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05 Jun 2023 at 01:35
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Bibliography on: Biofilm


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 05 Jun 2023 at 01:35 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-06-02

Gupta N, Kumar A, VK Verma (2023)

Strategies adopted by gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori for a mature biofilm formation: Antimicrobial peptides as a visionary treatment.

Microbiological research, 273:127417 pii:S0944-5013(23)00119-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Enormous efforts in recent past two decades to eradicate the pathogen that has been prevalent in half of the world's population have been problematic. The biofilm formed by Helicobacter pylori provides resistance towards innate immune cells, various combinatorial antibiotics, and human antimicrobial peptides, despite the fact that these all are potent enough to eradicate it in vitro. Biofilm provides the opportunity to secrete various virulence factors that strengthen the interaction between host and pathogen helping in evading the innate immune system and ultimately leading to persistence. To our knowledge, this review is the first of its kind to explain briefly the journey of H. pylori starting with the chemotaxis, the mechanism for selecting the site for colonization, the stress faced by the pathogen, and various adaptations to evade these stress conditions by forming biofilm and the morphological changes acquired by the pathogen in mature biofilm. Furthermore, we have explained the human GI tract antimicrobial peptides and the reason behind the failure of these AMPs, and how encapsulation of Pexiganan-A(MSI-78A) in a chitosan microsphere increases the efficiency of eradication.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Kang T, Zhou M, Yan X, et al (2023)

Biofilm formation and correlations with drug resistance in Mycoplasma synoviae.

Veterinary microbiology, 283:109777 pii:S0378-1135(23)00129-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Infectious synovitis in chickens caused by Mycoplasma synoviae infections are characterized by exudative synovial joint membranes and tenosynovitis. We isolated M. synoviae from chickens on farms in Guangdong, China and identifed 29 K-type and 3 A-type strains using vlhA genotyping and all displayed decreased susceptibilities to enrofloxacin, doxycycline, tiamulin and tylosin compared with the type strain WVU1853 (ATCC 25204). M. synoviae biofilms were present after staining as block or continuous dot shape morphologies and these appeared as tower-like and mushroom-like structures in scanning electron micrographs. The optimal temperature for biofilm formation was 33 °C and these biofilms enhanced the resistance of M. synoviae to all 4 antibiotics we tested and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration for enrofloxacin and biofilm biomass were significantly negatively correlated (r < 0, 0.3 ≤|r|<0.5, P < 0.05). This work is the first study of the biofilm formation ability of M. synoviae and provides the foundation for further investigations.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Chauhan A, Singh N, Kumar R, et al (2023)

GlfT1 down-regulation affects Mycobacterium tuberculosis biofilm formation and its in-vitro and in-vivo survival.

Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland), 141:102352 pii:S1472-9792(23)00050-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Mycobacterial galactan biosynthesis is critical for cell viability and growth, therefore an effort was made to study galactofuranosyl transferase 1, encoded by MRA_3822 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra). Galactofuranosyl transferases are involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial cell wall galactan chain and have been shown to be essential for in-vitro growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In Mtb-Ra and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb-Rv), two galactofuranosyl transferases are present, GlfT1 acts as initiator of galactan biosynthesis and GlfT2 continues with the subsequent polymerization events. GlfT2 has been well studied however GlfT1 inhibition/down-regulation and its effect on mycobacterial survival fitness has not been evaluated. To study the Mtb-Ra survival after GlfT1 silencing, Mtb-Ra knockdown and complemented strains were developed. In this study we show that GlfT1 down-regulation leads to increased susceptibility to ethambutol. Expression of glfT1 was up-regulated in the presence of ethambutol, and also in the presence of oxidative and nitrosative stress and upon exposure to low pH. Also, reduced biofilm formation, increased accumulation of ethidium bromide, and reduced tolerance to peroxide, nitric oxide and acid stress, were observed. The present study also demonstrates that GlfT1 down-regulation leads to reduced survival of Mtb-Ra in macrophages and in mice.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Peng G, Pu Z, Chen F, et al (2023)

Metal leaching from plastics in the marine environment: An ignored role of biofilm.

Environment international, 177:107988 pii:S0160-4120(23)00261-1 [Epub ahead of print].

A large quantity of metal compounds in plastics are released into the marine environment every year. However, our understanding of the extent and mechanism by which polymer-bound metals leach into seawater is still limited. In this study, a comprehensive survey was conducted to measure the metal concentrations in commonly used plastics and evaluate the effects of environmental factors (temperature, radiation, and salinity) and the physiochemical properties (surface roughness, specific surface area, hydrophobicity, and crystallinity) of the plastics on their metal leaching into seawater. In particular, we observed the metal loss from six plastics submerged in coastal seawater for eight months and studied the role of biofilm in controlling the leaching of Sb, Sn, Pb, Ba, and Cr. Our results indicate that increased temperature enhanced the release of these metals, while exposure to ultraviolet radiation significantly increased the leaching of Sn from polylactide (PLA). High salinity facilitated the leaching of Sn from PLA and Pb from polyvinylchloride ball, however inhibited the leaching of Ba from PE wrap. The leaching rate was primarily determined by the inherent property of crystallinity. Metal loss from the plastics in the field was apparent during the first three weeks, but then was hindered by the development of biofilm. Our study provides the mechanisms underlying metal leaching from physical, chemical, and biological perspectives, which is useful for understanding the environmental risk of the plastic-containing metals.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Pedicini L, Vannini C, Rindi F, et al (2023)

Variations in epilithic microbial biofilm composition and recruitment of a canopy-forming alga between pristine and urban rocky shores.

Marine environmental research, 188:106035 pii:S0141-1136(23)00163-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Brown algae of the genus Ericaria are habitat formers on Mediterranean rocky shores supporting marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Their population decline has prompted attempts for restoration of threatened populations. Although epilithic microbial biofilms (EMBs) are determinant for macroalgal settlement, their role in regulating the recovery of populations through the recruitment of new thalli is yet to be explored. In this study, we assessed variations in microbial biofilms composition on the settlement of Ericaria amentacea at sites exposed to different human pressures. Artificial fouling surfaces were deployed in two areas at each of three study sites in the Ligurian Sea (Capraia Island, Secche della Meloria and the mainland coast of Livorno), to allow bacterial biofilm colonization. In the laboratory, zygotes of E. amentacea were released on these surfaces to evaluate the survival of germlings. The EMB's composition was assessed through DNA metabarcoding analysis, which revealed a difference between the EMB of Capraia Island and that of Livorno. Fouling surfaces from Capraia Island had higher rates of zygote settlement than the other two sites. This suggests that different environmental conditions can influence the EMB composition on substrata, possibly influencing algal settlement rate. Assessing the suitability of rocky substrata for E. amentacea settlement is crucial for successful restoration.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Arndt-Fink A, PG Jost-Brinkmann (2023)

Investigation of the cleaning performance of commercial orthodontic cleaning tablets regarding biofilm removal on PMMA test specimens : An ex vivo study.

Journal of orofacial orthopedics = Fortschritte der Kieferorthopadie : Organ/official journal Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kieferorthopadie [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The purpose of this ex vivo study was to compare the cleaning performance of three commercially available orthodontic cleaners on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) test specimens covered with biofilm.

METHODS: Twenty subjects wore an individually manufactured vacuum-formed maxillary splint with four integrated PMMA test specimens for 7 days. The four test specimens were located on the buccal surfaces of the maxillary molars. After a 7-day wearing period, the PMMA test specimens colonized by biofilm were divided into two halves. One half was placed in 150 ml of tap water or in 150 ml of cleaning solution of the cleaners Retainer Brite® (Dentsply International Raintree Essix, Sarasota, FL, USA), Kukis® Xpress (Reckitt Benckiser, Heidelberg, Germany) or Dontodent (Propack, Heidelberg, Germany) while the other half remained uncleaned. The modified o‑phthaldialdehyde (OPA) method was used to determine the amount of protein on both halves of the test specimens. The difference was tested for significance as a measure of the cleaning effect using a paired sample t‑test.

RESULTS: The cleaning performance of the three orthodontic cleaners was higher than the cleaning performance of tap water (mean 25.9 ± 6.5%). While Retainer Brite® (mean 54.5 ± 7.1%) removed significantly more biofilm than Dontodent (mean 41.5 ± 9.2%, p < 0.001) and Kukis® Xpress (mean 39.9 ± 11.5%, p < 0.001), there was no significant difference in the cleaning performance between Kukis® Xpress and Dontodent (p = 1).

CONCLUSION: Seven-day-old biofilm is only removed partially by the investigated orthodontic cleaners, so that they are not suitable as the only measure for removing established biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Topcu Ersöz MB, Mumcu E, Avukat EN, et al (2023)

Anti-adherent activity of nano-coatings deposited by thermionic vacuum arc plasma on C. albicans biofilm formation.

The International journal of artificial organs [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the anti-adherent activity of nano-coatings deposited by Thermionic Vacuum Arc plasma on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 80 disc-shaped (2 × 10 mm) polymethymethacrylate samples were prepared and divided into four groups with 10 samples in each group (Control, ZnO, SnO2, Ag) (n = 10). Using thermionic vacuum arc plasma, they were coated with ZnO, SnO2, and Ag. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Crystal Viole (CV) assays were conducted for biofilm quantification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe biofilm images of C. albicans biofilm.

RESULTS: MTT and CV mean values differ statistically significantly between all groups (p ⩽ 0.05). The SnO2 group had the lowest mean value, whereas the control group received the highest value.

CONCLUSION: SnO2 coating shown greater anti-adherent activity than either metal oxides. C. albicans biofilm formation on denture base surfaces is reduced following Thermionic Vacuum Arc plasma coating with SnO2.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Liu Y, Daniel SG, Kim HE, et al (2023)

Addition of cariogenic pathogens to complex oral microflora drives significant changes in biofilm compositions and functionalities.

Microbiome, 11(1):123.

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a microbe and sugar-mediated biofilm-dependent oral disease. Of particular significance, a virulent type of dental caries, known as severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), is characterized by the synergistic polymicrobial interaction between the cariogenic bacterium, Streptococcus mutans, and an opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Although cross-sectional studies reveal their important roles in caries development, these exhibit limitations in determining the significance of these microbial interactions in the pathogenesis of the disease. Thus, it remains unclear the mechanism(s) through which the cross-kingdom interaction modulates the composition of the plaque microbiome. Here, we employed a novel ex vivo saliva-derived microcosm biofilm model to assess how exogenous pathogens could impact the structural and functional characteristics of the indigenous native oral microbiota.

RESULTS: Through shotgun whole metagenome sequencing, we observed that saliva-derived biofilm has decreased richness and diversity but increased sugar-related metabolism relative to the planktonic phase. Addition of S. mutans and/or C. albicans to the native microbiome drove significant changes in its bacterial composition. In addition, the effect of the exogenous pathogens on microbiome diversity and taxonomic abundances varied depending on the sugar type. While the addition of S. mutans induced a broader effect on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) ortholog abundances with glucose/fructose, S. mutans-C. albicans combination under sucrose conditions triggered unique and specific changes in microbiota composition/diversity as well as specific effects on KEGG pathways. Finally, we observed the presence of human epithelial cells within the biofilms via confocal microscopy imaging.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that the presence of S. mutans and C. albicans, alone or in combination, as well as the addition of different sugars, induced unique alterations in both the composition and functional attributes of the biofilms. In particular, the combination of S. mutans and C. albicans seemed to drive the development (and perhaps the severity) of a dysbiotic/cariogenic oral microbiome. Our work provides a unique and pragmatic biofilm model for investigating the functional microbiome in health and disease as well as developing strategies to modulate the microbiome. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Fauzia KA, Aftab H, Miftahussurur M, et al (2023)

Genetic determinants of Biofilm formation of Helicobacter pylori using whole-genome sequencing.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):159.

BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori as the cause of gastric cancer is a global public health concern. In addition to protecting germs from antibiotics, biofilms reduce the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy. The nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related with the biofilm forming phenotype of Helicobacter pylori were studied.

RESULTS: Fifty-six H. pylori isolate from Bangladeshi patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Crystal violet assay was used to quantify biofilm amount, and the strains were classified into high- and low-biofilm formers As a result, strains were classified as 19.6% high- and 81.4% low-biofilm formers. These phenotypes were not related to specific clades in the phylogenetic analysis. The accessories genes associated with biofilm from whole-genome sequences were extracted and analysed, and SNPs among the previously reported biofilm-related genes were analysed. Biofilm formation was significantly associated with SNPs of alpA, alpB, cagE, cgt, csd4, csd5, futB, gluP, homD, and murF (P < 0.05). Among the SNPs reported in alpB, strains encoding the N156K, G160S, and A223V mutations were high-biofilm formers.

CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the potential role of SNPs in biofilm formation and proposed a method to detect mutation in biofilm from whole-genome sequences.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Zuo J, Shen Y, Wang H, et al (2023)

Effects of metformin on Streptococcus suis LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing system and biofilm formation.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00216-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Streptococcus suis (S. suis) regulates biofilm formation through LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing system, increasing drug resistance and exacerbating infection. The anti-hyperglycaemic agent metformin has anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-biofilm and anti-quorum sensing activity of metformin in S. suis. We first determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of metformin on S. suis. The results indicated that metformin showed no obvious inhibitory or bactericidal effect. Crystal violet staining showed that metformin significantly inhibited the formation of S. suis biofilm at sub-MIC concentration, which was also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Then, we quantified the AI-2 signal molecules in S. suis, and the results showed that metformin had a significant inhibitory effect on the production of AI-2 signal in S. suis. Inhibition of enzyme activity and molecular docking experiments showed that metformin has a significant binding activity to LuxS protein. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed that metformin significantly down-regulated the expression of AI-2 synthesis-related genes luxS and pfs, and adhesion-related genes luxS, pfs, gapdh, sly, fbps, and ef. Western blotting also showed that metformin significantly reduced the expression of LuxS protein. Our study suggests that metformin seems to be a suitable candidate for the inhibition of S. suis LuxS/AI-2 QS system and prevention of biofilm formation, which provided a new idea for the prevention and control of S. suis.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Mei J, Xu D, Wang L, et al (2023)

Biofilm Microenvironment-Responsive Self-Assembly Nanoreactors for All-stage Biofilm Associated Infection through Bacterial Cuproptosis-like Death and Macrophage Re-rousing.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilm-associated infections (BAIs) are the leading cause of prosthetic implant failure. The dense biofilm structure prevents antibiotic penetration, while the highly acidic and H2 O2 -rich biofilm microenvironment (BME) dampens the immunological response of antimicrobial macrophages. Conventional treatments that fail to consistently suppress escaping planktonic bacteria from biofilm result in refractory recolonization, allowing BAIs to persist. Herein, we propose a BME-responsive copper-doped polyoxometalate clusters (Cu-POM) combination with mild photothermal therapy (PTT) and macrophage immune re-rousing for BAI eradication at all stages. The self-assembly of Cu-POM in BME converted endogenous H2 O2 to toxic ·OH through chemodynamic therapy (CDT) and generated a mild PTT effect to induce bacterial metabolic exuberance, resulting in loosening the membrane structure of the bacteria, enhancing copper transporter activity and increasing intracellular Cu-POM flux. Metabolomics revealed that intracellular Cu-POM overload restricted the TCA cycle and peroxide accumulation, promoting bacterial cuproptosis-like death. CDT re-rousing macrophages scavenge planktonic bacteria escaping biofilm disintegration through enhanced chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Overall, BME-responsive Cu-POM promoted bacterial cuproptosis-like death via metabolic interference, while also re-rousing macrophage immune response for further planktonic bacteria elimination, resulting in all-stage BAI clearance and providing a new reference for future clinical application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Coppens B, Belpaire TER, Pešek J, et al (2023)

Anomalous diffusion of nanoparticles in the spatially heterogeneous biofilm environment.

iScience, 26(6):106861.

Biofilms contain extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that provide structural support and restrict penetration of antimicrobial treatment. To overcome limited penetration, functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested as carriers for antimicrobial delivery. Using microscopy, we evaluate the diffusion of nanoparticles in function of the structure of Salmonella biofilms. We observe anomalous diffusion and heterogeneous mobility of NPs resulting in distinct NPs distribution that depended on biofilm structure. Through Brownian dynamics modeling with spatially varying viscosity around bacteria, we demonstrated that spatial gradients in diffusivity generate viscous sinks that trap NPs near bacteria. This model replicates the characteristic diffusion signature and vertical distribution of NPs in the biofilm. From a treatment perspective, our work indicates that both biofilm structure and the level of EPS can impact NP drug delivery, where low levels of EPS might benefit delivery by immobilizing NPs closer to bacteria and higher levels hamper delivery due to shielding effects.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Bueno-Silva B, Kiausinus KR, Gonçalves FJDS, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial activity of Desplac® oral gel in the subgingival multispecies biofilm formation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1122051.

Natural products are well-known due to their antimicrobial properties. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Desplac® product (composed of Aloe Vera, Propolis Extract, Green Tea, Cranberry, and Calendula) on the subgingival biofilm. Two different protocols were used to treat the 33-species biofilms: (A) 2×/day (12/12 h) for 1 min with Desplac® or Noplak Toothpaste (Chlorhexidine + Cetylpyridinium Chloride) or Oral B ProGengiva (stannous Fluoride) or a placebo gel; (B) a 12-h use of the Desplac® product or 0.12% chlorhexidine gel or a placebo gel. After 7 days of biofilm formation, the metabolic activity (MA) and biofilm profile were determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Checker-board DNA-DNA hybridization, respectively. Statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's post-hoc. In protocol A, all treatments presented reduced MA compared to the placebo (p ≤ 0.05). The Desplac®-treated biofilm showed a similar microbial profile to other antimicrobials, although with higher bacterial total counts. In protocol B, MA of Desplac®-treated biofilms was lower than the placebo's MA but higher than chlorhexidine-treated biofilms (p ≤ 0.05). Pathogen levels in Desplac®-treated biofilms were lower than in placebo-treated biofilms and elevated compared to the chlorhexidine-treated biofilms (p ≤ 0.05). Desplac® inhibited the biofilm development and disrupted the mature subgingival biofilm, highlighting its effect on Tannerella forsythia counts.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Liu Q, Shao L, Liu Z, et al (2023)

Nitric acid oxidation and urea modification of carbon fibres as biofilm carriers.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

AbstractCarbon fibres (CF) are commonly used as carriers in biofilm-based wastewater treatment. The surface properties of the CF are herein modified using a combination of nitric acid oxidation and urea to optimise the carrier to immobilise bacterial cells. The capacity of the CF carriers to immobilise bacterial cells and activated sludge is evaluated using bacterial cell adhesion and sludge immobilisation tests. The total interaction energy profiles between the CF supports and bacterial cells were calculated according to the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory to explain the mechanism by which these modifications enhance this immobilisation capacity. CF-U has a high capacity for immobilising bacterial cells and activated sludge (3.7 g-sludge/g-CF supports) owing to its low total interaction energy. Nitric acid oxidation reduced the diiodomethane contact angle of CF from 55.1° to 38.5°, which reduced the Lifshitz-van der Waals interaction energy, while urea modification further increased the zeta potential of CF from 12.8 mV to -0.7 mV, thereby reducing the electrostatic interaction energy. Experiments and DLVO theory both determined that a combination of nitric acid oxidation and urea modification significantly enhanced the ability of CF to immobilise microorganisms.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Jones GB, Sims RC, J Zhao (2023)

Experimental and theoretical investigations of rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs): Areal productivity, nutrient recovery, and energy efficiency.

