force affected the expression of agr-regulated virulence factors. In nutrient-poor environments, disturbance increased the expression of coa, fnbpA, lukS, and splA. Disturbance in a nutrient-rich environment at low or high disturbance amplitudes moderately reduced expression of coa and fnbpA but increased expression of lukS and splA. Interestingly, at an intermediate amplitude, the overall expression of agr-regulated virulence factors was the lowest; expression of lukS and splA remained unchanged relative to an undisturbed biofilm, while expression of coa and fnbpA significantly decreased. We hypothesize that these changes are a result of disturbance-driven changes in access to AIP and nutrients. Our results may allow the identification of environments where virulence is enhanced, or reduced, owing to a disturbance. IMPORTANCE Bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, integrate signals from the environment to regulate genes encoding virulence factors. These signals include those produced by quorum-sensing systems and nutrient availability. We show that disturbing the spatial organization of S. aureus populations can lead to changes in the expression of virulence factors, likely by altering the ways in which S. aureus detects these signals. Our work may allow us to identify environments that increase or reduce the expression of virulence factors in S. aureus.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Shen Y, Yu F, Qiu L, et al (2022)

Ecological influence by colonization of fluoride-resistant Streptococcus mutans in oral biofilm.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1106392.

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common infections in humans. Improved oral hygiene practices and the presence of fluoride in dentifrices and mouth rinses have greatly reduced the prevalence of dental caries. However, increased fluoride resistance in microbial communities is concerning. Here, we studied the effect of fluoride-resistant Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on oral microbial ecology and compare it with wild-type S. mutans in vitro.

METHODS: Biofilm was evaluated for its polysaccharide content, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, acid-producing ability, and related lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), arginine deiminase (ADS), and urease enzymatic activity determination. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to evaluate the S. mutans ratio within the biofilm. It was followed by 16S rRNA sequencing to define the oral microbial community.

RESULTS: Fluoride-resistant S. mutans produced increased polysaccharides in presence of NaF (P < 0.05). The enzymatic activities related to both acid and base generation were less affected by the fluoride. In presence of 275 ppm NaF, the pH in the fluoride-resistant strain sample was lower than the wild type. We observed that with the biofilm development and accumulative fluoride concentration, the fluoride-resistant strain had positive relationships with other bacteria within the oral microbial community, which enhanced its colonization and survival. Compared to the wild type, fluoride-resistant strain significantly increased the diversity and difference of oral microbial community at the initial stage of biofilm formation (4 and 24 h) and at a low fluoride environment (0 and 275 ppm NaF) (P < 0.05). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that fluoride-resistant strain enhanced the metabolic pathways and glucose transfer.

CONCLUSIONS: Fluoride-resistant S. mutans affected the microecological balance of oral biofilm and its cariogenic properties in vitro, indicating its negative impact on fluoride's caries prevention effect.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Liu S, Xiong Y, Xiao H, et al (2022)

Inhibition of planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus by entrectinib through disrupting the cell membrane.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1106319.

Over the last few decades, Staphylococcus aureus infection remain a major medical challenge and health concern worldwide. Biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance caused by S. aureus make it difficult to be eradicated from bacterial infections in clinics. In this study, our data demonstrated the antibacterial and excellent anti-biofilm activity of entrectinib against S. aureus. Entrectinib also exhibited the good safety, suggesting no toxicity with antibacterial concentration of entrectinib toward the erythrocytes and mammalian 239 T cells. Moreover, entrectinib significantly reduced the bacterial burden of septic tissue in a murine model of MRSA infection. Global proteomic analysis of S. aureus treated with entrectinib showed significant changes in the expression levels of ribosomal structure-related (rpmC, rpmD, rplX, and rpsT) and oxidative stress-related proteins (Thioredoxin system), suggesting the possible inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis with entrectinib exposure. The increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated in the entrectinib-treated S. aureus, supported the impact of entrectinib on the expression changes of ROS-correlated proteins involved in oxidative stress. Furthermore, entrectinib-induced resistant S. aureus clone was selected by in vitro induction under entrectinib exposure and 3 amino acid mutations in the entrectinib-induced resistant S. aureus strain, 2 of which were located in the gene encoding Type II NADH: quinoneoxidoreductase and one were found in GTP pyrophosphokinase family protein. Finally, the bactericidal action of entrectinib on S. aureus were confirmed by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane. Conclusively, entrectinib exhibit the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity by destroying cell membrane against S. aureus.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Hussain Akbar J, Behbehani J, M Karched (2022)

Biofilm growth and microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines at Kuwait University dental center.

Frontiers in oral health, 3:1071018.

Biofilm formation in dental unit waterlines and the resulting microbial contamination of the water in the system has become a significant problem. Contaminated water in the dental units is a major concern in dental clinics due to potential risk of causing infections particularly in elderly and immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was at first to determine microbial contamination of the dental unit waterlines and then to study the efficacy of a comprehensive disinfection protocol on decreasing the microbial load. Water samples were collected before and after disinfection procedure from handpieces and water storage bottles from the dental units, a small 1-cm tubing was cut from each unit and subjected to microbiological culture on different growth media. Identification of the predominant species was achieved by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial growth was observed in samples collected from all dental units. Upon disinfection procedure, microbial contamination in the water samples and in the tubing surfaces was significantly reduced (P > 0.05). 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed the presence of several species belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Roseomonas, some of which are implicated in human infections. Aggravation of the biofilm growth on the tubing surfaces and the microbial contamination in the water can be effectively controlled by implementing appropriate and routine disinfection protocols. This may help protect the dental unit staff and the patients being exposed to the risk of infections.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Mourer T, El Ghalid M, Pehau-Arnaudet G, et al (2023)

The Pga59 cell wall protein is an amyloid forming protein involved in adhesion and biofilm establishment in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):6.

The human commensal fungus Candida albicans can attach to epithelia or indwelling medical devices and form biofilms, that are highly tolerant to antifungal drugs and can evade the immune response. The cell surface protein Pga59 has been shown to influence adhesion and biofilm formation. Here, we present evidence that Pga59 displays amyloid properties. Using electron microscopy, staining with an amyloid fibre-specific dye and X-ray diffraction experiments, we showed that the predicted amyloid-forming region of Pga59 is sufficient to build up an amyloid fibre in vitro and that recombinant Pga59 can also adopt a cross-β amyloid fibre architecture. Further, mutations impairing Pga59 amyloid assembly led to diminished adhesion to substrates and reduced biofilm production. Immunogold labelling on amyloid structures extracted from C. albicans revealed that Pga59 is used by the fungal cell to assemble amyloids within the cell wall in response to adhesion. Altogether, our results suggest that Pga59 amyloid properties are used by the fungal cell to mediate cell-substrate interactions and biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Kim J, Choi Y, Park J, et al (2023)

Gelatin-Gallic Acid Microcomplexes Release GO/Cu Nanomaterials to Eradicate Antibiotic-Resistant Microbes and Their Biofilm.

ACS infectious diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Wound-infecting bacteria are typically Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, both of which form biofilms and become resistant to antibiotics. To solve this problem, copper nanoparticles (Cu) on graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were used as antibacterial materials. Since the excessive use of antibacterial substances is fatal to normal tissues, GO/Cu was encapsulated with a gelatin complex to lower the cytotoxicity. Among the catechol-based substances, gallic acid (GA), which has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, was used in this study to impart stability to the gelatin complex. Gelatin (GE) and gallic acid (GA) were combined by a crosslinking method using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a crosslinker, and the crosslinking was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), [1]H NMR, and the fluorescence property of GA. The GO/Cu@GE-GA microcomplexes exhibited more antibacterial effect against Gram-positive bacteria (S. epidermidis) and Gram-negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa) than when GO/Cu alone was used, and the antibiofilm effect was also confirmed. The cytotoxicity evaluation for human skin cells (human dermal fibroblast (HDF)) at the same concentration showed that it had low cytotoxicity and biocompatibility. This study shows the potential of antimicrobial gelatin microcomplex in prohibiting infectious bacteria and their biofilms and controlling the release of antimicrobial substances.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Dubern JF, Hook AL, Carabelli AM, et al (2023)

Discovery of a polymer resistant to bacterial biofilm, swarming, and encrustation.