Biotechnology and bioengineering [Epub ahead of print].

Microalgae biofilms have been demonstrated to recover nutrients from wastewater and serve as biomass feedstock for bioproducts. However, there is a need to develop a platform to quantitatively describe microalgae biofilm production, which can provide guidance and insights for improving biomass areal productivity and nutrient uptake efficiency. This paper proposes a unified experimental and theoretical framework to investigate algae biofilm growth on a rotating algae biofilm reactor (RABR). Experimental laboratory setups are used to conduct controlled experiments on testing environmental and operational factors for RABRs. We propose a differential-integral equation-based mathematical model for microalgae biofilm cultivation guided by laboratory experimental findings. The predictive mathematical model development is coordinated with laboratory experiments of biofilm areal productivity associated with ammonia and inorganic phosphorus uptake by RABRs. The unified experimental and theoretical tool is used to investigate the effects of RABR rotating velocity, duty cycle (DC), and light intensity on algae biofilm growth, areal productivity, nutrient uptake efficiency, and energy efficiency in wastewater treatment. Our framework indicates that maintaining a reasonable light intensity range improves biomass areal productivity and nutrient uptake efficiency. Our framework also indicates that faster RABR rotation benefits biomass areal productivity. However, maximizing the nutrient uptake efficiency requires a reasonably low RABR rotating speed. Energy efficiency is strongly correlated with RABR rotating speed and DC.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

da Silva Ribeiro CF, Dionizio A, Teodoro Araújo T, et al (2023)

Effect of experimental toothpaste containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and propolis, with and without fluoride, on the microcosm biofilm and enamel demineralization.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

This study evaluated the antimicrobial and anticaries effects of toothpaste containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nanoHAP - 5 or 10%), xylitol (2 or 3%) and propolis (1 or 2%), associated or not with 1500 ppm fluoride (F). An in vitro model was used with microcosm biofilm produced from a pool of human saliva and McBain saliva (1:50) in the first 8 h of culture on 162 bovine enamel specimens. At the end of the experimental period, analyses of metabolic activity, colony forming units (CFU) and transverse microradiography (TMR) were performed. This study showed a possible decrease in demineralization and increase in remineralization by the commercial toothpaste (1500 ppm F) and for the experimental toothpaste containing the highest concentration of all agents, combined with F. In addition, a reduction in antimicrobial activity possibly caused by propolis and xylitol, mainly in relation to cariogenic bacteria, was observed.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Cacaci M, Squitieri D, Palmieri V, et al (2023)

Curcumin-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Strongly Prevents Candida parapsilosis Adhesion and Biofilm Formation.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(2): pii:ph16020275.

Candida parapsilosis is the major non-C. albicans species involved in the colonization of central venous catheters, causing bloodstream infections. Biofilm formation on medical devices is considered one of the main causes of healthcare-associated infections and represents a global public health problem. In this context, the development of new nanomaterials that exhibit anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm properties for the coating of medical devices is crucial. In this work, we aimed to characterize the antimicrobial activity of two different coated-surfaces, graphene oxide (GO) and curcumin-graphene oxide (GO/CU) for the first time, against C. parapsilosis. We report the capacity of GO to bind and stabilize CU molecules, realizing a homogenous coated surface. We tested the anti-planktonic activity of GO and GO/CU by growth curve analysis and quantification of Reactive Oxigen Species(ROS) production. Then, we tested the antibiofilm activity by adhesion assay, crystal violet assay, and live and dead assay; moreover, the inhibition of the formation of a mature biofilm was investigated by a viability test and the use of specific dyes for the visualization of the cells and the extra-polymeric substances. Our data report that GO/CU has anti-planktonic, anti-adhesive, and anti-biofilm properties, showing a 72% cell viability reduction and a decrease of 85% in the secretion of extra-cellular substances (EPS) after 72 h of incubation. In conclusion, we show that the GO/CU conjugate is a promising material for the development of medical devices that are refractory to microbial colonization, thus leading to a decrease in the impact of biofilm-related infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

De S, AP Hakansson (2023)

Measuring Niche-Associated Metabolic Activity in Planktonic and Biofilm Bacteria.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2674:3-32.

Most pathobionts of the respiratory tract form biofilms during asymptomatic colonization to survive and persist in this niche. Environmental changes of the host niche, often resulting from infection with respiratory viruses, changes of the microbiota composition, or other host assaults, can result in biofilm dispersion and spread of bacteria to other host niches, resulting in infections, such as otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. The niches that these bacteria encounter during colonization and infection vary markedly in nutritional availability and contain different carbon sources and levels of other essential nutrients needed for bacterial growth and survival. As these niche-related nutritional variations regulate bacterial behavior and phenotype, a better understanding of bacterial niche-associated metabolic activity is likely to provide a broader understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. In this chapter, we use Streptococcus pneumoniae as a model respiratory pathobiont. We describe methods and models used to grow bacteria planktonically or to form biofilms in vitro by incorporating crucial host environmental factors, including the various carbon sources associated with specific niches, such as the nasopharynx or bloodstream. We then present methods describing how these models can be used to study bacterial phenotypes and their association with metabolic energy production and the generation of fermentation products.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Vera-Mansilla J, Silva-Valenzuela CA, Sánchez P, et al (2023)

Bacteriophages potentiate the effect of antibiotics by eradication of persister cells and killing of biofilm-forming cells.

Research in microbiology pii:S0923-2508(23)00058-X [Epub ahead of print].

Persister cells and biofilms are associated with chronic urinary infections which are more critical when generated by multi-drug resistant bacteria. In this context, joint administration of phages and antibiotics has been proposed as an alternative approach, since it may decrease the probability to generate resistant mutants to both agents. In this work, we exposed cultures of uropathogenic Escherichia coli conjunctly to antibiotics and phages. We determined that MLP2 combined with antibiotics eradicates persister cells. Similarly, MLP1 and MLP3 impact viability of biofilm-forming cells when administered with ampicillin. Our findings suggest a feasible prophylactic and therapeutic use of these non-transducing phages.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Rusten B, H Ødegaard (2023)

Nitrogen removal in moving-bed biofilm reactor plants at low temperatures: experiences from Norway.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 87(10):2432-2440.

Cold and diluted wastewater is a major challenge for nitrogen removal at wastewater treatment plants. The moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process has proven suitable for nitrogen removal under these conditions and several full-scale plants have been in operation for more than 20 years. These plants are still performing well, even at above design loads. Recently some of these plants have been evaluated for their low-temperature performance. In general, the results showed that temperatures down to 5 °C only had a minor impact on observed nitrification and denitrification rates. Higher dissolved oxygen concentrations can boost nitrification rates and are used as a tool to increase rates at low temperatures, thus partially compensating for the temperature effect. Post-denitrification rates were boosted by a controlled increase in carbon-to-nitrogen ratios at low temperatures. MBBR processes with combined pre- and post-denitrification are recommended for nitrogen-removal plants operating at low temperatures. Design recommendations and examples of flowsheets are given.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Tournay RJ, Firrincieli A, Parikh SS, et al (2023)

Effect of Arsenic on EPS Synthesis, Biofilm Formation, and Plant Growth-Promoting Abilities of the Endophytes Pseudomonas PD9R and Rahnella laticis PD12R.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Phytoremediation, a cost-effective, eco-friendly alternative to conventional remediation, could expand efforts to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. As with other pollutants, the plant microbiome may improve phytoremediation outcomes for arsenic-contaminated sites. We used in vitro and in silico methods to compare the arsenic resistance mechanisms, synthesis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), biofilm formation, and plant growth-promoting abilities of the endophytes Pseudomonas sp. PD9R and Rahnella laticis PD12R. PD12R, which tolerates arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) to concentrations fivefold greater than PD9R, synthesizes high volumes of EPS in response to arsenic, and sequesters arsenic in the capsular EPS and cells. While arsenic exposure induced EPS synthesis in both strains, only PD12R continued to form biofilms at high As(III) and As(V) concentrations. The effects of endophyte inoculation on Arabidopsis growth varied by strain and As(V) concentration, and PD9R had positive effect on plants exposed to low levels of arsenic. Comparative genomic analyses exploring the EPS synthesis and arsenic resistance mechanisms against other Pseudomonas and Rahnella strains suggest that both strains possess atypical arsenic resistance mechanisms from other plant-associated strains, while the configuration of the EPS synthesis systems appeared to be more broadly distributed among plant- and non-plant-associated strains.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Malviya J, Alameri AA, Al-Janabi SS, et al (2023)

Metabolomic profiling of bacterial biofilm: trends, challenges, and an emerging antibiofilm target.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 39(8):212.

Biofilm-related infections substantially contribute to bacterial illnesses, with estimates indicating that at least 80% of such diseases are linked to biofilms. Biofilms exhibit unique metabolic patterns that set them apart from their planktonic counterparts, resulting in significant metabolic reprogramming during biofilm formation. Differential glycolytic enzymes suggest that central metabolic processes are markedly different in biofilms and planktonic cells. The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is highly expressed in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm progenitors, indicating that changes in glycolysis activity play a role in biofilm development. Notably, an important consideration is a correlation between elevated cyclic di-guanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) activity and biofilm formation in various bacteria. C-di-GMP plays a critical role in maintaining the persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by regulating alginate production, a significant biofilm matrix component. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that S. aureus biofilm development is initiated by several tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates in a FnbA-dependent manner. Finally, Glucose 6-phosphatase (G6P) boosts the phosphorylation of histidine-containing protein (HPr) by increasing the activity of HPr kinase, enhancing its interaction with CcpA, and resulting in biofilm development through polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) accumulation and icaADBC transcription. Therefore, studying the metabolic changes associated with biofilm development is crucial for understanding the complex mechanisms involved in biofilm formation and identifying potential targets for intervention. Accordingly, this review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of recent advances in metabolomic profiling of biofilms, including emerging trends, prevailing challenges, and the identification of potential targets for anti-biofilm strategies.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Celebi D, Aydın E, Rakici E, et al (2023)

Evaluation of presence of clone ST131 and biofilm formation in ESBL producing and non-producing Escherichia coli strains.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Escherichia coli ST131 is a pandemic clone associated with multidrug resistance, starting with beta-lactamase production and fluoroquinolone resistance in the first place, leading to significant systemic infections. Clones that develop due to the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and the rate of spread in our country are important issues that need to be investigated. This study aims to investigate the incidence of ST131which is a "high-risk pandemic clone E. coli" in ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing strains, as well as their biofilm-forming abilities and antibiotic resistance rates.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 86 E. coli isolates were used in the study. Bacterial identifications were performed by conventional and automated methods. The double disc synergy method was used to demonstrate the presence of ESBL. Molecular studies in all E. coli strains were performed by real-time PCR method.

FINDINGS: 86 strains were studied, of which 83.72% were urine, 6.98% were wound, 4.65% were blood, and 2.33% were tracheal aspirate and sputum. 79.07% of these strains were ESBL-positive. 58.1% of the strains were female, whereas 41.9% were male patients, and the average age was 46.2. Out of 86 strains, 38.72% were ST131 positive, the H30 subclone was detected in 27.27% of them, and the H30-Rx subclone was detected in all of the H30 subclone positive strains. The presence of the ESBL resistance gene was detected at the rate of TEM 41.86%, SHV 37.21%, CTX-M 36.04%, and OXA 4.65%. Most commonly SHV gene (54.54%) was seen in ST131 clone-positive samples. Finally, while it was found that 48.83% of the strains formed biofilm by any method, biofilm formation was detected in 69.7% of the samples that were positive for the ST131 clone.

RESULT: Our study can reveal the dramatic prevalence of the ESBL-producing E. coli strains along with the high-risk ST131 clone, the dominance of the H30Rx subclone of this risky clone, as well as the importance of the influence of resistance mechanisms along with resistance and biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Raheel I, Mohammed AN, AA Mohamed (2023)

The Efficacy of Bacteriocins Against Biofilm-Producing Bacteria Causing Bovine Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Farms: A New Strategy.

Current microbiology, 80(7):229.

Using an alternative bio-product is one of the most promising ways to control bovine mastitis and avoid new intra-mammary infections. The aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence of biofilm-forming bacteria responsible for causing clinical mastitis in dairy herds and to assess the effectiveness of bacteriocins, produced by Bacillus subtilis, in controlling the growth of these bacteria in the milk of animals. A total of 150 milk samples were collected from cows and buffalos suffering from mastitis and the etiological agents were isolated and identified by the VITEK-2-COMPACT-SYSTEM®. Additionally, the capability of the bacterial isolates to produce biofilms was determined. RT-PCR was used to detect enterotoxin-producing genes (sed and seb), resistance genes (mecA and blaZ), and biofilm-associated genes (icaA and fnbA) in the isolated bacteria. The susceptibility patterns of the bacterial isolates to bacteriocins were assessed using an agar well-diffusion assay. S. aureus was significantly more capable of producing biofilms than coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates. S. ubris was the strongest biofilm producer among the Streptococcus species. The sensitivity profiles of the Staphylococcus spp. (S. aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus) and their biofilm producers to bacteriocins were significantly higher (100% and 90%, respectively) at the same concentration. Bacteriocins had a lethal effect on Staphylococci, Streptococci, and biofilm development at a dose of 250 µg/mL. In dairy farms, bacteriocins are a viable alternative treatment for the prevention and control of bovine clinical mastitis.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Hugonneau-Beaufet I, Barnier JP, Thiriet-Rupert S, et al (2023)

Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa l,d-Transpeptidases and Evaluation of Their Role in Peptidoglycan Adaptation to Biofilm Growth.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Peptidoglycan is an essential component of the bacterial cell envelope that sustains the turgor pressure of the cytoplasm, determines cell shape, and acts as a scaffold for the anchoring of envelope polymers such as lipoproteins. The final cross-linking step of peptidoglycan polymerization is performed by classical d,d-transpeptidases belonging to the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) family and by l,d-transpeptidases (LDTs), which are dispensable for growth in most bacterial species and whose physiological functions remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the contribution of LDTs to cell envelope synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in planktonic and biofilm conditions. We first assigned a function to each of the three P. aeruginosa LDTs by gene inactivation in P. aeruginosa, heterospecific gene expression in Escherichia coli, and, for one of them, direct determination of its enzymatic activity. We found that the three P. aeruginosa LDTs catalyze peptidoglycan cross-linking (LdtPae1), the anchoring of lipoprotein OprI to the peptidoglycan (LdtPae2), and the hydrolysis of the resulting peptidoglycan-OprI amide bond (LdtPae3). Construction of a phylogram revealed that LDTs performing each of these three functions in various species cannot be assigned to distinct evolutionary lineages, in contrast to what has been observed with PBPs. We showed that biofilm, but not planktonic bacteria, displayed an increase proportion of peptidoglycan cross-links formed by LdtPae1 and a greater extent of OprI anchoring to peptidoglycan, which is controlled by LdtPae2 and LdtPae3. Consistently, deletion of each of the ldt genes impaired biofilm formation and potentiated the bactericidal activity of EDTA. These results indicate that LDTs contribute to the stabilization of the bacterial cell envelope and to the adaptation of peptidoglycan metabolism to growth in biofilm. IMPORTANCE Active-site cysteine LDTs form a functionally heterologous family of enzymes that contribute to the biogenesis of the bacterial cell envelope through formation of peptidoglycan cross-links and through the dynamic anchoring of lipoproteins to peptidoglycan. Here, we report the role of three P. aeruginosa LDTs that had not been previously characterized. We show that these enzymes contribute to resistance to the bactericidal activity of EDTA and to the adaptation of cell envelope polymers to conditions that prevail in biofilms. These results indicate that LDTs should be considered putative targets in the development of drug-EDTA associations for the control of biofilm-related infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-30

Ciszek-Lenda M, Majka G, Suski M, et al (2023)

Biofilm-forming strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolated from cystic fibrosis patients differently affect inflammatory phenotype of macrophages.

Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.] [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Lung cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronic infections and hyperinflammatory response of neutrophils and macrophages. P. aeruginosa (PA) and S. aureus (MSSA, MRSA) are major pathogens of advanced CF. The main goal of this study was to compare the inflammatory phenotype of murine C57BL/6 macrophages exposed to PA57 with that exposed to MSSA60, both strains isolated from the same patient with severe CF. In the present study, we used C57BL/6 mice sensitive to lung infection with P. aeruginosa.

METHODS: We measured the release of cytokines and the expression of phenotypic markers of murine neutrophils and macrophages exposed to bacterial cells and biofilm components (i.e., EPS) of the selected bacteria. In addition, a quantitative proteomic approach was used for the characterization of proteome-wide changes in macrophages.

RESULTS: Neutrophils stimulated with PA57 and MSSA60 strains produced hyperinflammatory pattern of cytokines. The pro-inflammatory impact of PA57 was significantly higher than that of MSSA60 (IL-6/IL-10 ratio: PA57 = 9.3 vs. MSSA60 = 1.7). Macrophages produced significantly lower amount of cytokines, but showed classical pattern of M1 markers (iNOS-High; arginase-1 and mannose receptor MRC1-Low). Importantly, as evidenced by proteomic analysis, PA57 and PA57-EPS were stronger inducers of M1 macrophage polarization than the MSSA60 counterparts.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that strong biofilm P. aeruginosa strains, CF isolates, are dominant inducers of M1 macrophages, termed biofilm-associated macrophages (BAMs). We suggest that repolarization of detrimental BAMs might be a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate the airway damage in CF.

RevDate: 2023-05-30

Ketelboeter LM, Mitra S, G Prasad (2023)

A thiamine transporter is required for biofilm formation by Rhizobium sp. IRBG74.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:7186928 [Epub ahead of print].

Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 is a nitrogen fixing symbiont of Sesbania cannabina and a growth promoting endophyte of rice thus making it a good model to compare rhizobial interactions with legumes and cereals. In this report, we show that Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 forms biofilms on the roots of S. cannabina and rice. A mutant defective in biofilm formation was identified by screening a transposon mutant library. The transposon insertion was in thiQ, part of the thiBPQ operon that encodes the components of a thiamine/thiamine pyrophosphate ABC transporter. Complementation with thiBPQ partially restored biofilm formation. Addition of thiamine in growth media led to repression of thiC expression in the wild type strain but not in the thiQ mutant. These results suggest that thiBPQ is involved in thiamine/TPP transport in Rhizobium sp. IRBG74. Using a GUS reporter, we show that the expression of thiC is significantly higher in biofilm as compared to cells in planktonic growth. Based on these results we propose that Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 is thiamine limited and requires thiamine transport for efficient biofilm formation and plant colonization. Thiamine synthesis in aerobic bacteria such as Rhizobium requires O2 and thus could be inhibited in the microaerobic/anaerobic conditions in biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Louis M, Tahrioui A, Lendon CJ, et al (2023)

The natriuretic peptide receptor agonist osteocrin disperses Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

Biofilm, 5:100131.

Biofilms are highly tolerant to antimicrobials and host immune defense, enabling pathogens to thrive in hostile environments. The diversity of microbial biofilm infections requires alternative and complex treatment strategies. In a previous work we demonstrated that the human Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (hANP) displays a strong anti-biofilm activity toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa and that the binding of hANP by the AmiC protein supports this effect. This AmiC sensor has been identified as an analog of the human natriuretic peptide receptor subtype C (h-NPRC). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-biofilm activity of the h-NPRC agonist, osteocrin (OSTN), a hormone that displays a strong affinity for the AmiC sensor at least in vitro. Using molecular docking, we identified a pocket in the AmiC sensor that OSTN reproducibly docks into, suggesting that OSTN might possess an anti-biofilm activity as well as hANP. This hypothesis was validated since we observed that OSTN dispersed established biofilm of P. aeruginosa PA14 strain at the same concentrations as hANP. However, the OSTN dispersal effect is less marked than that observed for the hANP (-61% versus -73%). We demonstrated that the co-exposure of P. aeruginosa preformed biofilm to hANP and OSTN induced a biofilm dispersion with a similar effect to that observed with hANP alone suggesting a similar mechanism of action of these two peptides. This was confirmed by the observation that OSTN anti-biofilm activity requires the activation of the complex composed by the sensor AmiC and the regulator AmiR of the ami pathway. Using a panel of both P. aeruginosa laboratory reference strains and clinical isolates, we observed that the OSTN capacity to disperse established biofilms is highly variable from one strain to another. Taken together, these results show that similarly to the hANP hormone, OSTN has a strong potential to be used as a tool to disperse P. aeruginosa biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Hayet S, Ghrayeb M, Azulay DN, et al (2023)

Titanium complexes affect Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation.

RSC medicinal chemistry, 14(5):983-991.

Biofilms are surface or interface-associated communities of bacterial cells, embedded in a self-secreted extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells in biofilms are 100-1000 times more resistant to antibiotic treatment relative to planktonic cells due to various reasons, including the ECM acting as a diffusion barrier to antibiotic molecules, the presence of persister cells that divide slowly and are less susceptible to cell-wall targeting drugs, and the activation of efflux pumps in response to antibiotic stress. In this study we tested the effect of two titanium(iv) complexes that have been previously reported as potent and non-toxic anticancer chemotherapeutic agents on Bacillus subtilis cells in culture and in biofilm forming conditions. The Ti(iv) complexes tested, a hexacoordinate diaminobis(phenolato)-bis(alkoxo) complex (phenolaTi) and a bis(isopropoxo) complex of a diaminobis(phenolato) "salan"-type ligand (salanTi), did not affect the growth rate of cells in shaken cultures, however they did affect biofilm formation. Surprisingly, while phenolaTi inhibited biofilm formation, the presence of salanTi induced the formation of more mechanically robust biofilms. Optical microscopy images of biofilm samples in the absence and presence of Ti(iv) complexes suggest that Ti(iv) complexes affect cell-cell and/or cell-matrix adhesion, and that these are interfered with phenolaTi and enhanced by salanTi. Our results highlight the possible effect of Ti(iv) complexes on bacterial biofilms, which is gaining interest in light of the emerging relations between bacteria and cancerous tumors.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Redman RM, Maughan TD, Smith CB, et al (2023)

Development of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the biofilm of a peritoneal-venous shunt.

IDCases, 32:e01801.

A patient with ascites received a peritoneal-venous shunt for presumed cirrhosis, however surgical specimens grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) sensitive to all anti-tuberculous drugs. Directly-Observed-Therapy (DOT) led to improvement followed by relapse with multidrug resistant MTb (MDRTB). We discuss pathways for selection of MDRTB within mycobacterial biofilm. This case illustrates the potential for development of MDRTB in patients with long-term indwelling catheters. We emphasize catheter removal and if not possible continuing follow-up for symptoms and signs of relapse.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Zhao F, Xu H, Chen Y, et al (2023)

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae FliY and YdjN are involved in cysteine/cystine utilization, oxidative resistance, and biofilm formation but are not determinants of virulence.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1169774.

INTRODUCTION: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is a member of Actinobacillus in family Pasteurellaceae. It is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, which has caused huge economic losses to pig industry over the world. Cysteine is a precursor of many important biomolecules and defense compounds in the cell. However, molecular mechanisms of cysteine transport in A. pleuropneumoniae are unclear.

METHODS: In this study, gene-deleted mutants were generated and investigated, to reveal the roles of potential cysteine/cystine transport proteins FliY and YdjN of A. pleuropneumoniae.

RESULTS: Our results indicated that the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae was not affected after fliY or ydjN single gene deletion, but absence of both FliY and YdjN decreased the growth ability significantly, when cultured in the chemically defined medium (CDM) supplemented with cysteine or cystine as the only sulfur source. A. pleuropneumoniae double deletion mutant ΔfliYΔydjN showed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Besides, trans-complementation of YdjN into ΔfliYΔydjN and wild type leads to increased biofilm formation in CDM. However, the virulence of ΔfliYΔydjN was not attenuated in mice or pigs.

DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae FliY and YdjN are involved in the cysteine/cystine acquisition, oxidative tolerance, and biofilm formation, but not contribute to the pathogenicity of A. pleuropneumoniae.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Li Y, Huang S, Du J, et al (2023)

Current and prospective therapeutic strategies: tackling Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans cross-kingdom biofilm.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1106231.

Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the most frequent strain associated with cross-kingdom infections in the oral cavity. Clinical evidence shows the co-existence of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and C. albicans in the carious lesions especially in children with early childhood caries (ECC) and demonstrates the close interaction between them. During the interaction, both S. mutans and C. albicans have evolved a complex network of regulatory mechanisms to boost cariogenic virulence and modulate tolerance upon stress changes in the external environment. The intricate relationship and unpredictable consequences pose great therapeutic challenges in clinics, which indicate the demand for de novo emergence of potential antimicrobial therapy with multi-targets or combinatorial therapies. In this article, we present an overview of the clinical significance, and cooperative network of the cross-kingdom interaction between S. mutans and C. albicans. Furthermore, we also summarize the current strategies for targeting cross-kingdom biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-05-30

Su H, Yan X, Zhao Q, et al (2023)

Layered Design of a Highly Repeatable Electroactive Biofilm for a Standardized Biochemical Oxygen Demand Sensor.

ACS sensors [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial electrochemical sensors are promising to monitor bioavailable organics in real environments, but their application is restricted by the unpredictable performance of the electroactive biofilm (EAB), which is randomly acclimated from environmental microflora. With a long-term stable EAB as a template, we successfully designed EAB (DEAB) by the sequential growth of Geobacter anodireducens and automatched microbes, achieving a reproducible high current than those naturally acclimated from wastewater (NEAB). Pre-inoculation of planktonic aerobes as oxygen bioscavengers was necessary to ensure the colonization of Geobacter in the inner layer, and the abundant Geobacter (50%) in DEAB guaranteed 4 times higher current density with a 15-fold smaller variation among 20 replicates than those of NEAB. The sensor constructed with DEAB exhibited a shorter measuring time and a precise biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurement with acetate, real domestic wastewater, and supernatant of anaerobic digestion. Here, we for the first time proposed an applicable strategy to standardize EABs for BOD sensors, which is also crucial to ensure a stable performance of all bioelectrochemical technologies.

RevDate: 2023-05-29

Chen L, Fang D, Zhang J, et al (2023)

Nanomotors-loaded microneedle patches for the treatment of bacterial biofilm-related infections of wound.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 647:142-151 pii:S0021-9797(23)00872-X [Epub ahead of print].

The biofilms formed by bacteria at the wound site can effectively protect the bacteria, which greatly weakens the effect of antibiotics. Herein, a microneedle patch for wound treatment is designed, which can effectively penetrate the biofilms in a physical way because of the penetration ability of the microneedles and the motion behavior of the nanomotors, and deliver bacterial quorum sensing inhibitor luteolin (Le) and nanomotors with multiple antibacterial properties within biofilms. Firstly, the nanomotors-loaded microneedle patches are prepared and characterized. The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments show that the microneedle patches have good biosafety and antibacterial properties. Among them, Le can inhibit the growth of biofilms. Further, under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, the nanomotors loaded with photosensitizer ICG and nitric oxide (NO) donor L-arginine (L-Arg) can move in the biofilms under the double driving effect of photothermal and NO, and can give full play to the multiple anti-biological infection effects of photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and NO, and finally realize the effective removal of biofilms and promote wound healing. The intervention of nanomotor technology has brought about a new therapeutic strategy for bacterial biofilm-related infection of wound.

RevDate: 2023-05-30

Brunetti G, Valentini E, Berlutti F, et al (2023)

The effect of the electromagnetic field on metabolic-active bacterial biofilm experimentallyinduced on titanium dental implants.

The new microbiologica, 46(2):202-206.

Microbial biofilm is of paramount importance in the development of mucositis or peri-implantitis in patients with dental implants. This study was designed to investigate whether an electromagnetic field at high frequency waves directly applied on 33 titanium implants could remove experimentally-induced Enterococcus faecalis bacterial biofilm. A specially designed device (X-IMPLANT) was used to generate the electromagnetic field, with output power of 8 W, supply frequency (action/pause) 3/2s, and an output frequency of 625±5% kHz in plastic devices containing the biofilm-covered implants immersed in sterile saline. The bacterial biofilm on both treated and untreated control implants was quantitatively measured by phenol red-based Bio-Timer-Assay reagent. The kinetic analysis of the curves showed that the electrical treatment generated by the X-IMPLANT device completely removed the bacterial biofilm after 30 minutes of treatment (p<0.01). Elimination of the biofilm was also confirmed by chromatic observation in the macro-method. Our data seem to indicate that the procedure could be considered for clinical application in peri-implantitis to counteract bacterial biofilm on dental implants.

RevDate: 2023-05-29

Ušjak D, Novović K, Ivković B, et al (2023)

Targeting outer membrane protein A (OmpA) - inhibitory effect of 2'-hydroxychalcone derivatives on Acinetobacter baumannii and Candida albicans dual-species biofilm formation.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm production facilitates microbial colonization of wounds and catheters. Acinetobacter baumannii produces high levels of biofilm and causes difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections. Candida albicans is another strong biofilm producer which may facilitate A. baumannii adhesion by providing hyphae-mediated OmpA-binding sites. Here we tested the potential of 2'-hydroxychalcones to inhibit dual-species biofilm production of A. baumannii and Candida spp., and further predicted the mechanism of structure-related difference in activity. The results suggest that 2'-hydroxychalcones exhibit potent activity against Candida spp./A. baumannii dual-species biofilm production. Particularly active was trifluoromethyl-substituted derivative (p-CF3), which decreased C. albicans/A. baumannii biomass produced on vein-indwelling parts of the central venous catheterization set by up to 99%. Further, higher OmpA-binding affinity was also calculated for p-CF3, which together with demonstrated significant ompA-downregulating activity, suggests that superior antibiofilm activity of this chalcone against the tested dual-species community of A. baumannii is mediated through the OmpA.

RevDate: 2023-05-30

Wang YD, Gong JS, Guan YC, et al (2023)

OmpR (TCS response regulator) of Aeromonas veronii plays a major role in drug resistance, stress resistance and virulence by regulating biofilm formation.

Microbial pathogenesis, 181:106176 pii:S0882-4010(23)00209-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Aeromonas veronii (A. veronii), a highly pathogenic bacteria with a wide range of hosts, widely exists in the environment of humans, animals and aquatic animals, and can cause a variety of diseases. In this study, the receptor regulator ompR in the envZ/ompR of two-component system was selected to construct a mutant strain (Δ ompR) and a complement strain (C-ompR) to explore the regulatory effect of ompR on the biological characteristics and virulence of TH0426. The results showed that the ability of biofilm formation and osmotic stress of TH0426 were significantly reduced (P < 0.001), the resistance to ceftriaxone and neomycin were slightly down-regulate when the ompR gene was deleted. At the same time, animal pathogenicity experiments showed that the virulence of TH0426 was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.001). These results indicated that ompR gene regulates the biofilm formation of TH0426, and regulates some biological characteristics of TH0426, including drug sensitivity, resistance to osmotic stress, and also affects its virulence.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Zhang X, Qu Q, Yang A, et al (2023)

Prussian blue composite microswimmer based on alginate-chitosan for biofilm removal.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)01857-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial infections pose a serious threat to public health, causing worldwide morbidity and about 80 % of bacterial infections are related to biofilm. Removing biofilm without antibiotics remains an interdisciplinary challenge. To solve this problem, we presented a dual-power driven antibiofilm system Prussian blue composite microswimmers based on alginate-chitosan, which designed into an asymmetric structure to achieve self-driven in the fuel solution and magnetic field. Prussian blue embedded in the microswimmers given it the ability to convert light and heat, catalyze Fenton reaction, and produce bubbles and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, with the addition of Fe3O4, the microswimmers could move in group under external magnetic field. The composite microswimmers displayed excellent antibacterial activity against S. aureus biofilm with an efficiency as high as 86.94 %. It is worth mentioning that the microswimmers were fabricated with device-simple and low-cost gas-shearing method. This system integrating physical destruction, chemical damage such chemodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy, and finally kill the plankton bacteria embedded in biofilm. This approach may cause an autonomous, multifunctional antibiofilm platform to promote the present most areas with harmful biofilm difficult to locate the surface for removal.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Manville E, Kaya EC, Yucel U, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms attachment and formation on different surfaces using a CDC biofilm reactor.

International journal of food microbiology, 399:110251 pii:S0168-1605(23)00167-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Listeria monocytogenes can adapt, persist, and form biofilms on food premises surfaces, representing a challenge for food safety, since they led to disease transmission, food contamination and spoilage during production. Physical interventions (scrubbing and wiping) can help controlling formation, nevertheless when biofilms are formed, they are usually very resistant to current control strategies used in the food industry. Biofilm attachment and formation is influenced by environment characteristics, substrate properties and microbial motility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of L. monocytogenes to attach and form biofilms on different surfaces (wood, nylon, and polycarbonate) representative of the materials used during produce harvesting and storage. Multi-strain L. monocytogenes biofilms were grown in a CDC Biofilm reactor at 20 ± 2 °C up to 96-h and characterized for: a) attachment strength by enumerating cells after rinsing; b) hydrophobicity and interfacial tension by contact angle measurements; c) biofilm architecture by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. All experiments were done in triplicate. Material, incubation, and solvent significantly affected the hydrophobicity and wetting properties of L. monocytogenes biofilms (P < 0.05). The type of material and incubation time significantly influenced hydrophobicity and wetting properties of L. monocytogenes biofilms (P < 0.05). Highest contact angle and lowest interfacial tension were observed on polycarbonate coupons. The data presented contributes to understanding Listeria biofilms grow on different surfaces commonly used in produce harvesting and storage. The data obtained in this study can be used when evaluating intervention strategies to control this pathogen in food premises.

RevDate: 2023-05-28

Wu L, Liu Y, Dong P, et al (2021)

Beef-Based Medium Influences Biofilm Formation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolated from Beef Processing Plants.

Journal of food protection, 84(6):1060-1068.

Beef-based medium beef extract (BE) and standard medium tryptic soy broth (TSB) are used as minimally processed food models to study the effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation. The effects of temperatures (4, 10, 25, 37, and 42°C), pH values (4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0), strain characteristics, and the expression of functional genes on the biofilm formation ability of the bacteria were determined. The three tested E. coli O157:H7 strains produced biofilm in both media. Biofilm formation was greater in BE than in TSB (P < 0.05). The strongest biofilm formation capacity of E. coli O157:H7 was achieved at 37°C and pH 7.0. Biofilm formation was significantly inhibited for three tested strains incubated at 4°C. Biofilm formation ability was correlated with swarming in TSB. Biofilm formation was significantly and positively correlated with autoaggregation or hydrophobicity in BE (P < 0.05). At the initial stage of biofilm formation, the expressions of luxS, sdiA, csgD, csgA, flhC, adrA, and rpoS were significantly higher in BE than in TSB (P < 0.05). At the maturity stage, the expressions of luxS, sdiA, csgD, csgA, flhC, csrA, adrB, adrA, iraM, and rpoS were significantly higher in TSB than in BE (P < 0.05). Such information could help in the development of effective biofilm removal technologies to deal with risks of E. coli O157:H7 biofilms in the beef industry.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Misra T, Tare M, PN Jha (2023)

Characterization of functional amyloid curli in biofilm formation of an environmental isolate Enterobacter cloacae SBP-8.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [Epub ahead of print].