Science advances, 9(4):eadd7474.

Innovative approaches to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are urgently required. Here, we describe the discovery of an acrylate copolymer capable of resisting single- and multispecies bacterial biofilm formation, swarming, encrustation, and host protein deposition, which are major challenges associated with preventing CAUTIs. After screening ~400 acrylate polymers, poly(tert-butyl cyclohexyl acrylate) was selected for its biofilm- and encrustation-resistant properties. When combined with the swarming inhibitory poly(2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl acrylate), the copolymer retained the bioinstructive properties of the respective homopolymers when challenged with Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Urinary tract catheterization causes the release of host proteins that are exploited by pathogens to colonize catheters. After preconditioning the copolymer with urine collected from patients before and after catheterization, reduced host fibrinogen deposition was observed, and resistance to diverse uropathogens was maintained. These data highlight the potential of the copolymer as a urinary catheter coating for preventing CAUTIs.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Xiu W, Ren L, Xiao H, et al (2023)

Ultrasound-responsive catalytic microbubbles enhance biofilm elimination and immune activation to treat chronic lung infections.

Science advances, 9(4):eade5446.

Efficient treatment of chronic lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms is a great challenge because of drug tolerance and immune evasion issues. Here, we develop ultrasound-responsive catalytic microbubbles with biofilm elimination and immune activation properties to combat chronic lung infection induced by P. aeruginosa biofilms. In these microbubbles, piperacillin and Fe3O4 nanoparticles form a drug-loaded shell surrounding the air core. Under ultrasound stimulation, the microbubbles can physically disrupt the structure of biofilms and enhance the penetration of both Fe3O4 nanoparticles and piperacillin into the biofilm. Then, Fe3O4 nanoparticles chemically degrade the biofilm matrix and kill the bacteria with the assistance of piperacillin. Fe3O4 nanoparticles can activate the immune response for biofilm elimination by polarizing macrophages into a pro-inflammatory phenotype. These ultrasound-responsive catalytic microbubbles efficiently treat chronic lung infections in a mouse model by combining physical/chemical/antibiotic biofilm elimination and immune activation, thus providing a promising strategy for combating bacterial biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Cravener MV, Do E, May G, et al (2023)

Reinforcement amid genetic diversity in the Candida albicans biofilm regulatory network.

PLoS pathogens, 19(1):e1011109 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-22-01902 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans include abundant long filaments called hyphae. These cells express hypha-associated genes, which specify diverse virulence functions including surface adhesins that ensure biofilm integrity. Biofilm formation, virulence, and hypha-associated gene expression all depend upon the transcription factor Efg1. This transcription factor has been characterized extensively in the C. albicans type strain SC5314 and derivatives, but only recently has its function been explored in other clinical isolates. Here we define a principal set of Efg1-responsive genes whose expression is significantly altered by an efg1Δ/Δ mutation across 17 clinical isolates. This principal gene set includes 68 direct Efg1 targets, whose 5' regions are bound by Efg1 in five clinical isolates, and 42 indirect Efg1 targets, whose 5' regions are not detectably bound by Efg1. Three direct Efg1 target genes encode transcription factors-BRG1, UME6, and WOR3 -whose increased expression in an efg1Δ/Δ mutant restores expression of multiple indirect and direct principal targets, as well as biofilm formation ability. Although BRG1 and UME6 are well known positive regulators of hypha-associated genes and biofilm formation, WOR3 is best known as an antagonist of Efg1 in the sexual mating pathway. We confirm the positive role of WOR3 in biofilm formation with the finding that a wor3Δ/Δ mutation impairs biofilm formation in vitro and in an in vivo biofilm model. Positive control of Efg1 direct target genes by other Efg1 direct target genes-BRG1, UME6, and WOR3 -may buffer principal Efg1-responsive gene expression against the impact of genetic variation in the C. albicans species.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Tambassi M, Passarini E, Menozzi I, et al (2023)

Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying multiple alleles of antigen 43-encoding gene of Escherichia coli associated with biofilm formation.

European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

A clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae typed as sequence type 307 carrying three different alleles of the flu gene encoding the Escherichia coli virulence factor antigen 43 associated with biofilm formation was detected and characterized. The flu alleles are located in the chromosome inside putative integrative conjugative elements. The strain displays the phenotypes associated with Ag43, i.e. bi-phasic colony morphology and enhanced biofilm production. Furthermore, the strain produces low amount of capsule known to affect Ag43 function. Analysis of 1431 worldwide deposited genomes revealed that 3.7% Klebsiella pneumoniae carry one or two flu alleles.

RevDate: 2023-01-25

Radwan AA, Darwesh OM, Emam MT, et al (2022)

A combined treatment of Proteinase K and biosynthesized ZnO-NPs for eradication of dairy biofilm of sporeformers.

AIMS microbiology, 8(4):507-527.

Biofilms of sporeformers found in the dairy industry are the major contaminants during processing, as they withstand heat and chemical treatment that are used to control microbes. The present work is aimed to remove these resistant forms of bacterial community (biofilm) present in dairy production lines using ecofriendly agents based on proteinase K (Prot-K) coupled with Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs). Some metal/metal oxide (Ag, CuO and ZnO) NPs were prepared microbially, and ZnO-NPs were characterized as the most effective ones among them. The produced ZnO-NPs were 15-25 nm in size with spherical shape, and FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins and alkanes surrounding particles as capping agents. Application of Prot-K for eradication (removal) of a model biofilm of mixed sporeformers on food-grade stainless steel resulted in an 83% reduction in the absorbance of crystal violet-stained biofilm. When Prot-K was mixed with the biosynthesized NPs ZnO_G240, the reduction increased to 99.19%. This finding could contribute to an efficient cleaning approach combined with CIP to remove the recalcitrant biofilms in dairy production lines.

RevDate: 2023-01-24

Pham LHP, Ly KL, Colon-Ascanio M, et al (2023)

Dissolvable alginate hydrogel-based biofilm microreactors for antibiotic susceptibility assays.

Biofilm, 5:100103.