The biofilm formation by bacteria is a complex process that is strongly mediated by various genetic and environmental factors. Biofilms contribute to disease infestation, especially in chronic infections. It is, therefore important to understand the factors affecting biofilm formation. This study reports the role of a functional amyloid curli in biofilm formation at various abiotic surfaces, including medical devices, by an environmental isolate of Enterobacter cloacae (SBP-8) which has been known for its pathogenic potential. A knockout mutant of csgA, the gene encoding the major structural unit of curli, was created to study the effect of curli on biofilm formation by E. cloacae SBP-8. Our findings confirm the production of curli at 25 °C and 37 °C in the wild-type strain. We further investigated the role of curli in the attachment of E. cloacae SBP-8 to glass, enteral feeding tube, and foley latex catheter. Contrary to the previous studies reporting the curli production below 30 °C in the majority of biofilm-forming bacterial species, we observed its production in E. cloacae SBP-8 at 37 °C. The formation of more intense biofilm in wild-type strain on various surfaces compared to curli-deficient strain (ΔcsgA) at both 25 °C and 37 °C suggested a prominent role of curli in biofilm formation. Further, electron and confocal microscopy studies demonstrated the formation of diffused monolayers of microbial cells on the abiotic surfaces by ΔcsgA strain as compared to the thick biofilm by respective wild-type strain, indicating the involvement of curli in biofilm formation by E. cloacae SBP-8. Overall, our findings provide insight into biofilm formation mediated by curli in E. cloacae SBP-8. Further, we show that it can be expressed at a physiological temperature on all surfaces, thereby indicating the potential role of curli in pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-05-29
CmpDate: 2023-05-29

Jin X, Sun X, Wang Z, et al (2023)

Virulent Phage vB_EfaS_WH1 Removes Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm and Inhibits Its Growth on the Surface of Chicken Meat.

Viruses, 15(5):.

Enterococcus faecalis is a potential animal and human pathogen. Improper use of antibiotics encourages resistance. Bacteriophages and their derivatives are promising for treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. In this study, phylogenetic and electron microscopy analyses of phage vB_EfaS_WH1 (WH1) isolated from chicken feces revealed it to be a novel phage in the family Siphoviridae. WH1 showed good pH stability (4-11), temperature tolerance (4-60 °C), and broad E. faecalis host range (60% of isolates). Genome sequencing revealed a 56,357 bp double-stranded DNA genome with a G+C content of 39.21%. WH1 effectively destroyed E. faecalis EF01 biofilms, even at low concentrations. When WH1 was applied at 1 × 10[5] to 1 × 10[9] PFU/g to chicken breast samples stored at 4 °C, surface growing E. faecalis were appreciably eradicated after 24 h. The phage WH1 showed good antibacterial activity, which could be used as a potential biocontrol agent to reduce the formation of E. faecalis biofilm, and could also be used as an alternative for the control of E. faecalis in chicken products.

RevDate: 2023-05-29

Butrungrod W, Chaiyasut C, Makhamrueang N, et al (2023)

Postbiotic Metabolite of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum PD18 against Periodontal Pathogens and Their Virulence Markers in Biofilm Formation.

Pharmaceutics, 15(5):.

Alternative methods to reduce infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens and their virulence factors, biofilm formations, have arisen to reduce the pressure on existing or currently developed disinfectants and antimicrobial agents. The current strategies for reducing the severity of periodontal pathogen-caused disease by using beneficial bacteria and their metabolites are highly desirable. Probiotic strains of lactobacilli related to foods from Thai-fermented foods were selected and their postbiotic metabolites (PM) were isolated with inhibitory activity on periodontal pathogens and their biofilm formation. The PM from Lactiplantibacillus plantarum PD18 (PD18 PM) with the highest antagonistic effect against Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Prevotella loescheii was selected from 139 Lactobacillus isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) values of PD18 PM against the pathogens ranged from 1:2 to 1:4. The PD18 PM demonstrated the ability to prevent the biofilm formation of S. mutans and P. gingivalis by showing a significant reduction in viable cells, high percentages of biofilm inhibition at 92.95 and 89.68%, and the highest effective contact times at 5 and 0.5 min, respectively. L. plantarum PD18 PM showed potential as a promising natural adjunctive agent to inhibit periodontal pathogens and their biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-05-28

Costa-Orlandi CB, Bila NM, Bonatti JLC, et al (2023)

Membranolytic Activity Profile of Nonyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: A New Anti-Biofilm Compound for the Treatment of Dermatophytosis.

Pharmaceutics, 15(5):.

The ability of dermatophytes to live in communities and resist antifungal drugs may explain treatment recurrence, especially in onychomycosis. Therefore, new molecules with reduced toxicity that target dermatophyte biofilms should be investigated. This study evaluated nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (nonyl) susceptibility and mechanism of action on planktonic cells and biofilms of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes. Metabolic activities, ergosterol, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified, and the expression of genes encoding ergosterol was determined by real-time PCR. The effects on the biofilm structure were visualized using confocal electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms were susceptible to nonyl and resistant to fluconazole, griseofulvin (all strains), and terbinafine (two strains). The SEM results revealed that nonyl groups seriously damaged the biofilms, whereas synthetic drugs caused little or no damage and, in some cases, stimulated the development of resistance structures. Confocal microscopy showed a drastic reduction in biofilm thickness, and transmission electron microscopy results indicated that the compound promoted the derangement and formation of pores in the plasma membrane. Biochemical and molecular assays indicated that fungal membrane ergosterol is a nonyl target. These findings show that nonyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate is a promising antifungal compound.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Almasri D, Y Dahman (2023)

Prosthetic Joint Infections: Biofilm Formation, Management, and the Potential of Mesoporous Bioactive Glass as a New Treatment Option.

Pharmaceutics, 15(5): pii:pharmaceutics15051401.

Infection of prosthetic joints is one of the biggest challenges to a successful replacement of the joint after a total joint arthroplasty. Such infections are caused by bacterial colonies that are difficult to treat by systemic delivery of antibiotics. Local delivery of antibiotics can prove to be the solution to such a devastating outcome that impacts patients' health and ability to regain function in their joints as well as costs the healthcare system millions of dollars every year. This review will discuss prosthetic joint infections in detail with a focus on the development, management, and diagnosis of the infections. Surgeons often opt to use polymethacrylate cement locally to deliver antibiotics; however, due to the rapid release of antibiotics, non-biodegradability, and high chance of reinfection, the search for alternatives is in high demand. One of the most researched alternatives to current treatments is the use of biodegradable and highly compatible bioactive glass. The novelty of this review lies in its focus on mesoporous bioactive glass as a potential alternative to current treatments for prosthetic joint infection. Mesoporous bioactive glass is the focus of this review because it has a higher capacity to deliver biomolecules, stimulate bone growth, and treat infections after prosthetic joint replacement surgeries. The review also examines different synthesis methods, compositions, and properties of mesoporous bioactive glass, highlighting its potential as a biomaterial for the treatment of joint infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Abudalu M, Aqawi M, Sionov RV, et al (2023)

Polyglactin 910 Meshes Coated with Sustained-Release Cannabigerol Varnish Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Macrophage Cytokine Secretion: An In Vitro Study.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(5): pii:ph16050745.

Synthetic surgical meshes are commonly used in abdominal wall reconstruction surgeries to strengthen a weak abdominal wall. Common mesh-related complications include local infection and inflammatory processes. Because cannabigerol (CBG) has both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, we proposed that coating VICRYL (polyglactin 910) mesh with a sustained-release varnish (SRV) containing CBG would prevent these complications. We used an in vitro infection model with Staphylococcus aureus and an in vitro inflammation model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Meshes coated with either SRV-placebo or SRV-CBG were exposed daily to S. aureus in tryptic soy medium (TSB) or macrophage Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM). Bacterial growth and biofilm formation in the environment and on the meshes were assessed by changes in optical density, bacterial ATP content, metabolic activity, crystal violet staining, spinning disk confocal microscopy (SDCM), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM). The anti-inflammatory effect of the culture medium that was exposed daily to the coated meshes was analyzed by measuring the release of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages with appropriate ELISA kits. Additionally, a cytotoxicity assay was performed on Vero epithelial cell lines. We observed that compared with SRV-placebo, the segments coated with SRV-CBG inhibited the bacterial growth of S. aureus in the mesh environment for 9 days by 86 ± 4% and prevented biofilm formation and metabolic activity in the surroundings for 9 days, with respective 70 ± 2% and 95 ± 0.2% reductions. The culture medium that was incubated with the SRV-CBG-coated mesh inhibited LPS-induced secretion of IL-6 and IL-10 from the RAW 264.7 macrophages for up to 6 days without affecting macrophage viability. A partial anti-inflammatory effect was also observed with SRV-placebo. The conditioned culture medium was not toxic to Vero epithelial cells, which had an IC50 of 25 µg/mL for CBG. In conclusion, our data indicate a potential role of coating VICRYL mesh with SRV-CBG in preventing infection and inflammation in the initial period after surgery.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Leesombun A, Sungpradit S, Bangphoomi N, et al (2023)

Effects of Piper betle Extracts against Biofilm Formation by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius Isolated from Dogs.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(5): pii:ph16050741.

Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolated from dogs with cutaneous and wound infections has significantly impacted veterinary medicine. This study aimed to isolate S. pseudintermedius from canine pyoderma and investigate the effects of ethanolic extracts of Piper betle (PB), P. sarmentosum (PS), and P. nigrum (PN) on the bacterial growth and biofilm formation of S. pseudintermedius and MRSP. Of the isolated 152 isolates, 53 were identified as S. pseudintermedius using polymerase chain reaction, and 10 isolates (6.58%) were identified as MRSP based on the presence of mecA. Based on phenotype, 90% of MRSPs were multidrug-resistant. All MRSP had moderate (10%, 1/10) and strong (90%, 9/10) biofilm production ability. PB extracts were the most effective in inhibiting planktonic cells, and the minimum inhibitory concentration at which ≥50% of the isolates were inhibited (MIC50) was 256 µg/mL (256-1024 µg/mL) for S. pseudintermedius isolates and 512 µg/mL (256-1024 µg/mL) for MRSP isolates. The MIC90 for S. pseudintermedius and MRSP was 512 µg/mL. In XTT assay, PB at 4× MIC showed an inhibition rate of 39.66-68.90% and 45.58-59.13% for S. pseudintermedius and MRSP, respectively, in inhibiting biofilm formation. For PB at 8× MIC, the inhibition rates for S. pseudintermedius and MRSP were 50.74-81.66% and 59.57-78.33%, respectively. Further, 18 compounds were identified in PB using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and hydroxychavicol (36.02%) was the major constituent. These results indicated that PB could inhibit bacteria growth of and biofilm formation by S. pseudintermedius and MRSP isolated from canine pyoderma in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, PB is a potential candidate for the treatment of MRSP infection and biofilm formation in veterinary medicine.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Ścibik Ł, Ochońska D, Gołda-Cępa M, et al (2023)

Sonochemical Deposition of Gentamicin Nanoparticles at the PCV Tracheostomy Tube Surface Limiting Bacterial Biofilm Formation.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 16(10): pii:ma16103765.

BACKGROUND: The use of nanotechnology in the production of medical equipment has opened new possibilities to fight bacterial biofilm developing on their surfaces, which can cause infectious complications. In this study, we decided to use gentamicin nanoparticles. An ultrasonic technique was used for their synthesis and immediate deposition onto the surface of tracheostomy tubes, and their effect on bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated.

METHODS: Polyvinyl chloride was functionalized using oxygen plasma followed by sonochemical formation and the embedment of gentamicin nanoparticles. The resulting surfaces were characterized with the use of AFM, WCA, NTA, FTIR and evaluated for cytotoxicity with the use of A549 cell line and for bacterial adhesion using reference strains of S. aureus (ATCC[®] 25923™) and E. coli (ATCC[®] 25922™).

RESULTS: The use of gentamicin nanoparticles significantly reduced the adhesion of bacterial colonies on the surface of the tracheostomy tube for S. aureus from 6 × 10[5] CFU/mL to 5 × 10[3] CFU/mL and for E. coli from 1.655 × 10[5] CFU/mL to 2 × 10[1] CFU/mL, and the functionalized surfaces did not show a cytotoxic effect on A549 cells (ATTC CCL 185).

CONCLUSIONS: The use of gentamicin nanoparticles on the polyvinyl chloride surface may be an additional supporting method for patients after tracheostomy in order to prevent the colonization of the biomaterial by potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Vladkova TG, Staneva AD, Avramova IA, et al (2023)

Fucoidan-Containing, Low-Adhesive Siloxane Coatings for Medical Applications: Inhibition of Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Development.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 16(10): pii:ma16103651.

The deposition of low-adhesive siloxane coatings is a current trend for the non-toxic control of bacterial growth and biofilm formation. Total elimination of biofilm formation has not been reported so far. The aim of this investigation was to study the ability of a non-toxic, natural, biologically active substance, such as fucoidan, to inhibit bacterial growth on similar medical coatings. The fucoidan amount was varied, and its impact on the bioadhesion-influencing surface characteristics, as well as on bacterial cell growth, was investigated. The inclusion of up to 3-4 wt.% brown algae-derived fucoidan in the coatings increases their inhibitory effect, more significantly on the Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus than on the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. The biological activity of the studied siloxane coatings was ascribed to the formation of a low-adhesive, biologically active surface top layer consisting of siloxane oil and dispersed water-soluble fucoidan particles. This is the first report on the antibacterial activity of fucoidan-containing medical siloxane coatings. The experimental results give reason to expect that relevantly selected, natural biologically active substances can be efficient in the non-toxic control of bacterial growth on medical devices and, as a result, medical device-associated infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Ma X, Liu H, Liu Z, et al (2023)

Trichosporon asahii PLA2 Gene Enhances Drug Resistance to Azoles by Improving Drug Efflux and Biofilm Formation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108855.

Trichosporon asahii is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe or even fatal infections in patients with low immune function. sPLA2 plays different roles in different fungi and is also related to fungal drug resistance. However, the mechanism underlying its drug resistance to azoles has not yet been reported in T. asahii. Therefore, we investigated the drug resistance of T. asahii PLA2 (TaPLA2) by constructing overexpressing mutant strains (TaPLA2[OE]). TaPLA2[OE] was generated by homologous recombination of the recombinant vector pEGFP-N1-TaPLA2, induced by the CMV promoter, with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The structure of the protein was found to be typical of sPLA2, and it belongs to the phospholipase A2_3 superfamily. TaPLA2[OE] enhanced antifungal drug resistance by upregulating the expression of effector genes and increasing the number of arthrospores to promote biofilm formation. TaPLA2[OE] was highly sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate and Congo red, indicating impaired cell wall integrity due to downregulation of chitin synthesis or degradation genes, which can indirectly affect fungal resistance. In conclusion, TaPLA2 overexpression enhanced the resistance to azoles of T. asahii by enhancing drug efflux and biofilm formation and upregulating HOG-MAPK pathway genes; therefore, it has promising research prospects.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Chung J, Eisha S, Park S, et al (2023)

How Three Self-Secreted Biofilm Exopolysaccharides of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psl, Pel, and Alginate, Can Each Be Exploited for Antibiotic Adjuvant Effects in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infection.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108709.

In cystic fibrosis (CF), pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cause of increased morbidity and mortality, especially in patients for whom infection becomes chronic and there is reliance on long-term suppressive therapies. Current antimicrobials, though varied mechanistically and by mode of delivery, are inadequate not only due to their failure to eradicate infection but also because they do not halt the progression of lung function decline over time. One of the reasons for this failure is thought to be the biofilm mode of growth of P. aeruginosa, wherein self-secreted exopolysaccharides (EPSs) provide physical protection against antibiotics and an array of niches with resulting metabolic and phenotypic heterogeneity. The three biofilm-associated EPSs secreted by P. aeruginosa (alginate, Psl, and Pel) are each under investigation and are being exploited in ways that potentiate antibiotics. In this review, we describe the development and structure of P. aeruginosa biofilms before examining each EPS as a potential therapeutic target for combating pulmonary infection with P. aeruginosa in CF, with a particular focus on the current evidence for these emerging therapies and barriers to bringing these therapies into clinic.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Su X, Cui H, W Zhang (2023)

Copiotrophy in a Marine-Biofilm-Derived Roseobacteraceae Bacterium Can Be Supported by Amino Acid Metabolism and Thiosulfate Oxidation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(10): pii:ijms24108617.

Copiotrophic bacteria that respond rapidly to nutrient availability, particularly high concentrations of carbon sources, play indispensable roles in marine carbon cycling. However, the molecular and metabolic mechanisms governing their response to carbon concentration gradients are not well understood. Here, we focused on a new member of the family Roseobacteraceae isolated from coastal marine biofilms and explored the growth strategy at different carbon concentrations. When cultured in a carbon-rich medium, the bacterium grew to significantly higher cell densities than Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, although there was no difference when cultured in media with reduced carbon. Genomic analysis showed that the bacterium utilized various pathways involved in biofilm formation, amino acid metabolism, and energy production via the oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that 28.4% of genes were regulated by carbon concentration, with increased carbon concentration inducing the expression of key enzymes in the EMP, ED, PP, and TCA cycles, genes responsible for the transformation of amino acids into TCA intermediates, as well as the sox genes for thiosulfate oxidation. Metabolomics showed that amino acid metabolism was enhanced and preferred in the presence of a high carbon concentration. Mutation of the sox genes decreased cell proton motive force when grown with amino acids and thiosulfate. In conclusion, we propose that copiotrophy in this Roseobacteraceae bacterium can be supported by amino acid metabolism and thiosulfate oxidation.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Arumugam M, Manikandan DB, Marimuthu SK, et al (2023)

Evaluating Biofilm Inhibitory Potential in Fish Pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila by Agricultural Waste Extracts and Assessment of Aerolysin Inhibitors Using In Silico Approach.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050891.

Aeromonas hydrophila, an opportunistic bacteria, causes several devastating diseases in humans and animals, particularly aquatic species. Antibiotics have been constrained by the rise of antibiotic resistance caused by drug overuse. Therefore, new strategies are required to prevent appropriate antibiotic inability from antibiotic-resistant strains. Aerolysin is essential for A. hydrophila pathogenesis and has been proposed as a potential target for inventing drugs with anti-virulence properties. It is a unique method of disease prevention in fish to block the quorum-sensing mechanism of A. hydrophila. In SEM analysis, the crude solvent extracts of both groundnut shells and black gram pods exhibited a reduction of aerolysin formation and biofilm matrix formation by blocking the QS in A. hydrophila. Morphological changes were identified in the extracts treated bacterial cells. Furthermore, in previous studies, 34 ligands were identified with potential antibacterial metabolites from agricultural wastes, groundnut shells, and black gram pods using a literature survey. Twelve potent metabolites showed interactions between aerolysin and metabolites during molecular docking analysis, in that H-Pyran-4-one-2,3 dihydro-3,5 dihydroxy-6-methyl (-5.3 kcal/mol) and 2-Hexyldecanoic acid (-5.2 kcal/mol) showed promising results with potential hydrogen bond interactions with aerolysin. These metabolites showed a better binding affinity with aerolysin for 100 ns in molecular simulation dynamics. These findings point to a novel strategy for developing drugs using metabolites from agricultural wastes that may be feasible pharmacological solutions for treating A. hydrophila infections for the betterment of aquaculture.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Makhlouf Z, Ali AA, MH Al-Sayah (2023)

Liposomes-Based Drug Delivery Systems of Anti-Biofilm Agents to Combat Bacterial Biofilm Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050875.

All currently approved antibiotics are being met by some degree of resistance by the bacteria they target. Biofilm formation is one of the crucial enablers of bacterial resistance, making it an important bacterial process to target for overcoming antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, several drug delivery systems that target biofilm formation have been developed. One of these systems is based on lipid-based nanocarriers (liposomes), which have shown strong efficacy against biofilms of bacterial pathogens. Liposomes come in various types, namely conventional (charged or neutral), stimuli-responsive, deformable, targeted, and stealth. This paper reviews studies employing liposomal formulations against biofilms of medically salient gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species reported recently. When it comes to gram-negative species, liposomal formulations of various types were reported to be efficacious against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and members of the genera Klebsiella, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Serratia, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella. A range of liposomal formulations were also effective against gram-positive biofilms, including mostly biofilms of Staphylococcal strains, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus subspecies bovis, followed by Streptococcal strains (pneumonia, oralis, and mutans), Cutibacterium acnes, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis, Mycobacterium abscessus, and Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. This review outlines the benefits and limitations of using liposomal formulations as means to combat different multidrug-resistant bacteria, urging the investigation of the effects of bacterial gram-stain on liposomal efficiency and the inclusion of pathogenic bacterial strains previously unstudied.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Neidhöfer C, Rathore K, Parčina M, et al (2023)

ESKAPEE Pathogen Biofilm Control on Surfaces with Probiotic Lactobacillaceae and Bacillus species.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050871.

Combatting the rapidly growing threat of antimicrobial resistance and reducing prevalence and transmission of ESKAPEE pathogens in healthcare settings requires innovative strategies, one of which is displacing these pathogens using beneficial microorganisms. Our review comprehensively examines the evidence of probiotic bacteria displacing ESKAPEE pathogens, with a focus on inanimate surfaces. A systematic search was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases on 21 December 2021, and 143 studies were identified examining the effects of Lactobacillaceae and Bacillus spp. cells and products on the growth, colonization, and survival of ESKAPEE pathogens. While the diversity of study methods limits evidence analysis, results presented by narrative synthesis demonstrate that several species have the potential as cells or their products or supernatants to displace nosocomial infection-causing organisms in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings. Our review aims to aid the development of new promising approaches to control pathogen biofilms in medical settings by informing researchers and policymakers about the potential of probiotics to combat nosocomial infections. More targeted studies are needed to assess safety and efficacy of different probiotic formulations, followed by large-scale studies to assess utility in infection control and medical practice.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Hwang HJ, Li DD, Lee J, et al (2023)

Compounds That Have an Anti-Biofilm Effect against Common Bacteria at Very Low Concentrations and Their Antibiotic Combination Effect.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050853.

Two synthetic compounds, MHY1383, azo-resveratrol and MHY1387, 5-[4-hydroxy-3,5-methoxybenzy]-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6[1H,5H]-dione have been reported to have an anti-biofilm effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa at very low concentrations (1-10 pM). Here, we investigated the anti-biofilm effects of these compounds in various bacteria. We found that MHY1383 significantly inhibited Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation at 1 pM, 1 nM, and 10 nM, respectively. MHY1387 also inhibited the biofilm formation of E. coli, B. subtilis, and S. aureus at 1 pM, 10 nM, and 100 pM, respectively. Both MHY1383 and MHY1387 showed medium-dependent anti-biofilm effects on Salmonella enterica at high concentrations (10 μM). We also tested the susceptibility to antibiotics by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in various bacteria. When P. aeruginosa, E. coli, B. subtilis, S. enterica, and S. aureus were treated with MHY1383 or MHY1387 in combination with four different antibiotics, the MICs of carbenicillin against B. subtilis and S. aureus were lowered more than two-fold by the combination with MHY1387. However, in all other combinations, the MIC changed within two-fold. The results of this study suggest that MHY1383 and MHY1387 are effective anti-biofilm agents and can be used at very low concentrations against biofilms formed by various types of bacteria. We also suggest that even if a substance that inhibits biofilm is used together with antibiotics, it does not necessarily have the effect of lowering the MIC of the antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Martínez A, Stashenko EE, Sáez RT, et al (2023)

Effect of Essential Oil from Lippia origanoides on the Transcriptional Expression of Genes Related to Quorum Sensing, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:antibiotics12050845.

Microbial infections resistant to conventional antibiotics constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. In some bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus pathogens, biofilm formation can favor their antimicrobial resistance. These biofilm-forming bacteria produce a compact and protective matrix, allowing their adherence and colonization to different surfaces, and contributing to resistance, recurrence, and chronicity of the infections. Therefore, different therapeutic alternatives have been investigated to interrupt both cellular communication routes and biofilm formation. Among these, essential oils (EO) from Lippia origanoides thymol-carvacrol II chemotype (LOTC II) plants have demonstrated biological activity against different biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we determined the effect of LOTC II EO on the expression of genes associated with quorum sensing (QS) communication, biofilm formation, and virulence of E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 29213. This EO was found to have high efficacy against biofilm formation, decreasing-by negative regulation-the expression of genes involved in motility (fimH), adherence and cellular aggregation (csgD), and exopolysaccharide production (pgaC) in E. coli. In addition, this effect was also determined in S. aureus where the L. origanoides EO diminished the expression of genes involved in QS communication (agrA), production of exopolysaccharides by PIA/PNG (icaA), synthesis of alpha hemolysin (hla), transcriptional regulators of the production of extracellular toxins (RNA III), QS and biofilm formation transcriptional regulators (sarA) and global regulators of biofilm formation (rbf and aur). Positive regulation was observed on the expression of genes encoding inhibitors of biofilm formation (e.g., sdiA and ariR). These findings suggest that LOTCII EO can affect biological pathways associated with QS communication, biofilm formation, and virulence of E. coli and S. aureus at subinhibitory concentrations and could be a promising candidate as a natural antibacterial alternative to conventional antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Kurow O, Nuwayhid R, Stock P, et al (2023)

Organotypic 3D Co-Culture of Human Pleura as a Novel In Vitro Model of Staphylococcus aureus Infection and Biofilm Development.

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 10(5): pii:bioengineering10050537.

Bacterial pleural infections are associated with high mortality. Treatment is complicated due to biofilm formation. A common causative pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Since it is distinctly human-specific, rodent models do not provide adequate conditions for research. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of S. aureus infection on human pleural mesothelial cells using a recently established 3D organotypic co-culture model of pleura derived from human specimens. After infection of our model with S. aureus, samples were harvested at defined time points. Histological analysis and immunostaining for tight junction proteins (c-Jun, VE-cadherin, and ZO-1) were performed, demonstrating changes comparable to in vivo empyema. The measurement of secreted cytokine levels (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β) proved host-pathogen interactions in our model. Similarly, mesothelial cells produced VEGF on in vivo levels. These findings were contrasted by vital, unimpaired cells in a sterile control model. We were able to establish a 3D organotypic in vitro co-culture model of human pleura infected with S. aureus resulting in the formation of biofilm, including host-pathogen interactions. This novel model could be a useful microenvironment tool for in vitro studies on biofilm in pleural empyema.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Zhang Q, Peng L, Han W, et al (2023)

The morphology and metabolic changes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during its growth as a biofilm.

Veterinary research, 54(1):42.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important swine respiratory pathogen. Previous studies have suggested that growth as a biofilm is a natural state of A. pleuropneumoniae infection. To understand the survival features involved in the biofilm state, the growth features, morphology and gene expression profiles of planktonic and biofilm A. pleuropneumoniae were compared. A. pleuropneumoniae in biofilms showed reduced viability but maintained the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) after late log-phase. Under the microscope, bacteria in biofilms formed dense aggregated structures that were connected by abundant EPS, with reduced condensed chromatin. By construction of Δpga and ΔdspB mutants, polymeric β-1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine and dispersin B were confirmed to be critical for normal biofilm formation. RNA-seq analysis indicated that, compared to their planktonic counterparts, A. pleuropneumoniae in biofilms had an extensively altered transcriptome. Carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and translation were significantly repressed, while fermentation and genes contributing to EPS synthesis and translocation were up-regulated. The regulators Fnr (HlyX) and Fis were found to be up-regulated and their binding motifs were identified in the majority of the differentially expressed genes, suggesting their coordinated global role in regulating biofilm metabolism. By comparing the transcriptome of wild-type biofilm and Δpga, the utilization of oligosaccharides, iron and sulfur and fermentation were found to be important in adhesion and aggregation during biofilm formation. Additionally, when used as inocula, biofilm bacteria showed reduced virulence in mouse, compared with planktonic grown cells. Thus, these results have identified new facets of A. pleuropneumoniae biofilm maintenance and regulation.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Elad T, Hally MP, Domingo-Félez C, et al (2023)

Exploring the effects of intermittent aeration on the performance of nitrifying membrane-aerated biofilm reactors.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02950-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) are an emerging technology for nutrient removal; however, a trade-off remains between their removal rate and oxygen transfer efficiency. This study compares nitrifying flow-through MABRs operated under continuous and intermittent aeration modes at mainstream wastewater ammonia levels. The intermittently-aerated MABRs maintained maximal nitrification rates, including under conditions allowing the oxygen partial pressure on the gas side of the membrane to considerably drop during the no-aeration period. Nitrous oxide emissions of all reactors were comparable and amounted to approximately 20 % of the converted ammonia. Intermittent aeration increased the transformation rate constant of atenolol, yet did not affect the removal of sulfamethoxazole. Seven additional trace organic chemicals were not biodegraded by any of the reactors. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the intermittently-aerated MABRs were dominated by Nitrosospira, previously shown to be abundant at low oxygen concentrations and provide reactor stability under changing conditions. Our findings indicate that intermittently-aerated flow-through MABRs can achieve high nitrification rates and oxygen transfer efficiencies, highlighting the possible implications of air supply discontinuity on nitrous oxide emissions and trace organic chemical biotransformation.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Guo L, Ye C, Yu X, et al (2023)

Induction of bacteria in biofilm into a VBNC state by chlorine and monitoring of biofilm structure changes by means of OCT.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02915-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The occurrence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria in drinking water may result in significant underestimation of viable cell counts detected by culture-based method, thus raising microbiological safety concern. Chlorine disinfection has been widely used in drinking water treatment to ensure microbiological safety. However, the effect of residual chlorine on inducing bacteria in biofilms into a VBNC state remains unclear. We determined cell numbers of Pseudomonas fluorescence in different physiological states (culturable, viable, dead) by heterotrophic plate count method and flow cytometer in a flow cell system under 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/L chlorine treatment. Numbers of culturable cells were 4.66 ± 0.47 Log10, 2.82 ± 0.76 Log10, 2.30 ± 1.23 Log10 (CFU/112.5 mm[3]) in each chlorine treatment group. However, viable cell numbers remained at 6.32 ± 0.05 Log10, 6.11 ± 0.24 Log10, 5.08 ± 0.81 Log10 (cells/112.5 mm[3]). Significant difference between numbers of viable and culturable cells demonstrated chlorine could induce bacteria in biofilms into a VBNC state. In this study, flow cells combination with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) were applied to construct an Automated experimental Platform for replicate Biofilm cultivation and structural Monitoring (APBM) system. The OCT imaging results demonstrated that changes of biofilm structure under chlorine treatment were closely related to their inherent characteristics. Biofilms with low thickness and high roughness coefficient or porosity were easier to be removed from the substrate. Biofilm with high rigid properties were more resistant to chlorine treatment. Even though >95 % bacteria in biofilms entered a VBNC state, the biofilm physical structure was still remained. This study revealed the possibility of bacteria to enter a VBNC state in drinking water biofilms and changes of biofilm structure with different characteristics under chlorine treatment, which provide reference for biofilms control in drinking water distribution system.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Xu Y, Liu S, Zhao H, et al (2023)

Ultrasonic irradiation enhanced the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 97:106423 pii:S1350-4177(23)00135-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a non-pharmacological antimicrobial regimen based on light, photosensitizer and oxygen. It has become a potential method to inactivate multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, limited by the delivery of photosensitizer (PS) in biofilm, eradicating biofilm-associated infections by aPDT remains challenging. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of combining ultrasonic irradiation with aPDT to enhance the efficacy of aPDT against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm. A cationic benzylidene cyclopentanone photosensitizer with much higher selectivity to bacterial cells than mammalian cells were applied at the concentration of 10 μM. 532 nm laser (40 mW/cm[2], 10 min) and 1 MHz ultrasound (500 mW/cm[2], 10 min, simultaneously with aPDT) were employed against MRSA biofilms in vitro. In addition to combined with ultrasonic irradiation and aPDT, MRSA biofilms were treated with laser irradiation only, photosensitizer only, ultrasonic irradiation only, ultrasonic irradiation and photosensitizer, and aPDT respectively. The antibacterial efficacy was determined by XTT assay, and the penetration depth of PS in biofilm was observed using a photoluminescence spectrometer and a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In addition, the viability of human dermal fibroblasts (WS-1 cells) after the same treatments mentioned above and the uptake of P3 by WS-1 cells after ultrasonic irradiation were detected by CCK-8 and CLSM in vitro. Results showed that the percent decrease in metabolic activity resulting from the US + aPDT group (75.76%) was higher than the sum of the aPDT group (44.14%) and the US group (9.88%), suggesting synergistic effects. Meanwhile, the diffusion of PS in the biofilm of MRSA was significantly increased by 1 MHz ultrasonic irradiation. Ultrasonic irradiation neither induced the PS uptake by WS-1 cells nor reduced the viability of WS-1 cells. These results suggested that 1 MHz ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhanced the efficacy of aPDT against MRSA biofilm by increasing the penetration depth of PS. In addition, the antibacterial efficacy of aPDT can be enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation, the US + aPDT treatment demonstrated encouraging in vivo antibacterial efficacy (1.73 log10 CFU/mL reduction). In conclusion, the combination of aPDT and 1 MHz ultrasound is a potential and promising strategy to eradicate biofilm-associated infections of MRSA.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Shi X, Lin L, J Sun (2023)

The Value of Continuous Closed Negative Pressure Drainage Combined with Antibacterial Biofilm Dressing in Postoperative Wound Healing for Severe Pancreatitis.

Alternative therapies in health and medicine pii:AT8248 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application value of continuous vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) combined with antibacterial biofilm hydraulic fiber dressing in wound healing after surgery for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).

METHODS: A total of 82 SAP patients who underwent minimally invasive surgery in our hospital from March 2021 to September 2022 were randomly divided into two groups using a random number table method. Each group consisted of 41 cases. Both groups received surgical treatment, with the control group receiving VSD treatment and the observation group receiving VSD treatment combined with antibacterial biofilm hydraulic fiber dressing. The postoperative recovery efficiency, preoperative and postoperative wound area reduction rate, pressure ulcer healing score (PUSH), serum biological indicators (white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT)), and the rate of wound-related adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the two groups in the time to resume eating (P > .05). However, the wound healing time and hospitalization days in the observation group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (P < .05). After 7 and 14 days of treatment, the wound area reduction rate in the observation group was significantly higher than in the control group, and the PUSH score was significantly lower than in the control group (P < .05). WBC, CRP, and PCT levels in the observation group were lower than in the control group (P < .05). The incidence of wound-related adverse reactions in the observation group (12.20%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (34.15%) (P < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: The application of VSD combined with antibacterial biofilm hydraulic fiber dressing in the postoperative wound healing of SAP has a significant effect. It improves wound healing efficiency, reduces pressure ulcer scores, decreases inflammation indicators, and lowers the incidence of adverse reactions. While further research is needed to determine its impact on infection and inflammation prevention, this treatment approach shows promise for clinical application.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Katsburg M, Weingart C, Aubry E, et al (2023)

Limiting Factors in Treatment Success of Biofilm-Forming Streptococci in the Case of Canine Infective Endocarditis Caused by Streptococcus canis.

Veterinary sciences, 10(5): pii:vetsci10050314.

An 8-year-old male Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented with fever and severe thrombocytopenia. Clinical and laboratory examination, echocardiography, blood culture, and pathohistology revealed evidence of infective endocarditis, ischemic renal infarcts, and septic encephalitis. Treatment was started immediately but the dog's condition worsened, and the dog had to be euthanized. The causative Streptococcus canis strain was detected by blood culture and MALDI-TOF MS and analyzed using whole-genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing did not detect any resistance. The affected heart valve was analyzed using FISH imaging, which showed a streptococcal biofilm on the heart valve. Bacteria in biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. Early diagnosis could be beneficial to treatment outcome. Treatment of endocarditis could be improved by researching the optimal dosage of antibiotics in conjunction with the use of biofilm-active drugs.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Ren Q, Luo W, Chi H, et al (2023)

Down-regulation of β-lactam antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis is associated with isookanin.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1139796.