Biofilms are found in many infections in the forms of surface-adhering aggregates on medical devices, small clumps in tissues, or even in synovial fluid. Although antibiotic resistance genes are studied and monitored in the clinic, the structural and phenotypic changes that take place in biofilms can also lead to significant changes in how bacteria respond to antibiotics. Therefore, it is important to better understand the relationship between biofilm phenotypes and resistance and develop approaches that are compatible with clinical testing. Current methods for studying antimicrobial susceptibility are mostly planktonic or planar biofilm reactors. In this work, we develop a new type of biofilm reactor-three-dimensional (3D) microreactors-to recreate biofilms in a microenvironment that better mimics those in vivo where bacteria tend to form surface-independent biofilms in living tissues. The microreactors are formed on microplates, treated with antibiotics of 1000 times of the corresponding minimal inhibitory concentrations (1000 × MIC), and monitored spectroscopically with a microplate reader in a high-throughput manner. The hydrogels are dissolvable on demand without the need for manual scraping, thus enabling measurements of phenotypic changes. Bacteria inside the biofilm microreactors are found to survive exposure to 1000 × MIC of antibiotics, and subsequent comparison with plating results reveals no antibiotic resistance-associated phenotypes. The presented microreactor offers an attractive platform to study the tolerance and antibiotic resistance of surface-independent biofilms such as those found in tissues.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Pápai M, Benedek T, Táncsics A, et al (2023)

Selective enrichment, identification, and isolation of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine degrading bacteria from a groundwater biofilm.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine are three of the most widely detected and most concerning pharmaceutical residues in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria that may be involved in their degradation from a bacterial biofilm. Selective enrichment cultures in mineral salt solution containing pharmaceutical compounds as sole source of carbon and energy were set up, and population dynamics were monitored using shotgun metagenome sequencing. Bacterial genomes were reconstructed using genome-resolved metagenomics. Thirty bacterial isolates were obtained, identified at species level, and tested regarding pharmaceutical biodegradation at an initial concentration of 1.5 mg l[-1]. The results indicated that most probably diclofenac biodegrading cultures consisted of members of genera Ferrovibrio, Hydrocarboniphaga, Zavarzinia, and Sphingopyxis, while in ibuprofen biodegradation Nocardioides and Starkeya, and in carbamazepine biodegradation Nocardioides, Pseudonocardia, and Sphingopyxis might be involved. During the enrichments, compared to the initial state the percentage relative abundance of these genera increased up to three orders of magnitude. Except Starkeya, the genomes of these bacteria were reconstructed and annotated. Metabolic analyses of the annotated genomes indicated that these bacteria harbored genes associated with pharmaceutical biodegradation. Stenotrophomonas humi DIC_5 and Rhizobium daejeonense IBU_18 isolates eliminated diclofenac and ibuprofen during the tests in the presence of either glucose (3 g l[-1]) or in R2A broth. Higher than 90% concentration reduction was observed in the case of both compounds.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Sugimoto S, Y Kinjo (2023)

Instantaneous Clearing of Biofilm (iCBiofilm): an optical approach to revisit bacterial and fungal biofilm imaging.

Communications biology, 6(1):38.

Whole-biofilm imaging at single-cell resolution is necessary for system-level analysis of cellular heterogeneity, identification of key matrix component functions and response to immune cells and antimicrobials. To this end, we developed a whole-biofilm clearing and imaging method, termed instantaneous clearing of biofilm (iCBiofilm). iCBiofilm is a simple, rapid, and efficient method involving the immersion of biofilm samples in a refractive index-matching medium, enabling instant whole-biofilm imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy. We also developed non-fixing iCBiofilm, enabling live and dynamic imaging of biofilm development and actions of antimicrobials. iCBiofilm is applicable for multicolor imaging of fluorescent proteins, immunostained matrix components, and fluorescence labeled cells in biofilms with a thickness of several hundred micrometers. iCBiofilm is scalable from bacterial to fungal biofilms and can be used to observe biofilm-neutrophil interactions. iCBiofilm therefore represents an important advance for examining the dynamics and functions of biofilms and revisiting bacterial and fungal biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Hemdan BA, El-Taweel GE, Naha S, et al (2023)

Bacterial community structure of electrogenic biofilm developed on modified graphite anode in microbial fuel cell.

Scientific reports, 13(1):1255.

Formation of electrogenic microbial biofilm on the electrode is critical for harvesting electrical power from wastewater in microbial biofuel cells (MFCs). Although the knowledge of bacterial community structures in the biofilm is vital for the rational design of MFC electrodes, an in-depth study on the subject is still awaiting. Herein, we attempt to address this issue by creating electrogenic biofilm on modified graphite anodes assembled in an air-cathode MFC. The modification was performed with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), polyaniline (PANI), and carbon nanotube (CNTs) separately. To accelerate the growth of the biofilm, soybean-potato composite (plant) powder was blended with these conductive materials during the fabrication of the anodes. The MFC fabricated with PANI-based anode delivered the current density of 324.2 mA cm[-2], followed by CNTs (248.75 mA cm[-2]), rGO (193 mA cm[-2]), and blank (without coating) (151 mA cm[-2]) graphite electrodes. Likewise, the PANI-based anode supported a robust biofilm growth containing maximum bacterial cell densities with diverse shapes and sizes of the cells and broad metabolic functionality. The alpha diversity of the biofilm developed over the anode coated with PANI was the loftiest operational taxonomic unit (2058 OUT) and Shannon index (7.56), as disclosed from the high-throughput 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Further, within these taxonomic units, exoelectrogenic phyla comprising Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were maximum with their corresponding level (%) 45.5, 36.2, and 9.8. The relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, and Bacilli at the class level, while Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium at the genus level were comparatively higher in the PANI-based anode.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Dong K, Qiu Y, Wang X, et al (2023)

Towards low carbon demand and highly efficient nutrient removal: establishing denitrifying phosphorus removal in a biofilm-based system.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00084-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The combined denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) and Anammox process is expected to achieve advanced nutrient removal with low carbon consumption. However, exchanging ammonia/nitrate between them is one limitation. This study investigated the feasibility of conducting DPR in a biofilm reactor to solve that problem. After 46-day anaerobic/aerobic operation, high phosphorus removal efficiency (PRE, 83.15%) was obtained in the activated sludge (AS) and biofilm co-existed system, in which the AS performed better. Phosphate-accumulating organisms might quickly adapt to the anoxic introduced nitrate, but the following aerobic stage ensured a low effluent orthophosphate (< 1.03 mg/L). Because of waste sludge discharging and AS transforming to biofilm, the suspended solids dropped below 60 mg/L on Day 100, resulting in PRE decline (17.17%) and effluent orthophosphate rise (4.23 mg/L). Metagenomes analysis revealed that Pseudomonas and Thiothrix had genes for denitrification and encoding Pit phosphate transporter, and Candidatus_Competibacter was necessary for biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Wang W, Cao Y, Li J, et al (2023)

The impact of osmotic stresses on the biofilm formation, immunodetection, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila.

Microbiological research, 269:127301 pii:S0944-5013(23)00002-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Aeromonas hydrophila (Ah) is a zoonotic pathogen of great importance to aquaculture and human health. This study systematically evaluated the impact of salinity, sugar, ammonia nitrogen, and nitric nitrogen levels on the fitness of Ah by using Luria-Bertani (LB) broth supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, sucrose, NH4Cl, urea, NaNO2 or NaNO3. Results showed that the static biofilm formation of Ah was higher at 28 °C compared to 37 °C (P < 0.05). At 28 °C, as the NaCl (>1 %) and sucrose levels increased, the Ah biofilm formation and the binding between Ah cells and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, for immunodetection) decreased. Elevated ammonia nitrogen and nitric nitrogen levels generated no significant impact on Ah biofilm formation or immunodetection (P > 0.05). The expression of mAbs-targeted Omp remained unchanged under high NaCl or sucrose conditions. Further analysis showed that high sucrose conditions led to the over-expression of the extracellular polysaccharides (PS) and promoted the formation of capsule-like structures. These over-expressed PS and capsule structures might be one reason explaining the inhibited immunodetection efficacy. Results generated from this study provide crucial insights for the design of recovery and detection protocols for Ah present in food or environmental samples.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Lorenzini M, Cappello MS, Andreolli M, et al (2023)

Characterization of selected species of Pichia and Candida for their growth capacity in apple and grape must and their biofilm parameters.

Letters in applied microbiology, 76(1):.