INTRODUCTION: Biofilm formation is the major pathogenicity of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), which enhances bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Isookanin has potential inhibitory activity on biofilm.

METHOD: The inhibiting mechanisms of isookanin against biofilm formation through surface hydrophobicity assay, exopolysaccharides, eDNA, gene expression analysis, microscopic visualization, and molecular docking were explored. Additionally, the combination of isookanin and β-lactam antibiotics were evaluated by the broth micro-checkerboard assay.

RESULTS: The results showed that isookanin could decrease the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis by ≥85% at 250 μg/mL. The exopolysaccharides, eDNA and surface hydrophobicity were reduced after treatment with isookanin. Microscopic visualization analysis showed that there were fewer bacteria on the surface of the microscopic coverslip and the bacterial cell membrane was damaged after treatment with isookanin. The down-regulation of icaB and up-regulation of icaR were observed after treatment with isookanin. Additionally, the RNAIII gene was significantly up-regulated (p < 0.0001) at the mRNA level. Molecular docking showed that isookanin could bind to biofilm-related proteins. This indicated that isookanin can affect biofilm formation at the initial attachment phase and the aggregation phase. The FICI index showed that the combination of isookanin and β-lactam antibiotics were synergistic and could reduce doses of antibiotics by inhibiting biofilm formation.

DISCUSSION: This study improved the antibiotic susceptibility of S. epidermidis through inhibition of the biofilm formation, and provided a guidance for the treatment of antibiotic resistance caused by biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Alamiri F, André O, De S, et al (2023)

Role of serotype and virulence determinants of Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm bacteria in internalization and persistence in epithelial cells in vitro.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1146431.

Streptococcus pyogenes causes a multitude of local and systemic infections, the most common being pharyngitis in children. Recurrent pharyngeal infections are common and are thought to be due to the re-emergence of intracellular GAS upon completion of antibiotic treatment. The role of colonizing biofilm bacteria in this process is not fully clear. Here, live respiratory epithelial cells were inoculated with broth-grown or biofilm bacteria of different M-types, as well as with isogenic mutants lacking common virulence factors. All M-types tested adhered to and were internalized into epithelial cells. Interestingly, internalization and persistence of planktonic bacteria varied significantly between strains, whereas biofilm bacteria were internalized in similar and higher numbers, and all strains persisted beyond 44 hours, showing a more homogenous phenotype. The M3 protein, but not the M1 or M5 proteins, was required for optimal uptake and persistence of both planktonic and biofilm bacteria inside cells. Moreover, the high expression of capsule and SLO inhibited cellular uptake and capsule expression was required for intracellular survival. Streptolysin S was required for optimal uptake and persistence of M3 planktonic bacteria, whereas SpeB improved intracellular survival of biofilm bacteria. Microscopy of internalized bacteria showed that planktonic bacteria were internalized in lower numbers as individual or small clumps of bacteria in the cytoplasm, whereas GAS biofilm bacteria displayed a pattern of perinuclear localization of bacterial aggregates that affected actin structure. Using inhibitors targeting cellular uptake pathways, we confirmed that planktonic GAS mainly uses a clathrin-mediated uptake pathway that also required actin and dynamin. Clathrin was not involved in biofilm internalization, but internalization required actin rearrangement and PI3 kinase activity, possibly suggesting macropinocytosis. Together these results provide a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of uptake and survival of various phenotypes of GAS bacteria relevant for colonization and recurrent infection.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Chen Y, Gao Y, Huang Y, et al (2023)

Inhibiting Quorum Sensing by Active Targeted pH-Sensitive Nanoparticles for Enhanced Antibiotic Therapy of Biofilm-Associated Bacterial Infections.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS) is considered as an effective strategy in combatting biofilm-associated bacterial infections. However, the application of quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI) is strongly restricted by poor water-solubility and low bioavailability. We herein fabricate pH-sensitive curcumin (Cur) loaded clustered nanoparticles with active targeting ability (denoted as anti-CD54@Cur-DA NPs) to inhibit QS for enhanced antibiotic therapy. Cur-DA NPs are first prepared through electrostatic interaction between Cur loaded amino-ended poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) and 2,3-dimethyl maleic anhydride (DA) modified biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)-polylysine (biotin-PEG-PLys). Anti-CD54@Cur-DA NPs are then obtained by the modification of Cur-DA NPs with anti-CD54. Cur loaded PAMAM can be released from Cur-DA NPs in acidic pH, leading to simultaneous charge reversal and size decrease, which is beneficial for biofilm penetration. Cur-DA NPs are hence much better in inhibiting QS than free Cur due to enhanced biofilm penetration. Compared to free Cur, Cur-DA NPs exhibit stronger capability in inhibiting the development of biofilm architecture and maturation, thus downregulating efflux pump-related genes and improving bactericidal performance of multiple antibiotics, including Penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, and tobramycin. Moreover, since anti-CD54 can selectively bind to inflamed endothelial cells, anti-CD54@Cur-DA NPs can be targeted accumulated in bacteria-infected tissues. The sequential treatment using anti-CD54@Cur-DA NPs and free antibiotics can effectively reduce bacterial burden and alleviate inflammation in a chronic lung infection model in vivo. This research provides an effective way to improve the therapeutic performance of QSI to enhance the anti-biofilm effects of antibiotics, which radiate a vitality of conventional antibiotics in treating biofilm-associated bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Salvador A, Veiga FF, Svidzinski TIE, et al (2023)

Case of Mixed Infection of Toenail Caused by Candida parapsilosis and Exophiala dermatitidis and In Vitro Effectiveness of Propolis Extract on Mixed Biofilm.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5):.

Onychomycosis is a chronic fungal nail infection caused by several filamentous and yeast-like fungi, such as the genus Candida spp., of great clinical importance. Black yeasts, such as Exophiala dermatitidis, a closely related Candida spp. species, also act as opportunistic pathogens. Fungi infectious diseases are affected by organisms organized in biofilm in onychomycosis, making treatment even more difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility profile to propolis extract and the ability to form a simple and mixed biofilm of two yeasts isolated from the same onychomycosis infection. The yeasts isolated from a patient with onychomycosis were identified as Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and Exophiala dermatitidis. Both yeasts were able to form simple and mixed (in combination) biofilms. Notably, C. parapsilosis prevailed when presented in combination. The susceptibility profile of propolis extract showed action against E. dermatitidis and C. parapsilosis in planktonic form, but when the yeasts were in mixed biofilm, we only observed action against E. dermatitidis, until total eradication.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Zheng L, Gu X, Sun L, et al (2023)

Adding Metal Ions to the Bacillus mojavensis D50 Promotes Biofilm Formation and Improves Ability of Biocontrol.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5):.

Bacillus mojavensis D50, a biocontrol strain, is used to prevent and treat the fungal plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Bacillus mojavensis D50's biofilms can affect its colonization; thus, the effects of different metal ions and culture conditions on biofilm formation were determined in this study. The results of medium optimization showed that Ca[2+] had the best ability to promote biofilm formation. The optimal medium composition for the formation of biofilms contained tryptone (10 g/L), CaCl2 (5.14 g/L), and yeast extract (5.0 g/L), and the optimal fermentation conditions included pH 7, a temperature of 31.4 °C, and a culture time of 51.8 h. We found that the antifungal activity and abilities to form biofilms and colonize roots were improved after optimization. In addition, the levels of expression of the genes luxS, SinR, FlhA, and tasA were up-regulated by 37.56-, 2.87-, 12.46-, and 6.22-fold, respectively. The soil enzymatic activities which related biocontrol-related enzymes were the highest when the soil was treated by strain D50 after optimization. In vivo biocontrol assays indicated that the biocontrol effect of strain D50 after optimization was improved.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Bajire SK, Prabhu A, Bhandary YP, et al (2023)

7-Ethoxycoumarin rescued Caenorhabditis elegans from infection of COPD derived clinical isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa through virulence and biofilm inhibition via targeting Rhl and Pqs quorum sensing systems.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 39(8):208.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ambidextrous Gram-negative contagium with density convoluted network defined quorum sensing, which enables the persistent survival within the host environment, contributing to various lung related diseases including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). It is clear that P. aeruginosa is a powerful, exquisite pathogen that has adopted a variety of virulence properties through quorum sensing (QS) regulated phenomenon and that it dominates both in the development and exacerbations of COPD. Interestingly, 7-Ethoxycoumarin (7-EC), a compound that adequately mimics QS signaling molecule of P. aeruginosa, was introduced as part of the process of developing novel ways to treat the severe exacerbations. The results showed that, introduction of 7-EC significantly decreased exopolysaccharide-mediated biofilm development of strains isolated from COPD sputum, as evidenced by SEM analysis. Furthermore, 7-EC was able to modulate a variety of virulence factors and motility without subjecting planktonic cells to any selection pressure. Bacterial invasion assay revealed the potential activity of the 7-EC in preventing the active entry to A549 cells without causing any damage to the cells and found functionally active in protecting the C. elegans from P. aeruginosa infection and being non-toxic to the worms. Docking analysis was further proved that 7-EC to be the potential anti-QS compound competing specifically with Rhl and Pqs Systems. Therefore, 7-EC in the utilisation against the P. aeruginosa based infections, may open an avenue for the futuristic mechanistic study in chronic respiratory diseases and a initiator for the development of non-antibiotic based antibacterial therapy.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Siriweera B, Ahmar Siddiqui M, Zou X, et al (2023)

Integrated thiosulfate-driven denitrification, partial nitrification and anammox process in membrane-aerated biofilm reactor for low-carbon, energy-efficient biological nitrogen removal.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00638-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Combining multiple bioprocesses in a single membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) unit for wastewater treatment is an emerging research focus. This study investigated the feasibility of coupling thiosulfate-driven denitrification (TDD) with partial nitrification and anammox (PNA) in a MABR for the treatment of ammonium-containing wastewater. The integrated bioprocess was tested over a continuous operation period (>130 d) in two MABRs: one with a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (MABR-1), and the other with micro-porous aeration tubes covered with non-wovenpolyester fabrics (MABR-2). After start-up, the MABR-1 and MABR-2 based on the TDD-PNA process achieved satisfactory total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 63% and 76%, with maximum oxygen utilisation efficiencies of up to 66% and 80% and nitrogen removal fluxes of 1.3 and 4.7 gN/(m[2]·d), respectively. Predictions from the AQUASIM-model verified the integrated bioprocess. These lab scale findings confirmed the applicability of MABR technology for simultaneous sulfur and nitrogen removal, promising for pilot-scale application.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Mello TP, Barcellos IC, Branquinha MH, et al (2023)

Cell dispersion during biofilm formation by Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium aurantiacum, Scedosporium minutisporum and Lomentospora prolificans.

Current research in microbial sciences, 4:100191.

Dispersion is an essential step in the lifecycle of biofilms, since it enables the dissemination of microbial cells and, consequently, the potential colonization of new sites. Filamentous fungi belonging to the Scedosporium/Lomentospora genera are opportunistic human pathogens able to form multidrug-resistant biofilms on surfaces of different chemical compositions, environments and nutritional conditions. Despite the rising understanding of how biofilms are formed by Scedosporium/Lomentospora species, the cell dispersal step has not yet been explored. In the present study, the cell dispersion was investigated during biofilm formation by S. apiospermum, S. minutisporum, S. aurantiacum and L. prolificans cells. The results revealed that conidia were the major type of dispersed cells, which were detected throughout biofilm development (from 24 to 72 h). Dispersion was not influenced by increased glucose concentration (the main source for energetic metabolism) neither the presence of voriconazole (the most common antifungal used to treat scedosporiosis); however, the presence of mucin (a component of mucous, present in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, who are usually affected by these filamentous fungi) triggered cell dispersion. Contrarily, a poor nutritional environment (e.g., phosphate-buffered saline) inhibited this step. Overall, our study reveals new insights into the biofilm development of Scedosporium/Lomentospora species.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Theis TJ, Daubert TA, Kluthe KE, et al (2023)

Staphylococcus aureus persisters are associated with reduced clearance in a catheter-associated biofilm infection.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1178526.

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections, many of which are chronic or relapsing in nature. Antibiotic therapy is often ineffective against S. aureus biofilm-mediated infections. Biofilms are difficult to treat partly due to their tolerance to antibiotics, however the underlying mechanism responsible for this remains unknown. One possible explanation is the presence of persister cells-dormant-like cells that exhibit tolerance to antibiotics. Recent studies have shown a connection between a fumC (fumarase C, a gene in the tricarboxylic acid cycle) knockout strain and increased survival to antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, and in a Drosophila melanogaster model.

OBJECTIVE: It remained unclear whether a S. aureus high persister strain would have a survival advantage in the presence of innate and adaptive immunity. To further investigate this, a fumC knockout and wild type strains were examined in a murine catheter-associated biofilm model.

RESULTS: Interestingly, mice struggled to clear both S. aureus wild type and the fumC knockout strains. We reasoned both biofilm-mediated infections predominantly consisted of persister cells. To determine the persister cell population within biofilms, expression of a persister cell marker (Pcap5A::dsRED) in a biofilm was examined. Cell sorting of biofilms challenged with antibiotics revealed cells with intermediate and high expression of cap5A had 5.9-and 4.5-fold higher percent survival compared to cells with low cap5A expression. Based on previous findings that persisters are associated with reduced membrane potential, flow cytometry analysis was used to examine the metabolic state of cells within a biofilm. We confirmed cells within biofilms had reduced membrane potential compared to both stationary phase cultures (2.5-fold) and exponential phase cultures (22.4-fold). Supporting these findings, cells within a biofilm still exhibited tolerance to antibiotic challenge following dispersal of the matrix through proteinase K.

CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data show that biofilms are largely comprised of persister cells, and this may explain why biofilm infections are often chronic and/or relapsing in clinical settings.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Kandoth N, Chaudhary SP, Gupta S, et al (2023)

Multimodal Biofilm Inactivation Using a Photocatalytic Bismuth Perovskite-TiO2-Ru(II)polypyridyl-Based Multisite Heterojunction.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Infectious bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to most antibiotics compared to their planktonic version, and the lack of appropriate therapeutic strategies for mitigating them poses a serious threat to clinical treatment. A ternary heterojunction material derived from a Bi-based perovskite-TiO2 hybrid and a [Ru(2,2'-bpy)2(4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bpy)][2+] (2,2'-bpy, 2,2'-bipyridyl) as a photosensitizer (RuPS) is developed. This hybrid material is found to be capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) upon solar light irradiation. The aligned band edges and effective exciton dynamics between multisite heterojunctions are established by steady-state/time-resolved optical and other spectroscopic studies. Proposed mechanistic pathways for the photocatalytic generation of ROS/RNS are rationalized based on a cascade-redox processes arising from three catalytic centers. These ROS/RNS are utilized to demonstrate a proof-of-concept in treating two elusive bacterial biofilms while maintaining a high level of biocompatibility (IC50 > 1 mg/mL). The in situ generation of radical species (ROS/RNS) upon photoirradiation is established with EPR spectroscopic measurements and colorimetric assays. Experimental results showed improved efficacy toward biofilm inactivation of the ternary heterojunction material as compared to their individual/binary counterparts under solar light irradiation. The multisite heterojunction formation helped with better exciton delocalization for an efficient catalytic biofilm inactivation. This was rationalized based on the favorable exciton dissociation followed by the onset of multiple oxidation and reduction sites in the ternary heterojunction. This together with exceptional photoelectric features of lead-free halide perovskites outlines a proof-of-principle demonstration in biomedical optoelectronics addressing multimodal antibiofilm/antimicrobial modality.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Kuwada N, Fujii Y, Nakatani T, et al (2023)

Diamond-like carbon coating to inner surface of polyurethane tube reduces Staphylococcus aureus bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.

Journal of artificial organs : the official journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative bacteria for polyurethane catheter and artificial graft infection. Recently, we developed a unique technique for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) inside the luminal resin structure of polyurethane tubes. This study aimed to elucidate the infection-preventing effects of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on a polyurethane surface against S. aureus. We applied DLC to polyurethane tubes and rolled polyurethane sheets with our newly developed DLC coating technique for resin tubes. The DLC-coated and uncoated polyurethane surfaces were tested in smoothness, hydrophilicity, zeta-potential, and anti-bacterial properties against S. aureus (biofilm formation and bacterial attachment) by contact with bacterial fluids under static and flow conditions. The DLC-coated polyurethane surface was significantly smoother, more hydrophilic, and had a more negative zeta-potential than did the uncoated polyurethane surface. Upon exposure to bacterial fluid under both static and flow conditions, DLC-coated polyurethane exhibited significantly less biofilm formation than uncoated polyurethane, based on absorbance measurements. In addition, the adherence of S. aureus was significantly lower for DLC-coated polyurethane than for uncoated polyurethane under both conditions, based on scanning electron microscopy. These results show that applying DLC coating to the luminal resin of polyurethane tubes may impart antimicrobial effects against S. aureus to implantable medical polyurethane devices, such as vascular grafts and central venous catheters.

RevDate: 2023-05-26
CmpDate: 2023-05-26

Bakó C, Balázs VL, Kerekes E, et al (2023)

Flowering phenophases influence the antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil.

BMC complementary medicine and therapies, 23(1):168.

BACKGROUND: Essential oils are becoming increasingly popular in medicinal applications because of their antimicrobial effect. Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) is a well-known and widely cultivated medicinal plant, which is used as a remedy for cold, cough and gastrointestinal symptoms. Essential oil content of thyme is responsible for its antimicrobial activity, however, it has been reported that the chemical composition of essential oils influences its biological activity. In order to explore flowering phenophases influence on the chemical composition of thyme essential oil and its antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity, plant materials were collected at the beginning of flowering, in full bloom and at the end of flowering periods in 2019.

METHODS: Essential oils from fresh and dried plant materials were distilled and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The antibacterial activity was performed by broth microdilution and thin layer chromatography-direct bioautography (TLC-DB) assays and the anti-biofilm effect by crystal violet assay, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was applied to illustrate the cellular changes of bacterial cells after essential oil treatment.