Pichia and Candida species include biofilm-forming yeasts able to spoil foods and beverages. Strains belonging to 10 Pichia and Candida species isolated from apples, grape musts, and wines were analysed. They were subjected to molecular typing and characterized for their ability to grow and ferment must for cider and wine production, and for their biofilm properties. All strains grew similarly in apple and grape must. Glucose-fermenting strains displayed differentiated fermentation performances. Great variation in SO2 and ethanol sensitivity was observed among the strains. Pichia manshurica strains showed high tolerance to both molecules. Eleven and five surface-spreading biofilm (MAT) phenotypes were identified in solid and liquid media, respectively. Strains produced biofilms with variable thicknesses and widths in culture tubes. Cell adherence and aqueous-hydrocarbon biphasic hydrophobicity assays were carried out. Some Pichia manshurica and P. membranifaciens strains exhibited a high capacity to form a thick biofilm and had high cell adherence and hydrophobicity values. These strains could be more likely to colonize the internal surfaces of tanks. This study evidenced that some Pichia and Candida strains can proliferate during apple and grape must fermentation and may be detrimental the beverage quality, due to their specific biofilm properties.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Fernandes MSM, Rios JC, Vasconcelos BM, et al (2023)

Effect of Lactobacillus spp. cell-free supernatant against planktonic growth and biofilm formation of foodborne Escherichia coli isolates.

Letters in applied microbiology, 76(1):.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-Escherichia coli effect of cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Lactobacillus spp. against planktonic and biofilm forms of foodborne isolates. Escherichiacoli strains (P12, P25, P35 and P36), previously isolated from fresh filets of fish, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility determination by the disc-diffusion agar method. Subsequently, the antagonistic effect between probiotic and pathogenic strains was determined by spot overlay assay. Finally, the CFS activity against pre-established (12 h) biofilms was demonstrated through biomass quantification by crystal violet staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All isolates presented some pattern of resistance, primarily to ampicillin and tetracycline. Probiotic strains presented high antagonistic effects against all E. coli strains, presenting inhibition zones (R) ranging from 15.60 to 20.67 mm. Additionally, the residual biomass of pre-established (12 h) biofilm was drastically reduced about 50% after CFS treatment (P < 0.01). What can be noted by SEM images, which show less surface-attached cells of CFS-treated biofilms of E. coli (P12). Thus, cell-free preparations produced from Lactobacillus spp. may represent a tool in the battle against planktonic cells and biofilm forms of antibiotic-resistant E. coli.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Kumar S, Nguyen AT, Goswami S, et al (2023)

Real-Time Monitoring of Biofilm Formation Using a Noninvasive Impedance-Based Method.

Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, 376(Pt A):.

Biofilms are complex three-dimensional microbial communities that adhere to a variety of surfaces and interact with their surroundings. Because of the dynamic nature of biofilm formation, establishing a uniform technique for quantifying and monitoring biofilm volume, shape, and features in real-time is challenging. Herein, we describe a noninvasive electrochemical impedance approach for real-time monitoring of dental plaque-derived multispecies biofilm growth on a range of substrates. A working equation relating electrochemical impedance to live biofilm volume has been developed that is applicable to all three surfaces examined, including glass, dental filling resin, and Ca[2+]-releasing resin composites. Impedance changes of 2.5, 35, 50, and 65% correlated to biofilm volumes of 0.10 ± 0.01, 16.9 ± 2.2, 29.7 ± 2.3, and 38.6 ± 2.8 μm[3]/μm[2], respectively. We discovered that glass, dental filling resin, and Ca[2+]-releasing dental composites required approximately 3.5, 4.5, and 6 days, respectively, to achieve a 50% change in impedance. The local pH change at the biofilm-substrate interfaces also monitored with potentiometry pH microsensor, and pH change varied according to biofilm volume. This impedance-based technique can be a useful analytical method for monitoring the growth of biofilms on a variety of substrates in real-time. Therefore, this technique may be beneficial for examining antibacterial properties of novel biomaterials.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Li X, Gu N, Ye Y, et al (2022)

Intense pulsed light for inactivating planktonic and biofilm molds in food.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1104875.

It has been reported that about a quarter of the world's agriculture products is unable to be consumed each year because of mold contamination, resulting in incalculable economic losses. Despite modern food technology and the various preservation techniques available, the problem of mold contamination of food is still not adequately controlled. In this study, we simulated the biofilm formed by Aspergillus niger and Penicillium glaucum in liquid and solid food in 96 well cell culture plates and polycarbonate membrane models, respectively, and investigated the fungicidal effect of IPL on planktonic and biofilm molds at three different capacitance parameters at room and refrigerator temperatures. The results show that IPL can achieve fungicidal rates of over 99% for planktonic molds and over 90% for biofilm molds, and that the smaller the capacitance, the more frequent the irradiation required to achieve the same fungicidal rate. In addition, temperature, A. niger or Penicillium glaucum have no effect on the fungicidal effect of IPL. We believe that IPL is a promising non-thermal physical sterilization technique for fungal inhibition on food surfaces.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Bisht K, Luecke AR, CA Wakeman (2022)

Temperature-specific adaptations and genetic requirements in a biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1032520.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen often associated with nosocomial infections that are made more severe by this bacterium's ability to form robust biofilms. A biofilm is a microbial community encompassing cells embedded within an extracellular polymeric substrate (EPS) matrix that is typically secreted by the encased microbial cells. Biofilm formation is influenced by several environmental cues, and temperature fluctuations are likely to be an important stimulus in the lifecycle of P. aeruginosa as it transitions between life in aquatic or soil environments to sites of infection in the human host. Previous work has demonstrated that human body temperature can induce a shift in the biofilm EPS relative to room temperature growth, resulting in an incorporation of a filamentous phage coat protein into the biofilm EPS. In this study, we sought to identify adaptations enabling biofilm formation at room temperature or temperatures mimicking the natural environment of P. aeruginosa (23°C and 30°C) relative to temperatures mimicking life in the human host (37°C and 40°C). We identified higher biofilm: biomass ratios at lower temperatures on certain substrates, which correlated with a higher relative abundance of apparent polysaccharide EPS content. However, the known genes for EPS polysaccharide production in P. aeruginosa PA14 did not appear to be specifically important for temperature-dependent biofilm adaptation, with the pelB gene appearing to be generally important and the algD gene being generally expendable in all conditions tested. Instead, we were able to identify two previously uncharacterized hypothetical proteins (PA14_50070 and PA14_67550) specifically required for biofilm formation at 23°C and/or 30°C relative to temperatures associated with the human host. These unstudied contributors to biofilm integrity may have been previously overlooked since most P. aeruginosa biofilm studies tend to use 37°C growth temperatures. Overall, our study demonstrates that temperature shifts can have dramatic impacts on biofilm structure and highlights the importance of studying environment-specific adaptations in biofilm physiology.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Yamaguchi-Kuroda Y, Kikuchi Y, Kokubu E, et al (2023)

Porphyromonas gingivalis diffusible signaling molecules enhance Fusobacterium nucleatum biofilm formation via gene expression modulation.

Journal of oral microbiology, 15(1):2165001.

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is caused by a dysbiotic shift in the dental plaque microbiome. Fusobacterium nucleatum is involved in the colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis, which plays a key role in dysbiosis, via coaggregation and synergy with this microorganism.

AIM: We investigated the effect of diffusible signaling molecules from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 on F. nucleatum TDC 100 to elucidate the synergistic mechanisms involved in dysbiosis.

METHODS: The two species were cocultured separated with an 0.4-µm membrane in tryptic soy broth, and F. nucleatum gene expression profiles in coculture with P. gingivalis were compared with those in monoculture.

RESULTS: RNA sequencing revealed 139 genes differentially expressed between the coculture and monoculture. The expression of 52 genes was upregulated, including the coaggregation ligand-coding gene. Eighty-seven genes were downregulated. Gene Ontology analysis indicated enrichment for the glycogen synthesis pathway and a decrease in de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that diffusible signaling molecules from P. gingivalis induce metabolic changes in F. nucleatum, including an increase in polysaccharide synthesis and reduction in de novo synthesis of purine and pyrimidine. The metabolic changes may accelerate biofilm formation by F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis. Further, the alterations may represent potential therapeutic targets for preventing dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Tiwari M, Panwar S, V Tiwari (2023)

Assessment of potassium ion channel during electric signalling in biofilm formation of Acinetobacter baumannii for finding antibiofilm molecule.

Heliyon, 9(1):e12837.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic ESKAPE pathogen which causes nosocomial infections and can produce biofilms that act as resistant determinants. The role of quorum sensing (chemical signaling) in biofilm establishment has already been studied extensively, but the existence of electrochemical signaling during biofilm formation by A. baumannii has not yet been investigated. The current study evaluated the presence of electrical signaling, types of ion channels involved, and their role in biofilm formation using spectroscopic and microbiological methods. The findings suggest that the potassium ion channel has a significant role in the electrical signaling during the biofilm formation by A. baumannii. Further, in-silico screening, molecular mechanics, and molecular dynamic simulation studies identify a potential lead, ZINC12496555(a specific inhibitor), which targets the potassium ion channel protein of A. baumannii. Mutational analysis of the interacting residues showed alterations in the unfolding rate of this protein after the selected mutation, which shows its role in the stability of this protein. It was also observed that identified lead has high antibiofilm activity, no human off-targets, and non-cytotoxicity to cell lines. Thus, identified lead against the potassium channel of A baumannii may be used as an effective therapeutic for the treatment of A. baumannii infections after further experimental validation.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Paniguel Oliveira E, Giordani A, Kawanishi J, et al (2023)

Biofilm stratification and autotrophic-heterotrophic interactions in a structured bed reactor (SBRIA) for carbon and nitrogen removal.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00065-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The structured-bed reactor with intermittent aeration (SBRIA) is a promising technology for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal from wastewater. An in depth understanding of the microbiological in the reactor is crucial for its optimization. In this research, biofilm samples from the aerobic and anoxic zones of an SBRIA were analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing to evaluate the bacterial community shift with variations in the airflow and aeration time. The control of the airflow and aeration time were essential to guarantee reactor performances to nitrogen removal close to 80%, as it interfered in nitrifying and denitrifying communities. The aeration time of 1.75 h led to establishment of different nitrogen removal pathways by syntrophic relationships between nitrifier, denitrifier and anammox species. Additionally, the predominance of these different species in the internal and external parts of the biofilm varied according to the airflow.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Saidulu D, Srivastava A, A Kumar Gupta (2023)

Elucidating the performance of integrated anoxic/oxic moving bed biofilm reactor: Assessment of organics and nutrients removal and optimization using feed forward back propagation neural network.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00067-6 [Epub ahead of print].

A lab-scale integrated anoxic and oxic (A/O) moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was investigated for the removal of organics and nutrients by varying chemical oxygen demand (COD) to NH4-N ratio (C/N ratio: 3.5, 6.75, and 10), hydraulic retention time (HRT: 6 h, 15 h, and 24 h), and recirculation ratio (R: 1, 2, and 3). The use of activated carbon coated carriers prepared from waste polyethylene material and polyurethane sponges attached to a cylindrical frame in the integrated A/O MBBR increased the attached growth biomass significantly. More than 95% of COD removal was observed under the C/N ratio of 10 at an HRT of 24 h. While the low C/N ratio favored the removal of NH4-N (∼98%) and PO4[3-]-P (∼90%) with an optimal R of 1.75. Using the experimental dataset, to predict and forecast the performance of integrated A/O MBBR, a feed-forward-backpropagation-neural-network model was developed.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Zhang Y, Ge T, Li Y, et al (2023)

Anti-Fouling and Anti-Biofilm Performance of Self-Polishing Waterborne Polyurethane with Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salts.

Polymers, 15(2): pii:polym15020317.

Biofilms are known to be difficult to eradicate and control, complicating human infections and marine biofouling. In this study, self-polishing and anti-fouling waterborne polyurethane coatings synthesized from gemini quaternary ammonium salts (GQAS), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polycaprolactone diol (PCL) demonstrate excellent antibiofilm efficacy. Their anti-fouling and anti-biofilm performance was confirmed by a culture-based method in broth media, with the biofilm formation factor against Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (E. coli) for 2 days. The results indicate that polyurethane coatings have excellent anti-biofilm activity when the content of GQAS reached 8.5 wt% against S. aureus, and 15.8 wt% against E. coli. The resulting waterborne polyurethane coatings demonstrate both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation, and the surface erosion enzymatic degradation mechanism enables them with good self-polishing capability. The extracts cyto-toxicity of these polyurethane coatings and degradation liquids was also systematically studied; they could be degraded to non-toxic or low toxic compositions. This study shows the possibility to achieve potent self-polishing and anti-biofilm efficacy by integrating antibacterial GQAS, PEG, and PCL into waterborne polyurethane coatings.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Arenas-Vivo A, Celis Arias V, Amariei G, et al (2023)

Antiadherent AgBDC Metal-Organic Framework Coating for Escherichia coli Biofilm Inhibition.

Pharmaceutics, 15(1): pii:pharmaceutics15010301.

Surface microbial colonization and its potential biofilm formation are currently a major unsolved problem, causing almost 75% of human infectious diseases. Pathogenic biofilms are capable of surviving high antibiotic doses, resulting in inefficient treatments and, subsequently, raised infection prevalence rates. Antibacterial coatings have become a promising strategy against the biofilm formation in biomedical devices due to their biocidal activity without compromising the bulk material. Here, we propose for the first time a silver-based metal-organic framework (MOF; here denoted AgBDC) showing original antifouling properties able to suppress not only the initial bacterial adhesion, but also the potential surface contamination. Firstly, the AgBDC stability (colloidal, structural and chemical) was confirmed under bacteria culture conditions by using agar diffusion and colony counting assays, evidencing its biocide effect against the challenging E. coli, one of the main representative indicators of Gram-negative resistance bacteria. Then, this material was shaped as homogeneous spin-coated AgBDC thin film, investigating its antifouling and biocide features using a combination of complementary procedures such as colony counting, optical density or confocal scanning microscopy, which allowed to visualize for the first time the biofilm impact generated by MOFs via a specific fluorochrome, calcofluor.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Khalid A, Cookson AR, Whitworth DE, et al (2023)

A Synthetic Polymicrobial Community Biofilm Model Demonstrates Spatial Partitioning, Tolerance to Antimicrobial Treatment, Reduced Metabolism, and Small Colony Variants Typical of Chronic Wound Biofilms.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1): pii:pathogens12010118.

Understanding chronic wound infection is key for successful treatment and requires accurate laboratory models. We describe a modified biofilm flow device that effectively mimics the chronic wound environment, including simulated wound fluid, a collagen-based 3D biofilm matrix, and a five-species mixture of clinically relevant bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Citrobacter freundii). Mixed biofilms were cultured for between 3 and 14 days with consistent numbers of bacteria that exhibited reduced metabolic activity, which increased with a high dose of glucose. S. aureus was recovered from biofilms as a small colony variant, but as a normal colony variant if P. aeruginosa was excluded from the system. Bacteria within the biofilm did not co-aggregate but formed discrete, species-specific clusters. Biofilms demonstrated differential tolerance to the topical antimicrobials Neosporin and HOCl, consistent with protection due to the biofilm lifestyle. The characteristics exhibited within this model match those of real-world wound biofilms, reflecting the clinical scenario and yielding a powerful in vitro tool that is versatile, inexpensive, and pivotal for understanding chronic wound infection.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Khalil MA, Alorabi JA, Al-Otaibi LM, et al (2022)

Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Formation in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1): pii:pathogens12010034.