RESULTS: Thymol (52.33-62.46%) was the main component in the thyme essential oils. Thyme oil distilled from fresh plant material and collected at the beginning of flowering period exerted the highest antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

CONCLUSION: The different flowering periods of Thymus vulgaris influence the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of its essential oils, therefore, the collection time has to be taken into consideration and not only the full bloom, but the beginning of flowering period may provide biological active thyme essential oil.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Karine Marcomini E, M Negri (2023)

Fungal quorum-sensing molecules and antiseptics: a promising strategy for biofilm modulation?.

Drug discovery today pii:S1359-6446(23)00140-X [Epub ahead of print].

New strategies to control fungal biofilms are essential, especially those that interfere in the biofilm organization process and cellular communication, known as quorum sensing. The effect of antiseptics and quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) have been considered with regard to this; however, little has been elucidated, particularly because studies are often restricted to the action of antiseptics and QSMs against a few fungal genera. In this review, we discuss progress reported in the literature thus far and analyze, through in silico methods, 13 fungal QSMs with regard to their physicochemical, pharmacological, and toxicity properties, including their mutagenicity, tumorigenicity, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. From these in silico analyses, we highlight 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and tryptophol as having satisfactory properties and, thus, propose that these should be investigated further as antifungal agents. We also recommend future in vitro approaches to determine the association of QSMs with commonly used antiseptics as potential antibiofilm agents.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Gao L, Tang Z, Li T, et al (2023)

Myricetin exerts anti-biofilm activity and attenuates osteomyelitis by inhibiting the TLR2/MAPK pathway in experimental mice.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00198-5 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To evaluate the potential of Myricetin against S.aureus induced osteomyelitis.

BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis is infected condition of bone by micro-organisms. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) pathway are mainly involved in osteomyelitis. Myricetin is a plant-food derived flavonoid which shows anti-inflammatory activity.

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we evaluated the potential of Myricetin against S.aureus induced osteomyelitis. MC3T3-E1 cells were used for in vitro studies.

METHOD: Murine model of osteomyelitis was developed in BALB/c mice by injecting S.aureus in the medullary cavity of the femur. The mice were studied for bone destruction, anti-biofilm activity, osteoblast growth markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OCN) and collagen type-I (COLL-1) were studied by RT-PCR, ELISA analysis for levels of proinflammatory factors CRP, IL-6 and IL-1β. Expression of proteins by Western blot analysis and anti-biofilm effect by Sytox green dye fluorescence assay. Target confirmation was done by performing in silico docking analysis.

RESULTS: Myricetin reduced bone destruction in osteomyelitis induced mice. The treatment decreased bone levels of ALP, OCN, COLL-1 and TLR2. Myricetin decreased serum levels of CRP, IL-6 and IL-1β. The treatment suppressed activation of MAPK pathway and showed anti-biofilm effect. Docking studies suggested high binding affinity of Myricetin with MAPK protein in silico, by showing lower binding energies.

CONCLUSION: Myricetin suppresses osteomyelitis by inhibiting ALP, OCN, COLL-1 via the TLR2 and MAPK pathway involving inhibition of biofilm formation. In silico studies suggested MAPK as potential binding protein for myricetin.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Kim B, Madukoma CS, Shrout JD, et al (2023)

Effect of EPS production on the performance of membrane-based biofilm reactors.

Water research, 240:120101 pii:S0043-1354(23)00537-7 [Epub ahead of print].

This study explored the effect of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production on the performance of membrane-based biofilm reactors. Changing EPS production was induced by eliminating one of the main EPS polysaccharides, i.e., Pel. The studies were carried out using a pure culture of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or an isogenic P. aeruginosa mutant that was unable to produce the Pel polysaccharide. The biofilm cell density for both strains was compared to confirm the Pel deletion mutant decreased overall EPS production in a bioreactor system. When the Pel-deficient mutant was grown as a biofilm, its cell density, i.e., ratio of cells/(cells + EPS), was 74 % higher than the wild type, showing EPS production was reduced by eliminating pel production. The growth kinetics were determined for both strains. The Pel-deficient mutant had a maximum specific growth rate (μ^) that was 14% higher than the wild type. Next, the effects of EPS reduction on reactor performance were assessed for a membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). For the MABR, the organic removal with the Pel-deficient mutant was around 8% higher than for the wild type. For the MBR, the time to reach the fouling threshold was 65 % greater for the Pel-deficient mutant than for the wild type. These results suggest that amount of EPS production can have significant effects on bacterial growth kinetics and bacterial cell density, which in turn can affect the performance of the membrane-based biofilm reactors. In both cases, lower EPS production correlated with more efficient treatment processes.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Jakkampudi T, Lin Q, Mitra S, et al (2023)

Lung SPLUNC1 Peptide Derivatives in the Lipid Membrane Headgroup Kill Gram-Negative Planktonic and Biofilm Bacteria.

Biomacromolecules [Epub ahead of print].

SPLUNC1 (short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1) is a multifunctional host defense protein found in human respiratory tract with antimicrobial properties. In this work, we compare the biological activities of four SPLUNC1 antimicrobial peptide (AMP) derivatives using paired clinical isolates of the Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, obtained from 11 patients with/without colistin resistance. Secondary structural studies were carried out to study interactions between the AMPs and lipid model membranes (LMMs) utilizing circular dichroism (CD). Two peptides were further characterized using X-ray diffuse scattering (XDS) and neutron reflectivity (NR). A4-153 displayed superior antibacterial activity in both G(-) planktonic cultures and biofilms. NR and XDS revealed that A4-153 (highest activity) is located primarily in membrane headgroups, while A4-198 (lowest activity) is located in hydrophobic interior. CD revealed that A4-153 is helical, while A4-198 has little helical character, demonstrating that helicity and efficacy are correlated in these SPLUNC1 AMPs.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Ma D, Yu M, Eszterhas S, et al (2023)

A C. albicans TRAPP Complex-Associated Gene Contributes to Cell Wall Integrity, Hyphal and Biofilm Formation, and Tissue Invasion.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

While endocytic and secretory pathways are well-studied cellular processes in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, they remain understudied in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We previously found that null mutants of C. albicans homologs of the S. cerevisiae early endocytosis genes ENT2 and END3 not only exhibited delayed endocytosis but also had defects in cell wall integrity, filamentation, biofilm formation, extracellular protease activity, and tissue invasion in an in vitro model. In this study, we focused on a potential C. albicans homolog to S. cerevisiae TCA17, which was discovered in our whole-genome bioinformatics approach aimed at identifying genes involved in endocytosis. In S. cerevisiae, TCA17 encodes a transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex-associated protein. Using a reverse genetics approach with CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene deletion, we analyzed the function of the TCA17 homolog in C. albicans. Although the C. albicans tca17Δ/Δ null mutant did not have defects in endocytosis, it displayed an enlarged cell and vacuole morphology, impaired filamentation, and reduced biofilm formation. Moreover, the mutant exhibited altered sensitivity to cell wall stressors and antifungal agents. When assayed using an in vitro keratinocyte infection model, virulence properties were also diminished. Our findings indicate that C. albicans TCA17 may be involved in secretion-related vesicle transport and plays a role in cell wall and vacuolar integrity, hyphal and biofilm formation, and virulence. IMPORTANCE The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes serious opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients and has become a major cause of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, catheter-associated infections, and invasive disease. However, due to a limited understanding of Candida molecular pathogenesis, clinical approaches for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of invasive candidiasis need significant improvement. In this study, we focus on identifying and characterizing a gene potentially involved in the C. albicans secretory pathway, as intracellular transport is critical for C. albicans virulence. We specifically investigated the role of this gene in filamentation, biofilm formation, and tissue invasion. Ultimately, these findings advance our current understanding of C. albicans biology and may have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Yoshida M, Thiriet-Rupert S, Mayer L, et al (2022)

Selection for nonspecific adhesion is a driver of FimH evolution increasing Escherichia coli biofilm capacity.

microLife, 3:uqac001.

Bacterial interactions with surfaces rely on the coordinated expression of a vast repertoire of surface-exposed adhesins. However, how bacteria dynamically modulate their adhesion potential to achieve successful surface colonization is not yet well understood. Here, we investigated changes in adhesion capacity of an initially poorly adherent Escherichia coli strain using experimental evolution and positive selection for mutations improving adhesion and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. We showed that all identified evolved populations and clones acquired mutations located almost exclusively in the lectin domain of fimH, the gene coding for the α-d-mannose-specific tip adhesin of type 1 fimbriae, a key E. coli virulence factor. While most of these fimH mutants showed reduced mannose-binding ability, they all displayed enhanced binding to abiotic surfaces, indicating a trade-off between FimH-mediated specific and nonspecific adhesion properties. Several of the identified mutations were already reported in the FimH lectin domain of pathogenic and environmental E. coli, suggesting that, beyond pathoadaptation, FimH microevolution favoring nonspecific surface adhesion could constitute a selective advantage for natural E. coli isolates. Consistently, although E. coli deleted for the fim operon still evolves an increased adhesion capacity, mutants selected in the ∆fim background are outcompeted by fimH mutants revealing clonal interference for adhesion. Our study therefore provides insights into the plasticity of E. coli adhesion potential and shows that evolution of type 1 fimbriae is a major driver of the adaptation of natural E. coli to colonization.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Morrisette T, Stamper KC, Lev KL, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Omadacycline Alone and in Combination with Rifampin against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in an In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Biofilm Model.

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm-associated infections lead to substantial morbidity. Omadacycline (OMC) is a novel aminomethylcycline with potent in vitro activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, but data surrounding its use in biofilm-associated infections are lacking. We investigated the activity of OMC alone and in combination with rifampin (RIF) against 20 clinical strains of staphylococci in multiple in vitro biofilm analyses, including an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) CDC biofilm reactor (CBR) model (simulating human exposures). The observed MICs for OMC demonstrated potent activity against the evaluated strains (0.125 to 1 mg/L), with an increase of MICs generally observed in the presence of biofilm (0.25 to >64 mg/L). Furthermore, RIF was shown to reduce OMC biofilm MICs (bMICs) in 90% of strains, and OMC plus RIF combination in biofilm time-kill analyses (TKAs) exhibited synergistic activity in most of the strains. Within the PK/PD CBR model, OMC monotherapy primarily displayed bacteriostatic activity, while RIF monotherapy generally exhibited initial bacterial eradication, followed by rapid regrowth likely due to the emergence of RIF resistance (RIF bMIC, >64 mg/L). However, the combination of OMC plus RIF produced rapid and sustained bactericidal activity in nearly all the strains (3.76 to 4.03 log10 CFU/cm[2] reductions from starting inoculum in strains in which bactericidal activity was reached). Furthermore, OMC was shown to prevent the emergence of RIF resistance. Our data provide preliminary evidence that OMC in combination with RIF could be a viable option for biofilm-associated infections with S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Further research involving OMC in biofilm-associated infections is warranted.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Tkachuk N, L Zelena (2023)

Bacterial sulfidogenic community from the surface of technogenic materials in vitro: composition and biofilm formation.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio oryzae SRB1 and SRB2 were evaluated on polyethylene terephthalate in mono- and associative bacterial cultures. Bacillus velesensis strains C1 and C2b suppressed both the formation of biofilm and reduced the number of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the biofilm on the polyethylene terephthalate during the 50-day experiment. A decrease in the number of sulfate-reducing bacteria compared to the monoculture was also noted in association of D. oryzae SRB1 + Sat1 (bacterium-satellite of the sulfate-reducing bacteria). The strain Sat1 was identified as Anaerotignum (Clostridium) propionicum based on some microbiological, physiological and biochemical, genetic features. The importance of studying existing interactions between microorganisms in the ferrosphere and plastisphere is emphasized.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Noach N, Lavy E, Reifen R, et al (2023)

Zinc chloride is effective as an antibiotic in biofilm prevention following septoplasty.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8344.

Biofilm-state bacterial infections associated with inserted medical devices constitute a massive health and financial problem worldwide. Although bacteria exhibit significantly lower susceptibility to antibiotics in the biofilm state, the most common treatment approach still relies on antibiotics, exacerbating the phenomenon of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, we aimed to assess whether ZnCl2 coating of intranasal silicone splints (ISSs) can reduce the biofilm infections associated with the insertion of these devices and prevent the overuse of antibiotics while minimizing waste, pollution and costs. We tested the ability of ZnCl2 to prevent biofilm formation on ISS both in vitro and in vivo by using the microtiter dish biofilm formation assay, crystal violet staining, and electron and confocal microscopy. We found a significant decrease in biofilm formation between the treatment group and the growth control when ZnCl2-coated splints were placed in patients' nasal flora. According to these results, infections associated with ISS insertion may be prevented by using ZnCl2 coating, thereby obviating the overuse and abuse of antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

de Menezes CLA, Boscolo M, da Silva R, et al (2023)

The degradation of chicken feathers by Ochrobactrum intermedium results in antioxidant and metal chelating hydrolysates and proteolytic enzymes for staphylococcal biofilm dispersion.

3 Biotech, 13(6):202.

The increase in the generation of chicken feathers, due to the large production of the poultry industry, has created the need to search for ecologically safer ways to manage these residues. As a sustainable alternative for recycling keratin waste, we investigated the ability of the bacterium Ochrobactrum intermedium to hydrolyze chicken feathers and the valorization of the resulting enzymes and protein hydrolysate. In submerged fermentation with three different inoculum sizes (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg of bacterial cells per 50 mL of medium), the fastest degradation of feathers was achieved with 5.0 mg cells, in which a complete decomposition of the substrate (96 h) and earlier peaks of keratinolytic and caseinolytic activities were detected. In the resulting protein hydrolysate, we noticed antioxidant and Fe[2+] and Cu[2+] chelating activities. ABTS scavenging, Fe[3+]-reducing ability and metal chelating activities of the fermentative samples followed the same trend of feather degradation; as feather mass decreased in the media, these activities increased. Furthermore, we noticed about 47% and 60% dispersion of established 7-day biofilms formed by S. aureus after enzymatic treatment for 5 h and 24 h, respectively. These findings highlight the potential use of this bacterium as an environmentally friendly alternative to treat this poultry waste and offer valuable products.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Zhao W, Wang Y, M Bai (2023)

Nitrogen removal enhancement reinforced by nitritation/anammox in an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic system with integrated fixed biofilm activated sludge.

Bioprocess and biosystems engineering [Epub ahead of print].

The enhancement of nitrogen removal was reinforced by nitritation/anammox in an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic (AOA) system of integrated fixed biofilm activated sludge. Nitritation was first attained by the method of free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition with ammonia residues, and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) were then added into the system, which enabled the occurrence of nitritation coupled with anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). The results indicated that nitrogen removal was enhanced by the nitritation/anammox pathway with an efficiency of 88.9%. A microbial analysis showed that the ammonia oxidizing bacterium (AOB) Nitrosomonas was enriched on the biofilm (5.98%) and in the activated sludge (2.40%), and the AnAOB Candidatus Brocadia was detected on the biofilm with a proportion of 0.27%. Nitritation/anammox was attained and maintained due to the accumulation of functional bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Wardani AK, Buana EOGHN, A Sutrisno (2023)

The potency of bacteriophages isolated from chicken intestine and beef tribe to control biofilm-forming bacteria, Bacillus subtilis.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8222.

Biofilm becomes one of the crucial food safety problems in the food industry as the formation of biofilm can be a source of contamination. To deal with the problem, an industry generally employs physical and chemical methods including sanitizers, disinfectants, and antimicrobials to remove biofilm. However, the use of these methods may bring about new problems, which are bacterial resistance in the biofilm and the risk for product contamination. New strategies to deal with bacterial biofilms are needed. Bacteriophages (phages), as a green alternative to chemical, have re-emerged as a promising approach to treat bacterial biofilm. In the present study, the potential of lytic phages which have antibiofilm activity on biofilm-forming bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), were isolated from chicken intestines and beef tripe obtained from Indonesian traditional markets using host cells obtained isolated from these samples. Phages isolation was conducted by using double layer agar technique. A lytic test of phages was administered on biofilm-forming bacteria. The difference of turbidity level between control (which were not infected by phages) and the test tubes containing host bacteria infected by phages was investigated. The infection time for the production of phages was determined based on the level of clarity of the media in the test tube with a longer lysate addition time. Three phages were isolated namely: ϕBS6, ϕBS8, and ϕUA7. It showed the ability to inhibit B. subtilis as biofilm-forming spoilage bacteria. The best inhibition results were obtained from ϕBS6. Infection with ϕBS6 in B. subtilis lead to 0.5 log cycle decreased in bacterial cells. This study showed that isolated phages might be used as a potential approach for handling the problem of biofilm formation by B. subtilis.

RevDate: 2023-05-24
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Cho H, Ren Z, Divaris K, et al (2023)

Selenomonas sputigena acts as a pathobiont mediating spatial structure and biofilm virulence in early childhood caries.

Nature communications, 14(1):2919.

Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the primary pathogen in childhood caries (tooth decay). While the role of polymicrobial communities is appreciated, it remains unclear whether other microorganisms are active contributors or interact with pathogens. Here, we integrate multi-omics of supragingival biofilm (dental plaque) from 416 preschool-age children (208 males and 208 females) in a discovery-validation pipeline to identify disease-relevant inter-species interactions. Sixteen taxa associate with childhood caries in metagenomics-metatranscriptomics analyses. Using multiscale/computational imaging and virulence assays, we examine biofilm formation dynamics, spatial arrangement, and metabolic activity of Selenomonas sputigena, Prevotella salivae and Leptotrichia wadei, either individually or with S. mutans. We show that S. sputigena, a flagellated anaerobe with previously unknown role in supragingival biofilm, becomes trapped in streptococcal exoglucans, loses motility but actively proliferates to build a honeycomb-like multicellular-superstructure encapsulating S. mutans, enhancing acidogenesis. Rodent model experiments reveal an unrecognized ability of S. sputigena to colonize supragingival tooth surfaces. While incapable of causing caries on its own, when co-infected with S. mutans, S. sputigena causes extensive tooth enamel lesions and exacerbates disease severity in vivo. In summary, we discover a pathobiont cooperating with a known pathogen to build a unique spatial structure and heighten biofilm virulence in a prevalent human disease.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Cohen R, Mani KA, Primatova M, et al (2023)

A green formulation for superhydrophobic coatings based on Pickering emulsion templating for anti-biofilm applications.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 227:113355 pii:S0927-7765(23)00233-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This study reports significant steps toward developing anti-biofilm surfaces based on superhydrophobic properties that meet the complex demands of today's food and medical regulations. It presents inverse Pickering emulsions of water in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) stabilized by hydrophobic silica (R202) as a possible food-grade coating formulation and describes its significant passive anti-biofilm properties. The final coatings are formed by applying the emulsions on the target surface, followed by evaporation to form a rough layer. Analysis shows that the final coatings exhibited a Contact Angle (CA) of up to 155° and a Roll-off Angle (RA) lower than 1° on the polypropylene (PP) surface, along with a relatively high light transition. Dissolving polycaprolactone (PCL) into the continuous phase enhanced the average CA and coating uniformity but hindered the anti-biofilm activity and light transmission. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a uniform coating by a "Swiss-cheese" like structure with high nanoscale and microscale roughness. Biofilm experiments confirm the coating's anti-biofilm abilities that led to the reduction in survival rates of S.aureus and E.coli, by 90-95% respectively, compared to uncoated PP surfaces.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Kitts G, Rogers A, Teschler JK, et al (2023)

The Rvv two-component regulatory system regulates biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio cholerae.