BACKGROUND: A urinary tract infection (UTI) resulting from multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterococci is a common disease with few therapeutic options. About 15% of urinary tract infections are caused by biofilm-producing Enterococcus spp. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the MDR enterococci associated with UTIs and assess their potential to produce biofilms.

METHODS: Thirty Enterococcus isolates were obtained from urine samples collected from UTI patients at King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital in Taif, Saudi Arabia. The antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates were evaluated using disk diffusion techniques against 15 antimicrobial agents. Two techniques, Congo red agar (CRA) and a microtiter plate (MTP), were used to assess the potential of the isolates to produce biofilms. The enterococcal isolates were screened for biofilm-related genes, esp; ebpA; and ebpB, using the PCR method.

RESULTS: The molecular identification of the collected bacteria revealed the presence of 73.3% Enterococcus&nbsp;faecalis and 26.6% Enterococcus&nbsp;faecium. The antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that all the tested Enterococcus spp. were resistant to all antimicrobials except for linezolid and tigecycline. Additionally, by employing the CRA and MTP techniques, 76.6% and 100% of the Enterococcus isolates were able to generate biofilms, respectively. In terms of the association between the antibiotic resistance and biofilm's formation, it was observed that isolates capable of creating strong biofilms were extremely resistant to most of the antibiotics tested. The obtained data showed that all the tested isolates had biofilm-encoding genes.

CONCLUSIONS: Our research revealed that the biofilm-producing enterococci bacteria that causes urinary tract infections were resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to seek other pharmacological treatments if antibiotic medicine fails.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Sulaiman R, Trizna E, Kolesnikova A, et al (2022)

Antimicrobial and Biofilm-Preventing Activity of l-Borneol Possessing 2(5H)-Furanone Derivative F131 against S. aureus-C.&nbsp;albicans Mixed Cultures.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1): pii:pathogens12010026.

Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are human pathogens that are able to form mixed biofilms on the surface of mucous membranes, implants and catheters. In biofilms, these pathogens have increased resistance to antimicrobials, leading to extreme difficulties in the treatment of mixed infections. The growing frequency of mixed infections caused by S. aureus and C. albicans requires either the development of new antimicrobials or the proposal of alternative approaches to increase the efficiency of conventional ones. Here, we show the antimicrobial, biofilm-preventing and biofilm-eradicating activity of 2(5H)-furanone derivative F131, containing an l-borneol fragment against S. aureus-C. albicans mixed biofilms. Furanone F131 is also capable of inhibiting the formation of monospecies and mixed biofilms by S. aureus and C. albicans. The minimal biofilm-prevention concentration (MBPC) of this compound was 8-16 μg/mL for S. aureus and C. albicans mono- and two-species biofilms. While the compound demonstrates slightly lower activity compared to conventional antimicrobials (gentamicin, amikacin, fluconazole, terbinafine and benzalkonium chloride), F131 also increases the antimicrobial activity of fluconazole-gentamicin and benzalkonium chloride against mixed biofilms of S. aureus-C. albicans, thus reducing MBPC of fluconazole-gentamicin by 4-16 times and benzalkonium chloride twofold. F131 does not affect the transcription of the MDR1, CDR1 and CDR2 genes, thus suggesting a low risk of micromycete resistance to this compound. Altogether, combined use of antibiotics with a F131 could be a promising option to reduce the concentration of fluconazole used in antiseptic compositions and reduce the toxic effect of benzalkonium chloride and gentamicin. This makes them an attractive starting point for the development of alternative antimicrobials for the treatment of skin infections caused by S. aureus-C. albicans mixed biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Smitran A, Lukovic B, Bozic L, et al (2023)

Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Biofilm-Associated Genes, Biofilm-Eradication Potential of Disinfectants, and Biofilm-Inhibitory Effects of Selenium Nanoparticles.

Microorganisms, 11(1): pii:microorganisms11010171.

This study aimed to investigate the biofilm-production ability of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), the biofilm-eradication potential of 70% ethanol and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, the effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) against planktonic and biofilm-embedded CRAB, and the relationship between biofilm production and bacterial genotypes. A total of 111 CRAB isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm formation, presence of the genes encoding carbapenemases, and biofilm-associated virulence factors. The antibiofilm effects of disinfectants and SeNPs against CRAB isolates were also tested. The vast majority of the tested isolates were biofilm producers (91.9%). The bap, ompA, and csuE genes were found in 57%, 70%, and 76% of the CRAB isolates, with the csuE being significantly more common among biofilm producers (78.6%) compared to non-biofilm-producing CRAB (25%). The tested disinfectants showed a better antibiofilm effect on moderate and strong biofilm producers than on weak producers (p < 0.01). The SeNPs showed an inhibitory effect against all tested planktonic (MIC range: 0.00015 to >1.25 mg/mL) and biofilm-embedded CRAB, with a minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration of less than 0.15 mg/mL for 90% of biofilm producers. In conclusion, SeNPs might be used as promising therapeutic and medical device coating agents, thus serving as an alternative approach for the prevention of biofilm-related infections.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

AboElmaaty SA, Shati AA, Alfaifi MY, et al (2022)

Biofilm Inhibitory Activity of Actinomycete-Synthesized AgNPs with Low Cytotoxic Effect: Experimental and In Silico Study.

Microorganisms, 11(1): pii:microorganisms11010102.

The emergence of resistance by biofilm-forming bacteria has reached alarming and dangerous levels that threaten human civilization. The current study sought to investigate the antibiofilm potential of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles, mediated by a new Streptomyces strain. Zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to analyze the biosynthesized AgNPs. Results revealed that silver nanoparticles had a size of (5.55 and 45.00 nm) nm and a spherical shape, with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption at 400-460 nm in the UV-vis spectra establishing the formation of Streptomyces-Ag-NPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs showed a pronounced antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the obtained Streptomyces-AgNPs exerted biofilm inhibition activity against nosocomial hospital-resistant bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The mechanism of biogenic AgNPs antibacterial action was visualized using TEM, which indicated the AgNPs accumulation and disruption of bacterial cell membrane function. Additionally, a molecular docking study was conducted to evaluate the binding mode of AgNPs with an Escherichia coli outer membrane. Furthermore, the cytotoxic profile of the AgNPs was evaluated toward three cell lines (MCF-7, HepG2 & HCT 116), and the low cytotoxic effects of the obtained nanoparticles indicated their possible medical application with low risks to human health.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Chi SI, S Ramirez-Arcos (2022)

Staphylococcal Enterotoxins Enhance Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus in Platelet Concentrates.

Microorganisms, 11(1): pii:microorganisms11010089.

Biofilm formation and slow growth by Staphylococcus aureus in platelet concentrates (PCs) cause missed detection of this bacterium during routine PC screening with automated culture systems. This heightens the chances of false-negative screening transfusions and pre-disposes transfusion patients to an elevated risk of sepsis due to secretion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in PCs. A hybrid approach of comparative RNAseq analyses and CRISPR mutagenesis of SE genes was employed to investigate the effect of SEs in S. aureus growth and biofilm formation in PCs. RNAseq data showed no differential expression for key biofilm genes, whereas SE genes were upregulated (>0.5- to 3.6-fold change) in PCs compared to trypticase soy broth (TSB). Remarkably, growth and biofilm formation assays revealed increased growth for the S. aureus SE mutants, while their ability to form biofilms was significantly impaired (-6.8- to -2.4-fold change) in comparison to the wild type strain, in both PCs and TSB. Through the well-established superantigen mechanism of SEs, we propose three roles for SEs during biofilm development in PCs: (1) provide a scaffold for biofilm matrix, (2) mediate cell-to-cell aggregation, and (3) guarantee biofilm survival. Furthermore, SE contribution to both growth and biofilm development seems to be centrally regulated by agr via quorum sensing and by saeSR and sigB. This study reveals new roles for SEs, which enforce their relevance in ensuring PC safety for transfusion patients. It further deciphers the underlying reasons for failed S. aureus detection in PCs during screening with automated culture systems.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Abdulgader M, Yu J, Zinatizadeh AA, et al (2022)

Effect of Different Operational Conditions on the Treatment Performance of Milk Processing Wastewater (MPW) Using a Single Stage Flexible Fibre Biofilm Reactor (SS-FFBR).

Membranes, 13(1): pii:membranes13010037.

The performance of a biofilm system, single-stage flexible fibre biofilm reactor (SS-FFBR) treating milk processing wastewater (MPW) is evaluated under various process and operational conditions. The system behavior is analyzed with different biological and physical parameters. Results show that the high COD removal efficiency of 95% is obtained at a low CODin concentration of 809 mg/L. However, the COD removal is slightly decreased to 91.7% once the CODin concentration incremented to nearly 4000 mg/L. The effect of organic loading rate (OLR) on the SS-FFBR performance is examined as total suspended solids removal efficiency, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. The SS-FFBR showed considerable performance, so that 89.9% and 89.7% removal efficiencies in terms of COD and TSS removals, respectively, obtained at the highest OLR of 11.7 kg COD/m[3]d. TSS removal efficiency of 96.7% is obtained at a low OLR of 1.145 kg COD/m[3]d. A linear relationship between the OLR and COD removal rate was revealed. The COD removal rate was incremented from 1.08 to 10.68 kg COD/m[3]d as the OLR increased from 1.145 to 11.7 kg COD/m[3]d. Finally, the operating system is a promising technique recommended to treat various industrial wastewaters with high OLR.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Alharthi MS, Bamaga O, Abulkhair H, et al (2022)

Evaluation of a Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Membrane Bioreactor and a Direct Contact Membrane Distillation System for Purification of Industrial Wastewater.

Membranes, 13(1): pii:membranes13010016.

Integrated wastewater treatment processes are accepted as the best option for sustainable and unrestricted onsite water reuse. In this study, moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), membrane bioreactor (MBR), and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) treatment steps were integrated successively to obtain the combined advantages of these processes for industrial wastewater treatment. The MBBR step acts as the first step in the biological treatment and also mitigates foulant load on the MBR. Similarly, MBR acts as the second step in the biological treatment and serves as a pretreatment prior to the DCMD step. The latter acts as a final treatment to produce high-quality water. A laboratory scale integrated MBBR/MBR/DCMD experimental system was used for assessing the treatment efficiency of primary treated (PTIWW) and secondary treated (STIWW) industrial wastewater in terms of permeate water flux, effluent quality, and membrane fouling. The removal efficiency of total dissolved solids (TDS) and effluent permeate flux of the three-step process (MBBR/MBR/DCMD) were better than the two-step (MBR/DCMD) process. In the three-step process, the average removal efficiency of TDS was 99.85% and 98.16% when treating STIWW and PTIWW, respectively. While in the case of the two-step process, the average removal efficiency of TDS was 93.83% when treating STIWW. Similar trends were observed for effluent permeate flux values which were found, in the case of the three-step process, 62.6% higher than the two-step process, when treating STIWW in both cases. Moreover, the comparison of the quality of the effluents obtained with the analysed configurations with that obtained by Jeddah Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant proved the higher performance of the proposed membrane processes.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Mishra S, Gupta A, Upadhye V, et al (2023)

Therapeutic Strategies against Biofilm Infections.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(1): pii:life13010172.

A biofilm is an aggregation of surface-associated microbial cells that is confined in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix. Infections caused by microbes that form biofilms are linked to a variety of animals, including insects and humans. Antibiotics and other antimicrobials can be used to remove or eradicate biofilms in order to treat infections. However, due to biofilm resistance to antibiotics and antimicrobials, clinical observations and experimental research clearly demonstrates that antibiotic and antimicrobial therapies alone are frequently insufficient to completely eradicate biofilm infections. Therefore, it becomes crucial and urgent for clinicians to properly treat biofilm infections with currently available antimicrobials and analyze the results. Numerous biofilm-fighting strategies have been developed as a result of advancements in nanoparticle synthesis with an emphasis on metal oxide np. This review focuses on several therapeutic strategies that are currently being used and also those that could be developed in the future. These strategies aim to address important structural and functional aspects of microbial biofilms as well as biofilms' mechanisms for drug resistance, including the EPS matrix, quorum sensing (QS), and dormant cell targeting. The NPs have demonstrated significant efficacy against bacterial biofilms in a variety of bacterial species. To overcome resistance, treatments such as nanotechnology, quorum sensing, and photodynamic therapy could be used.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Lila ASA, Rajab AAH, Abdallah MH, et al (2023)

Biofilm Lifestyle in Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(1): pii:life13010148.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent one of the most common infections that are frequently encountered in health care facilities. One of the main mechanisms used by bacteria that allows them to survive hostile environments is biofilm formation. Biofilms are closed bacterial communities that offer protection and safe hiding, allowing bacteria to evade host defenses and hide from the reach of antibiotics. Inside biofilm communities, bacteria show an increased rate of horizontal gene transfer and exchange of resistance and virulence genes. Additionally, bacterial communication within the biofilm allows them to orchestrate the expression of virulence genes, which further cements the infestation and increases the invasiveness of the infection. These facts stress the necessity of continuously updating our information and understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, and eradication methods of this growing public health concern. This review seeks to understand the role of biofilm formation in recurrent urinary tact infections by outlining the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation in different uropathogens, in addition to shedding light on some biofilm eradication strategies.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Dias LM, Klein MI, Ferrisse TM, et al (2023)

The Effect of Sub-Lethal Successive Applications of Photodynamic Therapy on Candida albicans Biofilm Depends on the Photosensitizer.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1): pii:jof9010111.

This study aimed to evaluate the potential of successive applications of sub-lethal doses of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by Photodithazine[®] (PDZ) and curcumin (CUR) associated with LED in the viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and gene expression of Candida albicans. The microbial assays were performed using planktonic cultures and biofilms. Ten successive applications (Apl#) were performed: aPDT (P+L+; C+L+), photosensitizer (P+L-; C+L-), and LED (P-L+; C-L+). Control groups were used (P-L-; C-L-). The viability of C. albicans was determined by cultivating treated cultures on agar plates with or without fluconazole (FLU). In addition, the ROS detection and expression of SOD1, CAP1, and ERG11 genes were determined. For planktonic cultures, no viable colonies were observed after Apl#3 (without FLU) and Apl#2 (with FLU) for either photosensitizer. Biofilm treated with P+L+ resulted in the absence of cell viability after Apl#7, while C+L+ showed ~1.40 log10 increase in cell viability after Apl#2, regardless of FLU. For both photosensitizers, after the last application with viable colonies, the production of ROS was higher in the biofilms than in the planktonic cultures, and SOD1 expression was the highest in P+L+. A reduction of CAP1 and ERG11 expression occurred after P+L+, regardless of FLU. C+L+ had a higher level of ROS, and the treatments were non-significant for gene expression. Sub-lethal doses of aPDT mediated by CUR could induce C. albicans resistance in biofilms, while C. albicans cells in biofilms were susceptible to aPDT mediated by PDZ.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Kim C, Kim JG, KY Kim (2023)

Anti-Candida Potential of Sclareol in Inhibiting Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Yeast-Hyphal Transition.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1): pii:jof9010098.