PLoS pathogens, 19(5):e1011415 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-23-00110 [Epub ahead of print].

The facultative human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, employs two-component signal transduction systems (TCS) to sense and respond to environmental signals encountered during its infection cycle. TCSs consist of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR); the V. cholerae genome encodes 43 HKs and 49 RRs, of which 25 are predicted to be cognate pairs. Using deletion mutants of each HK gene, we analyzed the transcription of vpsL, a biofilm gene required for Vibrio polysaccharide and biofilm formation. We found that a V. cholerae TCS that had not been studied before, now termed Rvv, controls biofilm gene transcription. The Rvv TCS is part of a three-gene operon that is present in 30% of Vibrionales species. The rvv operon encodes RvvA, the HK; RvvB, the cognate RR; and RvvC, a protein of unknown function. Deletion of rvvA increased transcription of biofilm genes and altered biofilm formation, while deletion of rvvB or rvvC lead to no changes in biofilm gene transcription. The phenotypes observed in ΔrvvA depend on RvvB. Mutating RvvB to mimic constitutively active and inactive versions of the RR only impacted phenotypes in the ΔrvvA genetic background. Mutating the conserved residue required for kinase activity in RvvA did not affect phenotypes, whereas mutation of the conserved residue required for phosphatase activity mimicked the phenotype of the rvvA mutant. Furthermore, ΔrvvA displayed a significant colonization defect which was dependent on RvvB and RvvB phosphorylation state, but not on VPS production. We found that RvvA's phosphatase activity regulates biofilm gene transcription, biofilm formation, and colonization phenotypes. This is the first systematic analysis of the role of V. cholerae HKs in biofilm gene transcription and resulted in the identification of a new regulator of biofilm formation and virulence, advancing our understanding of the role TCSs play in regulating these critical cellular processes in V. cholerae.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Auria E, Deschamps J, Briandet R, et al (2023)

Extracellular succinate induces spatially organized biofilm formation in Clostridioides difficile.

Biofilm, 5:100125.

Clostridioides difficile infection associated to gut microbiome dysbiosis is the leading cause for nosocomial diarrhea. The ability of C. difficile to form biofilms has been progressively linked to its pathogenesis as well as its persistence in the gut. Although C. difficile has been reported to form biofilms in an increasing number of conditions, little is known about how these biofilms are formed in the gut and what factors may trigger their formation. Here we report that succinate, a metabolite abundantly produced by the dysbiotic gut microbiota, induces in vitro biofilm formation of C. difficile strains. We characterized the morphology and spatial composition of succinate-induced biofilms, and compared to non-induced or deoxycholate (DCA) induced biofilms. Biofilms induced by succinate are significantly thicker, structurally more complex, and poorer in proteins and exopolysaccharides (EPS). We then applied transcriptomics and genetics to characterize the early stages of succinate-induced biofilm formation and we showed that succinate-induced biofilm results from major metabolic shifts and cell-wall composition changes. Similar to DCA-induced biofilms, biofilms induced by succinate depend on the presence of a rapidly metabolized sugar. Finally, although succinate can be consumed by the bacteria, we found that the extracellular succinate is in fact responsible for the induction of biofilm formation through complex regulation involving global metabolic regulators and the osmotic stress response. Thus, our work suggests that as a gut signal, succinate may drive biofilm formation and help persistence of C. difficile in the gut, increasing the risk of relapse.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Tsopmene UJ, Iwewe YS, Eyong IM, et al (2023)

Antibiotic Resistance Profile, Biofilm Formation Ability, and Virulence Factors Analysis of Three Staphylococcus spp. Isolates From Urine.

Cureus, 15(4):e37877.

Background Staphylococcus spp. is one of the most causative agents of urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile and the virulence factors, including the biofilm formation ability of Staphylococcus spp. isolates from urine. Methodology The agar disk diffusion method was used to test the susceptibility of Staphylococcus isolates to ten antibiotics. The biofilm formation ability was determined using the safranin microplate-based method, and the phospholipase, esterase, and hemolysin activities were assessed by the agar plate method. Results During the study period, a prevalence of 18.12% of urinary tract infections caused by the identified Staphylococci was obtained. All the isolated Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were resistant to cefazolin. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was recorded in 80.01%, 81.49%, and 76.20% of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus isolates, respectively. Most of the isolates were moderate biofilm formers, while 44.44%, 31.75%, and 30.16% were positive for phospholipase, esterase, and hemolysin activities, respectively. No relevant correlations were observed between the ability of biofilm formation and the resistance to antibiotics or the expression of virulence factors investigated. Conclusion This study shows that Staphylococcus spp. isolates from patients with clinical manifestations of UTIs expressed a high degree of virulence factors, including the ability of biofilm formation, and exhibited multi-drug resistance to the majority of antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of Staphylococcal infections.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Ahmad Ansari F, Ahmad I, J Pichtel (2023)

Synergistic effects of biofilm-producing PGPR strains on wheat plant colonization, growth and soil resilience under drought stress.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 30(6):103664.

Drought stress substantially impedes crop productivity throughout the world. Microbial based approaches have been considered a potential possibility and are under study. Based on our prior screening examination, two distinct and novel biofilm-forming PGPR strains namely Bacillus subtilis-FAB1 and Pseudomonas azotoformans-FAP3 are encompassed in this research. Bacterial biofilm development on glass surface, microtiter plate and seedling roots were assessed and characterized quantitatively and qualitatively by light and scanning electron microscopy. Above two isolates were further evaluated for their consistent performance by inoculating on wheat plants in a pot-soil system under water stresses. Bacterial moderate tolerance to ten-day drought was recorded on the application of individual strains with wheat plants; however, the FAB1 + FAP3 consortium expressively improved wheat survival during drought. The strains FAB1 and FAP3 displayed distinct and multifunctional plant growth stimulating attributes as well as effective roots and rhizosphere colonization in combination which could provide sustained wheat growth during drought. FAB1 and FAP3-induced alterations cooperatively conferred improved plant drought tolerance by controlling physiological traits (gs, Ci, E, iWUE and PN), stress indicators (SOD, CAT, GR, proline and MDA content) and also maintained physico-chemical attributes and hydrolytic enzymes including DHA, urease, ALP, protease, ACP and β glucosidase in the soil. Our findings could support future efforts to enhance plant drought tolerance by engineering the rhizobacterial biofilms and associated attributes which requires in-depth exploration and exploiting potential native strains for local agricultural application.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Zdziarski P, Paściak M, Chudzik A, et al (2023)

Cutaneous tuberculosis-ambiguous transmission, bacterial diversity with biofilm formation in humoral abnormality: case report illustration.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1091373.

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) and its paucibacillary forms are rare and difficult to diagnose, especially in immunocompromised patients with significant comorbidity. The aim of the study was to introduce the modern concept of the microbiome and diagnostic chain into clinical practice (patient-centered care) with the presentation of an atypical form of cutaneous tuberculosis with necrotizing non-healing ulcers leading to polymicrobial infection.

METHODS: The study material included samples from sputum, broncho-alveolar lavage and skin ulcer, taken from a patient developing cutaneous tuberculosis. The microbiological investigation was performed, and identification of the isolates was carried out using genotyping and the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: The immunocompromised patient with humoral abnormality (plasma cell dyscrasia) and severe paraproteinemia developed multiorgan tuberculosis. Although cutaneous manifestation preceded systemic and pulmonary symptoms (approximately half a year), the mycobacterial genotyping confirmed the same MTB strain existence in skin ulcers and the respiratory system. Therefore, the infectious chain: transmission, the portal of entry, and bacterial spreading in vivo, were unclear. Microbial diversity found in wound microbiota (among others Gordonia bronchialis, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans) was associated with the spread of a skin lesion. The in vitro biofilm-forming capacity of strains isolated from the wound may represent the potential virulence of these strains. Thus, the role of polymicrobial biofilm may be crucial in ulcer formation and CTB manifestation.

CONCLUSIONS: Severe wound healing as a unique biofilm-forming niche should be tested for Mycobacterium (on species and strain levels) and coexisting microorganisms using a wide range of microbiological techniques. In immunodeficient patients with non-typical CTB presentation, the chain of transmission and MTB spread is still an open issue for further research.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Wu Y, D Yang (2023)

Effects of Bacterial Biofilm on Regulation of Neurovascular Unit Functions and Neuroinflammation of Patients with Ischemic Cerebral Stroke by Immunocyte.

Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 69(1):81-86.

In this experiment, the effects of biofilm on neurovascular unit functions and neuroinflammation of patients with ischemic cerebral stroke were investigated. For this purpose, 20 adult male rats were purchased from Taconic (8 to 10 weeks old, weighing between 20 and 24g) and selected as the research objects. Then, they were randomly divided into an experimental group (10 rats) and a control group (10 rats). Ischemic cerebral stroke rat models were established. Besides, pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) was prepared manually and implanted into the bodies of rats in the experimental group. mNSS scores, cerebral infarction area, and the release of inflammatory cytokines of rats in the two groups were compared. Results showed that mNSS scores for rats in the experimental group at all periods were remarkably higher than those for rats in the control group (P<0.05), which demonstrated that the rats in the experimental group suffered much severer neurological impairment than those in the control group. In addition, the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and IL-10 were all higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). The cerebral infarction area of the experimental group at all periods was remarkably larger than that of the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the formation of biofilm led to the aggravation of neurological impairment and inflammatory reactions among patients with ischemic cerebral stroke.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Sun H, Chai X, Xu G, et al (2023)

The Formation and Drug Resistance Mechanism of Biofilm for Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Severe Respiratory Patients.

Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 69(1):75-80.

This study was to explore whether Streptococcus pneumoniae would form biofilms and the formative factors of biofilms, as well as the drug resistance mechanism of S. pneumoniae. In this study, a total of 150 strains of S. pneumoniae were collected from 5 local hospitals in the past two years, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and penicillin were determined by agar double dilution method to select the drug-resistant strains. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing were performed on specific genes of drug-resistant strains. In addition, 5 strains of S. pneumoniae with penicillin MIC ≤ 0.065 μg/mL, 0.5 μg/mL, 2 μg/mL, ≥ 4μg/mL were randomly selected, and the biofilms were cultured on two kinds of well plates for 24 hours. Finally, whether the biofilms were formed was observed. Experimental results revealed that the resistance rate of S. pneumoniae to erythromycin in this area was as high as 90.3%, and the strains that were resistant to penicillin account for only 1.5%. The amplification and sequencing experiment revealed that one (strain 1) of the strains, which was resistant to both drugs, had a GyrA mutation and ParE mutation, and strain 2 had a parC mutation. All strains generated biofilms, and the optical density (OD) value of penicillin MIC ≤ 0.065 μg/mL group (0.235 ± 0.053) was higher than that of 0.5 μg/mL group (0.192 ± 0.073) (P< 0.05) and higher than the OD value of the 4 μg/mL group (0.200 ± 0.041) (P< 0.05), showing statistically great differences. It was confirmed that the resistance rate of S. pneumoniae to erythromycin remained high, the rate of sensitivity to penicillin was relatively high, and the moxifloxacin and levofloxacin-resistant strains had appeared; S. pneumoniae mainly showed QRDR mutations in gyrA, parE, and parC; and it was confirmed that S. pneumoniae can generate biofilms in vitro.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Seebach E, Elschner T, Kraus FV, et al (2023)

Bacterial and Metabolic Factors of Staphylococcal Planktonic and Biofilm Environments Differentially Regulate Macrophage Immune Activation.

Inflammation [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation is a leading cause for chronic implant-related bone infections as biofilms shield bacteria against the immune system and antibiotics. Additionally, biofilms generate a metabolic microenvironment that shifts the immune response towards tolerance. Here, we compared the impact of the metabolite profile of bacterial environments on macrophage immune activation using Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and epidermidis (SE) conditioned media (CM) of planktonic and biofilm cultures. The biofilm environment had reduced glucose and increased lactate concentrations. Moreover, the expression of typical immune activation markers on macrophages was reduced in the biofilm environment compared to the respective planktonic CM. However, all CM caused a predominantly pro-inflammatory macrophage cytokine response with a comparable induction of Tnfa expression. In biofilm CM, this was accompanied by higher levels of anti-inflammatory Il10. Planktonic CM, on the other hand, induced an IRF7 mediated Ifnb gene expression which was absent in the biofilm environments. For SA but not for SE planktonic CM, this was accompanied by IRF3 activation. Stimulation of macrophages with TLR-2/-9 ligands under varying metabolic conditions revealed that, like in the biofilm setting, low glucose concentration reduced the Tnfa to Il10 mRNA ratio. However, the addition of extracellular L-lactate but not D-lactate increased the Tnfa to Il10 mRNA ratio upon TLR-2/-9 stimulation. In summary, our data indicate that the mechanisms behind the activation of macrophages differ between planktonic and biofilm environments. These differences are independent of the metabolite profiles, suggesting that the production of different bacterial factors is ultimately more important than the concentrations of glucose and lactate in the environment.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Wang K, Deng Y, Cui X, et al (2023)

PatA Regulates Isoniazid Resistance by Mediating Mycolic Acid Synthesis and Controls Biofilm Formation by Affecting Lipid Synthesis in Mycobacteria.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Lipids are prominent components of the mycobacterial cell wall, and they play critical roles not only in maintaining biofilm formation but also in resisting environmental stress, including drug resistance. However, information regarding the mechanism mediating mycobacterial lipid synthesis remains limited. PatA is a membrane-associated acyltransferase and synthesizes phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs) in mycobacteria. Here, we found that PatA could regulate the synthesis of lipids (except mycolic acids) to maintain biofilm formation and environmental stress resistance in Mycolicibacterium smegmatis. Interestingly, the deletion of patA significantly enhanced isoniazid (INH) resistance in M. smegmatis, although it reduced bacterial biofilm formation. This might be due to the fact that the patA deletion promoted the synthesis of mycolic acids through an unknown synthesis pathway other than the reported fatty acid synthase (FAS) pathway, which could effectively counteract the inhibition by INH of mycolic acid synthesis in mycobacteria. Furthermore, the amino acid sequences and physiological functions of PatA were highly conserved in mycobacteria. Therefore, we found a mycolic acid synthesis pathway regulated by PatA in mycobacteria. In addition, PatA also affected biofilm formation and environmental stress resistance by regulating the synthesis of lipids (except mycolic acids) in mycobacteria. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leads to a large number of human deaths every year. This is so serious, which is due mainly to the drug resistance of mycobacteria. INH kills M. tuberculosis by inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are synthesized by the FAS pathway. However, whether there is another mycolic acid synthesis pathway is unknown. In this study, we found a PatA-mediated mycolic acid synthesis pathway that led to INH resistance of in patA-deleted mutant. In addition, we first report the regulatory effect of PatA on mycobacterial biofilm formation, which could affect the bacterial response to environmental stress. Our findings represent a new model for regulating biofilm formation by mycobacteria. More importantly, the discovery of the PatA-mediated mycolic acid synthesis pathway indicates that the study of mycobacterial lipids has entered a new stage, and the enzymes might be new targets of antituberculosis drugs.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Var I, AlMatar M, Heshmati B, et al (2023)

Bacteriophage Cocktail Can Effectively Control Salmonella Biofilm on Gallstone and Tooth Surfaces.

Current drug targets pii:CDT-EPUB-131934 [Epub ahead of print].

Salmonellosis, which is typically distinguished by an immediate onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella. The rising incidence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium is a major worldwide problem, and a better knowledge of the distribution of antibiotic resistance patterns in Salmonella Typhimurium is critical for selecting the best antibiotic for infection treatment. In this work, the efficiency of bacteriophage therapy of vegetative cells and biofilms of S. Typhimurium was investigated. Based on their host ranges, five Bacteriophages were chosen for therapy against 22 Salmonella isolates collected from various sources. PSCs1, PSDs1, PSCs2, PSSr1, and PSMc1 phages were found to exhibit potent anti-S. Typhimurium properties. In a 96-well microplate, the efficacy of bacteriophage therapy (105-1011 PFU/mL) against S. Typhimurium biofilm formers was first tested. A bacteriophage treatment (109 PFU/mL) was subsequently applied in the laboratory for 24 hours to minimize Salmonella adhering to the surfaces of gallstones and teeth. In 96-well microplate experiments, bacteriophage treatment inhibited biofilm development and reduced biofilm by up to 63.6% (P ≤ 0.05). When compared to controls, bacteriophages (PSCs1, PSDs1, PSCs2, PSSr1, PSMc1) demonstrated a rapid drop in the populations of S. Typhimurium biofilms generated on the surfaces of gallstones and teeth where the structure of the Salmonella bacteria in the biofilm was broken and holes were created. Clearly, this study indicated that phages might be employed to eliminate S. Typhimurium biofilms on gallstone and tooth surfaces.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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An examination of the research and translational application to prevent and treat biofilm-associated diseases In the decade since the first edition of Microbial Biofilms was published, the interest in this field has expanded, spurring breakthrough research that has advanced the treatment of biofilm-associated diseases. This second edition takes the reader on an exciting, extensive review of bacterial and fungal biofilms, ranging from basic molecular interactions to innovative therapies, with particular emphasis on the division of labor in biofilms, new approaches to combat the threat of microbial biofilms, and how biofilms evade the host defense.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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