Even though Candida albicans commonly colonizes on most mucosal surfaces including the vaginal and gastrointestinal tract, it can cause candidiasis as an opportunistic infectious fungus. The emergence of resistant Candida strains and the toxicity of anti-fungal agents have encouraged the development of new classes of potential anti-fungal agents. Sclareol, a labdane-type diterpene, showed anti-Candida activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 50 μg/mL in 24 h based on a microdilution anti-fungal susceptibility test. Cell membrane permeability with propidium iodide staining and mitochondrial membrane potential with JC-1 staining were increased in C. albicans by treatment of sclareol. Sclareol also suppressed the hyphal formation of C. albicans in both liquid and solid media, and reduced biofilm formation. Taken together, sclareol induces an apoptosis-like cell death against Candida spp. and suppressed biofilm and hyphal formation in C. albicans. Sclareol is of high interest as a novel anti-fungal agent and anti-virulence factor.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Wiessner A, Wassmann T, Wiessner JM, et al (2023)

In Vivo Biofilm Formation on Novel PEEK, Titanium, and Zirconia Implant Abutment Materials.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(2): pii:ijms24021779.

The formation of biofilms on the surface of dental implants and abutment materials may lead to peri-implantitis and subsequent implant failure. Recently, innovative materials such as polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and its modifications have been used as abutment materials. However, there is limited knowledge on microbial adhesion to PEEK materials. The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate biofilm formation on the surface of conventional (titanium and zirconia) and PEEK implant abutment materials. Split specimens of titanium, zirconia, PEEK, and modified PEEK (PEEK-BioHPP) were manufactured, mounted in individual removable acrylic upper jaw splints, and worn by 20 healthy volunteers for 24 h. The surface roughness was determined using widefield confocal microscopy. Biofilm accumulation was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and quantified by imaging software. The surface roughness of the investigated materials was <0.2 µm and showed no significant differences between the materials. Zirconia showed the lowest biofilm formation, followed by titanium, PEEK, and PEEK-BioHPP. Differences were significant (p < 0.001) between the investigated materials, except for the polyether-ether-ketones. Generally, biofilm formation was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the posterior region of the oral cavity than in the anterior region. The results of the present study show a material-dependent susceptibility to biofilm formation. The risk of developing peri-implantitis may be reduced by a specific choice of abutment material.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Matthes R, Jablonowski L, Miebach L, et al (2023)

In-Vitro Biofilm Removal Efficacy Using Water Jet in Combination with Cold Plasma Technology on Dental Titanium Implants.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(2): pii:ijms24021606.

Peri-implantitis-associated inflammation can lead to bone loss and implant failure. Current decontamination measures are ineffective due to the implants' complex geometry and rough surfaces providing niches for microbial biofilms. A modified water jet system (WaterJet) was combined with cold plasma technology (CAP) to achieve superior antimicrobial efficacy compared to cotton gauze treatment. Seven-day-old multi-species-contaminated titanium discs and implants were investigated as model systems. The efficacy of decontamination on implants was determined by rolling the implants over agar and determining colony-forming units supported by scanning electron microscopy image quantification of implant surface features. The inflammatory consequences of mono and combination treatments were investigated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell surface marker expression and chemokine and cytokine release profiles on titanium discs. In addition, titanium discs were assayed using fluorescence microscopy. Cotton gauze was inferior to WaterJet treatment according to all types of analysis. In combination with the antimicrobial effect of CAP, decontamination was improved accordingly. Mono and CAP-combined treatment on titanium surfaces alone did not unleash inflammation. Simultaneously, chemokine and cytokine release was dramatically reduced in samples that had benefited from additional antimicrobial effects through CAP. The combined treatment with WaterJet and CAP potently removed biofilm and disinfected rough titanium implant surfaces. At the same time, non-favorable rendering of the surface structure or its pro-inflammatory potential through CAP was not observed.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Diban F, Di Lodovico S, Di Fermo P, et al (2023)

Biofilms in Chronic Wound Infections: Innovative Antimicrobial Approaches Using the In Vitro Lubbock Chronic Wound Biofilm Model.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(2): pii:ijms24021004.

Chronic wounds have harmful effects on both patients and healthcare systems. Wound chronicity is attributed to an impaired healing process due to several host and local factors that affect healing pathways. The resulting ulcers contain a wide variety of microorganisms that are mostly resistant to antimicrobials and possess the ability to form mono/poly-microbial biofilms. The search for new, effective and safe compounds to handle chronic wounds has come a long way throughout the history of medicine, which has included several studies and trials of conventional treatments. Treatments focus on fighting the microbial colonization that develops in the wound by multidrug resistant pathogens. The development of molecular medicine, especially in antibacterial agents, needs an in vitro model similar to the in vivo chronic wound environment to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents. The Lubbock chronic wound biofilm (LCWB) model is an in vitro model developed to mimic the pathogen colonization and the biofilm formation of a real chronic wound, and it is suitable to screen the antibacterial activity of innovative compounds. In this review, we focused on the characteristics of chronic wound biofilms and the contribution of the LCWB model both to the study of wound poly-microbial biofilms and as a model for novel treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Chajęcka-Wierzchowska W, Gajewska J, Zakrzewski AJ, et al (2023)

Molecular Analysis of Pathogenicity, Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs) and Biofilm Genes of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Food.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(2): pii:ijerph20021375.

This paper provides a snapshot on the pathogenic traits within CoNS isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) food. Eighty-five strains were subjected to biofilm and slime production, as well as biofilm-associated genes (icaA, icaD, icaB, icaC, eno, bap, bhp, aap, fbe, embP and atlE), the insertion sequence elements IS256 and IS257 and hemolytic genes. The results showed that the most prevalent determinants responsible for the primary adherence were eno (57.6%) and aap (56.5%) genes. The icaADBC operon was detected in 45.9% of the tested strains and was correlated to slime production. Moreover, most strains carrying the icaADBC operon simultaneously carried the IS257 insertion sequence element. Among the genes encoding for surface proteins involved in the adhesion to abiotic surfaces process, atlE was the most commonly (31.8%) followed by bap (4.7%) and bhp (1.2%). The MSCRAMMs, including fbe and embp were detected in the 11.8% and 28.2% of strains, respectively. A high occurrence of genes involved in the hemolytic toxin production were detected, such as hla_yiD (50.6%), hlb (48.2%), hld (41.2%) and hla_haem (34.1%). The results of the present study revealed an unexpected occurrence of the genes involved in biofilm production and the high hemolytic activity among the CoNS strains, isolated from RTE food, highlighting that this group seems to be acquiring pathogenic traits similar to those of S. aureus, suggesting the need to be included in the routine microbiological analyses of food.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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An examination of the research and translational application to prevent and treat biofilm-associated diseases In the decade since the first edition of Microbial Biofilms was published, the interest in this field has expanded, spurring breakthrough research that has advanced the treatment of biofilm-associated diseases. This second edition takes the reader on an exciting, extensive review of bacterial and fungal biofilms, ranging from basic molecular interactions to innovative therapies, with particular emphasis on the division of labor in biofilms, new approaches to combat the threat of microbial biofilms, and how biofilms evade the host defense.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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